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Experiment #5: COLLOIDS MANUNTAG, Monica Earl TUMIMBANG, Glenn Vincent Group 5, Chemistry 14.1, Ms.

Fatima Cruz March 27, 2012

I. ABSTRACT A colloid is a type of mixture in which a substance is dispersed evenly over another, basing its definition on the particle size, which is from 1 to 100 nanometers or 10-9 meters. A colloidal system has two phases: the dispersing or continuous phase and the dispersed or internal phase. The former refers to the medium used while the latter are the particles present in the system. Sols are classified under colloids, a type of dispersion to which a solid is dispersed in liquid. Aerosols, a colloidal system in which a liquid is dispersed in either a solid or a gas, is also classified here. And finally, emulsions, a dispersion of liquid in liquid, is also considered as a type of colloid. This system can either exist in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state, and it has two properties: Tyndall effect or the ability of the particles to scatter light and precipitation or the formation of insoluble solid in liquid. Preparation of colloids may be done either through dispersion or condensation. During dispersion, large-sized particles are dispersed to break them down to colloidal size, an example of which is the addition of an emulsifying agent. On the other hand, condensation is a way of uniting moleculesized particles to form colloid-sized particles. The experiment aims to determine the differences between the various kinds of colloids, as well as the properties they exhibit. The experiment also aims to compare the two principal methods in preparing colloidal system, dispersion and condensation. III. KEYWORDS: Colloids, Solution, Suspension, Dispersed phase, Dispersing medium, Sol, Lyophobic, Lyophilic, Emulsion, Tyndall effect, Precipitation

III. INTRODUCTION Colloid is a type of mixture in which a substance dispersed evenly throughout another substance, both of which existing either as a solid, liquid, of gas. These combinations of dispersion give us the different types of colloidal systems which include familiar examples like clouds, fog, mist, smoke, soap, milk, mayonnaise, whipping cream, and even blood. The objective of this experiment is to compare the difference between the two principal methods of preparing colloids: the method of condensation and the method of dispersion. Furthermore, the experiment will be able to determine the different types of colloids, as well as the properties they exhibit. IV. EXPERIMENTAL PROCUDURE For the preparation of colloids, first, fifty mL of water was heated until it reaches its

boiling point then freshly prepared 1 M FeCl3 was added by dropping. Dropping was continued until a change in color can be observed. The solution was allowed to cool for use in the next procedure. A pinch of sulfur was added to 50 mL of water and then stirred. In another set-up, alcohol was heated in a water bath. A pinch of sulfur was added and then the solution was poured into a 50 mL beaker of water. The two set-ups were observed and compared. Next, the proponents placed 10 mL of water in a test tube and added 1 mL of oil while shaking. After observing, it was set aside for 1020 minutes. Then, 5 mL of concentrated soap solution was added and the test tube was shook. Again, changes that can be observed were noted.

We have the sols which is the dispersion of solid in liquid. The observations were compared to distilled water as negative reference. The third part of the experiment was the preparation of colloids. Table 2. dispersion of liquid or solid in gases known as aerosols. The same was done to sulfur sol. The solution turned cloudy Sulfur sol (in while particles of sulfur settled hot alcohol at the bottom. Positive. Table 3. light can be seen passing through the light green solution. scattered Negative. Precipitation PRECIPITANT OBSERVATION Less was formed 1 M NaNO3 Least precipitate formed 1 M Na2SO4 Most precipitate formed 1 M Na3PO4 VI. Two drops of 1 M NaOH. foams-dispersion of . On the other hand. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Table 1. copper sulfate solution. First. Next is the experiment on precipitation. which is the Tyndall effect. There are several kinds of colloids. Fe(OH)3 sol was placed in three separate test tubes with 2 mL of solution. The dispersed phase are the particles itself while the dispersing phase is the medium or the solvent. Sulfur did not dissolve in water. The solution was immediately pured into a test tube and was set aside for the agar to cool into gel. light passed through completely without being scattered. For the first part of preparation of colloids. The first test tube was added with 10 drops of 1 m NaNO3. Examples of these are grinding and adding an emulsifying agent. It has two phases namely. the dispersion of liquid in liquid which we call emulsions. condensation is the process of making particles of molecular size unite to form particles of colloidal size. scattered Negative. 10 drops of 1 M Na2SO4 to the second and 10 drops 1 M Na3PO4 to the third. boiled starch solution. V. a few drops of phenolphthalein to turn it pink. Fe(OH)3 sol was placed in a test tube and observed at a right angle against a beam of light form a flashlight. a small amount of agar was dissolved in 15 mL of boiling water. the dispersed phase and the dispersing phase. DISCUSSIONS A colloidal dispersion is a type of mixture whose properties are between heterogeneous mixtures and homogenous solutions. Colloids may be prepared through dispersion or condensation. unboiled starch solution and soap solution.The next part of the experiment was the Alexander’s patriotic tube. light can be seen passing through the cloudy white solution. Positive. light passed through completely without being scattered. light passed through Fe(OH)3 sol completely without scattering Sulfur sol CuSO4 sol Dilute milk Boiled Starch Solution Unboiled Starch Solution Soap Solution Distilled Water Positive. and water) Two observable layers can be observed with oil on top of Oil (in water) water. scattered Positive. Preparation of Colloids COLLOID OBSERVATION The color changed to brownish Fe(OH)3 sol orange. They were then observed for the amount of precipitate present. and 1 mL of 1 M Potassium Ferrocyanide (K4[Fe(CN)6]) was added. dilute evaporated milk. Tyndall Effect SYSTEM OBSERVATION Negative. light passed through completely without being scattered. The dimensions of its particles range from 1 to 100 nanometers. Dispersion is the process of breaking down large particles to colloidal size. light can be seen passing through the cloudy mixture. scattered Negative. light can be seen passing through the cloudy white mixture. The test tube was corked and let stand for an hour. Sulfur (in Some particles settled at the water) bottom while others floated. A cloudy yellow layer (water and oil) formed beneath the Oil (in soap bubbly and green soap and water) solution.

It acted as an emulsifier. did not mix well with the dispersing medium or water. Interestingly. dilute milk. and boiled starch solution exhibited Tyndall effect. Also. the colloid medium or the particles of Fe(OH)3 sol and the particles of the sulfur sol. These are the reactions involved in each test tube: Fe(OH)3 + 3NaNO3 ----> Fe(NO3)3 + 3NaOH 2Fe(OH)3+3Na2SO4 ----> Fe2(SO4)3 +6NaOH Fe(OH)3 + Na3PO4 ----> Fe(PO4) + 3NaOH The quantity of the precipitates formed is based on the charges of the ions that will attach to the Fe3+. It is a lyophobic (solvent-hating) suspension of solid particles (1-1000 nm in size) in a liquid. a base indicator. Since the PO4 is the most electronegative among the others. therefore stabilizing the interface between the oil and the water in the suspension. the oil droplets started to gather on top of the water. no scattering was observed with the Fe(OH)3 sol. This is because according to the solubility rules. A sol is a type of colloid of very small solid particles dispersed in a liquid that retains the physical properties of a liquid. the same principle is used in soap to remove grease in dishwares and other objects for cleaning. Theoretically. SO4 came next while NO3 has the least. Fe(OH)3 and sulfur are insoluble in water. The second part of the experiment involved the dispersion of liquid in liquid or emulsion. The last part involves precipitation. soap solution and distilled water. the shape of the sulfur (S8) has a large surface area for the solvent to dissolve. Precipitates of varying quantities formed on each test tube. On the other hand. VII. it yielded the most prominent precipitates. H2O and FeCl3 formed Fe(OH)3. like dissolves like. Oil was mixed with water. The bottom part was pink caused by phenolphthalein. On the other hand. unboiled starch solution (+/-) and soap solution should have exhibited Tyndall effect while the CuSO4 sol and the distilled water are the only ones that will not exhibit Tyndall effect.liquid in solid and gels which is the dispersion of liquid in solid. but after leaving it for some time. The systems that exhibited Tyndall effect were the following: Sulfur sol. enabled the immiscibility of sulfur to water. The soap solution was then added and chemically interacted with both the oil and the water. Three layers have been formed: pink. Why is sulfur not soluble in water? What kind of colloidal dispersion is a sol? The basic principle in solubility. the oil formed scattered droplets in water. dilute milk. the two did not mix. Gel. was made. In the first part of the experiment. GUIDE QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 1. boiled starch solution. sulfur in hot alcohol and water partially dissolved sulfur since ethanol is less polar and heated as well. At first. a type of colloid where liquid is dispersed in solid. and was later added with soap solution. How would you account for the observation in procedure IA-b2? Sulfur is a nonpolar crystalline structure which makes it harder to dissolve in water under normal conditions. whiteyellow and blue. Since water is polar while sulfur is not. The less . The next part of the experiment is the Alexander’s Patriotic Tube. copper sulfate solution. due to the presence of base. The bluish part called Prussian Blue was made from this reaction FeCl3 + K4[Fe(CN)6]KCl + Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3. That is why sulfur particles either settled at the bottom or floated. 2. The next part was the experiment on the Tyndall effect. sulfur sol. the Fe(OH)3 sol. forming a distinct layer. a substance that stabilizes an emulsion. The arrangement of layers is made such that way due to the densities of the ions and compounds in the system.

We may find it from the food we eat. The transparent part above it is caused by the chlorine entering and dispersing to the matrix of the gel. It is important for us to know the properties of colloid that differentiate it from solutions and suspensions. 4. Colloids are everywhere. the water molecules is attracted to these lipophilic ends and therefore. Give an explanation for the results obtained in procedure II. yellow in color. The Tyndall effect is used to tell the difference between the different types of mixtures. and phenolphthalein. On the other hand. In the molecular point of view. The soap is called the emulsifying agent. colloid. we may say that a sample is a colloid. they are physically combined so we may also separate them by physical means like undergoing dialysis. This layer is Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 or Prussian blue. which is blue in color.g. the air we breathe and even in nature. namely solution. covers and stops the oil from separating from the water molecules. temperature and polarity may also affect a colloidal system. 5. This is exhibited when dust particles are seen in the air when sunlight strikes them or when the lights emitted by the headlights from a car on a dusty road can be seen. A lyophobic colloid was formed when the sulfur-alcohol mixture solution was added to water. exhibiting a miscibility with the oil. the topmost layer. Aside from that the nature of substance involved. Following the procedures strictly in this experiment can help achieve theoretical results. Since these are mixtures. having a lipophilic end. 3. And finally. Through testing Tyndall effect and observing precipitation. The bottom gelatinous layer is composed of agar. which is seen as pink (due to the presence of a base and a base-indicator). What ions/compounds are responsible for the different colors observed in the Alexander’s patriotic tube? There were four observable layers in the Alexander’s patriotic tube. Tyndall effect and precipitation) make colloids different from solutions and suspensions. The upper layer. which is a highly insoluble substance but tends to form colloids. What is the role of soap solution in the oil emulsion prepared in procedure IB? The presence of polar and nonpolar ends in a soap solution bridged the immiscibility of oil and water. VIII. Their distinct properties (e. It is caused by reflection of light by very small particles in suspension in a transparent medium. This structure is called micelle. and suspension. It is recommended in this experiment to calculate exact amounts of reagents to obtain results close to the theoretical yield. Below are summaries of the types of colloids and the differences between colloid. was formed from the reaction of ferric chloride with potassium ferrocyanide. solution and suspension: . What causes Tyndall effect? Tyndall effect is the effect of light scattering on particles in colloidal systems. is from the excess ferric chloride. the soap. NaOH.polar ethanol was able to dissolve the sulfur under the presence of heat. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS Colloids are mixtures wherein a substance is dispersed throughout another.

. Manila. All rights reserved. © 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. Singapore: Pearson Education (Asia) Pte Ltd. Lemay Jr. th E. Committee on General Chemistry (2006). H.. REFERENCES Brown. Manuntag.). E. L. B. Philippines: University of the Philippines Manila Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007. Bursten.). T. Glenn Vincent . Laboratory manual in general chemistry (2006 ed.. Monica Earl Tumimbang. I hereby certify that I have given substantial contribution to this report. Chemistry: The Central Science (9 ed.IX.