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Hybrid Features Based Face Recognition

Method Using Artificial Neural Network
Kolhandai Yesu, Himadri Jyoti Chakravorty, Prantik Bhuyan, Rifat Hussain, Kaustubh Bhattacharyya
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
The Assam Don Bosco University, Assam, India
Email: mariayesudass@gmail.com, pauljyoti04@gmail.com, prantik.bhuyan@rediffmail.com,
rifathussain33@gmail.com, kaustubh.d.electronics@gmail.com

Abstract – Face recognition is a biometric tool for
authentication and verification having both research
and practical relevance. A facial recognition based
verification system can further be deemed a computer
application for automatically identifying or verifying a
person in a digital image. Varied and innovative face
recognition systems have been developed thus far with
widely accepted algorithms. In this paper, we present
an intelligent hybrid features based face recognition
method configuring the central moment and Eigen
vectors and the standard deviation of the eyes, nose and
mouth segments of the human face as the decision
support entities of the Generalized Feed Forward
Artificial Neural Network(GFFANN).The proposed
method’s correct recognition rate is over 95%.

Keywords - recognition; central moment; eigen vectors;
standard deviation; neural network, training, testing;
cosine transform;
I. INTRODUCTION
Biometrics refers to a science of analyzing human
body parts for security purposes. The word
biometrics is derived from the Greek words bios
(life) and metrikos (measure) [1]. Biometric
identification is becoming more popular of late
owing to the current security requirements of society
in the field of information, business, military, e-
commerce and etc [2].
Face recognition is a nonintrusive method, and facial
images are the most common biometric
characteristics used by humans to make a personal
recognition. Human faces are complex objects with
features that can vary over time. However, we
humans have a natural ability to recognize faces and
identify person at the spur of the second. Of course,
our natural recognition ability extends beyond face
recognition too. Nevertheless, in the interaction
between humans and machines, also commonly
known as Human Robot Interface [3] or Human
Computer Interface (HCI), the machines are to be
trained to recognize and identify and differentiate the
human faces. There is thus a need to simulate
recognition artificially in our attempts to create
intelligent autonomous machines.
The popular approaches for face recognition are
based either on the location and shape of facial
attributes such as the eyes, eyebrows, nose, lips and
chin, and their spatial relationships, or the overall
analysis of the face image that represents a face as a
weighted combination of a number of canonical
faces.
The former approach is robust and efficient enough
as the vital attributes of the face are considered in
training and testing while the latter approach reckons
in the global information of the whole face.
Basically, any face recognition system can be
depicted by the following block diagram.





Figure 1. Basic blocks of a face recognition system.

1) Pre-processing Unit: In the initial phase, the
image captured in the true colour format is converted
to gray scale image and resized to a predefined
standard and noise is removed. Further Histogram
Equalization (HE) and Discrete Wavelet Transform
(DWT) are carried out for illumination normalization
and expression normalization respectively [4].
2) Feature Extraction: In this phase, facial features
are extracted using Edge Detection Techniques,
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Technique,
Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients, DWT
coefficients or fusion of different techniques [5].
3) Training and Testing: Here, Euclidean Distance
(ED), Hamming Distance, Support Vector Machine
(SVM), Neural Network [6] and Random Forest (RF)
[7] may be used for training followed by testing the
new images or the test images for recognition.
II. RELATED WORKS

The past few years have witnessed an increased
interest in researches aiming at developing reliable
face recognition techniques.
Pre-processing
Unit
Feature
Extraction
Training
and
Testing
One of the commonly employed techniques involves
representing the image by a vector in a dimensional
space of size similar to the image [8]. However, the
large dimensional space of the image reduces the
speed and robustness of face recognition. This
problem is overcome rather effectively by
dimensionality reduction techniques such as the
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Linear
Discriminant Analysis (LDA).
PCA is an eigenvector method designed to model
linear variation in high-dimensional data. PCA
performs dimensionality reduction by projecting an
original n-dimensional data onto a k (<< n)-
dimensional linear subspace spanned by the leading
eigenvectors of the data‟s covariance matrix [9].
LDA is a supervised learning algorithm. LDA
features are obtained by computing the edge
response values in all eight directions at each pixel
position and generating a code from the relative
strength magnitude. Each face is represented as a
collection of LDP codes for face recognition process
[10].
While PCA uses orthogonal linear space for
encoding information, LDA encodes using linearly
separable space in which bases are not necessarily
orthogonal. Experiments carried out by researchers
thus far points to the superiority of algorithms based
on LDA over PCA.
Another face analysis technique is the Locality
Preserving Projections (LPP). It consists in
obtaining a face subspace and finding the local
structure of the manifold. Basically it is obtained by
finding the optimal linear approximations to the
eigen functions of the Laplace Betrami operator on
the manifold. Therefore, it recovers important
aspects of the intrinsic nonlinear manifold structure
by preserving local structure though it is a linear
technique [11].
Ramesha K and K B Raja, proposed Dual Transform
based Feature Extraction for Face Recognition
(DTBFEFR). Here Dual Tree Complex Wavelet
Transform (DT-CWT) is employed to form the
feature vector and Euclidean Distance (ED), Random
Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are
used as the classifiers [12].
Weng and Huang presented a face recognition model
based on hierarchical neural network which is grown
automatically and not trained with gradient-descent.
Good results for discrimination of ten distinctive
subjects are reported [13].
This paper presents the face recognition method
using both the geometrical features of the biometrical
characteristic of the face such as eyes, nose, and
mouth and the overall analysis of the whole face.
After the pre-processing stage, segments of the eyes,
nose and mouth are extracted from the faces of the
database. These blocks are then resized and the
training features are computed. These facial features
reduce the dimensionality by gathering the essential
information while removing all redundancies present
in the segment. Besides, the global features of the
total image are also computed. These specially
designed features are then used as decision support
entities of the classifier system configured using the
GFFANN which provides a decision in the testing
phase with an accuracy of over 95%.
III. LOCAL AND GLOBAL FACE FEATURES
EXTRACTION WITH MARKED DIMENSIONALITY
REDUCTION

Local facial feature extraction consists in localizing
the most characteristic face components (eyes, nose,
mouth, etc.) within images that depict human faces.
The purpose of feature extraction is to extract the
feature vectors or information which represents the
face and reduces computation time and memory
storage.
Global feature extraction consists in considering the
face as a single whole entity and then extracting the
predetermined vital features of the face.
In this work, Central Moment, eigenvector and
standard deviation of the eyes, nose and mouth are
computed as the training features for the local feature
extraction while standard deviation and eigenvector
of the covariance of the whole face are assessed for
the global features.
These features besides extracting the quintessential
information of the face also account for
dimensionality reduction.
A. Central Moment
Central moment finds its application in recognition
of shape features which are independent of
parameters and which cannot be controlled in an
image are generated. Such features are called
invariant features. There are several types of
invariance. For example, if an object may occur in
an arbitrary location in an image, then one needs the
moments to be invariant to location. For binary
connected components, this can be achieved simply
by using the central moments, µ
pq
[14].
In image processing, computer vision and related
fields, an image moment is a certain particular
weighted average (moment) of the image pixels'
intensities, or a function of such moments, usually
chosen to have some attractive property or
interpretation. Image moments are useful to describe
objects after segmentation. Simple properties of the
image which are found via image moments include
area (or total intensity), its centroid, and information
about its orientation [15].
Central moments are mathematically defined as [16]
µ
pq
=

∫ ∫ ( ̅ )

( ̅)

( ) ()
̅

, ̅

̅ and ȳ and are the components of the centroid.
If ƒ(x, y) is a digital image, then the previous
equation becomes
µ
pq
=∑ ∑ ( ̅ )

( ̅)

( ) (2)
The central moments of order up to 3 are:
µ
00
=M
00,
µ
01
=0,
µ
10
=0,
µ
11
=M
11
- ̅ M
01
=M
11
-̅M
10

µ
20
=M
20
÷ ̅ M
10
,
µ
02
=M
02
– ̅M
01
,
µ
21
=M
21
-2 ̅ M
11
-̅M
20
+2̅
2
M
01
,
µ
21
=M
21
-2 ̅ M
11
-̅M
20
+2̅
2
M
01
,
µ
12
=M
12
-2 ̅M
11
-̅ M
02
+2̅
2
M
10
,
µ
30
=M
30
-3 ̅ M
20
+2̅
2
M
10
,
µ
03
=M
03
-3 ̅M
02
+2̅
2
M
01

It can be shown that
µ
pq
=∑ ∑ (

)

(

)()
()
(̅)
()

(3)
Central moments are translational invariant.
Information about image orientation can be derived
by first using the second order central moments to
construct a covariance matrix.
µ'
20
= µ
20
/ µ
00
= M
20
/ M
00
÷ ̅
2

µ'
02
= µ
02
/ µ
00
= M
02
/ M
00
÷ ̅
2

µ'
11
= µ
11
/ µ
00
= M
11
/ M
00
÷ ̅ ̅
The covariance matrix of the image I(x,y) is
cov[( )] = [

] (4)
The eigenvectors of this matrix correspond to the
major and minor axes of the image intensity, so
the orientation can thus be extracted from the angle
of the eigenvector associated with the largest
eigenvalue.
For higher order moments it is common to normalize
these moments by dividing by m
0
(or m
00
). This
allows one to compute moments which depend only
on the shape and not the magnitude of f(x). The
result of normalizing moments gives measures which
contain information about the shape or distribution
(not probability distribution) of f(x). This is what
makes moments useful for the analysis of shapes in
image processing, for which f(x, y) is the image
function. These computed moments are usually used
as features for shape recognition [17].
B. Eigenvector with Highest Eigen Value
An eigenvector of a matrix is a vector such that, if
multiplied with the matrix, the result is always an
integer multiple of that vector. This integer value is
the corresponding eigenvalue of the eigenvector.
This relationship can be described by the equation:
M × u = ì × u, where u is an eigenvector of the
matrix M is the matrix and ì is the corresponding
eigenvalue. Eigenvectors possess following
properties:
- They can be determined only for square
matrices.
- There are n eigenvectors (and
corresponding eigenvalues) in an n × n
matrix.
- All eigenvectors are perpendicular, i.e. at
right angle with each other.
The traditional motivation for selecting the
Eigenvectors with the largest Eigenvalues is that the
Eigenvalues represent the amount of variance along a
particular Eigenvector. By selecting the Eigenvectors
with the largest Eigenvalues, one selects the
dimensions along which the gallery images vary the
most. Since the Eigenvectors are ordered high to low
by the amount of variance found between images
along each Eigenvector, the last Eigenvectors find
the smallest amounts of variance. Often the
assumption is made that noise is associated with the
lower valued Eigenvalues where smaller amounts of
variation are found among the images [12].
C. Artificial Neural Network
Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are non-linear
mapping structures based on the function of the
human brain. They are computational structures
inspired by observed process in natural networks of
biological neurons in the brain. They consist of
simple computational units called neurons which are
highly interconnected.
ANNs identify and correlate patterns between input
data sets and corresponding target values even when
underlying data relationship is unknown. Once
trained, these can predict the outcome of new
independent input data. A very important feature of
ANNs is their adaptive nature, where „learning by
example‟ replaces „programming‟ in solving
problems. This feature makes such computational
models very appealing in application domains where
one has little or incomplete understanding of the
problem to be solved but where training data is
readily available.
The most widely used learning algorithm in an ANN
is the Backpropagation algorithm. There are various
types of ANNs like Multilayered Perceptron, Radial
Basis Function and Kohonen networks. These
networks are „neural‟ in the sense that they may have
been inspired by neuroscience but not necessarily
because they are faithful models of biological neural
or cognitive phenomena [13, 14].
In this work we use a Multilayer Feed-Forward
Network consisting of multiple layers. The
architecture of this class of network, besides having
the input and the output layers, also have one or
more intermediary layers called hidden layers. The
computational units of the hidden layer are known as
hidden neurons. The hidden layer does intermediate
computation before directing the input to output
layer. The input layer neurons are linked to the
hidden layer neurons; the weights on these links are
referred to as input-hidden layer weights. The hidden
layer neurons and the corresponding weights are
referred to as output-hidden layer weights.

Figure 2. Multilayered feed-forward network configuration.
IV. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

The experimental model can be divided into two
phases namely the training phase and the testing
phase. The training phase denotes the training of the
faces of the data base while the testing phase
involves the recognition of test image. Figure 2 gives
the block diagram of the training phase and Figure 3
depicts the block diagram of the testing phase.





Figure 3. Block Diagram of the training phase.





Figure 4. Block diagram of the testing phase.

Algorithm for training phase











Algorithm for testing phase









Database
Image
Pre-
processing
Feature
Extraction
Averaging the
Features
ANN

Training
Result

Test Image Pre-
processing
Feature
Extraction

ANN
Test Result

Input: Data base face images
Output: Column vector of the extracted features
Begin:
Step 1: Carry out pre-processing for all the images
of the data base.
Step 2: The eyes, nose and mouth are segmented
from each of the pre-processed face images of the
data base.
Step 3: Compute the Eigenvector of the
Covariance, central moment and standard deviation
of the segmented blocks of step 2. Store the values
in a column vector.
Step 4: Store the results computed in step 3 of
different face images in different column vectors.
Step 5: Train the designed network with the
column vectors of step 4 as input data with unique
binary vectors as corresponding targets.
End

Input: Face Test Image
Output: Matched face image from data base
Begin:
Step 1: Carry out pre-processing of the test face
image.
Step 2: The eyes, nose and mouth are segmented
from each of the pre-processed test image.
Step 3: Compute the Eigenvector of the
Covariance, central moment and standard deviation
of the segmented blocks of step 2. Store the values
in a column vector.
Step 4: Simulate using the trained network to
match with the data base face images.
End

In this work, we have used our own image data base
consisting of 120 images of 8 individuals. There are
15 images of each individual captured at different
instances of the day representing all possible
variations of light intensity, image tilt, image size,
noise levels, varying illumination, pose and distance
from the camera. Figure 4 shows a sample of the
acquired data base with the above specifications.

Figure 5. Sample images of the acquired database.

The pre-processing stage involved removal of noise
(Figure 6), histogram equalization (Figure 7), size
normalization and illumination normalization.

















Facial feature extraction is a special form of
dimensionality reduction. When the input data is too
large and it is suspected to be redundant then the
input data is transformed into a reduced
representation set of features (also named feature
vector). Transforming the input data into the set of
features is called feature extraction. If the extracted
features are carefully chosen it is expected that the
features set will extract the relevant information from
the input data in order to perform the desired task
using this reduced representation instead of the full
size input.
The method of global feature extraction carried out
in this work is listed in the following algorithm.
From the pre-processed images, the eyes, nose and
mouth of the image are detected for procuring the
local feature vector as shown in Figure 9. These
segments are used to compute the Eigen Vector of
the covariance, central moment and Standard
Deviation.

Figure 9. Samples of the vital features of the face used for
Training the ANN.

TABLE II. SIZE OF SELECTED FACIAL SECTIONS
Facial
Region
Size in Pixels
(M x N)
Size in % of the Full Face
(M x N)
Right Eye 24 x 38 0.14 x 0.25
Left Eye 24 x 38 0.14 x 0.25
Nose 36 x 40 0.21 x 0.26
Mouth 27 x 57 0.16 x 0.38

TABLE III. DIMENSIONS OF LOCALLY EXTRACTED FEATURES
Facial
Region
Length of the Extracted Features Total
Feature
Length

Central
Moment
Eigen
Vector

Standard
Deviation
Row Col.
Right
Eye
38 24 x 4 24 38 196
Left
Eye
38 24 x 4 24 38 196
Nose 40 36 x 4 36 40 260
Mouth 57 27 x 4 27 57 249
Total
Length 173 444 111 173 901
V. RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

In the present work, the high performance
Backpropagation training algorithm and the variable
learning rate Backpropagation is employed for
training the network. This algorithm is based on
heuristic technique. The network training algorithm
used here (GDMBPAL) updates weight and bias
values according to gradient descent momentum and
an adaptive learning. We have used a learning rate of
0.7 and momentum of 0.6. The number of neurons in
the hidden layers is fixed to be 1.5 times the number
of neurons in the input layer.
Figure 6. Sample of noise removal process
Figure 7. Histogram plots of a bright image before and after
Histogram Equalization.
The specifications of the Neural Network used for
training phase are as tabulated in Table 4. The input
layer consists of the global as well as the local
features of the database image.
We have carried out the training using both log
sigmoid function and the tan sigmoid activation
functions in the network. Further, the effect of the
different activation functions with different iterations
on the convergence of Mean Squared Error (MSE)
was also tested.
The convergence of Mean Squared Error (MSE) for
different number of iterations and for different
activation function of the hidden and output layers is
tabulated in Table 5.
From Table 5, we make the inference that the
convergence of MSE is better for log sigmoid
activation function with 1500 iterations. Further, the
convergence of MSE decreases if the number of
iterations is very high.
TABLE IV. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE NEURAL NETWORK
Type: Feed Forward Backpropagation Network
Parameters Specifications
Number of Layers 3 (Input layer, Hidden Layer,
Output Layer)
Number of Input Unit 1 Feature Matrix
Number of Output Unit 1 Binary Encoded Vector
Number of Neurons in the
Input Layer
1821
Number of Neurons in the
Hidden Layer
1821 * 1.5 = 2732
Number of Neurons in the
Output Layer
8
Number of Iterations 1000, 1500, 2000
Number of Validation Checks 6
Learning Rate 0.7
Momentum 0.6
Activation Functions Log-Sigmoid and Tan-Sigmoid

TABLE V. CONVERGENCE OF MSE FOR DIFFERENT NUMBER OF
ITERATIONS AND DIFFERENT ACTIVATION FUNCTION

Iterations
Activation
Function of
Hidden Layers
Activation
Function of
Output
Layers
MSE
1000
Tansigmoid

Tansigmoid
1x10
-4

1500 1.2x10
-4

2000 1.4x10
-4

1000
Logsigmoid

Logsigmoid
1x10
-7

1500 1x10
-12

2000 1x10
-6


We also studied the effect of Gaussian noise of
different SNR levels on the efficiency of our face
recognition system. We find that if the noise is added
before pre-processing phase the system‟s Correct
Recognition Rate (CRR) is not affected much.
However, if the image is affected by Gaussian noise
after the pre-processing phase, the system‟s CRR is
adversely affected.
When the face is affected after pre-processing phase
by Gaussian noise of SNR 25dB and above the
system has a CRR of 100% while CRR reduces for
SNR less than 25dB. The other observations are
tabulated in Table VI.
TABLE VI. EFFECT OF GAUSSIAN NOISE IN THE CORRECT
RECOGNITION RATE (CRR) OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM

AWGN
SNR (dB)
CRR (%) for
Gaussian Noise
Present before
Pre-processing
Phase
CRR (%) for
Gaussian Noise
Present after Pre-
processing Phase
25 100 100
22 100 81.25
20 100 62.52
18 98.74 43.75
16 96.47 37.50
15 89.56 12.51
14 86.25 06.25
VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper, face recognition based on ANN is
proposed. ANN with Back propagation algorithm is
found to be the efficient method for recognising the
faces. It is observed that the proposed feature vectors
are useful for proper recognition of human faces with
the activation function „log sigmoid‟ in the hidden
layer of the Neural Network and it gives a better
convergence of the MSE. Further, the system‟s
efficiency is reduced if the image is affected by
Gaussian noise after the pre-processing phase.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank the staff and
management of DBCET for their support and
encouragement in the completion of this work. Our
sincere thanks to Ms. Jhimli Kumari Das, HoD of
Electronics and Communication Engineering for her
efforts in initiating us into this work. We place on
record our deepest gratitude to Mr. Kaustubh
Bhattacharyya, the guide for his scholarly guidance
and masterly expertise all through this work.
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[1] Marcos Faundez-Zanuy, “Biometric security technology,”
Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, 2000, pp. 262-264.
[2] K. Ramesha and K. B. Raja, “Dual transform based feature
extraction for face recognition,” International Journal of Computer
Science Issues, 2011, vol.VIII, no. 5, pp. 115-120.

A face recognition system recognizes an individual
by matching the input image against images of all
users in a database and finding the best match.

[3] Khashman, “Intelligent face recognition: local versus global
pattern averaging”, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 4304,
Springer-Verlag, 2006, pp. 956 – 961.
[4] Abbas, M. I. Khalil, S. Abdel-Hay and H. M. Fahmy,
“Expression and illumination invariant preprocessing technique
for face recognition,” Proceedings of the International Conference
on Computer Engineering and System, 2008, pp. 59-64.
[5] K. Ramesha , K. B. Raja, K. R. Venugopal and L. M. Patnaik,
“Feature extraction based face recognition, gender and age
classification,” International Journal on Computer Science and
Engineering, 2010, vol. II, no. 01S, pp. 14-23.
[6] S. Ranawade, “Face recognition and verification using
artificial neural network,” International Journal of Computer
Applications, 2010, vol. I, no. 14, pp. 21-25.
[7] Albert Montillo and Haibin Ling, “Age regression from faces
using random forests,” Proceedings of the IEEE International
Conference on Image Processing, 2009, pp. 2465-2468.
[8] H. Murase and S. K. Nayar, “Visual learning and recognition
of 3-D objects from appearance,” Journal of Computer Vision,
vol. XIV, 1995, pp. 5-24.
[9] M. Turk and A. P. Pentland, “Face recognition using
Eigenfaces,” Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer
Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1991, pp. 586-591.
[10] Peter Belhumeur, J. Hespanha and David Kriegman,
“Eigenfaces versus Fisherfaces: Recognition using class specific
linear projection,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and
Machine Intelligence (PAMI), 1997, vol. XIX, no. 7, pp.711-720.
[11] P. Niyogi, “Locality preserving projections,” Proceedings of
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Sundos A. Hameed Al_azawi, Eyes Recognition System Using
Central Moment Features, Eng. & Tech. Journal, 2011, vol. 29,
no. 7.





If an object is not at a fixed distance from a fixed
focal length camera, then the sizes of objects will not
be fixed. In this case size invariance is needed. This
can be achieved by normalizing the moments.

mouth. PCA performs dimensionality reduction by projecting an original n-dimensional data onto a k (<< n)dimensional linear subspace spanned by the leading eigenvectors of the data‟s covariance matrix [9]. For example. This problem is overcome rather effectively by dimensionality reduction techniques such as the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). usually chosen to have some attractive property or interpretation. Image moments are useful to describe objects after segmentation. Global feature extraction consists in considering the face as a single whole entity and then extracting the predetermined vital features of the face. The purpose of feature extraction is to extract the feature vectors or information which represents the face and reduces computation time and memory storage.One of the commonly employed techniques involves representing the image by a vector in a dimensional space of size similar to the image [8]. and mouth and the overall analysis of the whole face. Besides. Central Moment Central moment finds its application in recognition of shape features which are independent of parameters and which cannot be controlled in an image are generated. proposed Dual Transform based Feature Extraction for Face Recognition (DTBFEFR). Good results for discrimination of ten distinctive subjects are reported [13]. Therefore. PCA is an eigenvector method designed to model linear variation in high-dimensional data. etc. In image processing. III. if an object may occur in an arbitrary location in an image. the large dimensional space of the image reduces the speed and robustness of face recognition. it recovers important aspects of the intrinsic nonlinear manifold structure by preserving local structure though it is a linear technique [11]. Here Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) is employed to form the feature vector and Euclidean Distance (ED). computer vision and related fields. For binary connected components. It consists in obtaining a face subspace and finding the local structure of the manifold. These facial features reduce the dimensionality by gathering the essential information while removing all redundancies present in the segment. the global features of the total image are also computed. nose. However. an image moment is a certain particular weighted average (moment) of the image pixels' intensities. Experiments carried out by researchers thus far points to the superiority of algorithms based on LDA over PCA. Such features are called invariant features.) within images that depict human faces. There are several types of invariance. Basically it is obtained by finding the optimal linear approximations to the eigen functions of the Laplace Betrami operator on the manifold. These specially designed features are then used as decision support entities of the classifier system configured using the GFFANN which provides a decision in the testing phase with an accuracy of over 95%. After the pre-processing stage. A. pq [14]. Each face is represented as a collection of LDP codes for face recognition process [10]. then one needs the moments to be invariant to location. nose and mouth are computed as the training features for the local feature extraction while standard deviation and eigenvector of the covariance of the whole face are assessed for the global features. These features besides extracting the quintessential information of the face also account for dimensionality reduction. These blocks are then resized and the training features are computed. LDA encodes using linearly separable space in which bases are not necessarily orthogonal. While PCA uses orthogonal linear space for encoding information. this can be achieved simply by using the central moments. segments of the eyes. LOCAL AND GLOBAL FACE FEATURES EXTRACTION WITH MARKED DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION Local facial feature extraction consists in localizing the most characteristic face components (eyes. LDA features are obtained by computing the edge response values in all eight directions at each pixel position and generating a code from the relative strength magnitude. Simple properties of the image which are found via image moments include . Ramesha K and K B Raja. nose. Central Moment. nose and mouth are extracted from the faces of the database. In this work. Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used as the classifiers [12]. or a function of such moments. This paper presents the face recognition method using both the geometrical features of the biometrical characteristic of the face such as eyes. Weng and Huang presented a face recognition model based on hierarchical neural network which is grown automatically and not trained with gradient-descent. eigenvector and standard deviation of the eyes. LDA is a supervised learning algorithm. Another face analysis technique is the Locality Preserving Projections (LPP).

and information about its orientation [15].̅M20+2 ̅ 2M01. if multiplied with the matrix. 10=0. ANNs identify and correlate patterns between input data sets and corresponding target values even when The eigenvectors of this matrix correspond to the major and minor axes of the image intensity. By selecting the Eigenvectors with the largest Eigenvalues.̅ M01=M11. This integer value is the corresponding eigenvalue of the eigenvector. for which f(x. Information about image orientation can be derived by first using the second order central moments to construct a covariance matrix. C. They consist of simple computational units called neurons which are highly interconnected. The result of normalizing moments gives measures which contain information about the shape or distribution (not probability distribution) of f(x). y) is the image function.e. so . This is what makes moments useful for the analysis of shapes in image processing. 11=M11. 01=0. ̅ ̅) ( ̅) ( ) ( ) ̅ and ȳ and are the components of the centroid. Eigenvectors possess following properties:  pq= ∫ ̅ ∫ ( . 12=M12-2 ̅M11. where u is an eigenvector of the matrix M is the matrix and  is the corresponding eigenvalue. Artificial Neural Network Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are non-linear mapping structures based on the function of the human brain. 2   21=M21-2 ̅ M11. All eigenvectors are perpendicular. Often the assumption is made that noise is associated with the lower valued Eigenvalues where smaller amounts of variation are found among the images [12].̅ M02+2 ̅2M10. then the previous equation becomes pq=∑ ∑ ( ̅) ( ̅) ( ) (2) The central moments of order up to 3 are: 00=M00. y) is a digital image. '20= ̅  '02= ̅ '11= ̅ ̅ The covariance cov[ ( )] = [ matrix of ] the image I(x.̅M10  ̅ M10. These computed moments are usually used as features for shape recognition [17]. Since the Eigenvectors are ordered high to low by the amount of variance found between images along each Eigenvector. at right angle with each other. 30=M30-3 ̅ M20+2 ̅ 2M10. Eigenvector with Highest Eigen Value An eigenvector of a matrix is a vector such that. They are computational structures inspired by observed process in natural networks of biological neurons in the brain. i. its centroid. For higher order moments it is common to normalize these moments by dividing by m0 (or m00). There are n eigenvectors (and corresponding eigenvalues) in an n × n matrix. If ƒ(x. one selects the dimensions along which the gallery images vary the most.area (or total intensity). 03=M03-3 ̅M02+2 ̅2M01 It can be shown that pq=∑ ∑ ( ) ( )( )( ) They can be determined only for square matrices. the result is always an integer multiple of that vector. B. ( ̅)( ) (3) Central moments are translational invariant.y) is (4) The traditional motivation for selecting the Eigenvectors with the largest Eigenvalues is that the Eigenvalues represent the amount of variance along a particular Eigenvector. This allows one to compute moments which depend only on the shape and not the magnitude of f(x). Central moments are mathematically defined as [16] the orientation can thus be extracted from the angle of the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue. 21=M21-2 ̅ M11. This relationship can be described by the equation: M × u =  × u. the last Eigenvectors find the smallest amounts of variance. 02=M02 – ̅M01.̅M20+2 ̅ M01.

The hidden layer neurons and the corresponding weights are referred to as output-hidden layer weights. Step 4: Store the results computed in step 3 of different face images in different column vectors. central moment and standard deviation of the segmented blocks of step 2. There are various types of ANNs like Multilayered Perceptron. This feature makes such computational models very appealing in application domains where one has little or incomplete understanding of the problem to be solved but where training data is readily available. also have one or more intermediary layers called hidden layers. Step 5: Train the designed network with the column vectors of step 4 as input data with unique binary vectors as corresponding targets. Algorithm for training phase Input: Data base face images Output: Column vector of the extracted features Begin: Step 1: Carry out pre-processing for all the images of the data base. nose and mouth are segmented from each of the pre-processed face images of the data base. These networks are „neural‟ in the sense that they may have been inspired by neuroscience but not necessarily because they are faithful models of biological neural or cognitive phenomena [13. Store the values in a column vector. The computational units of the hidden layer are known as hidden neurons. . Block Diagram of the training phase. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL The experimental model can be divided into two phases namely the training phase and the testing phase. End Figure 2. Step 3: Compute the Eigenvector of the Covariance. Step 3: Compute the Eigenvector of the Covariance. Step 2: The eyes. Step 4: Simulate using the trained network to match with the data base face images. Block diagram of the testing phase. The architecture of this class of network. IV. the weights on these links are referred to as input-hidden layer weights. these can predict the outcome of new independent input data. Store the values in a column vector. A very important feature of ANNs is their adaptive nature. where „learning by example‟ replaces „programming‟ in solving problems. Step 2: The eyes. Multilayered feed-forward network configuration. The most widely used learning algorithm in an ANN is the Backpropagation algorithm. Once trained. Radial Basis Function and Kohonen networks. besides having the input and the output layers. 14].underlying data relationship is unknown. Figure 2 gives the block diagram of the training phase and Figure 3 depicts the block diagram of the testing phase. Test Image Preprocessing Feature Extraction Test Result ANN Figure 4. In this work we use a Multilayer Feed-Forward Network consisting of multiple layers. End Algorithm for testing phase Input: Face Test Image Output: Matched face image from data base Begin: Step 1: Carry out pre-processing of the test face image. Database Image Preprocessing Feature Extraction Training Result ANN Averaging the Features Figure 3. nose and mouth are segmented from each of the pre-processed test image. central moment and standard deviation of the segmented blocks of step 2. The training phase denotes the training of the faces of the data base while the testing phase involves the recognition of test image. The hidden layer does intermediate computation before directing the input to output layer. The input layer neurons are linked to the hidden layer neurons.

From the pre-processed images. image size. Figure 7. The pre-processing stage involved removal of noise (Figure 6). TABLE II.6. nose and mouth of the image are detected for procuring the local feature vector as shown in Figure 9. Transforming the input data into the set of features is called feature extraction.38 TABLE III. image tilt. representation set of features (also named feature vector).25 0. Histogram plots of a bright image before and after Histogram Equalization.7 and momentum of 0. The number of neurons in the hidden layers is fixed to be 1. Figure 9. The method of global feature extraction carried out in this work is listed in the following algorithm.25 0. Sample images of the acquired database.21 x 0. DIMENSIONS OF LOCALLY EXTRACTED FEATURES Figure 6. Figure 4 shows a sample of the acquired data base with the above specifications. Samples of the vital features of the face used for Training the ANN. the high performance Backpropagation training algorithm and the variable learning rate Backpropagation is employed for training the network. size normalization and illumination normalization.14 x 0. The network training algorithm used here (GDMBPAL) updates weight and bias values according to gradient descent momentum and an adaptive learning. pose and distance from the camera.16 x 0. central moment and Standard Deviation. varying illumination. If the extracted features are carefully chosen it is expected that the features set will extract the relevant information from the input data in order to perform the desired task using this reduced representation instead of the full size input. SIZE OF SELECTED FACIAL SECTIONS Facial Region Right Eye Left Eye Nose Mouth Size in Pixels (M x N) 24 x 38 24 x 38 36 x 40 27 x 57 Size in % of the Full Face (M x N) 0.26 0.5 times the number of neurons in the input layer.14 x 0. Facial feature extraction is a special form of dimensionality reduction. histogram equalization (Figure 7). the eyes. Sample of noise removal process Facial Region Length of the Extracted Features Central Moment Eigen Vector Standard Deviation Row Col. we have used our own image data base consisting of 120 images of 8 individuals. This algorithm is based on heuristic technique. RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS In the present work.In this work. noise levels. Figure 5. These segments are used to compute the Eigen Vector of the covariance. When the input data is too large and it is suspected to be redundant then the input data is transformed into a reduced . We have used a learning rate of 0. There are 15 images of each individual captured at different instances of the day representing all possible variations of light intensity. Total Feature Length 196 196 260 249 901 Right Eye Left Eye Nose Mouth Total Length 38 38 40 57 173 24 x 4 24 x 4 36 x 4 27 x 4 444 24 24 36 27 111 38 38 40 57 173 V.

B. “On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions. 2011.4x10-4 1x10-7 1x10-12 1x10-6 We also studied the effect of Gaussian noise of different SNR levels on the efficiency of our face recognition system. A247. EFFECT OF GAUSSIAN NOISE IN THE CORRECT RECOGNITION RATE (CRR) OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM AWGN SNR (dB) CRR (%) for Gaussian Noise Present before Pre-processing Phase 100 100 100 98. Jhimli Kumari Das. Further. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the staff and management of DBCET for their support and encouragement in the completion of this work. CONCLUSION In this paper. vol.The specifications of the Neural Network used for training phase are as tabulated in Table 4. Khalil. The convergence of Mean Squared Error (MSE) for different number of iterations and for different activation function of the hidden and output layers is tabulated in Table 5. B. 5. Noble. (references) Khashman. 529–551.” Proceedings of the Number of Layers Number of Input Unit Number of Output Unit Number of Neurons in the Input Layer Number of Neurons in the Hidden Layer Number of Neurons in the Output Layer Number of Iterations Number of Validation Checks Learning Rate Momentum Activation Functions 3 (Input layer. I. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE NEURAL NETWORK Type: Feed Forward Backpropagation Network Parameters Specifications When the face is affected after pre-processing phase by Gaussian noise of SNR 25dB and above the system has a CRR of 100% while CRR reduces for SNR less than 25dB. Raja. 2000. CONVERGENCE OF MSE FOR DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ITERATIONS AND DIFFERENT ACTIVATION FUNCTION Activation Function of Hidden Layers Activation Function of Output Layers Tansigmoid MSE Iterations 1000 1500 2000 1000 1500 2000 Tansigmoid Logsigmoid Logsigmoid 1x10-4 1. TABLE VI. From Table 5. face recognition based on ANN is proposed.2x10-4 1.” Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence.VIII. April 1955. we make the inference that the convergence of MSE is better for log sigmoid activation function with 1500 iterations. pp. TABLE IV. Trans. vol.47 89. [3] [4] . M. 4304. 956 – 961.” Phil. Soc. The other observations are tabulated in Table VI. Abbas. M.7 0. the effect of the different activation functions with different iterations on the convergence of Mean Squared Error (MSE) was also tested. ANN with Back propagation algorithm is found to be the efficient method for recognising the faces. Fahmy.52 43. Ramesha and K. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. We place on record our deepest gratitude to Mr. 2006.25 CRR (%) for Gaussian Noise Present after Preprocessing Phase 100 81. Springer-Verlag. the guide for his scholarly guidance and masterly expertise all through this work. Kaustubh Bhattacharyya. Roy. pp.6 Log-Sigmoid and Tan-Sigmoid TABLE V.51 06. S. K. the system‟s efficiency is reduced if the image is affected by Gaussian noise after the pre-processing phase.56 86. 115120.74 96. Hidden Layer. Eason.25 25 22 20 18 16 15 14 VI. 2000 6 0. 262-264. 1500. pp.5 = 2732 8 1000. no. We find that if the noise is added before pre-processing phase the system‟s Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) is not affected much.50 12. and I. Further. The input layer consists of the global as well as the local features of the database image. “Expression and illumination invariant preprocessing technique for face recognition.25 62. if the image is affected by Gaussian noise after the pre-processing phase. the convergence of MSE decreases if the number of iterations is very high. Output Layer) 1 Feature Matrix 1 Binary Encoded Vector 1821 1821 * 1. Our sincere thanks to Ms. Abdel-Hay and H. We have carried out the training using both log sigmoid function and the tan sigmoid activation functions in the network. REFERENCES [1] [2] Marcos Faundez-Zanuy. the system‟s CRR is adversely affected.75 37. Sneddon. N. “Intelligent face recognition: local versus global pattern averaging”. However. HoD of Electronics and Communication Engineering for her efforts in initiating us into this work.” International Journal of Computer Science Issues. pp. It is observed that the proposed feature vectors are useful for proper recognition of human faces with the activation function „log sigmoid‟ in the hidden layer of the Neural Network and it gives a better convergence of the MSE. “Biometric security technology. Further. London.G. “Dual transform based feature extraction for face recognition.

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