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INrTRODUaI10N, .. i't.;t.' 1 PRE'LI.MINIARY OON'SIDERA.TlONSf,.~ ... ~2 1'0 B'UY OR. ~ ".• G~G AWAY'\VI'I'1iI FI\ ......•.....••...•..•..............••..•.•• "•...•...•...•..•.••. 6: TI'IE ~IO ~",~ !"!'~+1!9;
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I wmJlldUkewthaoJi; eve-tyo:ne whoke;!pedmake thiis.IlQt-for..profit pamphlet possible, especiia:ll.1The W"U. 'Ilf RGFR,.Little Eddli,eSatan of KDIL.lIinrl those who madel gelil~~U9 dtlnations o.ftJpesetting. tmii Pri"ntilig•.

This materiid iii: .lII.ot ooIl~te.d. wbal'e I:!redit ie dlle. .

Fee] free to rep:roc1.oce'it, b"llt p~e

givE!ecrediiC.

~~r ,~~on~ W~? ~s~ ~_~ess~~,tljJoo.m~ m,eansmthwhkh 00 do, ]:t,. T.h~s'p~ece will prG'II'lde thEfinfunnation tteOeissarytooh:t:ain;,that means, SOj ;~fyou int~regted in 're pro-v,i,dillg an rutern;a,tiVB to eorpQ,l'ate~oo:ntTQn.ednewspapers and magaz;iries th,s:.ina:El.fiehQW]in.g~nreHgk~~s radio and televis~on staMos, there~ .adicmary pa~ on oommerd.al stations 1design.ed·ta ,oiffund nefther adver-

'T' ", big,p.am.phlet is wended
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Users: n_,Qroorpa;rat~owne:rs)Md the ,W:noouous:an.i.maJs...and~B'rlti!flh~e-eents p.ro.~ammh:tW on '~·,p'ubJi.c··gm'ernme~t;..orwn.oo) statiOillS.~ read O:til• ! . AnYOrle with a yElu" or tliVO of ,high ,srnool ,eloo~n'ies -or .h.amex:perience snouldba able to Ulke tulb.dvamt::tge Qfthe·informationpr€rsented~he.:rej ruthollJgh:most olit ~hou]d be. aeeesslble toanyo!l1e,. 'Tllosewith no previous experiencewo~]d be, weU advisedto.build a 'OOO,ple (Heathkits ~,etc.)

and to read the first few cih.aptewsof th,e ,American bm.Q· R.e,la:y teague 's
Rftd!iiQ Amaoo!l!ir's ·HoodbMik, :oore3ifter referred
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to as! RAIl. In tlleory f~eedom of the pre8s.exists lin this OOWlltry, But mpractiee, QnlJ Uliose IDdividuals 000:. groups with v~~arge am01,ll1lt~ ofmQney can take advantage of that freedom. For exmnple,. to start a dailypape:-r. in ~uS"tonemajouj,tywouJld.reqru'ire assets ofaJffieast five, and probably kID, l million doiUars. We all know haw many a.n.irdililta ru:n:danarchist gronps have thalt kmd of mOl1l.'ey!.IH):·n.e. So, taking advantage of the much vaunted flleedom (I·ffhe press in tb.tsool,ll1itryisQut Of,~)ll!U r€>aoo ...(This is [lot to dep:~ciate. the valuablewo.rk being done by many anarclrlst publ!i~ cations ~butgivanth:e extl'e:mclylimJited tI:me,ooa,ney and volunteer labor availaMe; even the best·ofthesep.1[dj&aHons.lS dokigweU to have a reade.rsh]pof a mew thous,md ..·~ Theuse Qftlelevislon is almostequal]y oW; of l€l·aoo. Televis.io:tl.is eonsiderablymore tec.hni.callly sophim:icawd.tb.:m rad~o, and so TV equipm.ent is oonsiderably more ex.il~II~n:s'i.ve leq_l]'ixes wnaidemhly .more· maiatsnamd aneethan radio equipm.e.nt. P~ttmg a bare-banes 'CQJ:Ume:rdaJ.TV stat[oO: on the.ak wo:uld require an iinve.stmenit of ill million dQilaI's or more; and b~ ctluseof lio€nsing t'equil'eme1'l!jst it W9<u1dbe virtu:aMy funPQ·ssfblefor an anM1':bist grollp_t(l~e:l.Ve>~ l!io~nse. 'W'bile apitate TV stati.oo. oouJd he put 011 the air ·for.afe'W t:hogsarnd dQ]l]ars, SQ.chl an undertaking: would teq~e a faiily high. degree of technical. so.p~sticatiaf.l on the ptin't, ·01 its stafi. Further> .because o~ the attelitiQI'lJ.~dl'awi;nJg Dstl1re of te]iE!'vi~lQn, such 81. pro] ect ·'II!.fQu]dlin likelihood 'Q;eq,uick]ybus.tEl'~ by the FCC. all Cotnm.ereiru-or" nOQpmm' , for that matter -rad!:io]s almost as out of reach as television. ThEilcosts of .startmga commercial shltion run lito the te:ns or. hundreds of thousands of dollars, a.nd· ~{v,~f.l oostS' ·af s~tt.:iri;g th(f a ]ow·pow>e_r 'nan:wmmeIlcial statioous.ing mostly dona;ted and used equ[prt:l.ent runs into tho:u"S.anugcof do]];a:rs. Even if youcan.ra]se <If l,easonable. amount "Of mOITey~s:ay $10,000 m$20,eOO-yo;u're still a .bell of a long way from ·bemg on the air. The gOY13rnment' S li~"llsingp:rocedu:re'w l€lngt;h:_y- it t,akes Y'¢al's. .S'foondly, the:"""'FCC 'Will g:iveilcensesoruy
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to "respectable'

'Me.ral'€ltically crganiz:ed groups with lXnfrru. of direetors~ -offic&t8, ere. Theproble:mstlilii p6sedo:r an:llrlr~~ts areloo obvfuusftl) ~,mto, Fillally ~what the ;govemmelltgivel'il,~ thegov&rnm.ent can ,tUt aw;ay. If by some ,miracle you wouWd~'e it on 'theah" with a :not!l!oom. t:ne:rciall:k'!ense", the, ,gove'mmentooWd OO"gi1y pUll your-license 'slu;i1imdi, yoo: doanythmg tQ displease it. .' . .
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Fr€,edomofc,p:mm.unic..atiiOni"s.abasic.hlumfim:ig~it.

J,me.drights,&ee-

dam ofoommmll-cotionmnmat,fi oibemg able.to:exe~ise '10!UI OWIlaihilitie.s MthOUlt..i.ntgrfe~r.i.ce.Governmem,~l)tgive YO'll YOur. ~ abwties;ibut O it, sure as 'hell can (and Will) fu~:rf~(I}e with you when, YQue~el:<;:i®them. Gove:rtlJ!l!l!eJil,t.CANNAT tff~.\!'e ·otuiC!'htSf. ]t "'oooml" iJ' ... ll,:.,.fh " . ~.;.._ .' "'.", , .. . ,. ' .... v ~ _,emU'"""",,,YOll.u.li'.l' aJ.IDgo,yemm.e:n~(go:Qns wMth guns fOl:"C,i,ng ,othe:r,sto follow th~ir.:l.clates: t:}u(lugh "461euc'€:and:eo.~rcion)weoooo ooMe to lf1l:i'Stt nmnan, rights would oeltaJ,n]y B.ot cease dong witillth$lfi .• Thel!l!aiveobjeetmrould,berai!se(li,thait wbi1€"gov~Dts~otgiye yQU rights; they can pmtecltbem by pr.eve:nting youtf€\lo,w ci~ ~om rn.terierihgwith you. ~ dteoiy."that is possible., Rutin: pra-eti.oo, g·UIVenl:m.entahave rue!y '~protected.~' dtize:ns~ rights, ImdtheA O'o:ywhen it-hM suited their po,lit;icru. purposes. hwvarii!liibly, when.govemments feel the
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least bit threetened, th.eyp~ace theh- own ~"$ecur,itY;;!IJ~~ds above ~ human dgh:~s w-hicb tbey s~PP08:ei:ly saie.guard .•T'moughout history the vilest and mo!)~ co:n~istent;violators oj' h'~moo tights ,havebew,g()v·(:m~,
bulk of W'e C<UllIQt ]ookto g(jv",mmenttop'r:0te;cl:ourrig~ts. We have to do it 'OW'of doing tbat~a by ~eI1ciSin.g OU!rnghts.

ments ;GoY'~n:!met!!ts have bjtenr-eS;pons~1b1€ fur tlh,e;o-ve:rwheimmg

human ngJl"ts vio~ation:s :ill every human clvilllzlflitW:on. selv€s,and an. ,sfieCtivemeans

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS
.(Which Band Ar~ You On)
Tber@are:seWBll11i":thingst(N;!,q,l]!:!;Iider when :se,tting'uPftpirate ,~tat~on before you sp@.nil a. dime or solder s' 'single C('!rulJect;h)i:ll. The. mst thing you needw, de!ternrine iswhet!n,e:ryou w,mtto· !:E!aeh a local audience 'Or an audi~· ence s.e!ver~ .hundred or thousand. l.l.dJ!~s.aw,ay~ithat 'w]]j metale yom

cholce of bands. If j'011t'l'Q.adming for local coverage you '11w,~t'to ,o:pe.rare on etth.erthe AM (540 ~1600 KHz) or FMAs8 ~ 108 Mllzlbroad'c:a:s,t bands .. If YlJIl(re aiming fur an areaa long d.ist_aneeawaly yiou'U want to use the $hr.;n1:w~v"e bAA.&. The shortwave; bands are (all frE>qll!ende~ In MHz~;
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n:96; 1.5·j = 15.4@; 17.~r- n .. ~2lli.45 ~.21.7'; 25.6 ~,26.L 9 ThGre t'l;Iieadvantages t,;u,aUof the bands, The advantage'of wDrkmg on. the AM broadcast band. is that AM: radios are sllghl]ymoil'B eQmm.on than,

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FMradlo.8l, andtbatkigh quMityusedham t'ran.snrlU.erswhichcan be-easill' modified to work on the top end Qfthe AM banci a;I',eaVailable ,dirt cheap ~ in the $50 to $150 range. The disadvantages oo:'·die AM band are thas it wkes more powetwoover agive.._n,!ill'eath.am.it does onthe FM band I~thereasons for this are that statiie be a ptoblemon AM but n~t on FM. and that pirate AM antennas are gener,a1ly~ess efficient than FM antenaas] and that AM tmwHtlas ,~ bn1ki.er tb.an FMlm"tennas aD.,dtnus harder to hide and less suiro1Jle fol'

can

'TheadvantagesoftheFMbmld~thotFManrennas are much smBller landgenenill.'y more efficient tihan AM Mte,nnasj lesspowe~is nooded to rover a ,given ar-e'a on .FM than: on AM, FMOO1wmlas Can easij,y"be-dis-

:mobile work.

guised for meblle WOl'k, and, .th~ simplest FM ~'Smitter,s are easy and. cheap to build ~!IIS low as $15 or $20 •. The disadvan~ of FM ate that it's '!iirtudly .Jm!possffiblem find ready-made transmiU~ and. that it/a essentially,~ ine-of...sigbt means (If .comnl1ll'dcation. That is, a lo-w-power FM tranS!ll!itter. can orily 'be heard whmli.there's an.unobstrueted we between. it.s antGnna an,OJthe WItenna ahhe f'eooivet. But that 's generally not a Seli,ous pil'obl'em~ eS!pecially if you. operate from a hill.. The advantages of short w.ave bands are that it's possible to OOveT huge distances fOt a."e,ry sru.al. inVl;!stme:nt andthat.used ham iransm:itte:l.';s are readJyavailable which ,can be used willt, oniIDyvery minor (Q1' no) modifications on SllWeralshortwav·(:) broadcast bands .. (A further advantage of using old ham. transmitters: fur sbortwave [brQadcasting' is that, those h:a:nsmitte.rscangener,ed!y beeas~'y m.odifiedtto work onth,~.AM.broadcast band also ..) The only disadvantages of shortwave broadc:astingal'e that shortwave a.ntem18S :Me.flW:!y larg:.e ~thi8 is less o,f'8 problem at the .mgher treq1;fende.s.)andthatUst.eners:hip wU1 g,eneraliy "li€! small in ·wmpan·son with local audi.ences listenmg'to AM and, FM tran:s.n:nssions. Your ehoioe of$ortwave tiandsi will he d.eWrmiined hy two tJililgs;. 1J the eq~ipment J"0u;re using; and. 2~the ,dJs<Jl:anceto y,ow listen.e;rs, Most old ham transmitters, with mnplitude. modulation (AM) can. be ,easily modified to wo'r'kaollie 3.2 to 3.4 and 15.100 15.6 MHz bands., and can be, ope,ra~ed on the 3.9 fu 4.0, 7 .1 to 7',.3 sad 21.45 to :2;1.75 MHz. hands without mOdification to tbeir :rad~o. :fl'equeney iRF) circuitry. A word of waming~ Do not operate on tb.e3.9'oo 4.0 and 1..100 'L3MHz bands. They ov,edap the 40 and SOmeter ham band.s. For somareason ham.s 'tend Jt.o be rnllio& fasdstic;. WId i~they hear yau operating on "th~il'" band theyjU probai,bly ,eitber jam yOUl' signaJ. or turn yen in to the FCC. If you're phwning on broadcasting· a re·lativel:y short distance- say from FTo'rlda to Cuba Of' Texas to. northern Me.rico ~ t,lle 8.2 toB.4 MHz band''WOwd be' a~gica1 cheiee. Wlth moderate ,p.ower (say 5.0 W 200 watts or so) this band is good for dista.n~s of up to about 400 miles during the day WId up to about 1000 at mght. For longer distanoos the _,_ 3

:1.5.1 W 15,6· and 21...45, to 21. 75 MHz bands a;re ~gQoo' ehoices, On.thooe 'n;andsICs qu[te ,ero:;yto reach. 3S.faras Afrfuc~ or South America ft.o:mM'lie U.S. with tTan.smitters l1ll'lllmg as little as 50 watts :input. In ge:n.eral" the 15.1 MHz; band. is u:sea:b~eboth da:yand·ni:s'ht whl]i.e the 2L,s·MHz hand.Ul best during t.he day . Whel€: s~gnals broadcast on fue.se bands willlood, hnwever, is :highly dependent -onthe time of ~y when tihey're broadcast. The:iI:'ear~ two ways to determine tillis. One is to Iisten on these '~ds, wit~ a s:J;1nl$w.;)Ifve r~ee.~ver" The other is to [ook at pmpagation. dl!~. QST ~,the [publiMtion of the .American. Rad1.o. elay R Lea&.'Ue (ARRM.. the. national .~~ @tg,ani:za,tiQn!, puiblmh@s detadled lIr9'pagatieKn. ehmtse1v1ery ·month.F(l1 the 15. ill MHz b!(md you 'wQlilld look at the 20 meters chart, and.fol' the 21.,45 MHz, 'band. you. wOiuld look :a:t

the 15 meters ehart, . long distan.oe hmarlbs1:ing canalsobe done en th.e ,frequ:eneiEl'S: betwe~n 29., '1 and 30 .M_lh 'u~ old ham.transutitoorS! (llitgovat'ifil'J.e:nt reserves th,Me £l\equeneiesfu·r ,math~rmyhbut thi:s:b..w.td is gene:raJly only \]IseM at o:r near tll~. h.eight oftMaunspot cycle ~d lIsteners 'would be few alThdm bet"i¥OOn.eveu $hen. FmptOpngaUon ~f(ii:l!ITl~tion ham baad with a shQ·rt:w~¥erew~ver.M,the tim:ne thls,writiug~ Juli_Y' 'Of 1985,. we're neat the bottom of,tihe U-yem- sunspot cjl'Cllie and the l.i) mete:r band! is all but useless e.lii:oept, lecal eorn!m.unieaticn. It should. 'lJ.egin :to: improV'e ina y*al' or two.

fortheserrequeoo,e-.s see tihe 10 mBt&'bam. band ·chart :ill QST (all PIL"QfI~ pgmion ebarts:~·e.:inthe jjHQw'B'I>r~ :sooMonl or-li.stoo 't.{l'$he 1Q me,ter

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TODDY OR BUILD?'
.Nomatter what your l~vel.:}ftoobni~oo.mpeh±lnee~t i makes no sense at £lillI'to b1!lJ,Ud ,cert,8!in (if·t:he oompof:!Em.ts you 'U need, ~atly, it makes· no sensEI at all 00, buy oertain oth.ers. The decrus:ion with still other oompon:E!nts will d~perid. on. :ro,urtecJ~ compe,ten.ceaJl1idl~a:nc~al state . . .Tho~e which you shouIDd. b~y include tape d>epks. tumtahles:~and ~ $hO'rhva~ I~l:[ood JUlm~trml.~tte'r·SI+ It would. be ill. waste 0"1 limtlanQ mO:ll€Y tulllu:l1.d. such ,eqUipm@t whJc;h, C,W1be. p'1ll"c'hased .fu:~ less thlm. th~ cost of the:paiics needed to bWld it from ~atch .. frobab]yth,eo~-y pi,eee.s ofeqwpmeni& which should be built ~y ev-eryoIlI;II ,enga.ging m· pi:raey are antennas, They'.r.e e'iIiiSY to bu:ild;'e~n. mom directi\r·e atra.ys .ru,-e. ,p"retty s.imple ,. If you ':I;".egom,gtQ be brcad<:a:stmg Off t.he FM:band. you 'N p:r1l)ibably wantvo buHd your olNlltransmitter • While kits are ·a!vailabl-e 'fo:rthose

with. little or nQ_ e.onstntctoon.expBrijim{:e ,~e designs '0:1; FJ'd tr,an:smitter,s oont-ain,e¢lj in this;, mide ~easyoo hu:iJJdl and. mlilCn. cheaper thantb~ kjts I've read aoo;ui .. If you have previous eleclm:mc:s, construction experie:Ji¢el'd suggest that yoOu build yQ~1' own

transmitter. I'f y;Ql{ have no P~viOIl$ €'Jl:perien.ce hut are 00 a ·tigbt budg~t! I'd suggest that you try buIlding one (lithe ~ehema:tfes

oofitamed here. And if 'you RaVe no previous ellperiellioo but can afford to shell om' $100 or $150 for atransmnter, rd suggest that y,m.l, buy a kit ..If you do buy 81. .kit,.get one with at,le;ast one Ci'rtwo watts output .. A source fQr tdt:s(foil"AM tran8mi~ters too] is Panaxis Produeslone, P.O. Box 130, Pal'adil,le, CA 95969. The only two pieces of necessary eq:uipment on. whieh you I'eally have the opticm. ·00'1 bu._ildfu.g or hayingafe your studi.o oontrol board and AM· transmitter. j[f you hive previous buhding ,ex.perience., Y'Oumight watit to build Y(liWf ,own.oon:e.ro1boar'd if you're Oilli. a tight bud)get, If you don't hlave bu.~g ,ex.peii~ee andtGf' e~ aHoM"to spe.nd. $150 or IDtQ:r,e a fOr ooaJIdi, I'd s~,g~:3t "buying a used rommelleial! ·mber .. ~Ch~ 'music st;o!lE!~ j: manrY nl,ixers: made fOIl' music app.Jications: ri work OK.) And. if. yout~e'on at.ight budget, but have no oon.struct~on. X!perie;nQe, yOl!1 e could buy a c!hellpg passive 'jno tubes I)'I" transiston,) mixer somewhere IIDd t:hennm the mitput thto~h a preamp ibefOrefeeding it into your transmittel' 01' tape deck. (Eled;.ro-Harmoniix makes ,ft good. ,gui~ preamp, the LPB.,.2.whlch wuuld ,serve the pllrpose and costs about $20

new.,

.

With AU tr:an~"ersY01il have Ute choice (!if build;~g your own ~ow~power rig. buymg a kit· '(not .reoomm.ended-too e~pensive for tbe :L.QIW powe,r outpUt d.e.tlveted) ~ (lrbuy~g Ill: used ham tir,MlIw:Utter ,and m.odlfying it, TheaIiProa.c'h I fa.vorW· bl,lymg an, old p]D!te~modu1ated ham transmitter with 100 meter capability fo1' $50 or $100 MId then m.oru(y'mg it. (Some cheap trlIDsmittars have screen modulla:ti~-yoiI don't Waint one QUhese,) A large number of suitabl,e transmitters are available. My fa1foriteog are the E.F. John SOIl Company's Viking .Ranger and VWng V,aliant,. These ,two transmitters tliIii very similar ,with the Rang,eI' being bM.i'caHy a lower-powered v,ersion 'l75 watts) of the .Valiant ~200 watts ~. The advantages offuese rigs ilII'8 .that they're re,adily a.vaiWable,. built like h::nks" ha.veexceIeIl!1l. ,!turon. have hu~lt-m variable frequ,ency oscillators (VFOS,)i and! are 'Ii''e.ry easy to ·momiyoo work on the, top end, of the AM broadcast band. The modi1icat,ious should take no more than au hour or two to aee.om.plish,.All you..need. to do to the .RF dr(:wtty is eo add eapaeitanee to the 160 mete,r tuned circuits" [It'a even possible. to get the' VFO to work On. the, top endef the b~i)'adcastband -by adding ·capacitance.) And all you need todeto the aumQ circuitI}' is to bypass the first preampllfi&r (assumin,g you're using a line-level and not a miCl'Q,phlJne~leyel Input] and~this is important-to bypass the .spe-ech~frequencyfilier, which as I recall ialecated between t.he second preamp ,md the: driYe.r. M you ean read a schematic you ".1.5,POt :it Whenshoppmg around fur an orndham, tra:nsmitwr k.e·epthe, foUo'Wlng things in mind: J!.) Don't pay much more than about $-l{)Of6T one; 2), Makie sure that it hills 160 meter capability; 3} Make sure t.hatit bas amplitude modulation. (A,m) ;41' Mak!e surethat it has plate modulati<)ll: look .Inside and maJ!.:esulIethat there are two transformers of -.5 - ~

m.stantly.

a powel' supply choke; 5) Look at the 'wiring-'8 lot of old transmitter,s were built by tbemanufact\Jl'e,r. but a. lo~' othe:rs W'~ sold ,al8; kitsand don't buy sueh a transmitter mt anyp,r:roe if tile wir,ing is a mess unleas you can Pick (me up for $10 or $15 ;andm,t.end to use ~t,!rolely,~ ft, ! source of pal:ts; 6), If you ean, ,eheektb.e subes w.hile )"(lu:re :at ,it---re~ pla:cing tubes can 'be an ,e~penBivepropo.aie,ioo. 'SMtabIDe, used 'tran:smi.tera M;e a.vai1.aible at virtually ,eveqbam/CB $tOre, ham swap meet ~d through the cJ]asMned.a.dS in 'QST, CQ~,and 73. It" sgerwrally preferab,~e to btl!y ata MOte Ol' swap meei because there you're not buyin,g a pig in, lit poke • .Needleas to say, do not. tell the person . you 're buying the tr,imsmitrer frQm why y~ti're buying it. If ,pr.essed,a decent dodge Is to say that yout' younger brotbe'l' Jivmg oomewhei:t@ out in the stich became a ~ and aSked. you 00pick up, a clleaptran,smitte,r fo:t Rim. But it' B bett;eT to say nothing nat, aI possible.

apprro:timate1y equal size and that they':re well separated~:iif they're sitting :next to each othelr1 one oftL.he "h::an:.l!fonners;t is almost ,oo:rt!l!inly .

of"

llliJt,

'GEJrltNa AWAY' WITH rr
Piracy 'is.H1e,gai. If y;ou~m busted the govem:m.ellt can seize ;r(]l;UT equipment, dr,a_g you thr(lugh the eourts, 'b,e you :hundredis or 'eYeD. thousands of doUars,and" tbeor~ticalil_y;throw you in jail, altbou,gh rye never heard o:fthat happening t{JMyo:n,Ei'. So'. it makes. sense to' take every .POiSSlble ]precautwn. to' avoid. The Knock. (an your door from. the

FCCt-

The Ideal situation ~ in terms of m.a.xim.izmg listenership ..... a ~radio for station is 00 broaru:,a:st 24.bours a day" 0]1 II' ~et,{r,eqruemcy, with, hig~, pow,et; from afix:ed. J:~catinn. Attempting .such ope'ration ,as ,8 p'irat,e',
howev;er-, would be suicidal. On. the ,other e:d.rrune. you could go on the air with an

,

e,xtremely low power ~under' l:00mw)tr~tter whleh would be le,galunder FrCe rules .mdregu:latioM. If you would be satisfied ,·with a broadcasting ramus of 8. couple of blocks. that would 'be the route to go ..In mct,. iD, dties wfth high population de~siti@s,such as San Franeiseo and New, York, sueh ,an apprQ<:a.ch makes a lot of sense, FortboS'>E! who wIsb, to reach. 1m-Sa numbers .of people wi~ tl\-eirbroadcasts, "th.e trick. is to find as safe .~. cQ:mipr{ln:U.se as pil~sible· between th.ei&.wo a!!p'proaches. :If :y<5ufa.J:],in;tQ ,tha!t category tthe:-re ate several steps you ean take to protect yOU'I' self': 1) First the 'ObriOIiUl,-do:n.tttalk unnecessanly.
peopJe don't need

it. 2) Mother

to know

It:'stempting~

about

yOW'

operation,

but if don't tell them aboUit

obvious one=don't broadcast- your location 01" phone number. Broadc.astcing a:fals:e location is not a very ,effective subterfuga, but there's: no reason to mBK@th€ FOG"s job amy €UliSler.
_'B

6 --

or .contributions frO.ill your listene.ir's. own address even. if it'S onl,y a post offiee box .. Setting up' a rnaildrop is easy ..Simp,ly have a triusted friend (one who koows h.owto keep 'hla/her menth ,shut and. who doesn.'t ~d. tn.@ possibility of getting hassled) rent II post office box and have of your man sent there, ,Emd have your friend. forward it to y.ou. You 'Uhave to pay for the box MEt and also lor the .forwarillmg 'postage, but the sroJaUexpenses involved with this system are well worth the price .in

:;I~, If you 'fie sO:Ucitingconunenlts U8!€:aJ. maildrop. i)on.ot 'use your

an

terms of seeurit~. 4) Separate yo,ur's1;udi,Q andtrmsmittcer
hide a transmitter

. sites~ 'It' sa he! of a lot erurier to
1

and a ,cas:setteplayer thana, complete studio. isesped.ally impo:rtan t ifpoople are, in the habit of.smoking dopeeyen eceasionally in. the studlo, If YQu do .sep.a!I'ate your studio .,amd tr.al)_Sn1Iiitpert it'{j gEmet.ally better to prerecord programs tather b:ansmit tbem viapb.one lines. It's easy for the .feds to trace and (taP), phone lines.

Separation. of st,ud:ioami tr~tter

tmm

moving 'automobile or bicyda than a ~tationUy target.. Portal;i-le operation Mriving up the side' of II mountain and .setting up there for .2\ short period, for example) will also make it harder for tbe'fedsto track you dOwtl, The dIsadvantages of this method are !hill! mohile mlItennM tend to be less e:ffidetllt ilianfixed antte;mtas and the .FCC will QO't need a search wru-rEmt to bust you if you're e:ngag,ed in mobile or portable operation,

51 If ~u~re operatmgiro:m II fixed ilocation, rude yo. transmitter and antenna. I've heard afp-halma making htdden compM"bnents in wals ancd floors W bide transiniit~er'f3.! 'Whi-chis a good idea, but even :if you dotl!'t go til'suC~ extremes at lelli$t have YOUI'transmitter set litp so that, .it can bedi$OOnneeted and moved to a good. hiding place ve,fY quicldy .. futhe caseQI antennas,. tbere are a number ·af ste'p81 whichc!m ;be taken to hide them. Oneis to make'your amtenna (and guy wires) out oi' . ve'ry thln wire (#200 or ;aud make youl'a!lltenna insulators from cleM ple:dgluB or plflJstie andll!s small as' possi!ble. T'Ws will m •. the antenn.a and g1JJy wes al!mostmvisible from ,W$ianCIi!8 IQ·fmare than a [ewfe.et away,. but.unfortl1llateily., the feed Iine wil!l still be visible .. Anot:he'l'step is to Mae your' antenna in trees . Most of the amtoonas 1'1 describewill work fairly wen when bidden lin this manner, aJ.thou.gh their efficiency will s~fJe'r to some dlegree.If you do hide your antenna in a ~ construct. it from iusmated wire ..Another good step boo bury yo~ trans-mission line if you'r.e, operatmg from a fi£ed location WId. y,i)u:r antenna is some distance from yiour house, 6) If you're using eXovropriatedlequipment,eramCi1ite all ae.nallliumbet,s on it.. If the n.umbers ate stamped on a :meta! ehassis, get ',lll1electric drill and a large steel bit, ·driloutthe n~bets and then file d~ the edges. Do not at'~ernpt to' file off serial ntunbe'ls; .~t'il virtually I impossible to e:radkate 'them: that way. 7)00 .mohile. Et.· a "hen of II ~ot harder fut the FCC to, track down a s
j,

'2:?,.

j

vehicles

8'1'Have someene 'Watchiing (preferably with ~mMrilat'8) :101':suspieioills ]f you're .operating from: a. fixed or porlaiMe locarUo:n. 9) Switeh freqJue':n~iesoften. Thlswilm.akeiit much hard.e,r.forthe FOC to' tr!l!ck y-ou dowa, On the~ :other hand it wliU also make it muchharder fur UsteneTs, ~Q' .find you. Are~able compromise, would be, to' .p,icika.
slot., say between 90 and. 91 MHz "if that was cleM' in your area, and to eperate on frequ:encies: between those boundaries.

10) Operate sporadicaDy .Malma,in.ing a regular sehedule ,(es:pec.hilly if you 're alW~YB on ~M $I:l;mB frequ.ency) makes it easyf();)::' th.e FCC to lay tor you. lIegionaloffices and Hears in toWfi:~If the :FOC is (l,nto you. they caD track you d\own. in a1ii little· 'n 10 or Hi minutes usiI1lg directjon",findmg
11) Operate

ror

short: periods

of ~ime, espedall...y in cities witJh :FCC

equipment. So'1 keep your oper,ailligperioqs short, especially if youtre o:perating fulm a fixed locart[,o:n. If y.ou're using mobiile operation, y;ou can g'et a:w:ary w1th longer tr-.ansmissions,say up to anhour or so, with.Out too mue:h d1angel'. ..

12~if Y.0U feel likegettlng ~otfu youC'Otlld use the sqUM:'-e ave generaI w tot and decoder outlined here to operate nom a..remote location via a phone lin.e. You woUld turn ,Your trflllSmltter. on (at the remote location) by feeding a square wave into the phone lille aI; your end; at t"ihf:l tTaillJIJ.s:n:rlt<~r silltG'the deeoder would trigger the' bJitclim,gre1ii1Y whlclt
WQ1!Jldconnect

the tranSfrl:itter to" it-spoW'et source. !For increased security. ratherthan feeding yiour audio-signaj via the phone line, you could have a t.a.pe deck (which 'would also be 'turned ,on/off by the decoded as:"your audio souece, To turn ·off the, tr.an..smirtteryou wouM
me,re,ly ,:!lend

the decoder another

SiqlUI.lB

'w,ave via the phone line.

Sqijlare waves axe,made up of ,overtones, and phone, lines at~ d€;Slgned to carry speecb frequencies (about 1300to 8500 Hz)" so if you use this system the 'fundamental you!' square wave should be aomewhsre

'

around 400Hz.

·of

+,8 V. Reg.

SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR

qr .;;;:::. 10. XCI.
(l2 "" 2 X

cs

FII~

= URI X (:1

!3) Ifyv,u: do:n.'t W!lint w geh~tie~ but·stiIl wan..tto u.se lIemotre operation fw:m. a fixed site, rd au.g~stthat youbu-y atime!~, tum. yeo!' equipment on ·:and..off. M fl. safety 'pr~~tlon you migt.t want tob1!l)"'a fairly .,elahorate timer w~h would' all:ow you to set it£or va:rying' times days in. advance. (Po'r-the extra $1,5,or $20 ycu/ d pay- ove~ ·the cost of ',a: simple tfun}er~ 'thmk it's: worth it.) A further aaifety precal(lt.ion WQW!d be I to observe YOW' t:ran.sni1ilitt:er,site while it's on. the .aW:t m.: rderto be ~ Q that the FCC was not on to you .. Ii ~tillliu.rt;,hel Pfeeautio:niwouJ,dbeto ha"!!'l?! yOW' t.r.ans.mit!:~ site locatOO in a stora.ge- sp.ace you had rented under a ,phony· name," (The te:l~ph.(m:e 'ean bean invaluable mol in obtaining refer~nOO"~ ft-om."i$X-lahdlc:tds" ~d ·'·employers"-m. your friend-so- fur proJSpoot:ilive .landlords.)1 reality

If Ji'QJ1!.l!. tbl!loIW tb,e p'N-Ce4ing advke, you'UgreatIy of bemg .busted~y the FCC.

reduce. YQurc.haIi.ces

It' ill relatIvely ,easy to b1.ill:d.: st;udio ..Chano:es are· that you may' .a:lready a have SOllie of theeqmpme.nt yo~ need' to put one wgether. A twi.c~ studio wowd contain th€Jrollliow:m.g·: _.. L] ~

cantero.l bGard.~mix6r~. 2) Two- or three turntables.

3)1'wool' th~e€ eassette decks.
4) Two microphones
intervieWrs)! .
~OHEl fur

the jiock, one iQ.r those baing in.treme,wed) ...

5) A teleph'OM and te~epho.fJJe pat;eh (io.roondUctingovet~the,",phone

-- 9 --,

For those who choose to build their own boord:s"the 'foUo,wing desjgn should serve we'll. It's cheap :mld easy tl;l build, uses readily ,ft.vaibible camponeats, wHl ha,n,dile UII' to a;bout it dozen inputs (add F.ET p1"'aamps as needed),:and even hasa cuechannel, Its: only draw'badk]s tbgjt the chip has, atendeney W oscillate-so 'keep leads ,short.

CONTROL :OOARD

Circuit by the 'Wiz

H,)

,

.absob;Jt;·ely neeei!l$!aIy fo!l' cartridges. You~'n want to mmmt toggleswit;ches

!!I!tIDeMit two turntables; don'lt try' to get by with one-ir~ ~w'kwald.. B YQU <:;00 get .~e~get oW broe..d.ell!st t~t9)bleil:.If yo~cari:t'j use the cheap:est~lIla1 turntable,s you ,canfiud. Do.n't use agwmatie turntables if y;pu canawhl it. Sfulpliefi;y [sa :vmHI.~.e~espeCially , .in tu~bles. .. U.se cheap cartridges .•The .11:00 of B\ sty~b tjl!.nds tl) be, soort in stutUos (d.ue more to' operator careltis.sne.!!is Mythingelsebroa4ca:st e.ngineei['s~ With good maSon,oilen rafer to icijsc jock"By.s as ~"monkeY's with. m~.ctopb.QDe:sj'). 110 the~js :no point in !!Ipoodillg mo:reUtMI. ~:S. YOur'lDeed
lOQ

be

than

.;'a"?

nice1Y~'in YO!(l_rdesk w tum·the t~t~ble!'l off and on ..this 1s miU,C.hm.<m;! oonv:eniiemtban using ;th.eoontrols ,QliI the t'J!llmtablestbe:mseJve's and wIn allow you to eue r-ecold8-jUst~eavet,b.e t.urnltable lIontr(l!1s "m' the
.ann. db'Wli"positi<rn
andtW1l\

(wlill~type,].igJI;t sWifch:es .work

the:m(1'n apdoiff with the 'toggle

two tape decks are necessary. and three .Mepta-fe-taNe. in a studio: '(lne,(n"two forplaymg spots, taped in~eMews~ etc., and ,oJie for. f"!OOordi:ng progra.n:1S. For p.~ spots. :commetcialbrooocRst ·cmt machines are pmte:raMe to cassette decl!:s. but cartma.c~-.;!'sare,.hard to ·come by. and-ea!i!settedecks are a ;re~nable is!!l!bS'tit;u.te. house -speciaJ.swill d:o· file fur yow p,ulpGSeS .. You ca:n get by with 'OM, 'but if you want to do .mtem.ews o.~ha,ve g:u.ests you'll need. two. Befure
buying mikes make :sure thatthell: iml];u;d!Uu:~e,and. output level matches your prea;m,p.lboatd combo. The e.as:[e..stwayro record telepfuone' ,000;o.rersations ..is to use a m]~ :phone built fur that purpose; these come' with b~t~m suetl.o.n CllIlS: whlcll.fliHow them. -to be attached. directly 00 the headpiece 0<£ a phene .. Contactmik.es lor musical instruments ahowld also be able 00 be used for this purpose, a1tholllgh audiQ fidelity might softer. If you do. mueh over-the-phone wo:rk, thought keep owe thin.g in mind: phones can he, andrreque:nMy are, tapped .. & tif you're ,coRoomedabout S!eeurity you might want toavo-idn.lis use of teleph,oM. You do:p'tneed to spend .niu-ch mon-ey on 8 desk 01' table Jor your studio,. HQl~QW ~~n doersset on clndl.e,r bloek:swill t1i9 just fine. If you 're .~e-edj:ng .theoutput from your board ~ctly in'to your traJ,il~~ 'Don't spend a.rQt ofmo:ney
(In.

SWltclreS. At ],ea5t,

nric:rQP,ho:t1!e<s. 'Tw~!:l!ty d.G:tlat; wholesale

tb,e

mitter
,YQlU'I]

preferred

AU.e'qui.pruent should be ,chassls>-oon:nec,ted to the ground. buss, lfmoney]s no: objed~ andlo patch. bay,s and distribution amp,s .are
as is 600 Qh:Q1 bajm1D~da.udio. On illI.1lJ.dio ooelS,groWld. the

dl.oi';,e and! o:t coupling tnmsfonn.€iI". The~ponan"Oe ·Qf pn)rp~r gI:offil4i:n_g' must be emphasU:€d. Ve 1;y .[lttie Care"is: .often 'taken. in this area and it Ieadsto hum. gtOtmd klOp.m!ti9'l'modulation, 'noise'j ete, Large. ooppet strapping goin.g W a phy'5~ca.l ~arth ground.~wat~r P~PElS 'arE! gen.~raM"yS,1!liitable) 'is :rec,omm!linded.
l

(J:!(lt reeo:mmended-·se"(~ seQtion oD"Gettmg AW<i¥ WithW') want to protect yom bollU"d~y weeding its (Iutput ~h.r(lugh a R.F

~-n --

,shield at ons end ,of it~ run .only. Cateshmdd betaken with RF ,shiel~g is located close to the studio. Att!e'!t)!~jono AC po~arity t whsn plugginggear in will sometimes reduce ground loop :and. 'hum; (An .AC pobllity tester is handJr' to have.) ·Keep cables with. line",level dUf0rences 'SP8!rt I' for eX8lO;l!l:de~keep' AC :im.e.s iso]atMfrom.mik@·lines. And fmally t make, sure that yOli!llr solder eonneetions are good. When de~ing' ;a .stlmtiO you aeed to :keep one thing in' mind: OpefaJID:r.· onve:ni~'ce. c Ev~th.ing sheuld be w1!thin teem of the opelrawr. ...Atyp.iCal desiin wd.d~oob so'm~~g lli\te tbis:
:if the trans:nritter

eas,.

STUDIO DESIGN

J:'
\

,

~

Cart, Machmesl

',"
~

.

.

1
,

'WQtk .Area
4:--'

U 0'....•"Tu"".bI. :'
4'

., CMSflL1)e ~·-St;K.k,ed. D

~,

f.:.(}.···.>.,!
. \
'_

<e.'~"

'

'-"'1
2'
'-cj,'!

'. I ~
.I

Turntable,

i Q.--

AN-' S·-·I......... .I'D·"""'.' ' -;~.U_ TR- ~,"..--_ ~:RS'·
should be able to build any ofth.em. A sehe.matic. £0.1' a tl'a.ti.S1storized: t:rarn;mitter which can he eQ~:ily modHied to wo,r~ on, the AM Dro:ilIdc'ss,t,baed cen 00 found on page 500 of the ABlI:I/s :m72 RAlI. , .I haven't mcludeda:ny.schematics .fu:!l; s:hQrlwt!l,v'e -transm:itliers :for the ·simple r&a80.[1Ithat it would bapointless to 'd!1) S~. There are Va.t$t numbers of high quality 'Old ham. hansmiltters a"',aHable at low cost which CI,m e~sj}y be D1.O'runedto WQrk on several shDrtw,ai.... bands I and e
ean work on (It-hers without

Anyone wIth eleetro,mcs:oonstructi(l,n expe·nen.ce ('even buUdingldts)

The 'three 'transmitter.

:sehem3lties preseJ;l.ted here are aU sfmple,

equivalent three times (or even higher~ the cost of these widely .available,

modiifi·ca;tion. Th,!:!cost oJ parts to build trtmsmitten:from eerateh wo~ld probably. nul to, tw~ or .

professiona:lly blJiilt.tranSllli.tters.
-- 12 --,

fClK ,C: :1,
.AVtH)

'l(fl"l,~

C-,•. ~••~~h." t\.. 'W--:' tr~, vJu~e' lZ

Ll = <1 tams 1" :Dilam. :#1.S

12 :... 2 'fums 1" ,Diam.. 118
~ eRl'O:fu] 8Jb.o'ut 'rVl.t,eJ!e'lisimtL~I\!iI;'~te. Be ell<pecilllly on ch!'IfiUel$ 2: IW.Id,5 with alii. FMt,r,!IiD$IG!tt.eTs" Changing fr@qlle:nc)' will ,generruzy tIl1U! care· ofa:riy pl'Qbllems" .

5 WATI' FM TlANSMtTrER

at,
lr"L

Mike

Level In

1M~"'--.
~ -13 -~

IOWA'l'TAM T8ANSMlTTER

'1
L~:
" ,~rllN.h,tfl;JI ,b,,!,/;>JI~q~j!1;..... IU tf4!f' ll!t '(iP~~f~Mll.p') .... nU.Etl: .#'71.0.sC.

Li:,
,:L~:

~rH"L.i!Hl ~

"3qo
1;oI;t\ ~"1'
,(~",;o;;"1i, " ..

"~<;tMd,'f"A lOiDp.sl'e;1(

C1"~3~5Irf' ,-,dtt " O:::"f<Lc:i!'Ot" C,,~O. .!'~. 1!l'. ,w'.' t~,,,,,">']!'l"'s ~ :iI~. T" 'I'I,on,~ ]QOO n ~TI~ :~r'MI{)r'

Q.,

.

.

",i,... i)
~()~!~l e~t fro,m,lb.e "F're"1il ~ H~d~," IIltldifi.ed!. by nil w~ and Z.T.} .

!'fb.e rOscilli'artm' Sh6Wd! be .sbi.eld.ec: ft'om thE! !lrutp1ilt l!I~Jlgo. A(Il! llIJ!.dio SDlliOC.e·with at least. !fiVE W,att5 qrutpult ·~Be>ed.ed! to ~.u1aiQ, this ~'];OO~q

ANTENNAS
'WhiJe desi~IDg these' ,~a;s I've kept one dung W: milild: smrplidly. AU of Ml~s:€ ~a8 'are @M!Y build" I've avoided 'the use to gf ,rom.plirCated match~sy8tema:with, all e:f'these, Theresillt in tw,(jr easea (two Gdthme eJiemeB'iyaglis:) was thatt sumega:in was saerific-ed ill erderto provide a.gli)odjgpedooc~ mateh be!;:wreeh the ant.etma and tran:S:mli$sio~,Jine . The tran!mllgsionline 00 beased with, ai, 011' these antennas is ooarlal ,ooble., eith~·~th~ 5,iQ~ vari~tY(itG.8o~ cG~581i~r'Qrthe75 ~,variety R '~RG~ll1 RO .. 9U).RG-8 ad"RB ..lll awethe heavy dutY' -t:ype.s and OO'€ ~o:r @ ttl he .}ll:ef.EHTed if. cost is no "()q;@et.. For .moM appl:iea'iions howewr, J,G..58U and :RGo·69~'will tfu) just fl:i:lEi~ For p~we(l's o~ a few hundred
j

I
'j
!!

I

.[

"

113818 and for mill; Mvirtually any rdimnCi8: RG-<58Umd RIG-5gB ~mO:]1\e~hm adequate fm: the AM bzoadease band ..For the.'sf-lQrlwH,'\Ie hands they jill do :15n~ for distances of a 'few hundFilid 'fuet, ~l', r.essc. (The lower the :frequency the ~ess,im:partam .it .is whe-tber yoo use heifliVY or 'light duty coax.~ Andw,r the FM lmld it doesn't m~e a real! difference whether :roUllse heavy duty 'or light duty co~ fo:rcliimanDE!s.of ijO fe~torr less, .. ..' , '

w<ltts or

14

W'hatey.Eiryou .Gf!, though, use coax. It ispossihle tob1!lY c<he:.a:p 75 ohm caiQle ("'t,:w:in,]eail'l") but line losses Me exoessive with it.
j

,DIPOLE T.he d~liIOlfl your bread~d"b1lJJtt,er antenna. Ir'seheap and easy to is build, takes reeaonahly well to being hldd!.en~n.trees, can be put up and Itaken doW'll,in a'shQrt tim~j and is a practical antenna< fijI virtually any :ITe,quenqy. 'When, u.:smg dipoles k,e~pthe fu~]owing inmind: 'I] If you ~re going to st,rmg it\. up in t~ees for con.oealment purposes, make It, froUl mswated wire; 2} I youfregoing !opat it u,p and t8i!ke. it down freqcuentl_y make itnorn, stranded wire (#12 or 114 g,t.rafided m.swated wire-is ,if good choice) ;3~1n general, the higher a d1ipo1El is above t.he :ground the better it will work; 4) 'MI,edipole Is moderately dHe(;ti.ona~ and most D'Etts ,radiation Will be p~rpen.di~ularto the ~tion ef its 'Wires~itram:ates 'broactsid.e in othex words ~ 5) At higher frequencies rupo1es can be hungfrcm one, end to produce the !'vertica1rupoie," :a eonfigura:tion.wM.ch 'Il!'f11 produce UllUl'ldmectto"n,aj radiati~n:' 6~ If you de use a ved;icm dipo~e~make $,l;J,Il'etha,t the "hot" lead (oenter oondllctorl fwm your coax g'Gesto tbe topha)f oft'n_edi:po1e; 7), Dipoles s.hQuMbe fed with 75, (Ibm 'Cogx, . The "inve:rted vee is a variatio:n.on the dipole whlt.h the c~nJter is .bighe.r than. the ends. It will produce neariy o:mn1.dirediJJnru rawatio:fi. About the Q.nlypomt not covered' in the 'above which you'U need to remember if you use an.inY'I'l:rte(l vee .is that the a:ngle be!tween the two ]egs of theantenna should be :at leas!; 90 degrees,
j

j•

II

w

ElIPO!.rE

Insulator

Insulator

.,Insulator
P£E,DLJlNE ~In f<!elt} -~. '1~ ohm
CO<lt%

LENGTH ~~.!Hi8/fnq,

in ~

GROUND'

PLANE

The grolllind plane is a. very useful anwooa for fl'equwcies abo'll~ 15 MHz,> IDts paMern]s omnlIdlkectio:nal and its construction is simp.licity itse:H: n consists of a quarter-wave vertical. radiator (often a pieee of alJUmirnlm cOindU!i,t, a1tJ'lough wire !3uppofted bya stiekwill do.~willi IouI' qIHl;rt.er~wa.veradials .attached to d~.e rafd of the, 'CQ~c wltsmission line" b if YOEl build ,a gI'oufid plane, keep thefollowrng inmind:U The radials ShQlUd!. be aoout :3 peree:nt ].o:ng~I' than th'e "'ertkal r,arna.tQr; 2) The radials should he near to 00 d.egrBes ap.art.fi:omeaih other as possl.ble; 3} The h~g:bBra grQutu:!plane is the 'better it 'will work: 4) If the radials ate flat. 01': nearly so, you Sh'OllJ.d fl;l!¢d It with 5,2 ohm eoaxand use a: one-sixth wave {physical length) :ma.tching section of '75 ohm coax

as

-- 15--

'bet'\i"ffl~:r.l; the 52 ohm. <coax. Imeandthe aIlIten.na,; 5)1 If the 'radials are slanted down: at' ,fi!pprox:imawtya:: '45d!~gree ~gle yOu can :feed the <iIitenna dirncUy 'with52: ohm. '001$.
GROUND pLANE

75- ohm .Mat~hing 5 e:cti.on 15.3:2.1.5 90.0

100.0

, 15·,5" U'6~' 2;19'11' 2:~611

lI.$h~'1
U'II9.1I

;1P7~'

:tlO

:tO~3H 711;6"

M

1'10i" 118"

HEUCALL:y WOUND VERTICAl.
The helicaLillyw~Ufid.ven.ical Isa ",oomp'I(imise" mltenn:a.~m oth.e:t words it should -be,used onl!ywhere 3L full~· ~e}U18 is not pFaetioaC On the n~g;aiti.Vle,sid_,e,the ~e1:kaUy woundvert[~ ~$a, .much, less effi.rie~t-.r~mator· $l:d~eud!Joo be m~n!e frequ~ncy oonsciouS'" than a full-size a:JI1Itenna.· the positiv"e [side" it',$; easy to eaastruet.and t'ak:es On up CQmp.a:rJtiv~]y litU~ room .. ~ this menn~ :i~iUf):edonly b~1JSe of spaee reasons, itlllBikes' no se!lls<e to' use' it at freqwillcie,s aboVe ~ppro.rimately 10 MHz. If yO'U build a helic,~_y <W:Ooodveiticru. keep the' following thIDg:fi in mind.; I} As thts 'antrua .is f.mb" "frequency . cohscious, buiftd it; fot ~he big'hefit &E!queocy yQn'U be using, e::,g., 1.6 MHz; for the AM band, and p~t a it-apPGd ]ood:Wg,ooU~t th.e base. if YO'\1 plan en going much be.IDow that frequency; 2;y The size, of the lQadingcoil

iSl11ltte'lTrhZYiruport.~

with m:smated.··wire; 4) 'Use 8 good gm'till!a system (this i$!!w.pQl"t:aMt~!a ha.lf·:inch, ~e~!' pipe driven tmee. (m :four feet ~ tb:eg,roood withsev~:ral rai~s ,cormec:tcedito itwil~ do nioely, ;ad cMckieD. wllire. mesh wi) do in p4loo of the radials.), and in !gen~r<lil better to have a ~Oit of short it':f! radials than aI.few JQl1Igo~s.

just·make :rtfaiI~y latge~ 3~' WLnd:the a:nrtenna.'

-- 16 ...... '

HELICALLY

WOUND.VER TICAL 1 foot spike
I: ..
,

v,

COIL~e 30 ta.rne

i14) 3" dia:.met,et:~ 5 t.u.rns pier i:nc:h POLE -- 10' tQ> 251 o! PVC pipe ~y in diameter LENGTH OF WIRE ~~ 30.7' {,or 1.6 MHz; 14711 fo'r' 3.4 MHZ

MONOPOLE

[Ilsufutor'

, ~.~
W]t-e

~h.etwo 'oon.ductorsare shl';!'neil 8;t this end

Guy

:fI'

Fr,eq..
1,6 Mhz

Length
14,'

3.3 Mltz. ,5 ohre "
coax:

n'

.Ra,dials

.2::-'

Ijz"

steel pip~ at least 3' long

17

tres:s b~a1il!!;Ie 'of its eo:rnstmcl;i'onfrum 300 ohm ribboiI. Thlsan~a requires -a. gm:l<dl groil;Kl(} system. {See the comments rn~g the ground SYSit€m f'Qir ihebclitally wm(md vertical) The 'gre~erithe ~ength the' verlic •.d section. t~e better thi$~a will work=b~ rut'E still wotWire..aso:naibIy well With '8; $hon. vettical sectlQ..1'!. .a long hori:oont~

The monopole 'W3,:S •.~inve,nt.ed. as a :tim;iited~pace 100 meter: ham. mt~nna. )it,"s good _cho:kefor AM and .3 ,2 to 3A MHz operatioo, f!.S a it's ,ehoo~)and easy totr\1:i1d.and. iswen-~dapood. tobllllltg hidd.wm

~i

sectw.n..

'

ood

YAGI
Th& yagi, Darned afiell' its mveniQr •. HJ themost\: oomw@n type of ill:· rwtW:n.a]I. antennaj.ann with. good. :reason,~iWOOU$t.r.mmoill is relatively simple and it deiH~ a relative1br 'hlgh amQJmltt o:f gain .. For staJtiona,:ry operation. yngisCI;m Qe, oo~.fro.m. wire; and for rotat8ible,use can

the' ~f41:ot-aryBeam Constm.cti,on·~ .~. the ARRL of tms~ypei (If oo-n;st:ru:etion~.n yiJu:';r@ op'eratmg)liJi the ]5.1 or.21.45, MHz. shortwave band's:, and aiming for a ' f1Birllcu:l:a:r, eDl(li[ltry or ,ll'iEllP1UL, a ~ yagi w-ouiJd bean ~en~llt cl,rooo', Wi~ba yagl. QlI.FM y«Q, caD, aet iI1P~-J" mllesfmh~raway flIom yQotir intended, 81ldience tb:an you ooldd if you. we!l'@,usiog '8 dipole ,or some ,type (!\f ~:mni~llaJi antenna.. (The fourel.emerit :ragj ootImoohem oonst.:ruC$ion-soo
AnileDM 11mk,

b_~

-~- .... .~ , ~ .... ~"l'-oI:!,o..lie"" ...'i

.!Yi~

~-

ail' ~ ~mlnWl1l,

-

- ._ _'t d COD.' ill

("'-1 .p' urn b ;eJ"' ~ " S,

..1I11~_l~' u,~g,u_ilot"

,fur ~es

WJJJi.'o:_w\iler':ilpprp.nlIliQt.::..,,9 ••11[1:0 • gam; th.e',power output Qf yom- .~

_~n

..:I

~'li . .

... .. . ... :~ . dILl .- • - •...; 1 1

'by :eight.)

ulillS Hl, eqwv.aleritoo(~g'

•.•

.

_

. _'

_

, .'I;i!,,,_.,,,.

~..,-,

F~~,\, ,~.-3 21.,5-'
3,Q';j'''

l:!j,!l',

90.;0 lOO.Q

~1~ 9~"
SH;" 4"8111

n~6!"
:,'i:6"

i:i9"

GJiIN --!l.5i11;; F.EEDUN:g; ... ~1; c~1:1 ,~

t:.~

GAm ~_ 6,. (I db F.~lD'~:E; - _ $<1; c:b'm. ~_

4 ID.L-EhlEN]; YAGI '.

,_,_ ":i. () (l:'b F E,E,DLJN:t _~ $2 ,ohm eQ@;);; GAiN

""l~

a ln w.3V:C' :se·cti.O'.fL o! 7$ ,c",,,,,,,.(phys.i,(;jj,l 'ih~e) iDs,,,,,:rte4 '!;.c<twe·e(!l ·t~.. ~~ .o:b,m coax and tho:: !in'~e'DMl
,gobm

C'UBU~ALQU.AD' Thectibicalquad is ~other type of directicual a:n.te'DDa.it's cheap' and easy to oonsttlJd., but bUlky and n.et really practieal for .Pirate use except for the FM band. Fotthe FM.band the sides oft,b_eq:uad will only be ,about t"Wo,"'Iand~a-halfeet -long, A two ,element cubical qlJlad wiI. f
deliver about as much gain as, a three eLement yagi (about 7 db). There ~E1' a few ,thing'S to bear In mindl Ii: you bufulida quad: ,1·1'The wires making up the loops must 'be insulated fto:mthe supports 'lTV standoff insul~iOOrs: bamboo poles will work fine ); 2) The two lOOpS, should be and as nearly parallel as possible; 3) You'll need to tune the rem-loop-using the: shorting baron th,$ b.mm.g st!Jilb~to maximizegain: an easy way to

-~ 1.9--

do this for quada fur th.e FM band is ,to .set up ~aF.M. ~lV'er without an antenna. 50 or 100 feet. directly in 'front oiilh@ quad, feed a·low-level $lgnal to ,it, ;adjust its tuniDg stub ,(t~ off ,the transmi:tter while yeu're maldng tb,e a.dju$me:ms) and hw 8. ·friend. watch ·the ~ign.al!3.tl'ieiJl,gth
DU?tefsOr LEDson.

tn.e l"eCeii'W!Ifor'
~I!ICAL

~.um
OUA:D.

slgnai streDgth.

'1:u,.9QP~ paraUd
~Qe;~b

CJi:b.Gr:l'

..
t

·QAIN -- 1 .alii boe,Wi\U~!!'I the
,F:r8!l'

s:PJ';,CmG, -_ "~5;;!;!o ~ 2:
l!~;;WI'

F-E!:PLJNE'-~ 7S ~

eoa,::
""a_I!j!Dgt'u,

-

.1'

:~oo

:i)(i

2"9"
~lQ'!'

-

6"

Ii"

.Mobile operation. .isb~sicaHy pretty simple -it conslsts of breadeastingfro'm a mo,vin¥' v·ehicle. Th.at '!;"·ehide can be! a. eM rvan ,~ruck, or' even
a bicyde or moto,rqc~e., Betause.of anteJ:U1a ,size' conaKlerations;mobi£t

operntion 1sm.o;st pr'8.ctic~ at fr&q,uencies albQve 16 MHz;. Whil;e mob:Will.@ operation is possible at lower. frequeneiss, such. operation does have d:r,a:wbar::ks::I} Mobileante:nna.8 'forfMql1endeS below 15 MHz, require b-Ulky loadin.g ,ooib -which are highly vis:~ble; 2~ Such ~te:rmas are 'reiaJUvely m~f.ficlent. 'IJeea;uoo O!f these, reasons I wo;n",t both,erto include desig;n~.!.orsuch antem1as. '~Tho~ interested In M£lhile operation on the lower frequencies should consult The .AUt ADteDDSi, Book.} Mobile eperarion on the sh(lrt~"a'Ve bands doelsn'-t mM'@ much sense eithe:r ~ 'fQr t>he fuUowfu,g reaSonS,:. 1) Pirate shortw&',ve ,p,p-BraUOIl. is relative~y ~(ijW ,risk; 2,) IfYOl(Jtre operatmg o.n the 15.1 Gr-!H..45 MHz 'bands you'o. .m all pro'babWty be aimIDg for a speci'ficltlegio:n thousands ef miles away and-win want'. to use a directional antenna, an imposi\libillty'With mobUe ,operation. For those reason .•I'd recommend portable orf:b:ed rather than raobile operation. on the shortwave' bands and the use Qf~wo or .th:ree ,elem'em yagis. That leaves th.eF.M ·bandl..FOrlUfiillWWy i mobile Qpel'ati.on '(m FM ia easy. 'If you're using'a trans~storlz:ed. tranmlitter YOll can, .in most 'cases. run .itdU,ect1y,o.ff yoW' 'car !battery (this is the case with all ·the
-20 --

transistomed

&l'allsmitter, y<;ll!l 'Il need. a DC/ AC inverter. Your best bet is t-o buy one at an auto parts store, You}.',anrenna for moDile F'M. .operation is sim.plieie,y itseU~9J

schemasics intltiis pamphlet},. If you 'reusing

a tube.;t:ype

quarter~waV'e ve.clicwraCUator with "the car (or bike) body acting as ground. ,This antenna should be fed with 52 ohm. coaxwith a one-aixth , wave (Physical length)matehing seedon of 75 ohm ~ inserted hetwesnthe 52 ohm &e and thii'amenna., For eoncealment purpeses you can ~~ adjust yOUI' ear radioaetenna to the propeil' heighi~ for,

thefreque:ncy yuu're en and ~ieedU. Tbe .pa;ttem y.o;u.'n get fr.o.m th!i:s'Will
not be strictly onmidi:rectional ~YQursigna1 win be reflected. away roan

,extent from yO'Ukr car's roof), but this isn't terribly important.. A small, PQrtab~e cassette player will provide 11. suitable 81udio source , fur motile/po,rtabie o:pe1"at~on. F:inaliy. iiyou.d!o ,.gage in mcbile ,Qpera;t~,OIJl.m addition to fOl(;wing' d'nt.e recommendatioM in the "Gettmg Away With I't" section, y,ou~n probably want rotate 'the additional safety precllution of QPeratllg ori busy stl"eets: duringtiimes when there ',S 8. fair amount, ·oftraffic.

FINDING PARTS

'if

if you live m an urban area. iRad:io Shacb generally haven fair supply ·of the mom common parts, but. 'their prices tend to be higb. If you Hve out in the, sticks, you can orderparts b;y mail from manysoUrce.s which advertise in QST, CQ, 7,3 . and other ruecRowcs magazines. And t~ 1985 ,ve'rsi{lnof the RAil eo,nmmos:!;j; list of parts su.ppliers on page 35..;28. . A good source R)t pms such as variable 'capacitors which cost an arm and a~g if purohased new is th'e bam swap fest. You Can frequently p,lek up parts at, these gatherings for a small]fraction of thseost new. canni.balizmg

El.;ecironies parts are e'~sy to aime by-just

open up 'the yellQw pages

If you.'re really lll:(lke you.' ean get parts hee q[mte often by j:u.nkill.dr,llidiolS, TVs, stell'€OS, and Mty ot'hel' twa ,O'f elsetronics garbage you c<i!nJay yow; hands on. If you fOUow'this course, you need to beaware that'~omeparts are more affected by use than others, Paper capacitors bom jU!ll:kedequipme1ut shomd not be used unless you have n,{l, .a.JtemaMvEI; and carbon resistors from such equipment should be carefully checked for he'at damage. If resisters are heat damaged they''!l oRe,n,take On a shlny appearanee, become bri'ttle, show bairline
fraetuees,
,Q(f simply ]ook bU'l'tlt. Use 'of such resist<lrs should be avoided as should use of fixed value ,capacitors which show sIgns of leakage [euch leakage is P'r~tty obvious) .. Most other parts from junked. equipment wiJU work as well as new parts, AU parts should. however ~be

tested before you attempt to use them.

--

2.1 ~-

UIP.~.R'I;NT1 TES''IT' EI-'Q··.·....,-. ,. l'~ r' . .
II

Th.em are several pieces of test equipment you will find useful, First, you. will need. a good ,quality volt-oh:m-~ere Ul]je~e:r (VOM Radio ShaiCik.seils a gOOd one for around 00 bucks, Secondly, you "ll probably want a staru;ling wave ratio (SWR~bridge forllS€ between f'Our ant~~ ;,md. trana.mitter', although. ai, SWR !bridge ign,'t re;aJ]Ijy eSBential :for a ""clieap and. dirty'; apPfQlach. ~ page 5316f 'tle 1:9'12 RAM and page
~I.

ARRL An.temla Handbook..

1&.32 of the ,1982 RABfo:r

scbematics

as well as

;8!!Iil)"

edition

of 'the

Another usalul pi;eoo of~gear is .;:'li fie.ru.d, stnm,gMl meter. which. ~s help'lul in ,adjustJng directional antenn~. The·following. field ~ metel shouild work :forfreq'uencies. from the broadcast 'band up to ,iU'O'lmd00 MH~.

,
'j

FIELD STRENGTH METER

Ll
I----~~-v
:250 ohm or Th.K: Yi'irew~und 'box. Its w.rtc:n:ia !! feed-through
/
I

·Jl ""' Pb.ppe jack f'O'.f aural m;on.irlo;r.mg .

:Ll

= LooJlstkk:

tThis ,c.Lremt s:nouild: he erucl.o:s.edi in.a .~ short piece of wir..e i;tL(i!l,mtcd inS1J!lator. ),
~£i

Oil

An.ot:her very us.efu.l!.piece. pf equipment is the dip meter, whi.ch will. let yQlIl Jm~)Wtnetes-o:nant froq:ue~cy of a:n_y 'tU1led ,ciir..cuitor uteIlIl.8. See pag~ 1.6-2{1 of the 1982 RAH fm' aschematie. A transistor checke,r canalso be useful especiaBy if you Ire using salvaged parte, See .page 16-27 o.f ilie 1982 B.AH tor a.flchellnatic. The simple 12 volt supply: on page 2:7~1oi'the i11985 itAH·will. prOvide all the power any oft-h@ transistor circuits in this pamphlet requil'fiI. Si_mple designs for high~V01tagepower supplies ean be found in. any edition (If the RAH. .
j.

--

22, --

SAFETY l\IEASURES
0,£ soivents 1(1'1'cleaniJ;l.g . Virtually alleomsaen soIDvel1Jicg: (hm:tliene ~aoetone~. x,:ril.ene,carTh;loo ~raehkirlde~ etc.) are. highll..ytoxie :andcarcino~IDj.c,. MoohQl 'ami burnisbing tools' are ,!ill 'YOI!a!'I.I:lO~_Y need :fQ:r cleaning purposes. If you d.o u~~ 'solvelllil rot.cleall!~ng or mUlCh S'O~derLn..g(SQ1~~rcO:fimms ~!ot of~:ead) do sa .~ a 'well 'll'centilated \
A vl),id. theusEl

studio ·aJndat yorur tr,msnnt.ter site.

It'~ e~-rem,ely l~PQrtant to ground ,aJi of your ,equipm,ent~both at tbe

.

do

a~--ea.

lRadi.Q R.eJia., .w~e.
~ation.s anlounts

TheIDtdio

Am.ateLBI.;1

sol,l,l\le,of.' infonnat4q:n

IhDdbook~1 pubHS:h,ed yeatly~'Y the Amer:k:artt YOU NEED: '1:H18 BOOK .. 'l!lilii ist<he 'siItg:IDe best
fur'

ofailttmst any teclmi:cal quesUQllS Y'Qcumjghth:ave. 'vasE. of "USeful tecltnkal.:in:funnation (oo,lordiXies: 10'1.' resiStors $ld ¢apaciOOIS, specs fOil:~, commOn tubes~.d tra.;nsj,srors 'etC.) and many schematics wmch can be dsedQI ieas[~y mooofjed '.fm; ptr.at$ use. This book'is ujll:i;;1.1tea year1Yt so .it/~ aetwilly .not i!lnad. idlea tQ o~m:oopi~~ irQm diff;ereDit:yem-s-any.oop:y .from atoundUte .. nntl' 5Q.s on shouirn.d~.of
f

pwte operators.. n.oont;ams·

strailghtftirward

use W ~u. Be ,a:Wal:Iethat~~ere ar,e ,other books be!U'iDgthe title ~o AmatBU[~S H_dbook.; all am >va5tlymferiot to th~ AlUtE/;l Handbook:. FaIr RatdilliQ Sales.P.Q. &.:1.110.5. Iiq~ma"Ohi.Q4580~ ,sometiInQS. has' used
handl;:mcilm avWlable Meune: $20.
;fQ:n1:
8,

f.ew doUam:cS;the price. of a n.ew book isaew Anotherfin'~ ARRt publiutruon.ItU!.o-n,tams

Tbe AB1tt AnleIUlUi.Bool..

about, antennas, Se'len Steps to De~gmqg Your OWBHam."Equipnmnl. by L.B. Cehik., a $AMSpuhltica:ti~n. This ,cont~ ,a, ]j@t .of ~S!efuJl.mformatioD on. d.e.-8igning~d oonsti'<l)cting equ:ipme"llft .aIDd is w,e).l worth oWn:irng. VHlF PrQjecli1ii.lor AmateUr Expe.nmeate-rs, by Wayne'GrteeJl. TAB &O~ '808. This contains many ci:ri;uits which. can be' modified. for use o,n theF.M. band .. Eng,m.eer'e; N~teb~, by Forrest M:[mms.·Cofitains g'oo-d 'info on infu'grat'ed cUccuits. .Av:ailaibhe at Radio Shad;,. Cie:ofUegos~bist .Revi.ecw!115.Contains $te.p-by~step lllstmclion.Sf:o;r the oompl.eteno:vl'ce on putt.ing·togetber,a swpl,eJrM ufil1SDllWer.
all t~ei ~{'Qttnat.ion. yocii':I] p.ryqably ·ever-need

;C~'-_

Thee Oomple~e R$~dbQak of Rml~ TransmiUerE!, by JOS3ph Carr. TAB publication 111'.2:24 • Cont.mnst')ul.cb much us.eful Jnfofmatio:n includio'g s..cl!.em.at]cs. for arnplifiN'S fur the. HFand 'VHF banda, --1 IDUW t'If' ... ~,+~ - _ ....... -cO~IT",~,.An .::nmp e, .::~. .C:.OS. 'ul1'e l1.UVIi'.ILdllaS,"';1 ·W····.l'h.. OtT ~-~ O~.. _ . __ . i;!..I.U;.!. ~na;w

e:x.cellenlt mtrodiuclionw.
p-i.Oeviou.se:xpel'ienoein

.ameno.a GOn;8tooct~on to·r tho:se wi:lli no

1,~

..

, .. ""'~ .

fhis fi.~ld. lIigh~y ~om.me-nde:d.

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