MLA Style (7th) Quick Guide

Killam Library
References indicate the exact location for sources of information used in the text of the paper; the bibliography (or list of works cited) describes, as a whole, the works from which the citations are taken. PLEASE NOTE: The examples on the following pages are based on the style recommended in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. 2009). MLA style is commonly used in research papers on topics in the humanities. Note: In the latest version of the MLA Handbook, there has been a major change to the formatting of titles. Instead of being underlined, titles are now being italicized. They also require the inclusion of the medium of publication such as print, web or DVD.

library research guides
Books Journal articles Dissertations Electronic books Electronic articles Electronic dissertations Other electronic resources Citations p. p. p. p. p. 1 3 4 4 5

p. 6 p. 6 p. 7

IMPORTANT: Dalhousie University defines plagiarism as “the presentation of the work of another author in such a way as to give one’s reader reason to think it to be one’s own. Plagiarism is a form of academic fraud.” Find out what plagiarism is and how to avoid it at http://plagiarism.dal.ca.

Bibliography
There is no single correct format for a bibliography, but consistency must be observed in all entries. The bibliography, or list of works cited, is normally included at the end of the paper. Numbers in parentheses refer to the section in the MLA Handbook (7th ed. 2009). SAVE TIME: Use RefWorks to easily keep track of your references and quickly format them correctly for your bibliography. RefWorks is a personal bibliographic citation managing system that Dalhousie University subscribes to. For more information, go to http://www.library.dal.ca/libraries/RefWorks.htm.

Books
one author (5.5.2): Hillman, Richard. Shakespeare, Marlowe, and the Politics of France. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Print. two authors (5.5.): Hand, Richard J. and Michael Wilson. Grand-Guignol: the French Theatre of Horror. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002. Print. three authors (5.5.4): Cargill, Oscar, William Charvat, and Donald D. Walsh. The Publication of Academic Writing. New York: Modern Language Association, 1966. Print. Page 1

U of Mississippi: Faulkner at 100: Retrospect and Prospect: Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha. an editor or compiler as “author” (5. no author given (5. 1960-64. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Louise. English Literature. 2001. New ed. Ed. Print. 1789-1815.5. A. Print. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Print.10): Updike. DC: American Psychological Association. 2 vols. Print. 2002.14): Gardner. Living to Tell the Tale. a work in several volumes (5.more than three authors (5. How to Stay Younger while Growing Older: Aging for all Ages.5. 2003. 2 of A History of American Architecture. Jackson: Univ Press of Mississippi. Print. Herman Melville: A Biography. William. Proceedings of the 24th Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha Conference. Page 2 .9): The Chicago Manual of Style. Pride and Prejudice. The Oxford History of English Literature 9.10): Austen. Print. A. William Lindsay. 1963. 1996-2002. The Best American Short Stories of the Century. Parker. London: Macmillan. 5 vols.21): Kartiganer. Peterborough. Donald M. Print.5. Chicago: U of Chicago P. John. Jane. a translation (5. Milne. Print. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. New York: Hill & Wang. Trans. Print. R.5. 1997. Foakes. et al.5. 1997. Edith Grossman. Vol. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Shakespeare. 5th ed. eds. Ed. Print. Abadie.11): García Márquez. 15th ed. Oxford: Clarendon P. Hershel. 2003. 1999.5. Stanley E. Washington.4): Howe.5): American Psychological Association. an edition of an author’s work (5. 2003. and Ann J. ON: Broadview P.A. 1982. a work in a series (5. Irvine.5. Print.5. and ed. an organization or institution as “author” (5.. New York: Dutton. 1948. Gabriel. conference proceedings (5.5. 2000. Robert P. When We Were Very Young. comp. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. New York: Knopf. The Artifice of Design. 1962. Print.15): Renwick.

” American Short-Story Writers Since World War II. Print. Saturday Review 24 April 1943: 9. 1973.H. Dictionary of Literary Biography 244. Struthers. 25-39. Print. “Parsimony. Lucia: South Pacific Association for Common-wealth Literatures and Languages Studies.6): Funicello.5.1 (Sept. Karen.4. Fourth Series. Print. Ed. 164-169. “John Cheever’s Sense of Drama. Shapcott.” Victorian Studies 40 (1997): 625-54.” New Criterion 17.” The Oxford English Dictionary.4. dir.” Rev. Print. 1998.7): Haseloff.2 – 5. Print. “Alyson Hagy.4): Issues paginated continuously throughout the volume: Loesberg. 4th ed. “Margaret Atwood’s Surfacing. of The Way Some People Live.” National Review 19 Aug. 1998): 35-41. 2nd ed.signed and unsigned (5. Cynthia A. of The Emperor’s Club. Goodwin. “A Degas Doubleheader. Print.5 (2002): 30-1.” Norton Anthology of English Literature. by John Cheever. 13th ed.6): Davidson.4. The History of Western. Proceedings of the 6th Comparative Literature Symposium. Matthew. “Rival bards: Alice Munro’s Lives of Girls and Women and Victorian poetry. Print. Ed. a work in a collection or anthology (5. Wolodymyr T. magazine (5. Rev. Abrams et al.7): Burt. 1967 ed. Texas Tech U. York. 1980. Page 3 . N. an article in a reference book or encyclopaedia . 1999: 34-37.21): Aytür. Print. Eastern ed.” Encyclopaedia Americana. Robert. Jonathan.” William Faulkner: Prevailing Verities and World Literature. Each issue starts with page 1: Wilkin. Zyla and Wendell M. Detroit: Gale. 1973. “Portugal’s Reign of Terror. 86-96. 2001. 1989.” Washington Star 5 Mar. newspaper (5. “Illuminated Manuscripts. 1961. Arnold. a review (5. Lubbock. “Painting. Lorraine M. Dori. “Dickensian Deformed Children and the Hegelian Sublime. Print. Print.5. Jack. Vol 2. “Dover Beach. Michael Hoffman. Aycock.” Encyclopaedia Britannica.Articles periodical (5. Tom.. Necla.5): Jonas. Print. Ed. paper published as part of the proceedings of a conference (5. TX: Interdepartmental Committee on Comparative Literature.” Canadian Literature 112 (1987): 211-16. Arthur. F: 4. 1378-79. “Faulkner in Turkish. Print.5. St. Print. Print. K. January 24-26. L. Koehler. “A Visit to a Land of Many Facets. 1979.4. Variety 388.4. New York: Norton. sec.” Commonwealth Literature in the Curriculum.

The following are examples of some commonly cited types of electronic sources: Books an entire book converted to electronic form (5. “Relational Mapping as a Measure of Writing Ability in College Freshmen. MLA style acknowledges these difficulties by recommending that scholars make do with the information available to them and only include in citations information such as paragraph numbers and pagination when it is provided. Web.6 of the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook discusses a variety of cases and provides examples of electronic citations. Section 5.5. such as page numbers. such as the date on which the electronic work was accessed or the name of a database. and URLs are often not stable over time. especially those only available at remote sites accessible through the Internet. Yale U. Print. However.4. Page 4 . Print. 1977.6. despite the efforts of publishers to make citing their texts easier. A number of style sheets and style manuals contain sections on electronic sources and recommend formats for citations. 1988. 2003. 2002 Holder. Dublin. Diss. as yet there are no universally recognized standards. William Robert. However. Yale U. William. The advent of page imaging in PDF and other formats alleviates the problem to the extent that readers have in hand an exact replica of the original document. James. 19 Apr.” Diss. Web. “Dialectic and Rhetoric in Pierre Bayle.2c): Connolly. However. there will be instances in which precise information is simply not available. citations to electronic resources often require additional information.5. IMPORTANT: In many cases. 1973. is still evolving. CELT: The Corpus of Electronic Texts. New York: Macmillan. DAI 49 (1988): item 1395A. Electronic Texts The practice of citing electronic texts. Early English Books Online. The Internet tends to be changeable. 16 Jan. because of the fluid nature of the Internet.Dissertations published (5.” Diss. William Robert. that make it possible for scholars to direct readers to the precise location where a quotation or idea originated.26): Carlson. London. Print.8): Lydic. Elements of Speech: An Essay of Inquiry into the Natural Production of Letters. 1910. A citation to material published electronically should accomplish the same task as a citation to material published in print form: it should make it possible for a reader to follow the trail the writer provides in order to locate the item being cited. 1973. Dialectic and Rhetoric in Pierre Bayle. unpublished (5. David Lynn. books and articles published in HTML format lack traditional markers. U of Texas at Austin. Some online publishers (notably Johns Hopkins University in Project Muse) have attempted to provide a fix by inserting page break indicators directly within the HTML text. Labour in Irish History. a dissertation abstract (5. 1669.25): Carlson. and other publishers will number a text’s paragraphs.

6. pag. “Flower Children Grown Up: Somber.6. an article in a journal accessed directly from the publisher (5. Research Library.” The Guardian 19 July 2003: B7. “Comfort and Canadian Poetry. John S. “Pirates and the paper chase. ed. New York: Putnam. 2002. Cambridge: Proquest Information and Learning Company. 2000.): Aird. 1998. 11 June 2003.” American Literary History 13.” The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism.” Web. 10 Dec. pag. Wolfert’s Roost. Web. Web. Web. 2002. Shelley.3): Boyd. A. 2003.6. Joseph Ruben. .1 (2001): 281. 1855.2b): Berardinelli. pag. and Other Papers.3): Scott.Irving. Now First Collected. Haskins. 12 Nov.virginia. an article posted on an open-access or personal website (5. “John Cheever: Parody and the Suburban Aesthetic. 31 Jan.6. <http://xroads. Web. Web. of Return to Paradise. Project Muse.html>. Denys Arcand. “Fertility Decline and Birth Control in the People’s Republic of China. a review or article in a newspaper accessed directly from the publisher (5.” Population and Development Review 4. Web. Canadian Newsstand Atlantic.” KnowledgeNotes™ Student Guides.” UNESCO Courier: n. 14 June 2004. 17 Oct. 20 March 2003. March 2001. 3 Nov. Alex. John. Rev. JSTOR.” The Danforth Review: n. Wiser and Still Talking Dirty. 6 Aug. Wright American Fiction 1851-1875. an article or chapter in an electronic book (5. Kuntz. James. Geert. “The Canterbury Tales: The Miller’s Tale. a review or article in a newspaper accessed through an online database (5. Web. 2003. Dyer. Lucía Iglesias.edu/~MA95/dyer/cheever4. Web.2 (1978): 225-54. Michael Groden and Martin Kreiswirth. dir.6. Washington. 2003.2c): Lernout. Web.6. Reelviews. 3 March 2002. “Reception Theory. Streeby. “American Sensations: Empire. Sarah. New York Times: n. Rob. Web. of The Barbarian Invasions.6. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.O. Ed. Amnesia. and the US-Mexican War.” Rev. 2003.1 (2001): 1-40.URL only included if retrieval might be difficult otherwise Page 5 . 20 Nov. 13 June 2004 a work that has no print equivalent (5. 2003. 15 May 2008. dir. 22 May 2003. 1997.4): “Ford plans job cuts.2b): Shute.” American Record Guide 64. Articles an article in a journal accessed through an online database (5. “Four Musical Minimalists. Web.

6. 2003. a single page from a larger internet site (5.” BBC. Other Electronic Resources: an internet site (5. the zeds. 8 Oct. Web. Page 6 . Web.co. “Feedback on Electronic Writing. 6 Aug. Mike. 1992. “Most Important Elections. a personal email message (5. British Broadcast Corp. 2009. 2009. 5 Nov.2b): Literature Online. CD-ROM.7. a posting to an online discussion group or listserv (5. H-Canada: Canadian History and Studies. E-mail.2b) Wesch. 4 Apr. online video (5. “Copyright and the Abuse of User Rights – a Canadian Perspective”. David E. YouTube. Blogs as learning tools in a high school science class for at-risk learners: An ethnography. 20 May 2004. 2001. New York: Oxford UP. 23 May 1999. 20 Aug. Web. Web.6. Gideon. Web. 2009.2007.” Message to Lily Briscoe. 2009.2b) Steeleworthy.2b): Bernholdt. June 2004. “Information R/evolution”. 20 Nov. 2003. YouTube. Brigham Young U.7. 12 Oct. Michael.6. Burton. Web. Diss. 2009. Teresa.6. ed. blog posting (5.2b): “Northern Ireland Timeline: Early Christian Ireland.6.6. ProQuest Information and Learning Company.Electronic Dissertations: from a database (5. Cyndy. Royal Bank of Canada.13): Howard. 1 July 2004. 20 Aug. 20 Aug.6. 2003. Web.” Online posting. 23 Aug. 2003. Paul.2c): Woods-Wilson. a cd-rom publication (5. Capella University.2b): Romney.uk. WordPress. 2nd ed.17): The Oxford English Dictionary. 2004. Web 5 July 2004. Silva Rhetoricae. David Bernholdt’s Personal Homepage. Dissertations & Theses. 19 May 2004. Web. 2003. RBC Royal Bank. a personal homepage (5.

Religions 234). that appears at the end of the document. If you use this method of documentation you may not need a List of Works Cited at the end of your paper.References & Documentation In MLA style. 1981. The Religions of Medieval Europe: Fear and the Masses. See section 6. “Books Online: Visions. makes it clear to the reader that the quoted text comes from page 14 of the following document listed in the bibliography: Basch. then no further identification is needed: Reva Basch reports that the Georgetown Center for Text and Technology. the parenthetical reference above would include more information in order to make it clear which of the two books contains the quoted passage. Usually. These are described in section 6.5 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.” Online 15.4 for further examples. Killam Library. Parenthetical references should be kept as brief as clarity will permit. The bibliography might list a second work by this author. In this case. Dalhousie University September 2009 Page 7 .4): ---. lists “over 300 such projects in almost 30 countries” (14). London: Macmillan. Print. Plans.).” in combination with the mention of Reva Basch at the beginning of the passage. you acknowledge your sources by including parenthetical citations within your text. Endnotes & Footnotes Some scholars prefer to use endnotes and footnotes to document sources. Print. Consulting the bibliography. which.3. and Perspectives for Electronic Text. These refer the reader to the alphabetical list of works cited. would appear in the list with three hyphens substituting for the author’s name (5. For example: The close of the millennium was marked by a deep suspicion of the natural world and an increasing reliance “upon the pronouncements of soothsayers and visionaries. Grant V. London: Secker. who caused hysteria with their doom-laden forecasts of the end of humanity” (Mulligan 234). or bibliography. The parenthetical reference “(14). 1977. a shortened form of the title is sufficient: (Mulligan. Reva.4 (1991): 13-23. in accordance with MLA style. The Tudor World. Check your instructor’s preference. Print. The citation “(Mulligan 234)” informs the reader that the quotation originates on page 234 of a document by an author named Mulligan. If the context in which the quotation appears makes it clear which document in the bibliography the quoted text comes from. which has been compiling a catalogue of electronic text projects. the reader would find the following information under the name Mulligan: Mulligan.

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