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Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability, without disrupting operations
Control Engineering eGuide: Integrated Safety
as well as centralized historian and data archiving. Join the Discussion Safety impacts many areas of plant operations including profitability. High Integrity Module(s) Safety High Integrity Controller(s) Safeguard 400 Series S800 I/O w. ABB’s System 800xA architecture offers the flexibility of hosting both safety and process critical control applications in the same controller or on separate hardware if desired. ABB Safety Systems Over the past 30 years. System Servers Batch and IM Workplace(s) Asset Optimization Workplace(s) Engineering Workplace(s) System Network (optionally redundant) Operator Workplace(s) AC 800M Controller(s) Panel 800 Fieldbus Optical Modulebus (optionally redundant) Combined BPCS (Basic Process Control System) and Safety High Integrity Controller(s) S800 I/O w. ABB has successfully delivered and installed safety systems in more than 55 countries worldwide. in context. ABB’s integrated approach to safety and control is yielding more cost effective safety system (SIS) implementations while delivering significant operational benefits. to all of the devices. thereby maximizing customer value and ensuring safe plant operation throughout the safety system lifecycle. ERP. security. The Power of Integration The potential and the power of integration lies in what can be achieved when information is made available.. without disrupting operations The ABB Group ABB is a global leader in power and automation technologies that enable utility and industry customers to improve their performance while lowering environmental impact. systems and individuals responsible for controlling. plant-wide sequence-of-events (SOE) lists for consolidated root cause analysis. High Integrity Module(s) Optical Modulebus (optionally redundant) Positioner S800L & S800 I/O PROFIBUS (optionally redundant) Sponsored by Optical Modulebus S800L & S800 I/O Solenoid valve Solenoid valve S900 I/O for use in hazardous environments Pressure Transmitter 2600 T Pressure Transmitter 2600 T Pressure Transmitter 2600 T . Either way. Plant Network. CMMS. We work hard with end-users to maintain and evolve existing installations. maintaining and managing production. the user gains many of the same integration benefits. Visit ABB’s Process Automation Insights blog to join the conversation..2 Sponsor Profile Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. including common operator interface and engineering tools. operator effectiveness and availability to name a few.
’ (See this article online for a link to the OSHA citations document regarding Formosa Plastics. it is becoming the international safety system standard of choice for process industries as witnessed by the growing number of: • Papers being presented by end-users at conferences and symposiums. including installation. Though compliance with IEC 61511 and S84-2004 remains voluntary. Rather. Dikes. such as those developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and Instrumentation. In response to feedback from early process industry adopters that IEC 61508 was cumbersome and somewhat inflexible. and the United States. test. The goal of IEC 61511 and S84-2004 is not to dictate what technology or level of redundancy must be applied. eliminating the risk when possible. what can be done to minimize the probability of failure on demand (PFD) for some part of the SIS? The answer: select devices suitable for safety applications. operation. testing. engineer and install those devices using good engineering practices. are based on identifying and quantifying risk. as well as some non-process industries.S. the IEC committee extracted and reworded relevant sections to form IEC 61511 specifically for process industries. IEC 61508 (Parts 1-7). References on process control system manufacturers’ Web sites. Functional safety of electrical/electronic/ programmable electronic safetyrelated systems .S.’ says Summers. Control Engineering Staff But with weeks. Rupture Disks. Siss Are Specially Engineered Solutions That Are Continuously Online And Expected To Instantaneously Take Action To Mitigate Any Detected Unsafe Process Events. Labor Department’s Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) against Formosa Plastics of Illiopolis. Such standards assume system life-cycle activities. IL. the intent of these safety standards is to ensure that the greater the process risk. several referenced Formosa’s ‘failure to comply with recognized good engineering practices such as ANSI/ISA S84. pulp and paper. However. Ireland. are properly carried out—an assumption that repeatedly has been proven wrong. no system modifications are required.1-1969 standard Where To Focus The probability a device will fail on demand (PFD) increases over time. and References made by government agencies in China. If it’s determined the currently installed SIS provides safe operation.00.3 Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. Italy. and maintenance practices. However. And A Safety-Instrumented System (Sis). • • One illustration of government’s awareness of S84 appeared in the $361. is an all-inclusive. and Automation Society (ISA). months. oil and gas. performance-based standard that covers functional safety requirements for a range of industries including chemical. India. United Kingdom. for defining safety requirements for pulp. and maintenance. Layers Of Protection (Lop) Include Relief Valves. the more robust the installed SIS. following verification by another full-proof test that the device . president of SIS-Tech Solutions and a voting member of ISA’s SP84 committee. says that ANSI/ISA S84. and paperboard mills in the U.01-2004.) Improved Safety Standards Sponsored by Safety standards were once developed to satisfy the specific needs of an application. Systems.500 fine levied by the U. S84 Grandfather Clause Angela Summers.) More recent safety stadards. without disrupting operations Process Safety What Are The Odds? Within Process Plants. and/or country. The result is a functional safety standard that provides process industries some degree of implementation flexibility while ensuring compliance is achieved within IEC 61508’s framework. paper. (See ‘Incidents leading to improved safety standards’ sidebar. Norway. or even years between unsafe events. apply sound maintenance practices. and test. and applying LOPs when risks can’t be completely eliminated to produce ‘performancebased’ standards. industry. One example is the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) P-1. test. non-nuclear power generation. Among the 45 ‘serious violations’ alleged by OSHA. ‘Included in S84-2004 is a grandfather clause that requires facility owner/operators to examine and document their SIS design. if the examination reveals the SIS is not providing adequate protection. it must be brought into compliance using the latest good engineering practices. Often such standards are developed as design specifications based on technologies available when the standard is released. Functional safety: Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector (S84-2004) matches IEC 61511 with one exception.
Readers should take note. and Testing frequency. the SIS must be maintained so that its For example. The third option for reducing PFD is to increase testing frequency for devices. Redundancy. Increase device diagnostic coverage. Installed instrumentation. they learn that final control elements malfunction 50% of the time. safety system experts at Exida. Exida reported that the tested design can be effective in extending device diagnostic coverage andmeet many IEC 61511 requirements as long as: • AMS software is set up with appropriate security for passwords and privileges. when introducing such solutions as part of an SIS solution. ‘Testing frequency influences PFD AVG ‘ illustrates how more frequent full-proof testing lowers PFD AVG . When engineers and technicians begin learning about SISs. thus quantifying the SIS’s design criteria. However. in conjunction with • • The graphic. however. Voting. That begins by conducting a risk analysis and determining the required safety integrity level (SIL) as defined within the IEC standard. when data such as OREDA (Offshore REliability DAta) are examined. Increasing the frequency of full-proof tests lowers PFDAVG and provides two options: 1) use the same device to meet a higher safety level (SIL). and Increase the frequency at which devices are tested. it returns to its original reliability level.4 is working correctly. • • • • • • Failure rates and failure modes of components. and Multiplexer failure rates are accounted for in the SIS design. extending diagnostic coverage is easier and more costeffective with the abundance of devices that offer embedded diagnostics combined with asset management. but they do help emphasize the importance of considering all factors influencing SIS performance. simply designing and installing an SIS to meet defined integrity numbers isn’t enough. Of course. triple. • Today.com examined use of multiplexers with HART communication protocol. These facts don’t relieve anyone of the responsibility of selecting and installing the appropriate logic solver. Procedures are established and documented to ensure proper usage of the HART handheld communicator. Diagnostic coverage. sensors malfunction 42% of the time. they often jump to the conclusion that triple or quadruple redundant logic solvers are required. that full-proof testing generally Sponsored by . (See ‘Demand mode of operation’ table. However. Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. Emerson Process Management’s Asset Management Solution (AMS) software to improve SIS device diagnostic coverage. such as those available from Pepperl+ Fuchs. 2) use a less-expensive device to achieve the same SIL. while maintaining the required PFDAVG. the standard provides the target risk reduction factor (RRF) and the target average PFD.) Once the required SIL is determined. without disrupting operations Reducing PFD There are essentially three ways to reduce the probability an SIS will fail on demand: • • • Install double. and quadruple devices. special precautions are required. These factors include: • Regular use of manual or automatwed partial-stroke valve testing can extend the time between full-proof tests The only way to ensure such factors are adequately addressed while avoiding over-engineering the solution is to establish good design criteria. performance doesn’t degrade over time. and logic solvers malfunction only 8% of the time.
such as a collar.9—99. 1976 (700 injured). Position control is most effective when using control valves and microprocessor-based ‘smart’ positioners (controllers) as part of the SIS solution. and logic that forces the Sponsored by . BP also reported a very short payback period. such as valve travel and actuator breakaway force.K. 2.9%) 100 to 1. adjustable. Pulsed solenoid valves.500 dead.99%) >10. it’s been a long-time practice to install two safety valves in series. plant safety significantly increased and operational costs were reduced. Ensuring the valve has been returned to normal service is procedure driven. smart positioners provide rich diagnostic coverage. 85 injured). but enough to verify the valve moves on demand. The method of pulsing the electric signal to the safety valve’s solenoid valve is simple to implement and is very effective for on/off safety block valves. Mechanical limiting is an inexpensive solution that involves installation of a mechanical device. However.Jul. The graphic ‘Benefit of partialstroke valve testing’ illustrates how partial stroke valve testing can extend the time between full-proof test while maintaining the required PFD AVG . to avoid spurious process shutdowns. In some high-risk applications.Jul. One of the lesser-publicized benefits of increasing diagnostic coverage and/or the testing frequency of safety valves is possible elimination of some safety valves.000 0. Besides being able to move the valve to predetermined settings. and increased testing frequency. However. timed. When these devices are being used. Seveso. opportunities to conduct full-proof tests often aren’t available.0001 4 (>99. India . An alternative to full-proof testing is to partially stroke safety valves— not enough to cause process disruptions. 6. 100.5 requires the process be shutdown or bypass lines installed.01 to 0. With more process facilities running longer between planned shutdowns. hundreds injured). Because safety valves haven’t typically been installed with positioners. 1984 (2. Piper Alpha. U. 61 injured).01 2 (99—99. with prudent use of redundant devices. Source: Control Engineering with data from IEC 61511-1 Table 3 1 (90—99%) 10 to 100 0. to limit the amount of valve travel. The reason is that both valves are unlikely to fail to close on demand.001 3 (99. or jammer. the safety valve is unavailable. Demand mode of operation Safety integrity levels Target risk reduction factor failure on demand Target average probability of & safety availability NOTE: SIL 4 rated applications are not typically used in the process industries and the standard cautions that a single programmable safety system shouldn’t be used to meet SIL 4 requirements. Source: Control Engineering Partial-Stroke Valve Testing The three basic methods of partialstroke valve testing are: • • • Mechanical limiting. Holland . 1998 (165 dead.Jan. Italy . critics of this method cite the need for additional hardware and related installation costs as major drawbacks.001 to 0.0001 Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. (North Sea) . 20. 1968 (2 dead.1 to 0.Dec.K.Jun. 10. without disrupting operations Incidents Preceding Improved Safety Standards Pernis oil refinery. Flixborough. reportedly without sacrificing safety coverage.99%) 1.000 to 10. refining giant BP reports that after installing Metso Automation’s Neles VG800 valve controllers and ValvGuard testing and monitoring software. solenoid valve to return to its safe position. Bhopal.000 injured). the addition of diagnostic coverage. It requires limit switches (or position transmitters). U. Saudi Aramco reported similar successes on its safety valves following installation of Emerson’s FieldVue digital valve controllers. and Position control.000 &0. .000 0. 1. pulsed outputs provided by the logic solver. some companies have eliminated one of the two safety valves. valve jack. 1974 (28 dead.
For Better Or Worse. technology centers. It was safety that got us up and going. Walker. including internal BP safety audits. PWelander@cfemedia. regardless of local customs. Margaret R. that was driven by the desire to achieve differentiated safety performance. —Peter Welander. production pressures. but also expand it into larger stewardship that we do nothing to adversely impact the community. After a very extensive investigation of the incident. Back in the 1960s.” Where is your company on this spectrum? I suspect most are somewhere in between. Personal safety and process safety should be your number one priority and you should never lose that sight. The impact of the cost cuts is detailed in many of the more than 20 key investigative documents the CSB made public today. We try to personalize the message to put in each of our minds the idea of going home safely at the end of the day. but they did not address the core problemsin Texas City. BP executives challenged their refineries to cut yet another 25% from their budgets for the following year. engineering solutions.6 Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. and emails. ”The combination of cost-cutting. BP’s response was too little and too late. In a presentation delivered at ARC Advisory Group’s 2008 Global Manufacturer’s Forum. the BP group chief executive ordered an across-the-budget 25% cut in fixed spending at the corporation’s refineries. That’s something you might want to think about carefully as you look at the top management of your company.” Jerry Gipson. made Dow’s global vision clear: ”You cannot compromise safety. In 2004. when we launched our manufacturing excellence focus and embarked on some of the global standardization efforts.” Example 2: The opposite extreme of the spectrum has to be Dow Chemical Corporation. and failure to invest caused a progressive deterioration of safety at the refinery. Hopefully there are many companies that share such a depth of commitment to personal and process safety. and were provided to at least one member of the executive board. which the CSB previously determined would have prevented or greatly minimized the severity of the accident.S. Chemical Safety Board concludes‘organizational and safety deficiencies at all levels of the BP Corporation’ caused March 2005 Texas City disaster that killed 15. Beginning in 2002. cost considerations discouraged refinery officials from replacing the blowdown drum with a flare system. process industries editor. Chairman Merritt said. injured 180. it became obvious that much manufacturing philosophy comes from the top of an organization down. Some of those people in offices on ”mahogany row” are making decisions that could determine if you go home tonight in one piece. but hopefully closer to Dow.S. A summary of the board’s findings was headlined : ”U. There are few things more motivating to an employee than knowing the employer is making sure everything possible is being done so that they go home safely and that everyone around them is safe. These audits and studies were shared with BP executives in London. and manufacturing and engineering work process. not to mention the environmental impact and community disruption. Some additional investments were made. The CSB report found that‘cost-cutting in the 1990s by Amoco and then BP left the Texas City refinery vulnerable to a catastrophe. Process & Advanced Control Monthly Sponsored by .com . the U. Among other things. vice president. Dow’s director of itswe start with a safety moment. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board laid responsibility for this event squarely at the feet of BP management.’ Shortly after acquiring Amoco. including a lack of necessary preventative maintenance and training. Example 1: You probably heard about the Texas City BP refinery explosion in 2005 with its fatalities and injuries. these two paragraphs sum up the grim situation. BP commissioned a series of audits and studies that revealed serious safety problems at the Texas City refinery. reviews. without disrupting operations Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down The Attitudes At The Top Of Your Company Influence Everything. including management’s knowledge of the growing problems: ”BP acquired the Texas City refinery when it merged with Amoco in 1999.” In the text of the same document. Here are two extreme examples. even for something as basic as safety. By Control Engineering Staff Does your company value its people in the most literal sense of the word? While writing the article global process engineering (which will be in the April issue of Control Engineering).
” said Kristian Olsson. partial stroke test function and shutdown event black box into a single SIL3 certified device. The system also provides alerts and recommendations regarding valve status.” said Luis Duran. This minimizes the need for outages and downtime to evaluate the health and readiness of these critical process elements. ”By taking advantage of System 800xA’s integration capabilities and open standards. This design architecture offers a sophisticated platform while being Type A (simplex device) compliant. ”The SVI II ESD provides an excellent return on investment with its combined shutdown function. Edited by Peter Welander. and an embedded diverse technology architecture that provides superior protection of the process. This access also provides proactive management of this critical device. as well as required partial stroke test and emergency shutdown signatures and documentation. saving time and money while increasing efficiency. This integration also simplifies safety compliance by automatically recording partial stroke test results and emergency shutdown events. and the environment while it optimizes overall process efficiency. ”This immediate readiness is vital to the protection of the process. And Availability. 0-24 Vdc (discrete safety demand) or a combination of both. pwelander@cfemedia. announced that it will collaborate with Dresser Masoneilan. personnel. The device can be implemented using a 4-20 mA signal (analog safety demand). gas. and the surrounding community in the event of an abnormal situation. from normal plant operations to abnormal situations. Masoneilan’s SVI II ESD device can be configured to perform scheduled partial valve stroke tests while remotely monitoring and maintaining the emergency shutdown valves during normal plant operations. ABB’s Americas business development manager for safety systems.com Sponsored by . ”While open standards offer great benefit for end users. on an integrated process to monitor. Emergency Valve Performance.7 Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. These valves are crucial process elements for the oil. test. and manage emergency shutdown valves (ESDV) during all operational conditions.” The company says that the SVI II ESD is the latest technology in emergency shutdown valve automation and the only SIL3-certified ESD certified at 4 mA with stainless steel housing. the user has immediate access to the health diagnostics and status of the emergency shutdown valve. ABB characterizes its System 800xA High Integrity as a next-generation safety system. ABB’s power and automation technology group. as well as many other industrial processes. plant. Standard on the device are an LCD display and explosionproof external pushbuttons.” As an integrated object within System 800xA. to ensure that it is ready to perform when needed. without disrupting operations Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System ABB And Dresser Masoneilan Integrate Capabilities To Improve Overall Process Safety. This SIL 3 rated SIS provides the highest level of integration of safety and control on the market today. for instance enabling remote triggering of partial stroke tests. it is the collaboration between automation vendors that provides for an ‘out-of-the-box’ solution capable of generating instant results. He adds that the combined solution leverages the capabilities of ABB’s 800xA High Integrity SIS (safety instrumented system) and Masoneilan’s SVI II ESD (emergency shutdown device) and PST Controller to improve overall plant safety and increase the availability of ESDV’s for optimal response of the isolation valve in emergency situations. a supplier of process control valves. manager of ABB’s Safety Center of Excellence. the environment. ”Our collaboration with industry leaders like Dresser Masoneilan helps us offer our mutual customers best-in-class safety solutions that will protect the integrity of their processes and the surrounding community.” said Sandro Esposito. and petrochemical industries. global marketing manager digital products for Dresser Masoneilan.
8 Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. Improved Situational Awareness And Better Handling Of Abnormal Conditions Helps Operators Make Better Decisions And Improve Safety And Process Uptime. and • Operator competence. A recent survey on operator effectiveness shows that this view is also shared by many of ABB’s customers. safety systems. a diminishing knowledge base due to demographic changes in the workforce. Striving for operator effectiveness implies facing a number of significant challenges regarding both technology and management. Four pillars of operator effectiveness When designing an automation system. For instance. One place to begin the process is by empowering operators through improved situational awareness and better handling of abnormal conditions. video monitoring systems. Developing an effective HMI (human machine interface) needs to look at the operator’s workflow and requirements. DCSs (distributed control systems). Martin Olausson. These factors may lead to huge cost escalations if operator effectiveness is not taken into account rigorously. Roy Tanner Process industries globally lose around $20 billion annually due to process disruptions. and data historians are also available and contain valuable information that can support operators in their decision making. and the ever-increasing complexity of operations. and of these preventable losses. ERP (enterprise resource planning). Operators have intuitive access to actionable information and can manage views dynamically and effectively. without disrupting operations Developing People: Making Operators More Effective Tools And Methods For Creating An Industrial Operator Workplace Ready For The Needs Of Today And Tomorrow. which represents about 5% of total production. These features reduce the time required to identify necessary actions. Operator effectiveness is a fundamental element for sustaining the economic value of process control and management. managing and monitoring industrial processes is characterized by inevitable changes in technology. This means that the total improvement potential—if a way can be found to help avoid mistakes— totals $6. Magnus Larsson. plant information systems such as CMMS (computerized maintenance management systems). Operators can then make better decisions and so improve safety and process uptime. FASs (facilities automation systems). there are four main pillars affecting an operator’s performance: • Integrated operations • Design for high-performance • Attention to human factors. . supplying operators with all necessary information from any number of sources. In addition. and ECSs (electrical control systems) to name just a few. Susanne Timsjo. It achieves collaboration between different computer programs and systems. Hongyu Pei Breivold. Today. 40% are primarily due to operator errors. Sponsored by Integrated operations An effective control system should provide customers with the means to consolidate and rationalize data from various sources seamlessly. an operating plant may include multiple controller platforms including PLCs (programmable logic controllers).4 billion. Studies suggest 80% of these losses are preventable.
along with other system designers. An effective operator workplace is equipped with advanced keyboards featuring hotkeys for multiclient handling. Ian Nimmo. Using such productive design concepts when creating control room environments has a major impact on the performance of operator teams. All these factors contribute to the enhancement of the operator environment and alertness level of control room operators.2. He says. A graphic with a black background and an abundance of colors leads to poor situation awareness even in normal situations. and scientific committees of standards-development organizations. working groups. ”Having good situation awareness means the operator has an accurate perception of the current condition of process and equipment. and an accurate understanding of the meaning of various trends in the unit. an operator desk system with motorized adjustable desk and monitor positioning. This knowledge has flowed into guidelines for interface design. however. and presentation of information are used to seek to predict and avert abnormal situations completely. Sponsored by • . navigation methodology. it is critical to customize the workplace layout based on the end user’s operational philosophy.” Some of the key concepts that situation awareness reflects are color definitions and use to maximize visibility of abnormal situations. It is. whereas the graphic with gray scales and the sharp color for alarm depiction represents good situation awareness. graphic-level definition for fast response under abnormal conditions. a directional sound system. The situation awareness concept is not new. One good example of situation awareness as described in the ”High Performance HMI Handbook” mentioned above concerns two graphics that both embed the same information but have totally different effects on situation awareness. which in turn substantially increases the operator’s performance and effectiveness for handling abnormal situations. and alarm management. These features reduce the number of nuisance and noncritical alarms and so help end users meet or exceed current guidelines and standards such as EEMUA 191 and ISA SP18. and provide support for the implementation of high-performance alarm management strategies with features such as alarm shelving (operator-driven alarm suppression) and alarm hiding (condition-based alarm suppression). Abnormal situations are disturbances or incidents with which the control system is not able to cope of its own accord.” believes that a driving factor of highperformance design for HMIs is situation awareness. and thus requires operator intervention. without disrupting operations Many standards organizations and research institutes have made and continue to make valuable contributions to HMI philosophies. situation awareness. supports the establishment of good standards through its active participation in various technical committees. One main reason is that a skilled designer knows that a better working environment can reduce an operator’s stress. One key area affecting HMI development is the handling of abnormal situations. ABB. Attention to human factors System designers need to address attention explicitly to human factors. Situation awareness can make a huge impact by: • Increasing the success rate in handling abnormal situations and returning to a normal mode of operation Reducing the time it takes plant operators to complete required tasks during an abnormal situation. still a matter of debate between multiple organizations. and • Raising the incidence rate of control room operators detecting an abnormal situation prior to alarms occurring. and integrated dimmable lighting. One aspect being debated is the use of grayscale or cool process graphic schemes. Drawing on this as well as its own extensive expertise. When implementing a control system project. ergonomics. In addition. as well as reduces health issues and turnover of resources. abnormal situation management expert and author of ”High Performance HMI Handbook.9 Design for high performance Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability.
is the place to visit to get the latest information about how to build the optimal control room. The methods for user study include interviews. In order to achieve a good understanding of the workflow process and to obtain knowledge on how well the operator manages the significant number of operational tasks. An example of useful supporting mechanisms is the use of checklists to guide operators throughout the required procedures under specific circumstances. firsthand information is acquired with respect to the operators’ challenges and needs. In view of rapid technological evolution. They can also support an operator in his or her activities that may be performed infrequently. especially when the process is in an exceptional situation and operators need to understand and manage complex operations to support recovery. New technologies using simulators for advanced training can recreate the exact operator environment. The ”Future Operations Center” in Borås. It covers. Sweden. and the color status of the process. without disrupting operations User-centered design Designing an effective HMI requires focusing on the control room operator’s workflow and tasks.10 operations. studies. and observations. The interview questions may be structured or unstructured. The simulator provides a safe and realistic environment in which process operators and instrument technicians can learn how to master the process and increase their confidence. floor material. Interview questions are sent to the operators before a planned interview to ensure that the users have the right profile and knowledge. Operator competence When operators interact with processes. This method is ideal for discovering incorrect or inefficient practices that the operators are Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. Field studies and observations represent a way to identify and prioritize operators’ goals and needs. field studies. their actions often have huge business consequences. a number of fundamental activities are continuously going on: user-centered design and an eye to the future. both in the form they are asked and in the way they can be responded to. or intelligent control centers. there is an explicit need to address operator effectiveness directly throughout the whole lifecycle of a process-control system. Clear definition of job roles and responsibilities is another vital element that characterizes successful operations. ABB and System 800xA have teamed with control-room furnisher CGM to create a demonstration project to emphasize an optimal control room layout with focus on human factors and ergonomics. generational shifts in workforces. among others. and that they are well-prepared. and increasing complexity of Sponsored by . including graphics and control logic. the designer should perform operator task analyses together with operators through user Control room procedures are important to ensure consistency of operation. To leverage the four pillars of operator effectiveness. light control. such topics as sound. By visiting users in their own working environment and observing how they perform operational tasks. This means that all the tasks an operator needs to perform should be recognized and documented. In an effort to define a new standard for control rooms. including the tasks that go beyond operating in the normal mode. noise absorption.
or using a drop-down whiteboard for sketching discussions. and analysis of how they relate to the improvement of operator effectiveness. The collected data can then be analyzed and synthesized. and design techniques. Operator effectiveness is a timeless characteristic and will always be important. Some customers are telling ABB that as the current workforce matures. ABB has just created a new research area dedicated to operator effectiveness. The data synthesis process includes identification of the main concepts. System designers should be actively monitoring and applying future technologies and design concepts to address younger generations whose operating skills are different from those of today. Leveraging an automation platform that can natively promote and provide the level of integration and centralization required to promote a collaborative environment. Any company hoping to excel in this area must take a leading role in facilitating the pillars of operator effectiveness by: 1. Different shifts need to communicate and cooperate with each other. Operators’ opinions should also be sought and direct feedback collected both for good practices and in areas with potential for improvement. Examples include interaction. Another effective way to increase user focus is the establishment of a customer reference group (CRG) comprising customers from various domains. • 2.” For these new generations. Accordingly. Such a collaboration function can serve various roles. The researchers look into the future. operator expectations are evolving. as well as leverage an automation system that has the flexibility to meet specific customer requirements. Providing assistance to meet standards and design philosophies in situation awareness and abnormal condition handling. Providing not only operator training but an environment that uses the most valuable assets and existing intellectual property to build operators’ confidence and competence. and explore efficient utilization and the reasonable combination of existing and emerging technologies. They also ask for more customization of their screens. Studies of how such people operate the process show that they have more screens open than older crew members.11 not aware of. It is common knowledge that process operation is teamwork. Accordingly. visualization. applications in industry domains. in addition to improving operator effectiveness for the present generation of operators. indications from each user study. whereas older operators seek to understand the plant in a sequential manner. A process manufacturer intent on developing effective operators should create an environment that provides operator effectiveness. Newer operators tend to visualize the plant’s behavior graphically. Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. conduct continuous activities in user-centered Sponsored by . ABB has a well-equipped user experience and interaction lab. to assist operators in undertaking these activities. it is critical to take future generations into account. without disrupting operations Looking into the future The continuous progress in software techniques related to user experience and interaction raises the need to permit existing human machine interfaces to evolve. One of its tasks is to look at new technologies in the market and their The secret to operator effectiveness Operator effectiveness is a challenging area. In particular. 4. one innovative idea is a collaboration board. and maintenance and operation staff. managers. and future ventures in order to increase productivity and profits for customers. including plant management. and • Establish a forum for exchanging and testing ideas in user needs. Integrating human factors and best practices to provide the best in operator effectiveness. analyze the impact of emerging technologies. As an example. system management. Many operators being hired today grew up with computers and are ”digital natives. visual learning is an ideal method to teach how the plant behaves. trends. Innovative ideas come from the viewpoint of centering operators’ work process and tasks to develop an effective HMI. The purpose of the reference group is three-fold: • Provide customers with firsthand information about ongoing and planned development projects Permit customers to actively influence the supplier’s development of the system’s operator interface. 3. permitting operators to leave messages on real-time process displays.
2008.. Nimmo.. T. Habibi. Roy Tanner is with ABB Inc. ISBN-13: 9780977896912. I. ISBN-10: 0977896919. D... Collaborative Process Automation Systems. helping customers achieve operational excellence. It is committed to remaining at the forefront of these developments through continued research and development. Hongyu Pei Breivold. Operator Effectiveness. and assistance to operators in decision-making processes. Sweden. M. Wickliffe.. E. B.. and look into future technologies and their applications in the area of operator effectiveness. 2010. Plant Automation Services. and Magnus Larsson work for ABB Corporate Research. Ohio..12 design. Susanne Timsjö. ISBN 978-1-936007-10-3. without disrupting operations Atkinson. All of these imply sustained economic value. ABB has achieved considerable success in boosting operational excellence by focusing on operators and by providing process control interfaces that facilitate operators’ ability to make the right decisions during all modes of operation. Sponsored by . Oliver. The High Performance HMI Handbook. Västerås. Hollender. This can reduce the scope for errors through more efficient use of the operator’s technological experience. Additional Reading: Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. quick access to relevant data in every operational situation. Hollifield. Martin Olausson.
facilities that embed safety into their daily operations typically achieve a 5 percent productivity increase. That was 27 years ago. Even 10 years ago. companies have difficulty demonstrating a clear return on investment in their safety activities. without disrupting operations 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. are five areas where most companies can easily unlock improvements in safety and.” Typically. It concluded that. industrial facility would start at 40 percent compliance and spend no less than $5. the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) undertook a study to figure out how much emerging safety regulations actually cost. Processes are always changing. without disrupting operations Process industries are inherently hazardous. profitability.” declares an abstract for another old study: The Real Cost of Process Safety – A Clear Case for Inherent Safety. as cited in a 2001 workshop report. profitability and overall competiveness while improving safety. The trick is knowing where these potential gains are hidden. ”But trust me. the average U. Many companies have paid for these potential benefits with process automation capabilities that now exist in-house but are being underutilized or ignored. repeatability and speed than any human being. The timeline sends a clear message: While the cost of safety in process industries has far exceeded estimates from the dawn of the modern safety era. 1. With both safety and financial concerns being a high priority. First. But also important: the ROI is now known to be far more tangible than the ”whatif” costs of an avoided incident. or even more. and maintaining safety in processes and operations has become increasingly complex and costly.13 Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. These savings arise across the process safety area. the world’s regulatory environment was still reacting to the Bhopal. there are times when that must happen. ”Obviously. according to ABB Process Automation safety experts. The return on investment (ROI)? The kind that gives financial executives gray hair: potential cost avoidance. quite possibly. At that time. India gas leak that had occurred a decade before. There are some changes that the automation system is capable of identifying and managing if it’s programmed properly. you’re never at a steady state. In 1994. ongoing investments are thought to be far higher than the AIChE had calculated – ”up to one-third to one-half. According to the results of a study by the Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1 percent savings in capital expenses and 20 percent reduction in insurance costs.” As an Sponsored by . the journal of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering.” Huffman says. a well-designed automation system can deliver more reliability. 3 percent reduction in production expenses.8 million over a decade to effectively achieve full safety compliance. and can be programmed to act before those changes become critical. the benefits of safety are more tangible and substantial as well. across all industry segments and plant sizes. It’s a misnomer. ”Chemical engineers like myself like to think you can put yourself at a steadystate process. turning over the details of what to do about it to human operators. an alarm management system is used to identify such changes. a manager at ABB with background in chemical and process engineering. those in the process industry sometimes struggle to reconcile them. safety processes and technologies were being viewed for their impact on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and plant efficiency. The simple assessment is that most companies can increase manufacturing flexibility. but we will focus here on those related to process automation. ”But there are many other times when nothing is really going wrong. and process safety management has since come a long way. But too often. The control system can identify when processes change states. of the capital and operating costs of the new plant handling the hazardous operations. published in November 2003 by Process Safety and Environmental Protection.” Huffman says. with little disruption and minimal capital expenditure.S. Utilization of existing automation When a process is running. Here. according to David Huffman. 5 percent reduction in maintenance costs.
falling into three categories: • Nuisance alarms: Those that go on and off so routinely that they eventually get ignored. If the total comes in at much more than 6 alarms per operator hour. ”So you’re running full and at about the time you have to switch one bed offline. Admittedly. you can record what the operator has to do and write a procedure around it for the automation to move the distillation process into a safer mode. most companies deliver too many alarms. boiler systems etc. even if the process generally takes care of itself before operators intervene. he says. you may get alarms at five or ten times that rate.” Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. ”There are big companies that are embracing this because they are convinced it’s not only safer.” Praprost says. That rule of thumb (6 alarms per operator hour) is just a guideline. ”You have to go through the pain and expense of understanding your routine states. like an alarm that sounds whenever process temperature rises above a threshold. While ISA-106. a new standard released in 2009 that addresses alarm management in process industries. increased quality and faster adjustment of controls at a level of higher precision and repeatability. they want to get back to a steady state too. secondary and regeneration modes. But six per hour per operator is one metric let you know if there’s a reason to go back to work on the alarm management system. Rationalizing alarms Here’s a simple way to know if your alarm management system is doing . and the people get tired of the constant change. ”During an ”alarm flood” period. ”If you know this happens from time to time. it removes distractions from operators. The more complex the tower is. dealing with overhead systems.” Huffman says. It’s a busy time for operators. Huffman says the goal is to ”educate companies that processes run in states and. is that it means you still have opportunity to make big improvements long after you’ve grown comfortable with an automation system. the discipline of improving automation across a wider array of recurring events is the subject of a new ISA committee. In Praprost’s experience. warns Ken Praprost. alarms are going off continuously. ”The company gets tired of spending money. With respect to safety. Huffman says – events that happen often enough to automate. and control loops don’t perform well at the reduced-rate condition.2. The beds are rotated through primary. it’s OK to take things out of operators’ hands and let the automation system do a lot more work. And automating the routine around best practices means achieving the same results. The operator is cutting flow rates. Praprost has frequently seen operations where there are so many standing alarms that they can only be viewed on multiple screens. you find out there’s something wrong with another bed and you can’t put it back into service on time. less wasted product. but not often enough to have confidence that every operator is always going to be adequately trained and tested. but you can make money with it. you lose product quality. The flow is zero. which sets off an alarm that the operators simply have to look at. Sponsored by 2. making routine events out of occurrences that would previously have set off an alarm flood. Often discussed in the industry as state-based environments. Huffman continues. changing tower pressure. is a few years away from releasing its first set of standards. Quantifiable benefits include reduced staffing.” The good news.” Huffman says.” But. even if the event occurs when your best operators are off-shift. improving automation at this level isn’t easy or free.14 defining them and putting in the programming code. which reduces product waste. ”When you start scaling down a distillation tower. ”There’s fatigue involved. its job well: Count the total number of alarms that the system activates during the course of a month and divide it by the number of operator hours worked during the same month. Huffman describes a distillation process that requires the product to move through one of three drying beds.” Many companies overlook this step when implementing a new automation system. in order to keep them safe and profitable. the worse it gets.” There is an advantage in speed. Most companies have dozens of examples like this. it loses efficiency. It’s far simplified from ISA-18. ”And many of these may be for equipment that’s not even in use. without disrupting operations example. focused on sequential process control. alarm management optimization engineer at ABB. then your system is running at an unnecessarily high level of risk and inefficiency. And the whole time.” The usual response is slowing down the distillation process while getting the troubled bed fixed.
The control room is your last line of defense. ergonomics and. precisely how to respond to it.” As an example. In all three instances. If we investigate further.” Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability. a key issue is that people are overloaded with • Sponsored by . While it requires some cost. especially when alarms are not prioritized – a common condition everywhere. It not ony brings significant improvements in plant safety. but if you’re talking about ways to improve operations and reduce safety risk. Then we reprioritize to identify the true high-priority items. frequency of individual alarms. operators struggle to identify important alarms.15 • Standing alarms: Those that remain in an active alarm state for a significant period of time. business manager at ABB Consulting. It doesn’t direct people where to look for the information they need. alarm management. it also applies to the other human factor areas. the system is not well-enough designed to allow time for reaction.” Praprost says. Greaves says it’s common practice for work permits in a facility to be managed in the control room. engineers and supervisors: Investigate whether the systems operate as required and if personnel know why each alarm is triggered. Don’t purchase unnecessary redundancy Redundancy is not equivalent to safety. but he has seen instances where lighting was used to minimize the disruption. Performance assessment: A review of alarm data over an appropriate period of time (usually a few weeks to a month) to determine the rates. • • • Recommendations for improvement. the operators can do a better job running the plant. Other human-factor techniques can include providing different audible tones for different types of alarms. or automated redirection of lighting to focus on the correct displays during alarm bursts. They can avoid lost-production events simply because they didn’t pick out the right alarm from a long list of alarms that all look the same. alarm rationalization can make a significant impact to the bottom line by reducing unnecessary plant trips. Establish an appropriate monitoring and review process. 4. ”As with anything. Greaves says. Human factors typically include such areas as the design of interfaces and displays. vastly reducing how often they trip while assuring that they do appear when intervention is required. they need to check in with the process superintendent. Consider human factors If alarm management tends to place too much reliance on people.” The commotion related to issuing work permits can be a safety distraction to operators. Praprost says. Evaluating such issues is a process independent of the type of system being used. Plan and implement an improvement program. and safety does not require redundancy. ”In human factors. ”The argument is that if people want to get work done.” laments ABB’s Huffman. ”People get the two confused. it would be very easy and affordable to find multiple opportunities to change the environment in a way that helps the people who work there to do a better job. human factors explore the issues created by the fact that people are the most fallible part of a safety system. ”While that is obviously relevant to alarm management.” says Chris Greaves. by darkening that part of the room where permits are issued when lighting is not required. • Benchmarking: Comparison of results with industry guidelines. Greaves argues. you simply cannot overlook these human factors. you can quickly get into a project that suddenly would have people writing large checks for fancy displays and ergonomic chairs. and for many companies. and response times to alarms. There are also strategies for dealing with nuisance alarms. staffing. as already discussed. Ventilation – maintaining a temperature that keeps people comfortable but alert – is a common challenge in many control rooms. Non-alarms: Many alarms are really just events or data that someone in the organization had wanted recorded. ”There are certainly times when that is justified and prudent. ”People get locked into thinking that if 3.” The main steps to improving an alarm management system are: Evaluate documentation and interview operators.” he notes. we can reclassify many of the alarms as events so they don’t occupy space on the list. Fixing it can improve safety and potentially improve plant performance. without disrupting operations • • ”One thing we’ve learned is that people like to put an alarm on anything. lighting. and how easy is it to interact with the system interface. safety-critical communications. When something goes wrong. noise management. it can be conducted with minimal interruption and meaningful improvements in the way processes are managed. information. ”If we can get the alarm system so it’s not providing useless information that operators don’t need to know.
Gas and Petrochemical Business Unit. Requirements and certifications in specific work environments are considered as well. In the case of an internal fault. detailed to specific tasks and technologies. ”Competence is simply being aware that you are doing things right. keeping the process running is important for personnel safety. and anytime we. through some level of basic safety education. Facets in mapping competence include documenting the type of education each worker has received.” Sometimes. A small mistake can start the ball rolling.” he says. . Lack of a source for this statistic notwithstanding. because certain startups and shutdowns can put people at risk. ”or do they dare not to tell you? ”When you take seriously this process of understanding the competence of each worker. is not simple. Having this knowledge can help with making system selections based on key performance requirements rather than the redundancy architecture of the logic solvers. ”It’s not just knowing what you’re doing.” Stromme most process companies can unlock hidden safety improvements. knowledge of work processes and experience for whatever situation an individual may face. Summary Sponsored by There is no avoiding the need to make ongoing investments in all aspects of safety: equipment. And still others have already been made. Competence. it has to have full logic solver redundancy. By focusing on these five areas: .abb. without disrupting operations 5. While some require long-term planning and capital budgets. John-Erlend Stromme. find ourselves looking at a major accident. few people seem to argue the point that human error is the least predictable and more common source of breakdowns in safety. Map the competence of people One well-worn. based on past experiences that your people have. With that in mind. ”You can have single-element safety systems that can be certified up to SIL 3 levels. as an individual. Service Manager. and are waiting to be utilized and optimized. others are small and fast. and that information will be used to help everyone become better and safer at their job – you are already doing a very good job of reducing risk in your operation.com Visit ABB’s Process Automation Insights blog to join the conversation. but not process safety. ”People around him will know whether he’s someone who tends to make a situation more or less safe. His recommendation is that companies pay to put at least one person.16 they’re going to have a safety system. is to map an individual’s attitude to reducing risk and conducting high-risk work. it seems that’s ultimately how it started. suggests that any company would benefit from a routine and systematic review of the way safety competence is built and maintained among its people. as an industry. If you demonstrate an open mind and attitude – that people won’t be punished. USA Tel: 1 800 HELP 365 (1 800 435 7365) Option 4 Outside USA/Canada: +1 440 585 7804 Fax: +1 440 585 5087 E-mail: NAService_info@us. ”In that case. and if all goes well they’re never going to use it. then it’s designed to lead the plant through a safe shutdown. For more information please contact: North America Customer Service Center 29801 Euclid Avenue Wickliffe OH 44092 1832. But that’s a different decision than the process safety itself. who is respected at the executive level. under-attributed statistic in process safety automation is that machinery is typically the cause in 10 percent of failures.” Stromme says. ”You’ll get the level of information that you have earned. processes.abb. If you want to keep the process running. ”It’s not a true statement” Huffman says. whether in other areas of safety or in operating efficiency. it will also shut down the process safely. Whether you can get that information or not goes to the culture of the company: Do they dare to tell you. says. he notes.” When a singleprocessor system detects a process problem that justifies tripping the plant. the other 90 percent of the time.com www. human error is to blame. It’s a combination of having the right technical knowledge.” Stromme says. ”I’ve lost the process. More difficult but equally important. and what kind of experience. per SIL 3 safety requirements. but knowing how to follow procedures so you can avoid making an error you didn’t know about. however. but because of a fault in the system. in order to be safe.” Huffman says. But not all investments are the same. that says a lot about the importance of safety in an organization. systems and people. Huffman’s point is that companies pay for logic solver redundancy in cases where the investment might have more impact elsewhere.” • • • • • Increasing utilization of automation Decreasing utilization of alarms Considering human factors Understanding the role of redundancy Mapping the competence of people Sponsor Profile Process Safety What Are The Odds? Analysis: Engineering Values From The Top Down Integrating Emergency Shutdown Valves With A Process Control System Developing People: Making Operators More Effective 5 ways to improve safety and profitability.” That means they have to invest in a second set of equipment that is going to require regular testing and maintenance. and in many cases increasing operating effectiveness. ABB Oil. Then use that education as part of the decision-making process around investments in safety and process automation. Huffman says. not because of a process problem. then redundancy is a matter of maintaining uptime. such as the ISA’s EC50 course on Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). without disrupting ongoing operations or making large investments. often to 3x or 4x levels.
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