Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 20/98

Design Review Checklist for Road Projects

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Roads Branch Public Works Department Malaysia Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50582 Kuala Lumpur

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Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Forword

Proper road design and construction require intimate knowledge in many specialized fields of civil engineering. Basic requirements of road design are:: technically practical and cost effective environmental and instituitional acceptability social and political acceptability Good engineered road design should comply with the above basic requirements so that the design can be Implemented without encumbrance and road users including pedestrians can use roads with ease, comfort, safety and no unexpectations. In order to achieve the objective of producing good engineered designs, 28 Arahan Teknik, manuals and guidelines for various road design aspects have been published by Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, to assist road designers. To ensure the deliverables of road design ie drawings, works specifications and bills of quantities for road projects are properly produced by suitably qualified engineers and compiled with all the Arahan Teknik and departmental policies, a comprehensive Road Design Review Checklist is very imperative. It Is hoped that this Road Design Review Checklist will be useful to those engaged upon the design review for road projects. It is also necessary to emphasize that this Checklist is a current guidance document and, as such, its recommendations should be adopted with cautions and good engineering judgement as the the departmental policies and requirements may change from time to time. Users of this checklist are encouraged to give feedback and to comment at any time to Cawangan Jalan on the contents of the Checklist, so that improvements can be made to the future editions.

( DATO' IR DR. WAHID B. OMAR ) Pengarah Cawangan Jalan Ibu Pejabat JKR Malaysia Sept. 1998.

Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects

(42)dlm.PKR(J) Rb.Rb.1/1/3 Jld.3 19 Januari 1998.

Semua Pengarah JKR Negeri Semua Pengarah Unit JKR. Dato'/Tuan, Penggunaan Bahan/Barangan Dan Per'khidmatan Tempatan Dalam Proiek Pembinaan Jalan Dengan hormatnya perkara tersebut di atas adalah dirujuk. Sepertimana yang Dato'/Tuan sedia maklum semua bahan/barangan dan perkhidmatan yang digunakan dalam kerja-kerja pernbinaan jalan mestilah menggunakan bahan/barangan dan perkhidmatan tempatan. Ini adalah selaras dengan Surat Pekeliling Perbendaharaan Bilangan 6 Tahun . . 1997 yang satu salinan disertakan unruk makluman dan rujukan. Bahan/barangan yang selalunya digunakan dalam pembinaan jalan ialah seperti 'bridge joints/bearings, woven and non woven geotextile, prefabricated vertical drains, steel piles, guardrail, road marking material, traffic control device, slope erosion/protection materials, street lighting and associated parts, pavement enhancement chemicals works and additives, etc.' mestilah menggunakan bahan/barangan keluaran tempatan. Sila pihak tuan maklumkan ke pejabat ini dengan segera sekiranya pihak tuan telah menggunakan atau akan menggunakan bahan/barangan yang diimpot supaya justifikasi penggunaan tersebut dapat disediakan dan kelulusan bertulis dari Perbendaharaan Malaysia diperolehi. Kerjasama serta tindakan segera Dato'/Tuan dalam menjayakan arahan Kerajaan ini amatlah diperlukan. Sekian, terima kasih. 'BERKHIDMAT UNTUK NEGARA' Sava yang menurut perintah,

(DATO' IR DR. WAHID B,. OMAR) Pengarah Cawangan Jalan b.p. Ketua Pengarah Kerja Raya JKR Malaysia.
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects CONTENTS TITLE PAGE FOREWORD CONTENTS 1. 2. 7. 8. 3. DESIGN REVIEW CHECKLIST GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF ROAD DESIGN REPORT GUIDELINES FOR SITE INVESTIGATION WORKS GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROAD WORKS GARISPANDUAN UNTLIK POLISI DASAR KE ATAS KEPERLUAN KTMB BAGI PROJEK JAMBATAN MELINTAS1 LALUAN KERETAPI REINFORCED FILL STRUCTURES: DESIGN CRITERIA AND REQUIREMENTS LIST OF ARAHAN TEKNIKJGUIDELINES PUBLISHED BY CAWANGAN ]ALAN. JKR MALAYSIA ROAD KERB DETAILS STANDARD SPECIFICATION OF GEOTEXTILES 6. 9. 5. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 4 . Cawangan Jalan.

K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 5 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects DESIGN REVIEW CHECKLIST Cawangan Jalan.

Eng with adequate experience for the design works Involved.xxxx.. Criteria of removal based on technical need should be clearly stated on drawings (for cases where detailed SI is not available or feasible).. All Designers should be P. Cawangan Jalan.. Piled embankment as ground treatment for road embankment on soft and swampy ground should be avoided and replaced by more cost effective measures wherever posslible. cost effectiveness: optimum cost and with in budget aesthetic: all structures and road side furniture should be pleasing and aesthetic in appearance.1 Earthwork Removal of unsuitable material under road embankments or culverts should be based on design and on SI results.. Ibu Pejabat JKR...L . locations etc should be included.) and relevant spec and have found the design is in good order and comply with good engineering practice MS? BS? and JKR Arahan Teknik . Checkers and approval for major design activities should be checked by URJ Zon Head.. skills and machines/plants easily. basis of the estimated quantities. height of embankment.. K. minimum temporary/abortive works. the checker must be a P. Any unqualified personnel should be rejected and replaced.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Qualification and experience of all Designers. B. Design Page 6 Design Review Checklist for Road Projects The main purpose of design review is to check and to ensure the design deliverables consisting of drawings. Other design details especially the basis of design and estimated quantities should be checked and documented according to URJ's "Garispanduan Penyediaan Laporan Rekabentuk untuk Projek jalan". depth of removal with design cross sections should be included on Drg. l/C nnnn have checked the design criteria / calculations. RQ. If the designer for a design activity is not a P. min maintenance. road profile above designed flood level etc. 2.. BQ L Specifri.Eng. available. 2.Eng with at least 10 years of relevant experiences and a letter to JKR with the following details:"I.. constructibility: ease of construction. environmental: minimum inconvenience and hazard to road users during construction and operation... Statement such as "Depth of removal of soft or unsuitable will be decided at site by the SO" is not acceptable.Comments on the design calculations. Table showing location (chainages).Q (items . maintainability: no problem to access for maintenance.. drawings. 2. specifications should be included". legal/statutory: comply with all local by laws and regulations set by authorities Government and departmental policy: comply with the latest government & department policy. Major work items. min community severance.. Design Report Designer and checker should have adequate experience and qualification to carry out the specific design activity. Drgs xxx.2 - - - - - - - l.:ation are satisfactory with particular reference to the following general aspects: safety: complying with all relevant JKR Arahan Teknik and codes of practice with respect to adequate FOS against all modes of failure and durability requirements functional: adequate road and junction capacity for the designed life.

alternative design may be allowed. say RM5juta or more. rock excavation and imported material fill should be clearly justified. Estimation of rock quantities should be based on some geological evaluation. location. designed cross sections with specific typical details and specific need for certain chainages should be prepared. the SO reserves the right to order stop work and the contractor shall be held (d) (e) (f) 3. 2. KT42/86. (Refer to Geotechnical Design Criteria for Road Works). Unit cost should be based on quotations from several specialist contractors. estimated length. If the Contractor fails to comply with any of these requirements. The volumes of cut and fill should as far as possible balance one another. rock excavation may be around 10% of the total cut volume while for rolling terrain it may have 2°% to 5% rock excavation. but the acceptance criteria shall be clearly specified on Drg and specifications. Generally the slopes for cut and fill sections should be 1:1 and 1:1. type & size. 3. The designer shall check the stability of slopes based on technical analysis.L . KT46/86 8t KT47/86). Similarly. schedule of Page 7 and cost comparion for various ground treatments and slope stabilization should be carried out to justify the recommendation. Generally for hilly/ mountainous terrain.5 respectively.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects responsible to rectify at his own cost for all the defects/failures due to whatever factors/ causes within the defect liability period".All cross sections should be categorised and designed accordingly. invert levels for outlet 8t inlet. In addition to typical cut and fill cross sections. Generally the design criteria should be the post construction settlement should be less than 100mrn in 5 years or less. Drainage The designs of surface drains. etc. When the cost and scope of ground treatment and slope stabilization works are significant. Slope protection such as hydroseeding or turf ing or as specified or directed by the SO shall be carried out immediately within 14 days after the bulk excavation or filling is initiated. Intercepted drain and other drains if specified or directed by the SO should be constructed first with proper permanent or temporary outlet before bulk excavation for roadway or filling is allowed to proceed. suitable horizontal grooves (Not vertical grooves) should be constructed. should be shown on Drg. All cut slopes shall be graded smooth by suitable grader. Basis of estimation should be made known to ]KR in writing especially for projects with excavation exceeding l x 101m3.2 (Refer to Geotechnical Design Criteria for Road 'Works). (b) Quantities for common excavation. time-location chart and construction sequences with details of constructional plants deployment for SO's prior written approval before commencement of earthworks for each location/hill/valley. For cut slopes to be hydroseeded. culverts and slope protection etc should comply with ]KR guidelines (KT41/86. Ibu Pejabat JKR.3 Earthwork design (c) (a) The following notes should be specified in the earthworks design drawing/ specification: "The Contractor shall submit detailed weekly programme. Slope for rock section should be 1:4 to 1:8.1 Cawangan Jalan. FOS required should be at least 1. K. The schedule of culverts including culvert no. The necessary bench/berm drains shall be completed with proper temporary or permanent outlet before it is allowed to proceed the earthworks to the next berm/ bench. sub surface drains. rock profile based on SI or seismic sur vey and site inspection.

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Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects such as ADT, % of commercial vehicles, annual growth rate, equivalence factor, subgrade CBR shall be, elaborated and justified. 5. 5.1 Concrete/Structures Piling Works Bakau piles are riot allowed in ]KR project (arahan KPKR). Local product (`f/T rebars or H piles etc) should be used as reinforcement for micropiles. All precast concrete piles (spun/RC/prestressed) should comply with MS 1314 Part 1. Environmental problems of piling works should be adequately addressed especially in builtup areas eg. No diesel hammers in City areas; only non-displacement piles near railway lines or built-up areas etc. Pile schedule including locations of piles, types 8t no. of piles, estimated pile lengths, design load, test load etc. should be shown on Drg. Criteria of determining founding levels of piles should also be specified on Drg. 5.2 All bridge designs especially the flood level, free board and hydraulic capacity should be cleared from ]PS. Demolition of existing bridge or major culvert should be justified. Structural and hydraulic capacity, foundation condition etc should be assessed before making recommendations. Adequate and appropriate deck drainage should not be overlooked. Artist's impression of the bridge should be prepared to check the aesthetic aspect. All bridge structures hould be checked by bridge engineers of at least 5 years bridge design experience and have published some technical papers. Scope of checking should at least include suitability of structural layout, max flood level, compliance of geometric requirements, structural and foundation design, drainage and bridge furniture etc. Design report including
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surface drains including type of drains, locations, estimated gradient, length etc. should also be shown on Drg. 3.2 No CMP is allowed except when the following 3 condit ions are fully complied: culvert size exceeds 2.5m diam or equivalent 3 cast insitu box culvert is not possible or practical because the waterway cannot be diverted or too costly to divert the waterway. access is very difficult or no proper access is available Pavement Surface Evenness/ lrregularities & Design Class of surface evenness should be shown on Drawing and BQ. (Refer Table 4.14 ]KR Standard Road Spec). Class SRI should be adopted for all R4, R5, R6 new Roads. Class SR2 should be for urban road and the design speed is less than 60 km/hr. SR3 should be for R1 Road. It is suggested that each traffic lane has to be tested longitudinally. Transverse direction should be tested at 100m spacing. The full extent of the area which does not comply with the spec shall be made good based on acceptable method of rectification approved by the SO. A BQ item "To carry out all necessary Quality control tests for pavement works including surface evenness test - L.Sum" should be Included. (See Para 9.4). Design life of pavement should be 10 years as recommended in Arahan Teknik 5/85, but for major road where the projected ADT up to 10 years exceeding 10,000 per lane, the design life should be 20 years. Basis of design parameters
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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b)

c)

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Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects all traffic diversion and safety matters. The Contractor has to provide and maintain the approved traffic diversion plan in good order at ,all time (no pot hole, good road marking, adequate sign boards, traffic barrier/cones/New Jersey Barrier, blinker light etc). If the contractor fails to comply with these requirements within 2 hours after SO's oral or written instruction, the SO or his representatives reserve the right to order stop work under Clause xx and/or to engage any other third party to carry out any of the works deemed necessary by the SO and all the cost incurred including at least 25% administrative cost shall be borne by the Contractor and will be deducted accordingly from the Contractor's interim payment. These requirements should be included in Spec and Drgs to ensure satisfactory implementation of traffic diversion plan which should be prepared bar qualified traffic engineer. 7. Services relocation plan should be properly prepared. Type, size or capacity of the buried or overhead utility/services with their respective locations should be shown on Drgs. These details should be based on information furnished by the relevant utility agency plus site inspection plus trenching or other reliable probing or testing. All necessary details and billed items should be included. The affected utility agencies should give due coorperation to help consultant to procure all the necessary details fast; otherwise all the necessary testings and cost of preparation can be passed to the utility agencies to pay. This is in line with PM Department's circular that all costs involved in services relocation within ROW have to be fully borne by the affected utility agencies. If the utility agencies choose to carry out the relocation/protection works by them selves, the following points should be
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bridge proform based on JKR guidelines for bridge/structure should be submitted for approval. 5.3 Concrete Finishes All concrete finishes shall be free from defects such as honeycomb, porous concrete, laitance, uneven surfaces etc. The dimensions of the finished concrete shall be within the tolerable limits specified. The defective finishes shall be rejected or rectified with satisfactory measures recommended by specialist and approved by the SO. All exposed concrete surfaces of the complete structure affected directly or Indirectly by the rectification works have to be painted with 2 coats of acrylic paints approved by the SO. All the costs involved In the rectification works have to be borne by the Contractor. The above requirements are to deter contractor from producing shoddy works. 5.4 Bar schedule for all R.C works should be included on Drags. Traffic diversion/management The Consultant has to prepare a practical traffic diversion plan where appropriate so as to ensure minimum inconvernence to road users. eg during construction stage, no of traffic lanes and capacity should not be reduced especially during the peak hours; the existing profile of road, if possible, should not be reduced or raised significantly ( > 0.3m) unless proper diversion is arranged etc. The Contractor shall engage a full time safety officer with at least, with SPM qualification and min 5 year working experience in road construction to supervise and maintain

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Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects state OPEN and Town and Country Planning Department about roadside development plans which should be incorporated into the design. 9. 9.1 Miscellaneous No imported material to be incorporated in the design unless prior written approval from Treasury and MITI have been procured. Road kerbs should not exceed 150mm high. New JKR kerb design should be adopted. Embankment kerb drain (shall u drain) should be used instead of half circle drain. Interlocking blocks for raised walkway or under the flyover should be replaced by cast insitu or precast concrete slab if found necessary. All Consultants should be constantly reminded to take note of the following: Use JKR Standard Spec with necessary addendum but QC tests and necessary subsequent rectification (if necessary and appropriate) for each section of works Spec should be proposed and included in Addendum Spec. BQ according to sequence of spec should be preferred. BQ should include items for the QC tests. The requirement that all QC tests should be checked, witnessed, verified and endorsed by a P.Eng should be indicated in BQ and Specification. Requirements for QC test to ensure good quality works expressed in Spec a BQ for earthworks, drainage works, pavement, road furniture etc should be included. (See enclosure). 9.5 Estimated quantities should be justified by detail take off, and audited by independent person. Built up rate should be included. Quotations from few suppliers or specialist contractors for each major items should also be
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clearly made known; to the utility agency concerned in writting as early as possible: - the scope, specification and plan of services relocation works should be agreed by ]KR so as to reduce interface problems during construction - the utility agency and/or his Contractor/agent will be fully responsible to pay and reimburse the full cost. to JKR or JKR Contractor if the relocation work is delayed, or the relocation works are not done according to JKR Spec or the relocation works have damaged the complete works by the JKR contractor. 8. Land Acquisition Land problems with particular reference to the following should be highlighted: - no, location and type of squatters within ROW/Government land (if any) - no of private lots, land use and area to be acquired - no, size/area, and type of buildings eg factory, shop, hall, timber house, mosque, kull, temples, school etc. - no, size and species of trees affected by construction The cost and time/programme to resolve these problems should be highlighted to JKR in writing and shown on drgs (verified by surveyor if possible). The cost for LA including compensation for buildings should be based on advice byPTG and JKR district office. Preparation of LA plan shall comply with Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7/85. Check with JKR District/State as well as
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

9.2

9.3

9.4

Road Safety Auditor can be from the same organisation except that he/she must have all the following qualifications and experience: (i) have at least 5 year road design experience or have published some technical papers/reports about road safety or have presented a technical talk about road safety/traffic management in seminar/conference (at least national level). Road Safety Audit Report for the detail design especially the junction design. availability and quality eg.8 9.Eng have attended a road safety course conducted by IEM/REAM/ university/ IKRAM or. all Page 11 Cawangan Jalan. 9. imported fill. premix. pre cast piles/culvert pipes/kerbs etc for the estimated quantities should be identified and assessed etc.L . Quatations for unit price for these quantities from the near by suppliers should be assessed. All accepted Working Drawings for tender should be endorsed by P.Eng have published some relevant technical papers in the relevant field of specialization In seminar/conference (at least national level).FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects geotechnical & structural designs should be checked.9 In addition to road safety audit. where to procure sand. bricks. (ii) (iii) a P.6 Sources of supply for important construction materials should be identified and assessed for. 9. (ii) (iii) a P. audited and endorsed by experts who should have all the following qualifications & experience:(i) have at least 10 years working experience or a Ph. Uturns etc should be submitted and accepted before the Design Report.7 9. Eng (Director of the Consulting firm) after the final Design Review. included as part of the basis of the estimated cost. stone. The design SHOULD not be accepted if a satisfactory report about sources of supply of major materials has not been prepared.have been accepted as a road safety auditor for several road projects. Ibu Pejabat JKR.D holder In the relevant field of specialization. K.

K.L Page 12 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF R OAD DESIGN REPOR T Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

Cawangan Jalan.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects GARIS PANDUAN PENYEDIAAN LAPORAN REKABENTUK UNTUK PR OJEK JALAN KETUA PENGARAH KERJA RAYA JABATAN KERJA RAYA. 50582 KUALA LUMPUR. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. JALAN SULTAN SALAHUDDIN.L Page 13 .

c) Design Checklist certification The Consultant has to cover all items stated in Lampiran A with full details.Drainage Design .Traffic studies/analysis & findings.Background and brief description of the project .Scope of survey and site investigation. D1 & E.D.C. and Cawangan Jalan. Laporan Rekabentuk ini mestilah disediakan setelah rekabentuk telah disiap kan. Calculations and Analysis The following important road design elements should be furnished with design concept. Tuiuan Tujuan garispanduan ini ialah untuk membantu Konsultan yang dilantik oleh JKR menyediakan laporan Rekabentuk mengikut format tertentu dan mengandungi data-data penting untuk rujukan kelak. d) Design Concept. Kandungan Laporan Rekabentuk Konsultan dikehendaki mengemukakan salinan deraf kepada Pengarah Cawangan Jalan untuk disernak dan diluluskan sebelum menyediakan 3 salinan laporan muktamat untuk tujuan dokumentasi dan simpanan JKR.Retaining walls . Ibu Pejabat JKR. design parameter. Isi kandungan laporan mestilah mengandungi perkara-perkara berikut :a) Introduction .Bridges/viaducts/flyovers/ major culverts .ground treatments (if any) . K.Cut slope stability analysis .Earthworks Design and Planning Guidelines to prepare the above are given in Lampiran B. calculations analysis etc: .slope stabilization works (if any) .Fill slope stability and settlement analysis . Ini adalah untuk mem pastikan semua rekabentuk adalah dibuat mengikut amalan kejuruteraan yang baik dan disemak oleh jurutera yang bertauliah serta berpengalaman yang mencukupi. . Page 14 . JKR akan menyemak sebelum menerima clan rnendokumen tasikannya. Comments on how all the issues raised by the auditors are dealt with should be Garispanduan Penyediaan Laporan Rekabentuk untuk Prorjek Jalan 1. std.L 2.majorstructures/ bridges / walls etc.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects conceptional solutions .) b) Technical Proposal . specialists input.Methodology of design for major design components.Geometric Design .Manual of maintenance and operation (if any). .Pavement Design . std. estimated cost etc.Programme (time input and design activities) .scope of the project (length. .EIA (problems. . e) Road Safety Audit Copy of the road safety audit checklist and result should be enclosed. impact and mitigation measures etc).Purpose of the report . Auditor's name and his/her qualification should be clearly stated.Main technical problems.

Possible cost effective sources along or around the alignment should identified. costing etc.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects given. Locations and nature of geotechnical/geological problems should be highlighted. g) Services / utilities Relocation Type and scope of services/ utilities relocation required should be stated. should be carried out in respect to the required quantities. possible sources. f) Geotechnical Report Generalized. qualities. suitable fill. Methods and sequences of relocation and cost involved for each type of utility should be elaborated. h) Material Source Study Report Study on important construction materials such as sand. laterite.L Page 15 . i) Cawangan Jalan. subsoil profile and important properties of the road and a geological Map showing the important geological formation traversed should be included. (see Lampiran r and G for guidelines). Ibu Pejabat JKR. List of Drawings List of drawings and subject matter (drawing titles) should be included. crushed rocks etc. K.

L Page 16 . Quantities estimation Land Acquisition Plan preparation Specification & tender documents preparation. shall be given for the following Cawangan Jalan. checkers and director who approves the design with their respective brief CV & post in the consulting firm together with their approximate man-month input for the project should be given for the following important design activities:a) Overall planning & road design b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) 4.. construction control criteria at site etc. new road. improvement. . Design Justification for Major Works Items Locations (chainage). nature of works (upgrading.. Others 3. land acquisition. Road alignment selection & Geometric design Highway engineering and junction or interchange design Road drainage &. 2.. Pavement evaluation/design Road safety design/audit Other special structures BQ. length of road. estimated cost for construction. implementation programme if available etc. Records of Designers/checkers/ approval Designers.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Lampiran A Road Design Checklist/Certification (shall be filled by the consultant/designer and approved by Pengarah Jalan/JPK before: calling tender) 1.).. interchange . services relocation. hydrology Bridge design Geotechnical investigation and design (slope stability foundation etc. Professional costs and miscellaneous. ).. K.ustification for the design or quantities adopted to show the basis used or assumed. Project: General Description of the Works Briefly describe scope of works including class of road.. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

................. care and diligence by competent engineers as stated above.. Major culvert (>1.... culvert and cut formation (locations. Eng.............. type of treatment & basis of selection). method of estimation) Removal of unsuitable materials below embankment... I/C: ... Bridge/retaining walls (quantities should be in Nos and surface area) and foundation types (quantities & basis of the design)........... Ground treatment (locations.....L Page 17 .... K.. quantities...... quantities......... ...... Slope stabilization works (locations..................... Ibu Pejabat JKR...... type of treatment & basis of selection)......... Designation & Name of Consulting Engineer Firm P. Chop Cawangan Jalan.......5 m size) Pavement (thickness of pavement elements & surface area). (Name..... basis of estimation & field control criteria).......FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects major works items:Rock excavation (locations..... Confirmation/certification This is to certify that the above mentioned road design works have been carried out with reasonable and due professional skill.............. quantities & basis of estimation) Common excavation (locations........ Other special structures - - 5. quantities....... ....

4. Records of Designers/checks/approval The designer/checkers/approval for various important design activities are as follows:Project Director:Ir Othman Ali Designer 2. 2 bridges i. K. ABC of 120 m long (3 spans) and Bridge over Sg.e. bridge over Sg. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Chief Road Designer Geometric design Drainage design Traffic design Road safety design : } } } } Ir Lim AB Checker Approval - Ir Ali Hassan Ir Lim AB Ir Othman Ali Cawangan Jalan.0j RM1.000 m2) Long houses for 50 squatters Services relocation TNB TMB JBA Professional fees (design & supervision) Miscellaneous (SI.0 Project: Mernbina dan Menyiapkan Jalan Masuk ke Pelabuhan Baru.0j RM153. 5. One diamond interchange - The estimated cost for the project is as follows:a) Construction cost : RM120 juta.0 2. 3. General Description of the WorksThe project consists of:Construction of 12 km of JKR R05 dual two highway of which 8 km is new alignment and the remaining 4 km is existing R03/RO4 2 lane road to be upgraded. 6.CDE of 80 m long (3 span).0 1.5j c) d) e) This project is scheduled to be implemented in 1996 and completed within 2 years. 3.0j RM7.5j RM1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Example Road Design Checklist 1. b) Land acquisition (40.L Page 18 . Survey etc.) Total = = = = = = = RM20 j RM2j RM2j RM0.

Has more than 35 years of working experiences. 14. Eng. P. Senior Geologist More than 10 years experiences in geological engineering.Eng. K. Senior Structural Engineer Has successfully designed more than 100 bridges/structures. Ahmad Ali Ir Ho AB Ir Razali Ir Choo KK Ir Mazlan } Ir Tan YY En. : 5.Eng. P. Has published about 50 technical papers on road design and construction. M.Sc. En. Has more than l0 years experiences in roads. P. Ir Ali Hassan BE. CEng He is an associate director of the Co. Ir Bala BE. Eng MIEM. Ir Lim AB : 35 years working experiences including 20 years of BE.Sc. Ir Othman Ali BE. : 4. Senior road engineer Have successfully designed five road projects of more than RM100 millions. MICE.Eng) Ir Choo KK (B. : Cawangan Jalan. : 6.Eng. P. 13. & Bo Land acquisition plan Services relocation Street Lighting/Traffic Signal Landscaping design Ir Lee YY Ir Khoo XX Ir Ali Hassan Ir Soo TT } Ir Soo TT } En. Has published several technical papers about road engineering in international conferences. 12. Ir Ho AS : BE. Ibu Pejabat JKR. P. 10. P.) : 8. Published more than 100 technical papers about geotechnical engineering.. Geotechnical Specialist More 20 years in geotechnical design. Rajo Ir Bala Ir Wong MY } } Ir Othman } Ali } 7.L Page 19 . Azman Brief CV of the key designers/checkers are as follows:1.. CEng. 7.Eng. Senior Road Engineer More than 10 years road supervision & design experience. Geotechnical design Geological design 9. 3. : Director (Roads) of the Co. 11. Wong MY B. Eng MIEM.FIEM road design and supervision works. MIEM P. FICE. MIEM MBA. M. M.Eng. Bridge/Structure design Spec.Sc. FIEM. MIEM MISTruct E. 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Ir Tan SV En. 8. Ir Razali (B. Has more than 10 years experiences in structural design. Senior Contract Engineer More than 15 years working experience in site supervision and contract management.Eng.

4 Bridges/walls 2 bridges. Soo TT BE En.Eng. Ch. 1500 .1800 is about 2 m.Sc. 68 Nos. bored piles of 600 mm diam & capacity 150 ton are used. m = 880 cu. P. Ahmad All 10. should be removed for embankment height less than 5m. MIEM.000 cu. based on boreholes. En.m Estimated based on BH3. seismic survey and site inspection fx studies by geologist. 10.L . 4800 & Ch.000 m. P. Ibu Pejabat JKR.000 rn and 8.m Mainly at Ch. : 11. MIEM. MIEM works. Khoo XX (BE) En.200 4.A 10 years experiences 13. Geotechnical Engineer 5 years working experience in Geotechnical P. 1500 . Eng. Azman (B. : 15. Civil Engineer 2 years experience Electrical Engineer 2 years experience T.000. 4000. All very soft silty or peaty clay should be removed or strata with JKR probes less than 30 blowsift.500 m2.m Mainly near Ch. 2001).2 4. 11000 (See longi plan). Specialist in Landscaping More than 10 years working experience. Ch. Ir Mazlan BE. Geological for Page 20 Cawangan Jalan.880 cu. : 14. En. m Total quantity = 5. 2.) 9.000 cu. M. Rajo (B. for Road Works.1800 Culverts at Ch. 5 & 9 and 507 JKR probes. Common Excavation Estimated quantity = 1. Definition for rock is according to JKR Standard Spec.3 = 5000 cu. 4000. 4.Sc) Ir Lee YY (BE. 4. K.Sc) Ir Tan SV (BE.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects : Senior Electrical Engineer More than 12 years working experience.1 Design Justification for Maior Works Rock Excavation Estimated quantity = 12. 8000 and Ch. total area = 4. 4. : 12.Eng) En. : : : 16. Bridge/Structure Engineer More than 4 years experiences in bridge design. : Engineering Geologist More than 5 years experiences. Removal of Unsuitable Material Below embankment Ch. Expected thickness of soft material between Ch.

10.8 m x 2m All the above major culverts are not founded on piles. 4.7 Major culvert Ch.000 .000 m2 Design life is 20 years and design subgrade CBR = 5% 5. about 5. (Ir Othrnan Ali) I/C No.200.8 x 2 m Ch. Vertical drain is too slow & also needs extra land for stabilizing berms. All unsuitable materials are replaced with sand/laterite. 11. 4.000 m2 320 mm Base Course = 195.000 m3.6 Sloge Stabilization Soil nail and gunning method are used to stabilize cut slope at Ch.500 m2.5 RE walls = 2000 m2 for approach to flyover at diamond interchange. Certification This is to certify that the above mentioned road design works have been carried out with reasonable and due professional skill. 100 mm diam soil nails of 12 m long to 18 rn are used (850 Nos. care and diligence by competent engineers/specialists as stated above. Ground Treatment Sand replacement mainly at Ch.300 where embankment is 3 rn 5m high and soft subsoil is more than 7m.11.000 m2 = 195. CMP culvert 3.1800. box cul vert 1. presence of unstable relict joint and bedding.). K. Piled embankment is more expensive.000 & 14. 14. 4.5.200 to avoid chasing the slope and ensure FOS > 1.8 Pavement Works 40 mm ACWC 70 mm ACBC = 200. A 591100B P.L Page 21 . 1500 . 4000. Ch. This method is the most cost effective to solve stability and settlement problem.000 m2 150 mm subbase = 195.Eng. 4800. 4. EPS embankment (35. box culvert 1. area = 2. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The cut slope consists of highly weathered shale/mudstone/sandstone and is highly unstabla from geological point of view. Detail report given to Cawangan Jalan and has been accepted.000 m3 EPS) is used at Ch. : M19999 Date : Cawangan Jalan.5m diam.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects mation : Shale (SPT > 50) at 5 m bgl.

Design parameters Cu . This helps in the evaluation of the strength param eters used in design. presence of unstable geological features should be included.T. 1. Prefer to present the analysis in table form (include chainage. Decision must be made whether to assume hydrostatic or other pore water pressure distribution in the slope. Location (chainage) 2. Analysis Method of analysis used or name of established/well known software package used in analysis should be stated.short term analysis for cohesive soil 1. Ibu Pejabat JKR. If geological condition is unfavourable. 3. References should be made to techniques used in applying the resistance envelope theory and back analysis. Sensitivity analysis with hydrostatic head and etc. Analysis must also be made on the performance of existing cut slopes within the vicinity of the area of similar geology and topography.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Lampiran B Cut Slope All cut slopes or hill exceeding 1 benches or more than 10 m vertical height should be designed and checked by expehenced geotechnical engineers. Design inventory for EACH cut slope should include the following details for documentation.long term analysis C water table where? Give justification/basis for the above important parameters including summarised soil investi gation and lab test redsults. geological information and subsoil profile etc. These should be shown on typical cross-sections. the latter shall be checked for changes in hydrostatic head and/or R values. Ø1 . justification of whitih shall be made based on sound site investigation and monitoring scheme. it is recommended that stereonets are plotted and analysis is made to identify the most probable mode of failure. FOS obtained for each slope should be stated for each design assumption. FOS obtained). should be carried out.L Page 22 . Cawangan Jalan. Details of print out should not be included unless requested by JKR. Sensitivity analysis must be carried out with regards to the changes in the shear strength parameters and pore water pressure conditions. Geological report especially identification of geological formation. K. Refences concerning the analysis should be indicated. Typical cross-sec tion for each designed slope should show W. design parameter used. Justification for parameter used should be given below the Table.

Explain why the particular option is recommended. Attention must also be given to ease of construction and maintenance of the chosen scheme. K. Other important information a) Designer: name.Eng No. 5. Brief description of the system & works specification should be included. extent and purposes of instrumentation and monitoring works during construction and operation stages should be clearly specified and justified. c) Engineering geologist: d) Specialist Consultant if (any) Note: One of the above should be a specialist in geotechnical engineering with not less than 10 years experiences in geotechnical works. guidelines on lift-off tests and other maintenance and monitoring works to be carried out on permanent anchors shall refer to BS 8081 or equivalent. Brief description of the cost analysis conducted shall be made to justify the stabilization scheme selected. Guidelines on maintenance must be clearly outlined and relevant standards shall be used and clearly specified.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects 4. P. No. of years of working experiences. topography and geomorphology on the long term performance of the proposed scheme. no. b) Checker/Approval: name of director. acadermic qualification.. of years of working experiences.Eng. Special attention must be given to the effect of hydrogeology. of years of working experiences. Cawangan Jalan. Instrumentation/monitoring works Types. but stability analysis should be carried for two or more types of stabilization methods. No.L Page 23 . acadermic qualification P. acadermic qualification and no. Ibu Pejabat JKR. name. For example. 6. Slope stabilization works (if any) As para 3 above.

for fill body and supporting ground Give justification/basis for the above parameters adopted. 4. CR . Cawangan Jalan. 5. Explain why the particular type of treatment is adopted. but stability and settlement analysis should be carried out for few options of treatments. Acceptance criteria should be justified. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Furnish specification for the system and materials adopted. FOS for slip failure and bearing capacity should be given/estimated by using established methods. Location (s) 2. Other information See para 6 Lampiran B. Show the typical cross-section with design data and generalised subsoil profile. 1. 3. Furnish with cost compar ison.consolidation properties . Design parameters Cu C1.L Page 24 . Detail print out not nec essary unless requested by JKR. Ground Treatment (if any) As Para 3 above. 6. For embankment on soft or unstable ground stability and settlement checks should be carried out irrespective of height. Instrumentation/monitoring works Types and extent of instrumentation and monitoring works during construction and mainte nance stages should be clearly specified and justified.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Lampiran C Fill Slopes All fill slopes exceeding one berm or more than 6 m should be thoroughly designed and checked against stability and settlement. Design inventory for each embankment should include the following details. Cc. K. Ø1 Water table? Cv. Post construction settlement in respect to total settlement and differential settlement should be estimated. Analysis Method of analysis/calculaticns OR name of soft-ware package used.

Important information should include:* Generalized subsoil prnfile. hydraulic and structural design. * Construction control.cc-tural no (if any). Design Code/Practice * Design loadings * Structural design * Foundation design * Bridge accessories Goint. parapet etc. material used * Span arrangement. bearing. chainage no.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Lampiran D Bridge/Viaducts/Flyover Name of Structure * River name. * Justification for the foundation system. horizontal & bending stress/load requested by JKR. stn. Explanation of Design Concept * Structural type/system &. * Analysis of working load on piles (vertical. Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR. However no printout to be enclosed unless requested by JKR) Foundation Design As per Lampiran D1.) * Hydrology and hydraulics. * Structural & geotechnical capacity of the foundation system proposed.L Page 25 . K. Input/assumptions used and important working loads predicted should be stated). * Vertical and lateral clearances * Construction method and maintenance aspects * Aesthetics Specific Requirements (where relevant) * K'TM * Port Authority * DOE * JPS Detailed Design * Design assumptions * Design analysis (to name softwares used for hydrology. fxity etc.

Site Condition 3. cables etc. 3. carried out generalized subsoil properties and profile ground water (undersirable salt contents. if known buried structure (water pipes. Objective 2. rolling. if any nearby S. 3. types of foundation and their performance.I. flat or fill ground types of vegetation any swamp or waterlogged areas? nearby structures with particulars reference to distance.I.3 Other relevant information - geophysical data. if any aeriai photo. land drainage paterns (rivers. I. results.2 Subsurface condition - geological information scope of S. Introduction Types of structure and loading. K. tidal level.). Ibu Pejabat JKR. comments or evaluation of S. possible fluctuation of water table etc.1 Surface condition 3. 1. types of struc ture.). if any nearby curdrop of rock.L . results. sewer pipes.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Lampiran D1 Guidelines for Pile Foundation Report Preparation (Geotechnical) Suggested guidelines for preparation of the report are given below and the guidelines are not considered to be exhaustive or intended to restrict the scope of the report in any manner. - topography : hilly. flood levels etc). if known nearby deep excavation. Page 26 Cawangan Jalan. height.

for big pile group. design parameters should be shown in Appendix. railway etc. Possible ground settlement due to fill on soft subsoil? - 4. if piles are used. states FQS used to derive allowable loads of piles. 4. Cawangan Jalan. state stable slope inclination. - - 4. approach road condition etc. design perimeters used should be clearly stated. retaining walls etc. slope protection.4 Load Testing Requirement - state nos. and recommendations Selection of types of foundation - state types of foundation recommended and reasons/criteria based. also state whether the pile are frictional.3 Settlement Analysis - estimate elastic and consolidation settlement for the pile group and assumptions should be clearly stated. of tests required method of test and details criteria of acceptance of load results (it different from JKR Standard Specification).2 Estimation of ultimate loads - state method/forrnula. and correlation of soil parameters (Quote reference). check block failure and group efficiency with particular reference to frictional piles. 4. if necessary.1 nearby quarry. end-bearing or both. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. subsoil drainage. 4. Foundation analysis.L Page 27 . analysis leading to conclusion on that particular type of pile should be shown (use chart or table). detailed analysis to obtain. assumptions.5 Associated designs - if there are major cut and fill slopes.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects 4. Negative friction may need to be considered if in compressible subsoil where the ground is likely to settle. surface drainage. Analysis to obtain design parameters should be shown in Appendix.

special precautions against possible damages to nearby structures.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects - any soil improvement? general drainage design if geotechnical properties are affected. 6. K. Cawangan Jalan.6 Constructional advice 5. extent and degree of supervision possible site problerns and how to overcome special precautions necessary to ensure design considerations are fulfilled. Reference List of references. Conclusion Brief summary of foundation recommendation. methods of construction. check how the above problems which may affect loading in piles. 4.L Page 28 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.

Geology of the route chosen. ESAL & subgrade CER -. Generalized subsoil profile Identify locations and quantitie=s of cut. Use JKR std. Drainage Design Should be based on JKR's guidelines for the return periods. cut and fill slopes. K.justification/basis for these values should be explained. Global drainage requirements should be checked.20 years unless otherwise specified by JKR). drain types. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Machines requirements Tolerances of earthvvrork Quality control plan etc. Geometric Design Route locations. comparison of various alternative routes and explain why the particular route is chosen. sure the proposed spec.L Page 29 . moisture content CBR of subgrade etc. fill and rock Identify sources suitable fill material and their properties Compaction control : % of compaction required. is adequate for the purpose and also achievable frcrr. - Cawangan Jalan. Make. Protection of earthrvorks : fill formation.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Lampiran E Pavement Design Design life (for major road should be . Junction design and traffic analysis Capacity analysis Road safety features Earthworks Design and Planning Terrain & alignment conditions of the chosen route. the proposed sources. Design calculation (Arahan Teknik).

List of references Relevant references should be listed or enclosed. Generalized subsoil profile for important structures shell also be included. The geotechnical report snail basically consist of the following chapters/paragraphs:a) Objective To state precisely and concisely the intents and purposes of the report. Subsoil Conditions Brief description with plan showing types of geological formation traversed by the proposed alignment. drawings/sketches etc. water table etc. Appendix Detailed calculations. class of road. length of road. slope stabilization and ground improvernent works and cost/technical comparison analysis of various design options shall be included in Appendix. instrumentation works should be included. c) e) f) Cawangan Jalan. should be included. Justifications for each geotechnical design criteria and design policy. A table showing summaries of the design (enclosed) should be included. photos. K.L Page 30 . Detailed design calculations for structural foundations. A topo plan showing the alignment and terrain. no of traffic lanes. vegetation. terrain traversed.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Lampiran F JKR Guidelines for Preparation of Geotechnical Report for Road Proiects These guidelines are not considered to be exhaustive or intended to restrict the scope of the report in any manner. b) Introduction General/brief description of the project with particular reference to estimated project cost. swamp etc. A longitudinal secticsn showing the generalized subsoil profile with classified subsoil strata and typical properties. Ibu Pejabat JKR. major structures involved etc. d) Geotechnical Analysis Classification of geotechnical problems/design concepts. scope of works. Scope of site investicfation and summarized subsoil properties.

Project Name : Summary of Geotechnical Design Fill/Cut Height (m) Type of Subsoil Geotechnical Design/Remarks FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Cawangan Jalan.L Chainage Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Page 31 . Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.

This will avoid or reduce the likely risks of unexpected hazards being encountered during and after construction. liquid limit. test techniques and possible geotechnical problems arise from ground conditions with part rular' reference to problems on stability and df:formation or displacement of slopes and founrations are essential for planning the scope of site investigation (SI) works. Cawangan Jalan JKR Malaysia Abstract Site investigation is an essential. sieve analysis.igineers. Cv. o') and compress ibility (Cc. and the amount of existing information available.-. The planning of SI works should be carried out by suitably qualified geotechnical engineers after review of the project brief/route location: desk study and a preliminary field inspection. the nature of these subsoil strata. and so the spacing and location of boreholes/test pits/types of tests should be more closely related to the detailed geology of the project area and the geotechnical problem/analysis required to be carried out. Additional scope of SI may be found necessary after some preliminary SI results are made available. (usually one or two borehoies in addition to three or more Deep Sounding (DS) or piezocones are used to determine the generalized sub soil profile for deposited formation at each stretch of soft ground. part of geotechnical design process. This paper intends to suggest some guidelines for planning the scope of SI for road projects. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. extent & composition of each distinct subsoil stratum. the strength. Mv). the depth. For residual soils areas. C'. Page 32 Guidelines For Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works For Road Projects by Ir Neoh Cheng Aik Jurutera Penguasa Kanan. Only general principles and rationale underlying the site investigation practice are presesited. compressibility properties of soil/rock stratum and other ground features information as required by geoieahnical engineers to perform appropriate cost effective design. All the quality SI works should be closely directed. BS 1377 and JKR Standard. the depth & composition of ground water. shear strength (Cu. supervised and reported by geotechnical e. All deep boring should be rotary wash boring with adequate capacity and accessories to perform the works specified.L . However it should be noted that subsoil conditions of a road alignment are very sensitive to geological Cawangan Jalan. adequate number of boreholes and other relevant field tests should be carried out to determine the subsoil condition with particular reference to:the geometry of the subsoil strata both transversely and longitudinally. their basic physical properties or index proper ties (moisture content. For filling areas where embankment is high (> 6 m) or the ground is swampy and consists of compressible soils. monitored. thickness. hand augering (HA) and deep boring (DB) plus JKR probes are performed instead of DS). organic content). Intimate knowledge of Ihr. The extent of site investigation mainly depends on the character and variability of the subsoil and ground water. overall slope stability and provide necessary soil data for design of ground treatment works (if found necessary). At least two undis turbed samples per distinct soft strata per borehole plus field & lab testing are pre ferred. General Site Investigation (SI) is the exploration or discovery of the ground conditions to enable engineers to make informed design decisions. The main purpose of SI is to determine within practical limits. All site investigation (SI) works should comply with BS 5930. Filling Areas The purpose of SI in filling areas is mainly to check bearing capacity and assess settlement of the ground. Specification for SI works. plastic limit.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects conditions. SG.

The extent of site investigation in embankment areas should be sufficient to produce ade quate characterization of site conditions and properties to assess slope stability. This is for assessment of the stability of slopes and drainage requirements. erosion and terrain characteristics aspects are very important for slope design. more boreholes should be carrie=d out to deter mine the presence of unstable so. regime of ground water (and seepage). soil properties and water table conditions 'far slope stability checking and design of slope stabilization works when necessary.f/rock horizons. joints. Seismic survey may have to be carried out for major road projects passing through mountainous areas involving massive and deep excavation This is to ensure that more geo logical information are made available for slope stability assessment and also the quantity of rock excavation can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. (compaction properties) and assess the suitability as construction material specified. index and strength properties from on quality samples etc. For cut areas. boreholes should only ba terminated after reaching very stiff/dense strata ('two consecutive SPT values exceeding 20) for soft ground areas such as in coastal alluvial soils. in addition to geological mapping. A a practical guide. Cawangan Jalan. For road alignment passing through the same type of geological formation. the character and orientaVon of all structural discontinuities. In. adequate soil investigation should be carried out to determine the type of soils (soil classification. to predict amount and rate of settlement and to design the necessary cost effective ground treatment. at least three boreholes per major hill should be carried out to determine the stratigraphical formation.proper assessment of possible subgrade strength and drainage conditions.e. the case of sizeable project on subsoil consisting of very compressible organic clay.L .600 m. sheared zones. the depth of boreholes should extend through all compressible or unsuit able soil or unstable laminated weathered rock at shallow depth (< 6 m) which is likely to encounter instability and settle ment problems due to the surcharge load of the filling. i. In residual soil areas. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The SI for cut areas to be pontential borrow areas is to determine soil properties.g. instrumented trial embankments incorporated with ground improve-ment techniques may 1-iave to be carried out to ensure the design is cost effective. Detailed geological mapping may also be required. one or two hand augering plu. and its variation (by HA/DB and piezometers) . laminated bedding. Foam drilling and Mazier sampling are only required for high quality undisturbed samples in deter mining the shear strength of the residual soils. less number of boreholes are required or spacing should be 500 m Page 33 Stationary piston samplers should be used for taking samples from soft strata. Infiltration. at least one borehole should be extended until very hard/very dense strata (SPT value exceeds 50). foliation etc. For generalized subsoil profile purpose of the whole alignment (including in filling areas). the spacing of boreholes or hand augering for highway projects should be 60 m . Generally.: a few JKR probes are sufficient for design.) and ground water level and its uariation and fluctuation (by Casangrande stand-pipe or pneumatic piezometer). Additional penetration vane shear and pressure meter tests are invaluable to obtain representative strength and consoli dation properties of the soft ground. e. For filling on steep sloping ground. Exploration to a minimum depth of 2 m to 3 m below the proposed formation level is necessary for . interface). For sedimentary rock areas. K. For low embankment in res:dual soil areas. the presence of defective or unstable geological structural discontinuities and its strength properties.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Cut Areas The purpose of SI in cut areas is to procure geological information (soil/rock.

At least one test pit (2 m deep or more) should be carried out at each major cut area which form major sources for filling. model etc. more borehofes at closer spacing are necessary. dispersion and compaction test should be carefully planned for study on suitability and availability of filling materials. All soil classification test (natural moisture content. vegetation & other rel evant surface features). SI report should be prepared and checked by a suitably qualified engineer. boring machine set up.) shall be taken to give general site conditions. K. The report should include but not limited to the following:Terms of Reference. Record of time & date of bo. soft clay strata (alternate to SPT/vane test) for consolidation/shear test especially for boreholes at abutment/ approach to abutment. purpose and scope of SI. Cawangan Jalan. ing operation and ground water observation. So4 & chloride con tents). Atterberg limits. Bridges and Structures For major structures like bridges. CBR.r rn interval unless otherwise stated by the designer.) used.0m 9m – 21m 4.5m 6. JKR probes should be carried out near the HA positions and filling areas to verify the consistency of the subsoil. Boring shall only be terminated after 5 consecutive SPT exceeds 50 OA 5 consec utive SPT exceeds 30 if the bore depth also exceeds 60 m or refer to designer for advice and direction. river/stream bank. Core Length 4.) shall be carried out for all typical dis turbed sample at various distinct strata. At least 3 water samples (from river and or from UD samples) shall be taken for chemical test (pH. In case of soft ground. Boring also can be terminated if rock is encountered:Rock Type Igneous rock (granite) and bore depth <24m or recovery ratio R/r<50% Igneous rocks.0m 6. procedure & equipment (Type. Borelogs (field borelogs shah be corrected. For road alignment passing through complex. Additional boreholes should be allowed for bridge approach embankments especially on soft ground or high embankment areas. Photographs (at least 5 nos.0m 3. General relevant information (geological setting. at least two Deep Boring should be carried out at each site or minimum one borehole per pier or abutment or maximum spacing of borehole should be 60 m. Bulk sampling for classification test. major culverts and retaining walls. & water flow conditions. bore depth >24m Shale/schist/slate/sand-stone. checked & certified by geotechnical engi neer). vane shear test shall toe carried out instead of SPT and interval of testing should be 'm interval.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Field Test SPT shall be carried out at 1. Other basic requirements are as follows:Bore Depth All boreholes should be rotary wash bor ing. Undisturbed samples. interval or more. typical soil/ rock samples. variable/different geological formations. access (ter rain and vegetation etc. Methodology.). Recovery ratio R/r> 50% Lime stone R/r> 50% and no cavity Lime stone R/r < 50% or with cavity Other rocks R/r > 50% Other rocks R/r < 50% Min. Ibu Pejabat JKR. (UD samples) or preferable stationary piston samples shall be taken at.0m * Suitable triple tube core barrel of NMLC or NMLC sizes should be used for rotary rock coring. SI Report The factual.L Page 34 . topography. Recovery ratio R/r< 50% Shale/schist/slate/sand-stone.0m 6.5m 3. & sieve analysis etc.

100 kN/200 kN capacity Piezometer records. (c) Deep Boring (DB) This is the static Dutch Cone Penetrometer Test. ground water. rock etc. Borehole sizes of NW or HW are preferred. The results can be used to correlate and ascer tain strength & deformation properties etc. Invaluable to determine strati graphical formation and subsoil properties in cut and filling areas. classifi cation and correlation of engineering prop erties such as permeability. stationary piston and Mazier samplers are respectively used to take quality undisturbed samples for laboratory strength tests.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects such as SPT vane shear. Useful and adequate to determine subsoil profile. of the subsoils. Maximum depth is about 5 m. It is usually used to supplement Deep Boring results in filling areas which are fluvial or soft formation. Plan showing actual boreholes/te st loca tions with coordinates or chainages & A. K. more sampling for lab tests. Soil and rock description should be strictly according to BS 5930. (b) Hand Augering (HA) Used in soft to stiff cohesive soils or sandy soils above water table. For visual inspec tion of subsoil strata. (d) Deep Sound(DS) . Disturbed and undisturbed samples can be taken for various laboratory tests to deter mine strength and deformation properties. Bulk sampling for lab tests (soil classification. Continuous soil sampling (Swedish or Delft Samplers) is specified if identifica tion of soil fabric or depth of changes in distinct strata & properties are required. For uniform subsoil. Usual spacing is 60 m .L. typical soil and rock samples.600 m. investigation. lab and field test results. Generalized subsoil profile along the align ment showing soil strata. soil type and strength (by pocket penetrometer). Very extensively used for road projects because extensive samples along the align ment can be obtained at a relatively fast and cheap price for the basic and index properties.. CBR & compaction tents). Photographs showing general site condi tions. Not suitable for boulder or gravel abundant subsoil. It is vital to identify and understand adequately Page 35 . (for soft to stiff strata) permeability & pressure meter tests can be carried out in the boreholes. * Logging of bore logs should be prepared by a suitably qualified technician or geologist! or engineer. but for erratic subsoil more field tests should be carried out. Piezocone tests is preferred. For soft clay and residual soils strata. Usually carried out near HA or DB posi tions and filling areas to verify the consis tency of subsoil of medium strength up to maximum of 12 m deep.L Usually up to 2 m deep. Concluding Remarks It is hoped that the above suggested brief guidelines are useful and helpful to road engineers to plan their scope of site. Undisturbed block sam ples also Grin be obtained for strength tests in the laboratory. Ibu Pejabat JKR. SPT tests are usually carried out at 1. Piezometers can also be installed in the borehole to monitor the ground water con ditions. Common SI Methods (a) JKR Probes Results are used to determine thickness of unsuitable material to be removed and also for preliminary design of embankments. used for identification. Summary of lab testing results.600 m. (e) Test Pit & Bulk Sampling Boreholes are advanced by power rotary drilling. Field tests Cawangan Jalan. strength and deformation etc.5 m interval. Usual spacing is 60 m .

Cawangan Jalan. IKRAM LECTURE NOTES ON SITE INVESTIGATION. Therefore it is important to realize that it is impossible to provide an exhaustive step by step guidelines applicable to all possible cases for engineers who are not familiar with geotechnical design. References a) BS 5930 (1981) SITE INVESTIGATION b) BS 1377 (1990) METHODS OF TEST FOR SOILS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING PURPOSES.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects the possible associated risks and geotechnical problems to b-:~ encountered before planning a proper SI scheme for a road project. Scope of Si works when planned by different engineers tend to be varied ')ecause there are an infinite number of conditions to be met and the process of planning also leaves many areas where individual engineering judgement. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Purpose and scope of tests can only be determined after the possible geotechnical problems are known. c) JKR STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR SITE INVESTIGATION WORKS (1990). knowledge and experiences must be applied. d) NEOH C A (1990).L Page 36 . K.

Stage 3 Audit . The objective of Road Safety Auditing is to identify road safety deficiencies at various stages in the development of road projects. or otherwise where them is little or no significant planning phase in the project. Engineer for minor projects involving only reconstruction or rehabilitation of and existing road. the results of which (to the extent relevant) should be included in the evaluation process. The project development shall be not proceed into the detailed design stage before resolu tion of each of the road safety items identified in the Stage 2 Audit. where a number of alternative proposals are being considered for the project.At the Preliminary Design Stage. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The Stage 1. Audit will be carried out towards the end of the planning phase and. when the Functional Layout has been prepared and land acquisition requirements are being determined.L Page 37 . Stage 2 Audit . intersection or interchange. The Stage 1 Audit may be omitted on the approval in writing of JKR’s Supervising. The project shall not proceed to the construction stage until each of the road safety items identi fied in the Stage 3 ikudit have been resolved. Road Safety Audit will be carried out in accordance with the Guidelines prepared by JKR and shall include audits at the following stages of the project: Stage 1 Audit .At the Construction Stage. or as soon as it is possible to determine the safety implications of the design anti when changes can be made at the most opportune time to avoid costly redesign. This audit trust be done: at an appropriate stage towards the end of the detailed design. Audit at this stage shall include two distinct aspects as follows: Audit of Traffic Management through and in the vicinity of the project during the construction phase.At the Planning and Feasibility Stage of the Project Development.0 Road Safety Audit Objective.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix H TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR ROAD SAFETY AUDIT PROPOSAL FOR CONSULTANCY SERVICES. K. 1.At the Detailed Design Stage. This shall include audit of traffic managernernt arrangements. Stage 4 Audit . an audit is to be made of each alternative. This may necessitate sep arate audit checks as various elements of the project reach the desired stage of design. both by checking the relevant plans prior to the -works commencing and by site inspections within 24 his of the star of construction of any particular `stage construc tion to ensure that the traffic operation through and around the works is safe and Cawangan Jalan. so that they can be eliminated at the most oppor tune time to reduce costs and minimise disruption to design and construction progress.

JKR ( the Client) shall provide a written response to the audit report. as the `Client' who will consider and make the final decisions on the audit reports. practices and road safety principles. The points should be illustrated wherever practicable by 'marking-up' on the plans or other relevant drawings and / or by colour photographs of the items concerned. generally towards the end of the prescribed `maintenance period'. of all personnel who will be undertaking the various stages of audit must be submitted to the Client and only these people shall undertake the audit. 3. The Road Safety Audit Guidelines issued by JKR include detailed `Check Lists' for each of the above stages of Audit. In particular the audit shall include a final detailed check of the project just prior to it being `opened to traf fic'. at appropriate times during the construction when aspects which influence the ultimate safety of road users are being finalised and when action can still be taken to correct any identified safety deficiency.At the operational stage of the projects.0 Use Of Road Safety Audit Check Lists. Ibu Pejabat JKR. potential or real. Road Safety Auditors for the project shall be nominated by the Contractor / Consultant and shall be approved b. Stage 5 Audit . 5. These Check Lists should be used as a guide and `reminder' of the items to be considered and it needs to be recognised that they do not necessarily provide a complete list of the issues or points to be checked.ay include the auditors suggestions for eliminating or otherwise treating the safety problem identified. con sidering carefully the needs of all road user groups. client reserves the right to disallow the involvement of any person who is considered to have insufficient qualification or experience in all or part of the various audit stages. The report should sptocifically describe the safety deficiencies. The report should not be simplly a. or in any other way submitted as the Safety Audit Report. The. The auditors must be independent of project planners. which have been identified along with the relevant references to accepted standards. K. 4. qualifications and other background experience relative: to Road Safety Auditing..L Page 38 . in writing.0 Response To Road ` al'erti Audit Report Within 2 weeks of he submis:. 2. copy of the `Check List' annotated with `ticks' or `cross es' or `yes' / 'no' answers. Each stage of the Road Safety Audit shall be reported. Cawangan Jalan. The report m. indicating the action to be taken by the con tractor in respect to each of the issues or items raised by the Audit. generally as set out in the JKR Guidelines and shall be submitted to the Client within 2 weeks of the audit C38 being done or otherwise as agreed in writing. but this is not an essential requirement.ion of a Road Safety Audit Report. The names. MR.0 Reporting Of The Road Safety Audit.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects effective for all road users. Audit of the project itself.0 Road Safety Auditors. It is the auditor's responsibi ity to criti cally examine all aspects of the project which may have adverse safety implications. designers and con struction companies involved in the project and have no business or other company associa tions with them.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects REAM Technical Committee (TCS ) GEOTECHNICS GUIDELINES FOR SITE INVESTIGATION W ORKS Ir Neoh Cheng Aik PWD Malaysia Cawangan Jalan. K.L Page 39 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.

Desk Study Before planning Sl works. practical and economical geot echnical or foundation Cesign to tie pre pared. equipment. walls. and those who should have responsibility for carrying out the actions. Topo map (to assess terrain. 2. loads. All the quality SI works should be closely directed. desk study and fleld inspection. of the geotechnlcal design process.geotechnl cal engineers after review of the project brief/route location. procedures coupled with understanding of typical potential geot echnical problems for road works will ensure proper Sl methods and appropri ate tests for the situation are selected to achieve the targeted purpose of SI.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Investigation. General procedure of SI works includ ing preparation of SI report Is also Included.) Other relevant records and infor mation. the action regr. samples and laboratory tests to procure the appropriate design param eters for the geotechnical problems iden tified are subsequently discussed. Geological map (to evaluate geo logical formation et characteris tics) Aerial photo (to study site condi tions. monitored. accurate and reliable according to usual good engi neering practice. the following desk studies should be carried out first: Project brief with site & location plan (to check overall details of structures & nature of project. An evaluation of performance of existing road or structure In the Immediate vicinity of the pro posed alignment or site. Usual geotech nical design criteria for road works are shown In Appendix A. bridges & other superstructures). relative to the foundation. insitu et laboratory testing. The planning of SI works should be car ried out by sultably qualified. supervised and reported by qualified geotechnical engineers registered with Board of Engineers Malaysia. Intimate knowledge of the test methods and possible geotechnlcal problems that can arise from ground condltlons with particular reference to problems on sta bility and deformation or displacement of slopes and foundations are essential for panning the scope of site Investigation (SI) works. land use etc. Sound knowledge of SI methods. bearing capacity.L - - - - - . settle ment & stability requirements of slopes.lred. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Introduction The basic purpose or objerive of site Investigation Is to acquire all necessary ground Information and data to enable a safe. access site/environment condi tions). K. material and environment. Decision-making process of SI is presented by the flaw chart In Figure I which Indicates the stages of an Cawangan Jalan. Site Investigation Is an essential part. This guideline also Identities the typical geotechnical Issues or problems for road embankments. adequate. A review of all available informa tion on the geologic history and Page 40 Guidelines for Site Investigation Works 1. cut slopes and common road structures In typical geological for mations. This guideline is intended to assist engi neers to plan and implement Site Investigation (SI) Works for road proj ects so as to ensure that the S1 results are complete. Scope of SI and suitable SI methods including relevant types of field tests.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects geological conditions and so the spacing and location of boreholes/test pit types of tests should be more closely related to the detailed geology of the project area and the geotechnlcal problem/analysis required to be carried out. Common SI methods and fist of relevant lab and field test methods are given in Appendix B. List of abbreviations used Is given In Appendix C. Some typical geotechnical porblems and usual applicable SI methods and tests for typical road works are given in the following sections.
3.1 Road Embankment on Soft/Weak Ground

formation of rock, or soil or both and ground-water conditions occurring at the proposed align ment or location and In the Immediate vicinity. These Information plus site reconnais sance or walk-over survey by designer or engineers involved in SI are crucial to obtain basic knowledge of site condi tions and project concept designs. The need, purpose and the likely geotechnl cal issues or problems can then be iden tified and subsequently used to deter mine or design the scope and methods of SI works. Through SI, the knowledge of behaviour of the ground and Its spa tial variability can be obtained for the necessary geotechnlcal design and con struction. 3. Scope of SI Scope of SI for a project depends on what Is known about the site and what geotechnical data are required for geot echnical design or evaluation of geot echnical issues or problems. The following information has to be procured before scope of SI can be planned: likely or possible or anticipated geotechnical issues or problems to be encountered In design & construction -establish the pur pose & need for SI what Information Is required extent, areas et depth of ground to be investigated time et site constraint

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The extent of SI mainly depends on the character and variability of the subsoil and ground water and the amount of existing Information available. However, it should be noted that subsoil conditions of a road alignment are very sensitive to
Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

Coastal alluvium or deposited soil for mations or swamps are typical soft/weak grounds. Trrplcal geotechnical problems in such areas are settlement and stability. Usual geotechnical design and checking are bearing (short & long term), slope stability (local & global, short & long term), amount and rate of settlement (primary & secondary consolidation, elastic deformation). Geotechnical designs are usually carried out to check whether the design criteria as shown in Appendix A can be complied and subsequently carry out the necessary designs of ground improvement works. Important data to be acquired through SI are: subsoil profile showing they thickness of various compressible and firm strata, Water Table (WT) etc. Deep Sounding/Deep Boring (DS/DB) plus continuous sam pling are necessary If accurate profile is required. Spacing of DS/DB should be in the range of 60m to 300m. DS/DB can be supplemented by Geonor Vane tests and JKR probes. Usually one or two boreholes plus two or more DS or plezocones are used to determine the generalized sub soil proille for each stretch of soft
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Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects see Appendix D for applicability of various tests for various engi neering properties.

groused. Criteria to terminate depth of bore hole are: (a) until 10 SPT exceeding 10 or until 10 Insitu vane shear nests exceeding 50 kPa if the height of embankment is less than 3m. (b) until 5 SPT exceeding 20 or 5 insltu vane shear tests exceeding 75 k.Pa if the height of embankment Is 3m to 5m. until 2 SPT exceeding 50 or 2 SPT exceeding 40 (for depth exceeding 30m) if the height of embank ment Is more than 5m. at least one borehole along, the soft stretch should be extended until 2 consecutive SPT exceeds 50 or until I .5m rock cor ing, whichever come first.

3.2

Road Embankment on Rolling & Hilly Terrains

(c)

(d)

The main geotechnical problems and relevant SI methods and tests are: (a) Check the stability of embank ment body (local slope stablity); usually unsaturated soil, and the design parameters especially the shear strengths are from compact ed samples using bulk samples taken at least one or two samples at 1.5m deep from major cut areas or borrow pits; assessment on suitability of fill material from relevant major cut areas (HA, test pits & bulk samples for compact lon/CBR & classification tests to get Index properties for engineer ing property correlations). (b) Check global stability of embank ment: bearing check of support ing ground (DB/SPT to obtain shear strength parameters of sup porting ground based on engi neering property correlations. JKR Probes, HA and piezometer etc are used to supplement DB/SPT). Spacing of boreholes for low embankment (h < 6m) and high embankment should be 300m - 600m and 100m - 300m respectively. DB should be sup plemented by at least one HA plus few JKR probes. Depth of borehole should be until 5 SPT exceeding 20 if embankment height is less than 6m OR until 5 SPT exceeding 30 if the height of embankment is more than 6m. SPT should be carried out at 1.5m Interval. Classification tests for all disturbed samples especial ly those from the top bm should be carried out.

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consolidation parameters for set tlement analysts (Cc, Cv, Mv, Pc etc. from consolidation tes6 using quality undisturbed samples obtained by stationary piston samplers). These consolidation properties also can be supple mented by correlation values from DS or piezocones tests. shear strength parameters for stabili ty and bearing analysis or ground improvement design (Cu from insitu vane shear tests or undisturbed sam ples, C' & Ø' from triaxial tests using quality undisturbed samples ....) Index properties (LL, PL, PI, M/C, gradation, organic contents etc) for soil classification and engineering property correlations etc.

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Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

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Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects paction/CBR tests and shear strength parameters from com pacted samples etc). (c) to determine the bedrock profile, rock condition and to determine rock type and Its quantity (by site Inspection, geological mapping, seismic survey or DB)

(c)

Stability check of supporting ground is very Important when the embankment is on sloping ground or is very high eg 12m high or more. More DB/HA/3KR Probes plus site Inspection etc to Identify possible unstable fault ed/sheared geological formation, laminated bedding, foliation, col luvium, water seepage ground etc should be carried out. Depth of borehole should be until 3m (or more) rock coring especially for the case of sedimental rock for mation. Refer Appendix D for applicable tests for relevant parameters.

(d)

3.3

Cut Areas

Usual purposes of SI in cut areas are: (a) to assess the slope stability and obtain soil data for the design of slope stabilization works if found necessary. Usualily DB Is carried out to procure information such as subsoil profile, weathering profile, WT conditions by piezometers and shear strength parameters (from SPT' based on engineering property corelacuons or triaxial tests from quality undisturbed samples ie Mazier samplers)., For major high cut areas and unstable geological for mations (sheared/faulted zone or colluvium areas or relict joints etc) more DB Is required. Refer Appendix D for applicable SI methods and tests. DB is usually supplemented by geophysical surveys and/or HA plus JKR probes etc. (b) to determine the suitability of cut material as filling material for embankment.(HA, test pits, bulk samples plus JKR probes or DE for classification tests, com

Spacing DB/HA in cut areas is usually 60m to 600m depending on type of geo logical formation. For stable formation and low cut areas of less than 6m high, bigger spacing or HA only is acceptable. For sedimentary rock areas especially at cut height exceeding 12m, at least 2 boreholes per major hill should be car ried out to determine the stratigraphical formation, the presence of defective or unstable geological structural disconti nuities and Its strength properties. Seismic survey to supplement DB may have to be carried out for project passing through moutalnous areas. DB in cut areas is usually terminated after 1.5m rock coring or at least 3m below the design formation level, whichever comes first., For highly frac tured sedimentary rock of RQD less than 25% or boulder abundant forma tions, at least 3m coring should be speci fied.
3.4 Pavement Evaluation

Tests relevant for pavement evaluation of the existing road for upgrading works are test pits plus bulk samples, water table monitoring, Insitu plate bearing, field density, DCP (Dynamic Cone Penetration) & CBR tests. These tests are carried out at about 200m to 1000m interval after pavement condition inspection/surveys/traffic count survey. Falling weight Deflectorneter or Benkiman Beam tests at 50m to 200m Interval depending on the severity of pavement conditions may also need to be specified.
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Cawangan Jalan, Ibu Pejabat JKR, K.L

spacing and depth of boreholes. 4. DO. walls.0m For structures on soft ground.5 SI for Structures Purposes of SI for structures such as bridges. Guidance on selection of SI methods. seismic surveys. testing should comply with standard JKR Sl Spec.1 Procedure The guidance given in Para 3 above can be used to determine the locations. 100 mm. and construc tion/temporary works design. types of Acid and lab tests etc have been dis cussed. Suggested mini mum core lengths are as follows: Rock Type Igneous rock (granite) and bore depth <24m or recovery ratio R/r<50% Igneous rocks. Methods. settle ment and constructibility assessment. See Para 3. Pressuremeter and plate bearing tests may be specified If detail fractured rock conditions (stiffness and deformation) Cawangan Jalan.5m 3. These test results are necessary for foundation design. Test Pits.4. pro cedure and equipment for SI methods. If rock Is encoun tered coring shall be carried out and minimum core length depends on type & condition of rock. Standard borehole or casing sizes commonly used are 75 rnm. insitu vane shear tests and undisturbed sam pling for shear strength and consolida tion tests should be carried out. and relevant MS/BS/ASTM standards. etc. Size of boreholes depends on the size of soil & rock samples required.0m 6.0m 9m – 21m 4. DB.L .. Ibu Pejabat JKR. num bers and types of SI methods or bore holes or Insitu testing required basing on the need and purpose of SI established from the desk study. 4. K. At least 2 DB should be carried out at each site or minimum one DB per pier/abutment or one DB per 60m spac ing especially for erratic or unstable geological formation areas (limestone. Recovery ratio R/r> 50% Lime stone R/r> 50% and no cavity Lime stone R/r < 50% or with cavity Other rocks R/r > 50% Other rocks R/r < 50% Min core size should be 52mm diam (NMLC or HMLC or equivalent Min. Borehole could be terminated after 5 consecutive SPT exceeding 50 or 10 consecutive SPT exceeding 30 if the bore depth is more than 60m or refer to designer for direction. Geonor Vane. 150 mm. Phasing Page 44 3. Preparation of "Summary of Scope of SI Works’ and an illustrated example are enclosed in Appendix H. Piezocone. stability analysis. continuous sail sampling. Sampling. 4. HA. DS (IOT/20T). Appendix E & E 1) also provide some guidance in specifying the meth ods of sampling and applicability of common field tests. MHEI. major culverts etc are for foundation design and construction with particular reference to capacity.2 The sequence of SI methods or boring or Insitu testing at criteria of termination of boreholes should be clearly stated In the document for Sl contractor.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects are required for bearing design eg rock socket design or shallow foundation design. faulted/sheared zone etc).0m 6. Usually size NW casing or borehole 'ss specified for DB except when extensive and high quality large undisturbed samples airy. Appendix D. bore depth >24m Shale/schist/slate/sand-stone. D 1 & E for additional guidance. Size of samples depends on types of soils/rocks and types of tests required.0m 3. Core Length 4. Recovery ratio R/r< 50% Shale/schist/slate/sand-stone. are JKR Probe. boulder abundant areas. Common 51 method. required ua determine accurate consoli dation properties and shear strength for stability and settlement analysis. SBP.5m 6.

TNW 61 mm diam) could be used In most rocks. usually carried out only when duality undis turbed samples or disturbed sam ples are difficult to procure but important for the design e. Pressuremeter test Menard or self Boring type. to check the effectiveness of grout ing. suitable for very soft to firm clay when strength and con solidation properties are required. highly fractured soft rock. Triple tube core barrels (NMLC. to give an approxi mate permeability of rock. to obtain a measure of frac turing of rock. Page 45 . Denison sampler for stiff to very stiff cohesive soils and sandy soils (SPT . Undisturbed sampling thin wall open tube sampler.4 If rock is encountered or rock coring is required.0m Interval If detailed Information is required eg. suitable for residual soil when strength tests are required. Ibu Pejabat JKR. disturbed samples (35 mm diameter) are procured from the test for field Identification/descilptiori of soil types and subsequent lab classifi cation and index properties tests. K. costly at slow test. 64mm diam) should be used for weak. 52 mm diam or HMLC. 50 mm and 74mm diam. for shallow founda tion at deep excavation works. careful air foam drilling technique is preferred to ensure high sample quality.L - - - - 4. 42 mm. sandy material etc. length at type of coring (or criteria of coring). SPT may be: carried out at 1.5m interval except when undisturbed sam pling or vane shear test or pres suremeter test is required. stiffness and compressibility properties. Mazier sampler. 4. useful to obtain accu rate bearing capacity.g. 75 mm or 100 mm diam.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects grout that rock will accept. suit able for most soil types and soft rocks except soft organic soil 8t hard rock. Packer test Single or double Packer test Is sometimes carried out in rock strata to assess the amount of Cawangan Jalan. Delft (29 mm or 66 mm diam) or Swedish (68 mm diam) continu ous soil samplers for soil fabrics & stratigraphical/profiling evalu ation.4 To 20).3 Some guidances to determine the fre quency & types of insitu tesdng/sarn pling in the bureholes are: Vane shear test very suitable for very soft to stiff clay to obtain undrained strength SPT Suitable for almost all soil types except very soft clay and coarse gravel. suitable for soils having some cohesion unless they are too hard or too gravelly. Double tuba swivel type (30 mm. determine the size. Quality requirements of samples (Appendix G). stationary piston thin wall sam pler 50mm. 50 mm. area ratio is about 10%. 54 mm diam. of SI programme may be necessary for large/complicated projects (Preliminary & detall SI works). 75 mm or 100 mm diam. SPT Is usually carried out at a change of strata or 1.

) for analysis and design.) for soil description. stiffness. void. classification & correlations. classification 8t cor relations with engineering proper ties.L . sg. natural moisture content. permeability etc. Costing & Works programme (Std. PL.sulphate ex chloride contents. more insitu testing is more mean ingful. Check the proposed works programme and ensure all equip ment proposed comply with relevant standards. Soil classification tests shall be carried out: for all typical dis turbed samples at various distinct strata. com pressibility. classification & index tests from disturbed & undisturbed samples are mainly for classi fication. The proposed scope of SI should be checked or audited by an expert before Implementation. tests are:BASIC PROPERTIES (colour. INDEX PROPERTIES (LL. S04. K. BW or larger drill rods are pre ferred If bore depth exceeds 20m. wire line barrels for rock coring at great depth. Ibu Pejabat JKR. should be used). For Iniform subsoil. or erratic. block samples (mainly fear engi neering property tests) bulk samples (mainly for com paction/CBR tests plus classifica tion tests) 4. At least 3 water sam ples from river for bridge project shall be taken far chemical tests (pH. but If the subsoil is complex. Spec.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects 4. ENGINEERING PROPERTIES (shear strength. 4. Page 46 weathered or fractured rocks. Identification & sim ple preliminary correlations for shear strength parameters & other engineering proper ties/behaviour. Ensure rellabie/rep utable SI contractor registered with CIDB Is engaged. organic content etc) for soil description.7 4. Important geotechniced proper ties from lab. compaction/CBR. PI.6 4. SL.8 - - - Cawangan Jalan. JKR BQ at Spec. Determine procedure. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (total dissolved salts. Chloride etc). Engineering properties can be obtained front insitu test ing and laboratory tests on undis turbed samples.. particle size distribution.. reactivity etc. porosity. undisturbed samples (mainly for engineering property tests) water samples (mainly for cherni cal nests). The results from the Insitu anti laboratory testing should be viewed as complimen tary and then compared with the recommended data from the pub lished literatures before adopting as design parameters. extent of supervi sion at monitoring of SI works (supervi sor and drillers should have CIDB cerd flcates). pH value etc) for corrosion & durability assessment of foundations.9 Usual Important laboratory tests. Determine scheme of laboratory testing including types of lab tests for disturbed samples (mainly for basic & Index properties tests).5 Prepare BQ. more! elaborate lab test ing should be done.

classification and correlation of engineering proper ties such as permeability. Common SI Method SI method and the type of equipment or sampler required. CU. (for soft to stiff strata) per meability and pressure. CD triaxial tests. meter tests can be carried out In the boreholes. To avoid disturbance of the underlying soil stratum. - - 5. Invaluable to deter mine stratigraphical formation and subsoil properties in cut and filling areas. only side discharge of flushing medium (water) from drilling rod bits is allowed. access.L . Ibu Pejabat JKR. (c) Deep Boring (DB) - shear strength tests from block samples and undisturbed samples (UU. CIUC. Usual spacing Is 60m . SPT tests are. used for Identification. Field tests such as SPT. rods with a stiffness equal to or greater than BW drill rods but less than 10 kg/m should be specified.) are for analysis and design.600m. Disturbed and undis turbed samples can be taken for various laboratory tests to deter mine strength and deformation properties. (b) Hand Augering (HA) Boreholes should be advanced by power rotary drilling with ade quate capacity for the spefified depth of drilling i. Common SI methods are briefly out lined as follows: (a) JKR Probes Results can be used to determine thickness of unsuitable material to be removed and also for pre liminary design of embankments.e open hole rotary drilling or casing advance ment drilling method. UCS etc. vane. K. Usually carried out near HA or DB positions and filling areas to verify the consistency of subsoil of medium strength up to maxi mum of 12m deep. Borehole size of NW or HM are preferred. Usual spacing Is 60m . Very extensively used for road projects because extensive open Cawangan Jalan. bottom discharge from casing should not be permitted. for a SI job depend on the nature of terrain. HA is par ticularly valuable In connection with ground-water determination. direct shear test.5m interval. For soft clay and residual soils strata. Piezometers can also be installed in the borehole to monitor the ground water condi tions. CIUE. CKUC.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects tube samples of 50 mm to 100 mm diam along the alignment can be obtained at a relatively fast and low price for the basic and Index properties. shear. usually car ried out at l . sta Page 47 Used In soft to stiff cohesive soils or sandy soils above water table. For borehoes deeper than 20m.600m. type of geo logical formation and intended use of the data. consolidation ex permeability tests from undisturbed samples or block samples are for settlement analysis and seepage evaluation compaction/CBR tests from bulk samples coupled with Index properties are for fill suitability evaluation and stability analysis etc. Maximum depth Is about 5m. Experience plus engineering judgement are required in selection of SI method. strength and deformation etc.

For uniform subsoil. Is is usually used to supplement Deep Boring results In filling areas which are fluvial or soft formation. Normally casing is used and max. (e) Test Pit. more sampling for lab tests. (d) Deep Sound (DS) .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects sists of a tripod with block & tackle or motor driven winch. depth of boring is about 20m.L . SPT. Corroslvity of soil and geological features and cavities can also be deter mined. or gravel abundant subsoil. The seismic refraction method with muldgeophones reception of seismic wave of sig nals originating from explosives or hammer blows (for shallow investigation only) can be used to determine the approximate rock profile and geologic features eg faults etc. The results can be used to correlate and ascertain strength and deformation proper ties etc. Continuous soil sampling (Swedish or Delft Samplers) is specified if identification of soil fabric or depth of changes in dis tinct strata and properties are required. Undisturbed block samples also can be obtained for strength tests In the laboratory. Bulk samples (about 50kg) for lab texts (soil classification. The borehole is advanced by chopping while twisting rods and washing with pump-circulated water. SI Report The SI report submitted by the SI Contractor registered with CIDB should be checked to ensure the following Page 48 MHB or commonly called wash boring or percussion drilling con Cawangan Jalan. Useful and adequate to determine subsoil profile. but for erratic subsoil more field tests should he carried out. of the subsoils.2rn deep. MHB can be adopted easily at locations where access is difficult. The electrical resistivi ty method for measuring the resistance of soil to a direct or alternating current is also useful In determining depth to rock. Bulk Samples & Block Samples Usually test pit can be up ro.strata. portable and can be used in all types of soils except those containing big boul ders. (f) Motorised Hand Boring (MHB) Sometimes geophysical survey is used to supplement borehole results. Ibu Pejabat JKR. soil type and strength (by pocket penetrometer) can be carried In test pit. 6. It Is simple. K. CBR arrd compac tion tests) can be collected. Not suitable for boulder. evaluating stratified formations where a denser stratum overttes a lesser dense stratum. Visual Inspection of sub soill . (g) Geophysical Survey tionary piston and Mazler sam plers are respectively used to take quality undisturbed samples for laboratory strength tests.100 kN/200 kN capacity This Is the static Dutch Cone Penetrometer Test. vane shear test and undis turbed sampling (only soft to medium soil) can be carried out In the borehole at the required depth. Plezocone tests Is pre ferred. Progress is slow when encountering very stiff/dense material especially when deeper than 10 m.

procedures. Photos showing site & testing process/conditions. Appendix . Name of Super visor/driller. date and time of bor ing disruptions and termina tion of boreholes. land use. geological Information etc. (d) Bore Logs (field borelogs should be correct ed & checked) Title of Investigation/project. (b) Site Description Describe access. typical soil samples etc. sam pling and rock coring details (R/r. photos for site conditions. about the site. Size. Any change to drilling fluid or drilling fluid return. Location reference/borehole no and sheet no. date & time of SI. the nature at scope of SI. Types of Insitu testing. vegeta tion. (a) Introduction State for whom the SI works was done. Soil/rock description of each straturn & thickness/levels shall be made In accordance to BS 5930. Ibu Pejabat JKR. typical rock samples. K. Weather conditions. (e) Summary of all important lab.L (f) (g) 7. testing. test results for each borehole with reference to sample NO & RL. make of plants/tools GL/RL. Depth to ground water Cawangan Jalan. Type. Generalized subsoil profile Drg. (c) Field Works Account for SI methods. A typical engineering borelog is shown in Appendix GI. plant/machine set up. items are included/complied: The factual SI report should be pre pared. checked and certified by a suit ably qualified geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist. Depth. type of boring. types and models of equipment used (quote standards used). drilling fluid. Legends & symbols for sub soil profile.plan/drawing. It should include but not limited to the following details. size & depth of casing. Problems encountered In testing er sampling. type and design of core bits. types of sampler). Concluding Remarks It is hoped that this guideline for Site Investigation works Is useful and helpful assist geotechnical and road engineers to Page 49 . RQD.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects and raising or lowering of level Including: dates and times measured. Plan showing site & boreholes/testing locations. terrain. core barrel & reaming shell used. purpose of SI and period on time over which SI was done. Date of boring.

proper SI methods and tests are selected to achieve the targeted purpose of SI.3 8. training and experience tends to be var ied because there is an infinite number of conditions to be met and the process of planning also leaves many areas where Individual engineering judge ment. Experience In geot echnical engineering design plus sound knowledge of SI methods and proce dures are crucial to ensure that.1 8.5 Cawangan Jalan. Guidelines For Planning Scope of Site Investigation Works For Road Projects. K.4 8. plan and execute a proper Site Investigation works. Site Investigation GEO HONG KONG (1993). 8. Therefore It Is Important to realize that It Is Impossible to provide an exhaustive step by step guidelines applicable to all possible cases for engi neers who are not familiar with geotech nical design.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects 8. Thomas Telford UK. knowledge and experience must be applied. The scope of SI works for a project depends mainly on what is known about the site and the nature of the project ie the possible geotechniral problems and issues likely to be encountered dur ing construction at service. Guide to Site Investigation JKR Standard Specification for Site Investigation Works (1990) NEOH CA (1997). Site Investigation In construction series.6 SI STEERING GROUP.L Page 50 . IKRAM Lecture Notes 8. 8. IEM Bulletin August 97 NEOH CA (1990). The scope of SI works may also need to be changed In the light of new discoveries during the process of SI. Site Investigation.2 References BS 5930 (1981). Ibu Pejabat JKR. Scope of SI works when planned by dif ferent engineers of different background. 1993.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Project Initiation Preliminary Engineering Assessment .Determine design parameters required .Identify likely geotechnical issues & problems .Site reconnaissance NOT OK .Desk studies .Determine scope of Lab tests . Ibu Pejabat JKR.Prepare of tender/contract documents.Design Criteria .Prepare preliminary SI programme & budget NOT OK Send SI proposal to client for approval OK .Direct. BQ & Spec OK Audit by Expert OK .Design or determine scope of SI .Scope of Works . supervise and monitor SI works YES Additional SI ? NO Prepare factual SI report End Fig.Execute SI programme . K.Define Project Work Plan Preliminary Project Appraisal .Project Brief .L Page 51 . 1 : Flow-chart for SI works Cawangan Jalan.

Individual Fo undatio n P iles (mainly under axial lo ads) 7.2 B earing (fill) 2.1 B earing (sho rt term) 1 1 .5 years po st co nstructio n settlement < 1 00 mm (o r 1 0% o f estimated ultimate settlement) (Fo r embankment within 1 m fro m bridge abutment. Rigid Retaining Overturning 1 .2 B earing (fill) 3. Individual Fo undatio n 1 mm perpendicular to axis o f pile 2 at design lo ad lo ads (mainly under lateral & bending lo ads perpendicular B S 8004 B lo ck B earing Capacity 2 75 yrs 1 mm at Wo rking Lo ad 2 B S 8004 A s fo r 4. P ile gro up 9. the abo ve settlement criteria sho uld be reduced to 1 0 5%) A s fo r 75 yrs A s 4 abo ve fo r rigid retaining structures B S 8004 1 mm 0 to axist o f pile) 8.1 Lo cal & glo bal stability (cut & fill slo pes) 1 .2 Resistance at So il Gro ut Interface 3. 6 & 7 abo ve individual fo undatio n piles 1 .8 75 yrs 1 mm alo ng 5 1 mm alo ng 5 1: 1 50 alo ng face of wall Structures 4. Reinfo rced o t treated slo pes (no t o n so ft 1 . Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Page 52 Gro und .1 Tensile Resistance 3.5 2 B S 8081 3 75 yrs gro und Cawangan Jalan. (1 984). GFO Ho ng Ko ng 3.2 Lo cal & glo bal slo pe 1 stability (lo ng term) 1 .5 76 yrs 1 . GEO Ho ng Ko ng face o f wall face o f wall 1 .6 1 .2 B ase Resistance Ultimate lateral Resistance 2.3 Creep/co rro sio n 4 1 DESIGN COM P ONENT o f materials) LA TERA L M INIM UM FA CTOR OF M A XIM UM P ERM ISSIB LE M OVEM ENTS DESIGN LIFE (durabllity DIFFERENTIA L 1 Unreinfo rced Slo pes . P iles as retaining structures 1 Embankment o n So ft 0. GEO Ho ng Ko ng 2 1 .4 75 yrs .1 Lo cal & glo bal stability (cut & fill slo pes) 2.GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROAD WORKS M ODE OF FA ILURE SA FETY VERTICA L 1 .1 Shaft Resistance at pile head at design lo ad 38 mm o r 1 0% pile size at pile head at twice design lo ad 6.2 1 . P ermanent A ncho rs 4.To tal po st co nstructio n settlement < 400 mm .2 75 yrs A nalysis sho uld be acco rding to GEOTECHNICA L M A NUA L FOR SLOP ES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 2. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2 Sliding 5.3 Overall Stability 4 4 B earing External Stability B S 8006 Internal Stability 6. K.5 75 yrs 2 B S 8004 1 mm alo ng axis o f pile 2 at pile head at design lo ad 2 75 yrs 1 mm alo ng axis o f pile 2 1 20 yrs ± 5mm per metre height 4. Reinfo rced fill walls/ 1: 1 00 structures ±1 5mm fro m reference alignment alo ng f ace of wall 6.L Geo Spec 1 (1 989).5 2 Geo guide 1(1 983).

2 Permeability in hydraulic conso cell 5.4 Residual strength 6. 4.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix B List of Lab & Insitu Tests 1.3 CBR tests Comoressibility.5 Undrained shear strength (UU) 6.Mazier samplers. Vane shear (Acker. Plasticity index. Peizocon Test. Chloride content. Resistivity and Redox potential. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 8.1 Dry density .4 Dispersibility Consolidation ez Permeability Tests in Haydraulic Cells & with pore Pressure measurements: BS 1377: Part 6 5.2 Direct shear box (small) 6.1 CIU with pore pressure measurement 7. Compaction-related tests: BS 1377 : Part 4 (These tests are from bulk samples) 3. 1377 Part 3: 1990 Organic matter content. Soil Classification Tests.1 Lab vane shear 6. Total dissolved solids. Carbonate content. Page 53 .2 Swelling and collapse tests 4.4 Permeability in a triaxial cell Shear Strength Tests (Total Stress) BS 1377 : Part 7 6. Plate Bearing.3 Isotropic conso properties using triaxial cell 5. 7. 3.moisture relationship (2.block sam ples etc). 5. SPT.3 Direct shear box (large) 6. BS 1377: Part 2: 1990 Moisture content. 6. etc. Cawangan Jalan. Chemical & Electro-chemical tests: 135.2 CD with pore pressure measurement Insitu Tests: BS 1377: Part 9 Field Density (cone. CBR.1 Consolidation Properties using hydraulic cell 5.6 Undrained shear strength (multi loading) Shear Strength Tests (Effective Stress) BS 1377: Part 8 7. sand replacement & balloon). bulk samples etc). These tests are from undisturbed samples (thin wall samplers. cylindrical). Geonor. K. Sulphate content of soil and ground water. Liquid limit.5 kg/4. (These tests are from disturbed samples such as split spoon samplers (SPT). pl-i value.3 Permeability by constant head 4. linear shrinkage.1 1-D conso test 4. Plastic: limit.5 kg hammer) Soil with sorre coarse gravels vibrating method 3.L 2. particle size distribution.2 Moisture conditon value (MCV) 3. Permeability and DurabiliryTests: BS 1377: Part 5 4. Mass loss on ignition. DS (Static Dutch cone).

Core Barrel (Atlas Copco) Unconsolidated Undrained Test gives undrained shear strength (total stresses) Unconfined Compression Strength Water Table Cawangan Jalan. Ibu Pejabat JKR.extension Consolidated Undrained Compression At Ko Conditions Deep Boring (rotary drilling) Deep Sounding (Static Dutch Cone Penetrometer) Ground Level Hand Auger 65 mm Triple Tube Core Barrel (DCMA) Jabatan Kerja Raya Liquid Limit Moisture Content .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix C List of Abbreviations/Symbols ASTM BS BQ Cc Cv C1 Cu CBR CIDB CU CD CIUC CIUE CkoUC DB DS GL HA HMLC JKR LL M/C Mv MHB MS NW NMLC pH PL PI PC RL RQD R/r SI SPT TNW UU UCS WT = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = American Society hor Testing Arid Meterials British Standard Bills of Quantities Compression Index Coef.Coef. of Compressibility Motorized Hand Boring (Wash Baring/Percussion Drilling) Malaysian Standard N Size Casing (101.Ditto .L Page 54 .6 mm diam) 52 min Triple Tube Core Barrel (DCMA) Acidity Index Plastic Limit Plasticity Index Effective Preconsolidated Pressure Reduced Level Rock Quality Designation Recovery Ratio Site Investigation Standard Penetration Test 61 mm Double Tube.of Consolidation Effective Cohesion Cohesion.. K. California Bearing Ratio Construction Industry Development Board Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test Consolidated Drained Triaxial Test Consolidated Undrained Compression Triaxial Test With Pore Pressure Measurement (Effective stress) .

Ibu Pejabat JKR. K. of volume compressiblity = coef. of consolidation K = coef.6 Resistivity Probe 2 Vane Shear 3 PB Pressuremeter 4 SB Pressuremeter 5 Continuous Soil Sampling Legends := suitable/useful = moderate = doubtful = not suitable Cv Mv Cu O = effective frictional angle = undrained strength = coef.5 Flat Dilatometer 1.4 Piezocone (CPTU) 1.2 SPT 1.1 JKR Probe 1. of permeability A B C Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Page 55 X .APPENDIX D APPLICABILITY OF COMMON FIELD OR INSITU TESTS Soil type Profile H.3 DS (CPT) 1.L 1. Rock Gr Sand Silt Clay Peat Ø Cu Mv Cv Soil Rock SOIL TYPE SOIL PARAMETERS K FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY FIELD TESTS 1 X A B A B C B B B A A X B B A A B C B B B B A A B C A B B B A C X X X X B A B B B A C X X C A A A A B X X B C A X X C A A A A B A X X A A A A A B A X X B A A A A C B B B C A B B B B X B B A A A A B B C X X C B B B B X B X X C A C X X B B B Penetrometer X X C A C X X C B B X X X B X X X X B C Cawangan Jalan. Rock S.

page lulus mount ainous sand gr avel sandy soil clayey soil r olling/ f lat sandy soil clayey soil sandy soil f lat ( sof t ) clayey soil peat f oundat ion f or pipe culver t . Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.L suit abilit y of const r uct ion mat er ial sur vey sur f ace deposit r ock pr oper t y ( st r engt h et c.) geologic st r at a ( f ault et c) see.medium f lat ( gener al) scale f lat ( sof t ) mount aino suppor t ing st r at a / r olling excavat ion st r uct ur es lar ge scale excavat ion wit h suppor t ing st r at a lar ge f lat ( gener aexcavat ion scale excavat ion below wat er suppor t ing st r at a f lat ( sof t ) excavat ion Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Page 56 excavat ion below wat er level . r et aining wall( t oe w st r uct ur es wit h mount ainous/ r olling small.SC O PE O F SI & METHO D Geophysical sur vey Seismic Elect r ic Geophysical Logging Sounding A p p end i x D 1 A applicable SI M et ho Sco p e & p ur p o se o f SI B supplement ar y or may be A A B B A A A A A A A B B B B B B B A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B A A A B B B A A A A B B B B B B B A A A A B B A B B B B B A A B A B A A A A A A A A A A A B B A A B A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B A A A B A B B B B B A A B A A A B B B B B B B A A B B A A A A A A A A B B B A A A B A A B A B B B A A B B B B A A A B B A A B A B A A A A A A B B B B A A A B B B A B B B B B B B B B B B B B A A B B A B A B B B A A A A A A A A B A A A B B A A B A B A B B B B A B B B B B B A A A B B A B B B A B B B B B B B B B B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B A B B B B B B B B B B B B B A B B B A B B A B B B B B A B B B B B B B A B A A A B B B B B B B B A A A A B A B B B A B A B applicable b y t yp e o f r o ad st r uct ur e Ident it y soil & r ock weat her ing pr of ile suit abilit y of const r uct ion mat er ial sur vey subgr ade invest igat ion r ock FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY ( af t er excavat ion) soil St abilit y r ock soil Ident it y soil & r ock weat her ing pr of ile Cawangan Jalan.

64mm 1. Mainly for shear strength 8t consolidation tests. With stationary piston. T2-76.5 to 1 %. 75mm. usual core size 74mm diam & PW casing Is required. Double tube core barrels for strong rock (Grade 1 or 2): 30mm. Blocks of soil (200 to 350mm cubes) cut from test pits. THIN-WALL SAMPLER WITH STATIONARY PISTON (50mm. Std. penetration by static thrust or dynamic impact. 6. 5 inches diam 2. TNW. suitable for minor stratification ie sand seams because of continuous samples of 5 to 8m can be procured. 2. 7. suitable for almost all types of soils except gravelly soils or hard/dense materials. 100rnm. 4. Cawangan Jalan. No piston. Samples should be labelled. 4.L Page 57 . HMLC. 100mm. 2. 2. 42mm. 150. 2 1/2. Mainly for triaxial. HMLC. sampler size (UK) : 50. handled. FOIL CONTINUOUS SAMPLERS (DELFT 29mm. The most reliable sampler to procure undisturbe soft to stiff cohesive soils. Need careful sealing and handling. 100. MAZIER SAMPLER (74mm) 3. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 54mm. OPEN DRIVE SAMPLERS 1.1 Split-spoon for SPT 1.3 Thick wall sampler (50mm. Not suitable for gravelly soils.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix E Common Samplers Type of Samplers 1. 3. 75mm. Triple tube core barrels for fractured rock. BLOCK SAMPLING 6. area ratio is usually about 10%. DENISON SAMPLER (Double tube with this: wall tube) 4. 3. air foam drilling technique is preferred to procure high quality undisturbed samples from residual soils. 62mm. suitable for stiff to very stiff cohesive soil and sandy soil (SPT = 420). transported and extruded carefully in accor dance with BS 5930.2 Thin-wall sampler 1. sampler size (LIS) : 1 1 /2. 250 mm diam Std. Notes: 1. Continuous samples for soil fabrics & stratigraphical or profiling evaluation etc. open drive sampler Triple tube sampler. I:50mm). 61 mm. K. shear box & permeability tests. 150mm) Remarks No piston. 52mm. The inside clearance ratio shall be 0. 5. 66mm OR SWEDISH SAMPLER 68mm diam) 5. ROTARY ROCK CORE SAMPLERS 7. 75.

00 203.38 Coupling Bore. 5” Core (mm) 62 61 84 79 52 64 76 102 TABLE 1 : Core Bit Sizes Outside Diameter in mm 1.25 57.845 21.00 76. EWM AWT.9 1.H.8 3.35 59.1 3 15.88 47.4 size Inside Diameter in mm 0.7 in 0.0 TABLE 2 : Casing Sizes Inside Diameter Threads per in.38 60.185 30.63 193.905 22.5 3.7 1.66 194.3 1.47 37.47 37.3 3. AWM BWT BWG.25 57.88 73.44 0.2 2 Will Fit Hole Drilled with Core Bit Size EWT. EWG. NWM 2 ¾ x 3 7/8 HWT HWG 4x5½ 6x7¾ K3 – 76 Tb – 76 K3 – 86 WF series (BS4019) WT series ( CDDA) WM series (DCMA) Craelius T or K serius (Atlas Copco) Triple Tube Site Designation RW EW AW BW NW HW PW SW UM ZW Outside Diameter in mm 1.8 5.L Page 58 .8 3 19. in mm 1.9 TABLE 3 : Drill Rods Rod Inside Diameter in mm 0.34 34.7 0.6 2.313 58.00 127.7 6.282 32.50 139.750 44.38 34.4 4 2.0 2.3 3 Cawangan Jalan.2 3.187 80.1 5 1.0 1.3 2.144 36. AWG.0 3.6 2.97 75. BWM NWT NWG.5 1.97 100. NWG.06 77.1 3.63 0.9 0. K.72 18.89 98.0 3 6.63 66. Threads mm per in 10.9 3.97 151.2 4 4.00 101.00 177. NWM HWT.00 25.63 219. 4”.44 138.7 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix F List of Standard sizes of Drilling Rods Core Bits & Casing ASTMD2113 DCMA E.63 168. 2”.5 2.2 7.6 48 57 58 Double Tube T2-76 TNW T2-101 T6-101 NMLC HMLC 3C-MLC C-MLC Site Designation RWT EWT EWG.72 43.0 7.84 97.4 3 7.35 59.655 42.50 88.9 3 60.91 48.2 1. AWM BWT.75 1.9 4.1 4 1.5 1.3 3.97 75.A.4 1.000 76.7 2.B. EWM AWT AWG. Ibu Pejabat JKR. BWG.16 29.75 44.1 1.50 114.375 18.3 4 3.6 3.N.5 1.00 152.50 88.9 2.5 1.8 2 8.4 2.P = 1 ½“.09 27.3 5.41 0.88 47.89 98. 3”.6 1.0 3 34.6 8.38 2.0 2. BWM NWT.6 4 5.13 53.3 1.4 1.50 38.81 46.5 2.155 54.69 68.1 2.19 30.3 4 11. HWG 4x5½ 6x7¾ 6x7¾ - Site Designation RW EW AW BW NW HW Rod and Coupling Outside in mm 1.8 5.

Engng.Total strength parameters* . Bulk and jar samples (from SPT split samplers) Washings (washed samples) Items changed from original German classification (7th. Foundn.Fabric . Mexico 1969).Compressibility & deformation .Water content . Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix G Quality of Samples (After ROWE) Quality Class 1 Properties . Cawangan Jalan. Water balance in highly permeable soils.L Page 59 .Consolidation* .Compressibility and deformation* . Consecutive .Remoulded properties .Remoulded properties Purpose Laboratory data on in situ soils (classification tests & engineering properties) Typical Sampling Procedure Piston thin walled sampler with water balance Mazier sampler with foam drilling Block samples 2 Laboratory data on in situ insensitive soils Pressed or driven thin or thick walled sampler with water balance Mazier sampler 3 Fabric examination and laboratory data on remoulded soils 4 5 None Laboratory data on remoulded soils.Effective strength parameters* . K.Effective strength parameters .Density and porosity .Total strength parameters .Remoulded properties . Soil Mech. Continuous B * 90% recovery.Water content .Density and porosity . Sequence of strata Aproximate sequence of strata only Pressed or driven thin or thick walled samplers.Remoulded properties .Permeability* .Fabric .Fabric A * 100% recovery. Int. Conf.

n on Drawings should be indicated 3. Field testing & sampling criteria Types & frequency of various field tests & sampling should be indicated.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix H Summary of Scope of SI Works Summary of Scope of SI Works should include the following details: 1. Brief Project description and objectives of SI.L Page 60 . K. in fill areas (in soil ground/swamp and residual soil areas) and in structure areas. 6. Criteria of Terminating Boreholes Criteria of terminating boreholes or other Sl methods should be clearly indicated eg in Cut Areas. 5. Examples or case histories of Scope of SI Works for road projects are enclosed. Laboratory Testing Types of lab testing & the selection criteria should be indicated. Special requirements Special requirements about S1 methods. Scope of SI works are based on "Guidelines for planning SI works for Road Projects" Cawangan Jalan. testing & sampling if any should be clearly men tioned. Ibu Pejabat JKR. SI Methods & Location {Scope of SI Works) Types & methods SI & the quantities should be indicated Locations of SI sho1n. 2. 4.

for foundation design for structures - 2.5mx 1. 3. Preliminary geological and ter rain evalution studies show that potential slope instability areas are at KM5.5mx2.L Page 61 . Nos A100 Works Spec: JKR Std. SI Methods & Locations Rotary wash boring (NW & HW casings) Rotary wash boring (air foam drilling technique) - 33 Nos 10 Nos (for Mazier samples) 10 locations (1.Om deep) 200 locations (Until 12m deep or until 400 blows/300mm) 20 Nos Locations of the above are shown in Drg. whichever Cawangan Jalan. Spec. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The alignment trav erses through sedimentary shale and granitic formations. 3. for SI Works (1980).1 Criteria of Terminating Boreholes Cut Areas Boreholes should be terminated after 3 consecutive SPT exceeding 50 or after 3m rock coring or the max depth (about 3m below formation level) specified below. K. The main objectives of SI are: To determine generalised subsoil profile for the proposed road alignment (earth work planning & rock estimation) To identify unstable soil formation and water table (water bearing zones and free water table depth) in cut areas (colluvium. Objectives This project involves in construction of a new R5 highway of about 30km through rolling to hilly terrains with some localized swamps and 5 bridges. KM9 and KM 12. Nos A 100 - Trial pits & bulk samples/block samples - - JKR Probes - - Hand Augers - Locations of the above are shown in Drg.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Project Jalan ABC (Example) Scope of SI Works 1. faulter or sheared zones) for stability analysis & pavement or subsoil drainage design To obtain subsoil propertes and water table for embankment design & necessary ground treatment To determine suitability of fill and borrow sources To obtain subsoil properties.

or. BH39 . 3. K.Max depth = 25m BH 15. Estimated depths are given in the BQ.1 Alluvial or Soft or Swampy Areas: (a) until 10 SPT exceeding 10 or until 10 Insitu vane shear tests exceeding 50 kPa If the height of embankment is less than 3m. BH26. (c) Bridges & Structures Locations of boreholes (BH 5. Rock corings shall be carried out as follows: Cawangan Jalan. BH38 . Boring should be terminated after 5 consecutive SPT exceeds 50. (b) 3.Max depth = 15m BH4. BH42 .2 Residual Soil Areas: (a) until 5 SPT exceeding 20 If the height of embankment is loss than 6m.L Page 62 .3 until 5 SPT exceeding 30 If the height of embankment is more than 6m. 131-1213. BH40 .Max depth = 40m Locations of borehoies to be selected to Instal prezometers (Casangrande type) will be decided at the site by the Designer. BH33.Max depth = 30m BH 11. 6. 3. 5 consecutive SPT exceeds 30 if the borehole depth also exceeds 60m. 7 & BH 12 & 13) are shown in the Drg A 100. 131"124. at least one borehole along the soft stretch should be extended until 3 consecutive SPT exceeds 50 or until 3m rock coring.Max depth = 35m BI-141 . (b) until 5 SPT exceeding 20 or 5 Insitu vane shear tests exceeding 75 kPa if the height of embankment is 3m to 5m. BH35. Boring should also be terminated if rock Is encountered. BH30. BH25.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects comes first: BH21. BH31. until 2 SPT exceeding 50 or 2 SPT exceeding 40 (for depth exceeding 30m) if the height of embankment is more than 5m. Ibu Pejabat JKR.2 In Fill Area Boreholes In filing areas should be terminated as follows: 3.2.2.

As a general guide. Typical undisturbed samples from residual soils may be selected for CIU/CD tests.5mm diam). and particle size distribution (excluding. Recovery ratio R/r> 50% Lime stone R/r> 50% and no cavity Lime stone R/r < 50% or w ith cavity Other rocks R/r > 50% Other rocks R/r < 50% Min. typical disturbed samples from Hand Augers and SPT samplers from each borehole should be selected for classification tests which Include natural moisture content.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Rock Type Igneous rock (granite) and bore depth <24m or recovery ratio R/r<50% Igneous rocks. pipette/ hydrometer tests and other chemical tests unless otherwise speci fied or directed by the Designer).ples from soft to firm strata using thin walled stationary piston samplers should be taken (ruin 63. K. CoreLength 4.Om 6.Om 3. after examination of the field borelogs. bore depth >24m Shale/schist/slate/sand-stone. Recovery ratio R/r< 50% Shale/schist/slate/sand-stone.5m interval) instead of SPT. Block samples will be mainly for trlaxial tests (CIU/CD).5m 3. plasticity index. This is to enable the cieslgner to determine as early as possible the types of lab tests required. compaction 8t CBR tests. or as directed by the Designer. Typical undisturbed samples from soft to firm strata may be selected for odeometer tests/UU/CIU tests etc. Field Testing & Sampling SPT should be carried out at 1. Typical undisturbed sanr. This is also to enable the Designer. Air foam drilling technique should be used. 4.L Page 63 .5m 6. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Cawangan Jalan. Bulk samples from trial pits are mainly for classification.Om 6. sg. Water samples are for PH & salt contents tests.Om Min core size should be 52mm diam (NMLC or HMLC or equivalent) 4.0m to 1. 5.21m 4. liquid limit.5m interval except when taking undisturbed samples or where soft cohesive stratum is encountered where Insitu vane shear test should be car ried out (at 1.Om 9m . plastic limit. Typical undisturbed sarriples from residual soils using Mazier samplers with detachable inner liner (74mm diarn) should be taken at selected boreholes shown in the Drg. to determine the adequacy of SI (to add or to omit scope of SI). Laboratory Testing Field borelogs should be sent to the Designer as soon as each borehole is completed.

L Page 64 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR R OAD W ORKS Cawangan Jalan. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.

GEO Ho ng Ko ng face o f wall face o f wall 1 . (1 984).2 B earing (fill) 3. K.2 1 .2 Lo cal & glo bal slo pe 1 stability (lo ng term) 1 .1 Tensile Resistance 3. GEO Ho ng Ko ng 2 1 .3 Creep/co rro sio n 4 1 DESIGN COM P ONENT o f materials) LA TERA L M INIM UM FA CTOR OF M A XIM UM P ERM ISSIB LE M OVEM ENTS DESIGN LIFE (durabllity DIFFERENTIA L 1 Unreinfo rced Slo pes . Ibu Pejabat JKR.2 Resistance at So il Gro ut Interface 3. Reinfo rced o t treated slo pes (no t o n so ft 1 .L Geo Spec 1 (1 989).5 2 B S 8081 3 75 yrs gro und Cawangan Jalan.2 75 yrs A nalysis sho uld be acco rding to GEOTECHNICA L M A NUA L FOR SLOP ES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY 2. P ermanent A ncho rs 4. Individual Fo undatio n 1 mm perpendicular to axis o f pile 2 at design lo ad lo ads (mainly under lateral & bending lo ads perpendicular B S 8004 B lo ck B earing Capacity 2 75 yrs 1 mm at Wo rking Lo ad 2 B S 8004 A s fo r 4.2 Sliding 5.3 Overall Stability 4 4 B earing External Stability B S 8006 Internal Stability 6.1 Lo cal & glo bal stability (cut & fill slo pes) 1 . Rigid Retaining Overturning 1 .5 76 yrs 1 .5 2 Geo guide 1(1 983).5 75 yrs 2 B S 8004 1 mm alo ng axis o f pile 2 at pile head at design lo ad 2 75 yrs 1 mm alo ng axis o f pile 2 1 20 yrs ± 5mm per metre height 4.GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROAD WORKS M ODE OF FA ILURE SA FETY VERTICA L 1 . the abo ve settlement criteria sho uld be reduced to 1 0 5%) A s fo r 75 yrs A s 4 abo ve fo r rigid retaining structures B S 8004 1 mm 0 to axist o f pile) 8.4 75 yrs . Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Page 65 Gro und .2 B ase Resistance Ultimate lateral Resistance 2. 6 & 7 abo ve individual fo undatio n piles 1 . Individual Fo undatio n P iles (mainly under axial lo ads) 7. P iles as retaining structures 1 Embankment o n So ft 0.8 75 yrs 1 mm alo ng 5 1 mm alo ng 5 1: 1 50 alo ng face of wall Structures 4. P ile gro up 9.1 Lo cal & glo bal stability (cut & fill slo pes) 2.To tal po st co nstructio n settlement < 400 mm .6 1 .1 B earing (sho rt term) 1 1 .1 Shaft Resistance at pile head at design lo ad 38 mm o r 1 0% pile size at pile head at twice design lo ad 6.2 B earing (fill) 2. GFO Ho ng Ko ng 3. Reinfo rced fill walls/ 1: 1 00 structures ±1 5mm fro m reference alignment alo ng f ace of wall 6.5 years po st co nstructio n settlement < 1 00 mm (o r 1 0% o f estimated ultimate settlement) (Fo r embankment within 1 m fro m bridge abutment.

Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 66 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects DRAF PINDAAN OKTOBER 1998 Draf t GARIS PANDUAN UNTUK POLISI DASAR KEATAS KEPERLUAN KTMB B ALI PR OJEK JAMB ATAN MELINTASI LALUAN KERETAPI JABATAN KERJA RAYA IBU PEJABAT JKR JALAN SULTAN SALAHUDIN 50582 KUALA LUMPUR Cawangan Jalan. K.

5 2. Zon keselamatan KTMB adalah ditetapkan sebagai kawasan yang berada di dalam ketinggian 6 m mene Page 67 Cawangan Jalan. Perkara ini menjadi lebih ketara dm kr. 2.Keperluan KTMB Flagging Charges 3. Later Belakang 2. JKR khuatir di dalam rnemenulu keperluan KTMB ini. sama ada pembinaan jalan baru ataupun menaikkan taraf jalan sedia ada.-kerja perlindungan (protection works) yang perlu disediakan.0 2.n projek-projek infrastruktur. Sejak kebelak angan ini JKR mendapati banyak ketidakseragaman timbul didalam keperluan serta syarat-syarat yang diberikaan oleh KTMB. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Polisi Dasar atas Keperluan KTMB bagi Projek Jambatan Melintasi Laluan Keretapi 1. Oleh yang demikian JKR mendapati amat perlu supaya satu polisi dasar ditetap kan oleh kerajaan bagi keperluan-keperluan yang kritikal bagi memudahkan kedua-dua pihak melaksanakan tanggungjawab masing-masing.3 2.0 Tujuan 1. Perbezaan amat ketara di antara satu projek dengan projek yang lain dan menyebabkan JKR berada didalam dilema untuk mernenuhi keperluan-keperluan tersebut.6 3.1 Keperluan . K.0 3. Perkara ini juga perlu ditetapkan bagi menjamin kedua-dua pihak mernperolehi kos pembinaan yang ekonomik. Pihak Kerajaaa perlu memutuykan pihak mana yang berhak ke atas common reserve ini.2 Apabila perkara ini berlaku pihak JKR mengikut lazimnya akan merujukkan cadangan mereka kepada.1 Tujuan garis panduan ini adafah untuk memaklumkan keperluan serta syaratsyarat yang ditetapkan oleh Kereltapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) bagi pro jek-projek jambatan JKR yang melintasi laluan KTMB.1 Di dalam melaksanaka. kelegaan pugak dan mendatar (Horizontal dan vertical clearance) serta kerja. KTMB untuk mendapatkan ulasan serta kelulusan. Berdasarkan cadangan ini pihak KTMB akan memberikan ulasan serta syarat-syarat yang perlu dipenuhi oleh JKR.4 2. Biasanya pelan tatatur serta lukisan-lukisan kejuruteraan yang berkaitan akan dikemukakan kepada KTMB.L . 2. ketidakser agaman akan dikesan oleh pihak Odit dan JKR akan dipersalahkan di dalam hal ini. dianggap kritikal oleh JKR meliputi perkara-perkara seperti `Flagging charge'.TKR juga mempunyai hak keatas rezab terse but.1. pihak JKR kerap mendapati ianya melibatkan lirtasan ke atas laluan keretapi. `Insurance Policy'. Keperluan-keperluan yang. Rezab Bersama (Common Reserve) JKR mempertikaikan tindakan KTMB yang menetapkan syarat yang perlu dipatuhi oleh JKR memandangkan.1 Tuntutan ini berlaku hanya apabila Zon keselamatan KTMB dimasuki.itikal sejak projek `KTMB Double-Tracking' dilaksanakan.

an dengan projek. (b) Kerugian pendapatan (loss of income) ‘All risk insurance' yang disediakan dalam kontrak JKR didapati wajar dan cukup untuk tujuan ini. JKR menghadapi rruisalah besar di dalam perkara ini di mana pihak KTMB kerapkali mengubali kelulusan asal di atas kelegaan pugak.ng sebenar diperlukan sahaja dan kadar yang digunakan adalah tetap. Penambahan kelegaan pugak ini bukan sahaja meningkatkan kos pembinaan jambatan dengar.2 Inconvenience charges 3. JKR perlu menjelaskan aktiviti kerja yang akan mengganggu perjalanan keretapi supaya k:os ke atas bayaran kesulitan dapat ditaksirkan. 3.3 Pihak KTMB menetapkan supaya satu polisi insuran untuk tujuan `damage & potential loss of income' disediakan oleh JKR bagi melindungi kerja-kerja melibatkan laluan mereka semasa pembinaan. berhampiran dengan persim pangan.2. Tuntutan bukan bagi keseluruhan tempoh projek tetapi hanya pada masa-masa ya.L . KTMB tidak akan mengem:&an'Insurance Coverage' yang berasingan jika `All Risk Insurance' yang disediakan oleh JKR di dalam kontrak utama meliputi: (a) Kerugian yang ditanggung oleh KTMB akibat daripada kelewatan perjalanan keretapi (train delay) disebabkan oleh akitiviti-aktiviti yang berkaii.1 Penutupan sementara atau pengawalan halaju normal keretapi mengganggu kelancaran jaclual perjalanan.lahi kelegaan yang diperlukan dari landasan keretapi ke bahagian paling bawah struktur jambatan yang merentangi landasan keretapi.1 Kelegaan P.Igak ada. KTMB mahu mempastikan landasan keretapi sentiasa selamat.4.2 3.4 Kelegaan Pugak (Vertical Clearance) 3.pi juga menyukarkan JKR untuk menyediakan cerun yang selarnat yang memenuhi kriteria Arahan Teknik Jalan terutama jika jambatan ini terletak.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects gak di atas landasan dan jarak 10 m mendatar dari garis tengah landasan (within 6 m above the track and 10 m from the centre line of the track).2. K. 3. Page 68 3. Insurance Coverage 3.1.2. bariyak teta.3 3.4. Kadar yang dituntut adalah 2 (man) x RM50/hari 3.2 Kakitangan KTMB perlu berada ditapak bina bagi mengawal/menghadkan hadlaju nor mal keretapi kepada 10km/jam.2 Cawangan Jalan. Kadar i:ni telah digu nakan oleh KTMB selama 10 tahun. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Oleh itu JKR berpendapat bahawa kos tambahan untuk satu insuran polisi yang berasingan adalah membazirkan dan tidak diperlukan. Kadar 'incovenience charges' akan dibayar kepada KTMB mengikut Garis Panduan yang dikeluarkan oleh Jabatan Keretapi Malaysia.

4. Kelegaan Pugak 7. diguna pakai bagi lain-lain projek jambatan merentangi laluan keretapi.2 3.1m bagi landasan yang mempunyai sistem `catenary'.4 3.4m. Ini telah mengambilkira jarak antara landasan dari tengah ke tengah yang mempunyai talian elek.2 3. (b) Pejalan kaki .ng tiada talian elektrik kelegaan pugak adalah 6.1 m adalah diperlukan bagi struktur jambatan yang merentangi laluan keretapi yang belum mempunyai sistem elektrifrkasi.4. KTMB hendaklah menge mukakan justifikasi lengkap berhubung dengan kelegaan yang diperlukan dan ianya hendaklah diluluskan oleh Jabatan Keretapi Malaysia.6 3. Parapet Wall 3.4.5.pejalan kaki tidak sewenang-wenangnya boleh melompat dari pada jambatan berkenaan.4.6. Kelegaan Fhigak yang telah dipersetujui untuk digunapakai adalah seperti berikut . pihak KTMB akan memberi pertimbangan berdasarkan projek ke projek.6. Ibu Pejabat JKR.0m.2 Cawangan Jalan.0 m yang diperlukan bagi struktur jambatan yang merentangi laluan keretapi yang telah mempunyai sistem elektrifrkasi tidak dapat dipenuhi oleh pihak yang.1 KTM bersetuju merlggunapakai lukisan `New Jersey Barrier' dan `Parapet Wall' yang telah disediakan oleh JKR pada jambatan merentangi laluan keretapi yang telah disediakan untuk projek Jalan Lingkaran Dalam Johor Baluu. `New Jersey Barrier' dan `Parapet Wall' pada jambatan merentangi laluan keretapi yang digunapakai tersebut telah direkabentuk dengan mengambilkira perkaraperkara berikut (a) Kenderaan ttidak rnudah jatuh ke atas landasan KTMB.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects 3. (c) P'ejalan kaki-pejalan kaki tidak mudah melakukan perkara-perkara yang Page 69 3. `New Jersey Barrier' dan `Parapet Wall' ini telah direkabentuk dengan inengambilkira faktor keselamatan pengguna jalanraya atau jimbatan dan juga keselamatan laluan keretapi di bahagian bawah jambatan tersebut. Amalan KTMB buat masa ini untuk landasan ya.Om dari paras landasan. Kelegaan Mendatar (Horizontal Clearance) 3. Bagi laluan berhampiran stesyen.5.Rawang). Ketinggian pugak kabe adalah 4. di mana kelegaan mendatar 25m tidak mencukupi dare KTMB memerlukan kelegaan mendatar yang lebih.1 Kelegaan mendatar yang telah dipersetujui adalah 25m.1 3. Bagi landasan berelektrik kelegaan pugak adalah 7.3 Keperluan maksimum KTMB bagi kelegaan pugak dari sudut kejuruteraan Elektrik adalah 6. bertanggungjawab membina jambatan tersebut kerana sebab-sebab teknikal dan sebagainya yang munasabah. Sekiranya Kelegaan Pugak 7.4.7m dan jarak zon keselamatan minima dari tengah landasan k:e rezab KTMB memberi jumlah lebih kurang 17m kelegaan mendatar bagi laluan `double tracking'.0 m adalah diperlukan bagi struktur jambatan yang merentangi laluan keretapi yang telah merrlpunyai sistem elektrifikasi iaitu di Lembah Klang (laluan Sentul ke Pelabuhan Klang dan laluan Seremban .3 3.4.5 3.4. Johor untuk.trik iaitu 4.4.L . Kelegaan Pugak 6. K.

4.6.4 Ketinggian Parapet: Wall adalah 1. jenis mesin yang akan digunakan. bentuk struktur jambatan.2.1. 1 .3 4.7 Pagar keselainatan sementam perlu disediakan 50m sebelum dan 50m selepas lokasi jambatan melintasi landasan.1. Kerja-Kerja Perlindungan 3. `Method Statement' bagaimana kerja-kerja akan dijalankan dikawasan tersebut.6.1. Blok Annexe Selatan Bangunan Stesen Keretapi Jalan Sultan Hishamuddin 50621 Kuala Lumpur 4.1. Ini adalah untuk keselamatan pekerja semasa kerja pembinaan dijalankan bagi menghalang pekerja dari memasuki landasan keretapi. `Approach. Ketinggian pagan hendaklah 6m.L .3 3. road' ke jambatan hendaklah mempunyai New Jersey Barrier bagi meng halang kenderaan daripada terjatuh kedalam kawasan laluan keretapi.1 Segala bentuk perirlohonan pembinaan jambatan melintasi landasan kere tapi perlu dialamatkan kepada: Jabatan Pengurusan Hartanah Tkt. kaedah penanaman ceru cuk. 4. K. ter masuk melontar objek ke kawasan laluan keretapi. Aktiviti-aktiviti yang ada kaitan Page 70 4. jenis cerucuk yang digunakan. la hamslah menunjukkan bentuk pepari tan yang akan disediakan bagi membolekan pihak KTMB mengetahui cara mengeluarkan air larian permukaan.2.1.1 Prosedur Melaksanakan Projek Lintasan Keretapi Permohonart kepada KTMB 4. Antara lain perkara-perkara yang perlu adalah kaedah bagaimana pembinaan jambatan akan dijalankan. Keperluan standard rekabentuk geometri jalan seperti jaraj pandangan (sight distance) dan faktor keselamatan pengguna jalanraya/jambatan dengan peng gunaan New Jersey Barrier.1. Ibu Pejabat JKR.8 m.2 Permohonan hendaklah dalam bentuk 9 set dokumen-dokumen yang mengandungi perkara dibawah:4.0 4.4 Cawangan Jalan.2.2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects (d) boleh mendatangkan bahaya kepada mereka dan kerosakan harta benda. Program kerja yang menjelaskan jadual kerja pembinaan yang akan dilak sanakan dikawasan sekitaran landasan keretapi.2 Lukisan Ukur Tanah Pelan susun atur dan keratan bujur bagi landasan keretapi 1000m sebelum dan 1000m selepas jambatan melintasi landasan keretapi.1 Lukisan Kejuruteraan Lukisan kejuruteraan berserta rekabentuk konsep hendaklah mengandungi lukisan susun atur tapak yang menunjukkan kelegaan pugak dan ufuk cadangn pembinaan jambatan itu. 3.

2 Tempoh Permohonark Dam Kelulusan.gkat rekabentuk sehinggalah pembinaan struktur lintasan keretapi bagi melicinkan Fperjalanan projek dan mengurangkan gangguan kepada perjalanan keretapi.1 5.3. 4.rkai.1. Wisma Semantan Jalan Gelenggang 50490 KUALA LUMPUR 4. 4. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Ini bagi anggaran kos kesulitan dapat ditaksirkan. 5. KTM Berhad akan Inemberikan kelulusan untuk melaklsanakan kerja-kerja pembinaan dalamntempuh tidak lebih daripada lima (5) minggu dari tarikh permohonan dike mukakan kecuali bagi kes-kes yang luar biasa.tan dengan pelaksanaan mana-mana peraturan seperti yang ditetapkan dalarn garis panduan ini.2 4.1 Salinan surat permohonan tersebut hendaklah disertakan bersama: a) Pelan susun atur jambatan yang merentangi laluan kere tapi. KTMB dan Jabatan Keretapi Malaysia akan dibuat dari masa ke masa semasa perin.3 Cawangan Jalan.2 Tarikh Berkuat Kuasa & Gunapakai Peraturan yang ditetapkan dalam garis panduan ini adalah berkuat kuasa serta-merta.nohonan kepada KTMB hendaklah dihantar kepada Jabatan Keretapi Malaysia.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects dikawasan rezab KTMB hendaklah dinyatakan juga. Sebarang persoalan b.L Page 71 .2.1. Panduan ini boleh digunapakai oleh lain-lain jabatan atau agensi Kerajaan yang berkai tan. 4.3 Koordinasi antara JKJt. K. 4.3 Salinan surat pen. 5.0 5. Koordinasi Antara Agensi Terlibat.2. b) Pelan Keratan rentas di bahagian bawah jambatan.2 Salinan surat permohonan hendaklah dialamatkan kepada: Pengarah Teknikal Jabatan Keretapi Malaysia Blok B. hendaklah ditujukan kepada: Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Cawangan Jalan Ibu Pejabat Jabatan Kerja Raya Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50582 Kuala Lumpur. Tingkat 2.1.1 Permohonan untuk melaklanakan jambatan merentangi laluan keretapi hendaklab dike mukakan kepada KTM Berhad tidak kurang dari lima (5) minggu sebelum kerja -kerja pembinaan dijalankan. 4.3.

Pihak Audit kurang bersetuju terhadap bayaran Flagging Charges dan Inconvenience Charges yang diminta oleh KTMB. Tuan : Ruj. iii. Garis Panduan Untuk Dasar Terhadap Keperluan KTMB Bagi Projek-projek Jambatan Melintasi Laluan Keretapi Dengan segala hormatnya perkara tersebut di atas adalah dirujuk. tetapi juga secara langsung menjimatkan kos dan masa kepada KTMB.pihak yang berkenaan ketika sesuatu kerja sedang dilaksanakan. Tiada sebarang peraturan atau undang-undang yang sedang berkuatkuasa Setakat ini tidak ada sebarang peraturan atau undang-undang yang membenarkan bayaran. (Cable) Ruj. 2. adalah kurang munasabah bagi KTMB untuk tidak mahu memikul sedikit kos (flagging charges & inconvenience charges) bagi membuktikan bahawa KPAB juga prihatin terhadap pembangunan infrastruktur negara.L.Nafisah bt Hj. Audit/Ps:JKR/726/4 Jld. Ibu Pejabat JKR.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects JABATAN AUDIT NEGARA (National Audit Department) JALAN CENDERASARI 50518 KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA Telefon : 03-2946422 Telefon : 603-2930264 Kawat : AUDITNEGARA. Berikut adalah sebab-sebabnya: i. Kami : (16)dlm. Maka dalam usaha Kerajaan Persekutuan membangunkan infrastruktur negara yang mana memberi faedah kepada sernua pihak.III Tarikh : 24 Oktober 1998 Ketua Pengarah Kerja Raya Ibu Pejabat Jabatan Kerja Raya Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50580 Kuala Lumpur u. Ini adalah kerana KTMB tidak perlu lagi menempatkan pekerja-pekerjanya bagi mengawal Cawangan Jalan.p. Tanggungjawab KTMB terhadap Pembangunan Infrastruktur Negara Sebahagian bestir modal wham KTMB dimiliki oleh Kerajaan Persekutuan. KTMB dapat menjimatkan kos Pembinaan jambatan melintasi laluan keretapi bukan sahaja memberi faedah kepada orang awam. Puan.Abd Aziz Cawangan Jalan.L Page 72 . Puan Ir. K. ii. pampasan kepada orang awam atau mana-mana pihak lain dalam pelaksanaan projek-pro jek infrastruktur Kerajaan Persekutuan akibat dari gangguan kepada pihak. Pada pandangan Audit. perkara yang penting dalam menetapkan garis panduan ini adalah penetapan prosedur-prosedur teknikal dan pentadbiran yang perlu dipatuhi oleh Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) dan juga Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) dalam pelaksanaan projek Lintasan keretapi. K.

ialah mengadakan prosedur-prosedur teknikal don pen tadbiran bagi KTMB don JKR mematuhi. Biarkanlah ini menjadi satu sumbangar. Flagging charges pada RM50/hari bagi duo orang pada masa-masa sebenarnya diper lukan merupakan sate petty claim. Gangguan tidak dapat diukur dalam nilai wang Kerugian yang telah dialami oleh KTMB akibat daripada kerja-kerja yang sedang dilak sanakan oleh kerajaan tidak dapat ditentukan ataupun ditaksirkan. Gaji dan kemudahan yang perlu disediakan bagi pekerja-pekerja yang berkenaan adalah penjimatan kepada KTMB. adalah tidak wajar sama sekali bagi KTMB meminta kerajaan membayar KTMB kerana terdapat sedikit gangguan terhadap laluan keretapi.Sekiranya terdapat litigasi oleh pihak swam terhadap KTMB yang berpunca dari kerja-kerja yang dijalankan oleh JKR secara langsung.Bilangan. KTMB terpaksa menghalang lalulintas sementara waktu bagi membenarkan kere tapi melintasi jalan raya. K. .Ketua Audit Negara Malaysia Cawangan Jalan. iv. Apa yang amat penting demi menjaga keselamatan terhadap orang avvam don harta benda kerajaan ataupun KTMB. v.p. supaya kerja-kerja pembinaan jambatan melintasi laluan keretapi dapat dilaksanakan dengan lancar. . keretapi yang boleh lalu setiap hari terpaksa dikurangkan akibat kerjakerja JKR. Ibu Pejabat JKR. selamat don mengakibatkan kesulitan yang paling minimum kepada inana-mana pihak.terima kasih.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects lalulintas ketika keretapi melintasi lintasan berpagar.L Page 73 . kecil oleh KTMB terhadap pembangunan infrastruktur negara oleh kerajaan.Laluan keratapi langsung tidak dapat digunakan. Sekian. vi. Dengan sebab-schab yang tersebut di atas pada pendapat Audit. di setiap lintasan keretapi berpa gar. ITiaka pihak-pihak lain juga akan membuat tuntutan yang sedemikian terhadap kerajaan kerana telah mengalami gangguan. Mengikut amalan. Maka bayaran kepada KTMB akan menjadi satu precedent kepada pihak-pihak lain. Pihak Audit hanya bersetuju KTMB menuntut kerugian dalam keadaan-keadaan yang berikut: . Tuntutan KTMB akan menjadi precedent kepada pihak lain Jika inconvenience charges dibayar kepada KTMB dalam urursan kerajaan melak sanakan projek-projek pembangunan kerana ado elemen gangguan kepada KTMB. (PRANCES SOOZA) Ketua Cawangan Audit Kerja Raya Bahagian Audit Kerajaan Persekutuan B. 3. ‘BERKHIDMAT UNTUK NEGARA’ ‘AUDITAN BERKUALITI MENINGKATKAN AKAUNTABILITI’ Saya yang menurut perintah. Dalam kes-kes sedemikian tidak pernah timbul permintaan inconvenience charges oleh mana-mana pihak lain terhadap KTMB.

This kinematic envelope allows for vehicle bounce of 25mm The clearance indicated are based on straight and level tracks. This kinematic envelope is based on a speed of 120 Kph and incorporates the following track tolerances :- 1.3 Cross level error ± 15mm 2. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 3.1 Track alignment ± 25mm 1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects 1. allowances must be made for superelevation and curvature (End throws/centre throws) Cawangan Jalan.L Page 74 . K.2 Vertical track tolerance ± 25mm 1.

K. Ibu Pejabat JKR.L Page 75 .FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects REINFOR CED FILL STR UCTURES Cawangan Jalan.

Minimum sizing of reinforces fill structures. Ibu Pejabat JKR. connections. rein forcing elements. Muld Anchor Wall. Keystone Walls etc have been commonly used. Cawangan Jalan. (a) For bridge abutments walls and bridge approach walls: 120 years For retaining walls: 70 years For Temporary Works: 5 years or service life expected FOS (b) (c) 2. Fig. fasteners. The rehability and durability aspects of these systems with particular reference to reinforcing ele ments. connections etc are quite doubtful due to lack of acceptance criteria and approval procedure.Design procedure for rein forced soil walls Fig 5 . Walls for road projects in Malaysia since early 80'. 4. Proposed Design Criteria 4.75mm. This paper will briefly discuss the foundamental concept of reinforced fill structures. fills etc are given In Appendix A.1 Design life: 4. Fig. Table l Checklist for investigation of reinforcement products. Page 76 . Nehemiah Walls. There are at least 5 different reinforced fill structure systems available In Malaysia market.3 Reinforcing element (steel) Fig.shows serviceability limit states external and internal stability. Wetsoll Walls. compare the differences between various common systems avail able and subsequently propose mini mum design requirements for reinforced fill structures.3 .shows effect of reinforcement on a soil element. Shall be hot-dip galvanised (BS 729: 1986) and minimum zinc coating 610g/m1(85 microns). There has been an increasing extensive use of reinforced fill structures to replace conventional R. The sacri ficial steel thickness allowance for each surface of galvanised steel component should be 0. l . A comparison with particular reference to the facings.6 .2 . facings.Definitions and types of walls and abutments.L Carbon Steel Strip to BS 1449: Part 1: 1972 either quality KHR 34/20P or KHR 54/35P.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Reinforced Fill Structures by Ir Neoh Cheng Aik Fig.Min FOS against various ulti mate limit states . K.7 . Types of Reinforced Fill Structure Reinforced Fill StrucL-ure systems such as RE Walls.C. 3. 1.4 .2 See Pos Slim Lojing 4. fills. Fig.shows typical forms of rein forcement.external stability. Foundamental Concept Fig. Table 2 Usually accepted tolerances for faces of reinforced fill structures/walls. Introduction Reinforced fill structures mean struc tures with vertical or near vertical face (B > 70°) which compresses tensile and shall include any connections and any facing ensure stability.

5 Facings R. (c) (d) Cawangan Jalan. Plain washers shall be of either Form A or Form E to BS 4320: 1968 and shall be made from cold-rolled carbon steel strip CS4 complying with BS 1449: Part 1: 1972 Dowels and rods (BS 4449: 1984) or Grade 50B comply ing with BS 4360:1979 All steel shall hot-dip gal vanised to BS 729:1972 and minimum zinc coating shall be 610g/mz (85 microns).02% Total sulphate content <0.2% Total sulphide content <0. Ibu Pejabat JKR.0 for nuts. screws and nuts which shall comply with BS 4190:1967. K.6 for bolts and screws and 4.03% 4.4 Fill Basically sand with the following properties shall be use Max size 150mm %passing l0mm BS sieve >25 %passing 600 microns >8 %passing 63 microns 0-10 pH 5-10 resistivity (ohm-m) >10 chloride ion content <0.8 to BS 3692: 1967 (b) Black hexagon bolts.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects 4.C types of various shapes 4.6 Connections Connections between facing and reinforcing element shall be (a) Precision hexagon bolts.L Page 77 . screws and nuts which shall be made from steel alloy Grade 8. The strength grade shall not less than 4.

0 to 1.. plus assessment of long term effects to be assessed.1) TB TD < TB / (fm *fn) i.Es Sacrificed thickness Long-term base strength Material factors (En > 4mm) Allowable tensile load (nominal thickness-sacrificed thickness) Es = 0.0) Tatsow 5 0. 1. depending on polymer. Ibu Pejabat JKR.5 Tassow S w*E:*au /[(fts: fq)*fm*fn]= w*Ec*au /(1. manufacturing variations extrapolation of data and confidence of long-term capacity assessment construction damage rate of environmental and aging degradation to take account of economic ramifications of failure (fo = 1.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects B5 8006.5) material factor: fm = (fmss*fm12)*(fm21*fm2:) to take account of.*Ec*au) Polymeric reinforcements Long-term base strength TB = extrapolated tensile creep rupture strength at end of serv ice life TCR Material factors fm11 fm12 > 1. with load factors and material factors General Load factors ffs fq fm fm11 fm12 Material factor fm21 fm22 Ramifications of failure.5* 1.e.0) Tauow S 0.1.5mm for 120yrs TB = w* Ec *au (au = rupture stress) fm = (fm11*fm12)*(fm21*fm22) = 1. design service life etc.414*( %. state ofstress.5* 1. ti = duration of real time creep tests to be derived from trials. K.0 depending on quality control and tolerances > log(td/tt) depending on consistency of products tested where to =design service life. tempera ture.5*fin* 1.9mrn for 70 yrs service life.67*Tcx / [(fmst*fmr2)*(fm21*&_2)J fm21 fm22 Allowable tensile load Cawangan Jalan. Taw% s Tctt / [(frs: fq)*fm*fn) = TCR /[1..5) applies to traffic load and induced earth pressure (fq = 1. practically: where TD includes load factors (frs.L Page 78 . fq)*Tal < To / (fm *fo) Galvanized steel strip reinforcement (width w) Design thickness Ec = En . soil chemistry. Design philosophy Limit state design. fn Long-term base strength Design tensile load applies to weight of structure and earth pressure behind (here: fts ..

L Page 79 . K.e.5.05 < FC < 3.55 ay Design thickness EC = En . Ibu Pejabat JKR.50) "factor of safety" with respect to environmental and aging loss es.variations (FS = 1. 1.5*(w*Ec*ay) Polymeric reinforcements Limit state tensile load T1 highest load level at which no failure can occur within design service life Factors FC "factor of safety" with respect to construction damage. 4g/side/yr for subsequent years 2/ steel (Es) 12p/side/yr after zinc depletion (i.1 < FD < 2.42mm for 75 yrs serv ice life) Allowable tensile load Tallow s w*Fu*0. fill properties. externally applied loads.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects AASHTO (Interim 1994) Design philosophy Working stresses (no load factors) (width w) (sy = yield stress) Galvanized steel strip reinforcements Allowable stress 0. reinforcement manufacturing .55Fy Tassow S 0.56*Ti/(FC*FD) FD FS Allowable tensile load Cawangan Jalan.0) overall factor of safety to account for uncertainties in structure geometry.78) Tallow s: Ti/QFC*FD*FS) Tallow s 0. to be based on product specific data (1.Es (nominal thickness-sacrificed thick ness) Sacrificed thickness (until end of design service life) 1/ galvanization (86p) 15u/side/yr for first 2 years. to be determined by tests (1.

...........00 10 Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 6/85 (Pindaen 1/88) Guidelines for Presentation of Engineering Drawings .............................1997) Application for The Installation of Public Utilities Services Within the Road Reserve First Scheduler ..... Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 14/87 Model Terms of Reference For Detailed Ground Survey And Engineering Design of Roads Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 15/97 Intermediate Guidelines to Drainage Design of Roads ........00 19 RM3.. K.......... Ibu Pejabat JKR.................... Cawangan Jalan........ Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 3/85 (Pindaan 1/88) Garispanduan Untuk Memproses Pembangunan Tepi Jalan Persekutuan....00 RM2.............. Tel: 4684316 Pembayaran hendaklah dibuat dengan kiriman wang (money order) atau postal order atas nama Ketua Akauntan Kementerian Kerja Raya 1 Harga Garispanduan & Arahan Teknik (Jalan) Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 1/85 (Pindaan 1/89) Manual On Design Guidelines of Longitudinal Traffic Barrier ................Instruction To Applicants........00 RM8. Interium Guide on Idendifying.....................................00 27 28 RM9.... 14 Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 10/86 A Guide To The Design of Cycle Track ... 26 RM45...... Road Safety Audit Guidelines for the Safety Audit of Roads RM2..........................00 11 Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 7/85 Garis Panduan Untuk Penyedaian Pelan Pengambilan Balik Tanah Bagi Projek Jalan Persekutuan .........00 3 Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2B/85 Manual on Traffic Control Devices: Traffic Sign Applications ..........00 20 RM9..00 4 Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2C/85 Manual on Traffic Control Devices: Temporary Sign And Work Zones Control .... Note Teknik (Jalan) 19/97 Intermediate Guidelines to Road Reserve Landscaping ......... Prioritising and Testing Hazardous Locations on Roads in Malaysia ...... RM5.....Guidelines For JKR Engineers Second Schedule .................... Standard Specification for Road Works ..........00 5 RM4........................... 18 RM10..........00 Tidak dijual RM11.........00 9 Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 5/85 Manual On Pavement Design ..............00 12 Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 8/88 A Guide On Geometric Design of Roads ............ 2 Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2A/85 Manual on Traffic Control Devices: Standard Traffic Signs ......................................... Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13187 A Guide To The Design of Traffic Signals ...00 15 RM11.. Guidelines for Inspection A Testing of Road Works ............... Construction Supervision Manual for Contract Roadworks ............................ Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2D/85 Manual on Trat Control Devices: Road Marking And Delineation ....... Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 12/87 A Guide To The Design of Interchanges ..... RM5......00 7 RM60...........................00 6 Arahan Teknik listen) 2E/87 Manuel on Traffc Control Devices: Guide Signs Design And Application ...........L Page 80 ...............00 25 RM30....... Tingkat Bawah Kementerian Kerja Raya Jalan Sultan Salahuddin 50580 Kuala Lumpur..00 17 RM9....... Arahan Teknlk (Jalan) 4/85 (Pind..... Cawangan Jalan.00 23 RM20............. RM2................ Guidelines for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highway/Road Project ............. Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 11/87 A Guide To The Design of At-Grade Intersections .... A Guide to the Visual Assessment of Flexible Pavement Surface Conditions Interim Guide to Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Flexible Road Pavement ...00 RM22................................ boleh dibeli daripada:Cawangan Pengurusan Tender dan Harta Bahagian Kewangan dan Akaun Blok A.............................00 16 RM10........00 Tidak dijual 22 8 RM30.......FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects GARISPANDUAN & ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) JABATAN KERJA RAYA MALAYSIA Garispanduan dan Arahan Teknik (Jalan) yang telah diterbitkan oleh Unit Rekabentuk Jalan. RM20.00 21 RM30....................40 24 RM20...........

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Cawangan Jalan. K.L Page 81 . Ibu Pejabat JKR.

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FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Cawangan Jalan.L Page 84 . Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.

Ibu Pejabat JKR. K.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Cawangan Jalan.L Page 85 .

Bangunan) Jurukur Bahan Kanan (Caw. Ir Wong Wai Cheng 6. it can usually be loosened by:drilling & blasting (use explosives or chemicals) ripping (use D7. Dato' Ir Dr. Membincang cadangan baru concrete road kerb. Pn. definition of rock should be :SIMPLE easily understood by contractors & site supervisors. Ibu Pejabat JKR. minimum personal discretion is required in interpretation & decision. SKP) JPK (J) JPK (Projek) PPK (HPU) PP (Caw. Membincang definition of unsuitable material and removal/replacement of unsuitable material. 3. Ir Goh Chee Eng 7.Cawangan Jalan. Hj. Mat Kasa - Pengarah Jalan (Pengerusi) JPK (R) Tim. 12. Azmi b. 2. excavating by powerful hydraulic excavator (effective and practical only for soft rock) Cawangan Jalan. 14. Nil Pn. D8 or DO). Yang Hadir 1. Roziyah bt. Tan Kim Lian 9. Aziz Ir Baharanuddin Che Zain Ir Kamil Puat b. Unsuitable Material & Concrete Road Kerb Yang Diadakan Pada 17 Mac 1998 di Bilik Mesyuarat. Omar 2. 17. Abd.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Minit Mesyuarat Defination Rock. Nafisah bt. only simple test by equipment easily available. Ismrail Pn. Shamsudin 8. Ir Rohani bt Razak 5. 16. PRECISEclear-cut. Kontrak dan Ukur Bahan) Wakil LLM PPK (Standard) PPK (Pelbagai) PPK (Senggara) PPK (Zon Selatan) PPK (Zon Utara) PPK (Zon Timur) PP (Jurukur Bahan) Jurutera Awam (Standard) Tujuan Mesyuarat Tujuan mesyuarat ialah:1. K. Pengarah (Caw. 11. Wahid b. Ir Chin Wei Cheng 4. Latif Pn. Aishah Othman Dr.Kuala Lumpur 1. Ir. REALISTIC realistic in reflecting cost of excavation & time (within a reasonably accurate margin). 13. For works specification purpose. no expert knowledge is required in interpretation. Cik Noriha Derin Ir Kamalaldin Abd.L Page 86 .Ibu Pejabat JKR. Naelah bt. 3. Ir Neoh also informed that when rock is encountered in bulk excavation. Definition of Rock & Excavation of Rock Ir Neoh explained various typical definitions of rock by geologist. Ir Neoh Cheng Aik 3. 15. 2. Hassan Pn. objective and specific in nature. Abu Harith b. Membincang definition baru untuk 'rock & excavation of rock'. 10. engineers & QS.

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects pneumatic tools (slow. (the existing definition remains unchanged). Proposal 1 Basically this proposal recommended 3 types of excavation for earthworks:(a) Rock Excavation . practical only for small quantity of rock). existing JKR Standard Specification for rock excavation are:Excavation of rock does not include excavation of hard material which requires rip ping or large excavator.L Page 87 . After detailed discussions 4 possible proposals are included for further consideration (see Lampiran A). . Ibu Pejabat JKR. (c) Common Excavation PROPOSAL 2 Basically this proposal changes the definition of rock to include hard material and 3 types Cawangan Jalan. This proposal did not change the definition of rock in the existing specification except that the excavation of rippable material such as grade 3 or 4 rocks were classified as hard mate rial/excavation. shovel (> 10 m'/hr.2.1 (f). wedges & sledge.any hard material that requires to be loosened by tracktype tractor with ripper (20 tonnes & 200 bhp) or track type hydraulic excavator (30 tonnes and minimum 165 flywheel hp. but the output is quite low (5 to 20 m3/hr) and the unit cost can be in the range of RM5 to RM15 per metre cube. (g) about definition of rock and hard materials and Subsection 2. for definition of rock is basically any hard material that CANNOT be ripped by a tractor of 20 tonnes & 200 bhp.). In other words. Excavation of hard material can be 2 to 5 times more costly than common excavation.7 about excavation of rock. With rip per. < 5m3/hr). Cost effective method for rock excavation depends on:type of rock degree of weathering joints/discontinuities (spacing) zon (intact/sheared/faulted) . K. hammers (very slow. combination of the above. Ir Neoh suggested 2 proposals or amendments to the existing JKR Standard Specification for Road Works Subsection 2.3. any hard material that can be ~ ripped by the specified tractor with rip per is NOT rock and this included grade 3 and 4 rock which can be ripped and then exca vated by large excavator or shovel.excavation that can be effectively excavate by normal excavators. (b) Hard Excavation . Work delay due to dispute on whether the excavation is rock or common.2.).quantities/volume time constraint environmental and site constraints Ir Neoh briefed the meeting that the existing JKR Spec.rock is defined as hard material that cannot be ripped by track-type tractor with ripper of 20 tonnes & 200 bhp. The main complaints about the.

Hard material.O. cannot or not practical be ripped by tractor with ripper (20 tones.O. Proposal 4 This proposal combined the concepts of Proposal 1 & 3 and also has 3 types of excavation for earthworks i. no blasting is required. Dato' Pengerusi directed that the above 4 proposals with details should be referred to Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Spesifikasi for final selection as soon as possible. 165 fly wheel hp.2.Excavation of all materials that cannot be classified as rock i. (b) Common Excavation . Tindakan : JPK (R) 4. 200 bhp).5 flywheel horse power & 30 tones).O. 30 tones. Common Excavation Cawangan Jalan. Generally the definition for unsuitable material as given in Subsection 2. 200 bhp) OR track-type hydraulic excavator (min.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects of excavations in earthworks are:(a) Class 1 Rock Excavation shall include loosening the rock by drilling and blasting with suitable explosives or chemicals.) or too wet or contains undesirable/hazardous materials.e. (b) Class 2 Rock Excavation shall include loosening the rock by ripping with a track type tractor with ripper (20 tones & 200 bhp) or using track-type hydraulic excavator (> 16.. etc. K.1 (d) of the existing JKR Standard Specification for Road Works is satisfactory except that the so defined unsuitable material may be suitable as a fill material for low embankment especially when the moisture is low. (a) Rock Excavation .Excavation of any materials which cannot be classified as rock or hard material.O.Rock is defined as hard material that required to be loos ened by blasting AND in the opinion of the S.L Page 88 . (b) Hard Excavation . (c) Proposal 3 This proposal has 2 types of excavation i. Ibu Pejabat JKR. requires to be loosened by tractor with ripper (20 tones.e. in the opinions of the S.:. requires to be loosened by blasting. Common Excavation Excavation of materials that cannot be classified as rock. Slight amendment is proposed as shown in Lampiran B. excavation of materials which in the opinion of the S. etc.) (c) .Rock is defined as hard material that in the opinion of the (a) Rock Excavation S. Definition of Unsuitable Material Ir Neoh informed the rriieeting that the excavated material/soil from cut or borrows may be unsuitable as a fill material because it is too peaty (low shear strength.e.

Ibu Pejabat JKR.2. Ir Neoh explained that the proposed new design of road kerbs has incorporated the follow 7. Removal of Unsuitable Material The amount or depth of unsuitable material required to be removed and replaced before construction of embankment or culverts depends on:conditions/shear strength of the subsoil height of embankment method and rate of filling tolerable limit of post construction settlement The details about locations/chainages and the respective design depth for removal & replacement of unsuitable material should be clearly shown on drawings if detail SI is avail able. sand backfill may be necessary if the void created by the removal of unsuit able material is full of water due to rain or high water table & permeable sub-soil. K. No.3. barrier.e. to separate carriageway from pedestri an areas. Replacement of Unsuitable Material Under Standing Water Free draining material such as sand and crushed rock or mixture shall be used to fill up the void due to removal of unsuitable material if the area is under standing water -eg. Barrier type should riot be used for high speed road. Standard Concrete Road Kerbs Kerbs are used to delineate the edges of carriageway. to support the edge of the pavement etc. 6. KPKR/J/R/STD/AM 311. Mountable kerb is appli cable for traffic islands (on the approach noses of exposed islands). it is recommeded for raised footpath (pedestrian ) along the road with operating speed less than 70 kph.5 of the Specification is amended as shown in Lampiran B. Cawangan Jalan." without indicating the design criteria is not acceptable and usually ends up a lot of VO and disputes. These kerbs are 225 mm to 75 mm high. pedestrian or footpath crossing near traffic junctions etc. mountable & semi-mountable.L Page 89 .4 types i. ponds/lakes or water course if the pumping or water diversion is not practical. 150 mm to 40 mm in height as shown in Lampiran C. The existing Std. Semi-mountable kerbs are the standard kerb to be used for delineation and drainage on all intersections etc. The amended specification for subsection 2. The drainage outlets are part of the drainage design and not included in the road kerb details.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects 5. In case the Contractor does not backfilI immediately. Drawings with notes such as "actual depth of removal of unsuitable material to be decided at site by the S. The proposed new road kerbs are more user-friendly and generally lower. These kerbs are classified into .O.4 (Removal of Unsuitable Material to take care of these situations is shown in Lampiran B). JKR Road Kerbs for Road works are shown on Drg. Backfilling of the void created by the removal of unsuitable material SHOULD be carried out immediately with SUITABLE MATERIAL. Subsection 2. otherwise criteria to determine depth of removal of unsuitable material for various possible cases should be indicated on drawing. the additional cost (if any) due to backfiliing with sand instead of suitable material should be borne by the Contractor. semi-barrier.2. In such case.3.

if any were requested to send to Cawangan Jalan as soon as possible.) to Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Spesifikasi for final decision. unsuitable material and road kerbs were presented and discussed.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects ing features directed by ICPKR:1) The new kerbs are generally lower & more user-friendly. Penutup The definition of rock. The proposed amendments to the Standard Specification for Road Works will be referrer. Cawangan Jalan. pleasing and have better aesthetic appearance. K. Ibu Pejabat JKR. 8. Kerb size and joint tolerances are clearly specified to ensure consistent quality and aesthetic appearance. Suggestions and comments. 2) 3) The new kerbs are more.L Page 90 .

All equipment used shall be in good condition and operated by experienced personnel skilled in the equipment. by wedges and sledge hammers. Ibu Pejabat JKR.O.7 Excavation of Rock Excavation of rock for the purposes of payment shall be classified as fol lows:CLASS 1 Rock Excavation shall include loosening the rock by drilling and Wasting with suitable explosives or by suitable chemical blasting approved by the S. Replace Subsection 2.1 (f) by the following:Rock Rock shall mean material hound in ledges or masses in its original position which would normally. (g) Definition of rock as given in Sub-section 2.3.3.1 (f) or a track-type hydraulic excavator of minimurn 30 tonnes in weight and minimurn. The tractor or excavator shall be in good condition and operated by experi enced personnel skilled in the use of the equipment.2.2. and CLASS 2 Rock Excavation shall include loosening the rock by ripping with a track-type tractor of more than 20 tonnes and net horse power rating of 200 brake horse power or more or by using track-type hydraulic excavator of more than 165 flywheel horse power and 30 tonnes weight or other suitable equivalent means approved by the S.1 (g) by the following:Hard Material This shall mean any hard artificial material or material found in ledges or masses in its orig inal position which would require to be loosened with a track-type tractor with mounted and drawn ripper as described in Subsection 2.2.2. Proposal 2 1.1 (f) maintains. Hard material shall exclude individual masses less than 0. (f) The whole Sub-section 2. 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix A Proposal 1 1.O.2. Proposal 3 1. have to be loosened by blasting Cawangan Jalan. if excavated by hand.7 Excavation of Rock:2. 2.L Page 91 .2.5 cubic metre.2. Add the following after first paragraph of Sub-section 2. Boulders or detached rock pieces shall only be regarded as rock if they individually exceed C1.O. in the opinion of the S.. (f) Replace Subsection 2.5 cubic metre.1 (f) for definition of Rock shall be replaced and read as fol lows:Rock Rock shall mean hard material found in ledges or masses in its original position which can only be loosened either by blasting or by ripping using track-type tractor of more than 20 tonnes and 200 brake horse power or approved pneumatic tools or.165 flywheel horse power or approved pneu matic tools. K.

O.1 (f) & (g) as follows:Rock Rock shall mean material found in ledges or masses in its original position. would ron-nally require to be loosened by 300 mm ripper penetration with a track type tractor with mounted and drawn ripper as described in Subsection 2.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Boulders or detached pieces shall only be regarded as rock if they individually exceed 0. ii) Ripping Unit : The ripper to be attached to the tractor shall be the most efficient par alllelogram type recommended by the tractor or ripper Manufacturer.L Page 92 . Hard material shall exclude individual masses less than 0. Cawangan Jalan. K. is not practical or incapable of being loosened by 100 mm ripper penetration or more with a track-type tractor With mounted and drawn ripper of the following descrip tion:i) Tractor Unit: Equipment with a minimum weight of 20 tonnes and net horse power rating of 200 brake horse power or more. The ripper shall have a single shank in good working condition with sharpened cutting point. by wedges and sledge hammers and which in the opinion of the S.5 cubic metre. Ibu Pejabat JKR. The tractor unit is to be in good condition and operated by experienced personnel skilled in the use of ripping equipment.5 cubic metre.O. Proposal 4 1. which would normally have to be loosened either by blasting or by pneumatic tools or.2. (g) Hard Material This shall mean material found in ledges or masses in its original position or any hard artifi cial material which in the opinion of the S.. The excavator shall be in good condition and operated by experienced personnel skilled in the use of excavator equipment.2. Boulders or detached pierces shall only be regarded as rock if they individually exceed 0. (f) Replace Subsection 2.5 cubic metre. or artifical hard material. if excavated by hand.1 (E) or a track-type hydraulic excavator of minimum 30 tonnes in weight and 165 flywheel horse power or more.

2. The whole sub-section 2. to dump and spread the unsuitable materials within the Site is obtained. 2 Section 2 Earthworks 1.4 Removal of Unsuitable Material Unsuitable material shall be excavated to such designed depth and over such area shown in the drawing and according to the specified criteria or as directed-by the S. logs.3. or ii) any material consisting of highly compressible organic clay and silt. 2. 2. The Contractor shall comply with statutory require ments such as payment of royalties.O. Voids created due to removal of unsuitable material shall be backfilled immediately with suit able material compacted to a dry density not less than that of the surrounding material or that specified for the respective part of the earthworks or as directed by the S.2. The whole sub-section 2. the Contractor shall be responsible for providing his own dump site for such unsuitable materials. hazardous or toxic material.O. Ibu Pejabat JKR. Cawangan Jalan. natural gravel or sand having grading within the respective limits specified in Table 2.L Page 93 . environmental protection.2. JKR 20401-0017-88 Addendum No. Material that are soft or unstable merely because they are too wet (due to over exposure to rain) or too dry for effective compaction are not to be classified as unsuitable.4 and sub-section 2. Unless approval of the S.1 (d) for definition of Unsuitable Materials shall be replaced and read as follows:(d) Unsuitable Matelials Unsuitable materials shall include :i) running silt.3. that replacement of unsuitable material shall he done under standing water (due to high water table and permeable or very soft ground). voids created due to removal of unsuitable material shall be backfilled with hard clean crushed rock.2.5 shall be replaced and read as fol lows:2. peat. K. unless otherwise classified by the S.2.5 Replacement of Unsuitable Material Under Standing Water Where it is shown in the drawing or decided by the S. etc. stumps.1.O. slurry or mud. perishable. which is clayey or silty material having a liquid limit exceeding 80% or natural moisture content exceeding 90% of its liquid limit and/or a plasticity index exceeding 55%.O.3.FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY Design_Review Checklist For Road Projects Appendix B Standard Specification for Road Works JKRISPJ/1988. and be transported and disposed of in an approved manner.3.O.

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