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P. 1

1a 2009 Logarithm4.0

|Views: 164|Likes: 0Published by fabremil7472

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/9345443/1a-2009-Logarithm

06/14/2009

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the laws of logarithms (excluding change of base) (ii) understand the definition and properties of ex and ln x, including the relationship as inverse functions and their graphs Relationship between log and indices Let x = a p ⇔ loga x = p ; y = a q ⇔ loga y = q xy = a p . a q = a p + q ; log a xy = log a x + log a y

x ap = = a p−q y aq

;

log a

x = log a x − log a y y

n

**x n = (ap )n = ap n = log a x log a a = 1 ; log a 1 = 0 i) Express log
**

1

= n log a x

x3

y ii) Express 3 log 8 − log 2 5 as a single logarithm. iii) Solve the equation log 6 x + log 6 ( x + 5) = 2 . Graphs of ex and ln x

in terms of log x and log y.

(3logx − 12 logy)

(log5)

(x = 4; x = −9(not acceptable))

1

y y

y=ex

y = ln x

x

Note these two: (1) e ln x = x 1 Solve for x i) ex - 2 - 3e-x = 0 ii) e 3t + 2et = 3e2t

(2) ln e x = x ( x = ln 3) (t = 0, ln 2)

2

**iii) - 2 ln x = b iv) 3 ln x – ½ ln x = 5 v) ln x = 2 ( ln 3 - ln 5 ) vi) ak – ekx = 0 vii)x ln x = e viii) 2 + 5 e − 4x = 3 ix) - ln x = x) ln x =
**

1 3 t 50

(x = e 2 ) (x = e2 )

( x = 9 25)

−b

( x = ln a ) ( x = e, e −1 )

+c ( x = 4) = 1 + ln a

(ln 16 + 2 ln 2) 2x)

xi) ax = e 2x +1 xii) 2 (ln 1 ( x = ± 2 ae ) xiii)32x = 42 – x xiv)ex - 2e— x = 1

**2 Solve the following equations giving x correct to 3 significant figures. ( x = 0.642) a) 7x . 8 2x - 1 = 6.3 b) c) d) e) 32x – 3x +2 + 8 = 0 2x = 3 3x+1 = 18 2x . 32x = 5
**

( x = 0 ; 1.893)

( 0.5568)

3 Solve for x a) ex ( 1 - 2x ) = 0 ( x = 12) b) e-x ( 1 + x ) = 0

{e −x = 0 (not possible); x = −1} ( dont cancel; x = 1)

c) d)

xex = ex ex - e-x = 6

(1.818)

ln 3 ln 2

**4 By using a suitable substitution, solve the following equations: a) 2 2x - 5 . 2x + 6 = 0 b) 32x + 1 + 32 = 3x + 3 + 3x
**

5

(x = = 1.5849; x = 1)

( x = −1; x = 2)

If y = ln ( 1 + 6x + 8x2 ) - ln ( 1 + 5x + 4x2 ) + ln ( 1+ x )- ln (1 + 2x ), prove that y is independent of x.

6 Solve for x and y : a) x - y = 1 ; 2x . 3y = 432

3

**b) log x + log y = log 10 ; log x - log y = log 2.5 c) 2x . 4- y = 2 ; 3- x . 92y = 3 d) log x + log y = 1 ; log x - log y = log 2.5 e) x1/2 + y 2/3 = 6 ; x
**

- 1/2

( x = 3, y = 1) ( x = 5, y = 2)

3

+y

- 2/3

=¾

f) log 2 (xy 2) = 4 ; log 2 x . log 2 y = 2 7) log 4 2 . log 4 ( 1 2 x ) = log 4 x

( x = 16, y = 2 2 ; x = 4, y = 8) ( x = 4, y = 2)

8) Express ln (2√ e) - 1/3 ln (8/e) - ln (e/3) in the form c + ln d. (− 1 6 + ln 3)

4

8. 2009 Hypothesis Testing-Normal S

7. 2009 Hypothesis Testing-Poisson S

6.2009 Hypothesis Testing-Binomial S

A Level Mathematics (2009)

6.2009 Trapezium Rule

10. 2009 Vectors

5. 2009 Unbiased Estimate & Confidence Interval

4. 2009 Continuous Random Variable

3. 2009 Central Limit Theorem

2. 2009 Linear Combination of r.V

1. 2009 Poisson Distribution

1b 2009 Straight Line Graph

2b 2009 Remainder & Factor Theorem

2d 2009 Binomial Expansion(1)

3.2009 Trigonometry

4.2009 Differentiation

5.2009 Methods of Integration

6.2009 Trapezium Rule

7.2009 Differential Equation

8.2009 Approximate Solution to Equations

9.2009 Complex Numbers

10. 2009 Vectors

2e 2009 Homework Partial Fractions and Binomial Expansion

2c 2009 Partial Fractions

2a 2009 Modulus Inequalities

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