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HANDBOOK OF

Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings
SECOND EDITION

HANDBOOK OF

Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings
SECOND EDITION

Susheela Raghavan

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-8493-2842-X (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-2842-8 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Raghavan, Susheela. Handbook of spices, seasonings, and flavorings / Susheela Raghavan. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-2842-X 1. Spices--Handbooks. 2. Cookery (Spices) I. Title. TX406.R34 2006 641.3’383--dc22 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com 2006046571

Dedication
To my parents . . . Pathmavathy Kumaran and Kattary Raghavan
I dedicate this book to my ma and cha who planted the seed of taste within me, from which my thirst for knowledge of spices and flavors grew. It was this exposure that enabled me to truly appreciate and enjoy the many diverse foods and flavors from around the world.

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.6 Spice Use in the Middle Ages................................................22 Natural and Organic Spice Trends ..........................................................................................................2 The Asian Spice Emporium ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgment Author Chapter 1 Spices in History........................................................8 Spices in America ................................... and Seasonings of Popular Authentic Ethnic Cuisines ......................................................................................................25 Spice Forms and Composition .22 Regional American Flavors.............. Authentic Ethnic Cuisines ....................7 The Age of European Conquest ............4 Spice Use in the West..............................................................................26 ...................................................................................................................................6 The Arab Conquest.....................................................................9 Chapter 2 Trends in the World of Spices Today..........1 Early Use of Spices in the Americas .............11 Trends in Foods and Spices ...................................................................................................................................................................17 Spices...............................................................................................................................................................19 Authentic Preparation and Cooking Techniques ............................................................................................25 Introduction................................................................... Functions...5 Greek and Roman Spice Traders............................... and Applications of Spices ............................................................25 Fresh Whole Spices.................................................................................................16 Authentic Ethnic Spices..............................................1 A “Spicy” Tale: A Short History of the Spice Trade ...............................3 The First Spice Traders ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11 Understanding and Effectively Meeting the Growing Demand for Authenticity ................... Flavorings...............20 Fusion and Regional American Flavorings ....................21 Fusion Flavors .............................................................................................................................................17 Authentic Ethnic Flavorings .......23 Chapter 3 Forms.................20 Ethnic Presentation Styles ...15 Spices and Flavorings of Popular............

............63 Allspice .....................50 Spice Applications ......................................................................35 Primary Function of Spices ..................39 Spices as Antioxidants .......... and Condiments....................43 Modern Medicine...................................................36 Flavor...30 Oleoresins (Nonvolatiles and Volatiles)................................51 Marinades.................................................................. and Texture......................................................................................................39 Spices as Antimicrobials....................................................................................52 Chapter 4 Spice Labeling.................................................................................73 Caper ......................................................................................31 Other Spice Extractives......................................................................................35 Functions of Spices ................................................ and Glazes .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Caraway ..............................................................................................................66 Annatto.................................................................................................... Taste........................................38 Spices as Preservatives.........................28 Essential (Volatile) Oils ...................32 Storage Conditions with Spices................................. and Quality Specifications .........................70 Bay/Laurel Leaf ..............42 Spices as Medicines .....................................................51 Spice Blends.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................42 Traditional Medicine ............................................................................................................................................................................................... Regulations.......................................... Standards........ Rubs..............................................79 Celery.....................59 Chapter 5 A to Z Spices...........................................................................68 Asafoetida/Asafetida..................................................................................................................................................................................55 Spice Definition and Labeling...................................................................................40 Emerging Functions of Spices............................................................78 Cardamom/Cardamon ......................................................................................................36 Coloring............................................................ Aroma........................58 Maintaining Spice Quality....82 ..............................................................................................................................................48 Global Equipment Used in Spice Preparation......................................46 Spice Preparation ............................................ Seasonings......................................................................................................................................................57 Spice Quality Specifications.........................69 Basil ..................................36 Secondary Functions of Spices......................................................................................................................................Dried Spices .........56 Spice Authenticity and Quality Concerns ....................................................................64 Anise/Aniseed .........................................................................55 Spice Regulations ..............................................................................................................63 Ajowan .........................27 Spice Extractives ......

............................................142 Onion............................................................101 Dill and Dillweed .........................................................................................................159 Saffron.................132 Mints: Spearmint and Peppermint....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Leaf Cilantro)......................................................................................................133 Mustard ......116 Grains of Paradise..............129 Mace .........................................................164 Savory ......................................................................................................................................................................................107 Fenugreek Seed and Leaf ............................................................................................141 Nutmeg................... Tasmanian................................................................................................93 Clove ...........................................................................109 Galangal/Galangale/Galingale .............................................................................................................................158 Rosemary .......................124 Lemon Balm ..............................................................................................161 Sage .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................120 Juniper.84 Chile/Chili/Chilli Peppers/Chilies .....................................................................................................................................85 Chives.............................................................................................................................................127 Lovage........................................96 Coriander (Seed............................................................................................ Cubeb.................................................................106 Fennel Seed.................................................................................................................................................... White....................148 Parsley..............152 Poppy Seed .................................................................... Negro.....................................................................................................130 Marjoram................................................................................................................................................... Long/Pippali........150 Peppers: Black....................................144 Oregano.................................................................................................... Green..............................................................................................................................................126 Lemon Verbena ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................163 Sassafras..............................122 Kari (or Curry) Leaf ..................................................165 Screw-Pine Leaf/Pandanus/Pandan Leaf.................127 Lemongrass ...............................................................111 Garlic...........................................146 Paprika ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................121 Kaffir Lime (Leaf and Fruit) ....................................................168 Sichuan or Szechwan Pepper/Fagara ..........................................................................................................................................Chervil....................136 Myrtle..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Pink.......................................170 ...............................................119 Horseradish .....................140 Nigella.........................................................................................................91 Cinnamon...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................113 Ginger ........................98 Cumin and Black Cumin...................................................................................104 Epazote...............123 Lavender.....................................................................................167 Sesame Seed ................

...............................219 Flavorings from Preparation and Cooking Techniques .........................................179 Turmeric/Tumeric ..................................................246 Popular East Asian Spice Blends ...................175 Tarragon .....187 Flower Flavorings ........................259 Regional Cuisines of the Mediterranean.................................................................................................................................232 Popular Latin American Spice Blends .....................................................................187 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................................251 Popular Southeast Asian Spice Blends ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................181 Wasabi.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................200 Vegetable Flavorings.................................................191 Wrapper Flavorings ............234 Asian Spice Blends.............................................262 Spain..............................................................................187 Root/Tuber/Rhizome Flavorings ......................................................240 Regional Cuisines of Asia ...............................................................................................................243 South Asia ................................262 ...............................................................243 Southeast Asia ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................227 Latin American Spice Blends.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................230 Mexico.....................................................................................................................173 Sumac...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................231 Central America ................................197 Fruit Flavorings.................................................................................................................................227 Introduction.............................215 Sweet and Bitter Flavorings ...........229 Regional Cuisines of Latin America ...............209 Legume Flavorings .................................................172 Star Anise........................................................................224 Chapter 7 Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings ................................................................256 Mediterranean Spice Blends.........................................183 Watercress ..244 East Asia..........................................................177 Thyme ....................................232 South America...................................................................247 Popular South Asian Spice Blends........................194 Seafood Flavorings ..213 Nut Flavorings .................................................................185 Chapter 6 Emerging Flavor Contributors .................................................................................................................................................................................................230 Caribbean ....184 Zedoary ......................................................174 Tamarind ...............................................................................................................................................................................................Sorrel............................

......................................... Turkey...................................................265 North Africa ......281 Popular African Spice Blends .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................300 Vietnamese Fish Sauce Seasoning for Condiment .........................................................272 North African Spice Blends..............................................266 Popular Mediterranean Spice Blends ..301 South Indian Spice Blend for Lentil (or Dal) Curry .263 The Middle East..................................................... and Cyprus...... or Fish ....299 Moroccan Seasoning for Lamb Marinade......................................281 Regional Cuisines of Africa ...........300 Thai Red Curry Seasoning for Shrimp .............. Armenia...... Iran............................................................................................291 Chapter 8 Commercial Spice Blend and Seasoning Formulations ...................................................263 Italy..................................................... Armenia....................275 Popular Caribbean Spice Blends..........................282 North American Spice Blends.............................................................................................298 Brazilian Pineapple Seasoning for Pork...................................................................................................................................................................................................................270 Middle East...............................................................................286 Popular North American Regional Spice Blends..........267 French Spice Blends ..........295 Mexican Red Mole Seasoning for Chicken ............... Turkey........................................................................ Greece.....................274 Caribbean Spice Blends..............................................................................................................................305 Index.....309 ................................288 Global Spice Blends ..................................................268 Italian Spice Blends .............. Chicken....................................France ...................................................................................................................... Iran........................................................................ and Cyprus Spice Blends................................................................................................................275 Regional Cuisines of the Caribbean...........................................................................296 Jamaican Jerk Seasoning for Meats .............................277 African Spice Blends......................285 Popular Regional Cuisines of North America ...............291 Popular Global Spice Blends ............267 Spanish Spice Blends...........................................302 Bibliography ......265 Greece.......

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Their passion for new foods instilled in me an appreciation for all cultures and their cooking. I observed and learned her pride in creating the ultimate flavor and absorbed her approach to freshness. Watching my late grandma (whom we called Periama) grinding the soaked rice–lentil mixture for Sunday’s breakfast. sister-in law’s (Santha’s) delectable acar. to prepare a variety of smoked chilies for moles in Oaxaca. and using foods to prevent ailments and to attain a healthier lifestyle. and to taste the perfect chili in Texas. It surpassed all cultures and religions. For cha. The increasing pursuit of fresh and all-natural foods with no preservatives (or using natural preservatives and natural colors). Chinese. are continually looking to use innovative spices and flavorings because of the growing global demand for variety. and to study their cultural origins. food had no boundaries. and their spirit ultimately influenced my career as a food developer. to dine in the country pubs of England. in search of new and unique flavors. seasonings. Mom’s endless search for the ultimate flavor profiles and her zest for cooking. For mom. and authenticity. or Western. to savor the freshly prepared grilled sardines of Portugal. no MSG or HPP. To me every meal was a discovery! I have traveled all over the globe to experience the exotic floating markets of Thailand. and healthy eating. Indonesian.Preface My gastronomic heritage began while I was growing up in Malaysia. spices. with mom’s fragrant fish sambals. Thai. Cultural . all created in me a passion for food. flavor. whether Malay. and to follow a healthy approach to their lifestyles. My search for unique flavors began at home. and around the world. continue to grow. and listening to my late cha’s (father’s) food adventures during meals. picking kari leaves for my late ma’s aromatic crab curry. Indian. India. He taught me to explore and try all foods and flavors available in Malaysia. cooking was a creative process—every day there had to be something new and different on the table. All of this I continue to do. I am not alone in my search. Today’s food development continues to grow in the direction of a “technoculinary” trend—connecting science or technology with the culinary arts. to cook aromatic fish curries on the stone charcoal ovens of Kerala. His adventure for unique flavors and his cultural experiences from his travels around the world provided me the beginnings to understand the many global foods. United States. in Malaysia. Mexico. She never hurried her cooking and never settled for less than the best in her choice of spices and ingredients. or the many visits to the hawkers to taste their variety of noodle preparations. and flavorings and to continue to meet the consumers’ growing demands for new and exotic flavors. and cha’s enthusiasm and appreciation of all ethnic cuisines gave me an appetite for adventurous eating and a curiosity about new flavors. Food professionals in the United States. and cultures. I wrote this book as a guide for food developers to understand and gather a vast technical and culinary knowledge of spices. exotic flavors.

influences. varieties. becomes of paramount importance. and chemical components that typify its flavor and color. this book goes beyond a dry technical description of spices. It describes each spice’s varieties. and nutrition are incorporated into the development of foods. It will be a handy guide in today’s multicultural and acculturated society. for purchasing. describes each spice’s folklore and traditional medicinal usage and. Today’s consumers are becoming more sophisticated about the use of spices. Food marketers and sales professionals can use the cultural and technical information to keep abreast of food trends. Understanding spices in their fullest capacities is the cornerstone of successful product or seasoning development. I have tried to make this book a comprehensive guide to spices. A food developer needs to combine technical knowledge. First and foremost. including chile peppers. Thus. I believe that the similarity between this book and others ends there. This book contains detailed descriptions of each spice. and an understanding of the cultural aspects of the cuisine and its preparation. characterize cuisines. properties. This book also explains how each spice is used in many applications around the world. in order to develop products that will be a success in the marketplace. spice history. I designed the format of this book so that it becomes a significant tool for the many professionals who develop and market foods. and the culture behind their cuisines. to understand their differing flavor profiles. Spices are the building blocks of flavors and set apart one cuisine from another. forms. and are important tools for providing consistency and color. most importantly. food trends. and differentiate one recipe from another. I became aware that there were no comprehensive guides to many of the spices that could help food developers create new products based on the popular ethnic cuisines from around the world. The product developer needs to understand the creative use of spices and flavorings in addition to technical know-how. They create the desired taste. mints. both chemical and sensory. Consistent with my desire to create a truly comprehensive and global reference on spices. arranged alphabetically. They define flavors and cuisines. In addition. labeling. provides translations of each spice’s name in global languages. and black peppers. lists the popular global spice blends that contain the spice. applications. This book incorporates technical information about spices—forms. our knowledge of spices and their technology. It includes a description of spice properties. their use and compatibility with other ingredients. and the culinary information that will aid in product development. Nutritionists need to be aware of the eating habits for a diverse ethnic population and the spices used in their cooking to develop menus that are appropriate for them. The chef needs to add technical information to balance his/her creativity. The flavorist needs to learn the origins and varieties of spices and how they are prepared and used in ethnic cuisines. I have attempted to provide detailed descriptions of many global varieties of spices or closely related ones. In researching this book. and how they are prepared. Consequently. this book goes beyond other spice books by describing other important ingredients . they can work as a team to develop and market successful products. While many reference books on spices include alphabetized descriptions. creative talent. With the information I provide in this book. medical properties. regulations. and quality specifications—with trends.

Moreover. seeds. and their collective grouping is the most logical. dips. which have varied greatly over time. This book uses the term “spice” to refer to all of the edible parts of a plant used for flavoring foods—including the root. This chapter is not intended as an in-depth study of each region’s flavor profile. fruits. The final chapter discusses seven examples of spice blend or seasoning formulations to give you some understanding of and to provide assistance on creating ethnic seasoning formulations for marinades. stems. The chapter on seasonings describes major regional ethnic cuisines and their characteristic flavor profiles and seasonings with some popular examples. or other desirable qualities. I have tried to create a complete modern reference book on spices. it avoids the shifting definitions of what an herb is. or seafood). a global approach to defining flavoring ingredients is most appropriate. therefore. are commonly used with spices to create authentic or new flavors. In the case of herbs. seeds. as well as those that are emerging in the United States to create authentic or fusion products.found among the world’s cuisines that are essential in providing flavors. seasonings. pungent. and the leafy plant parts usually referred to as herbs in European and North American cuisines. Finally. curry. Susheela Raghavan . textures. however. bark. sauces. which I call flavorings (including wrappers. This book attempts to discuss and define spices from a global perspective. In writing this book. In addition. It describes how these ingredients. but as healthy tools. rhizomes. fragrant. not all herbs are used in seasoning foods. many traditional cultures today do not separate these leafy spices into a distinct herb category. and flowers and other plant parts. I provide many regional variations of a seasoning or spice blend. the various parts of plants have been cultivated and used for their aromatic. many are not edible and do not function as spices. rhizome. There are several reasons for this usage. salad dressings. In addition. My ultimate aim. as with roots. and how learning to understand and use spices has given me a sense of creative adventure in my everyday life and work. I have included traditionally popular spices and flavorings. including sofrito. the purpose of these leafy plant parts is to “spice up” food or beverage products. but it is written to provide a general understanding of some typical flavor profiles of each of these regions as a strong foundation for product development. adobo. was to share with the reader some of my passion and enthusiasm for spices. A note on terminology in this book: throughout history. It is designed to meet the challenges and demands of today’s dynamic market. stem. and flavorings. and nutritional value to foods. colors. or curries. or hot sauce. flowers.

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who helped me immensely with editing and organization. Geeta. sitting down at a meal or having a conversation at a meal. I am thankful to my brother Sathee who helped in translating many spices into local dialects. patiently giving her support and providing me with information on the many healing properties of various spices that she and her mom had grown up with. Bob Roach. for encouraging me to write this book and showing patience for my absence during this period. In addition. for encouraging me to experience and appreciate all foods and cultures. she has added more flavor. I want to also give credit to my late sister Prem. He was also my best critic throughout. who gave me information and moral support during this time. With this second edition. She also wrote the beautiful dedication to my parents. I also wish to express my thanks to many colleagues in the United States and around the world who encouraged me to write this book and who provided help in translating the names of spices into global names. . And I gratefully thank my father. I would like to say that I have developed a greater understanding of and insight into many of the local and global flavors during my travels around the United States and the world. I wish to thank my family members around the globe. I am grateful to my husband. My mom was always there. cha. who patiently read the first edition carefully to provide her insight and suggestions. with her own food and culture discoveries around the world. whether simply creating a meal together. And I wish to remember my parents’ spirit in this undertaking.Acknowledgments I wish to thank my daughter. I continue to do so. whether for work or for pleasure.

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in Food Technology. Fine Cooking. Her consulting services include spotting trends and developing ethnic and new American products for the U. supplier of innovative and gourmet spice blends for retail. independent spirit. and Restaurant USA. as adjunct professor at New York University’s Department of Nutrition. Food Product Design. She has also served significantly in the academic realm. corporate and research experience in the food. Southeast Asia. academic standing. flavor origination. South Asia. In addition. have a foundation in the vast international experience she possesses. She has authored numerous articles on trends. she conducts training programs and symposiums and is a speaker for many professional organizations and academic institutions in the United States and abroad. New York. culinary skills.. spices. Susheela’s keen interest and study of global cultures and their cuisines.S. and as a scientific lecturer for the U. Her scientific grounding. In addition. Susheela has over twenty-five years of product development. bring uniqueness to her products and services. ethnic cuisines and flavors. Latin America.S. and cross-cultural cooking. Susheela focuses on understanding authentic flavors and adapting them to emerging palates and healthy lifestyles. Institute of Food Technologists. and spices and seasonings. she has lived and worked in North America. wholesale. guest lecturer at The Institute of Culinary Education and the French Culinary Institute. Food Studies and Public Health for seven years. spice. and the Caribbean. a New Rochelle. and food service. Europe. Susheela actively contributes to the development of her field. and in specialty food service establishments. Born and raised in Malaysia. dba Taste of Malacca. combined with a creative. and flavor industries. and global markets. corporate experience. and a keen study of world regional culinary culture. .Author Susheela Raghavan is founder and president of Horizons Consulting LLC.

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to help cure diseases. such as bay leaf. Other spices. cumin. garlic. spices such as cinnamon. ginger. adventure. garlic. sage. spices were used to preserve meats or fish. chocolate. not only as flavorings for food. annatto. have used spices since time immemorial. commerce. As with modern civilizations. Southeast Asia. preservatives. Many cultures also believed that spices had magical properties. and Incas. The colder regions of Europe have provided us with juniper and horseradish. A brief tour of the history of spices—and modern trends. mace. and China have given us anise. coriander. religious missions. chile peppers. and conquest. peppers. India. onion. dill. Early civilizations understood that spices had medicinal value and used them as antidotes for poisons. tamarind. fennel. Chinese. such as Indians. During medieval times. spices have had enormous commercial value in ancient and medieval times. fenugreek. and the quest for spices tremendously changed the course of history. cardamom. and even to create cosmetics and perfumes. basil. mustard. Treasured like gold and precious stones.1 Spices in History Today’s search for unique and authentic spices is not new. In addition. clove. In ancient times. Middle Easterners. Spices had an enormous trade value. and other parts of the Mediterranean. star anise. and turmeric. Ancient civilizations. these cultures spiced foods to enhance their palatability and to create different flavor profiles. while the Americas gave us allspice. cinnamon. Aztecs. The East is the birthplace of most popular spices and flavorings. and they were used in religious functions and on ceremonial occasions. North Africa. sesame. and perfumes. and oregano were used as germicides to battle the spread of the plague. They were much sought after in the West. epazote. A “SPICY” TALE: A SHORT HISTORY OF THE SPICE TRADE The history of spices is entwined with exploration. but as medicines. and to prevent ailments. 1 . Most spices and flavorings had origins in the tropics or subtropics. spices were status symbols in Europe and throughout the Mediterranean for the wealthy who ate them. and thyme came from the Middle East. nutmeg. rosemary. to disguise tainted foods and counteract disagreeable odors. and sassafras. which is covered in Chapter 2—will serve as a good introduction to the use of spices in today’s global cuisines.

It appears that Native Americans began domesticating chilies between 5200 and 3300 BC. corn kernels. from which we get the name pimento. allspice. Second Edition EARLY USE OF SPICES IN THE AMERICAS While stories of most spices begin in the East. By legend. and Incas—flavored their food and drinks with spices and offered them to their gods in religious ceremonies.2 Handbook of Spices. Thus. and Flavorings. Mayans. vanilla pods were harvested from wild climbing vines found in the jungles of southwest Mexico. The fruit of the unripe allspice berry. Archaeological excavations in Mexico reveal chile pepper remains dating back to 7000 BC. honey. Chile peppers. the great Aztec emperor Montezuma presented this flavored chocolate drink. and throughout the world. it would ferment and give off a marvelous aroma. a climbing. Seasonings. Allspice is the fruit of an evergreen-type tree that grew wild in southern Mexico. The Aztecs blended the smooth vanilla flavor with chocolate. to the Spanish conquistador Cortez. Native American Indians—Aztecs. a number of the more popular spices and flavorings in use today are native to the Western Hemisphere. sugar. Called tlixochitl or “black pod” by the Aztecs. Mexico. This drink. chocolate. the Caribbean. grew wild in the Andes and were used as early as 10. Later. and whisked the powder with boiling water to create tchacahoua (in Mayan) or tchocoatl (in Aztec). By the time the Spanish arrived in Mexico in the sixteenth century. vanilla was used as a nerve stimulant. crushed them into powder on stones. Anthropologists have been unable to define with certainty when chile peppers were first domesticated. including Jamaica and Cuba. or pepper. Since the dawn of time. and none differ substantially from those domesticated by Native Americans. served in golden goblets. Today. they called these berries pimienta. and vanilla originated in the New World before being introduced to Europe and Asia. an essential spicing in today’s cuisines. North America. roasted them. Chile peppers. was considered sacred food. and Aztecs took the seeds of cocoa pods. The Mayan Indians used allspice berries to help preserve or embalm the bodies of their leaders. which the Aztecs must have noticed. cacao bean. all domesticated cultivars are derived from five domesticated species of chile peppers. often mixed with chile peppers. and honey to create “royal” drinks reserved for the elite of society. enjoyed by the Aztecs and Mayans. tropical orchid. dried chile peppers were used in trade in what is now the Southwestern United States and regions of Mexico. Atole (a corn. From South America. . and on several Caribbean islands. sweet peppers. grew wild in the hothouse jungles of Central America and northern South America. chilies. or ground maize. and chile pepper drink) and posole (a corn and chile pepper stew) were some of the foods flavored with chile peppers. In Mexico and Guatemala. the Aztecs were growing dozens of pod types. Toltecs. chile peppers were carried to Central America. the Aztecs domesticated this exotic plant and cultivated its vines. Mayans. Central America. was sought by early Spanish explorers. which looks like a large black peppercorn. and was reputed to be an aphrodisiac.000 years ago. Vanilla planifolia. In Pre-Columbian Americas. In addition to flavoring. When the fruit pod of the vanilla orchid fell to the jungle floor before it was ripe.

Haridra or turmeric comes from the Munda. however. The Vedas refer to a community called Nishadas. In the Buddhist era (800 to 350 BC). which translates literally into “turmeric eaters. turmeric. written in Sanskrit between 1700 and 800 BC. where they have been savored for thousands of years. cinnamon. Some scholars explain that this aversion arose from the common practice at the time of fertilizing these crops with a manure of human waste. black pepper. appears to be derived from the Malay words for clove bud. Cumin appears in Vedaic writing around 300 BC and appears to be native to the Middle East. The origins of ginger have been obscured by its wide domestication. and sour citrus (jambira). a pre-Aryan people who lived through much of North India. and cloves from other parts of Asia.Spices in History 3 THE ASIAN SPICE EMPORIUM Many of the spices that are popular today are indigenous to India. Clove originated in the Moluccas Islands in eastern Indonesia. an Indian epic written between 350 BC and AD 1. and funerals. comes from the Persian language. we see the introduction in North India of ginger. jeeraka. and cinnamon grew wild in the south of India. spices played a significant role in the religious and cultural lives of early Indian people. the Sanskrit word for tamarind (chincha) has aboriginal origins. They used tamarind. The Harappa civilization. Consequently.” The Aryans looked down on certain spices. It first appeared in the Ramayana. long pepper (pippali). ground saffron and other spices on stones around 3200 BC. contains words for spices that reflect the well-established use of spices by the most ancient peoples in India. The Vedas report the Aryans using black pepper (maricha) brought from South India and asafoetida (hingu) from Afghanistan. lemon. off the coast of South India. leeks. was popular for its cardamom. One of the earliest written records regarding spices appears in the religious scriptures of the Aryan people of north India who had driven the earlier civilizations further south. turmeric (haridra). itself. refer to mustard (baja). It is native to Southeast Asia. The Sanskrit term for cumin. but wild forms are found in India.. particularly in the states of Kerala and Karnataka. Pepper plants. one of the first cultures of the Indus valley in northern India. For example. cardamom. The Sanskrit language. cardamom. The Vedas. In addition to flavoring foods. The Dravidians were the predominant civilization of South India. Later Vedic writings establish that early North Indians were engaged in a farreaching spice trade. The colors yellow and orange were considered auspicious and festive because of their connection to the sun. such as childbirths. and pomegranate to flavor their foods. bunga lavanga. cumin. While cinnamon also grew wild in South India. marriages. and Kerala was known for its black pepper. clove. lavanga. mushrooms. the best cinnamon came from Sri Lanka. . in Karnataka. saffron and turmeric were used in religious ceremonies and in the important personal occasions in everyday life. and onions as native foods despised by the Aryans. Clove may have originally come to India through Malaysia because the Sanskrit word for clove. Mysore. Vedic literature describes garlic.

consisting of water mixed with saffron. made alkaline with slaked lime. who lived from 551 to 479 BC. Saffron was generally used by Aryans and the Dravidians used turmeric. and peppers. and the exposed parts of their bodies were smeared with turmeric. to make kumkum. and sandalwood powder. nutmeg.” It is also reported that the Chinese officials ate cloves in the third century BC to sweeten their breaths when they addressed the Emperor. founded in 216 BC.4 Handbook of Spices. arose . Indian culture was considered the height of civilization. when praying for the removal of an obstacle in life. which were formulated before 1000 BC and dealt with matters of health and medicine. Seasonings. and mace were poured on the sacrificial wedding fire. flowers. Powerful Hindu/Buddhist kingdoms. or rice colored with saffron. The sacred Ayurvedic texts. In about 500 BC the physician Susruta the Second described over 700 drugs derived from spices. Turmeric had erotic significance for Indians and played an important role in wedding ceremonies of Hindus and Muslims. sweets made of nutmeg and saffron were also given to the newlyweds as aphrodisiacs. white sandalwood. In some communities. Spices were also used in China for thousands of years. the Ayurvedic system of medicine suggests that cloves and cardamom wrapped in betel-nut leaves be chewed after meals to aid digestion. ginger. was presented to deities in worship. Confucius. and the name of the South China state of Kweilin. the heads of the bride and groom were rubbed with sesame oil. was presented to God Vighneswara (presently called Lord Ganesha) in the Puniah Vachna ceremony. Arghya. Spices were also commonly used to cure disease and promote health in India. and sesame poultice was applied to wounds as an antiseptic. The use of cassia was noted in the Eligies of Ch’u in the fourth century BC. make frequent reference to the use of spices. translates literally into “cassia forest. Saffron was also used to color other religious articles. turmeric. During the nuptial bath called Nalangu. From at least as early as 600 BC until almost AD 1400. Turmeric was widely available and since it was considered auspicious. The exquisite golden complexion of Naga women of North India was reputedly obtained through their constant use of turmeric. THE FIRST SPICE TRADERS Trade and travel have always been part of Indian culture. Some sources indicate that as early as 3000 BC Indian explorers and traders took sea trips from the Malabar Coast in South India to the Persian Gulf and the fertile valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. influenced by India. it was also widely used in everyday life whenever good luck was desired. including cinnamon. Second Edition It was a common practice of the Aryans in the north and the Dravidians in the south to mark their forehead with kumkum. Vapors of white mustard were used to fumigate the rooms of surgery patients. For example. as a sign of religious respect and auspiciousness. and Flavorings. cardamom. garments dyed or marked on the corners with turmeric were considered lucky and possessed with protective powers. cardamom. while perfumes of saffron. Hindu and Buddhist missionaries and traders from India colonized countries and converted peoples throughout Asia. mentions ginger in his analects. For example. During this time period. Akshatas.

pippali. nutmeg from the Spice Islands.” for cloves. France. and Indonesia. and turmeric. and the Spice Islands (or Moluccas). the Ishmaelites. zedoary. saffron. the Arabs were the dominant middlemen in the spice trade between India and the West. Traders from the West seeking wealth in the spice trade came to India and other destinations in the Far East. cinnamon. they traded with the ancient people of Greece. They traveled through the Persian Gulf. fenugreek. making it the focal point for spice trade between the Far East and the West. anise. cloves. and Europe. precious Eastern spices were collected and treated like jewels. and brought back spices. The Indian spice merchants brought back ginger from China. Italy. given as gifts. took long caravan routes to India. The Phoenicians were the dominant traders of the Mediterranean. They were also taken by the Incense Route that went through southern Arabia to Egypt and other parts of the Middle East. the Mediterranean. The great desire for these spices became a driving force in transcontinental trade between the East and the West. and the Spice Islands. or sheep.Spices in History 5 in Sri Lanka and throughout Southeast Asia. goats. as body ointments. They carried their precious cargoes to Africa. India. Hindu Brahmins were sought by the courts of regional leaders as teachers and bureaucrats. . From the Bible. Renowned as fearless seamen. Portugal. using the Tigris and Euphrates valleys to Babylon or went around the coast of Arabia and up the Red Sea to the Middle East and Africa. Greeks. Arab and Phoenician traders were the first to bring eastern spices to the Middle East and Europe. SPICE USE IN THE WEST In the West. and as fumigants in their homes. They braved rough sea trips to the Malabar Coast of Kerala. or used for ransom or for currency when purchasing cows. and other Europeans came to India’s Malabar Coast. They brought fish sauce (called garum) and spice essences from Ethiopia and cassia and cinnamon from the Arabs. Indonesia. ginger. In turn. Ancient Egyptian rulers used spices such as sesame. These early Indian merchants and colonizers understood the value of spices and traded in spices with China and throughout the Malay Archipelago. including Malaysia. Spices came to Europe and the West from the Far East by land and sea. Many of the spices described in ancient western texts and writings are not grown in the West but are native to India and other eastern countries. Thailand. Burma. nutmeg. and Africa. and cumin. Afghanistan. and cardamom. pepper. Kampuchea. caraway. cinnamon. such as China and the Spice Islands (Indonesia) for at least 3000 years. with many of these spices being taken to North Africa. such as black pepper. Spain. and coriander from throughout Asia. Over land. cardamom. we know that King Solomon counted spices among the valuables in his treasury. and Turkestan. Spices were taken on long caravan trips from the Far East by the Silk Route that traveled from China through northwest India. Arabs. From at least as early as 950 BC. Romans. cinnamon from Sri Lanka. who were Arab merchants. and mustard for embalming. which they called the “spice emporium. the Phoenicians traded them around the Mediterranean.

Coins from the Roman kings Augustus. A Roman warehouse was excavated in Tamil-Nadu at the town of Arikamedu. With the wealth obtained by the Phoenicians from this trade. Fish were preserved with salt and leafy spices such as dill. The Romans brought to Northern Europe temperate spices such as garlic. . coriander. such as nutmeg. THE ARAB CONQUEST The Arabs regained their monopoly on spices with their conquest of Alexandria in AD 641 and their subsequent expansion into northern Africa and southern Spain. around the Himalayas in North India and across Persia and then by ship over the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean. sage.6 Handbook of Spices. and they bear witness to the extensive trade that took place.” The Romans also traded in spices with their colonies. They also spun tales of gods and creatures protecting the spices from harvest by human hands. and flavored with pepper. and savory. parsley. Artifacts discovered there date the ruins to the first or second century AD. Seasonings. and wine for spices from India and. Nero. Ptolemy from Alexandria listed eleven ports and thirty walled towns along the coast of India. Early Tamil poems from that time tell about the Yavanas or Greeks who spoke a strange language and traveled in well-built ships. The Romans paid gold. dominated the European trade for Asian spices. Tiberius. cloves. and Constantinople. cumin. nutmeg. and cloves. Cumin and coriander were used for preserving meats and sausages. GREEK AND ROMAN SPICE TRADERS For centuries. became known as the “spice city. cumin. thyme. In his writings. Second Edition The Phoenicians introduced Asian spices. and mint. during the time of the Roman Empire. mint. Arab merchants sought to protect their spice trade by hiding their true sources. In the first century AD. The Romans became the first Europeans to cook with spices and used them lavishly. They remained in control of the Mediterranean spice trade until Alexander the Great conquered Egypt and established Alexandria in 332 BC. throughout the region. Black pepper was the most popular and most expensive spice during this period. a Greek sailor discovered the secret of the monsoon winds to and from India that hastened the trip and broke the Arab monopoly. the Romans sailed from Egypt to India to bring back spices such as black pepper and turmeric for food. The Greeks were quickly followed by Romans who established trading posts and warehouses in South India. cosmetics. the Arabs again took control of the spice trade. and Flavorings. silver. as well as the exotic spices of Asia. During this period. and cassia. The Romans also carried spices overland using the Silk Road that passed from Xian in China. ginger. With the growth of Islam. mint. and savory. dill. mostly in South India. and Caligula have been found at thirty sites. The Arabs told stories of a mythical land in Africa as the source of spices. they built their great colonial city of Carthage on the North African coast. and medicine. the Roman Empire’s eastern capital. wine. They brought back cumin.

Europeans grew temperate spices such as mint. spices were passed around on gold or silver trays from which guests helped themselves. carrying Islam to the Far East and bringing back spices to North Africa. cloves from the Spice Islands. SPICE USE IN THE MIDDLE AGES Trade with the Far East. The Arabs established a clove-trading center on the island of Zanzibar. who first brought spices to East Africa in the third century BC. The more excessive a dinner host’s use of spices. lovage. became the most important luxury items. the consumption of spices grew dramatically. In AD 1271. As a consequence. Turkey. Old overland transportation routes and numerous middlemen limited the supply of spices. which replaced Hinduism throughout Southeast Asia. Once again. Spices were also served in beverages. Arabic and Asian luxury goods became indispensable to the European upper classes. Europeans enjoyed spices such as ginger and galangal (referred to as mild ginger) from China. buying the products of the Far East from Arabian middlemen. The ensuing crisis led to the age of exploration. Venetians provided salt and a good deal of gold and silver in exchange. the higher was his guests’ perception of his social rank. dill.Spices in History 7 Arab influence also expanded beyond the lands they conquered because of the spread of Islam. Food was buried in pepper and other spices. Increased tariffs on this precious cargo also drove up its cost. the use of spices took on an almost ceremonial function. . and Egypt. spices were used in astonishing quantities by today’s standards. sage. Arab traders supplanted the Indians. the middle and upper classes expanded. pepper in particular. in Saudi Arabia. poppy. Indonesia. In the Middle Ages. Genoa and Venice became important trading ports. including India. As a consequence of this increased trade. In sub-Saharan Africa. including the Spice Islands. Marco Polo had traveled with his father and uncle to China and eventually to many other countries of Asia and the Near East. and Spain. conquest. Without access to Asian spices. Because the Arabs controlled trade routes in the Indian Ocean and throughout North Africa and the Middle East. In European cooking. Pepper sauce became a staple of the middle class diet. Turkestan. The Arabs continued to dominate the spice trade in Asia until the late fifteenth century. Indeed. the spice trade with Europe dramatically decreased during the seventh century AD. Venice took control of the European trade in spices. and influenced north and central India. fennel. and the European appetite for spices grew even larger. the price of pepper increased 30-fold during the fifteenth century. a Venetian trader named Marco Polo captured Europe’s imagination with tales of exotic lands and exotic spices. rosemary. and cinnamon and pepper from the Malabar Coast of India. was reopened with the crusades in the eleventh century AD. and celery. Asian spices. and the discovery of new trade routes by Europeans. At dinner parties of the refined upper classes. As the Middle Ages drew to a close. especially with India and China. such as powerfully spiced wines. During this time. The followers of the Prophet Mohammed traveled from Mecca.

cumin. were the first of these Europeans to reach Calicut. Second Edition THE AGE OF EUROPEAN CONQUEST Realizing the value of the spice trade. The Spanish also sought a quicker western trade route to the spices of Asia and its greatest prize. which were expensive and unattainable except to the upper classes. Chile peppers were so widely used and grown in Asia that by the mid-sixteenth century. They also brought corn. European nations took control over trade routes to Asia and the spice producing regions—first the Portuguese. The Spanish also brought back nuts. The Portuguese established trading ports at Goa. and the Spice Islands (the Moluccas) bringing back pepper. allspice. sailed to the Spice Islands in 1519 looking for spices. “chilli” meaning red. potatoes. Unlike the rare and exotic spices brought to Europe. The Spanish found that chile peppers were natural colonizers. Today. called pimienta in Spanish. the Dutch took over from the Portuguese and became masters over Java.8 Handbook of Spices. where they grew rapidly. turmeric. Competing with the Portuguese for the lucrative spice trade were the Spanish. and southern India. beans. European colonizers in India were not sure whether the “Calcutta pepper” was native to India or came from the New World. they revolutionized Hungarian cooking. ginger. the Portuguese. Spanish colonizers learned that the Aztecs had developed dozens of podtype chile peppers. Germany in 1543. beans. Around the end of the fifteenth century. The Malays introduced many spices such as aniseed. Arabia. black pepper. The Portuguese brought chile peppers from the New World to their colonies around the world. Seasonings. During the period when the Dutch colonized South Africa. and lastly the English. and mace. and Sri Lanka and moved farther east to Malacca. and other ingredients. Malacca. Until the late sixteenth century. then the Dutch. Europeans sought to discover new routes to Asia and to conquer the countries where spices grew. cardamom. This ended the Arab and Venetian monopoly on spices. As a consequence. Ferdinand Magellan. and tomatoes from the New World and peanuts from Africa to the Spice Islands. coriander. What he found instead were the Americas and the chile pepper. Italy in 1526. tamarind. garlic. chile peppers were brought back from the Americas and quickly spread to other parts of the world. They called the fiery new plant pimienta picante to reflect its stronger taste profile. and the Balkans in 1569. A Spanish explorer. they introduced chile peppers from the Americas and brought in Malay slaves from the Spice Islands. and Asia. its name chili or chile pepper is derived from the Nahuatl language. chile peppers grew easily in the tropical climates of Asia and were readily available to the common people. used abundantly by the Native Americans. led by Vasco da Gama. and remained viable for several years. Chile peppers were known in Spain in 1493. India. including Africa. One by one. Malaysia. India. The Dutch controlled the Spice Islands (which had a brief British rule from 1811 to 1816) until the Japanese came during World War II. nutmeg. readily transportable. They paid gold and silver to the local Indian rulers for spices. The Portuguese eventually took control of the Indian and Far East spice trade. next the Spanish. As paprka (paprika). and Flavorings. they dominated the spice trade to Europe. mustard seed. By 1529. and . cloves. Christopher Columbus began his great exploration looking for pepper. In the early seventeenth century.

ginger. As is shown in the next chapter on trends. The British established Bombay and Calicut as the spice trade centers in India. SPICES IN AMERICA In the eighteenth century. Indian. Today. Nonya cuisine evolved in these regions. In the early nineteenth century. and brought back pepper. North Americans from Boston and other northern coastal towns sailed to the Far East. and San Francisco became major ports for the spice trade to the United States. North Americans continue to “explore” unique spices and are demanding flavorings from around the globe. The descendants came to be called Peranakan or Straits Chinese (Baba for men and Nonya for women). Chinese traders and merchants (mainly from southern China). These ingredients are now essential to Cape Malay cuisine. poppy seed. to places like Malabar in India and Sumatra in the East Indies. the United States is the biggest spice importer and the largest consumer of spices in the world. traveled to peninsular Malaya and Singapore and married local Malay women. During this era. who had established themselves as rulers from the eighth to the sixteenth century. and Penang as the major eastern port in peninsular Malaya. encouraged by a liberal immigration policy instituted by British colonial powers. spices such as mustard.Spices in History 9 fennel. New York City. and cinnamon. coriander. cassia. which combines Malay cooking with Dutch. The British defeated the Moguls of North India. the British took control of the Indian and the East Indies spice trade. cloves. During the eighteenth century. English. Then. Baltimore. . sesame. the French introduced spices such as clove and nutmeg to Mauritius and the French territories in Vietnam and the Caribbean. and indigenous African flavors. and cumin from the northern regions of India were available for export to Britain and its colonies. This will continue the trend for authentic cuisines as well as “cross-over” flavors in North America.

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such as FrenchThai. Pan-Pacific. population (Figure 1(b)). and their lifestyles. Thai. Ingredients once considered “exotic” are infiltrating traditional North American foods through cross-cultural cooking and regional American fare. North Americans also want foods that are fresh.S. Cuisines once considered unusual from other countries are becoming commonplace. we are seeking new routes to find foods that provide the tastes we demand. surpassing African Americans. Asian-Americans. The foods and ingredients of the world—Southeast Asia. while Asian-Americans will grow by 110% according to the Census Bureau. In 2000. and healthy.” and that are convenient to prepare. they want to indulge. By 2010. they will make up half of the U. Today. but more Americans of Indian. Indian-Mexican. At the same time.S. Central America. The United States has become an increasingly diverse country. North American palates continue to become more daring and adventurous. and the Mediterranean—are more available than ever. Ethnic groups have become more diverse as well. Census Bureau reports that between 1990 and 2000 the Asian and Latino populations have grown substantially. and that have a perception of “natural. New Californian. are driving these trends (Figure 1). Asian Americans. Mexico. Latinos are now the largest minority group in the United States. light. Latin America. and the 11 . Filipino. we are facing a new revolution in eating patterns and the way we use spices. Korean.S. Chinese. the growing Latino population includes people of many different ancestries. the opening of trade routes and changing immigration patterns have affected the way the world eats. The U. India. As in the age of colonial adventure. or Vietnamese descent. our interest in tastes and flavors from faraway places is increasing. They are the fastest growing ethnic groups and are becoming a greater part of our social fabric. population. the Latino population in the United States is expected to grow 96%. and African Americans made up nearly 30% of the U. These statistics do not tell the whole story. They want foods with more intense flavors and hotter and spicier profiles. There are not simply more Asian Americans. Latino Americans. or Floribbean. They seek variety and something new. basic changes in who North Americans are. New and diverse cooking styles and ingredients are not simply part of a passing fad. By the middle of the twenty-first century (Figure 1(d)). Likewise. including all of the regions in South America. Japanese.S. increased by almost 55%. To the contrary.2 Trends in the World of Spices Today TRENDS IN FOODS AND SPICES Throughout the ages. By 2010. these three groups will comprise more than onethird of the U. population. while Latino Americans increased by about 61%. As a result.

chipotle.S. banana leaf. The increased presence of ethnic groups in our communities is increasing our exposure to many different cultures.6% Black 12. cilantro. ajowan. which have more diverse and spicier flavor profiles. (c) 2010. as well as .1% Asian Black 2. and Flavorings. and ingredients. Source: U.9% 12. (b) 2000. pandan leaf. and Argentinians constituting the majority of them. with Colombians.5% Black 12. wasabi. Population – 2000 Asian 3. star anise. foods. and kari leaf. Population – 2040 Asian. Asian and Latino cuisines. Ginger. Census Board. and (d) 2040. Consumers are sampling these cuisines and their exciting new ingredients in a variety of ways. They are discovering fish sauces. Caribbean. The South American population has been growing in numbers. 68% Asian 9.7% Hispanic 13. Second Edition U.5% White.S. Ethnic grocery stores and bodegas carry specialized items such as tamarind. 12. Ecuadoreans. Consumers can also find authentic ethnic ingredients. Peruvians.12 Handbook of Spices. such as nigella.2% White 59. kokum. and fermented soybeans in restaurants that feature ethnic and fusion menus. Seasonings.S.S.S. Population – 1990 U. have become a greater part of our social fabric. or black cumin.1% Hispanic 9. 5.1% White 75. Population – 2010 U.8% Black. wrappers.1% White 69. and cinnamon have become mainstream items while newcomers include lemongrass. epazote. rocotos.8% Hispanic 18.5% FIGURE 1 U.S.6% Hispanic 12. and galangal.9% U. flower essences. population (a) 1990.

cardamom. are becoming more popular because of their taste. and caraway). ginger. but also in variety. Cooking schools in the United States. they crave for those flavors. The demand for spices will increase. nutmeg. Indonesia (black pepper. star anise. Entrees are being perked up with a variety of seasoned side dishes and condiments. onion. with thinner cuts of meat that are marinated. less bitter and with more flavor intensity. seasoned or “sauced up” rather than being dry are becoming popular.Trends in the World of Spices Today 13 prepared ethnic foods in gourmet. and allspice). Canada (mustard seed. coriander. and ethnic convenience meals are all creating major changes in our eating habits. Latin American. such as garlic. black and white peppers. “tarkaring” (frying in oil). are helping Americans to learn about authentic ethnic ingredients and cooking styles. Asian and Latino concepts of onedish/bowl meals. and even on the Internet. using pasta or rice. There is also be an evolution in the nature of prepared foods. not only in total volume. Global travel is also driving the new ethnic cuisine revolution. and vanilla). Caribbean. and sesame seed). proliferation of restaurants. ginger. red pepper. Media attention to ethnic cooking. and Mediterranean spices. turmeric. and fennel). These include dry roasting. celery seed. ginger. India (sesame seed. paprika. Smaller portions of entrees. are the United States (dehydrated garlic and onion. with multidimensional flavors and textures. Thus. and economics. and the exchange of ideas an instantaneous affair. we can expect increased sales volumes for familiar spices. . convenience. which together provide 84% of the U. health. Nearly 60 million Americans travel overseas each year. The major spice supplying nations. The Internet is also making global commerce. cumin seed. Thai basil. communication. Authentic preparation techniques for spices and other ingredients are adding new flavor and texture dimensions to foods. white pepper. consumption of spices. and cardamom. in the year 2000 (with major spices). such as fennel seeds. cinnamon. growth of cookbooks. and Guatemala (sesame seed. The American Spice Trade Association’s (ASTA) 2000 Spice Statistics Report says that within the last twenty years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of spices. Television media is introducing a whole range of ethnic cuisines. guajillo. as well as overseas. Americans are buying an increasing volume and variety of Asian. and mustard seed). allspice. black pepper. cumin. and flavors to the public who want ‘real’ flavors or to add an interesting twist to everyday cooking. while new demands for emerging spices.” (slow stir frying) which make spices or spice pastes more fragrant. chilies. and natural food stores. with overall spice consumption being doubled. Mexico (sesame seed. Prepared foods are already being presented with influences from Asian and Latino styles. What do these trends portend for the consumption of spices and their use in prepared foods? The answer is already available. celebrity chefs. Peoples’ Republic of China (garlic. reported by ASTA. spices. and “tumising. and oregano). and mustard. red pepper. Most sample the cuisines of the countries they visit and when they return home. red pepper. and red pepper that have shown a 72% increase in sales volume since the late 1980s.S. will grow as well. It reports that the hottest trend is our taste for hot spices such as mustard seeds.

fragrant whole spices add to their enhancement. Bowl meals. grains. need to join the bandwagon to create authentic products or add excitement to mainstream taste buds. Interest in more seasoned and textured vegetables and an allnatural. environmentally conscious food trend is spearheading the ‘true’ and regional flavors of Asia and the Mediterranean. Consumers’ growing interest in using spices for their therapeutic properties will continue to rise. Mainstream cooking will evolve further with consumers’ better understanding of authentic cuisines. Latino bodegas and Asian supermarkets and restaurants continue to grow to meet the demands of the ethnic consumers. seasonings.14 Handbook of Spices. Recognizing these fast moving trends. so ethnic style vegetarian and natural and organic ingredients appeal to them. Ginger was an exotic spice ten years ago. Indian vegetarian foods that use abundant spices are becoming more popular because they provide taste and nutrition. We can also satisfy niche markets by focusing on regional . teas. Vietnamese. Spices are great tools for “safely” providing authenticity or new flair to traditional foods. we can create authenticity or fusion products. Meals with fresh aromas and textures are becoming a significant point of purchase. Seasonings. and Flavorings. While many Americans enjoy traditional foods. beverages. For example. and freshly made spring rolls with fragrant leafy spices and Thai. They are also environmentally conscious. But before we can do this. By effectively connecting spices and other flavorings. Aging Baby Boomers’ growing focus on a healthier lifestyle is also bringing meatless cuisine to nonvegetarians. we need to have an in-depth understanding of spices and other flavorings to effectively utilize them to create new products. we. we must first understand spices — the basic building blocks of flavors in ethnic foods — and how they are prepared and blended. Chinese vegetarian cooking that showcases wonderful textures and flavors will emerge in mainstream cooking. ethnic style vegetarian meals. Indian. and novelty at meal tables? First. tradition. They can add a comforting new dimension to a traditional product or create a totally new and unique product. texture-less. and Japanese sauces and condiments are emerging favorites. but today it is added to everything — from sodas. as product developers. their spices and flavorings that provide the new tastes and texture sensations. Ethnic foods with their multidimensional flavor and texture profiles will provide this. pickled vegetables or legumes to provide fresh appeal. boiled vegetables are giving way to gourmet. How do we meet these consumers’ needs for familiarity. These acculturated Americans enjoy the fusion or cross cultural flavors. and candies to sauces and soups. Many young Americans who have grown up with ethnic foods will continue to demand these flavors. Some consumers seek excitement and adventure with meals while others want something familiar but with new flavor twists and new ways of preparing or serving meals. and condiments. at the same time they expect their foods to be seasoned and well balanced with variety and exciting tastes. especially cuisines that include a variety of spices. Apart from leafy greens. Second Edition The demand for “healthy” ingredients and natural ways of preventing illnesses or diseases are also contributing to the increasing use of spices in the United States. Bland tasteless. soups.

Cuban mojos. chipotle. UNDERSTANDING AND EFFECTIVELY MEETING THE GROWING DEMAND FOR AUTHENTICITY Authentic ethnic flavors and their preparation techniques and presentation styles are becoming a regular part of our meals. starchy types. South America’s culture and “foodways” are as diverse as its geography and people. While tacos.” so Venezuelan arepas.Trends in the World of Spices Today 15 profiles within the United States and developing products that reflect the flavors of their ethnic mix. . Peking. etc. More upscale and innovative dishes with authentic cooking of Canton. chili-based sauces (salsa verde. Noodles. using mushrooms. New York. tamarindo. egg rolls. or stir-fries. Brazilian caipirinhas. taste. Colombians. For most Americans. Braised five-spice lentils. freshness. Many chain restaurants continue to add Asian and Hispanic flairs to their menus to attract mainstream Americans. chorizos.). recados. bowl meals. and nachos have become staples of American dining. which will continue to appeal to the adventurous young and mainstream. spaghetti. Consumers are developing a craving for the true “el sabor Latino. mamey. sesame-scented bean curd.). Argentinean churrasco. and Szechwan are emerging from the standard Chinese American takeout fare. salsa. such as pizzas. Youth and adults alike enjoy Tex-Mex cuisine. South Americans are becoming a large and integral part of North America’s Latino population especially in Florida. and Puerto Rican ropa viejas are found in upscale menus. etc.). many small ethnic eateries are exposing us to authentic Mexican foods—a variety of fillings for soft tacos (carnitas. Many foods that “taste and look like” chicken. Shanghai. Regional Mexican cuisine and a host of other Latino foods and flavors from Central and South America are appearing on menus. and light miso soups are becoming more common on mainstream and fusion menus. and a variety of vegetables. and bebidas/drinks (horchata. When exotic ingredients and dishes are presented in a more familiar setting. sushi. inlcuding Ecuadorian ceviche. California. Peruvian papas rellenas. and pan caramelized Chinese cabbage are appearing in upscale menus. Brazilian chimmichurri. burritos. the “real” Mexican and the other Latino fares are gaining momentum. and New Jersey. pollo asado. Jamaica. Simplicity. More authentic flavorings such as horseradish and wasabi condiments. tempura. oven-roasted gingered potatoes. etc. tacos. and consumers enjoy these foods. Bolivian humitas. certain ethnic foods are so common that they are not thought of as ethnic anymore. yakitori (meat on skewers). and Peruvians constitute a major portion of this growing U. or Bolivian corn pudding. but with more intense and exciting flavors. Ecuadorians. tofu. soba and rice bowls. vegetarian sushi. burritos. More innovative bowl meals and dim sum dishes will appear at American restaurants. subtle Cantonese style sauces are supplanting heavy. Hispanic category. and presentation are paramount to Japanese cooking. but where there is a growing Hispanic population. Lighter. then they want to experience authentic foods and flavors. Paraguayan yerbe mate. and stir-fries will continue to appeal to many. pork.S. or shrimp in Chinese vegetarian cooking will emerge.

with ethnic Thai ingredients such as galangal. and Portuguese influenced fish dishes add to its unique flavors. Seasonings. and Indonesian will become increasingly popular. shallots. AUTHENTIC ETHNIC CUISINES As discussed. Naan and parathas. all served with light and flavorful condiments. turmeric-based curry (kari) is changing. Consumers are beginning to understand that numerous curry themes based on regional preferences and cooking styles exist. with the melting pot of flavors of its diverse ethnic mix. tandoori chicken. Thai cuisine is a unique combination of royal Thai elaborate presentations.16 Handbook of Spices. Mexican. Nonya pungent laksas. or . al dente veggies. Indian curries. and chilies) from the north. today’s consumers are looking beyond generic Chinese. and New York. SPICES AND FLAVORINGS OF POPULAR. and fresh spring rolls. light fresh salads. Because Thai curry pastes are in vogue. even crossing over to mainstream menus. chicken tikka masala. A penchant for in-depth flavors is driving consumers to become more familiar with cuisines that use abundant spices. and spicy som tam (grated green papaya salad with garlic. condiments. Second Edition In many large cities. and preparation styles is making them trendy. samosas. with their numerous spices. Vietnamese. are also a growing trend. Indian. Indian influenced curries. such as sofrito marinated chicken. and bowl meals. and breads. Chinese style noodle bowl meals and stir-fries with Malay spicy sambals. fish sauce. The concept of yellow. More authentic.or coconut crusted dulce de leche ice cream. grilled paneer. arepas with tofu and portobella mushrooms. such as Miami. Thai food has become very popular. Small vegetarian Indian eateries serving authentic meals in a thali style setting. which have always focused on fresh ingredients and intensely flavored meals. lemongrass. pad Thai with fish sauce and dried shrimp from the central region. Vietnamese cooking has fresh fragrant aromas and crispy crunchy textures involving simple preparation methods. Fusion-style graband-go sandwiches. are fast becoming popular in major cities and around campuses. or Italian foods and seek the authentic newcomers—Thai. The variety offered by Indian vegetarian meals. with well-marinated grilled meats. tandoori chicken) accompanied by an assortment of condiments. Other Southeast Asian cuisines including Vietnamese. mango mint mojo . Chinese stir fries. including South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines. bowl meals or wraps with Indian fillings (alu gobi. and Flavorings. such as Mussaman curry with coconut milk and spices from the coastal south. Chicago. roasted corn and pepper salsa. a variety of curry mixtures from the Indian subcontinent are emerging. Indian meals are popular with youth and many baby boomers. regional flavors are emerging. flatbreads such as dosas and chappatis. Malaysian cuisine is an emerging favorite. with accompanying condiments or lunch boxes. and vegetarian dishes will soon become mainstream items. Latino flairs are added to local flavors in fine dining restaurants. ground spicy beef (or laab) with mint and basils from the Northeast. and aromatic basils. aromatic rice and noodle dishes. vegetables. Malaysian.

coconut milk. Today. Thai. Sri Lankan. powder. jasmine essence. how they are prepared or cooked. zedoary. with cinnamon. basils (Thai. and Tibetian): turmeric. and uses). mustard (seed. ajowan. Pakistani. lime. fish sauce. In the United States. there are many varieties of each spice.Trends in the World of Spices Today 17 Malaysian. while the Chinese and most Southeast Asians use the harsher and sweeter cassia. candlenuts. shallot. garlic. long pepper. Filipino. cardamom. ginger. Bangladeshi. or coriander leaf. tamarind. CUISINES AND SEASONINGS OF POPULAR AUTHENTIC ETHNIC Southeast Asian (Burmese. laksa leaf. Let’s look at some of the typical spices and flavorings used in some of the popular and emerging cuisines. five-spice. Ethnic cuisines use locally available spices to bring out their characterizing flavor profiles. saffron. fenugreek. tamarind. Mexicans and South Asians use the more delicate canela. spearmint. also called Ceylon cinnamon. paprika. Nepali. lemongrass. cumin. pandan leaf. and Vietnamese): black peppercorn. soy sauce. Puebla. cardamom. mace. oyster sauce. annatto. ginger. AUTHENTIC ETHNIC SPICES Certain spices have a mass appeal for many ethnic groups. cumin. SPICES. nigella. or Tuscan. black. rose petal. screw-pine leaf. onion. saffron. or Michiocan. black cumin. and holy). clove. However. and oil). shrimp paste. and root). kari leaf. Umbrian. Afghan. kalamansi. curry blends. hoisin. turmeric. Chinese chive. blends for bean pastes. ginger flower. substitutions have been used for an “exotic” ethnic spice that was not easily available. white pepper. In the past. sesame (seed and oil). nutmeg. caraway. Malaysian. forms. kari leaf. within each ethnic group or region. sambals. Indonesian. sweetness. Different ethnic groups often prefer a specific variety. Hence. coriander (seed and leaf). cinnamon. dill. origins. . Tuscan. In addition. cayenne pepper. lemon. cashew nuts. nutmeg. ginger. cassia is commonly used. black pepper. Cambodian. varieties. FLAVORINGS. Keralan. coriander (leaf. mints. and Peking. For example. clove. Cantonese. bay leaf. palm sugar. mushroom. Thai. adobo. asafoetida. Laotian. Consequently. consumers want the real thing and we need to understand the many varieties of each spice and their properties for authenticating a product. fennel. mustard (seed and oil). or heat occur. peanuts. star anise. garam masala. anise. and Ligurian. bay leaf. lily bud. garlic. poppy seeds. banana leaf. and rendangs. we need to look at the actual spices and flavorings that give rise to these distinct flavor differences (including their history. black pepper. South Asian (Indian. plum sauce. properties. kaffir lime. almonds. To create this authenticity. fennel. fenugreek. such as garlic. but Ceylon cinnamon is becoming better known. seed. preferences for spiciness. or Oaxacan. Singaporean. galangal. bumbu. cayenne pepper. we have Cajun. mace. kokum. cinnamon. the type of spice and the amount of spice vary as well. and when and how they are incorporated or presented in a meal. Szechwan. pomegranate. bird pepper. or Cantonese.

mace. tahini. caraway. garlic. and ras-el-hanout. garlic. Latin American (Mexican. roselle. licorice. clove. saffron. chervil. cayenne pepper. aioli. Seasonings. Greek. coriander (seed and root). cayenne. blends for salsas. cilantro. ginger. chutneys. chat masala. allspice. garlic. fenugreek. cinnamon. Mediterranean (Northern African. Iranian. orange peel. garlic. molho malagueta. cassareep. meloukhia. dende oil. chives. coriander (seed and leaf). sorrel. cumin. onion. Middle Eastern (Israeli. soybean (whole and paste). Italian. vinegar. onions. Caribbean: allspice. sesame (seed and paste). olive (fruit and oil). sesame seed. ginger. Southern French. mace. Greek. Armenian. utazi leaf. cilantro. balsamic vinegar. lotus (leaf. poblano. and blends for zhug. cardamom. marjoram. wasabi. pepper (black and white). pepper. thyme. kala masala. mushrooms. oregano. nutmeg. mints. garlic. coriander (seed and root). sage. miso. parsley. savory. cumin. kudzu. Central American. anchovy. fennel. boldo leaf. and Cypriot): ajowan. sambar podi. sofritos. East Asian (Chinese. mint. sesame seeds. palm oil. parsley. guedge. mustard (powder and pastes). scallion. garlic. cilantro. cassia. black pepper. pomegranate. anise. shallot. cubeb pepper. bonito. kimchi. turmeric. grains of paradise/melegueta peppers. paprika. horseradish. blends for hoisin. tamarind. and Cypriot): bay leaf. dill. tamarind. adobos. almond. cassareep. mushrooms. cayenne pepper. myrtle. jerk blends. Middle Eastern Portuguese. papaya. ajilimojilli. bacalao. paprika. asafetida. recados. moles. cumin. blend for rouille. ginger. nutmeg. and xni pec. and hot sauces. fig. ginger. coriander (seed and leaf). chipotle. fennel. chiltepin. clove. clove. oregano. sesame (seed and oil): curry blends. long pepper. pine nut. ginger. blends for pickles. garam masala. za’atar. rocoto. kochu’jang. chocolate. clove. turmeric. wine. saffron. Creole sauce. Arabic regions. clove. cayenne pepper. African: anise. sofrito. and Taiwanese): anise. cardamom. vanilla.18 Handbook of Spices. cheese. chocolate. rose petal. nutmeg. dried mango. star anise. black pepper. cinnamon. dried shrimps. piri-piri. cumin. black peppercorn. and South American): annatto. pebre. Puerto Rican. cumin. cilantro. cinnamon. mint. tamarind. pepian. lime juice. daikon. mirin. caper. parsley. tarragon. Allepo peppers. capers. vanilla. and talia. thyme. ground nuts. Japanese. shichimi togatashi. olive. lemon balm. anise. bell peppers. turmeric. epazote. Dominican Republic. annatto. sumac. guajillo. licorice. salted codfish. marigold. muhammara. onion. cayenne. saffron. berbere. aji dulce. oyster sauce. Second Edition amchur. ancho. root. and seed). poppy seed. fenugreek. canela. five-spice. mace. and Flavorings. baharat. tandoori. habanero. Korean. roselle. shiso. lemon verbena. sweet basil. bay leaf. and blends for harissa. nutmeg. and plum sauce. ponzu. amchur. coconut milk. sumac. Cuban. serrano. lovage. juniper. paprika. tomatillas. sansho. rose petal. dill. nutmeg. sesame (seed and paste). rosemary. and recheado. fenugreek. aji. caraway. egusi seeds. zhoug. bacalhau. celery seed. szechwan pepper. coriander. sesame paste. bay leaf. panchphoron. Turkish. chepil. bean pastes. ginseng. parsley. clove. soy sauce. jalapeno. vanilla. ghee. Spanish. . chimichurris. garam masala. coriander (seed and leaf). chives. mace. bay leaf. curry blends. coconut milk. rose essence. parsley. Scotch Bonnet. naranga agria.

olive. roselle. chive. cilantro. tomatoes. aji. Some of the emerging global spices and flavorings are examined in Table 1. star anise. rosemary. and salted). candlenut. stems. or shiso will emerge. rose. cheeses. annatto. epazote. green papaya. tea . mustard seed Thai basil. pistachio. In addition. banana leaf. cayenne. pickled. dende oil. hoba leaf. yams Almond. garlic. sage. tabasco. mints. lavender. turmeric. thyme. olives. lotus. mustard. wasabi. nigella. hoja santa Jasmine. pandan leaf. coffee. atjars. habanero. ginger flower Coriander. mushrooms. candlenut. poblano. asafoetida. sweet basil. and smoked) Miso. nuoc mam. trasi.Trends in the World of Spices Today 19 garam masala. Asian. kokum Mushrooms. nutmeg. chocolate. fermented. recao leaf Chipotle. cilantro. persimmon. turmeric leaf. cashew. black cumin. oyster sauce. such as Latin American. there are many other ingredients that provide “spicing” or flavoring to foods. These are being used with increasing frequency in the United States in pastes. curry powders. red cayenne pepper. kari leaf. kalamansi. green cardamom. and Caribbean. purees. and flowers of spices. guajillo. and blends for berbere. harissa. beans Balsamic vinegar. shiso. lotus leaf. ancho. taro. gingko biloba Pumpkin. pepper (black and white). orange blossom. canela. nori. fennel seed. and mushrooms. chili powder. roots. bay leaf. or extracts and as natural and healthy ways to add flavor. such as oyster sauce. ghee. guava. peanut. cachucha Citrus. allspice. pomegranate. mango. violet. rocoto. jalapeno. squash. or texture to foods and beverages. lemongrass. bird pepper. cinnamon. onion. Consumers are also discovering unique flavor properties of parts of plants other than seeds or leaves. oregano. and piri-piri. pine nut. kaffir lime leaf. dashi (dried. cumin. cranberry. coconut milk. such as stalks. licorice. North American: sassafras. squash blossom. ginseng. dals. sesame. TABLE 1 Emerging Global Spices and Flavoring Seeds/fruits/bark Leaves/stalks/stems Chile peppers Fruits Vegetables Nuts Seeds Food wrappers Flowers Roots Fish and shrimp Legumes Other Ajowan. blatjang. pomegranate. olives. sumac. and dried fish. vanilla. palm sugar. nam pla. daikon Blacan. color. ras-el hanout. “newer” spices such as ajowan seeds. lotus Corn husk. sunflower. These are used in traditional spice blends of many global cultures. AUTHENTIC ETHNIC FLAVORINGS As the trend for authenticity and variety continues. galangal. soybean pastes (fermented. guedge. fenugreek.

we will need to understand not only true ethnic ingredients. knives. Globally. we can simulate the flavors they create.20 Handbook of Spices. yet the same spice gives different flavors. for many ethnic groups. In contrast. Thai. and visual appeal to foods. Various-sized brass baltis (wok-like utensils) provide an authentic and familiar touch to many Indian and Pakistani cuisines. Raw. that are then steamed. Why? The way each spice is prepared and combined with other ingredients gives varying flavor profiles. fish. To fully perceive the different sensations of flavors and textures. but also their preparation and cooking techniques. side dishes play a prominent role. or vegetables. Therefore. fish. spoons or fingers. rice. forks. tagines. shapes. or Caribbean create great eye appeal using contrasting colors. The timing in which the spices are added to the cooking process is also crucial in creating a well-balanced flavor profile. texture. fruits. in a chicken dish. Second Edition AND AUTHENTIC PREPARATION COOKING TECHNIQUES Many spices are common to a number of ethnic cuisines. wrappers. certain flavor notes are intensified. corn husks. bowls. or sizes with ingredients. or “popping” of mustard seeds in hot oil produces distinct flavors and colors. Serving containers are also an integral part of meal presentation. the focus is on a main course of meat or fish. chutney dip bowls. For example. Spices. skewers or clay pots. it is important to know not only how the food is seasoned. color. a pandan leaf for serving the chicken could be packaged as part of a meal kit that can be a presentation tool to create authenticity or excitement at the meal table. In authentic ethnic cooking. In presenting authentic ethnic foods. with side dishes of rice or pasta and vegetables. ETHNIC PRESENTATION STYLES Ingredients and preparation techniques affect flavors and the way foods are presented and served. Though commercially we may not be able to present food in these wrappers. vegetables. Presentation of meals achieves visual appeal and balance. with side dishes of intensely seasoned chicken. you can add a grilled flavor with pandan notes to simulate the flavor of chicken wrapped and grilled in pandan leaf. or flowers are sculpted or designed to create exciting appearances. and Flavorings. grilled. and sometimes colors are modified. corn husks and banana and pandan leaves are used to wrap chicken. In addition. banana leaves or “thalis” using different utensils: chopsticks. to harmonize the differing tastes for achieving flavor and for maintaining health. comals. smoked. bitter notes are removed. but also how it is served and eaten in traditional cultures. . and meat. Dry roasting of coriander seeds or chile peppers. In traditional North American presentation. An authentic edge can be added to meal solutions by including authentic utensils in the package. the main dish is starch based. such as white rice. moistness. Seasonings. food is eaten from plates. Ethnic cuisines such as Japanese. to meet the growing demand for authentic or new flavors. or barbecued. fingers. such as chopsticks. banana leaves. These wrappers provide unique flavors.

Texnamese. fusion flavors have evolved from two or more ethnic groups. when condiments are eaten with a meal. such as Creole. Mediterranean. Mexicans have salsas. sweet. Bowl meals provide varying tastes and textures simultaneously. condiments are essential in many ethnic meals. the concept of a “main entrée” and side dishes blend together in the form of a “one pot” or “one dish” meal such as stews. will give rise to unique fusion flavors. sour. Every ethnic group has its typical condiments to achieve each individual’s desired taste. or the Caribbean are producing the “newer” fusion and regional American fare. such as Japanese and Cuban. such as Floribbean. The populations in these regions are becoming increasingly diverse and. such as ginger roast chicken. and other ethnic side dishes that are hot. Asia. stews. Regionalization of cuisines will continue in the United States. Likewise. Fusion food is not something new. or Southern. or crunchy provide variety and enhance the flavor and texture of the main entree. Because fusion and regional cooking will increasingly affect our eating patterns. Southeast Asian. pickled vegetables. FUSION AND REGIONAL AMERICAN FLAVORINGS While changing demographics are increasing the demand for authentic ethnic ingredients and foods in general. or chipotle potato chips. Nuevo Latino. Tex-Mex. Tunisians have harrissa. Indians have pickles or chutneys.Trends in the World of Spices Today 21 Curries. Newly arrived immigrants from Latin America. The Chinese have their sweet and sour sauces or plum sauces. soups.S population lives around large cities. or Washington. Pan Californian. there are also regional American fusion flavors. and Koreans have kimchis. French have rouille. thus. Within the category of fusion foods. As with side dishes. or French and Indian. These new foods are emerging from the mixing of ingredients and preparation styles taken from the popular traditional American and ethnic cuisines. one of the most important trends in a diverse country such as the United States is the growth of fusion (or cross-cultural) and regional American foods. such as New York. Fusion foods also include newer versions of traditional American products with flavors derived from ethnic ingredients. In many Asian cuisines. New England. sauced or souped noodles. . all of which are also served with condiments. Los Angeles. or fried rice. Miami. and preparation techniques has happened around the world whenever two or more cultures have lived together. and Caribbean cuisines are three of the better-known types of fusion foods that combine flavors of many cultures and regions. The transformation of cuisines through fusing flavors. Indonesians have sambals. ingredients. These “new” cuisines have great appeal because they are the product of many cultures. we will examine them in greater detail. In the United States today. More than half of the U. or Pan Asian. Chicago. totally new sensations are produced. sofrito mashed potatoes. These “traditional” fusion foods evolved when the cuisines of earlier immigrants to the United States were combined. Nuevo York. Japanese have teriyakis. Italian and Thai. Many of these regional foods are changing in flavors to meet the newer groups of immigrants and changing consumers’ taste buds.

while Puerto Ricans and Dominicans dominate New York. In Miami. adobo. steamed. REGIONAL AMERICAN FLAVORS In the United States. or mashed potatoes. fermented bean pastes. Consumers are becoming more innovative and are creating exciting fusion foods using varied ingredients. or ketchup. For the adventurous consumer. such as tortillas. Scandinavians settled in the Midwest. Bagels. lemongrass. such as roasting. or pomegranate. rice and beans. or toning down chile peppers. rice. meatloaf. fish sauces. tacos. broiling. steak sauce. and other flatbreads as meals or snacks. they mixed with the local population and influenced the local foods. or sambal fish can be developed. As these various groups settled in a region. curries. pilafs. Second Edition FUSION FLAVORS Ethnic ingredients and their preparation styles blend well with North American cooking techniques. and other flavor-intense ingredients. flavors need not be compromised. Fusion foods can also be created to meet the needs of ethnic consumers. or pastas can also be mainstreamed to meet the tastes of second. and Cubans emigrated to Florida. and Flavorings. Alternatively. Japanese to the West Coast. Fusion sauces can be used as condiments to perk up traditional grilled. Ethnic comfort foods such as stir-fried noodles. they must be directed to the tastes of those who live in these regions.and third-generation ethnic populations who have adapted to a new way of living in the United States. Italians moved to the Northeast. such as tartar sauce. Creative food product designers can develop foods for a wide market by “toning down” authentic ethnic ingredients or fusing them with more traditional American flavors. Seasonings. chipotle. or cilantro can be added to chicken. Often. This is also true when developing products for the ethnic market. or pizza. For mainstream consumers seeking an ethnic flair or something new. when we create Hispanic-style foods for these niche markets. various immigrant groups have been attracted to particular regions of the United States. deleting. Hispanics are predominately Cuban. or baking. grilled chicken. By adding. It is not uncommon nowadays to see ethnic foods with traditional American ingredients. pita breads.22 Handbook of Spices. poblano pasta. mainstream sauces. can be made into a “new” sauce with ethnic spices and flavorings such as wasabi. tandoori chicken. chili con carne. and other traditional North American fillings. they need to understand each region’s specific preferences. chilis and other “Americanized” . When food developers create products for the different regions of the United States. chow mein. While the tastes of the new immigrants influence the foods of a region. To create great fusion products. with Mexicans the majority in Los Angeles. Therefore. there is a long history of immigration. Ethnic groups have traditionally used wrappers. For example. we can create appealing fusion foods or new flavor twists for traditional North American comfort foods such as roast chicken. They are popular as fusion lunch entrees with salad ingredients and topping sauces. the market for Latin American foods varies around the United States. or baked foods that are prepared with moderate seasonings. their own tastes become less distinct.

preventing ailments. Pasta sauces. The current annual growth rate for organic foods is 20% compared with the 2% to 3% growth rate for conventional foods. Miami-Indian. baby boomers as well as the Asian and Hispanic Americans. there is a large population of Cubans. and presentation of meals. for maintaining a healthier lifestyle. In New York City. new fusion foods such as Italian-Thai. The sale of organic spices is growing 35% annually. and Japanese-Latino reflect the global diversity of its population. NATURAL AND ORGANIC SPICE TRENDS Today’s consumers are demanding natural and organic foods with label-friendly ingredients. In regional cooking. Chicago-Thai. French-Indian. The flavors that are emerging from these regions reflect the cultural groups that are locally dominant. and concern for the environment. and African-Americans from the South. The result will be a further evolution of unique regional flavors in North America. and textures. Central Americans. For the future. ketchup. sugar. Yuca. For these consumers who prefer natural and organic ingredients. salsas. or chemical preservatives are the trend today. Sustainable methods of growing crops and manufacturing products without the addition of chemicals and pesticides. salt. or curries will develop clearly defined regional U.S. As consumers become more exposed to and knowledgeable about new and “exotic” ingredients. the demand for these products should steadily increase. colors. hydrolysed plant protein (HPP). and the cooking there reflects the influence of these groups. fusion themes will be taken to new levels of visual appeal and creativity. or mango are combined with key lime. the availability of a variety of ingredients. such as MalaysianTuscan. or potatoes to create a new Floribbean cuisine. traditional tastes fade while new tastes grow. In Miami. the “new” foods will continually evolve that will have different or more sophisticated flavor profiles. MSG. They are also free . The interactions of these new ethnic groups with the existing population.Trends in the World of Spices Today 23 ethnic foods emerged from the influence of the local population. and the adventurous spirit of cooks in the United States have given rise to some creative regional American cuisines. Thus. the demand for these spices is growing rapidly. compared to 16% for nonorganic spices. The younger generation. or Oaxacan-Japanese. Haitians. lima beans. Since organic spices are produced under ecofarming and sustainable methods free from chemical contaminants and pesticide residues. New immigrant groups continue in the same path as those who arrived earlier. are the biggest consumers of natural and organic foods and beverages. black beans. flavor profiles. These products were modified from their authentic profiles in order to suit regional consumers’ palates. preparation techniques. The organic food consumption is growing at a steady rate in the United States. The population trends that have changed the tastes of Americans today will continue to have an ever-increasing effect on the foods we eat tomorrow. In the future. the forces that have created the present demand for authentic ethnic and fusion flavors will continue to grow in the twenty-first century. food and beverage designers need to understand these factors to create these new products to challenge their taste buds. habaneros.

Seasonings. Thus chemicals. are fumigated with carbon dioxide or freeze-dried. India. Many spice-producing countries are already in the organic spice-production trade. Second Edition from genetically modified ingredients. Guatemala. or fumigants are not used during spices’ growth. synthetic anti-caking agents. such as cilantro or basil. Organic spices contain none of the fillers (sucrose. artificial colors and flavors. pesticides. . or preservatives that may be found in conventional spices. and Egypt. or dextrose). or to eliminate microbial growth. Leafy spices. Turkey. starch. Steam sterilization and ozone are used to kill microbes. and Flavorings. Indonesia.24 Handbook of Spices. during their storage. including the United States.

Consumers are also seeking natural foods and natural preservatives for healthier lifestyles and natural ways of preventing ailments.. bark (cinnamon). food professionals continually search for “new” and unique spice flavorings because of the growing global demand for authentic ethnic and crosscultural cuisines. bay. or infusions. and coriander). The name reflects the fact that all plant parts have been cultivated for their aromatic. epices (French). and mint). and create visual appeal in meals. extracts. crushed. ground. spices are also being sought for their medicinal value. For people throughout the world. specie (Italian). leaf (cilantro.3 Forms. especerias (Spanish). specerjien (Dutch). whole. and Applications of Spices INTRODUCTION Spices are the building blocks of flavor in food applications. pungent. stem (chives). or any other desirable properties including the seed (e. flower (saffron). pureed. as pastes. and shelf life. kari. Called rempah (Malaysian/Indonesian). kruen tet (Thai). SPICE FORMS AND COMPOSITION Spices are available in many forms: fresh. the primary and secondary functions of spices in applications. 25 . and the methods for assuring proper quality control in spices. juniper. krooder (Norwegian). The word “spice” came from the Latin word “species. processing parameters. fragrant. and as antimicrobials. spices have been savored and sought around the world from the earliest times because of their diverse functions. bulb (garlic and onion). sheng liu (Mandarin). rhizome (ginger. and galangal). masala (Hindi). turmeric. stalk (lemongrass). fruit (star anise. or kimem (Ethiopian). and flower bud (clove). The form chosen by the food product designer will depend on the specific application. and chile pepper). besamim (Hebrew). beharat (Arabic). the methods for applying spices in product development.g. Food developers who wish to use these building blocks effectively to create successful products must understand spices completely. cardamom. Functions. kernel (nutmeg). aniseed. caraway. and black pepper). berry (allspice. Each form has its respective qualities and drawbacks.” meaning specific kind. the techniques for preparing spices. So. spices stimulate the appetite. aril (mace). This chapter describes the different forms in which spices are sold and their composition. or frozen. root (lovage and horseradish). as antioxidants. Nowadays. add flavor and texture to food. dried.

Seasonings. processing. cooking or processing changes the spices’ chemical compounds and their proportions to varying degrees. While uneven distribution of whole spices in a product can be problematic. especially the leafy spices. star anise. and chile peppers. smoking. degrades to the milder shogoals that are found in larger amounts in dried ginger. aroma. spearmint. Fresh ginger has more pungency than dried ginger because of higher levels of pungent-producing gingerol which. are blended fresh and are used in making sauces and condiments with water. such as the veins and seeds. especially when subjected to preparation techniques such as frying or roasting. when freshly ground.26 Handbook of Spices. Fresh ingredients. kari leaf. the fresh forms have different flavor profiles than the dried forms. The fresh pureed or paste forms have intense flavors and need to be . Whole spices provide aroma and. Flavor is intact in a whole spice and is more slowly released than with the ground spice. and fagara (Szechwan pepper) are generally dry roasted to intensify their flavors for meat. such as bay leaf. whole spices can become the major flavor characterizing a product. and Flavorings. It can be lost during harvesting. or handling. In many whole spices. galangal. or chile peppers is due to the overall flavor. Second Edition FRESH WHOLE SPICES Consumers and chefs frequently use fresh spices to give a fresh taste to foods. especially whole spices. whole spices. it changes its flavor and color completely. The “fresh” taste consumers seek from spices comes initially from their aroma. basil. Spices that do not have a strong aroma. often giving rise to different flavor profiles. For some spices. during which time the whole spice slightly cracks open. wine. In this regard. the chemical components that provide the flavors vary in concentration throughout the spice. Fresh spices provide crunchy. oil. This aroma is due to the volatile component of the spice. and poultry dishes. such as lemongrass. Also. most importantly. For example. This fresh taste of ginger. cilantro. develop intense flavors after roasting or boiling. examples being ginger. or sesame seed. kari leaf. In a whole spice. giving it a new identity. sweet basil. texture and visual effect. give prepared foods a fresh taste. In chile peppers. called chipotle. grilling. or basil. chile pepper. or mustard seeds. such as bay leaf. When jalapeno is smoked and dried. during storage. crispy textures and colorful appeal. or drying certain chile peppers significantly changes their flavor and color. storing. the greatest concentrations of pungent compounds are found in the inner portions. but they can also be lost at room temperatures or when the spices are cut or bruised. Many spices. ginger. Certain spices have a strong aroma when fresh. such as basil. fish. This is especially true of whole or cracked seeds and leaves. Fresh whole spices also become very aromatic when they are roasted or fried in oil. cilantro. or vinegar. especially if the spices are processed in an aqueous system. such as whole sesame seeds on a breadstick or ajowan seeds on Indian naan bread. Mustard seed. and their aroma transfers to the application. provide great visual appeal as garnishes. this effect is sometimes desired to achieve nuttiness or a sensation of “bite” into a whole spice. due to their highly volatile (essential) oils. The essential oils disappear quickly at high temperatures. or mint. and texture.

characterize flavor and texture in garlic bread. or chips. dry spices and spice extractives are. Some dried spices can be used to characterize an application’s flavor and texture. dried spices can be more economical to use than fresh spices. These dried forms are most frequently used for processed products or for wholesale usage. For example. Acidulants. or vinegar are also added to preserve the pungency or intense flavors of the spice in the finished product. minced. Dried spices can better withstand higher temperatures and processing conditions than fresh spices. but are generally used in restaurants. or grinding preparation that the fresh forms do. and have lower cost. by necessity. and storage conditions cause flavor variations. Dried spices come whole. Also. In processed foods. and sliced. Garlic and onion. granulated. ground. Many ground spices need to be “rehydrated” in order to develop their flavor. in home cooking. and Applications of Spices 27 mixed well before application in sauces. flavor is intensified through drying because of the elimination of most moisture. Ground spices have better dispersibility in food products than fresh whole spices. The goal for a food designer is to develop products that will have the “fresh” quality desired by consumers but that have spice-sensory attributes that can withstand processing. and textures are lost during storage and prolonged processing. finely or coarsely ground. Preliminary preparations. or whole will depend on its use in specific applications. Since the paste form usually contains oil. it can become rancid in a shorter period of time. Consistency is also more difficult to achieve in fresh spices because their origin. are generally carried out before adding the spices to processed foods. Fresh whole spices are not frequently found in processed foods. age. the same dried spice will deliver different flavor perceptions in the finished product. Whether a dried spice is used ground. Spices are ground by milling them to various-sized particulates. and storage conditions. Depending on its form. freezing. DRIED SPICES Spices are often used in their dried forms because they are not subject to seasonal availability. which come powdered. have longer shelf life. and as various-sized particulates. In some spices. Some volatile oils are released through grinding. roasting. chopped. such as grinding. chopping. cracked. oil.Forms. most dried spices retain a higher overall . This addition of water triggers an enzyme reaction that releases the spice’s aroma. colors. This leaves a greater concentration of the low volatile compounds that give stronger flavor but less aroma due to the loss of the volatile constituents. Therefore. granulated. Consumers want to use “fresh” spices. and in other smaller-scale applications. the forms most often used to formulate foods or beverages. and in various-sized particles. Functions. such as ground mustard that becomes pungent only when water is added. or gravies. are easier to process. dried leafy spices do not require the cutting. or flaking of whole spices. soups. which partially breaks down the cellular matrix of the spice. but usually their flavors. cracked. onion bagels. This grinding also generates rapid air movement and heat that dissipate some of the volatile oils and even change some natural flavor notes through oxidation.

climate. the advantage is that finely ground spices blend better in finished products that require a smooth texture. Spice flavor can be readily oxidized.28 Handbook of Spices. The way a spice is treated or processed before being ground. and aroma. and ginger from Jamaica has more pungent flavor. Similarly. Dried spices can have some disadvantages. Black peppercorns from Tellicherry are highly aromatic (India). varies in flavor intensity depending on its origins. bitter. create flavor and color differences. aroma. have milder aromas with stronger bites. The same type of spice can have different sensory characteristics depending on where it was grown and how it was harvested. the oils tend to volatilize. sour. soil conditions. causing aroma losses. and cardamom give more aroma and flavor when freshly ground than when bought as a preground spice. and allspice lose their aroma quickly as soon as they are ground. Most spices such as cumin. When spices are ground. stored. The volatile portions of spice extractives. For example. flavor. and can thus create an undesirable appearance in the product. in contrast. Some have poor flavor intensity. and Flavorings. physical. which are highly concentrated forms of spices. sometimes creating “hot” spots in food products. and texture. can cause discoloring in the finished product. sulfury. The sensory. one pound of dried garlic has an equivalent flavor of five pounds of fresh garlic. coriander. and postharvest handling. For most spices. ground black pepper. while Lampong (Sumatra) pepper is less aromatic with more pungency. black pepper. dried ground cayenne can cause irregular variations in flavor and color. In applications with high moisture content. Second Edition flavor concentration than fresh spices. where particulates are desired for visual and textural effects. The sensations of sweet. adds to a spice’s overall flavor perception. and pungent are derived from an overall combination of aroma (due to volatile components) and taste (mainly due to nonvolatile components) in a spice. contain the volatile and nonvolatile oils that give each spice its characteristic flavor. typify the particular . The Malaysian and Brazilian peppercorns. To better retain color. unless they are sterilized. the time period between harvesting and storage and between when the spice is ground and added to a food are crucial for obtaining maximum potential. SPICE EXTRACTIVES Flavor is a combination of taste. dried ginger from India has a subtle lemonlike flavor. time of harvesting. For example. piney. spicy. Seasonings. and chemical characteristics of dried spices are determined by environment. Anticaking agents are added to ensure better flowability of dried spices. earthy. also referred to as essential oils. Spice extractives. While spices lose more aroma as they are ground more finely. which comes from a dried berry called peppercorn. Crunchiness. such as salad dressings or soups. smoothness. dried ginger from southern China comes with slightly bitter notes. Anise. and losses occur during milling and storage of spices. there is a great risk in using dried spices. spices are sometimes milled using lower temperatures. or chewiness. and the conditions of storage before delivery to the food processor. and processed. For example.

two. acetic. for example. the capsaicinoids. jalapenos. is due to many different chemical components such as esters. Functions. environmental growth conditions.Forms. sesquiterpenes in cinnamon and ginger family. triterpenes. The nonvolatiles include fixed oils. sourness to organic acids (citric. acids. chlorides. and citrates. its source. Volatile oils contain several chemical components whose amount and proportion give rise to the spices’ characteristic aromas. ginger. or poblanos. Diterpenes and triterpenes are strong and bitter compounds. diterpenes. with some components not being extracted or with some undergoing changes. The taste of a spice such as sweet. spicy. with some spices. These extractives provide more consistency than dried spices in prepared foods. The ratio of volatiles to nonvolatiles varies among spices causing flavor similarities and differences within a genus and even within a variety. chives. phenols. or sugars. Developed from fresh or coarsely ground spices. and. thio ethers. or several components. Within the genus Allium. environmental growing and harvesting conditions. origins. and postharvest conditions. Spice extractives come as natural liquids (which include essential oils. Even the distillation techniques can give rise to varying components—through loss of high boiling volatiles. and turmeric. cayennes. and Applications of Spices 29 aroma of the spice. saffron. Most spices owe their distinctive “fresh” character to their essential oil content that generally ranges from 1% to 5% but even goes up to 15% in certain spices. and sesquiterpenes occur. crushing. or cutting. and hydrophilic compounds. Sweetness is due to esters and sugars. oleoresins. slicing. such as black pepper. the different chile peppers belonging to the Capsicum group. and pungency to the acid-amides. or lactic). They are more concentrated than dried or fresh spices and so are used at much lower levels. carbonyls. chile peppers. or salty. and storage and preparation methods. sour. resins. there are differences in flavor among garlic. and aquaresins) and dry encapsulated oils (spray-dried powders and dry solubles). and which give out strong aromas when spice tissues and cells are disintegrated through heating. For example. alkaloids. and isothiocyanates. depending on the proportion of the different nonvolatiles. and leeks. These properties are due to the nonvolatile portions of spices. malic. aroma. The major chemical components of essential oils are terpene compounds—and depending on its molecular size. stage of maturity. spice extractives are standardized for color. These can include one. Monoterpenes are the most volatile of these terpenes and constitute the majority of the terpenes in spices. They vary depending upon the species of spice. such as habaneros. for their antioxidant activity. onions. antioxidants. all give distinct flavor perceptions. gums. shallots. saltiness to cations. bitterness to alkaloids (caffeine and glycosides). astringency to phenols and tannins. Nonvolatiles in a spice also vary with variety. monoterpenes. which differ in this ratio. and they contribute to the taste or “bite” of a spice. Certain spices are prized for their bites and coloring. . chlorides. alcohols. They are most concentrated in the mint and parsley family.

seed.30 Handbook of Spices. furanodienone. oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons (e. such as oil of basil.8-cineol.8-cineol. α-pinene. Each essential oil has many chemical components. steam. Essential oils are the major flavoring constituents of a spice. then cold expressing. chopping. camphor. root. The essential oils are composed of hydrocarbons (terpene derivatives) or terpenes (e. α-pinene. Depending upon the method of extraction. camphor . humulene.g. 1. or from a broken spice. esters. geranyl acetate.. farnescene. Sometimes the oil is distilled from a whole spice. or bark. para-cymene. methyl propyl disulfide. are produced by grinding. myrcene. terpinene 4-ol. α-phellandrene Ascaridol.8-cineol. citronellol. cis-sabinene Sabinene. sometimes even up to fifteen. or extracting through distillation (using water. tumerone.or sulfur-containing compounds (indole.8-cineole. limonene. limonene. sweet Cardamom Dill leaf Epazote Fennel Ginger Juniper Kari leaf Lemongrass Marjoram Nutmeg Oregano Pepper. α-pinene. sabinene. borneol. curcumene. methyl chavicol. camphene. 1. menthol.. phenols. geraniol. Second Edition ESSENTIAL (VOLATILE) OILS Essential oils. acids. the nature of the volatiles can differ with the same type of spice. oil of caraway. 1. α-pinene.8-cineol Germacrone-4. benzene compounds (alcohols. limonene. but the characterizing aroma generally constitutes anywhere from 60% to 80% of the total oil (Table 2). limonene. phellandrene. fenchone. 1. black Rosemary Star anise Turmeric Zeodary Components in Essential Oils Eugenol. β-caryophyllene Citral. α-pinene. and Flavorings. linalool. or crushing the leaf. and lactones) and nitrogen. α-phellandrene Zingiberene. TABLE 2 Examples of Characterizing Essential Oil Components in Some Popular Spices Spice Allspice seed Basil. linalool Cis-sabinene. limonene. borneol. stem.8-cineol Terpinene 4-ol. linalool Sabinene. borneol α-pinene. β-pinene. Seasonings. β-pinene. 1.g. or steam and water) and recovering the distillate oil with a solvent. α-terpinene. such as the leaf or flower. myrcene. α-pinene Anethole. and nerol). fenchone. linalool. or oil of black pepper. curzerenone. dihydrocarvone. bornyl acetate Anethole. carveol. borneol Sabinene. eugenol 1. limonene. thujene. and sinapine hydrogen sulfate). limonene Turmerone. α-phellandrene Linalool. dry distilling. β-phellandrene. sabinene.8-cineol 1. limonene. myrcene. and sabinene). α-terpinene. linalool. dihydrotumerone. α-terpinene. α-terpineol acetate Carvone. hydrogen sulfide.

also referred to as oleoresins. alternative oils extracted from a different part of the same spice plant or from another variety are used to enhance or adulterate the more expensive essential oils. In any particular type of chile pepper. causing varying heat levels. and chavicine. piney. Essential oils are very concentrated. acids. leaving behind an aromatic sensation. Functions. esters. Red pepper and white pepper do not contain much aroma because they have very little essential oils. The compounds with benzene structure provide sweet. and chile peppers. ginger. or spicy. Each type of capsacinoid also creates a different perception of heat. such as capsaicin in red pepper or piperine in black pepper. Essential oils are used at a very low level of 0. but suppliers need to meet the quality specifications that are required from manufacturers for these essential oils. and floral notes. These components can be acid-amides. isothiocyanates in mustard. but they are used where a strong aromatic effect is desired. the levels of capsaicinoids vary. Essential oils are soluble in alcohol or ether and are only slightly soluble in water. They provide more potent aromatic effects than the ground spices. Five types of capsacinoids have been isolated in chile peppers: capsaicin. White pepper has a different bite sensation than black pepper because of their differing proportions of nonvolatiles. The nonvolatile components create the heat and or pungency of black pepper. carbonyls such as gingerol in ginger. dihydrocapsaicin.01% to 0. while that of Jamaican ginger is spicy. OLEORESINS (NONVOLATILES AND VOLATILES) The nonvolatile and volatile flavor components of spices. mustard. and Applications of Spices 31 Terpenes usually contribute to the aromatic freshness of a spice and can be termed floral. black pepper. They do not have the complete flavor profile of ground spices. and dihydrohomocapsaicin. garlic. whereas ginger. Sometimes. while the sulfur. creamy. sweet. homocapsaicin. biting. which include alcohols. and floral oils. are produced by grinding or crushing the spices. Habanero has an initial sharp and violent bite that quickly disappears. including resins and gums that are native to spices. and mustard contribute aromatic sensations with their bites because of a higher content of volatile oils. toxic to the nervous system if taken internally (by themselves). each with its own characterizing “bite” sensation in the mouth. hydrocapsaicin. hot.Forms. and pungency of fresh or dried spices because they contain the high boiling volatiles and nonvolatiles. mustard. The different pungent and or heat principles give different sensations—spicy.and nitrogen-containing compounds give the characteristic notes to onion. are the major contributors to the aromatic sensations of a spice. aroma. They can be irritating to the skin. . and thioethers such as the diallyl sulfides in garlic or onion. The pungent sensation of onion or garlic is sulfury. citrus. or sulfury. piperine. earthy. sharp. Oleoresins have the full flavor. extracting with a solvent. and then removing the solvent. aldehydes. about seventy-five to one hundred times more concentrated than the fresh spice. and can cause allergic reactions and even miscarriages. The oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils lose their aroma with age.05% in the finished product. and ketones. whereas the cayennes give an initial burn that lingers.

or gravies. and in dry mixes and spice blends. Spray-dried flavors are the traditional encapsulated products. or gum is added to make it into an emulsion for use in beverages. processed meats. glycerol. sauce. dihydrohomocapsaicin Piperine. Seasonings. Dry soluble spices. hydrocapsaicin. shogoal Diallylsulfide Diallylsulfide Similarly. while with mustard and horseradish the release is delayed and comes at the back of the mouth. or other oils for better handling. Oleoresins are used at very low concentrations because they are highly concentrated. heat is immediate and in the front of the mouth. soups. and salad dressings. oleoresins are mixed with a diluent such as propylene glycol. An emulsifier is added to make it water soluble. Oleoresins come as viscous oils and thick pastes and are more difficult to handle than essential oils. They have greater heat stability than essential oils. Usually. Oleoresins give more uniform flavor and color with less variability than their ground spice counterparts. or soup. OTHER SPICE EXTRACTIVES Liquid soluble spices are blends of essential oils or oleoresins that are made for aqueous systems. They are typically used in high heat applications such as soups. are prepared by dispersing standardized extractives on a carrier such as salt. dextrose. and Flavorings. sauces. dihydrocapsaicin. These have five to ten times the strength of dried ground spices. with a shooting sensation to the sinuses. pickles. homocapsaicin. In wasabi. chavicine Sanshool Allyl isothiocyanate Allyl isothiocyanate Gingerol. They are convenient to use because of the ease with which they disperse into water-based foods such as soups. the release of heat sensation in mustard is different from wasabi. . or maltodextrin. salad dressings. Aquaresins are water dispersable versions of oleoresins.32 Handbook of Spices. Fat-based soluble spice is made from essential oil or oleoresin blended with vegetable oil and used for mayonnaise. Second Edition TABLE 3 Hot and Pungent Nonvolatiles in Some Spices Spices Red pepper Black or white pepper Sansho pepper Mustard Horseradish Ginger Garlic Onion Pungent Components of Spices Capsaicin. sauces. usually used in dry blends. Encapsulated oils are prepared from essential oils and/or standardized oleoresins with gum arabic or modified starch as the encapsulent. pickles. Table 3 details some of the nonvolatiles that contribute pungency to a spice.

or as spice extracts. They are encapsulated by creating an emulsion with modified starch. Usage level is generally 0. or maltodextrin. instant flavor release. such as coacervation. that show better heat stability and protect spice oils during high-heat cooking or extrusion. the color. so they do not cause microbial contamination in the finished product. gum arabic.Forms. uniformity during mixing. uniformity of color. Encapsulated oleoresins tend to retain the fresh notes of spices better than the oleoresins. Finished product quality. Proper usage levels in the finished product are very important to achieve the right flavor profile and to prevent bitterness. By using extractives. the quality and consistency of products from development through production can be better controlled. have a friendly ingredient label. The quantity of extractives that can be dispersed on the carrier varies with the type of carrier and the extractive. Extractives are typically used by food developers because of their consistency in flavor and aroma. This process grinds and encapsulates the spices in a closed system so no volatile oils escape. and maltodextrin or soluble gum (gum acacia) and spray-dried under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. such as baked or retorted products. They have no particulates. and flavor of dried and fresh spices are altered through heat and freezing. whereas the dried or fresh spices fluctuate in availability and quality.01% to 0. It is important to evenly disperse and blend the extractive onto the carrier. are completely natural and. There are new forms of encapsulation. Essential oils or oleoresins are encapsulated to keep the full flavor impact of spices over an extended shelf life. while extractives have some heat and freezer stability. dextrose. These encapsulated spice extractives are used for high temperature applications. and Applications of Spices 33 Spray-dried spice flavors or dry soluble spices are created to make liquid spices or extractives more convenient to handle and use in dry applications. and stability in high-heat applications. like essential oils or oleoresins. modified starch. Functions. This creates an acceptable appearance in finished . One part oleoresin or aquaresin is equivalent to 20 to 40 parts of a ground spice. Spice extractives are labeled as natural flavors. For application. a 1:1 or 1:2 ratio is used as a replacement for the noncapsulated extractives. A more uniform dispersion of color and flavor is achieved with the liquid soluble extractives than with dried spices. texture. They are water soluble and allow flavor to be liberated uniformly throughout the food. and consistency can be maintained from batch to batch during production. natural flavorings. Encapsulation of an extractive renders it wettable and dispersible in water or oil and also decreases the dusting in production. dextrose. Extractives are available throughout the year and have standardized flavor and color. Also. The spice extractives are entrapped in this matrix that protects the flavor from oxidation and high heat and thereby provides an extended shelf life.05% by weight in the final product but varies depending on the type of application. Spice extractives are cost effective compared to fresh or dried spices because they are used at very low concentrations and provide similar or sometimes more acceptable flavor perceptions. Extractives are also free of microbes and other extraneous matter. The spice flavors are slowly released into the product at the appropriate processing temperatures. They are a dispersion of up to 5% or more of spice oleoresin on a free-flowing carrier such as salt.

The chile pepper’s flavor is contained in its outer fleshy parts and is intensified when roasted or fried. Chile peppers vary in color. As a result of the popularity of these ethnic cuisines. dry. the trend is to capture the varied flavor profiles from spices. and texture profiles when they are fresh. TABLE 4 A Summary of Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Spice Forms Spice Form Fresh whole Advantages Fresh flavor Release of flavor slowly at high temperatures Label friendly Process friendly Longer shelf life Easy handling and weighing Stronger taste intensity than fresh Disadvantages Variability in flavor and color Short shelf life High microbes Unstable to heat Seasonal Availability Less aroma Hot spots—flavor and color Takes more storage space Variability in flavor and color Undesirable specks Seasonal Availability Spice dust contamination during production Difficult to handle and weigh Aroma and taste usually not typical of natural spice Loss of volatiles at high temperatures Dried ground Extractives Standardized flavor and color Uniform appearance. Second Edition products. Seasonings. unlike dried spices that sometimes mix unevenly in large quantities and leave pockets of flavor and color. the anchos and chipotles. the flavor characteristics of chile peppers and many other spices are becoming a major portion of the profile sought. flavor. and Flavorings. For example. smoked. such as salt. Consumers are using fresh chile peppers. more for their flavor than heat. Asians and Mexicans have traditionally used chile peppers for flavoring their dishes and have created unique flavors from chile peppers through different preparation techniques. Today. When formulating a dry seasoning. or grilled. Overoptimum use of the liquid extractives will create caking of the finished product during storage. before being added with the other ingredients.34 Handbook of Spices. they will not blend well in the finished product. Otherwise. for example. Table 4 provides a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of various spice forms. color and flavor Low usage Low microbes Less storage space Available throughout the year . oleoresins and essential oils need to be effectively dispersed on a soluble carrier. maltodextrin. researchers are breeding habaneros to obtain their wonderful flavor profiles with less heat. or sugar. dextrose.

TABLE 5 Primary and Secondary Functions of Selected Spices and Flavorings Taste Aroma Texture/Consistency Color Antimicrobial Antioxidant Health Thai basil. Their primary functions are to flavor food and to provide aroma. mace Chile pepper. rosemary. Any moisture introduced into the bottle will result in caking. or crushed. nutritional. fat. When exposed to steam. or preservative effects. chile peppers Turmeric. sesame seed. peppercorn. cinnamon. and caking or hardening of the ground spice. color changes. kari leaf. Moisture and high temperatures will help mold growth that will cause spoilage. marigold Cinnamon. almonds Annatto. fiber. cumin. the moisture content of spice is 8% to 10%. parsley. cardamom. habanero Clove. protein. high temperatures. And always close containers tightly after each use. fenugreek. rose petal Mustard seed. and Applications of Spices 35 STORAGE CONDITIONS WITH SPICES Spices should be stored in tightly closed containers and should not be exposed to light. paprika. sassafras. tarragon. The flavor components (volatile and nonvolatile) are protected within a matrix of carbohydrate. health. Spices also provide secondary effects. licorice . All of these components impart each spice’s particular flavor. caraway. turmeric. ginger. ginger. mango. Spices should not be stored in the freezer as repeated removal from freezer creates condensation in containers which accelerates loss of their flavor and aroma. asafetida. Generally. cardamom. rosemary. Spices are composed of fiber. whole spices for about 3 to 4 years. ash. sage. ajowan seed. or high humidity conditions. moisture. cinnamon. and seasonings for about 1 to 2 years if stored in ideal conditions. star anise. basil. clove. and color. and health functions (Table 5). poppy seed. ginger. this cell matrix breaks down and releases the volatile components. mint. flavor and aroma are lost at a faster rate and caking occurs. gum. mint. kokum. color. cilantro. black pepper. Spices need to be stored at 50˚F to 60˚F (10˚C to 15˚C) with a relative humidity (RH) of 55% to 65%. clove.Forms. cut. cayenne. oregano. sage. sweet basil. sugar. and direct sun accelerate the loss of their flavor and aroma components. and other nonvolatile components. Functions. jalapeno. fenugreek. texture. Heat. chipotle. Ground spices generally keep for 2 to 3 years. saffron. turmeric. FUNCTIONS OF SPICES Edible spices serve many functions in food products. garlic. This maintains their freshness for longer periods of time. rosemary. nutritional. thyme. nutmeg. carbohydrate. protein. clove. onion. and other cell components. High storage temperatures cause flavor loss. candlenut. volatile (essential oils). sage. shallot. lemongrass. sorrel. such as preservative. oregano. When the spice is ground.

or curcumin in turmeric. woody. salty. umami (brothy. which are discussed later in this section. (Note. The overall coloring given by a spice is sometimes a combined effect of two or more of its coloring components. bitterness at the back of the tongue. salty at the frontal sides of the tongue. whole or ground). This book generally describes spice tastes from a mainstream U. For example. and floral. such as saffron. that spice sensory profiles are frequently described from a mainstream. but to Asians and many other cultures. The components responsible for the coloring in spices are oil soluble or water soluble.g. tamarind has fruity and sour notes. at different areas of the tongue. Spices give characterizing tastes and aromas. sour. and heat. cooling. For example. carotenoids in paprika. The taste sensations are generally experienced at different locations of the tongue: sweet is detected at the tip of the tongue. parsley. and Flavorings. who are accustomed to eating hot and spicy foods.36 Handbook of Spices. to paellas and pilafs. Second Edition OF PRIMARY FUNCTION SPICES Flavor. Saffron imparts a beautiful yellow color. Western descriptions are not necessarily consistent with the taste experiences of other cultures.) Coloring Some spices. spicy. or cloves are often described as spicy. taste. perspective but takes other cultural taste descriptions into account. Every spice or flavoring contains predominating chemical components that create these sensual qualities. earthy. They give six basic taste perceptions: sweet. or color that a spice contributes to food or beverage determines its effectiveness in a recipe or formula. while cardamom has sweet and woody notes. texture. and Texture The overall flavor. Western foods are generally seasoned in a blander and milder fashion. cumin. turmeric. Aroma. The other descriptive terms include pungent. the form in which it is used in a recipe (e.S.. Its yellow color is primarily due to a terpene glycoside called crocin that is water soluble and not stable to acid . paprika. A spice’s chemical compounds can contribute mild to strong flavors. sour at the posterior sides of the tongue. or soy-sauce-like). however. Spices can meet consumer’s demands for “natural” colorings (Table 7). Taste. depending on the type. Therefore. A spice’s textural qualities are derived from its specific physical characteristics. MSG. they are not perceived as spicy. which ranges from a deep red. yellowish orange to a reddish orange color. aroma. Western perspective. or green. and the techniques used in its preparation. fennel has not only sweet notes but also bitter and fruity notes. Some typical coloring components in spices are crocin in saffron. Most textural characteristics are obtained through the preparation and cooking techniques of spices. capsanthin in chile pepper. Let’s look at the typical sensory characteristic obtained from each spice or ingredient (Table 6). Seasonings. bitter. coriander. The balance of these chemical compounds gives a spice its characteristic flavor profile. and hot. Most spices have more than a single flavor profile. and annatto provide color as well as flavor to foods and beverages. bixin in annatto.

Its coloring is due to curcumin. onion. mace. Capsanthin is oil soluble. but reddish brown in an alkaline pH. cryptoxanthin and capsorbin each 6%. is often called “Indian saffron. galangal Fennel. fennel. Safflower is frequently substituted for saffron in many countries. thyme. epazote. Its oleoresin. thyme. crackers. tamarind. Paprika is produced from the mild to pungent dried red pepper. ajowan Clove. turmeric. The curcumin content varies depending upon its source. Its color is yellow in an acid to a neutral pH. cumin) or light. Annatto is ground from annatto seeds. star anise Lemongrass. Capsanthin accounts for about 35% of the total carotenoids. ginger. cardamon. white pepper. Its color will break down when prepared in an iron utensil. dillweed Onion. a diketone. Turmeric’s color varies from a bright orange yellow to a reddish brown and is unstable to light and alkaline conditions. pickles. and has a strong red color. savory. clove. soups. poppy seed. mustard. star anise. rosemary. pomegranate Fenugreek. which has a reddish orange shade. fagara. annatto Parsley. and condiments.Forms. wasabi. ginger. chives. fennel Saffron. rosemary Kari leaf. wasabi Mustard. Crocin is hydrolyzed to crocetin that gives a darker shade of color. epazote. cinnamon Sumac. The United States generally uses the mild paprika that has a brilliant red color derived from many different carotenoids. and Applications of Spices 37 TABLE 6 Typical Sensory Characteristics of Spices Sensory Characteristic Sweet Sour Bitter Spicy Hot Pungent Fruity Floral Woody Piney Cooling Earthy Herbaceous Sulfury Nutty Spices and Other Flavorings Green cardamom. black cumin. bay leaf Chile peppers. sorrel.” Its root is dried and ground to give a yellow color with an orange tinge. It is used as a natural food coloring in salad dressings. and other carotenoids 2%.5. mustard seed. anise. anise. Functions. oregano. Paprika powder loses its color through oxidation. but it is not permitted in the United States. bay leaf Peppermint. that accounts for 3% to 7% of this spice. pandan leaf.5 to 6. garlic. Turmeric. and sometimes in . spice blends. and salad dressings. bay leaf. coriander root. canela. violaxanthin 10%. catalyzed by light and high temperatures. mustards. black pepper. kokum. its use is limited because of its cost. Though it is a permitted natural color in the United States. coriander. It exhibits an orange yellow to a golden yellow shade and is used in cheddar cheese. asafetida Sesame seed. sweet basil. whole seeds (ajowan. oregano. clove. sage. tamarind. with Allepey (India) turmeric having a higher amount of curcumin than other varieties. is more stable to light and heat and is used in snack products. rosemary. caper. allspice. cumin. juniper. tarragon. stable against heat. It can be used with high-heat products and in products with a pH of 2. bakery products. celery. from the ginger family. garlic. horseradish. ginger flower Cassia. basil.

Seasonings. and turmeric with emulsifiers (polysorbate 80) are used as natural colors to provide the bright yellow. relieve stress. enhance digestion. oxidized fats and oils. Spices have been used traditionally to stimulate appetite.38 Handbook of Spices. and exposure to oxygen will promote color losses in these extractives. and increase . They are available as oil-soluble (oleoresins) and water-dispersible extracts. and Flavorings. and the solvents are removed to give the coloring matter. Extracts of paprika. Second Edition TABLE 7 Coloring Components of Selected Spices Spices Saffron Coloring Component Crocin Crocetin Beta-Carotene Carotenoids: Capsanthin Violaxanthin Cryptoxanthin Capsorbin Beta-Carotene Lutein Zeaxanthin Beta-Carotene Cryptoxanthin Capsanthin Capsorbin Curcumin Chlorophyll Lutein Neoxanthin Violaxanthin Bixin Norbixin Carthamin Saflor yellow Type of Color Yellowish orange Dark red Reddish orange Dark red Orange Red Purplish red Reddish orange Dark red Yellow Reddish orange Red Dark red Purplish red Orange yellow Green Dark red Orange yellow Orange Golden yellow Orange yellow Orange red Yellow Paprika Chile pepper Turmeric Parsley Annatto Safflower combination with paprika and turmeric oleoresins. intense light. red. The coloring components of essential oils are generally extracted with ethanol or organic solvents. Trace metals. and orange hues in processed foods and beverages. annatto. SECONDARY FUNCTIONS OF SPICES Secondary effects of spices are becoming more important as the public’s desire for natural or organic foods and natural ways of healing increases. Its coloring is due to norbixin (water soluble) and bixin (oil soluble) which are stable at pH 5 to pH 14. Its color is resistant to heat but is less resistant to light. saffron.

such as allspice and coriander. cumin. and cinnamon were shown to have antimicrobial activity. Spices can also aid nutrition when they are used in lieu of salt. sulfur. Indonesia. and turmeric were used to preserve meats and fish. or slight inhibitory activity against specific bacteria (Table 8). terpenes and their derivatives. and Asia. coriander. preserve food. Spices may be used in food products as preservatives. Kansas State University studies have reported that clove. and savory. and prevent diseases and infections. Functions. before the days of refrigeration. bread. salting. garlic. and meats and sausages with cumin and coriander. as potential natural antimicrobials. In Europe. Romans. and alcohols. mustard. fish. Chinese. new research on spices. In ancient Egypt. or sugar to enhance taste in processed foods. which causes gastrointestinal disease. the Middle East. spices such as cinnamon. Today this research continues. garlic. and in India. and celery seed up to 25%. Indians. and pickling to inhibit food spoilage. and as antioxidants. cinnamon. In the late nineteenth century. cinnamon. exhibit strong antimicrobial activity. In the twentieth century. garlic. and Native Americans—to fumigate cities. phenols. A combination of spices can be more effective as preservatives than one spice. anise. Spices have also been used for bactericidal and health reasons. and thyme were used in mummification. cinnamon. thyme. fenugreek.Forms. and Applications of Spices 39 energy. fat. They have been used by many ancient cultures—Egyptians. Spices are still used to preserve food in the villages of India. as antimicrobials. tarragon. and Thailand. Gram-positive bacteria are more sensitive to spices than gram-negative bacteria. Cornell University studies have reported that garlic. turmeric. which allows for a more “natural” or friendly label on processed foods. clove. clove. embalm the royalty. including ginger. and clove. oregano. and allspice kill all bacteria. Other recent studies have shown that dodecenal in coriander leaf and seed kills Salmonella in meats. The Greeks used garlic to prevent food spoilage. Spices as Preservatives Spices have long been known for their preservative qualities. Spices as Antimicrobials As early as 1500 BC. Certain spices can act as broad-spectrum antimicrobials. and vegetables. ginger. and black and white peppers. mint. chilies up to 75% of bacteria. Spices have strong. ginger. moderate. Microorganisms differ in their susceptibility to specific spices. Egyptians used spices to preserve foods. oregano. Bacillus(B) subtilis and Staphylococcus(S) aureus are more susceptible than Eschrichia (E) coli bacteria. The Romans preserved fish sauce with dill. Greeks. During the Middle Ages. Africa. Spices were used alone or in combination with smoking. and oregano were used to treat cholera and other infectious diseases. onion. spices were used to preserve meats. and cumin kill up to 80% of bacteria. . while others are very specific in their functions. such as rosemary and sage. and sage suppress growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in uncooked meats. continued. Aldehydes.

sausages. and allicin in garlic. such as gingerol in ginger. Free radicals damage the human cells and limit their ability to fight off cancer. Combining spices with other spices or antioxidants such as tocopherols and ascorbic acid produces synergistic effects. and Flavorings. The naturally occurring phenolic compounds (phenolic diterpenes. Spices as Antioxidants Spices can be used in foods to help fight the toxins created by our modern world. breads. Pseudomonas. molds. Aspergillus E. isoborneol. gingerol Borneol Borneol. bacteria E. cereus S. Thyme (thymol). and diallyl sulfide in garlic. carvacrol in oregano. Bacillus(B) subtilis S. and cinnamon (eugenol) essential oils inhibit mold growth and aflatoxin production. coli 0157:H7. aureus. B. radiation. pickles. Spices must be used at high levels to be effective antimicrobials. and juices. acinetobacter Vibrio parahemolyticus. Heat. 1998. carvacrol Gingerone. cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon. aureus. and alcohol initiate the formation and growth of the free radicals in the human body. S. thymol in thyme. Many spices have components that act as antioxidants and that protect cells from free radicals (Table 9). cereus Salmonella Kenji and Mitsuo. and memory loss. yeasts   Molds. piperine in black pepper. linalool in coriander.40 Handbook of Spices. allyl isothiocyanates in mustard. diphenolic diterpenes) in spices are . Staphylococcus(S) aureus Salmonella typhii. Spice extractives at the levels used are effective against certain bacteria. Some spices have more antioxidant properties than others depending on the food they are in. The essential oils of some spices have an inhibitory effect on bacteria and fungi in meats. thymol Dodecenal Microorganism1 Escherichia(E) coli. aureus. UV light. tobacco smoke. are some of the components used as antimicrobials. Second Edition TABLE 8 Spices as Antimicrobials Spice Mustard Garlic Chile pepper Clove Thyme Ginger Sage Rosemary Coriander 1 Effective Component Allyl isothiocyanate Allicin Capsaicin Eugenol Thymol. The level of spices typically added to Western style foods is generally not enough to inhibit microorganisms completely but may inhibit spoilage to some extent. Seasonings. aspergillus. but this will cause flavor issues in food products. aging. S. aureus. anise (anetol). coli. The more pungent spice nonvolatile oils have also been shown to have strong antimicrobial properties. B. yeast. Shigella dysenteriae. Eugenol in clove. capsaicin in red peppers.

and sesaminol in rosemary.Forms. Functions. ginger. sesamol Shogoal. or instant potatoes. Spices can prevent rancidity and extend shelf life by slowing the oxidation of fats and enzymes. and marjoram are found to have stronger antioxidant properties than other spices. rosemary. nutmeg. For snack foods. and nutmeg. or dry-solubles. ginger. water-dispersibles. and soybean oil. red pepper. The flavonoids and diterpenes and triterpenes of rosemary and sage are responsible for their antioxidant properties. protocatechuic acid Myristphenone Sesaminol. or baking temperatures. rosmanol Rosmanol. majoram. lard. mace. rosmarinic acid. Spices can halt the oxidative process by blocking or “scavenging” the free radicals. or meats before they are frozen to inhibit “warmed over” flavors that develop after cooking and reheating. and sesame seed are found to be strong antioxidants with meat. eugenol. oregano. thyme. Today. Rosemary and sage are the most effective of all spices in retaining the red color of processed meats by inhibiting the flavor and color degradation of fats and oils in them. They are used as sprays. with consumer demand for “natural” products. and Applications of Spices 41 TABLE 9 Spices as Antioxidants Spice Rosemary Sage Turmeric Clove Oregano Mace and nutmeg Sesame seed Ginger Chemical Component Carnosol. Rosemary and sage are currently used as natural antioxidants in foods. cilantro. thyme. caffeic acid. Fats are broken down into peroxides (free radicals) with exposure to air or oxygen and finally into aldehydes and alcohols that give a rancid taste. curcurmin. salad dressing mixes. they are added in the frying oil or atomized on the surface of snacks or put into the dough. 4-hydroxycinnmoyl methane Eugenol Phenolic glucoside. Rosmanol. carnosoic acid. Rosemary and sage antioxidants are available as oil-solubles. turmeric. sesame. turmeric. and can be used in seasoning blends. clove. gingerol effective against oxidative rancidity of fats and color deterioration of the carotenoid pigments. They are also added to glazes and injection marinades for meats. sage. and are extremely heat stable as they withstand extrusion. δ-tocopherol. thymol. clove. sausage. spices can be used commercially as natural antioxidants in foods. Other effective spices include thyme. myristphenone. Sage. oregano. seafood. spray-drying. epirosmanol Curcumin. They exhibit antioxidant properties superior to BHA or BHT. oregano. lard. while other spices such as cilantro are being explored. . caffeic acid. dips. or surface coatings in comminuted poultry.

Since ancient era. create certain moods. using essential oils. and fights against Alzheimer’s. to relieve ailments and prevent illnesses. Cooking foods with spices is the oldest form of aromatherapy. ginger. and inhibit tumor growth. induce perspiration. sterols. mint. through receptors in the mouth and nose. licorice. In recent years. fenugreek. spices are becoming more attractive to consumers. and Flavorings. but also Latinos. relieve cold symptoms and respiratory problems. Let’s look at traditional healing methods to provide an understanding of how and why spices are used by many global cultures as medicines. capsacinoids. and cold symptoms. coughs. and Greeks. stimulate digestion and circulation. Egyptians. joints. . Spices can be used to create these health-promoting products. parsley. coumarins. acts as an antidepressant. and reduce pain. and monoterpenes—are powerful tools for promoting physical and emotional wellness. Consumers prefer eating a “natural” food product to taking medicine or drugs. ginger prevents motion sickness and aids digestion and stomach ulcers. garlic lowers cholesterol and high triglycerides. and prevents tumor growth. chile peppers inhibit blood clotting. lower blood pressure. Spices such as celery. and chile pepper can be used to stimulate production of enzymes that detoxify carcinogens. since their aroma can stimulate gastric secretions that create appetites. phenolic acids. turmeric. The vapors are inhaled to release neurochemicals in the brain. inhibit cholesterol synthesis. and ease muscle pains. Africans. peppermint combats indigestion. The active components in spices—phthalides. With greater research into their medical benefits. licorice treats gastric and duodenal ulcers and relieves chronic fatigue. prevents colds and flus. horseradish. garlic. This will also help in understanding the basis for the contrasting flavors presented by spices and the many taste sensations experienced in an Asian meal. and muscles to relieve stress and pain. that cause the desired effects. mustard. irritable bowel syndrome. onion. Examples of the health benefits of spices are almost endless. heals wounds. the growing trend of using foods as nutraceuticals that boost energy and improve health will promote spices that were historically used to cure ailments and prevent diseases. flavanoids. and basil fight against tumors. and inflammation of gums. triterpenoids. Spices are also used as balms or massage oils and are applied on the skin. can relax or stimulate the body. In the United States and elsewhere. block estrogen. Aromatherapy.42 Handbook of Spices. spices have been used not only by Indians and Chinese. Seasonings. turmeric inhibits tumors. polyacetylenes. Second Edition OF EMERGING FUNCTIONS Spices as Medicines SPICES The growing emphasis on healthy eating is drawing attention to spices as critical ingredients for not only creating tasty low-fat or low-salt foods but as a natural way for improving health and promoting wellness. Western scientists have been isolating the active compounds in spices to study their therapeutic effects to promote wellness: rosemary. sage. elevate immune activity.

vegetables (high moisture) Fenugreek. seaweeds. Many foods and spices contain more than one TABLE 10 Foods and Contributing Tastes (Rasas) Tastes (Rasas) Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Spicy/pungent Astringent Example Foods Anise. fruits. mental. endives. Similar to the ancient Greek and Roman theories of medicine. the ingredients are chosen not only for taste but also to assure physical and emotional harmony and well-being. Europeans have used oils from leafy spices or plants to provide physical. relieve stress. ayu. turmeric. In an Ayurvedic meal. lemon. citrus. fire. pomegranate. cumin. ajwain. fermented foods (yogurt. Indian cooking is based on the therapeutic principles of ancient Ayurvedic medicine. air. fennel. that flows easily into every cell of the body and which is accomplished by eating the right foods. cauliflower . has many similarities to Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. cinnamon. It is based on the life force or prana. honey. milk. aid digestion. It is based on prevention and well-being and looks at the causes of disease and the ways they occur. as well as how foods are balanced. This system of healing has been practiced in India for more than 5000 years. black pepper Asafoetida. and spiritual benefits. improve the nervous system. clove.Forms. lettuce. miso. vinegar Salt. garlic. coconut. coriander. and Applications of Spices 43 Traditional Medicine Spices are used in many traditional cultures to boost energy. teas. This Ayurvedic philosophy of eating dictates the blending and preparation of spices. to soothe muscle aches. soy sauce). sugar. such as to provide a calming effect. and treat many diseases. and emotional harmony. most grains. tamarind. The Middle Eastern system of medicine. ginger. chicory Chile peppers. butter. grapefruit. and by following a healthy lifestyle. bay leaf. Middle Easterners and Egyptians used spices for many therapeutic and cosmetic effects. with some roots to ancient Greek and Roman medicine. physical. Ayurveda categorizes foods into six tastes or rasas (Table 10). jaggery. fenugreek. which means life. and ether. legumes. tomato. Ayurveda combines two words. legumes. to achieve well-being. Ayurveda emphasizes prevention of disease through the pursuit of mental. purslane. spices are classified into five elements: earth. onion. which means knowledge. Functions. relieve cold symptoms and headaches. and veda. rice. mustard. ghee Kokum. licorice. horseradish. pickles. cardamom. water. or to cure many ailments such as colds and fevers. called Unani Herbal Medicine. Similarly. A food creator can explore interesting food concepts that combine taste and “cure” by using authentic spices and methods of preparing and presenting them in meals. by deep breathing techniques.

Certain spices and flavorings are used in our foods to balance our doshas and create harmony (Table 12). salty.44 Handbook of Spices. This explains the complex spice combinations and depth of flavor in Indian foods. all six tastes or rasas should be part of every meal. Generally. sweet Cardamom. With regard to rasas. astringent Asafetida. fenugreek Pungent. and health. The dosha or doshas that exhibit the stronger characteristics becomes or become the predominating dosha or doshas for that person. and water (Table 11). fenugreek Pungent. a person has influence from three doshas with one or two predominating doshas. fiery. ginger. mustard. space. They control the basic functions of all organs and systems in our body. strong willed. These doshas regulate the functions in our mind-body system. sour Salt. bitter. salty. mint. disposition. The six tastes or rasas have a TABLE 12 Spices that Balance and Reduce the Doshas Doshas Vata Natural Taste Bitter Astringent. sour . cinnamon. fennel. fenugreek seed provides a bitter taste as well as astringency. anise. salty. other spices can be explored to provide more variety. sour. These doshas also have their own inherent natural tastes. anise. tolerant taste. there is more than one taste contributed by a spice (see Table 10). astringent Ginger. Second Edition TABLE 11 Doshas and Respective Personalities Doshas Vata Pitta Kapha Qualities Quick thinking. bitter. flexible. creative. fenugreek. To harmonize the body. heavy. Seasonings. passionate Good endurance and stamina. They affect our digestion. salt. To maintain perfect balance and be well nourished. fennel. Thus. For example. tamarind Sweet. tamarind. pungent Spices for Balance Salty. salty Chilies. bitter. these tastes must be balanced in the meal according to each person’s constitution or doshas. astringent Turmeric. fire. Illnesses and diseases occur when there is imbalance with foods and a person’s constitution. cardamom Kapha Sweet. and Flavorings. asafetida Chilies. air. sour. pungent Pitta Sour. and fennel seed has sweet and cooling tastes. Understanding these rasas is essential to understanding and applying Ayurvedic medicine. clove Spices to Reduce Pungent. cardamom. stable. tamarind Garlic Sweet. relaxed. nervous Determined. There are three basic constitution types or doshas that came from the five elements of energy—earth.

circulates throughout the body along prescribed pathways. yin follows yang and vice versa. the movement in the body is to contract and flow downward and inward. If Qi does not flow smoothly or “gets stuck. For yin. and spicy hot. while for yang. there are five different tastes—sweet. acupuncture. Movement of Qi in our body is associated with yin and yang. spicy. but also increases the overall therapeutic value and negates any side effects in the body. For example. increasing one type and decreasing the others. similar to the prana in Ayurveda or ool in Mayan practice of healing. Even today. Each taste affects the Qi or (chi). Food developers can use these meal presentation concepts today to develop interesting and well-balanced meals. cold. In Ayurvedic cooking. One is not separate from the other. historically. Every meal should be well balanced between hot and cold foods to promote digestion and avoid illnesses. movement. the art of using spices not only makes food taste better. and a crunchy. The different tastes as well as the movement of Qi are described by yin (cold) and yang (hot). or acupressure. Just as yin–yang creates movement. vital force which. a couple of hot and spicy braised vegetables. sour with liver (yin organ) and gall bladder (yang organ). dry. the order in which the different side dishes are eaten with rice creates a healthy balance in our body. the sour broth and the “hot” spicy vegetables balance each other. rice or bread (chappati.Forms. female/male. thus creating “harmony” in the body. while the hot lentil stew perks up the plain neutral bread or rice. minty raita (cucumber and tomato with yogurt). the movement is to expand and flow upward and outward. . combinations of spices are made into tonics that nourish and strengthen the body and cure illnesses. The way Indian dishes are served in a traditional meal illustrates these principles. cool. sweet is associated with the spleen (yin organ) and stomach (yang organ). Yin and yang are very basic to Chinese culture. medicine. sour. Foods can be hot. In Indian cooking. and foods. foods need to be well digested to be nourishing for the body. The five tastes are also associated with major organs in the body. while cold food will slow it. The “cold” raita. just as hot and cold are to Indian culture. Functions. Qi can be “unstuck” by stimulants such as food. so do spices. and spicy with lungs (yin organ) and large intestine (yang organ). astringent mango pickle. or light. and so forth. They contain peppery sambar (lentil stew). naan. Ayurvedic cooking calls on us to choose foods and spices with the tastes that balance our own doshas to maintain good health. and functioning. The proper balance of the five tastes is essential to creating harmony or good health. They describe Qi’s location. salty. The proper balance of these different tastes with appropriate textures and colors creates good taste and health in Chinese cooking. They are similar to water/fire. heavy. and in food combinations. Hot food will speed digestion. an invisible. moon/sun. sour rasam (spice broth).” illnesses occur. Also. moist. there has been an integration of nutrition. The crunchy mango pickle balances the soft textured vegetables. or dosai) are placed on a thali or tray with an array of tiny silver bowls. In China. Similar to the Indian Ayurvedic medicine. In a typical vegetarian meal. in Chinese traditional medicine. bitter. and Applications of Spices 45 beneficial effect on the doshas.

fruits. cinnamon is added to sugar and taken to prevent tumors. drier. and acidic) are balanced in Chinese cooking. bland and moist vegetables (seaweed and watercress). She needs cooling ingredients to balance her system. Unlike Western meals. fennel. For example. vinegar. ginger. garlic. thus it serves as a centerpiece in a meal. Balancing the yin and yang keeps the body in a state of equilibrium and good health. and esters. The active components of spices (or phytochemicals) include sulfides. Modern Medicine With greater research into their medical benefits. Seasonings. spices that produce an upward and outward movement (yang spices) are more desirable for the flow of chi. In addition to philosophies of balanced eating to promote well-being. thiols. or sugar to create healing effects. The state of the person’s health is also a factor. spices are becoming more attractive to consumers. Yin foods include mild and sweet spices (mint. chile peppers are added to milk as a drink to reduce swellings and tumors. For example. fatty meats (mutton and pork). grilling or deep frying. hotter. Foods are prepared and cooked with spices based on this theory of well-being. and water. and alkaline) and yang foods (which are spicier. terpenes and their derivatives. while turmeric paste is added to milk and consumed to reduce coughs and colds. Spices are not only used in cooking but are also added to milk. phenols. Rice is a neutral food. alcohols. Contrasting ingredients or spices are added to ingredients during cooking to manipulate their hotness or coldness. seafood. while for the summer. yin spices which produce a downward and inward movement are more appropriate. During the cold season. salt. sugar and anise are added to ginger-flavored pork. spices are used daily in Asian meals and are taken in abundance to flavor dishes. steamed foods. Using modern research methods. hot water. tea.46 Handbook of Spices. and likewise. traditional Asian cultures have been using spices for their healing properties. many Asian and Western studies have isolated active compounds in spices that have medical benefits (Table 13). Seasons also become important factors in balancing ingredients for health. moister. Yin spices are sedative and slow metabolism. The balance of yin and yang with contrasting tastes and textures during cooking and at a meal table is the basis of a Chinese meal. melon. Second Edition The yin foods (which are nourishing. adds “heat” to foods. and strong alcoholic drinks. Some yang foods are chilies. glycosides. softer. cooler. while yang spices are active and increase metabolism. chile peppers and sesame oil are added to seaweed or tofu to balance its effect on the body. many of these spices are being examined and recognized by Western scientists for their positive therapeutic or pharmacological properties. A person with a fever will not eat warm or hot ingredients. Cooking techniques are also classified under hot or cold. while steaming or slow simmering provides a “cooling” effect. tofu. The healing and medicinal properties of spices in many traditional cultures are attributed to using the whole spice or a combination of spices that work synergistically. asparagus. and parsley). The medium in which it is to be consumed also gives a synergistic effect. Today. anise. For example. Turmeric . deep-fried foods. sesame oil. aldehydes. and Flavorings.

prevents heart attacks.D. and gingerol in ginger aids digestion. and Applications of Spices 47 TABLE 13 Reported Therapeutic Effects of Spices Spice Turmeric Chemical Component Curcumin Medicinal Value Anti-inflammatory.. Researchers at UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) have shown curcumin to slow the formation of. stomach ulcers Prevents bloating and vomiting Ginger Curcumene Gingerol Shgoal Gingeberane Bis-abolenenan Curcumene Gingerol Shogoal Trigonelline Diosgenin Soluble dietary fiber (galactomannan) saponins. and Oomah. Functions. treats chronic fatigue syndrome Licorice * Data obtained from Mazza. s-allyl Cysteine Glycyrrhizin Fenugreek Seed Seed and Leaf Garlic Antitumor Enhances gastrointestinal mobility Inhibits cholesteral synthesis Arrests cell growth and prevents hypoglycemic effect Synthesis of steroid drugs and sex hormones Improved glucose tolerance (reduces plasma glucose levels). Allicin in garlic lowers cholesterol. diosgenin. Curcumin and curcumene in turmeric are the active compounds.. Inc. diallyl Sulfide. Eds. possesses antiinflammatory properties by lowering histamine levels.Forms. Lancaster. indigestion. and heals wounds. trigonelline in fenugreek seeds prevents rise in blood sugar. Research is being conducted on many more spices. G. lowers cholesterol and triglyceride (decreases bile secretion) Breaks down blood clots. Herbs. Botanicals and Teas. acts as an antipeptic ulcer and antidyspepsia agent. 2000. prevents Alzheimer’s Antitumor Digestive aid for stomachaches. Turmeric has protection against free radical damage and cancer prevention. prevents gastric cancer Lowers blood pressure and blood cholesterol Inhibits platelet aggregation Inhibits platelet aggregation Treats gastric and duodenal ulcers. B. Technomic Publishing Co. protects the liver against toxic compounds. accumulated plaque deposits that play a key role in development of Alzheimer’s disease. prevents cancer. prevents coughs and colds.. is a wonder medicine and has been used and researched for its many healing properties. capsaicin in chile peppers prevents blood clotting. antitumor (inhibits tumor initiation and promotion). PA. reduces platelets from clumping together thereby improving circulation and protecting against arteriosclerosis. protein Allicin Glutamyl peptides Allicin.. . and even destroy.

Seasonings. whole black pepper cracked. For example. Spices are dry roasted. as ginger is used in Ayurvedic healing? Finally. Several different flavor characteristics can be derived from the same spice by using different preparation methods. develop intense flavors after dry roasting. toasted. cooking ground spices intensifies their flavors. Because the volatiles are oil soluble. whole onion needs to be chopped. spices and other flavorings can be explored as integrative or complementary medicine. milk. or bay leaf. “Emerging Flavor Contributors. and Flavorings. spices are often cooked in oils before they are added to the finished product for better flavor retention. or boiled in water to reach their full flavor potential and to create a broad spectrum of flavors. The flavor of spices is generally enhanced. which triggers enzymatic and other reactions that release these characteristic flavors. sugar. barbecued. tea. Certain pungent spices do not give any hot or sharp sensations until the spice is cut or roasted. Are phytochemicals by themselves the effective healing agents. deep fried. popular in Chinese cuisine. the cure? Can the healing property of a spice be strengthened or lessened through a synergistic effect with other spices or through a medium such as water. Cooking techniques are also discussed in Chapter 6. simmered. For example. toasted. Star anise. . or mustard. Volatile oils are released from spices through grinding. which takes on a totally different flavor and texture profile. steamed chicken. such as sesame seeds. which is not a common practice in the West. is added to simmering beef. and ground mustard flour needs to be “wet” before their pungency can be experienced. and heating. it should be remembered that cultures that use spices as traditional cures consume them at much higher levels than Western cultures.” Certain spices are more stable to heat and can be cooked at higher temperatures. so many cultures use wine or other alcohols to preserve the spice aroma. star anise. or roasted in oil before other ingredients are added. braising. or starch? Does the fresh form of a spice give different healing effect than the dry form. For many cultures. roasted. Dry roasting or toasting a spice removes any remaining moisture in a spice. Spices also release unique flavors when they are cooked. milk. Spices that don’t give a noticeable flavor. and braised fish. ginger cut. water. “spiced up” foods are eaten at every meal on a daily basis. as was traditionally used. fried. “spice cures” are commonly taken through infusions in teas. we also need to apply appropriate cooking techniques to other spices to derive their optimal flavor sensations. braised. pickled. and other beverages.48 Handbook of Spices. in Indian cooking. Spice volatiles are soluble in alcohol. or boiled to release their characteristic flavors. while others have to be added at the end of cooking or just before serving. or simmering. spices are sauteed. intensified. many ethnic groups prepare spices to suit specific applications and to create totally different flavor profiles. Around the world. Second Edition While the healing effects of many phytochemicals in spices have been identified. protein. or simply becomes different through heat. fried in oil. Just as we roast garlic. sliced. questions still remain unanswered. or is the whole spice. SPICE PREPARATION Spices need to be ground. To meet the demands of today’s consumer. Similarly. coffee. cutting. saute onions. Moreover.

and vegetable curries to laksas and soups.” This condiment is then used to flavor everything from sandwiches. stews. such as curries or chutneys. begins to slowly release its volatiles. cardamom. or bagharing jalapeno. For example. Tumising is a slow stir-frying technique used with wet spice mixtures or spice pastes to create more aromatic and intense flavors.Forms. The pungent and aromatic sensations of many South Asian foods are due to these prepared spices. Smoking. These preparation techniques tend to slightly crack open the whole spice. European and North American cultures tend to add spices such as bay leaf. coriander. cinnamon sticks. or saute whole and ground spices. Myanmar. spices are tarkared or bargared to obtain a broad spectrum of flavor profiles that enhance. or any other liquid from recipe.” “Saute-ing” a whole spice in oil and adding this spice oil mixture to the food. until they become slightly brown. and Mexican cuisines. creates many desirable flavors. depending upon the spice. tumising. vinegar. Fire roasting is done by holding the chilies over an open flame until the outer skin blisters and chars. with the increasing influence of South Asian. clove. they become bitter and unacceptable. lemongrass. which releases its flavors into the cooking oil or. when added to foods. such as kari leaf. such as cumin. or simply change flavors. and other ingredients. when preparing South Indian dals and sambars. mustard seeds. before adding them to curries and condiments. tarkaring. smoky notes. In bargharing. Today. ground coriander. nigella. Then other ingredients are added to create the unique. salads. But South Asians roast (dry or in oil). In India. Indians traditionally roast mustard seeds in oil to intensify their flavor. or salad dressings to create an enhanced aroma and rich. For example. which are then tumised in oil to create a fragrant “chili (cili) boh. soups. Even leafy spices. chile peppers (dried or fresh) are blended with shallots. the trend is on food preparation techniques with spices to obtain optimum flavors. The charred skin is then removed leaving a flavorful soft product. Southeast Asian. and Indonesia. while mustard seeds are cooked in hot oil until they “pop. or grilled onions to provide enhanced flavor profiles have become the norm in the United States. or cumin seeds. The cooking procedure is complete when the oil in which the spices are cooked begins to separate or seep out of the tumised mixture or sauce. fennel. . Functions. More intense aromas and notes are derived when whole spices are freshly ground before use. Beyond their optimum cooking times. to make a thick paste. in boiling or simmering water or by steaming. and saute asafetida to create a sweet flavor. wine. balanced flavors that characterize South Asian dishes. mustard seeds. coriander. intensify. It is carried out at lower cooking temperatures with constant stirring. This product is then added to sauces. spreads. ground spice is cooked in oil or coated with oil. and Applications of Spices 49 while adding a more intense flavor to the finished product. braise fresh kari leaf to remove its bitter green taste. called tarkaring. Singapore. Fire-roasted chile peppers. cumin and fenugreek seeds are dry roasted. which is then cooked till fragrant. to release their flavors. is a common cooking feature in the Indian kitchen. in Malaysia. or cinnamon. Whole spices and ground spices are generally roasted for about one or two minutes. are sometimes fried in oil to give extra crunchiness and a roasted aroma. and ajwain. braise. oven-roasted garlic.

garlic. after which onions are added. mustard seeds are added to the heated oil first. as it is worked. Mexicans use these tools to grind corn. In Mexico. some metates slope gently downward to allow the paste to be pushed forward.) Mortars and pestles have different names in many cultures — molcajete and tejolate in Mexican. They are made from volcanic or lava rock. and lentils. aluminum. “Emerging Flavor Contributors.” the effect of spice preparation and cooking techniques on flavors is discussed in further detail. chile peppers. and Mexican kitchens. When the oil separates. For example. Today. corn. a spice mill or coffee grinder serves the same purpose. tomatoes are added with fenugreek seeds (already dry roasted) and saffron is added toward the end. . marble. into a container placed under the front edge. the clay-type comal is rubbed with slaked lime to prevent ingredients from sticking to it and creating hot spots in the spice being roasted. Mortars and pestles are used traditionally for crushing. wurk kacha in Amharic. stone. followed by cumin. tomatoes. brass. is used to roast spices. Asian Indians grind onions. woks. and Flavorings. or chakki in Hindu. coriander. garlic. kootani in Hindi. a spice grinder. flat stone called metate in Mexican. Seasonings. The flat griddle. blender. tsao-guo (Mandarin). or kadai/karhai (Hindi/Urdu) is made of iron. The wok-kwali (Malaysian). Water is added to the grinding process to create a paste form of ground spice. On a domestic level. idi kallu in Tamil.50 Handbook of Spices. and turmeric. to avoid bitterness. In the United States. ammi in Tamil. Therefore. batu lesung in Malaysian. Second Edition Some spices are more stable to heat while others are added at the end of cooking. These are used to finely grind spices. fennel. and roasted chile peppers. GLOBAL EQUIPMENT USED IN SPICE PREPARATION In many cultures around the world. garlic. chocolate. wood. chile peppers. called comal in Mexican or tawa in Hindi. The stone rolling pin or metlapil is used as a grinding tool. They come in varying sizes and are essential tools in Southeast Asian. pounding. or kwalis are the basic spice tools needed for spice preparation. or food processor is used on a domestic or commercial scale. or sesame seeds. Adding different spices at appropriate times or stages during cooking helps each spice to retain its individual flavor and balance the other spices. soaked rice. batu giling in Malaysian. spices are prepared with certain basic tools. onions. granite. Other tools used in spice preparation include the rectangular. and coarsely grinding whole dry spices. (In the section in Chapter 6. then garlic and ginger are added. Indian. baked clay. ginger. such as chile peppers. This gives rise to a balanced layering of complex flavors in dishes of South Asia. or ceramic. or garlic and for coarsely blending black peppercorns and other spices for sauces or condiments. when making a fish curry. mortars and pestles. krok and saak in Thai. and almirez in Tagalog. or cast iron and can be used to dry roast whole spices and saute whole spices or ground spices in oil. and chilies. made of clay or cast iron.

Rubs in dry or paste forms containing marinade with flour. For example. or seafood. Dry or liquid glazes are surface applications containing starch. Injection marinade is an internal soluble spice extractive with no particulates or insoluble spices. and spices. have unique crunchy coatings from spice rubs. Functions. Rubs and glazes provide flavor and texture to a product. pungent. bitter. blackened chicken or fish. These contain spice particulates that give visual appeal. The meat pieces are tumbled under vacuum until the marinade is absorbed by the product. . meats. marinades typically contain coarsely or finely ground spices (with or without particulates). and Caribbeans create great visual appeal with spices. MARINADES. resulting in uniform flavor and color. RUBS. at the same time. salt. Japanese. while the Chinese use them to contrast sweet. gums. they stay on surfaces to create visual and textural appeal. or sour notes to foods and beverages. The earliest marinade was a mixture of salt and spices with vinegar or fruit juices that was added to flavor and preserve meats. glazes. and tumbling or injection marinades for foods. glazes. while. Asian Indians use various spices to create uniquely balanced curry blends. sour. A marinade can be either a tumbling or an injection marinade. charred flavors often develop when using spice marinades that contain high tomato solids or high D. Some glazes penetrate the product to provide flavor. such as rotisserie chicken. black pepper. Sometimes. In a tumbling marinade. and marinade is added. oil. they are applied to meats in tumblers after the meat absorbs the marinade. To avoid color streaks on products. or pungent notes with vivid textures. salt. and they may or may not include spice particulates. rubs.Forms. and alkaline phosphates. spicy. unique seasonings introduced through marinades. These marinades and dry seasonings can be used to create a variety of flavors and textures and to add convenience for consumers through easy-to-prepare or ready-to-eat products. salt. vinegar or other acid sources. or as sprinkle-on seasonings are becoming the hottest new trends. this injection is followed by a tumbling step. sugar. sugar. Thus. glazes are applied after the marinades. and Applications of Spices 51 SPICE APPLICATIONS Spices provide savory. or turmeric. and visual appeal in finished products. Thais. Unacceptable. In the processed meat industry. meat is placed in a tumbler. AND GLAZES As consumers continue to seek tasty and healthy foods that are easy to prepare. Whether we are creating authentic or fusion themes or merely adding ethnic zest to traditional American foods. and oil can be used to develop dry rubs. which are popular Cajun dishes. The perfect blends of dried spices or extractives that are balanced with acids. starch. emulsions. Flavor is delivered by injecting the spice solution into a whole bird or meat. texture. (dextrose equivalent) maltodextrins. sugar. Today. A vast spectrum of tastes and aromas can be created by combining spices and other flavorings. topical seasonings.E. spices form the principal basis of flavor. encapsulated spices are preferred for retaining flavors in processed foods. colorless spice solutions need to be used. sweet. and vinegar can be externally added to chicken. such as decolorized capsicums.

fiery. bay leaf . tomato. cinnamon. Saffron. shrimp paste. peanuts Soy sauce. sour Black. turmeric. turmeric. mint. For example. it is important to remember the great variety of spice blends that exist. onions. turmeric. hot. turmeric.52 Handbook of Spices. sugar Black pepper. This is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. fennel seed. onions Apples. olive. and Flavorings. aromatic Hot. ground cayenne or black pepper Yogurt. and spicy tagines owe their unique flavors to the spice blends contained in them. cream. coconutty East India West India Sri Lanka Pakistan Southeast Asia Sweet. cayenne. Even for particular spice blends such as adobos. nigella Turmeric. “Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings. fruity Sweet. coriander leaf Vinegar. raisins. sour colombos. dried red chile pepper. fresh green chile pepper. tamarind. mint. ginger Mustard. peppery sambals. nutty South India Hot. ras-el-hanouth. black pepper. cinnamon. mild. mustard seeds. salsa. pistachio. bay leaf Coconut. cayenne pepper. allspice. coriander. caramel. fruits. coriander leaf Coconut milk. cumin. curry blends. mint. coriander leaf. fish sauce. pungent. ginger. sugar Habaneros. Greek seed. intense Mild. flavor variations exist depending on regional and cultural preferences and on the availability of ingredients. sweet. or hot. SEASONINGS. CONDIMENTS Aromatic vindaloos. fruity Turmeric. kari leaf. sumac. tomato fish sauce. medium hot.” When creating or using ethnic spice blends. paprika Coconut. kari leaf. sweet. aromatic Creamy. starchy Slightly sour. coconutty East Asia Caribbean England Middle East South Africa Mild. star anise. bay leaf. cardamom. kalonji. vinegar. caraway. Curry blends vary from region to region and even within a region (Table 14). hot. galangal. cayenne pepper Paprika. nutty Aromatic. or curry blend is the same. lemongrass. nutty. almonds. turmeric. fenu. Curry (or TABLE 14 Global Curry Blends and Their Characterizing Flavorings Global Region India Basic curry blend North India Flavor Characterizing Ingredients Mild. clove. fiery Mild. medium. sesame seed. toasted spices. Seasonings. or recados. tamarind. pasta sauce. garlic. clove. mint. mace. no chili blend. corn starch. creamy. fruity Spicy. Second Edition AND SPICE BLENDS. nutmeg.

Functions. But. lime juice. that give them their distinct regional flavors. and dried red chile pepper. cumin. The same principle holds true for adobos. black pepper. Then. and Applications of Spices 53 spice mixtures for sauces) originated in India and traveled to other parts of the world. or soy sauce are added to the basic adobo. recados. yogurt. The basic ingredients of adobo are garlic. or sofritos. or lamb. such as turmeric. cumin. coriander. the Caribbean. England. lentils. pestos. coconut. who makes it.Forms. cilantro. depending upon preferences. soy sauce. . dukkahs. curry blends vary in flavor depending on the geographic regions. such as lemongrass. or shrimp paste. whether for fish. other spices and flavorings may be added. Most curry blends have some of the basic spices that were originally present in the generic blend from India. Japan. habanero. and Africa differ greatly because of what they contain. and turmeric. Thailand. Even in India. allspice. oregano. habaneros. Curry blends from India. and what its application is. and ingredients were added and deleted to suit local tastes. based on regional preferences.

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chile peppers. Traditionally. garlic. garlic. and from which no portion of any volatile oil or other flavoring principle has been removed. blenders. Safety of spices and bioterrorism also play a key role in buying spices. many processors and blenders import spices from overseas without using an importer or broker. regulations. and China. The pricing and trading of spices is unregulated and market prices are determined by supply and demand.4 Spice Labeling. paprika. and authentication. Most spices come from the Far East—India. or ground form. Barriers in spice trade can affect a buyer’s ability to procure spices from many regions. and Europe. from defining “spice. we need to properly define spices. Southeast Asia. domestic production supplies a major proportion of some spices. There are a number of reasons for this. broken. Regulations. except for those substances traditionally regarded as foods.S. and sweet basil. that is true to name. thus affecting product development. labeling. their roles have overlapped and become multifunctional. Global differences exist. Others come from the Middle East. including dehydrated onions. whose significant function in food is seasoning rather than nutritional.” to differences regarding quality specifications.” The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines spices as “any aromatic vegetable substance in whole. Standard definitions for spices will allow spice suppliers to write specifications on a global basis. and processors. and Quality Specifications The consumption of spices in the United States has been increasing annually. But today. Quality and specifications play a significant role in the supply and buying of spices. the spice trade’s channel of distribution has had importers. and celery. doing product development in addition to supplying spices. Standards. and grinders have become seasoning suppliers.” The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) defines spices as “any dried 55 . growers. Spices have to meet certain requirements to be acceptable to buyers. For example. seasoning. the Caribbean. grinders. SPICE DEFINITION AND LABELING To establish appropriate standards of quality and authenticity for spices. such as onions. The International Standards Organization (ISO) defines spices as “vegetable products used for flavoring. and imparting aroma in foods. brokers. agents. each having their special functions. Central and South America. Mexico. The U.

and celery. Many edible herbs have been used since ancient times to flavor foods and beverages. See 21 CFR 101. herbs (e. SPICE REGULATIONS The U. that contributes aroma. bioterrorism.. and dehydrated vegetables (onions.g. dips. . garlic. and other spices that may be used for their coloring properties shall be declared for labeling purposes as “spice” or “coloring” or by their common or usual name. flavour. Webster’s New World Dictionary defines spice as “a vegetable condiment.22(a)(2). seeds. and now. used in foods for flavoring.). etc. relishes. fresh. powdered. See 21 CFR 101. in form of powder or condiments. black pepper) or generically as “spice” on food labels. sesame. Seasonings. mint).g. paprika.56 Handbook of Spices. color. it is not a condiment. cinnamon. pesticides. nutmeg.5.22 (h)(1). Second Edition plant product used primarily for seasoning purposes” and includes tropical aromatics more commonly referred to in trade as “spices” (pepper. For food labeling purposes. etc. limited. Spices such as paprika.” appear more up to date. and shallots are primarily used for flavor enhancement and should be included in the spice definition. FDA permits spices to be declared by their common or usual name (e. garlic. chives. Condiments include prepared sauces.g. and stalks—are used. basil. spice seeds (poppy.).” since all parts of a spice plant—leaf. In bygone days. The U. The Indian Spice Board’s (ISB) spice definition as “in various forms. etc. See 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 101.S. star anise. The definition of spice should include “all parts of a plant that provide flavor.22 (a)(2). leaves and seeds of temperate zone plants were called herbs while only tropical aromatics were called a spice. and spreads. The definition of spice excludes. .” These definitions are outdated. colour and pungency to food. turmeric. root. onion. broken. oregano.S. taste. government plays a prominent role in the import and supply of spices. 102. and mace. garlic. and imparting aroma. seasoning. But herbs are still defined in many books as distinct from spices. such as onion. this definition changed. dressings. rhizome. should not be defined as “vegetable products. black pepper) or an otherwise accurate description of identity and is considered misbranded if it does not.” Dehydrated onions.. Over time. onion and garlic may be listed as natural flavors. celery).. Also. substances that have been traditionally regarded as foods. labeling. FDA and ASTA set guidelines and quality specifications for . mustard). cloves. but spices should include edible herbs (leafy spices) that flavor or color foods. buds. and incorrect in today’s more knowledgeable and sophisticated society. fruits. or relish. and even texture. dried. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has similar requirements to FDA except that mustard and spices that impart color must be listed separately. bark.. They regulate spice sanitation. tariffs. Chile peppers.g. See 21 CFR 101. for labeling proposes. While a spice may serve the purpose of condimenting a meal.3.” and the International Pepper Community’s (IPC) as “various parts of dried aromatic plants and relates to dried components or mixtures thereof. Spice offered for sale at either bulk or retail must bear a label with its common or usual name (e. saffron. and these substances must be declared on the food label by their common or usual name (e. ripe. which are fruits or parts of fruits used for flavoring. garlic. and Flavorings. and sterilizers used. Herbs should not be a separate category from spices.

there is variation among member states in applying EU harmonized legislation. irradiation safety concerns. Turmeric oleoresin can be used as a spice but not permitted as a color in the European Union (EU). molds. spice industry today that would affect the global spice trade. flavor regulation labeling differences for active principles that are naturally derived (e.g. (6) inferiority is concealed. The Federal Food. Use of ethylene oxide or irradiation. insect excrement. stems. which differ globally. (4) any valuable constituent has been omitted or removed.C. new treatment studies for ethylene oxide as a fumigant. a food including a spice.S.S. FDA regulates the marketing of spices regarding what may not be included in spices. §343). There are other regulatory issues facing the U. is prohibited in Japan. stones. (2) it is offered for sale under the name of another spice. a food. is considered adulterated if (1) it contains any “added” poisonous or deleterious substance. Many essential oils derived from spices are also considered GRAS (see 21CFR 182.) and set standards.10). Under the general misbranding provisions of FFDCA (21 U. SPICE AUTHENTICITY AND QUALITY CONCERNS The terms quality and authenticity are rather confusing with regard to buying spices. by fermentation) and chemically synthesized. and Quality Specifications 57 importing and trading of spices. ASTA specifications place limits on extraneous matter (insects. Imported spices not meeting these specifications are reconditioned at the port of entry. FDA considers spices to be GRAS for use in foods (see 21 CFR 182. Under 21 U. For example.S.S. (5) it contains added color unless so declared. and what is adulteration and misbranding. etc. Regulations. certain sterilization treatments for spices are allowed in some countries but barred in others. (7) any substance has been added to increase bulk or weight to make it appear more valuable. Standards. possible phasing out of methyl bromide fumigation. (2) it contains filth.C. (4) its container is made or filled to be misleading.S. §342(A). In Europe itself. Authenticity is defined as a spice that is free from adulterated materials including . sticks. The safety of spices is addressed by the FDA through ASTA’s conclusions that they are “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). (3) it contains unapproved food or color additives. (5) any substance has been substituted for it.20). is considered misbranded if (1) its labeling is false or misleading.C §342) and misbranded food (21 U. and testing procedures. while local spices are reconditioned (using fumigants) before they are processed for use in a product. allergy labeling. ASTA specifications are used throughout the world today to provide cleaner and better quality raw spices from the producing countries. although curcumin is. including a spice. allowed in the United States. Drug & Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) granted FDA specific authority related to safety of spices. (3) it is an imitation of a spice unless labeled as such.. §343). how spices may be labeled. FDA also regulates some aspects of the marketing of spices regarding adulterated food (21 U. and the use of genetically modified spices such as mustard seed and black pepper.Spice Labeling.C. Another trade barrier with spices is regulations. sampling procedures. including policies regarding FDA’s bioterrorism regulations.

extraneous matter. or fillers. sugar. whether fennel seed desired is the sweet or the bitter variety. or from a blend of different species from different regions of the world. product developers must not only become familiar with ethnic cuisines but also the many varieties of spices. and starch. spices are sometimes mixed from a variety of origins or bulked with foreign materials and other undesirable parts of plants. aromatized with cinnamaldehyde. tapioca starch. These are some of the many quality control factors we need to ascertain from the spice supplier. cereal flour. but are often from lesser-known species. Seasonings. salt. Product developers need to set minimum criteria for a spice or flavor from suppliers. Dried ground cinnamon often has carriers. and how it was stored. such as nuts. or free from impurities within the spice itself. we need to learn its specifications. and if it was processed before grinding. When grinding small . Also. For reasons of regional preferences. and bark of cassia and other inferior types are added to “true” cinnamon. For example. how long it was stored before grinding. which make it difficult to authenticate a product unless an appropriate extractive or flavor is at hand. SPICE QUALITY SPECIFICATIONS Consumers need the highest quality spices in products. deal with quality specifications and potential adulteration. syrup. and how long has it been stored before shipment? When a spice supplier provides ground spice. how it was extracted. Since saffron is the most expensive spice. and lead chromate all of which lower their coloring principles and create health concerns. the sensory profiles are left to the suppliers to define. or cinnamon is Ceylon cinnamon or Vietnamese cassia. moisture. marigold. Concerns about adulteration are not limited to ground spices but spice extractives as well. Grinding or crushing spices releases their volatile flavors. An understanding of the measurements and procedures used for monitoring spice quality becomes a useful tool for the buyer and user.58 Handbook of Spices. and Flavorings. rhizomes. When a spice extractive is provided. and conform to regulatory issues when developing products for local consumers with global tastes. Many commercially available dried spices are adulterated with cheaper spices or other parts of the same spice plant. many spices that are traded globally are not the classic spice species. stability. coloring matter. gelatin. we need to learn its specifications. Second Edition foreign bodies. it is preferable to buy whole spices and then grind them just before use to obtain a fresher flavor and more intense aroma. as discussed above. what is its shelf life. including its origins. or even bulked with fillers and dyes for cost and availability reasons. When buying small amounts of spices. While ATSA and similar organizations set minimum quality standards for cleanliness and purity. Stems and other parts of the clove plant are added to clove buds. How do spice suppliers best achieve the quality and consistency they seek? When was the spice ground. availability. with more detailed information (source and varieties included). and dyes. including with safflower petals. When working with spices. Thus. or economics. Ground chilies and turmeric are frequently adulterated with cheap dyes. it is adulterated in many ways. food technologists and flavorists must remember the distinction between quality and authenticity.

irradiation. quality standards set by ASTA and recognized by FDA and the U. Ethylene oxide (EtO) has been banned in many European countries and Japan because of concerns that residues left after fumigation may be harmful to human health and cause cancer in workers who have prolonged exposure to it. and preventing microbial and insect growth and breeding during storage conditions have been used. ASTA color values. The two major international standards for quality specifications are those set by the United States and the European Union (EU). insect and rodent infestation. Regulations. MAINTAINING SPICE QUALITY When spices are exported into the United States. pesticide levels. how they were processed. ash level (impurities).S. volatile oil (adulteration). and heat treatment. Spice specifications become important forms of communication between the food developer and the supplier for ensuring that the correct spice is delivered within economic limits. a mortar and pestle or coffee grinder can be used. and curcumin content for turmeric color. pungency. mycotoxin/aflatoxin levels. and microbial quality are important criteria for the spice processor and the food developer. of Agriculture have to be retreated and recleaned before distribution. color. Several methods for treating spices for microbial contamination. they must meet ASTA specifications. Using these methods. or color values. moisture content (pricing. The fresher the whole or ground spice. Dept. ASTA has long been involved in setting quality standards for spice imports. spice specifications become important because the flavor and color of spices can vary with different batches depending on their origin. when they were harvested. Other tests include piperine levels for black and white peppers. pungency. Most times. Cleanliness. The European Spice Association (ESA) sets minimum specifications for spice quality in Europe.S. When spice specifications are developed and recorded. Spices not meeting the U. Keep in mind that spices come from many regions of the globe. with varying climatic conditions and quality standards. quality limits are set for moisture. as do importing countries. and particle size. capsaicin level/Scoville units for chile peppers. The use of EtO does affect the sensory profiles of spices and . water activity (microbial growth). the more flavor it has. such as the British Standards Institute and the All Nippon Spice Association. product consistency is maintained over time. The general quality tests set by ASTA include cleanliness (foreign and extraneous matter). stability). for larger amounts. It is important to be aware of measures or controls taken in exporting countries. and other sensory values are correlated with organoleptic evaluations with trained sensory panelists. Standards. a spice mill is used. Many growing regions have their own quality specifications. and the conditions and length of time in storage. and Quality Specifications 59 amounts of spice. which implements quality certifications in close association with ASTA and other international standard groups.Spice Labeling. When purchasing larger quantities of spices. including fumigation with methyl bromide. Fumigants impart undesirable odors and colors and are not always effective with whole spices. including the Indian Spice Board (ISB) and International Pepper Community (IPC). sterilizing with ethylene oxide.

. coliforms. thus. Spices that show strong antimicrobial properties tend to have low counts of microbes. Proper packaging is essential for preventing oxidation and. and glass pieces. and so. microbial growth and insect infestation can occur to varying degrees. depending upon the extent of contamination during harvesting. long-term storage is not recommended. This method is banned in Japan. To retain good aroma in spices. the flavor of the spice. High-pressure steam creates clumping of spices. such as Aspergillus. that produce toxins are found on certain spices including red pepper. and ASTA. High microbial counts are caused by contamination during growing and postharvesting handling. such as the Bacillus species or Aerobacter aerogenes found in the soil can be transferred to the spice during the drying process. Insects and mold growth can change the color and. and processing conditions. first approved by FDA for use on spices in 1983. coli and Salmonella. It also reduces the sensory and nutritional quality of the spices and gives a lower consumer acceptance. and ginger. Spore-forming bacteria. Molds. Filth levels include foreign materials such as insect fragments (moths. Good storage conditions. Seasonings. and specifications are important in retaining quality attributes of spices. Processing conditions such as grinding and sterilization can decrease the volatile oils in spices. Concerns have been expressed by EPA that irradiation changes the chemical composition of a spice. Staphylocccus and Streptococcus bacteria species predominate. During storage. and food pathogens such as E. monitoring. which favors use of EtO. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is reregistering ethylene oxide. Microbiological requirements for “clean” spices include counts for total bacteria. in Japan) for sterilizing spices. The issue of phasing out methyl bromide by 2005 under the Montreal Protocol for Ozone Protection is under discussion again. the highest amounts allowed for any food. Consumers’ concerns with irradiation and chemical treatments have led to use of steam heat (e. The type and amount of molds and bacteria on a spice depends on the type of spice and the conditions under which it is harvested and dried. and discolors spices to some extent. but pathogenic bacteria tend not to exist on spices. is conducting a new treatment method study to generate data in support of reregistration by EPA. Controlled atmospheric storage with low temperature storage and controlled humidity conditions to prevent mold growth and aflatoxin production are possible ways of reducing contamination. beetles). galangal.g. mold. Irradiation. exposes spices up to a million rads of ionizing radiation. this process more effectively kills microbes than EtO. nitrogen or carbon dioxide is used to replace oxygen in storage areas. Molds tend to multiply during the drying process and during storage. Approved by ASTA. yeast.60 Handbook of Spices. dissipates aroma volatiles. ginger. metal fragments. . Second Edition destroys vitamin B1 and vitamin C. It reacts with chlorides in foods to form chlorohydrins that are toxic to humans. retaining color and flavor. potentially creating toxic and carcinogenic by-products in the food. to some extent. Insects do not survive in an atmosphere with less than 2% oxygen. mites. and garlic. so there are specification limits for these toxins. fenugreek. small stones. especially with “under the ground” spices such as turmeric. transportation. and Flavorings.

Spices or spice extractives should be stored in tightly closed containers in cool. Spices need to be free of microbes to reduce the initial bacteria or mold content in processed foods. air. Flavor and aroma losses as well as insect and rodent infestation occur when spices are not stored in airtight containers. humidity variations. depending upon type of spice. After each use. light (near window or in transparent packaging). Dry. Exposure to air accelerates flavor loss. and Quality Specifications 61 Dried spices generally do not spoil but lose their strength in aroma. Standards. Store spice in airtight containers to maintain freshness. freshness. and heat volatilizes and dissipates the essential oils in ground spices. or the green leafy spices.Spice Labeling. Spice extractives and sterilized spices tend to meet these objectives. Light will fade the color and character of spices. dark. Whole spices last longer than ground or crushed forms. stove). dry conditions below 68˚F and 60% humidity. Ground spices for minimally processed foods such as salad dressings. Refrigeration slows microbial growth in ground or whole spices. such as 32˚F to 45˚F. Do not store spices in freezer as repeated removal for use results in condensation in the containers. or “sprinkle on” seasonings should be well cleaned and sterilized. ground chile peppers turn from a natural green or red color to an olive or dirty reddish brown color when exposed to light. process. ground spice from 6 months to 2 years. flavor. Store spices at cool temperatures as they help retain flavor of spices. and leafy spices from 3 months to 2 years. • • • To help assure quality of incoming spices. spice suppliers often put in place Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in addition to meeting ASTA standards. resulting in loss of flavor and aroma. Regulations. Extracts last up to 4 years except vanilla which has longer shelf life. or moisture (steam from cooking near spice container or use of a wet spoon into container). In summary. Commercially available whole spices have from 2 to 4 years. and storage conditions. Exposure to light. and to avoid rancidity (in high fixed oil seeds. to prevent mold infestation (capsicum peppers). turmeric. . Spice blends and seasonings last about 1 or 2 years depending on contents. and moisture or high humidity tends to cake ground spices. Colder temperatures also help preserve volatile oil flavor and aroma. away from heat (oven. The control of insects and microbes is important in receiving a quality spice. Some spices need cooler refrigeration temperatures. close container tightly. High levels of moisture in ground or whole spices are potential for mold and microbial growth. such as sesame seeds). All this will hasten the loss of spice aroma and flavor and cause caking. proper storage and use of spices will maintain spice quality: • Store in a cool dry place. and certain metals can discolor many spices such as paprika. color deterioration (paprika). and sanitary quality. and color over a period of time. condiments.

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Pakistan. and other disorders. ajowan (Dutch. How Prepared and Consumed: ajowan is commonly used by North Indians. mainly phenols-thymol (35% to 60%) and carvacrol (11%) along with non phenols. Form: it is a small. taleb el koub (Arabic). snacks. Chemical Components: ajowan contains 2. ajavain (Punjabi). Ajowan originated from the Sanskrit word yavanaka or ajomoda. It is used whole or ground and has a natural affinity with starchy foods. ajamoda. ajowan is today cultivated in South India. Origin and Varieties: Brought by the Greeks to India from the eastern Mediterranean. javano (Nepali). niacin. it has a more intense flavor. ajowan (Spanish). diarrhea. wild parsley. Pakistanis. Iran. and Iranians. Ajowan seed when bruised. yin-dou-zeng-hui-xiang (Mandarin). nigella and celery. ajwan. Family: Apiaceae (parsley family). or caraway. and 63 . Ethiopian cumin. carom omum (Hindi). It can be bitter and slightly spicy. and roots are aromatic. also referred to as “royal” cumin. carom. who were called Yavanas by South Indians. nanava (Farsi). ayowan (Korean). It is also called netch (white) azmad (Amharic). Omam water.5 A to Z Spices AJOWAN Sometimes mislabeled as lovage seeds. oregano-semente. Egyptian black caraway. similar names are given to ajowan. ayamodakam (Malayalam). stems.5% to 5% essential oil. and Afghanistan. alpha-pinene limonene with gamma. assamodum (Singhalese). has a piney. dill. copticum or Carum copticum. South Indian ajowan has mostly thymol. ayamo. breads. ajowan (Japanese). Its leaves. yan-jhon-wuihheung (Cantonese). has been used since ancient times in India for stomach pains. Ajowan originated from the Eastern Mediterranean region and came to India with the Greeks. joni-gutti (Assamese). omam (Tamil). jowan. celery-like seeds that are light brown to purplish red in color. Ajowan contains iron. Ajowan is an essential ingredient in a Bengali seasoning called panchphoron. oma (Kannada).and beta-terpinenes. In India. Scientific Name(s): Trachyspermum (T) ammi. Egypt. German. Its volatile oil. yamani (Bengali). about 98%. beta-pinene. chilan (Thai). such as root vegetables. ajowan. has a flavor similar to thyme but stronger. ajowan (Portugese). phenol-like and slight lemony notes. legumes. and misir anason (Turkish). ajwain. It has large curved and ridged oval. para-cymene. colic. caraway-like seed that is used whole or ground. omamu (Telegu). French. Ethiopian cumin. yavan (Gujerati). and cumin. North Africans. kamun al-mulaki. Common Names: ajwain. and calcium. an infusion of ajowan seeds. thymol. Italian). Europe. bishop’s weed. T. When crushed or ground. Properties: ajowan is a close relative of caraway.

pilpel angli (Hebrew). Ajowan was also a traditional remedy for cholera and fainting spells. pimento (Italian). Belize). Ajowan is an ingredient in mouthwashes and toothpastes because of its antiseptic properties. and Flavorings. and served with nuts. racemosa. piment neugewurz. and pastries. toute-epice. It is combined with salt and hot water and taken after meals to relieve pain in bowel or colic pain. do heung guo. kattukaruva (Tamil). ALLSPICE An essential ingredient for Jamaican jerk paste or seasoning. In North India (Gujerat and Punjab). and pakora filling blend. It goes well with cumin. to snacks (pakora). officinalis. In Bengal. nelkenpfeffer (German). ginger. It is also called baharat. Seasonings. It was first imported into Europe in 1601 as a substitute for cardamom. Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family). allspice is not related to the peppercorn. pimento (English). panchphoran. bahari (Greek) orusupaisu (Japanese). lentil stews. Scientific Name(s): Pimenta dioica. poivre aromatique (French). English spice. The United States buys mainly from Central America and Mexico. Allspice is also grown in India and Réunion. nutmeg. kappalmulagu (Malayalam). and black pepper. poivre de Jamaique. formerly P. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: ajowan is highly valued in India as a gastrointestinal medicine and an antiseptic. clove pepper. Ajowan seeds are added to flatbreads called parathas. cinnamon. Honduras. Westerners generally use it against coughs and throat issues. kryddpeppar (Swedish). The English gave the name allspice because it has a flavor that combines the flavors of several spices. Spice Blends: berbere. Also called aromatic pepper and Jamaican pepper. ghee. This spice is often adulterated with ground clove stems or a closely related species. Central America (Guatemala. To enhance its flavor. which is used for meat stews and vegetables. each with varying tastes. because of the berry’s resemblance to the black peppercorn. pepe di Giamaica. pimento. and yeni bahar (Turkish). P. It is globular and has a rough textured . allspice is native to the Caribbean and the Americas. garlic. Origin and Varieties: there are many types of allspice.64 Handbook of Spices. Second Edition green beans. It then provides a more intense aroma to fish curries. In Ethiopia. It is fried in ghee with other spices. duo xiang go (Cantonese. Ajowan makes starch and meats easier to digest and is added to legumes to prevent flatulence. Form: the berry/seed of the pimiento tree is picked green/unripe and then dried until it turns dark reddish brown in color. South America (Brazil. it is used as part of a seasoning called panchphoran. and turmeric. ajowan is an integral part of a spice blend called berbere. pimienta gorda. pimento de Jamaica (Portuguese). Common Names: Jamaican pepper. It is indigenous to the Caribbean Islands. Leeward Isle). The Spanish explorers named it dulce pimienta or sweet pepper. chat masala. which flavors fish and vegetable curries. piment (Dutch). and to improve indigestion. pimienta de Jamaica (Spanish). and this aromatic mixture is added to cooked legumes and vegetables. and Mexico. cloves. specifically Jamaica. ajowan is roasted or fried in oil until it becomes light brown. pimento dulce. bahar halu (Arabic). ajowan seeds are popular with vegetarian cooking. Mandarin). and potatoes.

7% to 2. In the United States. The Mexican variety is less sweet and mellower than the Jamaican or Central American types.8-cineole. of freshly ground spice.5% to 5% essential oil. floral background notes. and Honduran—1. cumin. and cloves. Its oleoresin is brownish green to dark green in color. sauces. of oleoresin will replace 100 lb. The Mexican type is the largest and darkest in color. pirates in the Caribbean smoked and barbecued meat with allspice. chewing gum. sodium. and fish and with habaneros. Caribs and other indigenous Americans used it for preserving fish and meat. cinnamon. mace. Allspice leaf is used in baked goods. gravies. 1. which they called boucan. Scandinavian. pumpkin pies. from 0. How Prepared and Consumed: the Aztecs and Mayans flavored their chocolate drink with allspice seeds.9%). and caryophyllene.25% essential oil (dried leaf has higher oil. jams. humulene.3% to 4%. Nowadays. terpinolene. 65% to 90% higher than in the berry oil. and Caribbean cuisines and not with Asian cooking. It is slightly larger than the black peppercorn. α-phellandrene. Dried allspice has calcium. It goes well with smoked pork. and nutmeg with peppery overtones. ice cream. The Mexican variety has a high myrcene content (5%). allspice is ground for use in seasonings and sauces. The British add it to their stews. of essential oil will replace 100 lb. teas. is the most aromatic. Jamaican allspice berries are smaller. The bark contains small amounts of eugenol and higher levels of tannin.8-cineol. and ham.9% to 13%). The Jamaican variety produces the most leaf oil—its fresh leaf contains 0. The Jamaican type has up to 5% essential oil. and liqueurs. and pickled vegetables while the Scandinavians enjoy it in meat patties and sausages. . Guatemalan—3%. Its flavor has a hint of cinnamon. and beta-carotene. mainly eugenol (68% to 78%). Allspice berries lose their aroma upon ripening. Allspice has over 8% quercitannic acid that gives it its astringency. mainly eugenol. of freshly ground spice. The essential oil contains 80% to 90% phenols. caryophyllene. Allspice is used whole or ground. beef. The aromatic leaves and bark can also be used to provide an allspice-type flavor to foods. and good amounts of tannin. 1. onions.4% to 3%. North African. This practice was learned by the Spanish who also used allspice to preserve meats. The bark has more coarse and woodier notes than the leaf. candy. methyl eugenol (2.35% to 1. so they are collected when unripe and dried in the sun until they turn dark reddish brown in color. Mexican—1. tamarind. which is colorless to reddish yellow. Jamaican allspice has a minimum of 65% phenols. limonene. The fixed oil content is about 6%. Chemical Components: the allspice berry contains 1. Others contributing non phenols are α-pinene. About 21/2 lb. especially to smoked meats and beverages. During the seventeenth century. allspice seeds are typically used whole as part of a spice blend for pickling and marinating fish and meats. potassium. German. fruit soups. while 5 lb. manganese. Allspice is also used in ketchup. and its extracted oils are used in sausages. pungent taste and the aroma of cloves with sweeter. Jamaican allspice which is superior to all other varieties. The leaf has a different flavor. Allspice is popular with Western (British. roasts. a woodier aroma with less intense but coarser notes. and American).A to Z Spices 65 surface. Properties: allspice has a warm.

fungicidal. pickled vegetables. Greeks found it to be a digestive aid. anis (Spanish). Thought to be a foreign variety of fennel. In North Africa. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the Aztecs and Mayans used allspice to embalm bodies because of its preservative qualities. anis (German. In Kerala India. Spice Blends: jerk seasoning. It gives a smoky and spicy flavor to the barbecued product. anis (Tagalog). saunf.66 Handbook of Spices. Asian Indians often confuse anise with fennel because of its similar flavor and name. patli saunf (Hindi). it was used by Europeans as an aphrodisiac and as a charm to prevent nightmares. Allspice leaves are sometimes stuffed into the meat which is then barbecued over allspice wood or bark to give it the typical flavor of “jerk. and antioxidant properties. mincemeats. Common Names: sweet cumin. chicken.” and the Arabs. sutha koppa (Malayalam). Scientific Name(s): Pimpinella anisum. it becomes part of some curry blends. quatre-epices. jerk. ras-el-hanout. Ancient Assyrians used anise as a medicine. Associated with the taste of licorice.” In Oaxaca. anison ( Greek). sompu (Telegu). . ketchup blend. pimento dram. Middle Easterners flavor stews. is a popular spice used throughout the world. anijs (Dutch). anason (Turkish). Danish. and the Romans used anise to soothe sore throats. anise is commonly used with fennel and star anise to add a savory. Allspice has bactericidal. Scandinavians use it to preserve herring. and cured meats. anis (Hebrew). ANISE/ANISEED Anise/aniseed. erva doce (Portuguese). sweet flavor to barbecues. huei xiang (Cantonese. anisu (Tamil). Russian). the “sweet seed. Indonesian). and sweet potatoes. The English use ground allspice in cakes. the Portuguese call anise. anis vert (French). It is used as a mild anaesthetic for aching gums and teeth and as a mild pain reliever for muscles and joints. It is rubbed over pork. Called anysum by early Arabs. and common anise. To distinguish they called it patli saunf or thin fennel. It is also called yansoon. Mexico. kamun halu. kibbeh (ground lamb with cracked wheat) and pilafs with ground allspice. first used by early Egyptians as early as 1500 BC. Allspice has been used to promote digestion and remove gases from the upper intestinal tract. Mandarin). allspice is used in certain mole sauces. stews. or fish that are then cooked over a fire. fish pickling blend. In China. anison by Greeks. jintan manis (Malaysian. barbecues. aniseed. sausages. Swedish. They ate anise spice cakes to soothe digestion. the “sweet herb. has ground allspice as its main ingredient. Seasonings. anisu (Japanese). sulpha (Bengali). dai wuih heong. erva doce. and cay vi (Vietnamese). habbet hilwa (Arabic). Jamaica’s popular drink. and Flavorings. has whole berries while its signature seasoning. kamun halu or sweet cumin. Second Edition Allspice is an important spice in Caribbean cooking and is added to curries. It was also considered an aphrodisiac. and later anise by the English. anice (Italian). berbere. allspice is used in Ethiopian berbere and Moroccan ras-el-hanout spice blends. Jamaican curry blend and Kerala fish curry.” the Indonesians call it jintan manis. anisun (Farsi). Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (parsley family). puddings.

arrack (Arab regions). When it is ground into powder. Pakistan. Anise is commonly used in lozenges and cough syrups because it is a mild expectorant. but it is more camphor–like and delicate. cookies. ketone. relishes. cheeses. and cinnamon. Spain. Turkey. Germans. Anise is also grown in Mexico. or ground. Properties: anise seed has a sweet licorice-like taste and is warm. The Portuguese. Syrians use it in a beverage called miglee and in their popular fig jams.A to Z Spices 67 Origin and Varieties: it is indigenous to Greece. Anise is sold whole. and luncheon meats. rye bread. How Prepared and Consumed: the early Romans used anise to flavor a special cake called mustaceum that was served as a dessert to aid digestion. Chile. such as anisette. freshly ground spice. improves appetite. marinated meat and fish. freshly ground spice. Argentina. Middle Easterners use anise in sweet and savory dishes. Spice Blends: curry blends. Anise shows antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. They are roasted or sauteed in oil with other spices to enhance stewed vegetables. fennel. It is small. and betel leaf mixture. It is a popular spice in Chinese cooking. while in Asia. sweet rolls. Anise’s flavor is similar to fennel and star anise. salad dressings. sambuca (Italy). and calcium. It has 8% to 20% fixed oil. and 81/4 lb. Chemical Components: depending on its source. sausages. and tomato sauces. Its leaves are also aromatic. Europeans used anise to treat epilepsy and to ward off evil. anise seeds are served after meals to aid digestion and sweeten breath. French. cracked. applesauces. sugar. Crete. anise seed has 1. fruity. spicy ingredients for curries and savory applications. essential oil (yellowish green to orange brown) is equivalent to 100 lb. phosphorus. wine. Italy. The leaf has a much lower level of essential oil. sausage blends. Europeans flavor many liqueurs and spirits with anise. Russia. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: traditionally. In India. greenish gray to yellow brown.5% to 6% essential oil. oval. and camphoraceous. anesone (Italy). sweets. alleviates cramps and nausea. Anise aids digestion. ouzo and raki. . raki (Turkey). methyl chavicol (10% to 15%). Anise contains iron. mainly trans-anethole (80% to 90%). This spice tends to be used in sweet foods in Europe. Syria. potassium. India. iso-anethole (2%). and it is the fundamental ingredient in their local spirits. curries. Anise leaves and stalk can garnish fruit salads and are sometimes added to fish soups and cream sauces of Europe. and even juice drinks and teas. pernod and pastis (France). ojen (Spain). The Aztecs drank tea made from its flowers and leaves to relieve coughing and to dispel gas. anise quickly loses its flavor. hoisin. and Germany. Anise goes well with fruits. pancakes. and Italians use anise to flavor cakes. and soothes colic in infants. Japan. tomato sauce blends. beef stew. China. anise is combined with pungent. oleoresin (has 15% to 18% volatile oil) will replace 100 lb. and Lebanon. It also soothes insect bites and is chewed to induce sleep. roasted meats. They also mixed anise with vinegar and honey and used the mixture as a tonic to soothe sore throats. About 21/2 lb. Egypt. with a ridged or ribbed surface. Form: anise is a dried ripe fruit or seed. ouzo (Greece). and anis aldehyde (less than 1%). churek. Scandinavians. kibib (Egypt).

anato (Hebrew). and tomatoes. it is used to color or flavor food in the form of aceite (oil) or manteca de achiote (annatto lard) in Latin American and Filipino rice dishes. and hot dieu do (Vietnamese). anatto. this spice was introduced to India by the Portuguese and to the Philippines by the Spanish. Its flowery scent is due to tricyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons called ishwarane. Properties: annatto is deep golden yellow to orange red in color. Chemical Components: bixin. Philippines. coconut based curries. and meats. India. orellana. It is today cultivated in Brazil. chicken. and coriander. achiote. yuca. an oil-soluble apocarotenoid. and bijol. and western Africa. Guatemala. sa ti (Laotian). roucou (French. bija. is better known today as achiote by Mexicans and Caribbeans. and marinate pork and fish with annatto. Often called “saffron” by Puerto Ricans. Then. annatto by the Caribs. jarak belanda (Malaysian). and pork are colored with annatto. okra. heart-shaped fruit. Typically. bijol (Spanish). other carotenoids. The seeds are fried in oil or lard that becomes a golden orange in color. This practice of coloring traveled to Europe. Common Names: orellana. Mexico. In Jamaica. How Prepared and Consumed: annatto is used as a cooking oil and a gentle flavoring and coloring agent in Central and South America. and Central America. annatto biksa (Russian). It has a delicate. oregano. or ground (from the whole seed). rice. It is also blended with other . with norbixin. Mexico.68 Handbook of Spices. called urucul by the Tupi-Guarani Indians of the Amazon region. Also called latka (Bengali). rocou (Dutch). kesumba (Indonesian). the Caribbean. kongaram (Tamil). the popular salt cod and ackee dish. garlic. as oil (extracted from seeds). urucum (Portuguese-Brazil). annatto (German). where annatto is now used to give a deep yellow color to butter and cheese. the Caribbean. and Flavorings. and Chinese color batters. Peking style duck. achiote. thus giving rise to the term “redskin” by the early European settlers in the Americas. Annatto combines well with cumin. or meats. Caribbean). Second Edition ANNATTO Annatto. The Caribs. arnatto (Turkish). and the Philippines. yan zhi shu (Cantonese. Mandarin). Origin and Varieties: Annatto is indigenous to South America. pork. and other Native Americans dyed their bodies with annatto oil to protect against the sun. and Filipino cooking. Peru. beans. yin ju suih. achiote in the Nahuatl language of the Aztecs in Mexico. Native American. Spanish. polenta. chicken and fish stews. slightly sweet and mild peppery flavor with flowery and earthy undertones. and apocarotenoids making up 7% of the dry seed. and this colored oil is used to fry vegetables. They are an important coloring and seasoning for Latin American. stews. fried chicken. beninoki (Japanese). and achuete by Filipinos. is the main coloring pigment. Scientific Name(s): Bixa orellana. Filipinos. kam tai (Thai). It is sold as a paste. Mayans. Family: Bixaceae. lipstick tree (English). Vietnamese. the seeds are discarded. It is popular in Puerto Rican and other Caribbean cooking and added to rice. achuete (Tagalog). Aztecs used annatto seeds to intensify the color of their chocolate drink. Form: annatto are small dark-red seeds in a prickly. Seasonings. soups.

and fish dishes. perungayam (Tamil). Europeans equated its smell to truffles and the French flavored mutton during the early Middle Ages.A to Z Spices 69 ingredients to create the Puerto Rican sofrito. It is acrid with a strong garliclike odor and bitter. hiltit (Hebrew). Common Names: asafetide. The former is more popular because of its aroma. or powders. stinking gum. asafoetida was used as a condiment and as a medicine. seytanterin (Turkish). Form: it is a congealed. anghuzeh (Farsi). Family: Umbelliferae (carrot family) or Apiaceae (parsley family). In ancient India and Iran. sofritos. Bengali). If it is used sparingly and fried in oil. ah wei (Cantonese. dyvelstrack (Swedish). it becomes a darker brown mass. but the two most commonly sold varieties are called in Hindi language. beverages. There are many varieties. unpleasant back notes. Chesire. The powder is less intense and can be added to dishes without prior frying. and adobos. India. gravies. margarine. asafetida (Russian). sausages. as Persian sylphium. It has been used to control fevers and dysentery. and margarine. annatto is used in relishes. duivelsdrik (Dutch). after which. ferula persique (French). F. its use declined. hing (Hindi. baked goods. foetida (hingra type). Mandarin). Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the ancient Mayans and Caribs used annatto to paint their faces and bodies in religious ceremonies and in preparation for wars. Today. and many cheeses including red Cheddar. After drying. ASAFOETIDA/ASAFETIDA The name asafoetida is derived from the Persian word aza. Muenster. kaayam (Malayalam). and the Latin word foetida. asant/stinkasant (German). it represented courage and strength. hing (water soluble) and hingra (oil soluble). confectionary. Edam. ah ngaih. It is also found in Russia and China. Spice Blends: sazon. abu kabeer (Arabic). Properties: the resin is a pale brown color that darkens after drying. assa foetida. It is also called haltit. annatto extract colors butter. agi asahueteida (Japanese). To them. chunks. Livarot. dried granules. Origin and Varieties: asafoetida is indigenous to Iran. aza (Greek). achiotes. dark brown to black resinlike gum obtained from the juice of the rhizome of the ferula or giant fennel plant. Each type shows more sweetness or bitterness depending on its country of origin. and devils dung. mvuje (Swahili). snacks. recados. asafetida (Spanish). Scientific Name(s): Ferula asa-foetida L (hing type). retshina fena. In the United States. inguva (Telegu). In Europe. and Leicester. asa foetida. asafoetida is commonly used in the vegetarian cooking of South India and Bengal. ma ha hing (Laotian). poultry. assafetida (Italian). meaning resin. It is sold as different grades of resin. and Afghanistan. In the Yucatan and in Guatemala. and anjadana (Urdu). the whole annatto seed is ground into a paste and is used with other spices as a rub and to provide a deeper flavor to barbecued pork. seasonings. The commercial paste and . Asafoetida was known to early Persians as “the food of the Gods” and to the Romans who used it to flavor sauces and wines. Pakistan. meaning fetid or bad smelling. ice cream. pleasant shallot and garliclike notes develop.

thus.” In ancient times. brined or pickled fish. is woven into a garland to grace the Hindu God. Therefore. vegetables. they rely on asafoetida as an alternative flavoring. and grilled. and 2-butyl-3-methylthioallyl disulfide with some terpenes (α-pinene. How Prepared and Consumed: Iranians and Asian Indians use it abundantly in vegetarian dishes. In India and Iran. Chemical Components: its repugnant strong smell is due to sulfur compounds (that disappear during cooking) and ferulic esters. a spice blend added to legume dishes to enhance their flavor and to prevent flatulence. It pairs well with nuts. it is used to treat hysteria and taken as an antispasmodic. The French call it “herb royale. The Brahmins. anticoagulant. Afghans and Persians also eat the stem and the leaves as vegetables. At very low or “pinch” levels. Jains. Iranians rub asafoetida on warmed plates before placing meat on them. less intense in taste. half-dragon monster of the same name. esters (40% to 60%) and ash (1% to 10%). and sedative. Second Edition powdered forms are resin mixed with diluents such as rice flour. mainly 50% of 2-butyl-1-propenyl disulfide. The unacceptable smell disappears when it is cooked. grains. Holy basil is used in India mainly for religious purposes for Hindu temple ceremonies. or turmeric. The Greeks gave basil the name basilisk because it was reputed to provide protection from a half-lizard. BASIL The name basil is derived from the Greek word basileus. legumes. and chewda blend. for fear of killing living organisms. The essential oil has an abundance of sulfur compounds. 1-1-methylthiopropyl disulfide. and Flavorings. chat masala. dal podi. do not eat root vegetables or root spices such as garlic. while the hingra type is darker. Asafoetida has antibiotic and antimicrobial properties. Seasonings. or roasted meats. or gypsum and are. Lord Vishnu. phellandrene). who took the form of this leafy spice when she came down to earth. vinegar. South Indians use it in sambar podi. Spice Blends: sambar podi. gum (25% to 48%). chewda (Indian snack). in color. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Romans used asafoetida to aid digestion and as an aphrodisiac. Dried asafetida consists of resin (comprising 25% to 60% of total) which consists of essential oil (10% to 17%). called tulsi. This basil. also use asafoetida as a substitute flavoring. ginger. a religious group in India. singers take asafoetida before singing because it supposedly mellows their voices and produces a sensation of warmth. and farnesiferoles. almost black. meaning “king” because of its wonderful “royal” fragrance. Asafoetida is also used to reduce flatulence and to treat nervous disorders. asafoetida enhances many dishes such as fish curries. In India. who will not eat garlic or onions because they consider them aphrodisiacs. barbecued. mushrooms. Tulsi is named after Lord Vishnu’s wife. Goddess Tulasi. onion. spiced legumes. and even Worcestershire sauce. relish. the odor disappearing once they are boiled. . The hing type is white or pale in color. Asian Indians fry the resin in oil for a few minutes to disperse it well before it is mixed with other ingredients. basil was considered to have magical properties.70 Handbook of Spices. cereal flour.

lemon basil. color. cinnamon. Dried basil is used as ground and as particulates of varying sizes. basilico (Italian). holy basil: Ocimum sanctum. Scientific Name(s): Sweet basil: Ocimum basilicum. nga chien chin (Laotian). and rau que (Vietnamese). and Asia. sulasi. flavor variations occur. Sweet basil has bright green leaves. and e do (Vietnamese). and bai maenglak (Thai). minty Egyptian. Indonesian). including holy. from Mexico. Japanese basil or shiso/jiso-Also called ban tulsi (Bengali). or as a paste in oil. shiso. reihan (Hebrew). Africa. curly basil: Ocimum basilicum crispum. and e tia (Vietnamese). Lemon basil is paler in color than Thai basil. jangli tulsi (Urdu). and many more. basilicum (Dutch). all of which affect their chemical components. barbar (Hindi). Italian. France. and the United States (California). reyhan (Turkish). Italy. Origin and Varieties: basils are indigenous to Europe. They vary in size. sesame sauvage (French). Even with sweet basil. perilla (Russian). lemon. Sweet basil is the most popular type in North American. yu xiang ca (Cantonese. daun selaseh. Anise basil or true Thai basil—bai horapha (Thai). The dried form is less aromatic than the fresh form. sou yihp. perilla (German) perila (Hebrew). lemon basil: Ocimum basilicum citriodorum. tulkae (Korean). daun selasih/kemangi (Malay. Thai basil (also called anise basil). They are cultivated in Iran. beefsteak plant (English). tulasi (Tamil). basilie/basilic commun (French). sapha (Laotian). Greece. sulasi (Tagalog). tiruniripacha (Tamil). Morocco. cinnamon basil: Ocimum basilicum cinnamon. ruku-ruku (Malay). southern Europe. bajiru (Japanese). Many types of basils exist. reihan (Farsi). or pureed. paqe i tou (Laotian). Cuban. vasilikos (Greek). Common Names: sweet basil. and holy basil are popular in Southeast Asian and South Asian cooking. Mandarin). reehan (Arabic). Japan. and great basil. Egypt. rudrajada (Telegu). Southeast Asia. laun (Burmese). Form: basil comes fresh. Chinese basil. and other European and Mediterranean cuisines. Hungary. Also called besobila (Amharic). Lemon basil—daun kemangi (Malaysian. balanoi (Tagalog). Fresh basil is used whole. West African. nag mon (Thai). Indonesian). jiso (Japanese).S. perilla and la tia to (Vietnamese). . purple ruffle. Seychelles. Thai basil is similar in size to sweet basil. Mandarin). basilika/basilkort (Swedish). oddhi (Telegu). suwndutala (Singalese). dark opal. but with purplish stems and veins. shiso blad (Dutch). Family: Lamiaceae (mint family). and flavor intensity based on their origins and climatic and soil conditions. Holy basil or sacred basil—babui tulasi (Bengali). but there are many other emerging varieties. Japanese basil (shiso) is light to dark green. India. chopped. dried. lo lak/lo le. mrihani (Swahili). there are many emerging basil varieties in the U. madurutala (Singhalese). basilikum (German). bhanjira (Hindi). habaq. (Malaysian. alfabega (Spanish). sesame leaf. Indonesian). bladmyanta (Swedish). tulsi (Hindi). and Japanese basil or shiso/jiso: Perilla frutescens. and Southeast Asia.A to Z Spices 71 Today. Holy basil is smaller and narrower. daun shiso (Malay. East Indian. manjericao (Portuguese). Sivatulasi (Malayalam). Indonesian). Thai. xiang su (Cantonese. depending on its country of origin. with a dark green to almost reddish purple tinge. bai krapao (Thai). bazilik (Russian). herb royale. Africa. albahaca. Sweet basil is most commonly used in the United States.

In anise or Thai basil. galangal. and 0. linalool. Cinnamon basil has overtones of cinnamon. Eaten by the Chinese in the past. pungent clove and allspice-like. magnesium. Perilla/shiso has 0. with a lingering aftertaste. pine nuts. and 1. about 75% being perillaldehyde. called pesto rosso. Basil combines well with tomatoes. and α-pinene. lemon basil citral. folic acid. are equivalent to 100 lb. vitamin C.8-cineole. Sweet basil has about 0. methyl cinnamate. and bisabolene. of freshly ground basil. linalool. potassium. with limonene. How Prepared and Consumed: basil is widely used in Italian. Its taste is delicate and fresh with slight minty notes. it fell out of favor. Holy basil has a strong. garlic. potassium.8-cineole. citral. and white and black pepper.1% essential oil. and African basil. Another pesto from southern Italy. sodium. Basil turns black in an acid medium and loses its aroma easily when heat is applied. 1. garlic. Because sweet basil’s delicate aroma is easily destroyed during cooking. with the remainder consisting of eugenol. olive oil. Mexican basil has methyl cinnamate. and manganese. Lemon basil has a slightly spicy. and Flavorings. and the rest consists of camphor. chopped. and methyl eugenol influence their overall flavor. geraniol. It has strong. It is mainly used as a garnish—whole. 1. Parmesan cheese. β-caryophyllene. and olive oil is tossed with pasta. borneol. slightly musky taste with a camphoraceous aroma. Southeast Asian.2% essential oil. It is sold in Japan as a green-type (ao-jiso) and a red-type (aka-jiso). made with sweet basil.75 lb. The dominant aroma component in sweet basil is linalool. and when it was introduced to Japan. is made with sun-dried tomatoes.72 Handbook of Spices.8-cineole. 85% of the essential oil is methyl chavicol (which oxidizes when exposed to light and air). pungent sharp cheeses. Seasonings. Italians also enjoy sweet basil in insalata caprese (tomato slices topped with mozzarella and sweet . iron. especially methyl chavicol (or estragole).8 cineol. Monoterpenes (ocimene. it is frequently added whole or chopped to cold or warm dishes just before serving. estragole. in holy basil is eugenol. pine nuts. coriander leaf. lemongrass. it became popular in fresh or pickled forms. while dried basil contains vitamin A. phosphorus. ginger. camphor). mainly linalool (40%) and methyl chavicol (25%). capers. and in Thai (anise type) basil is methyl chavicol. and Mediterranean foods. olive oil. olives. chilies. lemony taste with a distinct fruity aroma. Thai basil has a sweet aniselike aroma and licorice-like notes with a spiciness that sweet basil does not have. and geraniol. Its delicate aroma decreases with cooking. cinnamon basil mainly methyl cinnamate. The popular pesto alla Genovese. Fresh sweet basil contains folic acid. cheese. Japanese basil or shiso is aromatic with a flavor that is a cross between basil and mint. Second Edition Properties: the Mediterranean or European-type sweet basil has a sweet and floral. fresh sweet basil. garlic. phenolic notes. eugenol. less than 1% is linalool. nuts. sesquiterpenes (bisabolene. while curly basil has sharper and harsher notes than sweet basil. or minced. and calcium. camphor. Italy.5% to 1. the main component. eugenol or 1. Chemical Components: the differences in aroma among basils are due to their differing chemical components. caryophyllene). and olive oil. anise-like aroma with cooling clovelike undertones. from Liguria. calcium. Sweet basil oleoresin is dark green and viscous.

in bouquet garni. For Romans. Basils are also commonly used in Thai and Vietnamese foods. but these basils have more pungent notes. In China. condiments. and these leaves became an immortal symbol of victory and courage.A to Z Spices 73 basil leaves. galangal. who used these wreaths in honor of Apollo. stews. It is not generally used in cooked foods. and which later gave rise to the term baccalaureate. bouquet garni. green shiso is used as a garnish. is used to make a salty pickle from dried plums or apricot. pasta salads. which has larger leaves. omelets. and curries. while lemon basil goes well with fish dishes. whooping cough. meaning berry. and poetry) love. which is served in soups. and pizza sauce blends. basil is used for most stomach disorders. The Greek name for bay leaf is daphnee. The Italians believe that basil keeps insects away. in stews. They generally par well with coriander root. When Greek physicians completed their studies. cramps. who top every dish with fresh fragrant leafy spices. It is also used as a diuretic. coconut milk. to the groom. The French use sweet basil to create their version of a pesto called pistou. In some Hindu weddings. headaches. Malaysian kurma. in salads or fried with tempura batter. which means completion of a degree. The word bay is derived from Latin baca. The Romans. The red type. it was used as an antidote to venom or bites. Spice Blends: pestos. use all kinds of fresh basils in soups. The Italians wore a sprig of basil as a sign of interest in marriage. turmeric. sauces. and chicken and pork dishes. . it was used as an antidote to fish poisons. green Thai curry. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: while the Greeks and French called basil the herb fit for a king. Perilla leaves are used as fragrant garnishes for spring rolls and noodle dishes called phos. garlic. the winners of Olympic games were decorated with laurel wreaths. The Vietnamese. salads. drizzled with olive oil). in many other parts of Europe. Thai basil adds pungency to stir-fries (gai prad krapao or chicken with basil and chilies). cilantro. Lemon basil goes well with fish and lobster dishes. In Asia. and head colds. medicine. made laurel leaf a popular spice in their cooking. and beans. Asian Indians use holy basil mostly in teas or as a garnish on meats and vegetables. And. with capers in tomato sauces. sometimes made of solid gold. parents of a bride give her away by presenting a basil leaf. anise basil to tom yam or hot and sour soup (it is steeped for couple of minutes to get maximum flavor). holy basil to stir-fries where its flavor is developed during cooking. they were crowned with laurel branches called the baca lauris. mozzarella. BAY/LAUREL LEAF Greek legend says that the gods turned a beautiful nymph named Daphne into an evergreen laurel tree when she was fleeing from Apollo’s (Greek god of prophecy. sausages. and freshly made salad rolls. Vietnamese phos. Basil leaf is often given with gifts as a sign of hospitality. Each type of basil is chosen to flavor different dishes. and sage. diarrhea. Holy basil is revered by Hindus in India and is grown near every temple and is planted around many homes to ensure happiness. as pizza toppings. called umeboshi. or stews. In Japan. Sweet basil goes well with rosemary. in sushi and sashimi rolls. umeboshi. pistous. parsley. it symbolized hatred and hostility. In ancient Greece. it was a symbol of love and fertility. tomatoes.

Bay leaves can be cooked a long time before they lose their aroma. and Armenian dishes. defne yapregi (Turkish). spicy. How Prepared and Consumed: bay leaf is indispensable to Mediterranean cooking. Greek. it is overaged and is bitter with no aroma. mostly 1. It is used for industrial purposes and used to adulterate the leaf oil. and boldo leaf are not true bay leaves. even though their flavors may be similar or sometimes stronger than bay leaf. Greece. stews. Family: Lauraceae (laurel family). or dried. α-terpinyl acetate (10%). and pickled fish. Seasonings. The dried fruit has higher essential oil (0. α-terpineol. α-pinene (12%). and methyl ester. linalool (11%). Turkish. iron. When the whole dried leaf is cooked in foods. soup stocks. It has a slightly bitter aftertaste. Mandarin). and Flavorings. and clovelike with slight camphorlike notes. its aroma is slowly released and becomes more intense. The leaf contains calcium. lauro (Italian). it develops a more intense flavor. Russia. warak al ghar. California bay leaf. The whole leaf is usually removed from the cooked food before serving.8-cineole (35%). bay leaf is grown in Mexico. Chemical Components: bay leaf has 0. especially in North African. lavr (Russian). France. Its flavor is described as piney. aromatic leaf with a bright green. glossy upper surface and a pale green color beneath. Common Names: true laurel. nutmeg. If the leaf has a brownish green color. Guatemala. The dried leaf is also ground into powder. laurebeer (Danish). tejpatta (Hindi). bitter. beta-carotene. sweet bay/sweet laurel (English). bay leaf releases its aroma quickly and loses it quickly the longer the food is cooked. α-pinene (6%). leathery. Steaming tends to bring out more of their flavor into the dish. Indian bay leaf. bourride. Origin and Varieties: native to Asia and the Mediterranean. . barg ebu (Farsi). and la nguet que (Vietnamese). and eugenol (2%). Second Edition Scientific Name(s): Laurus nobilis. laurier (Dutch). fresh. The United States buys bay leaves mainly from Turkey and Greece. lorbeer blatt (German). aley dafna (Hebrew). fish casseroles. gekkeiju (Japanese). laurier (French). and pungent flavor with cooling undertones. cinnamic acid. Bay leaf is used whole or crushed. hoja de laural (Spanish). and β-pinene. tapering to a point at the base and tip. α-terpineol (6%). West Indian bay leaf (from the allspice family). and North America. daphnee (Greek). bai kra wan (Thai). Turks use it to flavor grilled fish.74 Handbook of Spices. Turkey. taglia de alloro. yuht gwai. bouillabaisse. When the dried leaf is fried in heated oil. laurel (Tagalog).8% to 3% essential oil. stews. Europeans commonly add it to soups. and bean soups. and in meat and fish marinades. yueh kuei (Mandarin). loureio/louro (Portuguese). pickles.6% to 10%). rand (Arabic). sweet flavor. potassium. Too high a level of ground bay leaf can create a bitter flavor. Moroccans add it to their chicken tagines. lager (Swedish).8-cineole. Indonesian bay leaf. sabinene (5%). There are many “other” leaves that closely resemble the laurel leaf in flavor and are thus called bay leaves in other regions of the world. When it is used in ground form. with methyl eugenol (4%). The French use it in their popular bouquet garni. mainly 1. Properties: bay leaf has a strong. and vitamin C. The crushed leaf releases a strong aroma and has a grassy. and kebabs. yeuh kuei (Cantonese. limonene (4%). Form: bay leaf is a thick. It is elliptical in shape.

meaning dark leaf. bean dishes. and it is popularly used in North Indian meat curries and vegetables. . dried-crushed or ground. Called tamala pattra in Sanskrit. West Indian bay leaf (leaf of allspice). these same dishes can be prepared using the Mediterranean bay or laurel leaf. ρ-cymene. korma. and talisha (Telegu). β-pinene. Boldo leaf. meaning pungent leaf. How Prepared and Consumed: Indian bay leaf is popular in North Indian meat and lentil curries. it signifies good luck and protection. rice and beans. lamb. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: ancient Greeks considered bay leaf holy. In the United States. California. Indisk laurbaerblad (Danish). Indians fry it in oil with other spices and curry powder before adding meat. womb. limonene. malabars kaya (Russian). the Indonesian bay leaf. Recent data show its hypoglycemic function to control diabetes and to have antiulcer activity. which tastes similar to but stronger than bay leaf. and stomach. with 50% linalool. Marathi). and cinnamic aldehyde. tezzi patto (Japanese). thitchabo (Burmese). kanelilaakeri (Finnish) and laurier des Indes (French).A to Z Spices 75 The fruits of bay leaf are sometimes used to season wild game or potatoes in European regional cooking. boldo leaf. Indian bay leaf was well known to Romans who used it in brewing and in perfumes. tejpat (Hindi). chest. Bay leaf aids digestion by stimulating gastric secretion. Origin and Varieties: Indian bay leaf is the leaf of a tree that is closely related to cinnamon and is cultivated in the slopes of the Himalayas facing North India. talishapattiri (Tamil). Spice Blends: garam masala. or many other varieties. bouillabaisse. Family: Lauraceae. and dal curry. biryani. For Italians. Scientific Name(s): Cinnamomum tamala/tejpat. or chicken. tamal patra (Gujerati. Bay leaf helps relieve pain in joints. tejpatra (Punjabi). but is a cinnamon relative. Form : slender whole fresh or ground. It has also been shown to have strong antimicrobial activity against pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. is a distant relative of the bay leaf. North Indian curry blends. “OTHER” BAY LEAVES There are many other so-called bay leaves that are not related to true bay leaves. It is an important ingredient in the garam masalas of North India. Properties: Indian bay leaves are tough and leathery. or tejpat in Hindi. others being α-pinene. indisches Lorbeerblatt (German). since this is not easily available. very aromatic and have a flavor somewhat similar to cinnamon with cloves. such as the Indian bay leaf (cinnamon relative). and ras-el-hanouth. Indian Bay Leaf Indian bay leaf is not related to the true laurel leaf. It also eases cramps and earaches. Spice Blends: bouquet garni. The California bay leaf is milder and less pungent than the “true” bay leaf from Turkey or Greece. Common Names: also called tejpata (Bengali).    Chemical Components: has mainly monoterpenes. Indian bay leaf is commonly used in Mogul-type biryanis and kormas. fish marinade.

Scientific Name(s): Pimienta racemosa. Form: The leaves are small and thin and turn brown on drying. and san thuyen. . Chemical Components: it has mainly flavanoids. methyl chavicol. linalool (92% to 93%). and Flavorings. It contains 0. galangal. myrcene (14% to 32%). whole or ground. clovelike flavor. daeng klua. and turmeric. Indonesian bay leaf is closely related to the cassia family. and borudo (Japanese). Greek. Chemical Components: it has an essential oil of 1% to 2%. stewed beans. 1. The essential oils are eugenol (38% to 75%). tram (Vietnamese). Spanish. Second Edition West Indian Bay Leaf A distant relative of allspice. Indonesian Bay Leaf Called daun salam in Indonesian. mainly phenols (50% to 60%). Common Names: daun salam (Indonesian.2% essential oil which has eugenol. Properties: It has a harsh. mak (Thai).2% to 2. It pars well with chilies.76 Handbook of Spices. Seasonings. limonene (1. Family: Myrtaceae. Properties: the leaves are small and turn brown in color when dried. Origin and Varieties: it is cultivated in the Caribbean islands Form: the leaves are large and long and available fresh or dried whole. Java. meats. Boldo Leaf Scientific Name(s): Peumus boldus Molina. Form: the leaves are broad and medium-sized and come as fresh or dried. Origin and Varieties: Chile. and alkaloids. penetrating. tannins. and citral. boldoblatter (German). Common Names: boldina (English). and beverages in the Caribbean. boldo (French. relishes. curries. How Prepared and Consumed: West Indian bay leaf flavors rice and beans. Origin and Varieties: Indonesia and other regions of Southeast Asia. Bolivia. or ground. Lauraceae. lemongrass. Malaysian). Indonesisk laurbaerblad (Dutch). Hebrew. and Sumatra. It comes as fresh or dried whole or ground.8-cineole (0. it is sometimes referred to as the leaf of allspice in the Caribbean. It has an aromatic and slightly sour taste. Portuguese. chavicol (11% to 21%). It is initially cooked or stir-fried to release its flavor into the dish. Family: Monimiaceae. Family: Myrtaceae. Scientific Name(s): Eugenia polyantha. Its essential oil is used in the industrial production of sausages. and Indonesische lorbeerblatt (German). How Prepared and Consumed: Indonesian bay leaf is commonly used with meat dishes in the Indonesian islands of Bali. Peru.0%) and 3-octanone (1%).5%). Italian). It is used for smoking and cooking meats as well.” it is a popular flavoring in Indonesian and Malaysian cooking. meaning “peace leaf. This is a close relative of the bay leaf family. and other regions of South America and North Africa.

Thought to originate from the Near East or Central Asia. alcaparra (Spanish). Italy. pentosans. dried bud of an unopened flower. capres (French). though it is used in some Spanish style dishes in Mexico. eugenol. mruko (Swahili). tartar sauce. chicken. Cyprus. and isocorydine. and fresh leafy spices (such as basil. In South America it is added to meats and fish. gebre kapari (Turkish). France. It also goes well with pickled vegetables. Form: caper is the green. The Spanish crush it. Sicilians add capers to tomato sauces and wines with onions. Apulia (in Italy). they are consumed abundantly in the Mediterranean regions of Sicily. kabra (Bengali). or oil. with terpene derivatives such as ascaridol (40%). . It has a camphoraceous and cinnamon-like aroma. and Iran. kappari (Greek). bitter glycosides (such as rutin and glucocapparin). and its characteristic taste is developed when placed in vinegar or brine. kokilakshmu (Telegu). kaper (German. 1. How Prepared and Consumed: boldo leaf enhances meaty flavors and mushroom notes. Spain. green olives. kabarra (Punjabi). Family: Caparidaceae (closely related to the cabbage family). shi shan (Cantonese. combine it with almonds. How Prepared and Consumed: capers have been pickled by Southern Europeans for over 2000 years. There are some wild varieties that are used in northern regions of south Asia. string beans. game. tzalaf kotsani (Hebrew). Apulians in Italy use caper with meatballs. Mandarin). kabar (Urdu). Scientific Name(s): Capparis spinosa. vinegar. Origin and Varieties: caper grows wild in the Mediterranean and is cultivated in Spain. CAPER Caper is derived from the Latin word capra. Norwegian). and stews. Chemical Components: its essential oil is about 2%. cappero (Italian). pectin. (Dutch). oregano. and other boiled vegetables. and Greece. It has high sodium content. the higher the grade. alcapparas (Tagalog).A to Z Spices 77 Properties: boldo leaf has a strong warm flavor that is slightly bitter.8-cineole. Today. kapersy (Russian). and saponin. and cap (Vietnamese). Usually. garlic. alcaparra (Portuguese). which means “goat. melada (Malaysian). Algeria. chee san gam. Pickled capers have an acrid. kabra (Hindi). pizzas. cinnamic aldehyde. keipa (Japanese). and chervil). upon enzymatic action. and linalool. methyl glucosinate releases methyl isothiocyanate which gives capers its pungency. kiari. It is graded based on its size—the smaller. Chemical Components: caper contains mainly water (85%). Greece. tart. sparteine. and fish. Properties: caper has a sharp fermented bitter taste. ρ-cymene. and pungent taste with a lemony tang. Rutin is the whitish spots (crystallizes during pickling process) on pickled capers. Similar to mustard or wasabi. it is cured with brine. Boldo has alkaloids such as boldine. rutic acid. caper is not well known in Asia or Latin America. it has been used by Arabs for medicinal purposes.” a name that reflects its strong smell. caponata (a salad that includes eggplant and tomatoes). soups. garlic. France. kapris (Swedish). and parsley which is then served over fried fish. Other than Europe. Common Names: caper is also called kubar (Arabic).

If cooked too long. komijn (Dutch). karve (Norwegian). it is served as a garnish for cold fish. ripe fruit that is used whole or ground. Germany. the Mediterranean. Many global cultures call it a relative of cumin. it is called vilayati jeer or “foreign cumin. tmin (Russian). and added to pickles and relishes. kyira wei (Japanese). Midwives in Europe have used caraway to stimulate production of breast milk in nursing mothers.5% essential oil. and vegetables. while its root has a crispy texture. olives. Form: caraway is a dried. Canada. and Holland. Romans seasoned sausages with caraway seeds. and soapy. and Arabian cooking. France. miweh zireh (Farsi). Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: capers have been used to aid digestion. and pizza sauce blend. black olives. The leaves have a milder taste than the seeds. oregano. as a spread. In India. goht leuh ji. caraway is an ancient spice. warm. mustard. and Flavorings. karwij. Properties: caraway seed is curved with tapered ends and is dark brown with light-brown ridges. gel u zi (Cantonese. ziya (Burmese). Its name is derived from the Arabic word karawya through the Latin word carum. Its aftertaste is somewhat sharp. pickling blend. Poland. Spice Blends: tapenade. which is pale yellow in color. It is also grown in North India. Austrian. shima jirakam (Malayalam). like parsnips. Russia. Britain. Hungarian herdsmen used them to flavor goulash. It has a sweet. alcaravea (Spanish). basil. Capers are also used to add tartness to the curried dishes of northern India. and tarragon. black pepper. karvya (Hebrew). garlic. Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (parsley family). Roman cumin. and North America. anchovies. they were used as a traditional treatment against scurvy. and other ingredients. and frenk kimyonu (Turkish). carvi.” and in French. and salads. Second Edition Tapenade. a bitter taste develops. Today. Its leaf is feathery and used as a garnish. bitter. caponata blend. Scientific Name(s): Carum carvi. roasts. karokawi (Greek). Chemical Components: caraway seeds have about 4% to 7. Common Names: wild cumin. a salty pungent spread with capers. mustard. In ancient times. is a popular appetizer in Provence. CARAWAY Called in Sanskrit as karavi. used at least 5000 years ago during Mesopotamian times. Because heat easily destroys its aroma. hom pom (Thai). Its aroma is mainly due to d-carvone (50% to 85%) . black pepper. Mandarin).78 Handbook of Spices. garlic. cumin de pres or “meadow cumin. kummel (German). meat. In Hindi. prevent diarrhea. chicken. slightly dill and aniselike flavor. kommen (Danish). shia jeera (Hindi). caper is added to cold dishes of fish. German cumin and Persian cumin. alcaravia (Portuguese). and increase appetite. kummin (Swedish). shimai shembu (Tamil). Capers pair well with fish. Seasonings. It is also called karawya (Arabic). chaman (Armenian). Origin and Varieties: caraway is native to central Europe and Asia minor and today cultivated in North Africa (especially Egypt).” because of its similar flavor profile to cumin. cumin des pres (French). In the United States and northern Europe. caraway seeds characterize South German.

Caraway had magical powers of protecting prized possessions. vinegar. sauerbraten. Greeks. chile peppers. sauces. Originating in South India. meats. Caraway is the essential flavoring in a European liqueur called kummel. and fruits. sauerkraut blend. Caraway contains calcium. cheeses. Egyptians. and almonds. condiments. Persians. Yemenites use caraway with coriander and other spices in a blend called zhug. vegetables. juniper. magnesium. caraway was a remedy for colic. breads. It adds a savory sweetness to cakes. Central Europeans coat caraway with sugar or use caraway candies to sweeten their breath after meals. harissa. cheeses. potassium. In Europe. It is an indispensable ingredient in rye bread and roast pork. It has also been used as a sedative. to relieve uterine and intestinal cramps. vegetables. the Vikings from Northern Europe bought . beverages. In Dutch foods. while the root is stewed or boiled and eaten in salads. and perfumes. and sauerkraut. Other essential oil components are carveol. crackers. after saffron and vanilla.” green cardamom is the world’s third most expensive spice. consumed and produced in Germany and Scandinavia. In Europe. CARDAMOM/CARDAMON Known as the “queen of spices. and other spices to make their famous fiery condiment called harissa. marinade. and which is eaten as a snack. Caraway’s fixed oil content is 15%. How Prepared and Consumed: caraway pairs well with garlic. it is a popular spice used in meats.A to Z Spices 79 and limonene (20% to 30%). and was used by Indians. Spice Blends: pickle blends. ice cream. Tunisians combine caraway with dried chile peppers. and 5 lb. and sabinene. pork. Germans use caraway abundantly in their cooking to flavor breads. phosphorus. and Chinese over 2000 years ago in foods. Caraway use is popular with North Africans. The name cardamom comes from the Greek word kardamom (from Persian origins). zhug. dihydrocarveol. and betacarotene. Romans. but also as a medicine. Greeks. The ancient Arabs. garlic. and it was also used in love potions to keep a lover from wandering away. a dumpling that also has lentil flour. α. and to help calm a queasy stomach after taking medicines that cause nausea. The oleoresin is greenish yellow. and dahi wada blend. It tends to dominate the flavor in foods. medicines. applesauce.s and pickling solutions. The British serve tea and seedcake with cinnamon and caraway seeds. caraway is used to season dahi wada. of freshly ground spice. and Romans used caraway not only as a flavoring. vegetables. are equivalent to about 100 lb. Caraway leaves are used in soups and salads. potato soups. Simmered with milk and honey. it is a popular flavoring for cheese. onion bread. and cabbage. caraway was chewed after a starchy meal to help digestion. In North India. The Nigerians savor a crispy caraway twist called chin chin.and β-pinene. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: ancient Egyptians placed caraway on their dead to keep bad spirits away. Alsatians serve a bowl of caraway seeds with Muenster cheese. Italians boil chestnuts with caraway before roasting them.

kardamom (German). To this day. true. the Bedouin Arabs place cardamom pods in the spouts of coffee pots so that when coffee is poured. enasal (Singhalese). cardamomo nero (Italian). Vietnam. karudamon (Japanese). cardamomo (Italian. Nepal cardamom (German). a relative of cardamom. It is a popular ingredient in Indian. and false or greater cardamom. Portuguese). melegueta (grains of paradise). Telegu) luk krawan (Thai). kau blong (Hmong). Grains of paradise (discussed later). Iranian. velachi (Marathi). Karnataka. and truc sa (Vietnamese). Mandarin). krako sbat (Khmer). Used by Cleopatra to fill her chambers with the sweet smell of cardamom smoke before Mark Anthony’s visit to Egypt. Also called guinea pepper or Guinea grain. korarima/kewrerima (Ethiopian type). Cambodia). There are many grades of true or green cardamom. kardamomum (Greek). zwarte kardamom (Dutch). kardemom (Dutch). sugmel (Tibetian). Madagascar. perelam (Malayalam). also called korerima hel (Amharic). Vietnam. and Guatemala. Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka. kardemomme (Danish). The cheaper or false cardamom is from Nepal. and introduced it to Scandinavia. Nepal cardamom. cao que (Cantonese. depending upon their origins. kakule tohomu (Turkish). An essential ingredient in Arab and Turkish coffees. chotta elaichi (Hindi). elchi (Gujerati). kardamon (Russian). Its Indian names were derived from the Dravidian language. hab el-hal (Arabic). Egyptians chewed cardamom to cleanse their teeth. Second Edition cardamom from traders who obtained it through Constantinople. False (or greater) cardamom is cultivated in Bengal (India). It is bigger and dark brown or blackish brown with a very different flavor profile from true cardamom. The United States buys the green cardamom from Guatemala. and Sri Lanka. hmak heng (Laotian). The Yorubas of Nigeria call it atare and use it in many of their food products. it takes the flavor of the cardamom. and West Africa. is relatively unused today except in parts of Africa. West Africa. A. cardamomo negro (Spanish). elaichi (Nepal). compactum (Java cardamom). globosum (Chinese round cardamom). Common Names: true or lesser cardamom. A. it is an essential ingredient in Danish pastries. and Arabian cooking. kardemumma (Swedish). elathari (Malayalam).80 Handbook of Spices. buah pelaga (Malaysian). yelakai. India. and A. West Africa. bada elaichi (Hindi). Seasonings. false or “greater” cardamom: Amomum (A) or Afromomum subulatum (North India. Mandarin). and Bengal. Nepal. Benin) and North Africa. A. green or lesser cardamom. elakai (Tamil. Spanish. elichi (Urdu). bak dan kou. kardamon chyornyz (Russian). It is used as pods (whole or crushed). hel (Farsi). shiou dou kou (Cantonese. Form: cardamom is the dried. Mysore). chou gwo. and periya yalam (Tamil). hel (Hebrew). firm unripened fruit packed with many seeds. it is common in West Africa (Nigeria. hale. or as . sort kardemomme (Danish). Sumatra. as whole seeds (decorticated cardamom). boro elach (Bengali). False or greater cardamom. It is also grown in Thailand. kapulaga (Indonesian). Cambodia. Scientific Name(s): True or “lesser” cardamom: Elettaria cardamomum (Malabar. Other green varieties are cultivated and consumed in Indonesia and Thailand. cardomome (French). hal aswad (Arabic). cadamome noir (French). also called Indian cardamon. Laos. There are two types of cardamom. Origin and Varieties: true (or lesser) green cardamom is native to India (Kerala. kali elaichi. Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family). and Flavorings.

Green and large brown cardamoms are commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. similar to the biryanis of India.8-cineole (25% to 35%). custards (kesari). The major aroma contributing components are 1. They are dark green when the pods are oven-dried. depending upon how the pods have been processed. It pairs well with fruits. potassium. Properties: true cardamom pods are small and dark green. It is also an essential ingredient in Southeast Asian curries. and saffron. light green. The essential oil is spicy. About 4 lb. while the oleoresin is dark green. and cinnamon. and linalool (1% to 4%). The green pods have a delicate clean. clove. pilafs. Other minor ones being linalyl acetate (1% to 8%). and musty. yogurt (shrikand).A to Z Spices 81 ground seeds. North Africans add it to local seasonings such as ras-el-hanout and berbere. citrusy. more pungent flavor. camphorous aroma and a harsher. They give a smokey. The seeds in all of these pods are reddish brown to black and are highly aromatic. Ethiopians roast coffee with cardamom pods and cloves. limonene (2% to 12%). components vary depending on its origins. cool. It is added to fiery Arabic spice blends such as baharat and jhoug and to rice-meat dishes with nuts. puddings. of the oleoresin are equivalent to 100 lb. and ice creams. magnesium. Again. Green cardamom is an essential ingredient in Indian sweets (halwa). or white. or grayish black in color (depending on the variety) and coarsely ribbed. In India. cilantro. parsley. The seeds are darker and have a menthol-like taste. is served to guests as a symbol of hospitality.8-cineole. dried fruits. sweet. The white pods have very little flavor. called kabsah. of freshly ground cardamom. Toasting the whole pod intensifies cardamom’s sweet flavor. or its seeds are ground and added during cooking or sprinkled on savory dishes to give a sweet aroma. darkroasted coffee mixed with ground cardamom. and black pepper. and when dried are dark reddish brown. but they lose their flavor quickly. Green cardamom gives the distinct flavor to India’s famous creamy kormas and Mogul-style biryanis. The pods are handpicked and are generally sticky to the touch. brownish black. South Indian and Sri Lankan pods are slightly smaller but more aromatic. and spicy floral flavor with a lemony scent. butter. Its camphor taste is due to bornyl acetate. How Prepared and Consumed: true cardamom enhances sweet and savory dishes. and manganese. The ground seeds have an intense flavor when just removed from the pods. Arabs add cardamom to meat and rice dishes. myrcene (2%). and white or buff colored when they are bleached. the green pods are used whole. Brown cardamom has high crude fiber. almonds. It is a very important flavoring in Turkish and Saudi Arabian foods and beverages. and desserts and other foods that have an Indian . sweet. Grains of paradise (discussed later) have a pungent and peppery flavor that is in between the flavor range of black pepper and dried chile pepper. In Saudi Arabia. False cardamom pods are larger-sized. and burning. pungent. called gahira/gahwa. and α-terpinyl acetate (28% to 34%). Chemical Components: true cardamom has 2% to 10% volatile oil depending on its regional origins and storage conditions. eucalyptus. Cardamom contains calcium. saffron. light green when the pods are air-dried. sabinene (2%). False cardamom has 2% essential oil which has more than 70% of 1. They have overtones of mint.

Celery seed is also called karaf (Arabic). The seeds are cultivated from the original wild celery variety. Britain. Many global names call the seed. Scientific Name(s): Apium graveolens. and later. zhoug. julekake. Japan. kesari blend. Common Names: garden celery and wild celery. and seeds. Another cultivated celery variety is eaten for its stalk. where ground cardamom is used instead of cinnamon in Danish pastries. pilafs. The Romans were the first to value it as a seasoning. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Indians chew cardamom pods to sweeten and clean their breaths after meals and also after dinner to help settle their stomachs and aid in digestion. Grains of paradise (discussed in detail on page 119) are used in the spice mixture ras-el-hanout and other savory dishes of North and West Africa. Cardamom also prevents nausea and vomiting. celeri (French). biryani blend. and stalk by similar names. The whole or coarsely crushed cardamoms are braised before they are added to North Indian and Pakistani curries and pilafs to intensify their flavors. and garlic. Sri Lankans and South Indians dry roast or toast pods in oil to enhance their fiery chicken and meat curries. In Scandinavia. Their flavor is too strong. a spiced. sausages. Second Edition influence. leaf. leaves. France. curry powder. Whole green cardamom is an important ingredient in chai masala. so generally they are not added to sweet dishes. hot tea beverage that is consumed all over India and that is now emerging as a popular drink in the United States. karafs (Farsi). is savored for its root. chiluri (Bengali). The Kashmiris enjoy a fragrant green tea flavored with cardamom pods. and cools the body during summer months. biryanis. it is used to mask the smell of alcohol. and the United States. glogg (hot spiced wine punch). apple pie. biscuits. cookies. kaffekage. They are usually removed before serving. selderij (Dutch). unlike green cardamom. breads. and Flavorings. selleri (Danish). it became a delicacy for Italians and French. vindaloos. Family: Apiaceae (parsley family). and meatballs. CELERY Derived from the Latin word sedano. Cardamom is not commonly used in Europe except in Scandinavia. and the stalks and roots as vegetables or salads. berbere. Origin and Varieties: celery seed is native to eastern and southern Europe and the Mediterranean. China. Celeriac or celery root.82 Handbook of Spices. It was only in the nineteenth century that North Americans began to use celery seed. qin chai (Cantonese. korma. cakes. lakhod garos (Armenian). baharat. Hungary. mainly in pickling solutions. and coffee blends. Arabs traditionally used cardamom as an aphrodisiac. Bengalis use the ground seeds of a related species while the Chinese and Southeast Asians use a local celery leaf to flavor many of their dishes. fish. induces sweating. rasel-hanout. celery has been used by the Greeks historically as a medicine and as a sign of victory. sellerie . Seasonings. It is cultivated in India. It soothes colicky babies. Spice Blends: garam masala. yet another celery variety. The false cardamom pods are coarsely crushed for use in curries. kabsah blend. and teas of North India. kun choi. snacks. Today Europeans commonly use the leaves for soups and sauces and as a garnish. Mandarin).

and chutneys. the leaves are added to Creole gumbos and soups.75 lb.7% 3-methyl-4-ethylhexane. cis-β-ocimene and α-terpineol. and 3. corned beef. potassium. Celery leaf has about 0. 12% n-butyl phthalide. including limonene. 8% n-butylidene phthalide. with sesquiterpenes such as 8% β-selinene. and vinegar. vitamin C. seldjerey (Russian).2% cis-β-ocimene. sedano (Italian). which are light green. equivalent to 100 lb.2% n-butyl phthalide. North Indians and Bengalis add the seeds to curries. mainly limonene (68%). mainly 33. aipo (Portuguese). seleri (Hebrew).7% β-selinene. bodia jamoda (Gujerati). and myrcene. Celery pairs well with chicken. Celery stem has 37% limonene. 26. and casseroles. γ-terpinene. including myrcene. chicken soups. and parsley-like tastes. or root.1% volatile oil. daun sop (Malaysian.6% myrcene.A to Z Spices 83 (German). soups. Celeriac root. stuffings. kereviz (Turkish). vitamin A. while the Indian type is more herbal with a slight lemonlike aroma. soy sauce. which is yellow to greenish brown. Indonesian). kinchay (Tagalog). It has a harsh. spicy aroma and a warm bitter taste that leaves a burning sensation. Properties: The dried seed is dark brown with light ridges. 6. 19% cis-β-ocimene. stews. salad dressings. si sang (Laotian). turmeric. are used whole (fresh or dried). It consists primarily of terpenes. The characteristic aroma is due to the phthalides. Celery root is eaten raw in salads or is cooked and served as a vegetable. herbaceous. selderi. and salads. The fixed oil is 16%. The seeds have a stronger and more intense flavor than the leaf. Cooking tends to reduce its bitterness and enhance its sweetness. The seeds are used in fresh tomato juices. frankfurters. Form: celery seeds are tiny globular seeds that are sold whole. magnesium. ginger. with 4. Celeriac is also called turnip root or knob celery. Scandinavians and Eastern Europeans add celery seeds and leaves to sauces. cumin. while stalks of celery are cut and used to flavor soups. and phosphorus. and Bloody Mary drinks.3% limonene. breads. sausages. iron. cole slaw. In North America. 16. bologna. The French type of celery seed is herbal and sweet with a citrus bouquet. and trans-ocimene. knockwurst. Chemical Components: the seeds have 2% to 3% essential oil. The leaves. and 13. ajmud (Hindi). flaked. kheun chai (Thai). The ground form or extractives are used in salami. and stalk have strong celery. stem. The seed oleoresin is green. serori (Japanese). leaf. slightly crushed. pickles. sodium.2% ρ-cymene. ajmoda (Marathi). The seed has calcium. and meats. 14. Celery root has 18% γ-terpinene and trans-β-ocimene. pickles. penetrating. sage. or ground. In East Asia . ajmod (Urdu). selleri (Swedish and Norwegian). of freshly ground celery seed. Celery stalks are braised to give distinct flavorings and crunchy textures. Leaves of celery are chopped and used as a garnish for soups and sauces. and can tay (Vietnamese). The stalks or stems and root are sold fresh. or ground. How Prepared and Consumed: celery is a popular spice in European and North American foods and beverages. apio (Spanish). Celery stalks and roots are not spices but are discussed because they add flavor to many foods and beverages.

stir-fries. it flavors soups. it was introduced to France and the rest of Europe. A staple in French cooking. France. chervil is now widely used by central and western Europeans. The dried leaf is less aromatic than the fresh leaf. and is used as a garnish for Chinese-style rice dishes. It reduces swelling and was used to treat gout and arthritis. White vinegar preserves well its flavor. It is now cultivated around the Mediterranean regions of Greece. kerbel (German). where it is used as fresh salads to accompany meals. Another sweet chervil. in Britain. Celeriac root is eaten like the turnip—raw. In India. also called Spanish chervil. Celery was traditionally used as a sedative for nervousness or to promote sleep. san lo boh (Cantonese. chopped. stir-fried. and phosphorus. anise-like flavor with slight hints of pepper and parsley. Dried chervil contains potassium. Family: Apiaceae (parsley family) or Umbelliferae (carrot family). It provides a clean celery-like flavor and a crunchy texture. cerfoglio (Italian). Chemical Components: the leaf has 0. Origin and Varieties: chervil is native to Russia. calcium. cicely. tamcha (Hebrew). Form: chervil has small and delicate. anthriskos (Greek). How Prepared and Consumed: chervil is usually added at the end of cooking or sprinkled over dishes to retain its delicate flavor. perifollo (Spanish). Swedish). Romans and Greeks used these leaves in tonics (with watercress and dandelions) more than 2000 years ago to rejuvenate the body.03% essential oil. Spice Blends: bouquet garni. because of its resemblance to myrrh given to baby Jesus. kzorvel (Norwegian). and frenk moydanoz (Turkish). One of the most common leafy spices used in French cooking. iron. aromatic. and in the United States. sodium. It is used fresh or dried. while the Greeks used it in love potions. crushed. Mandarin). it has become an essential part of the local spice blends. mainly methyl chavicol or estragole.84 Handbook of Spices.9% essential oil. chervil is a symbol of new life for them. kervel (Russian). and tomato juice blends. and Flavorings. and fines herbes. and Northwestern Asia. Europe. blanched. Properties: it has a sweet. while the seed has 0. Derived from the Latin word cherifolum. cerfeuil (French). and sauces. stuffing blends. pureed. bouquet garni. feathery light-green leaves. It is also called maqdunis afranji (Arabic). gumbo blends. whole. pickling blends. kervel (Dutch). curry blends. korvel (Danish. chabiru (Japanese). Common Names: garden chervil. Because of their pleasant sweet aroma. . Seasonings. chan lo bok. or garden myrrh has a strong anise and licorice-like aroma and is used in Scandinavian cooking. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Romans used celery seeds in herbal tonics as an aphrodisiac. gourmet parsley. or as a paste in oil. The volatile oil smells like myrrh. cerefolho (Portuguese). magnesium. Scientific Name(s): Anthriscus cerefolium. Italy. French parsley. or boiled. it was taken as a remedy for rheumatism. CHERVIL Called French parsley by Europeans. Second Edition and Southeast Asia. Spain. It loses its aroma with heat and drying.

potato salads. Mexico. China. CHILE/CHILI/CHILLI PEPPERS/CHILIES The “mother” chile/chili/chilli pepper is thought to have originated in the Andean region of Bolivia. In ancient times. The French and Scandinavians serve it as a salad with meals. béarnaise sauce blend.A to Z Spices 85 chervil can be an alternative to parsley. C. baccatum.). They were widely cultivated when the Spanish first landed in the Americas. and Southeast Asia. annum species. annum. and light sauces for fish and chicken dishes. where it is chopped fine and used as garnish over eggs. Family: Solanaceae. It was also used to perk up memory. peppermint. They were taken to India by the Portuguese and to Southeast Asia by the Arabs. color. béarnaise sauce. and Portuguese. Peru. It is also used in many other European cuisines. chinense. it is still recognized for its role in lowering blood pressure. and Ecuador almost 10. cheese. and the Caribbean islanders. New varieties of chile peppers are continually evolving.000 years ago. Since 7000 BC. Chilies dominate the flavors of many cultures—South Indians. Sri Lankans. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the ancient Greeks used chervil as a spring tonic to rejuvenate the body after the winter months. lower blood pressure and help menstrual cramps. C. It pairs well with cheese. pubescens. and bite in their foods. olive oil. Southeast Asians. flavor. meats. Origin and Varieties: chile peppers are indigenous to South and Central America. mouth feel. color. and the Caribbean but are now cultivated in India. Globally. and fish. chile peppers have been part of the diets of Mayans and Aztecs in Central Mexico and the Yucatan. aroma. Most chile peppers belong to the C. and degree of pungency. the Romans used it as a cure for hiccups. The sophisticated use of different chilies that began with the ancient Mayans and Aztecs continues around the world today. stuffings. They tend to enhance and provide a background note for other spices and flavorings. It combines with tarragon. there are more than 3000 known varieties of chile peppers that differ in shape. and sun-dried tomatoes for a pestolike sauce. Japan. dressings. Spice Blends: fines herbes. There are at least 150 known types in Mexico and about 79 in Thailand. Mexicans have mastered the knowledge of use of different types of chilies to achieve that characteristic flavor. Pods of different species have characteristic . Chilies or chile peppers add flavor as well as heat to foods. frutescens. and pastries. and chives in fines herbes to flavor eggs. dill. It is also pureed with nuts. Africa. size. C. But till today. and C. Mexico. parsley. It gives the distinct taste to bearnaise sauce. there are five species: C. the United States. stimulate digestion. soups. potatoes. Latin Americans. mustards. bouquet garni. and pesto sauce blend. creamy soups. Indians. which are the principal chilies of Asia and other regions outside of Latin America and the Caribbean. Scientific Name(s): Within genus Capsicum (C.

aji panca. baccatum C. sizes. and colors. there are several cultivars with different pungencies. safi. pubescens C. ose otoro. mak phet kinou. ata wewe. Congo pepper. sili/siling (Filipino). Escabeche. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) refers to the hot varieties as chillies. ixni-pec. chili. chile (English). Bahama Mama. max-ic. morich (Bengali). ata rodo. aji amarillo. cuerno de oro Tabasco. spaanse peper (Dutch). puca uchu. chi yang jiao. chili (Danish). jalapeno. Cherrysweet/hot. but to the world paprika is the ground red powder that provides mostly color with some flavor. ululte. piperi kagien (Greek). Scotch bonnet. such as jalapeno or cayenne. fulful haar (Arabic). chilacate. Kashmiri. and pungency. peperone. kochu. cusqueno. Chile. and postharvest conditions such as storage and processing. Common Names: (in General): berbere (Amharic). Guntar red. guajillo. Variations occur because of differences in breeding. locoto. These five species are crossed with each other to produce many new varieties. annum (variety aviculare) C. peperoncino (Italian). prik khee noo. tien tsin Chinchu uchu. Chile pepper (Capsicums) terminology: The Nahuatl word for chile pepper is chilli. pili-pili. tabia kerinji. Cubanelle. pilpel harif (Hebrew). parado. togarashi . annum Varieties Ancho. Chilli is the word for the hot chile pepper in Asia. gdzoo bgbegh (Armenian). prik chee fa Bird pepper. chili de arbol. flavors. frutescens shapes. Sante Fe. canario. chili pasado. cascabel. pilpil (Farsi). chili guero. cayenne bors (Hungarian). or chilli pepper are the commonly used terms for hot peppers in the United States. New Mexican. and Flavorings. Banana wax. Canada.86 Handbook of Spices. Some of the more popular chile peppers are listed by species in Table 15. chili peron. mirch (Hindi). xcatik. Trinidad seasoning pepper. Bonney pepper. Some of the different cultivars are listed in Table 16. exotics. lombok. textures. chili caballo Aji/kellu uchu. cabe/tabia/lombok (Indonesian). chiltepins. Even within each variety. rosas-uchu. Central America. Seasonings. Hungarians call any Capsicum paprika. devil peppers. jolokia (Assamese). cabe merah/hijau. and other English-speaking regions. Jamaican hot Rocot uchu. poblano. Second Edition TABLE 15 Chile Pepper Species and Varieties Species C. nga yut thee (Burmese). and Mexico. chili manzano. malagueta pepper. piquin. South Americans refer to chile pepper as aji which came from the Arawaks. colors. cili padi. adjuma. pepperoncini. Hungarian wax. while the term capsicum is used for the nonhot sweet bell peppers. serranos. piment (French). chipotle. shi feng jiao. pungent bells/chili dulce. mulato. datil. England. stage of maturity when picked. mirasol. Dundicut. cachucha. rocoto. habanero. and there are many different varieties within each species. tabia Bali. cayennes. pasilla. roter pfeffer (German). lah jeeui (Cantonese). costeno. lal mirch. Fresno. uvilla garande. cili rawit. tezpur/Naga jolokia C. chilhuacle negro. rocotillo. Uxmal. chinense C. piment bouc. fatalli. environmental growing conditions. tipico.

caballo by Guatemalans. Peludo. la chiao. including aji amarillo (or kellu uchu as the Quechua Indians call it) and cuerno de oro in Costa Rica. In Mexico. Nu-Mex No. was domesticated in 6000 BC and was commonly used by the Incas. Tipico. prik chee fa. Cayenne was derived from Tupi Indian word ‘kian. They are also called Scotch bonnet (smaller size). where it was first cultivated. pimient. chiltepins were called bird peppers. chimayo. Commercial cultivars are Tampiqueno 74.” When fresh green. Brazil. and red ones are called chili Colorado. the short fat version is called chili gordo. chili padi. Serrano peppers originated in Puebla. They are also called chili mosquito. Chiltepin peppers are also known as piquins. TAM Mild chili. They are now used abundantly in the Caribbean. Mexico. and when dried. locoto in other parts of South America. and were named possibly after the Cayenne River or capital of that region. Rocoto has its origins in Bolivia. and colors. and largo. the dried green New Mexican chilis are called pasados. sizes. and Belize. and Exotics. canario or chili peron in Mexico. Bonney pepper.’ Introduced by the Portuguese all over the world. They are commonly used in South America (Peru. Jalapeno peppers originated in Jalapa. Nu-Mex sunrise. they are grown in Louisiana and New Mexico. The dried forms of cayennes are called cili kering. This is the general term for chile peppers in Spanish-speaking South America. and chili rawit in Southeast Asia. In the United States. and Espinalteco.A to Z Spices 87 TABLE 16 Chile Pepper Varieties and Cultivars Variety Cayennes Description and Cultivars Cayennes were first referred to as milchilli in 1542. They were cultivated as early as 2500 BC in Peru. The dried versions are ancho and mulato. Ajis come in diverse shapes. Thai chilies. Cultivars include Hot Portugal. Ring of Fire. Fresno. or Ginnie peppers. VeraCruz S69. chili Colorado. They were an integral part of the Inca diet. Panuco. parado in Oaxaca. Hontaka. or chili bravo (macho) in Mexico. Morita. Mexico. These peppers were originally called Anaheim. They were part of the historic migration of peppers from the Andes. Nu-Mex Eclipse. The name means “looking at the sun. and bird pepper. they are called balin/chico. they are called chili verde.” Some cultivars are San Andres. Hades Hot. Cultivars include Big Jim. tipico. long green/red chili. ululte in Yucatan. 76104 Jumbo Jal. Mulato is popular in Mexico and is known as chili negro. Nu-Mex sunset. Esmeralda. These fruit-shaped chilies are called rocotos by Peruvians. In Mexico. Mexico. 6-4. Sandia. lal mirchi. They appear to have originated in French Guiana. South America. In Baja. or morita. Poblano means “people chili. Altamira. Verdano. Its name comes from the word “Havana-like” and is thought to have originated in Cuba. Sandia. and the pickled jalapeno is called morita. and Uxmal and INIA in Yucatan. pequins. New Mexican Jalapeno Serrano Ajis Rocotos Poblano Chiltepin Habanero . and Hidalgo. and tepins. and Chinese kwangsi. Mexico. chili de pajaro. fresh and dried forms are called ancho or pasilla. Colombia) and Central America. Mexico. the smoked or dried jalapeno (or chipotle) is called chili huachinango. They are mild to hot. In Oaxaca. huarahuao (in Haiti). Because birds were responsible for their migration. or Bahama Mama. The Exotics are cayenne types and include santaka. Jamaican hots in the Caribbean. TAM mild jalapeno-1. and chili manzano. Congo.” and its name was derived from Puebla. Fresno. Bolivia. Serrano means “from the mountains. chili verde. and California long green or red. they are widely grown throughout Asia.

in the seeds. accounts for about 50% to 70% of the total capsacinoids. 7% nordihydrocapsaicin (NDHC). and garlic powder. fresh (whole. it becomes a mahogany ancho or reddish black mulato. usually cayenne. Capsaicinoids are mostly found in the white “ribs”/placenta that runs down the inside of the pepper. chili or chilli powder means only ground chile pepper. Whole fresh or dried chile peppers can be roasted to develop more intense flavors. Ground or crushed red pepper usually consists of blended red peppers from any variety of hot. chili (Russian). a blend of ground. crushed. sipen (Tibetan). Heat rather than flavor or color is expected from these products. both of which give a numbing and prolonged burn. Form: the fruit is used ripe or unripe. prik (Thai). molaku (Kannada). when green or red jalapeno is smoked or dried. pimentao picante/piripiri (Portuguese). In the U. Seasonings. Chilies can enhance and round up other ingredients in a dish. which together with capasaicin provides the most fiery notes from midpalate to throat. The fresh and dried forms can be made into a paste or pureed (as Cili Boh in Malaysia/Indonesia). It gives the bite but has no odor. This blend forms the basis of the flavor for chili con carne or chili from Texas. sliced. ground chile pepper. They are variable in their heat levels. mircha (Punjabi). which are responsible for the pungency or bite in capsicums. They are called by different names when the chile pepper is smoked or dried. an alkaloid.. it is used in chili powder. or ground). and when green poblano is dried. chilipeppar (Swedish). sizes. General physical descriptions of several of the more popular chile peppers are listed in Table 18.S. smoked.88 Handbook of Spices. cumin. mulagu (Tamil/Malayalam). Chili powder has varying degrees of pungency and different shades of color ranging from bright red to deep mahogany. marach (Urdu). fruity. origins. Capsaicin (C). mak phet (Laotian). mirchya (Marathi). Most of the overall heat is due to two capsacinoids. red chile peppers. which is fruity and sweet and has the least burning sensation. pimiento. Second Edition (Japanese). colors. The degree of heat or pungency of chile peppers varies based on the varieties. and drying conditions. Heat is measured by using . They can be hot. miri (Singhalese). West Africa). earthy. growing conditions. Dried chile peppers are available commercially as ground or crushed red peppers. biber (Turkish). pureed). oregano. and heat. Examples of fresh and dried chile peppers are listed in Table 17. chile/aji/pimenta picante (Spanish). and in the skin. and Flavorings. it becomes a dark red chipotle. or dried (whole. ot (Vietnamese). dried. pilipili (Swahili). or ancho chile peppers. cayenne.2% to 2% capsaicinoids (vanillylamides of monocarboxyl acids). Fruits harvested from the same species but from different regions can differ greatly in heat. and floral. about 1% homocapsaicin (HC) and 1% homodihydrocapsaicin (HDHC). dried cayenne/New Mexican chile peppers. flavors. For example. Heat varies widely among the different chile peppers depending on their chain length. Properties: chile peppers have many shapes. and ata (Yoruba. capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. cili/ladah/ cabai (Malaysian). and chili powder. The other bite contributing components are 20% to 25% dihydrocapasaicin (DHC). siling (Tagalong). paprika. In Asia and many other countries. Chemical Components: Chile peppers contain 0. smoky. ma-tek (Khmer). sweet. la jiao (Mandarin). Ground chile pepper in the United States is ground New Mexican.

Medium size (2–3 long). dark green. very hot. extremely hot. such as jalapenos or cayennes. yellow. fruity taste and great aroma. elongated. 1–3 long or tubular in shape. Flat. elongated. red. sweet chocolaty flavor. chili ahumudo Balin. 1 wide.A to Z Spices 89 TABLE 17 Chile Peppers: Fresh and Dried Versions Fresh Chilies/Chile Frescos Jalapeno Serrano Poblano Anaheim Cayenne New Mexican/Anaheim Chilaca Cili padi Chiltepin. mora. or purple with tapered to blunt ends. mild to hot. slightly hot. largo Ancho. 1–1. mild to slightly hot with chocolaty notes. ripe jalapeno is sweeter than the immature green. red orange when ripe. very hot. tipico. Green. red. ending in a sharp point. piquillo Aji amarillo Dried or Smoked Chilies/Chile Secos Chipotle. 6–12 long. and climatic and growing conditions. white. green 3–10 long. or brown. yellow. chiltepin. based on its origins.5 long. green. lal mirchi Pasilla (chili Negro) Cili padi kering Cascabel. slightly hot to very hot. red.) Wrinkled dark brown skin with a smoky. Dark green to red orange. but the heat dissipates quickly. . Green to red. Chipotle Serrano Poblano Ancho Mulato Chiltepins Ajis Habanero Tabasco organoleptic tests or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). mulatto. Today there is a growing trend toward using chilies for flavoring foods as well. Heat values can vary with the same type of chile pepper. or brown. 1–2 wide. 3–6 conical or heart shaped. (Red. tipico. smooth. huachinango. orange. sometimes curved. mild to slightly hot. 3/8 wide and yellow when unripe. hot. Diverse in size and shape. breeding. tien tsin. orange. or orange. chino Chili pasado Sanaam. narrow and elongated. 1–2. coban Cusqueno TABLE 18 Physical Description of Chile Pepper Varieties Variety Cayenne New Mexican Jalapeno Description Red. and heart shaped. bright green. red to reddish brown. morita.5 long. wrinkled. cili kering Chili pasado. The capsaicinoids are measured in parts per million and are then converted to Scoville Units (Table 19). medium to hot. piquin. Reddish brown to blackish brown. chili Colorado. hot to very hot. yellow. bell shaped. Tiny and ovoid. typically 3–5 long. and conical and cylindrical in shape.

90 Handbook of Spices. cherry. and folic acid. pasado. magnesium. color. berbere of Ethiopia. to add heat by sprinkling over foods. garlic.000 30.000–750. who mixed chile peppers with cassava juice to create coui. The early hot sauces were made by the Caribs and Arawak Indians. Louisiana hot sauce. and Flavorings. cabe merah. rocotillo. Scotch bonnets. cayenne. piquin. guero Serrano. chipotle. chipotle. Seasonings. mirasol Jalapeno. Hungarian hot pepper Poblano. Naga jolokhia Pure capsaicin Scoville Units 0–100 100–200 200–500 1000–1500 2500–5000 2500–10. Chinese kwangsi Prik khee nu. Asian Indians. phosphorus. balachuang of Myanmar. jalapeno. The fiery Bajan sauce contains scotch bonnets with other ingredients such as fruits. Anaheim.000 10. goit chu jang of Korea. piquillo New Mexican. crushed red pepper Cayennes. or chili de arbol are ground and added to spice mixtures and made into hot chili oils. sriracha. Congo pepper. Chilies are also made into hot sauces or signature spice blends that are characteristic of a region. ajis. while red chilies have more vitamin A than carrots. guajillo. rouille of southern France.000 50. romesco of Spain. aji. salsas and moles of Mexico.000–50. How Prepared and Consumed: the ancient Mayans and Aztecs used chilies as food and medicine and in religious rituals and ceremonies. pasilla. chili de arbol. cascabel. shichimi togarashi of Japan. sweet banana. harissa of Tunisia. . Nowadays.000 100. red savino habanero. Kashmiri. South Americans. Guntur red. pepperoncino Mexi-bell. Mediterraneans. Tabasco. cabe rawit. yellow hot wax Mirasol. hot chile peppers are pickled or pureed and are used as table condiments or sauces all over the Caribbean. rocoto. Today.000–100. aji dulce. These ethnic cuisines use chile peppers as vegetables when fresh and as a spice when dried or smoked. nora. cachuacha. jalapeno. Hungarian sweet pepper. aji Amarillo. chili padi. Pakistan dundicut Chiltepin. they provide not only heat but also flavor. and visual appeal to foods around the world. Japanese use these spice mixtures. piment. green onions.000 40. and Southeast Asians use chile peppers to add zest or flavor to their cuisines. malagueta. pimiento. santaka. Bahamian. and clove. sandia. and the chaat masalas of India contain chile peppers as an essential flavoring. thyme.000–40. prik num. romesco. They are low in calories and sodium and contain potassium. sambals of Indonesia. prik khee fah. Green chilies have double the vitamin C of a regular-sized orange. Many dried chilies such as tien tsin. bird peppers Habaneros. Matouk sauce from the Antilles. Mexicans.000 16 million Chile peppers are high in vitamins A and C.000–25. ancho. Caribbeans. Similarly. Second Edition TABLE 19 Scoville Units of Chile Pepper Varieties Chile Pepper Variety Mild bell pepper. sweet paprika. such as schichimi togarashi. mustard.

in India. jerk. aji molida (with fresh chilies. acid indigestion. Dried or fresh chilies are a must in Thai salads and curry pastes. chile peppers are not commonly used. rocotos. and aid digestion by stimulating saliva and gastric juice flow. Ecuadorians. kochujang. malaguetas) to create moles. and Szechwan region. Pre-Columbian Indians mixed pepper with other ingredients for sore throats. while the Spanish use the mildly hot ones. romesco sauce. which give a pleasurable feeling. ajis. In the Mediterranean regions. jhoug. to promote better eyesight. arthritis. kaeng ped blend. a mixture of chile pepper and oil is added to spice up many curries and dals. Mexicans. which later .. cilantro. berbere. Chile peppers have long been recognized by many cultures around the world for their medicinal qualities. turmeric. The black curries of Sri Lanka contain bird peppers and cayennes with toasted spices. Chile peppers pair well with garlic. dried red chile peppers and fresh green chile peppers are popularly used. nuoc cham blend. yuccas. they are added to fermented soybeans and seafood to make fiery hot pastes for many dishes. and kim chee blend. pebre. nam prik blend. and Peruvians use many types of fresh and dried chilies (e. except in Hungary. stuffed rocotos. and Malaysian sambals. The name “chives” is derived from the Latin word cepa. Indonesian rendangs. dried whole red chilies are fried in hot oil until they turn dark brown. salbutes (puffed tortillas) topped with a hot sauce of habaneros. They were also used to ward off spells. periperi sauce. lime juice. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the Incas from South America regarded chile peppers as holy plants and used them in offerings to appease the gods. Chile peppers are believed to increase circulation. treat mouth sores and infected wounds. chilies add heat to bland potatoes. ceviches. shallots. and chimmichurri with ajis. In Eastern Europe. The Andean cultures used it to treat severe headaches and strokes. Spice Blends: chili powder. Ocapa (potato. moles. ginger. rendang blend. pebre (with olive oil. and red chilies). They were valued as currency and were used as decorative ornaments. fermented fish or shrimp. ma pla blend. and onions. garlic. salsas. Some examples of how chile peppers are used in ethnic cuisines are listed in Table 20. and condiments. ceviches. peanut. the North Africans usually use the hotter chilies. mole negro blend. capsaicin stimulates the release of endorphins. CHIVES Chives are a very popular garnishing spice in French and Chinese cooking.g. When chile peppers are eaten. jalapenos.A to Z Spices 91 In Asian cooking. cheese with ajis). herbs. reduce blood clots. and lime juice are common applications. Sri Lankans and South Indians use whole cut chilies abundantly in snacks. and. and fruit sauces. chutneys. coconut. and salsas. Korea. and curries. habaneros. meaning onion. The Caribs rubbed chilies (axi) into the wounds of would-be young warriors to strengthen their courage. This hot oil is added to Szechwan and Hunan stir-fries. Brazilians. cilantro. relieve rheumatic pain. and onions). Korean kimchis. galangal. earaches. and to expedite childbirth. In India. sambal trassi blend. coughs. fermented beans. In Southeast Asia. sesame oil. In Latin America.

in the United States. and Mexican sauces. pickles. salsas. stuffings. sauces. Called little onion in European languages. Family: Alliaceae (onion family). and Southeast Asia. div chesun (Bulgarian). used in Chinese and Indian cooking. China. There are many varieties from the West and the East. praso (Greek). for curries or ground into chili powder in Asia Jalapeno and chipotle Habaneros Ajis New Mexican Piquillos Exotics became cive in French. and Texas Popular in Mexico. in Southeast Asian and African curries and sambals. Yucatan salsas. manr sokh (Armenian). Yucateca (Mexican). Popular in Indian curries. Korean. pebre. fresh salsas. nacho toppings. garlic chives or Chinese chives: A. Origin and Varieties: chives are native to Central Asia and now cultivated in Scandinavia. or vegetables Are Thai peppers. and garlic and used as spice or vegetable. and chili con carne Popular in hot sauces of the Caribbean. chatnis. sambals. ceviche. snacks. and pickles of South and Central America. and in sauces. civette/ciboulette (French). curry colombo. and Flavorings. lukrezanets (Russian). santaka. Germany. Bajan (Barbados) sauces and jerk seasoning Found in many South American sauces—aji molida. used as sculptured toppings for Thai cuisines Used in Mexican and Central American salsas. salsas. walchii. empenadas Used in soups. Britain. They are also called warak basal (Arabic). table sauces. also used in the Southwest as decorative ristras Sweet. Common Names: onion chives. stuffings. asatsuki (Japanese). toppings. cebollino (Spanish). popular in Tex-Mex and Southwest cooking—in enchiladas. depending on the region. in Cajun and Creole cooking. irit (Hebrew). Seasonings. rellenos. bieslook (Dutch). meat. Creole cooking. and frenk sogani (Turkish). hontaka. Jamaica Hell Fire. good for pickling— escabeche. ceviches. Pica rico (Belize). schnittlauch (German). vindaloo. Tex-Mex. Norwegian). Mexico. slightly hot peppers found in Spanish cuisine—they are fire roasted or smoked and used to stuff fish. leek. purlog (Danish). bean dishes. tuberosum: Nepalese chive or Himalaya onion: A. erba cipollina (Italian). red chilies—they are dried and used for Szechwan stir-fries. and Southwest cooking. and pickles—they are the principal ingredient in Pickapeppa (Jamaica). graslok (Swedish. Scientific Name(s): regular chives: Allium (A) schoenoprasum. cebolinha (Portuguese). ocapa. relishes Added to Tex-Mex. and Japanese stirfries and condiments. Second Edition TABLE 20 Chile Peppers and Applications Variety Rocotos Chiltepin Serrano Tabasco Cayenne Description of Applications Popular in Andes and Mexico—salsas. and pickles. as chili bohs. chives are related to onion. in Chinese. and chimmichurri Used in Southwestern salsas.92 Handbook of Spices. . tareh (Farsi). stuffed with cheese or meat. Cajun.

where it was greatly treasured. and vichyssoise blend. and . Cinnamon is one of the oldest known spices. fish dishes. Portuguese. The bright green leaves of chives are good as a garnish in cold salads. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: chives have been used to help lower blood pressure and aid digestion. spring onions. fried rices. They have a more delicate flavor than scallions. vinegar. soy sauce. Spice Blends: remoulade blend. ku chai (Thai). and penthanethiol. Through trading by the Khasi tribe in North East India. and soups or when sprinkled over cooked sauces. They tend to lose most of their flavor through drying and when exposed to heat. Chives are used fresh or dried. parsley. cassia was used by the Chinese as a medicine as early as 2500 BC. Chinese chives are chopped or sliced and are used as a common garnish for all dishes. fines herbes. It was one of the ingredients in ancient European love potions. Chives pair well with lemon. long. kow choi (Cantonese). and finished meals. chives are used in cottage cheese. potatoes. Arab traders brought cinnamon from the Far East to Egypt and the West. CINNAMON Known as “sweet wood” in Malaysian. grilled meats. It is mentioned in the Bible and was used by Egyptians in embalming mixtures to preserve their pharaohs. garlic. cheese and cream sauces.A to Z Spices 93 Chinese Chives: garlic chives. dumpling sauce blend. fines herbs. delicate chivelike flavor. The Dutch. Cinnamon’s name is derived from the Greek word kinamon. Indonesian). soups. dried soups. stir-fried vegetables. The entire length of the tubular leaf is used in foods. jimbu (Nepalese). Chinese chives have flat and wider stems than regular chives. potassium. dips. kuchai (Malaysian. narrow stems attached to a bulb on one end and tube-shaped green leaves at the other. cocktail sauces. jui tsai (Mandarin). gravies. Their bulbs are also pickled. and baked potatoes. Chemical Components: the essential oil of chives consists mainly of dipropyl disulfide. and chile peppers. methyl pentyl disulfide. vitamin C. fried noodles. oniony flavor because of their sulfur content. Chives also stimulate the appetite and possess some antiseptic properties. tarragon. stews. sesame oil. ginger. Regular or onion chives have a mild. They are an essential flavoring of the spice blend. and sour cream. The Greeks and Romans used it as body perfume and medicine and burned it as incense. and ka choy (Khmer). that is commonly used in French cooking. Chives contain vitamin A. The finely chopped leaves and bulb are used to garnish vichyssoise. and folic acid. egg dishes. How Prepared and Consumed: chives are a popular ingredient in European cooking because of their delicate flavor. In the United States. Chinese chives or garlic chives are slightly garlicky and stronger in flavor than onion chives. The bulbs of chives have a delicate onionlike flavor. Properties: the stems of chives are bright green. It is fried in butter fat to get a more intense flavor. and dumpling fillings. The Nepalese and Tibetans add it to dals and momos (dumplings). Form: chives are hollow. The light purplish flowers of chives have a light.

seiron nikkei (Japanese). Chinesisener zimt/Vietnamesisches/Saigon zimt (German). There are three main types: Ceylon. fahej (Hungarian). which comes from Padang. canela de China (Portuguese). Common Names: cassia/Chinese cinnamon: false/bastard cinnamon. lavangamu (Telegu). Korintje. Cassia is referred to as “Chinese wood” by the Farsis. Seychelles. kassie (Dutch). korichnoje derevo (Russian). kanela (Tagalong). and que srilanca (Vietnamese). Seasonings. loureirii. Canton). Ceylon cinnamon/canela: Cinnamomum zeylanicum. and Madagascar cinnamon. lavanga patta (Kannada). darchi (Farsi). Indonesian cinnamon/kayu manis padang: Java cassia. English. kasia (Hebrew). seylan darcini (Turkish). South America. and North Vietnam and is also cultivated in Indonesia and Malaysia. including cinnamon. kashia keihi (Japanese). kayu manis (Malaysian/In-donesian). dalachini (Marathi). Mexican. Seychelles. It comes in many grades. has a flavor that is closer to Ceylon cinnamon (and sometimes traded as Ceylon cinnamon). England. canela (Spanish. There are mainly four types: Indonesian cinnamon [korintje (or Padang) and cassia vera]. you qui (Mandarin). kinesisk kanel (Danish). while the latter is most frequently used in Mexico. and Padang cinnamon. Sumatra. Scientific Name(s): Chinese cinnamon/cassia: Cinnamomum cassia. and Flavorings. Second Edition British explorers’ goal in searching for a quick route to the Far East in the fifteenth Century was to control the trade in spices. Indonesian). and South American cooking. kasia (Greek). classified as cassia. It is also called kerfe (Arabic). Portuguese). Indians. Vietnamese cinnamon (cassia lignea). cassia (Italian). op chuey (Thai). kanel (Swedish). kanela (Greek). cannelle de Chine/saigon (French). Family: Lauraceae. lavanga patti (Malayalam). darchini (Hindi). The former is used widely in East Asia.94 Handbook of Spices. called kayu manis padang (sweet wood). dalchini (Bengali). and Madagascar. zimt (German). kanel (Norweigian). Indochina. It is also called kerefa (Amharic). Burma. and Chinese cinnamon (Tunghing. It is also known as Padang zimt (German). Sikiang. kassia (Norwegian). burmannii. Indonesian cinnamon. Ceylon cinnamon is used abundantly in South Asian. rou kui (Mandarin). the lower grades are commonly sold in the United States. and the United States (sometimes mixed with Ceylon cinnamon). patta/ lavangum (Tamil). yuk qwai (Cantonese). cannelle (French). gun kwai (Cantonese). ginamon (Armenian). cin tarcini (Turkish). Origin and Varieties: cassia is native to China. and is also cultivated in Mexico. kurundu (Singhalese). and que don (Vietnamese). kassie (German). and South Asia. . kurfa kanel (Danish). Southeast Asia. darchini (Urdu). kerfa (Arabic). sa chwang (Laotian). cassia vera. There are several varieties of cinnamon. kaneel (Dutch). Ceylon cinnamon/canela: true cinnamon. op choey (Thai). kinamon (Hebrew). Indonesian cinnamon: C. darchin (Farsi). Timor cassia. and jaavankaneli (Finnish). Ceylon cinnamon/canela is native to Sri Lanka and India. and Arabs. koritsa (Russian). cannella (Italian). kyae-pi (Korean). is sometimes sold as Ceylon cinnamon in the United States because its aroma closely resembles it. Europe. tuj (Gujerati). dalchini (Assamese). canela de la Chine (Spanish). chek tum pak leong (Khmer). kayu manis (Malaysian. Central American. Vietnamese cinnamon: C. but two types are commonly used: Cassia (also called Chinese cinnamon) and Ceylon cinnamon (also called canela). dalasini (Swahili). canelle de Padang (French). Korintje.

 canela de  java  (Spanish). The bark of Ceylon cinnamon has a dark reddish brown interior color and a light brown or tan outer color. roots. and canela de Saigon (Spanish). Chinese and Vietnamese cinnamon are more intense in flavor than the other cassias. It has lower slime than Chinese or Vietnamese cinnamon. Vietnams kaya koritsa (Russian). Canela oil mainly consists of cinnamic aldehyde (65% to 75%) with eugenol (5% to 10%). shan yue gui (Mandarin). . Indoosische kaneel (Dutch). shiwanikei (Japanese).A to Z Spices 95 Indonesian  cinnamon:yeh  qwai  (Cantonese). safrol. and chips. and lower quality cinnamon comes from the side branches. while Chinese cinnamon has thick quills with coarse surfaces.5% to 2%. a harsh bitter taste. Ceylon cinnamon has a lighter colored and much thinner bark than the cassia. Cassia has a sweet spicy aroma.  Indosisk  kanel  (Danish). Cassia oil contains mainly cinnamic aldehyde (65% to 95%). has some use. buds. Chemical Components: depending on its origins. Saigon fahej (Hungarian). Sweeter and more delicate varieties of cassia are emerging today. and flowers. cinnamic acid. and trace amounts of eugenol. small amounts of coumarin. The yellow flowers of cassia are very fragrant. and this is indicative of good quality cinnamon. or ground. Its quills are thicker than those of Ceylon cinnamon so are less fragile. Indonesian or Korintje cinnamon’s aroma is similar to Ceylon cinnamon: slightly more intense but not harsh or bitter like Chinese or Vietnamese cinnamon. called buds. Ceylon cinnamon has slender and thin quills with smooth surfaces. The quills are the best grade.  falsa  cunforeira  (Portuguese). and canela has 0.  suramarit  (Thai). mainly cinnamic aldehyde with no eugenol. Form: every part of the cinnamon tree—the bark.3%). leaves. Cinnamon bark is sold whole. and is more pungent than Ceylon cinnamon. with an outer reddish brown color and a darker interior. mainly eugenol (70% to 95%) with linalool. cinnamyl acetate. The dried scented bark.and citruslike delicate flavor. cinnamyl acetate (5%). The bark oil is used extensively in commercial foods. Korintje cinnamon has a delicate flavor and is the least bitter. and thickness.” is ground.8-cineole.9% to 7% essential oil. with lesser grades being quillings.  and  que  ranh (Vietnamese). Properties: cassia has a coarser and thicker bark than Ceylon cinnamon. Canela leaf contains about 1% essential oil. not gritty. sweet. The oil is yellowish brown to brown in color and darkens as it ages. Finely ground cinnamon is smooth. breadth. Indonesian bark oil has 1% to 4% oil. cassia has 0. que qui. Cassia bark is more mucilaginous than canela bark. featherings. look like cloves and are sweetish and less aromatic than the bark. linalool (2. canella de Saigon (French). Cinnamon is graded according to its length. khe (Laotian). Ceylon cinnamon has a warm. Vietnamese cinnamon: Saigon cinnamon. benzaldehyde. slightly clove. and benzyl benzoate. Ceylon cinnamon has a more delicate flavor than cassia. Indonesian leaf oil has mainly cinnamaldehyde. cinnamic aldehyde. whereas cassia has a much darker outer surface. and caryophyllene. The unripe fruits of cassia. Saigon-zimt (german). canela de Saigao (Portuguese). sold as whole sticks called “quills. 1. The highest quality cinnamon comes from the trunk. in chunks.

Panang curry blend. and 2 lb. Ceylon cinnamon is mainly used in sweet applications. Indonesia. where traditionally. bananas. In East and Southeast Asia. curries. grapes. baharat. Cassia is the preferred cinnamon in the United States because of its spicy-sweet flavor. ras-elhanout. Children were also given clove necklaces to protect them from illnesses. onions. cinnamon was commonly used as a flavoring for meat because of its antibacterial properties which helped to prevent spoilage. are equivalent to 100 lb. . and breads. China. which are served hot with noodles and herb garnishes. wines. pickles. Asian and Latin American countries use whole and ground forms. sauces. Chinese herbalists used cinnamon to treat diarrhea and to help circulation and depression. corn. cassia is used in savory applications—five-spice blend. manganese. and cauliflower. apples. It is also indispensable in Latin American confections and chocolate beverages. iron. and English cooking. potassium. Latin American. The cinnamon stick flavors mulled cider. and Flavorings.96 Handbook of Spices. It is used in its ground form in fruit-based confections. chocolate. Cinnamon has calcium. it is an essential spice in the fiery curries. then so would the child. soups. soups. with rose petals in ras-el-hanout. The Vietnamese add it with star anise for their long-simmering beef soups. Indian curry blends. The cassia flowers perfume the sweets. Sri Lankan or Ceylon cinnamon is popular in European. Seasonings. mole negro. teas. North African. If the tree grew straight and strong. Since ancient times. and rice wine is popular for braised meat and poultry dishes. CLOVE Clove is native to the Moluccas (or Spice Islands). pho bo blend. when a child was born. Its leaves are used as a treatment for diarrhea. Cinnamon buds are dried and used for flavoring confections and pickles in China. cookies. berbere. Ceylon cinnamon is also popular in Arab and North African cooking: it is added with paprika in baharat. cakes. cinnamon stick is fried in hot oil. yogurt. Cinnamon pairs well with tomatoes. Overcooking makes it bitter. oranges. In Hunan. In England. and teas in China. and Chinese five-spice. a clove tree would be planted. soy sauce. Spice Blends: garam masala. In India and Sri Lanka. Middle Eastern. Cinnamon is also used to relieve head colds and nausea. magnesium. the ground form by itself or in a five-spice blend with Hoisin. nuts. and sauces. garam masalas. of freshly ground spice. and in the moles of Mexico. The leaves of Ceylon cinnamon are sometimes used as a substitute for Indian bay leaf to flavor curries or as a garnish in Indian and Southeast Asian dishes. and with black pepper in berbere. stewed fruits. Indonesians use a pair of cinnamon buds (growing side by side) in a drink for the bride and groom at weddings as a symbol of harmony and togetherness. and fragrant biryanis. and desserts. Second Edition The oleoresin from the bark is dark reddish brown in color. How Prepared and Consumed: European and Mediterranean regions primarily use the ground form of cinnamon. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: as early as 2700 BC. buns. called pho bos. peaches. pastries. whereby it unfolds to release its aroma. pies. and pastries. soups. For curries. It is then added to the curry or rice being cooked. and vitamin C. such as fruitcakes.

A to Z Spices 97 Cloves are an ancient spice but used extensively in meat curries. Danish). kruidnagel (Dutch). lavang (Hindi. sodium. mikhak (Farsi). pickled beets. Clove contains vitamin C. ground cloves or oil are used in baked ham. ting hsiang (Mandarin). Sumatra. clovas de comer (Tagalog). Arab traders introduced clove to the Romans and Greeks. red cabbage. The other components are eugenyl acetate (7%). and meaty notes. bunga cinkeh (Malaysian. vitamin A. kurnful (Arabic). and musty aroma. luncheon meats. gvozdika (Russian). garifalo (Greek). Their taste is sharp. fruitcakes. Scientific Name(s): Syzyium aromaticum (formerly Eugenia caryophyllata or E. karayanpu (Malayalam). and the Spanish clavo. chocolaty. lavanga (Bengali). In the United States. The rose-colored buds are picked just before opening and are then dried in the sun. caramelized. when court officials chewed cloves to sweeten their breaths in the Emperor’s presence. Clove stems have 6% essential oil (about 83% eugenol). woody. fruity. pot roasts. of freshly ground spice. garofano (Italian). The yellowish wrinkled cloves are immature and yield a low eugenol content. karanfil (Turkish). and calcium. potassium. β-caryophyllene (9%). clou de girofle (French). and puddings. desserts. The color of the clove changes to a dark reddish brown stem with a light reddish brown bud or crown. Zanzibar. Family: Myrtaceae. choji (Japanese). cured meats. laung (Assamese). all mean “nail. cravinho (Portuguese). How Prepared and Consumed: clove goes well with sweet. karabu nati (Singhalese). kan ploo (Thai). tziporen (Hebrew). Form: cloves are dried unopened flower buds that are sold whole or ground. and leaves have about 2% essential oil (with 80% eugenol). Its oleoresin is brownish green to greenish brown in color. The ground form is from the clove crown. Pemba. manganese. who used it in their love potions. Later. Chemical Components: the essential oils from the clove buds are superior to those found in clove stems or leaves.67%). kan phou (Laotian). French clou or German nelke terms. The name clove derived from the Latin clavus. Gujerati. and hanh con (Vietnamese).” headless cloves. The Chinese used cloves as early as 200 BC. Europeans fought each other to monopolize the clove trade in the Spice Islands because of its value. Origin and Varieties: cloves are native to the Moluccas islands of Indonesia and are now produced in Brazil. α and β-humulene (1. and Jamaica. It darkens upon aging. which is yellowish green in color. nellike (Norwegian. Madagascar. Grenada. Common Names: cloves are also called krinful (Amharic). Clove also has 13% tannins (quercitannic acid) and 10% fixed oils. magnesium. Defective cloves such as “mother cloves. Properties: cloves have a spicy. sausages. burning. ley nyim bwint (Burmese). The clove buds have from 5% to 20% essential oil. It contains mainly eugenol (81%) that gives its characteristic pleasant and sharp burning flavor. kryddnejlikor (Swedish). aromaticus). Sri Lanka. Marathi). carrots. Indonesian). It contributes to the . 6 lb. clavo (Spanish). traces of benzaldehyde and chavicol. calcium. Malaysia. or fermented cloves and stems are impurities.” because of its resemblance to the shape of a nail. of oleoresin are equivalent to 100 lb. ding heung (Cantonese). bitter. salad dressings. chorpogpach (Armenian). khan plu (Khmer). and pungent with a numbing feeling. karambu (Tamil). sweet. nelke (German).

Spice Blends: Chinese five-spice. gulai ayam blend. coffee. so it is used as a mild anesthetic for toothaches. In Indonesia. cloves are used in many spice blends. ras-el-hanout. Clove is an important ingredient in Chinese five-spice blend that is used for barbecued meats or pork. The Arabs used it as an aphrodisiac. In the Americas. Second Edition flavor of Worcestershire sauce and ketchup. cloves provide a sweet aroma to local cigarettes called kretek. In Mexico. the Chinese ate it to attain immortality. and Flavorings. pickles. garam masala. and spicy condiments. and pickles. . the Greek physician. due to their perception of a “buggy” odor from the unripe seeds. stem. berbere. and Middle Eastern foods. while the Romans used it as a seasoning. Clove is a pain reliever. Portuguese women in the East Indies distilled a liquor from cloves for heartaches. As early as fourth century BC. it was combined with nutmeg and black pepper to create an aphrodisiac for men. in France. Latins. In North African cooking. each having its own distinct flavor. and mincemeat. clove enhances the local moles and other sauces. and ras-el-hanout. curry blends. and root. Seasonings. Coriander is mentioned in Sanskrit literature as far back as 5000 BC and in Greek Eber Papyrus as early as 1550 BC. galat dagga. quatre epices. Clove helps to get rid of intestinal gas and fights nausea. with its seed. such as baharat. recommended coriander for its medicinal value. it is added to apple tarts. Coriander in the culinary world includes the fruit (seed). in Germany. coriander has been enjoyed by many cultures for its culinary and medicinal values. that are used to flavor meat and rice dishes. Coriander is a versatile ingredient. culantro. Sri Lankans and North Indians use cloves whole or ground in garam masala. chile peppers. Coriander was found in Egyptian tombs dating from 1090 BC. long coriander. Clove causes the blood vessels near the skin to dilate and bring blood to surface. it is used in quatre epices. leaf. rendang blend. Its leaves are used to soothe skin burns. and fruits. CORIANDER (SEED. They are also added to their rendangs. while the seeds are called coriander. or shado beni. and root commonly flavoring Latin American. clove is mixed with sauerbraten and breads. LEAF CILANTRO) Since ancient times. meat dishes. Europeans like clove in sweet dishes. soup stocks. and ketchup blend. baharat. fish or meat extracts. In India. and stewed fruits. and Asians use a more pungent variety called leafy coriander. leaf. About 400 BC. soy sauce. In England. It blends well with cinnamon. Clove is also an ingredient in the betel nut mixture (used as a breath freshener) that is chewed after meals. Caribbeans. tamarind. biryanis. Its name is derived from the Greek word koris meaning bedbug. Worcestershire sauce blend. Asian. berbere. Clove has antibacterial and antifungal properties because of its eugenol content. Hippocrates. chocolate. gulais. thus giving a warm feeling to the skin. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: ancient physicians recommended clove as an aid to digestion and to promote circulation. The Ethiopians add clove to coffee before roasting.98 Handbook of Spices. the leaves and stems are called cilantro.

There are many types of coriander leaf (or cilantro). pak hom pam (Laotian). or minced. Romania. Urdu). and nutty flavor with a hint of bitter orange. Indische Petersilie (German). The stem and roots are used fresh or dried and are used whole. Family: Umbelliferae (carrot) or Apiaceae (parsley family). coriander (Danish). persil arabe (French). The ground Indian variety has sweeter notes and is lighter in color than the Moroccan or Romanian versions. Indonesian). Moroccan coriander is bigger than Indian coriander. It is deep green. coriondro (Spanish). koyendoro (Japanese). Morocco. and ngo gai (Vietnamese). Coriander seed contains calcium. zir’ey kusbara (Hebrew). koriandr (Russian). van sui (Khmer). It has a stronger and more pungent flavor than the parsleylike cilantro. Its color varies from a brownish yellow to a deeper brown. soapy. and magnesium. Swedish. Origin and Varieties: native to Asia. The flat-leaf. coriandolo (Italian). shredded. Mexican parsley. Norwegian. Japanese saw leaf herb. Long coriander: Eryngium foetidum. yuen sui (Mandarin). It is sold whole or ground. phak chee met (Thai). geshniz (Farsi). dhane (Gujerati). Malayalam). sodium. It is also called kuzbara warak (Arabic). Indonesian). kusbara (Hebrew). . phosphorus. pak chi farang (Thai). ketumbar (Malay. 6 to 10 inches long with serrated edges. and ngo (Vietnamese). Indonesian). known as thorny coriander. kothammalli elay (Tamil. with mint and pepper overtones. dhania (Urdu). kothamallie (Singhalese). langer koriander (German). Dutch. Properties: the many parts of the coriander plant exhibit different sensory characteristics. Coriander seed is spherical to slightly oblong and ribbed. heung choi (Cantonese). and floral-like undertones. cilantro (Spanish). Coriander leaf—coriander leaf. kotthammallie (Sinhalese). coriandre (French). Form: it is a globular-shaped seed (or fruit) with the mature form having a brownish yellow color. kuzbara hab (Arabic). the Middle East. and Southeast Asia. chandon beni (French). Long coriander leaf—thorny coriander. A second variety. the United States (Kentucky). but two types are most commonly known and used. spicy. recao leaf. chopped. and Vietnamese ngo. the Caribbean. cedar. Coriander seed has tart. Puerto Rican coriander. hui sui (Mandarin). parsleylike variety has a refreshing. koendoro (Japanese). Mexico. koliandro (Greek). nan nan zee (Burmese). phak chee (Thai). koriander (German. chee van sui (Khmer). Malayalam). is also commonly called “culantro” or “recao” by Latin Americans. cilantro. piney. while the Romanian type is smaller in size. The leaf is used fresh (whole or chopped) and dried (whole or crushed). ketumbar Java (Malaysian. fitweed (Jamaican). daun ketumbar (Malaysian. now grown in India. shado beni (in the English-speaking Caribbean). culantro. giligilani (Swahili). dhoney (Bengali). Common Names: coriander seed is also called dimbilal (Amharic). dhania (Hindi. yuan suey (Tagalog). and ngo gai (Vietnamese). Mexican coriander. kishnish (Turkish). cilantrillo. Japanese saw leaf. kothamalli (Tamil. hara dhania (Hindi). aniselike. kinza (Russian). coentro (Portuguese). nan nan bin (Burmese). Argentina. kinj (Armenian). heung soi (Cantonese). and Chinese parsley. Hungary). Green unripe seeds have a haylike strong odor while the ripe seeds have a sweet. and slightly lemony flavor. kulantro (Tagalog).A to Z Spices 99 Scientific Name(s): Coriandrum sativum.

Mediterranean. pastries. or snacks. Cilantro is generally chopped or pureed to add flavor and color to green salsas.5% to 10%). stews.6%). smen (clarified butter).2% essential oil. Moroccan tagines and soups (harira). Coriander seed is also coarsely crushed. mostly aliphatic aldehydes (benzyl benzoate. Cilantro adds flavor and color to the cuisines of Southeast Asia.7%). limonene (1. and fish. phosphorus. such as baharat and tabil. the ground form and oil are used in hot dogs. salsas. pickles. confections. Yemenites mix coriander with dried fruits. Seasonings. β-terpinene (9% to 10%). It can be used whole or chopped to brighten dishes such as salads. linalyl acetate. and geraniol (1. and snacks such as bisteeya and falafel.100 Handbook of Spices. camphor (5%). sausages. The pungent aroma of long coriander is due to the long chain aldehydes. and decanal). Ethiopians use coriander as an ingredient in berbere to season sauces. Coriander pairs well with lentils. vegetables. Indian variety has lower linalool than the European variety but has higher ester. and desserts. The fresh leaf contains vitamin A (5200 IU/100 gm). India. The mature. Chemical Components: depending on regional varieties. Mexicans use the whole seeds inside a hard sugar candy called colaciones. potassium. and North Africa. Turks flavor their strong coffee with ground coriander. and paprika on lamb before it is roasted. The aldehydes. Coriander leaf or cilantro has 0. like peppercorns. α-pinenes (6. and salads. chutneys. and Southeast Asian foods. which is used to make bread pudding. trans-2-tridecenal. potatoes. trans-2-tridecenel. and garlic. calcium. or soups. coconut milk. and dips. calcium. The trans-2-tridecenel and decanal are responsible for the fresh taste of cilantro. Indian. and iron. Second Edition Coriander root has stronger and more pungent notes than the leaf or seed. stews. Its oleoresin is brownish yellow with 3 lb. Mexican. whole or ground. ρ-cymene (3. butter. dips. frankfurters. The fixed oil is about 13%. are used in North American. Coriander seed develops a more intense aroma when lightly dry roasted or toasted in oil. used in couscous. and eugenol. green chilies. or bhel puris (North Indian snacks). caryophyllene. In the United States. and other spices to make a seasoning called jhoug for dips and condiments.7%). onions.7%). When young. stews. the entire plant is used to make chutneys and sauces in India. mainly d-linalool (60% to 70%). taco toppings. samosa fillings. North African. vitamin C (250 mg/100 gm). freshly ground coriander seed.1% to 0. Moroccans use a rub of ground coriander combined with garlic. cookies. and potassium. ripe seeds. chilis. Mexico. the United States (Tex-Mex). It has less linalool than the seed. pine nuts. and Flavorings. It is commonly added to Middle Eastern and Northern African foods such as Egyptian bean puree (bissara). and seasoned with coriander leaves. coriander seed has 0. The dried leaf contains higher amounts of vitamin C. How Prepared and Consumed: the Romans were the first Europeans to introduce coriander as a cooking spice.2% to 2% essential oil. beans. and added to foods. of oleoresin equivalent to 100 lb. Lamb dumplings are filled with ground lamb. Indian and Southeast Asians roast the whole seed before using it in curries. geranyl acetate (2. magnesium. curries. luncheon meats. Coriander is a popular ingredient in Tunisian spice blends. cinnamaldehyde. and decanal are found in the unripe seeds. Whole cilantro is generally used . the Caribbean.

green chilies. curries. The leaf has a great affinity to other herbs such as mint. salsa blend. They are indispensable ingredients in Thai green curries and in Vietnamese soups and salads. tabil. In India. Malaysian kurma blend. and other spices to make famous local kormas that accompany rice or local breads. and Central and South Americans as a garnish in cooked salsas. bell peppers. it is pureed with spearmint. baharat. the Marathis saute cilantro with mint and add it to chutneys or it is chopped and added as garnish to snacks or dips. and yogurt. pain in joints. identifying it as a foreign variety of caraway. and Romans and English used it to pay their taxes. It is an essential coloring and flavoring ingredient in a popular seasoning of North India called chat masala. and Arabs for longevity and as an aphrodisiac.  or  Eastern  caraway. and lemongrass. where it was named Roman caraway and is now called kummel. surpassed by caraway. Coriander root and stem are chopped and used in Thai. recaito. The Thais add coriander root and stems to curries to give them an extra edge. Cilantro—chat masala/green masala. and seafood. They also used it to season food and as a digestion aid. chicken. onion. chimmichurri. and fish marinade. tomato. Then the Europeans confused it with caraway and called it  Roman. and rheumatism. ceviche blends. It is also considered a mild sedative. zhoug. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: coriander seed is an ancient spice eaten by the Chinese. The Greeks flavored their wines and tonics with coriander seeds. ginger. chicken. couscous. . Culantro is commonly used by Mexicans. salsa verde blend. Cumin got its name from the Sanskrit word sughandan meaning “good smelling. Southeast Asians use it as a garnish for soups. Spice Blends: coriander seed—curry powders. Its popularity in Europe slowly disappeared after the Middle Ages. In Trinidad and Jamaica. Cilantro pairs well with chile peppers (fresh or smoked). cinnamon. Early Egyptians and European monks used coriander as a medicine for stomach ailments and to perfume cosmetics and flavor liqueurs. and curries. lime or lemon. Vietnamese use culantro as a wrap to give fragrance to meats. garam masala. corn. seviches. Turkish. it is a popular seasoning used with fish and meat marinades. noodles. chili powder. CUMIN AND BLACK CUMIN Cumin has been a popular spice in India since ancient times. Puerto Rican. to help purify the blood and to relieve nausea. and pickle blends. Cilantro is also chopped and served with iced tea or coffee. In Malaysia. tortilla. garlic. Culantro/recao—recados. The leaves are used to soothe skin burns. rice.A to Z Spices 101 fresh and is added toward the end of cooking to preserve its pungency and bright green color. or recaitos. basil. cumin was a very valuable spice. Coriander is traditionally used to treat migraines and indigestion. berbere. fillings. ceviche blend. and soups. sofrito. The Romans introduced it to Germany. cumin. Puerto Ricans. Thai green curry blend. parsley.” In Europe. taco toppings.  Egyptian. Indians. jhug/zhoug/sug. and Asian Indian soup stocks. and black bean blend. nuts.

which is pale to colorless. thinner. Cumin has 10% fixed oil. brown. caraway-like notes. zireh kuhi (Farsi). When cumin is toasted in oil or dry roasted. kala/shahi jeera (Hindi).” by the Moguls. kamun (Arabic). Black cumin—Kashmiri cumin. about 3 mm long. Common Names: cumin—green cumin. Indonesian). the Middle East. black cumin: Cuminum nigrum.1%). meaning “imperial cumin. and much smaller fruit. Second Edition The ancient Egyptians used it to mummify royalty. It has now become a staple ingredient in South Asian and Latin American cooking. Muglai cooking combined Iranian and Middle Eastern ingredients with local preparation methods and influenced much of North Indian cuisine. it was a popular ingredient in Muglai cooking and was given the name shahi jeera.102 Handbook of Spices. who were Muslims. romai komeny (Hungarian).5%). it contains cuminic aldehyde (33%). mainly containing monoterpene aldehydes. karun jeeragum (Malayalam.5% essential oil (depending on age and regional variations). ziya (Burmese). thien khao (Laotian). comino/comino bianco (Italian). it becomes nutty. buraku kumin (Japanese). svartkarve (Norwegian). Egypt. black caraway. Iran. and kalajeera (Urdu). schwarzer kreuzkummel (German). ρ-mentha-1. and darker. svartkummin (Swedish). It is now cultivated in Iran. romischer kummel (German). jeeru (Gujerati). Bengali). met yeeraa (Thai). ruled North India during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. hsiao hui hsiang (Mandarin). jiragum (Tamil). China. kimyon (Turkish). ma chin (Khmer). Cumin has a nutty. spiskummin (Swedish). comino nero (Italian). spids kommen (Danish). cumin/cumin blanc (French). kaluduru (Singhalese). is grown in Kashmir. and Egypt. Pakistani. kimino (Greek). Ground. ripe fruit or seed that is available whole or ground. kmin (Russian). Tamil). kumin (Japanese).6%). Turkey. and cummin (English). jeeragam (Malayalam). Chemical Components: cumin has 2. and Flavorings. Family: Umbelliferae (carrot family) or Apiaceae (parsley family). . Scientific Name(s): cumin: Cuminium cyminum. jeeraka (Telegu). Syria. and β-farnesene (1. warm. spicy. Indonesia. Iran. Chiefly. terpinene (29. Black cumin seeds are smaller. and Iranian foods. or greenish yellow in color. and jirah (Urdu). Origin and Varieties: it is indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean. Seasonings. jintan putih (Malay.5% to 4. it has a dark brown to a brownish yellow color. Properties: cumin seed is elongated and oval shaped with a ridged surface. very thin. It is light brown. Form: a dried. is a popular spice in North Indian. siew wui heung (Cantonese).8%). white cumin. earthy.3-dien-7-al (5.5%). They taste sweeter than cumin with intense lemony. It is also called kamun aswad (Arabic). jeera (Hindi. Mexico. with a richer and mellower flavor. and Roman nutmeg flower. comino negro (Spanish). The Moguls. Also referred to as Kashmiri cumin in India. zwarte komijn (Dutch). ρ-cymene (8. and bitter taste with a penetrating. spisskummen (Norwegian). cumin noir (French). a smaller variety of cumin with a different flavor. β-pinene (13%). Black cumin. grayish. jira (Swahili). Black cumin is dark brown. and slightly lemony aroma. and Argentina. It is also called kemun (Amharic). cominho (Portuguese). kamun (Hebrew). comino/comino blanco (Spanish). Black cumin with origins in North India. almost black. cuminyl alcohol (2. suduru (Singalese). and Pakistan. and India.

In South India. of freshly ground spice. such as Yemeni zhoug and Saudi Arabian baharat. dispels gas in the abdomen. adobos. Spice Blends: garam masala. ginger. It is also widely used in Iranian pickles and meat dishes. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in ancient times. jhoug. Iranians use black cumin to enhance many meat and lamb dishes. chutneys. and Tex-Mex cooking. black beans. Cumin contains calcium. Black cumin is popular in North African and Middle Eastern cuisines. kebabs. since ancient times. It is an essential flavoring of meats and rices in Kashmiri cuisine. lassis (yogurt drinks). and achiote blend. baharat. couscous. limonene and ρ-cymene. curry powder. onions. curries. sodium. In Europe today. cumin was ground and spread on breads and was used as a substitute for black peppercorns. vegetables. Egyptians and Indians took it to relieve stress and lower blood pressure. potassium. How Prepared and Consumed: in ancient Rome. garlic. which is used to flavor chili con carne. In Mexican and Caribbean cooking. which is based on rich creamy sauces. and a liquor called kummel. while in France and Germany. such as Myanmar (Burma). vitamin A. In Europe during the Middle Ages. ground cumin is used in bread. In India. pastries. turmeric. magnesium. 5 lb. and ground meat dishes (kibbeh) of the Middle East. whole cumin is roasted in oil or ghee. and German girls flavored bread with cumin to keep their lovers from straying. ras el hanout.6% essential oil. and the breads of North India and Pakistan. ground and mixed with curry leaves. whole seeds are used mainly to flavor Swiss and Dutch cheeses or German sauerkraut. Cumin has become an essential part of Southeast Asian curries. When dry roasted. and relieves cramping. especially in chili powder. iron. chili con carne panch phoron. and other roasted spices to make a spice blend called sambar podi. garam masalas. Cuban. the Roman women drank tea spiked with cumin to give a paler complexion. potatoes. and it was also used as a symbol of love. and many tortilla fillings. and enchilada and burrito fillings. chili powder. . chile peppers. Oleoresin cumin is brownish to yellowish green in color. and oregano. mainly carvone (45% to 60%). Greeks associated it with the symbol of greed. biryanis. whole cumin develops a more intense aroma and is added to Indian and Sri Lankan curries. and phosphorus. lentils. It is used in tagines (meat stews) of North Africa and in lamb roasts.A to Z Spices 103 Black cumin has 0. black cumin is used whole and roasted and is added to yogurts. Cumin is also a popular ingredient in Mexican. and Singapore. especially where there is an Indian influence. sambar podi. cumin was used for its medicinal properties to aid digestion and to treat dysentery. are equivalent to 100 lb. In India. Malaysia. sausages. Cumin also stimulates circulation. cumin is a popular spice in achiote blends. kormas. Cumin pairs well with coriander. cakes. It is a component of tandoori and garam masala to enhance chicken and meat dishes. Southeast Asian. cumin was a popular flavoring that was also associated with superstition.5% to 1.

potatoes. dill (Norwegian.61%). β-phellandrene.9-epoxy-p-menth-1ene. sauces. Turkey. American dill. Its flavor is less intense than European dill. dill (German). Second Edition DILL AND DILLWEED In the southern Mediterranean region. Form: dill seeds are used whole or crushed and are sold as dried whole seeds or ground. oval shape. oval. The European dill seed is brown with a light rim and a curved. Swedish). Dill is still popular in northern Europe as a flavoring for breads. Seasonings. shamir (Hebrew). shabath (Arabic). Family: Umbelliferae (carrot famlly) or Apiaceae (parsley family). dill was popular for its medicinal properties. shih-lo (Mandarin). samit (Armenian). aneth odorant (French). limonene (6%).6%). endro (Portuguese). α-pinene. Indian dill seed is tan or light brown in color with a yellowish edge and a pale ridge. The bluish green leaves of the European variety dill weed. diru (Japanese). limonene (33%). ukrop (Russian).5% to 4% essential oil. Scientific Name(s): Anethum graveolens: European dill (true dill). It also called insilal (Amharic). It is longer and narrower than European dill. phak si (Laotian). including ρ-cymene. The dried leaves do not have much flavor. and Japan. Scandinavia. mild caraway-like odor and an aniselike taste. Poland. Indian dill seeds have 1% to 4% essential oil. and tieu hoi hurong (Vietnamese). enduru (Sinhalese). and Flavorings. which is pale yellow in color and consists mainly of carvone (30% to 60%). dill (Danish). shivit and sheveed (Farsi). In India it is used for treating gastric disorders. Dill’s name comes from the Old Norse word dilla. Dill was also believed to have magical properties and was valued as an ingredient in love potions and aphrodisiacs. Romans. and pickles. dille (Dutch). and Indian dill. It is also cultivated in the United States. meaning “to soothe” because Norse parents used it to ease the stomach pains of crying babies and to lull them to sleep. It also has trans-dihydrocarvone (16. which is light brown in color. and Greeks. taste anise-like and are fresher and milder than the seed. Chemical Components: European dill seeds have 2. anitho (Greek). England. and eventually northern Europeans. adas manis/adas cina (Indonesian/Malaysian). Anethum sowa: Indian dill. Dill promoted digestion and soothed the stomachs of Assyrians and later Egyptians. caraway-like taste. but it has a harsher. dereotu (Turkish). samin (Burmese).104 Handbook of Spices. It has high dillapiole (52%) but has less carvone (21%) than the European type. Its back notes are slightly sharp and pungent. and dihydrocarvone. The seed is tiny. Common Names: European dill. finely chopped. called dillweed. and α-pinene (1%). northern India. as early as 3000 BC. and α-phellandrene (20. dihydrocarvone (17%). or ground. aneto (Italian). eneldo (Spanish). Origin and Varieties: dill is native to the southern Mediterranean and southern Russia. The East Indian dill is mellower and less intense than the European dill. satakuppi sompa (Tamil). 3. are used fresh or dried and are sold whole. suwa/suwa patta (Hindi). soups. Properties: dill seeds (or fruits) and the leaves possess different flavors. see loh (Cantonese). The feathery leaves. pak chee lao (Thai). and flat with a sweet. .

dillapiole. casseroles. bread. India. potassium. condiments. especially spinach. mustard-based sauces. baby lamb. breads. It is greenish to pale amber in color. pickling spice.35%. and dillweed and then eaten as a salad. and turmeric. The essential oil is pale yellow and contains a high proportion of terpenes but contains less carvone (20% to 40%) than the seed. magnesium. sauerkraut. Dillweed is enjoyed by Germans who add it to potato and fish soups with cucumber. and other vegetable dishes. cheeses. dillweed is added with other leafy spices for rice dishes. lemon juice. sour cream. pine nuts. and stews. and other monoterpenes. vinegar. Dill seeds pair well with cabbage. stimulates appetite. sausages. salad dressing blend. of oleoresin are equivalent to 100 lb. and white pepper. and salad dressings. lentil. mayonnaise. myristicin. Scandinavians love the flavor of dillseed with boiled fish and lamb and in accompanying creamy sauces. and dillweed for their dolmadakis. Scandinavians. They also used it for treating hiccups and many ailments. How Prepared and Consumed: Europeans (Germans. and 5 lb. cumin. and induces sleep. Dill oleoresin is produced mainly from the seed with some from the European dillweed. or the oils in pickled cucumbers. It is an important ingredient in a tonic that is given to babies in England. about 0. and folic acid. lentils. black pepper. Dill leaves contain calcium. parsley. Indian dill seed is used in sausages. yogurt. potatoes. Dill seeds contain calcium. and vegetable dish of the Parsi community in Bombay. Turks use dillweed with spinach. . bean. Spice Blends: dal curry blends. Chewing on the seeds clears halitosis. fish. and dolmadakis blend. and yogurt. and Southeast Asia to relieve colic pains. eggs. eastern and central Europeans) and North Americans use the seeds. garlic. It is usually added toward the end of cooking to retain its flavor. In the United States. and vegetable dishes. potassium. Dillweed is a popular spice in the Middle East for rice. leaves. pilaf blend. a popular meat. and by Russians who add it to pickled vegetables and to flavor sour cream sauce for stuffed cabbage. In Malaysia and Indonesia. processed meats. seafood. sour cream. dill pickles. flavored vinegars. bean dips. Its typical fresh aroma is due to α-phellandrene. phellandrene (10% to 20%). sodium. Dillweed is used in fish sauces and salad dressings. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Egyptians and Greeks brewed dill seed into a magic potion used against witchcraft. Dillweed goes well with rice. sauerkraut blend. meat. It is an essential flavoring in dhansak. onion. breads. and vitamin A. of freshly ground spice. Greeks stuff grape leaves with rice. Principle components are limonene (30% to 40%). soups.A to Z Spices 105 The European dillweed has much less essential oil than the seed. North Indians use dill seed in braised beans. salads. The seeds are ground and added as a seasoning to many dishes. paprika. iron. phosphorus. potato salad. pickles. Pureed beans are mixed with onion. leafy vegetables. salad dressings. onions. Dillweed is used to flavor green. Asian Indians use dill seed to relieve stomach pains and hiccups because of its soothing effect on the digestive system. and mild cheeses. chili powder.

Chemical Components: epazote contains less than 1% essential oil and has mostly monoterpenes and its derivatives. meaning disagreeable or foul. ambrosia (Italian). phosphorus. α-pinene. and mole blend. meksika cayi (Turkish). erva formiqueira (Portuguese).” Scientific Name(s): Chenopodium ambrosioides. . and epatzotl. cheeses. citronmalla (Swedish). cumin. garlic. epazote/yerba de Santa Maria (Spanish). and stews. Properties: epazote has a herbaceous. bitter taste with faint lemony notes. chau hang (cantonese). Origin and Varieties: epazote is native to central and southern Mexico and Central America. pork fat. Family: Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family). bean herb. It has a strong pungent turpentine odor with camphor and mintlike overtones. the origin of epazote’s nickname. skunkwood. It is also used to treat dysentery. Spaniards flavor teas with epazote. Epazote pairs well with cilantro. Second Edition EPAZOTE Epazote characterizes the taste of Mayan cuisine in the Yucatan and Guatemala.106 Handbook of Spices. Both the leaf and the stem are used in cooking. and niacin.” reflecting its strong aroma. Mexican mothers steep the herb in milk and sugar and serve this tonic to their children to rid them of intestinal parasites. pinto beans. vitamin A. corn. and Flavorings. strong. moles. huitlacoche. soups. fillings and toppings. Europe. black beans. It is also called mentruz (Brazilian). epote. moles. quesadillas. frijoles negros. meaning “sweat. Even the flowers and unripe seeds are used. soups. The name “epazote” comes from the Nahuatl words. How Prepared and Consumed: Mexicans and Central Americans use epazote fresh in salads. and Mexicans use it in many bean dishes. Mexican tea. Spice Blends: black bean soup blend. It is cultivated in the United States. West Indian goosefoot. chipotle peppers. huitlacoche pate blend. Asia. Another variety is used in the southern United States as a cure for intestinal worms. Seasonings. wormseed. refried bean blend. lime. sitronmelde (Norwegian). Form: epazote has small serrated leaves which are tender and green when young and turning red and coarse when mature. mexicanischer traubentee (German). mushrooms. tortilla soup blend. “wormseed. stinkweed. and trans-iso-carveol. limonene and ρcymene with camphor. because of its lemony undertones. It also goes well in tortilla soups. Epazote contains calcium. It is used as fresh or dried forms. such as ascaridol (up to 70%). thus. sweet pigweed. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: epazote helps prevent flatulence. and squash blossoms. vitamin C. iron. and cau dau hoi (Vietnamese).and chile-based foods such as refried beans (frijoles refritos). onion. It is usually added toward the end of cooking to prevent bitterness in the finished product. terpinene. The young leaves are milder and less bitter in flavor. and Jerusalem parsley (English). bean. Mexico. amenka-xitasou (Japanese). The dried form has less flavor than the fresh form. katuayamodakam (Malayalam). Common Names: pazote. The Swedes call it citronmalla. myrcene. chou xing (Mandarin). and Central America. thymol. mirhafu (Hungarian). epazot (Russian). and meats and especially to enhance huitlacoche. or rice and beans.

They used all parts of this plant as ingredients in their foods and as medicine to fight diseases and to sharpen their vision. Tamil). fennel was considered a royal spice and was served to the king with fruits. and cay thi la (Vietnamese). fun-cho (Portuguese). The Indian fennel is smaller and straighter than the European fennel with a sweeter anise flavor. Fennel has a fresh. is also known as French or Roman fennel. and so it was called “marathon” in reference to the battle where the Greeks defeated the Persians in 490 BC. Iran. samit (Armenian). are oval and ridged. and the United States. Indian fennel is reported to be a distant variety. finokio (Greek). and bulb of the Florence fennel are used as garnishes or vegetables in the Mediterranean region. fankal (Swedish). and pickled fish seasoned with fennel seeds. During the thirteenth century in England. India. In fact.” Arabs confuse it with anise and many in Europe think it as a variety of dill. officinalle All). Hungary. wuih heung. Form: fennel is available as whole seeds or ground. called Foeniculum vulgare var. Native to the Mediterranean. Russia. Mandarin). Family: Apiaceae (parsley family). moti saunf. The bitter fennel is called Foeniculum (F) vulgare Mill (or F. fennel represented success. fennel is thought to be a variety of anise (which is called saunf in Hindi) in India. also referred to as seeds. Bitter fennel is grown in central Europe. perun jeerakam (Malayalam. Fennel was also a symbol of success to the Romans. The most common variety in the United States is bitter fennel. yira (Thai). hui-hsiang (Cantonese. Argentina. which means “sweet cumin. Scientific Name(s): there are many varieties of fennel. Properties: the fruits.A to Z Spices 107 FENNEL SEED Fennel seeds resemble anise. so many cultures use them interchangeably. The green leaf. which is eaten as a vegetable. aniselike aroma with a slightly bittersweet taste. The bulbous . Germany. venkel (Dutch). uikyo (Japanese). bread. and the United States. mouri (Bengali). badishep (Marathi). wariari (Gujerati). Morocco. The Finocchio or Florence (Italian-type) sweet fennel is grown for its bulbous stalk. It is cultivated in France. anis (Tagalog). finocchio (Italian). Indonesian). shamar (Arabic). fenchel (German). means big. fennikel (Danish). The Persian fennel is the smallest size with a strong anise taste. cumin. the Hindi name for fennel. They are bright or pale green to yellowish brown in color. guamoori (Assamese). thick anise seed. fennikel (Norwegian). Called madhurika in Sanskrit. it is also called insilal (Amharic). stalk. The leaves have an aniselike taste with a slight sweetness. sonf (Urdu). Indonesians think of fennel as a variety of cumin and call it jintan manis. shumar (Hebrew). but the two main types are sweet fennel and bitter fennel. The sweet fennel. moti saunf (Hindi). Italy. pedajirakaramu (Telegu). maduru (Sinhalese). fennel spread to the Far East and far north in Europe To the ancient Greeks. and caraway in flavor. hinojo (Spanish). Origin and Varieties: sweet fennel is native to the Mediterranean. fenkhel (Russian). rezine (Turkish). dulce. meaning sweet spice. fenouil (French). samong saba (Burmese). shamari (Swahili). camphoraceous. jintan manis (Malaysian. razianeh (Farsi). saunf (Punjabi). Common Names: called sweet cumin and anise. phak si (Laotian). They can be slightly curved or straight.

are equivalent to 100 lb. Egyptians. camphorous. and black pepper. which is then chewed after meals to aid digestion and sweeten the breath. Spice Blends: curry blends. and breads. and the Arabs use them in breads and salads. and other braised meat dishes. and sauerkraut. It balances the spicy smoked flavors. the bulbous root and stalk of Florence fennel are used in soups and sauces. fennel seeds complement rich fish sauces. and bitter flavor). It is also a popular spice with the Mopla Muslims of Kerala and the Chettiars of South India. and niacin. The seeds were taken to ease coughs. Bengali five-spice (panchporon). butter. In Asia. lentils. In Europe.108 Handbook of Spices. sweet and sour dishes. slightly higher levels of limonene with estragole. Fennel soothes stomach upsets and is an ingredient in “gripe . Asian Indians roast the seeds in oil to intensify their flavor and then use them whole or ground in curries. They are braised or blanched and eaten as a vegetable. The sweeter variety has 50% to 80% anethole. mutton and lamb curries. Chemical Components: fennel seed contains 1% to 6% volatile oil and 10% to 20% fixed oil. Seasonings. vitamin A. 12–16% α-pinene. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: ancient Europeans considered fennel a sacred herb. Italians add to pasta sauces. roast duck. Chopped. The seed becomes spicy and less sweet when it is toasted. Chinese five-spice. mirepoix blend. and sambuca. deep-fried or baked. stews. 10% to 20% fenchone (which contributes to the pungent. fennel adds sweetness and balances the spiciness of other ingredients. Second Edition stalk of Florence fennel is sweet with aniselike notes. and herbes de Provence. soups. sauces. to stop hiccups. The English use the seeds in soups. used in betel leaves. fresh fennel leaves garnish or flavor fish dishes. potassium. myrcene. salami. safrole.5 lb.8-cineole. Fennel seeds are an essential ingredient in a Bengali spice blend called panchporon. roast pork. and pinene. the Spanish flavor their cakes and other baked goods with it. estragol (methyl chavicol). salads. 3% to 11% α-phellandrene. and 1. sausages. vegetables. sodium. little (5%) or no fenchone. The bitter fennel contains 50% trans-anethole. pizzas. and Asian Indians used it as a remedy for snakebites and scorpion stings. the Germans enjoy them in breads. fish. with α-thujene. and cabbages. The oleoresin is brownish green in color. How Prepared and Consumed: fennel seed is a popular spice in European and Mediterranean regions. The Chinese include ground fennel in their five-spice blend for flavoring roast pork. and curries. phosphorus. spice blends. the French toss them in fish soups and herbes Provence. pepperoni. It goes well with cheese. and Flavorings. of freshly ground fennel. In Southeast Asian curries. and cure earaches. meatballs. They are recommended for oily fish such as mackerel and salmon. 10% to 30% limonene. roast duck. and 6. β-pinene. They are chopped and eaten raw drizzled with olive oil or sliced and mixed in salad and stuffing. Fennel seeds contain calcium. Ground fennel is an essential flavoring in egg and fish curries of Kashmir and the stews and fiery curries of Sri Lanka. Asian Indians blend fennel into a spice mixture called paan masala. magnesium. sharpen eyesight. Chinese.

methi (Bengali. meeti (Tibetan). Argentina. fenugreek was cultivated in Egypt as early as 1000 BC. Lebanon. chaiman (Armenian). alholva/fenogreco (Spanish). feno grego (Portuguese). mithiguti (Assamese). fenugrek (French). Chemical Components: the seed has very little essential oil. Mandarin). slightly resembling lovage with a sweet haylike aroma. bockshornklee (German). vendayam. Its aroma is due to a compound called 3-hydroxy-4. pazhitnik grecheskiy (Russian). The aroma of roasted fenugreek is like that of burnt sugar. menti kura (Telegu). are sold as fresh whole leaves and as dried whole or crushed leaves. Pakistan. halba (Malaysian). bukkehornklover (Norwegian). cemen (Turkish). Seed is also called abish (Amharic). fenugreek is now cultivated in India. bukkehorns klover (Danish). but many Westerners do not like its strong bitter taste. Morocco. uluhaa (Singhalese). North Indians and Middle Easterners enjoy fenugreek (both seeds and leaves) in their cooking. By AD 1050. it was never used as a spice in Greek cooking. hilbeh (Hebrew). The leaves taste very bitter. koruha (Japanese). but when they are lightly dry roasted. Scientific Name(s): Trigonella foenum-graecum. Marathi. hulba (Arabic). bockhornsklover (Swedish). and have a deep diagonal groove that divides each seed. shambelile (Farsi). The seeds come whole or ground. and to relieve gastrointestinal pains. It was prized throughout the Middle East and in India as a flavoring. France. crushed. and fumigant. The green leaves. venthiam (Malayalam). The seeds and leaves are called by the same name in many countries where the leaves are eaten. Fenugreek leaf: methini (Gujerati). while in Europe mainly for medicinal use. medicine. fieno greco (Italian).5-dimethyl-oxolane-2-furanone. Marathi). meti (Tamil). or ground. and the United States. less than 0. They are light to yellow brown. Common Names: fenugreek was called Greek hay and goat’s horn or cow’s horn in ancient times because of its horn-shaped seed pods. Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (bean family). The Egyptians and Indians soaked the seeds in water until they swelled and then used them to reduce fevers and aid digestion. Origin and Varieties: native to the eastern Mediterranean. which translates to “Greek hay” (strong haylike aroma of dried leaves). The name fenugreek is derived from the Latin word foenum graecum. hu lu ba (Cantonese. Germany. ho lo bah (Vietnamese). uwatu (Swahili). Properties: the seeds are bitter tasting. Today. smooth yet hard. and its taste is comparable to maple syrup. and co cari (Vietnamese). Once roasted. menthro (Gujerati). saag methi (Hindi. fenugreek had spread as far as China. menthri (Punjab).A to Z Spices 109 water” that is given to infants to sooth colic. wuih lu bah. Urdu). fenegriek (Dutch). Urdu). It is also used as a diuretic. penantazi (Burmese). their flavor mellows and some of the bitterness is removed. trigonella (Greek). Bengali.02%. methi (Hindi. It . kelabat (Indonesian). the seeds are used whole. Form: the seeds are enclosed in long sickle-shaped pods. called saag methi in North India. FENUGREEK SEED AND LEAF Called in Sanskrit methika. Greece. to increase bile production.

chili paste. and vitamin C (43 mg/100 g) that decrease with frying. oleic. and panchporon in Bengal. The nonvolatile components contain trigonelline. and Flavorings. sambar podi. or steaming. seafood. Vegetarians in India dry roast the seeds or fry in hot oil and use them whole or ground to flavor curries. and Turkey. choline. They are the main ingredients in artificial maple syrup. zhug. they are soaked until they swell up and then are used as legumes. and other root vegetables or used in breads such as methi naan. ground chile peppers and other spices to be used as a dry-based seasoning dip for local breads. The oleoresin is dark brown to greenish yellow and is high in proteins. When the seed is toasted. the leaves are cooked with garlic. vitamin A (1040 IU/100 gm). In the United States. berbere. Yemenites also use fenugreek in a seasoning called zhug. The leaf contains calcium. Iran. and other spices to make a hot dip called hilbeh. In North India. baked goods. Egypt. potatoes. Fresh fenugreek leaves and young shoots are used as cooked vegetables by many cultures. and chicken curries of North India. fenugreek is mixed with coriander leaf. How Prepared and Consumed: fenugreek is an important spice in India. with the last cooking method showing the least loss. thus. are commonly used in fish curries and dals in South India and Southeast Asia. and meat seasonings. mint. fenugreek seed is an essential ingredient in many pickles and spice blends. It goes well with fish. which is added as a topping to stews. sambars. phosphorus. pyrazines (major components) are formed. Seasonings. panch phoron. garlic. and sodium. they can be used as a natural stabilizer in processed foods. Second Edition also includes n-alkanes. berbere. In India. The fixed oil is 7% to 10%. iron. the seeds and the leaves are used. and other spices. Armenia. After roasting. meats. while Egyptians use them in sweets and flatbreads. The seeds contain fiber (a high amount). The seeds pair well with fish and lentils and. The fresh leaves are enjoyed in many Iranian traditional dishes with parsley. iron. and chutneys. for seasoning meats. Spice Blends: fish curry blend. which is a concentrated source of dietary fiber. spiced beef is called pastourma in Iraq and aboukht in Turkey. the niacin content increases. The seeds are toasted and added to salads to provide crunchiness. Its mucilage content is 40%. In Iran. In Yemen. In the Middle East. and furostanol glycosides. Saudi Arabia. and linolenic acids. chemen. the seeds are added to rice flour and lentil flour to make fermented flat breads such as dosai and idli. folic acid. carotene. calcium. fenugreek seeds are used in soups. tomato. potassium. sesquiterpenes lactones and alkanoles. boiling. Armenians use it with garlic and chile pepper in a spice called chemen to spice up a beef dish called bastirma. fenugreek seeds are ground into a paste and rubbed on salted meat. The Greeks boil fenugreek seeds and eat them with honey. In South India.110 Handbook of Spices. sterol and diosgenin derivatives. gums. such as sambar podi in the south. The fixed oil has linoleic. . and aboukht blend. This salted. hilbeh. It is also roasted and ground and mixed with dried. magnesium. In many regions of Africa. and vegetables. which is then dried. Because the seeds have high mucilage (40%). which is used as a spread for breads. The dried leaves are used as a seasoning in many dishes. Ethiopians add fenugreek to a spice mixture. fermented breads. mucilage. which are responsible for its bitter taste. and saponin. icings.

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Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Egyptians used fenugreek paste on the body to reduce fever and to cure chapped lips and mouth ulcers. They also used fenugreek along with other spices in the embalming process. Romans ate fenugreek seeds because they were considered an aphrodisiac. The Greeks and Romans, not realizing its potential as a spice, used fenugreek as cattle fodder to increase cow’s milk flow and to restore nitrogen to the soil. In Indonesia, fenugreek is used to promote hair growth. In India, Southeast Asia, and Ethiopia, the seeds are soaked in water (the seeds swell because they are coated with mucilage) and are then drained and eaten to aid digestion, as a laxative, to treat bronchitis, and to cure sore throats. It is used to prevent sharp rises in blood sugar and to lower cholesterol. In Ethiopia, nursing mothers take fenugreek to promote production of milk. In India, women take fenugreek to help with menstrual cramps and difficult childbirths and to promote lactation after the baby is born. The leaves are believed to stimulate bile secretion and to aid in the digestion of fatty meat.

GALANGAL/GALANGALE/GALINGALE
Galangal is an aromatic, peppery, gingerlike spice. First used in Chinese and Southeast Asian cuisines, galangal has traveled around the world and is found in Egyptian, Indian, and a few European applications. There are three types of galangal: the greater galangal, the lesser galangal, and the kaempferia galangal. Greater galangal, called liang xiang in Mandarin (which means “mild ginger”) or lengkuas in Malay, commonly used in many dishes of Southeast Asia, is more popular globally than the other varieties. Lesser galangal, called kencur in Malaysian, and kaempferia galangal, called temu kunci in Indonesian (referring to the many elongated fingers of the rhizome) are used as seasonings in many Southeast Asian pungent curry pastes and sambals. Scientific Name(s): Alpinia galanga (greater galangal), Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal), Alpinia rotunda (kaempferia galangal). Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family). Origin and Varieties: greater galangal is indigenous to Southeast Asia and southern China and is cultivated in Indochina, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The lesser galangal is indigenous to Indonesia and South India and today cultivated in Southeast Asia and China. Kaempferia galangal has its origins in southern China and is cultivated in Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia. Common Names: greater galangal: galangale, Java galangal, galanga, Siamese or Thai ginger, mild ginger. Also called kholanjan (Arabic), kulinjan (Bengali), leung keung, liang chiang (Cantonese, Mandarin), galganga (Danish), galgant (Dutch, Russian), djus rishe (Farsi), souchet long (French), galangawurzel (German), galanki (Greek), kolinjan (Gujerati), galangal (Hebrew), kulinjan (Hindi), galanga (Hungarian), laos (Indonesian), galanga (Italian), nankyo (Japanese), rom deng (Khmer), kha tad eng (Laotian), lengkuas (Malay), aratta (Malayalam), koshtkulingan (Marathi), gengibre do Laos (Portuguese), galang (Spanish), galangarot (Swedish), palla

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(Tagalog), arattai (Tamil), khaa (Thai), kachoramu (Telegu), sga skya (Tibetan), galangal (Turkish), kulanjam (Urdu), and rieng nep (Vietnamese). Lesser galangal: Chinese ginger. Also called lille galangal (Danish), sian noih, shan nai (Cantonese, Mandarin), kentjoer (Dutch), galangal camphre (French), kleiner galgant (German), kineszike gao liang chiang (Mandarin), piperoriza (Greek), abuyu campa (Hindi), ban ukon (Japanese), van hom (Laotian), kachola (Malayalam), kencur, cekur Jawa (Malaysian, Indonesian), maraba (Russian), dusol (Tagalog), pro hom (Thai), and cam di la (Vietnamese). Kaempferia galangal: aromatic ginger, finger root, Chinese ginger. Also called suo shi/lap seuh jeung, ao chian jiang (Cantonese, Mandarin), temoe koentji (Dutch), Chinesischer ingwer (German), temu kunci (Indonesian), kunci (Malaysian), gazutu (Japanese), kchiey (Khmer), kasai (Laotian), Chinese key (Singaporean), krachai (Thai), and ngai num kho (Vietnamese). In Indonesia, it is sometimes confused with lesser galangal and called kencur. Zedoary (called white turmeric), which has a very bitter taste, is sometimes confused with kaempferia galangal. Form: the rhizome comes whole (fresh, frozen, or canned) and dried (whole, ground, sliced, or pickled). The slices of dried galangal need to be soaked in boiling water for 20 to 30 minutes before use. Its flowers are also eaten fresh. The lesser galangal is smaller in size, like ginger. Kaempferia galangal has a central smaller globular shape with ten or more slender, long tubes sprouting in the same direction from the central core, like fingers on a hand, and, hence, it is often called fingerroot. Properties: fresh greater galangal has a knobby look with an inner yellowish brown to pale brownish skin that has reddish brown rings. The fresh form has different flavor profile from the dried form. The fresh galangal is aromatic, spicy, peppery, gingerlike and has a slightly sour note. The interior which has similar color as the exterior, is hard and woody in texture. Dried galangal is spicier with a cinnamon-like taste. Young rhizomes are pink in color and are more tender and flavorful. The lesser galangal has a reddish brown skin with a soft white interior. It is crunchy and more pungent, with a gingery, cardamom-like taste and hints of eucalyptus notes. The dried version does not possess the same flavor intensity as the fresh form. Kaempferia galangal has a pale reddish brown or yellowish brown skin, and the inside is watery and soft. Its taste is similar to lesser galangal, but it has a more camphorous and medicinal-like taste. Chemical Components: greater galangal has 0.5% to 1.5% essential oil, with fresh galangal having mainly 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, farnesene, bisabolene, camphor, and d-pinene. The dried version has a different composition than the fresh, with lesser aroma components (farnesene and 1,8-cineol). Its pungent taste is due to galangol or alpinol, which are phenyl alkanones, and diaryl heptanoids. Lesser galangal has 2.5% to 4% essential oil, with ethyl cinnamate, 1-paramethoxy cinnamate, 1,8 cineol, and β-phellandrene, the levels depending on its origins.

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Kaempferia galangal has about 1% to 3% essential oil, mainly ethyl cinnamate, 1,8 cineol, camphor, ethyl-p-methoxycinnmate, p-methoxycinnamic acid, and 3carene-5-one. How Prepared and Consumed: greater galangal is used abundantly in Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Cambodia, and Indonesia. By itself, galangal’s texture is woody and its flavor is undesirable, but when it is added and cooked with other ingredients, it enhances the overall flavor profiles of applications. Greater galangal pairs well with coconut, garlic, chile peppers, kaffir lime leaves, turmeric, fish sauce, tamarind, and shallots. In Malaysia and Singapore, the Malays and Nonyas (female descendants of Chinese traders and local Malay women) use it abundantly with lemongrass, garlic, scallions, and tamarind for laksas, soups, and curries. In Thailand, it is used in pungent curry pastes, meat marinades, soups, and stir-fries. Indonesians use it in their fiery hot rendangs and popular rice dishes, such as nasi goreng and nasi padang. Thais and Indonesians use more galangal than ginger and enjoy its flowers when they are fried or pickled. Lesser galangal is generally less popular than greater galangal. It is freshly grated or sliced and added to satay sauces and fiery, pungent spice pastes of Indonesia that season meats, vegetables, and fish. It is also combined with chile peppers, ginger, turmeric, and other spices to create bumbu, a seasoning used to spike up sauces and soups in Indonesia. In Bali, lesser galangal is used in a spice paste called jangkap with lemongrass, chile peppers, ginger, nuts, and other spices. This spice paste is rubbed on duck that is then wrapped in banana leaf and baked or roasted. It is also commonly used by the Indonesians in Netherlands. Kaempferia galangal is used in liqueurs, bitters, and beers of Russia and Scandinavia. It is popular in Thailand, where it is grated for use in meat curry pastes, soups, and fish curries with chile peppers, kaffir lime leaf, and coconut. It is also used in Indonesia and in pungent Malay-style curries, sambals, and condiments. Spice Blends: Thai red curry paste blend, bumbu blend, rendang blend, laksa blends, Thai stir-fry blend, Thai five-spice blend, Nonya curry blend, tom kha blend, and jangkap blend. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Asians use galangal for indigestion, respiratory problems and to stop nausea.

GARLIC
One of the world’s most popular spices, garlic is used extensively from China to the Americas, in French aioli, Turkish cacik, Vietnamese pho bo, Indian korma, or Greek skordalia. Garlic’s name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word garleac, meaning “spear plant.” Since ancient times, garlic has been used as a cure as well as a food. Egyptians used garlic since 3700 BC to provide strength and prevent disease. Jews ate it on their long journeys, Romans honored garlic for providing strength and courage, and Greeks used it to treat colds and coughs. Many cultures call it “white onion,” including Malaysians, Indonesians, Sri Lankans and Ethiopians. Scientific Name(s): Allium sativum (softneck); Allium ophioscorodon (hardneck). Family: Alliaceae (onion family).

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Origin and Varieties: garlic is indigenous to central Asia, and it was brought to the Mediterranean regions, Egypt, France, Spain, and Italy. It is now cultivated in the United States, Asia, Europe, the U.K., Taiwan, South America, Mexico, and Hungary. There are about 200 varieties of garlic, with different colors, sizes, shapes, and flavors, but only two cultivated varieties exist—hardneck and softneck varieties. The hardneck variety (Siberian, Spanish roja, Prussian white, Italian rocombole, German white, German red, Marino Xian, Persian star, and Romanian red) is superior in flavor but is harder to grow and has smaller yields and a shorter shelf life. Softneck varieties have smaller cloves that are harder to peel. Approximately 90% of all garlic sold in the United States is of the softneck variety from California. Other softneck varieties are French white, Creole Red, Burgundy, Inchelium, and Chinese. Elephant garlic is not really garlic, but is a member of the leek family. It is mild and does not have the pungency of regular garlic. Common Names: garlic is also called netch shinkurt (Amharic), thum (Arabic), sekhdor (Armenian), naharu (Assamese), rasun (Bengali), chyethonphew (Burmese), suen tauh, suan tou (Cantonese, Mandarin), huidlog (Danish), knoflook (Dutch), sir (Farsi), ail (French), knoblauch (German), skordo (Greek), shum (Hebrew), lasun (Hindi, Marathi), fokhogima (Hungarian), aglio (Italian), ninniku (Japanese), phak thien (Laotian), bawang putih (Malaysian, Indonesian), velluthulli (Malayalam), alho (Portuguese), chesnok (Russian), sudulunu (Singhalese), ajo (Spanish), kitunga saum (Swahili), vitlok (Swedish, Norwegian), velai pundoo (Tamil), kra tiem (Thai), vellulli (Telegu), goghpa (Tibetan), sarmisak (Turkish), lehsun (Urdu), and cay tai (Vietnamese). Form: each garlic bulb contains plump and succulent egg-shaped bulblets called cloves, within an outer skin that is white, buff, rose, or purple, depending on the variety. Garlic comes fresh or dried. Fresh, it is a firm whole clove that is also available crushed, sliced, minced, chopped, roasted, or as juice. Dried garlic comes powdered, granulated, flaked, diced, ground, minced, chopped, sliced, or added to salt. Properties: the flavor of freshly cut garlic ranges from mild and sweet to strongly pungent, depending on the variety. Some can be pungent at first but become milder during cooking. Hardneck varieties are pungent and strong flavored, that usually lingers after cooking. They have a wider range of tastes than softneck varieties. German White has a strong pungency with heat that is experienced at the back of the throat. Prussian White has a pleasant aftertaste and Spanish Roja has a lingering taste with a pungency on the tip of the tongue. Softneck varieties can be harsh to mildly sweet to pungent and sometimes contain sharp bites. Mild softneck garlic can become more pungent during storage. Whole garlic is odorless when intact but gives a strong aroma when cut or bruised. When fresh garlic is cut or bruised, the enzyme allinase acts on alliin in garlic to produce allicin. This breaks down to diallyl disulfide which gives the penetrating sulfur-type aroma. The sharp bite typically subsides after cooking or roasting. Cooking softens the flavor, while roasting gives garlic a well-balanced, delicate, nutty flavor. Dried garlic (mainly from the white-skinned variety) has a very strong, persistent aroma and taste. Roasted garlic has a slightly sweet and delicate flavor.

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Chemical Components: garlic has 0.1% to 0.25% essential oil, formed enzymatically when cloves are crushed, cut, or rehydrated. It consists of sulfur compounds, 60% diallyl disulfide, 20% diallyl trisulfide, 6% allyl propyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide. Allicin (diallyl disulfide) contributes to its strong aroma. Oil of garlic (undiluted form) has 200 times the strength of dried garlic and 900 times the strength of fresh garlic. The oils come in many dilutions for easier blending and handling in applications. Oleoresin garlic is brownish yellow and contains 5% of the volatile oil of garlic; 8 lb. of oleoresin are equivalent to 100 lb. of dehydrated garlic, and 2 lb. are equivalent to 100 lb. of fresh garlic. Garlic salt consists of garlic powder, salt, and an anticaking agent (tricalcium phosphate or starch). Raw garlic contains calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C, and potassium. Dried garlic has higher potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels but has a lower calcium level and negligible or no vitamin C. How Prepared and Consumed: garlic is widely used in French, Italian, Spanish, Middle Eastern, Asian Latin American, and American cooking. It is fried in oil or gently simmered before onions or other spices are added to create a wonderful base for stir-fries, curries, soups, or sauces. Garlic pairs well with onions, ginger, basil, turmeric, greens, beans, spinach, chicken, pork, and seafood. It rounds up and modifies other flavors, such as tomato, chilis, onions, and ginger. Garlic is an essential component of many spice blends that enhance the flavor of soups, stews, and curries in Asian cooking. For Chinese and Indians, garlic is a must with onions and or ginger in curries, stir-fries, pickles, or BBQs. Chinese and Thais pickle garlic in vinegar for use in noodle dishes, roast pork, and chicken. Thais fry whole garlic in oil and add this to create enhanced flavors and textures in many dishes. Vietnamese add to spring rolls, marinades, and noodle soups, or phos. Mediterraneans roast garlic for many dishes, such as cassoulet, beef bourguignonne, sofritos and gambas alajillas. Raw garlic is added to Greek skordalia (with potatoes) and tzatziki with souvlaki or hummus with sesame paste. For Italians, it is an integral flavoring along with olive oil, basil, and tomatoes in their pasta sauces (pestos, vegetables, soups and sprinkled over pizzas for added flavor). Latin Americans and Caribbeans add dried garlic to meat marinades, many salsas, condiments, and seasonings such as adobos, mojos, rouille, sofritos, jerk paste, chimmichurri, and soups and stews. Cuban mojos or Puerto Rican adobos will not exist without garlic. Mexicans use garlic in their famous mole sauces and condiments. Spice Blends: tabil, rouille, aioli, refogado blend, adobos, sofritos, moles, hummus, ketchup, mojo, tzatziki, and chimmichurri. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: called the “stinking rose” by the English, garlic has been used since ancient times to drive away evil spirits, kill intestinal parasites, and stimulate blood flow for a healthy face and body. Known in Russia as “Russian penicillin,” it is one of the world’s oldest medicines. In the sixteenth century BC, the Egyptians listed twenty-two remedies containing garlic, using garlic to treat everything from heart disease and tumors to insect bites. The Greeks gave it to the condemned to purify them of their acts. While wealthy Romans did not eat garlic, they gave it to their soldiers to make them strong. In Asia, Hindu priests and the strict Buddhists eliminated garlic from their diets because of its reputation as a sexual stimulant.

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Garlic’s curative powers have been recorded since the eighteenth century. It has been reported to stimulate the digestive system, thereby helping poor digestion, lower blood pressure and help blood circulation by reducing the amount of fat in the blood and thinning it, thereby enabling platelets to move more freely. Recent research has focused on garlic’s role in preventing heart disease, decreasing cholesterol and blood pressure, enhancing the immune system, preventing cancer, and enhancing memory. Since ancient times, garlic has been used as an antibiotic and as a fungicide.

GINGER
Asia’s most treasured spice, ginger, derives its name from the Sanskrit word shringavera, meaning “shaped like a deer’s antlers.” Used by Indians since 5000 years ago and by Chinese since the sixth century BC, it is highly esteemed throughout Asia for its therapeutic effects as well as for its flavor. Ginger is most noted for its soothing effect on the stomach, as it has been a popular traditional cure in Ayurveda and Chinese Traditional Medicine for common stomach ailments, nausea, and motion sickness. Indispensable in Indian, Chinese, and Southeast Asian cooking, ginger’s spicy-sweet flavors complement and enhance many of their curries, stir-fries, marinades, and soups. Arab traders brought ginger to the Mediterranean region from Asia before the first century AD for use by Romans. The Greeks made gingerbread, which later gave rise to gingersnaps, cakes, and biscuits. In the sixteenth century, Spanish explorers grew ginger in Jamaica and exported it to Europe. Scientific Name(s): Zingiber officinale. Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family). Origin and Varieties: there are many varieties of ginger—Indian (Cochin, Calicut), Chinese, Jamaican and African. Indigenous to southern India and Southeast Asia, ginger is also grown in Hawaii, Fiji, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Australia. The names for fresh and dried ginger differ in many regions of the world. Common Names: Fresh and dried ginger are called by different names in Asia. Root ginger, green ginger, gingerroot, stem ginger, and black ginger. It is also called zinzibil (Amharic), zanjabeel (Arabic), gojabheg (Armenian), ada-fresh (Bengali, Assamese), ginh-fresh (Burmese), sang geung-fresh, geung-dried (Cantonese), ingefer (Danish, Norwegian), gember (Dutch), jamveel (Farsi), gingembre (French), ingwer (German), piperoriza (Greek), adhu-fresh, sunth-dried (Gujerati), zang’vil (Hebrew), kai (Hmong), adrak (fresh), sauth (dried) (Hindi), gyomber (Hungarian), zen-zero (Italian), shoga (Japanese), khnthey (Khmer), saenggang (Korean), khing (Laotian), halia (Malaysian, Indonesian), inchi (Malayalam), sheng jiang-fresh, gan jiang dried (Mandarin), ahle-fresh, sunth-dried (Marathi), gengibre (Portuguese), imbir (Russian), inguru (Singhalese), jengibre (Spanish), tanga wizi (Swahili), ingefara (Swedish), luya (Tagalog), ingi/ellam-fresh, sunthi-dried (Tamil), khing (Thai), elamu-fresh, sonthi-dried (Telegu), gamug (Tibetan), zenefel (Turkish), adraka-fresh (Urdu), and sin gung-fresh, gung-dried (Vietnamese). Form: ginger is a rhizome (an underground stem that looks like a thick root) that is available as a spice in many forms: fresh, dried, black, or white. Fresh ginger

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is preserved and crystallized. The fresh form is knobby and branched, firm and tan colored, and comes whole (unpeeled), sliced, julienned, chopped, crushed, or grated. Young or immature fresh ginger is juicy, less pungent, and more delicate in flavor with pink shoots, a thin skin, and a crispy texture. The mature fresh ginger has a tough, shriveled skin with a desirable flesh underneath. Some types of ginger are peeled before sale. Dried ginger is used bruised, sliced, or powdered. Black ginger is created by scalding or steaming the rhizome and then drying it. White ginger is made by peeling the outer layers before washing and drying it. Preserved ginger is made from fresh young or green rhizomes that are peeled and sliced and then cooked in heavy syrup or brine. Crystallized ginger is preserved ginger, which is fresh ginger that is peeled, cooked in sugar syrup, dried, and rolled in sugar. Pickled ginger is fresh, peeled gingerroot that is thinly sliced and pickled in a vinegar solution, which gives it a pink color. The ginger leaves are used to flavor some Asian dishes. The pink ginger bud (or torch ginger bud), called bunga kantan in Malaysian lends a floral and aromatic sensation to laksas or noodles in fragrant spicy broths and curries. This torch ginger bud is from the Etlingera elatior family. Properties: ginger’s flavor and color vary with its origin and harvesting, storage, and processing conditions. Fresh ginger has a juicy, spicy, refreshing and slightly sweet, lemonlike aroma, along with a strong bite. It is more aromatic than dried ginger. Drying conditions change ginger’s flavor and pungency. Fresh ginger is firm and plump, not shriveled, and its color varies from tan to pale brown. Dried ginger is fibrous and has less pungency than fresh ginger. Aged or older ginger is fibrous, tough, and harsher in taste, whereas young ginger is tender and delicate in taste. Longer cooking time tends to increase fresh ginger’s pungency and decrease its aroma. Jamaican ginger is light tan in color and has a delicate aroma. It is more pungent than African ginger, which is darker in color and has a weak aroma and a harsh flavor. Cochin and Calicut (South Indian) gingers are strongly aromatic and pungent with a lemon aroma. They are considered the best gingers. Japanese and Chinese ginger are weak in pungency and aroma. Chinese ginger is whiter in color, more fibrous, slightly bitter and is usually used in the preserved form (in sugar syrup or candied). Chemical Components: the essential oil (mainly sesquiterpenes) from ginger is pale yellow in color and ranges from 1% to 4%, depending upon the variety. The oil gives ginger its characteristic aroma but not its bite. The chief aromatic constituents are zingiberene (70% in fresh and 20% to 30% in dried), curcumene, α-pinene, sabinene, limonene, borneol, linalool, farnesene, and citral. Ginger’s bite or pungency is due to nonvolatiles—gingerol, zingerone, shogaol, and paradol. Fresh ginger (depending on the variety) is the most pungent because of high levels of gingerol. Dried ginger or fresh ginger stored for a while has less pungency because it has less gingerol, because of its conversion to milder shogaol, zingerone, and paradol contents.

bakery products. Scandinavians still enjoy their gingerbread. Dried ginger is commonly found in Mediterranean spice blends such as quatre epices. fresh ginger is used raw and grated or finely chopped for flavoring curries.118 Handbook of Spices. ginger beer. In India and Sri Lanka. Caribbeans use ginger in marinades. gingerbread. and preserved gingers to create spicy. and desserts. soups. vitamin A. Dried ginger is used in seasoning blends such as five-spice and for flavoring sauces and soups that require long simmering times. puddings. 10% fixed oil. sweet flavors in rice porridges (congee). magnesium. and enhance particular flavors. fresh ginger has become more popular in the United States and Europe to flavor teas. Spice Blends: curry blends. stirfries. The Chinese use the fresh. quatre epices. cookies. and ras-el hanout. stirfry blends. curries. chile peppers. ginger beer. preserved in syrup. like to freshly grate it into their meat. snacks. oranges. its primary popularity as a savory spice is in Asian countries such as India. The young green ginger. dried and fresh gingers are used frequently. pickled. Fresh ginger is peeled before use. puddings. and confectionary. five-spice. berbere. pies. is popular in the Caribbean. and Flavorings. . Seasonings. preserves. The Japanese serve thinly sliced pink or red pickled ginger (young ginger) as a garnish or as a side dish called gari to refresh the palate in between meals. East Asians and Southeast Asians like young ginger for its intense flavor. potassium. Second Edition Oleoresin ginger is dark brownish green in color and is extracted from dried ginger. pickles. condiments. Indian vegetarians use ginger abundantly to flavor many dishes. Fresh ginger is fried or boiled for sauces and curries. phosphorus. Many Asians. and crystallized. poultry. and confections made with ginger. and for Asian style applications. crystallized. and ginger ale. and marinades. Europeans and North Americans traditionally prefer the dried. China. or preserved form of ginger as a table seasoning in cakes. and Europe. pickled. A must in Southeast Asian cooking. soy sauce. frankfurters. either pickled or crystallized. marmalades. sodium. Fresh ginger contains magnesium and potassium. spring onions. and fish dishes. congee blend. While ginger is used throughout the world. It has an affinity with garlic. as well as tenderizing and preserving meats. and stir-fried meats and vegetables. round off flavor. la kamut. Today. It contains 20% to 30% volatile oil. dried. is commonly eaten as a snack in Southeast Asia and China. Arabs use great amounts of the dried ginger in many of their seasonings. and Southeast Asia.   How Prepared and Consumed: ginger can add flavor. vegetable. especially the Chinese and Indians. and 50% to 70% pungent resinous constituents (mainly gingerol) that are responsible for its pungency. whereas ground ginger contains calcium. In Asia. ras-el-hanout. fish. sweet or hot. it is eaten fresh. Korea. sausages. Dried ginger is part of curry blends. sodas (ginger ale). ginger cakes. It also accompanies their sushi dishes. Asia. laksa blend. and vinegar. and manganese. ice creams. Australia. and teas. Ground ginger is popular in hot and cold beverages such as tea and ginger beer as well as baked goods and confections. niacin. stews. The fragrant ginger flower called bunga kantan in Malaysia provides a unique flavor to Malay and Nonya (term given to female ancestry from Chinese traders and local Malay women) curries and laksas. fish soups. and ginger ale. teas. Pickled ginger. berbere.

or guinea pepper. Alligator pepper. to discharge phlegm. Common Names: Guinea grains. coli and B. Origin and Varieties: grains of paradise are indigenous to the West African coast.A to Z Spices 119 Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: ginger is one of the oldest and more popular medicinal spices. and to decrease cholesterol. dried. Benin. and morning sickness. The Chinese chewed on it to prevent motion sickness during their sea travels. Form: grains of paradise are small. Today. The seeds are sold whole or ground. as an antitumor (skin cancer) agent. gawz as Sudan (Arabic). grani de Meleguetta (Italian). piperi melenketa (greek). GRAINS OF PARADISE Also called Melegueta or Malagueta pepper. Currently. The Greeks prescribed ginger for stomach ailments and as an antidote to poisons.” Grains of paradise are cultivated in the Ivory Coast. They are also called kewrerima (Amharic). Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family). The Yorubas in West Africa call them atare. and idrifil (Turkish). and even to relieve pains during childbirth. it is also brewed in teas to ease menstrual cramps. bloating. guinea grain. Sometimes this spice is confused with mbonga spice. Indians used ginger as a kidney and bowel cleanser and for blood circulation. and Nigeria. pyramid-shaped seeds with a shiny exterior. They are grown on a small scale in India and the Caribbean. . It has a warming effect on stomachs. The grains of paradise were traded along the West African coastal area and thus this region came to be known as the “pepper coast” or “Grain Coast. and its gingerol content is an effective antimicrobial agent against E. It has also been shown to be an antioxidant for lipid-based foods. except in northern Africa and in the western regions of Africa. reddish brown. and Ghana. Sierra Leone. graines de paradis/poivre de Guinee/malaguette (French). Grains of paradise are related to cardamom. but mostly in Ghana. They are sold with or without the enclosed seedpod or fruit (60–100 seeds in a pod). Grains of paradise were combined with ginger and cinnamon to flavor wine called hippocras. Scientific Name(s): Aframomum (A) melegueta or A. such as Ghana. from Congo to Sierra Leone. rajskiye zyorna (Russian) and malagueta. and is traditionally used to neutralize toxins. where they were brought in the 1800s on slave ships from West Africa. In Asia. paradijs korrels (dutch). The ground seeds are greyish in color. they are not widely used around the world. hubub al janel. Malagueta pepper. Recent studies have shown ginger to be a strong antioxidant to prevent cancers. paradieskorner (German). and increase blood circulation in the gastrointestinal tract. grano de parai (Spanish). enclosed in a large pod. grana paradisi. to prevent or enhance gastrointestinal disorders. soothes digestion. Guinea. grains of paradise were prized as a spice and as a substitute for black pepper in Europe during the Middle Ages. along the Gulf of Guinea. The Chinese and Indians use it in a variety of remedies and consider it to be effective against motion sickness and nausea. decrease acidity. subtilis. ginger ale is still a common home remedy for an upset stomach.

wasabi daikon. khrjen (Russian). grains of paradise were used traditionally to spice wine and beer but are now used in vinegars and liqueurs. which is yellow in color and contains mostly humulene and caryophyllene. Fresh forms are sold sliced. Second Edition Properties: the seeds have a whitish interior and a reddish brown exterior. Scientific Name(s): Armoracia rusticana. How Prepared and Consumed: grains of paradise go well with black pepper. grains of paradise are used in a blend called galat dagga (or Tunisian five-spice). shogoal. They were also chewed on cold days to warm up the body. they are used to spice many vegetables such as pumpkin. Northern Africans use them to create aromatic stews and also add them with other spices to flavor their coffees. barbaforte. Family: Brassicaceae (cabbage family). potatoes. raiz-forte (Portuguese). horseradish. or shredded. mierikwortel (Dutch). The seeds are usually ground and added toward the end of cooking in order to retain their aroma. Common Names: it also called fejel har (Arabic). coriander. kamungay (Tagalog). especially eggplant dishes. seiyo wasabi. Seasonings. kren (German). In Europe. . is a popular seasoning in central and northern European cuisines. HORSERADISH A relative of turnip. Form: horseradish is a root with a brown outer skin and a fleshy white interior. and yaban turbu (Turkish). couscous blend. to flavor lamb and vegetable dishes. or okra. laht gahn. meaning “pepper root” in northern European languages. cinnamon. and Nigerian vegetable stew blend. raifort (French). Chemical Components: grains of paradise contain 0. la ghen (Cantonese. Dried horseradish comes flaked. meerettich. ra’bano picante (Spanish). grated. hosuradishu (Japanese). clove. Their mild pungency is due to paradol. lamb dishes.5% to 1% essential oil. Spice Blends: ras-el-hanout. Mandarin).120 Handbook of Spices. means “more radish” and reflects horseradish’s much stronger pungency than the ordinary radish. In Tunisia. piparjuri ( Finnish). grains of paradise were used as aphrodisiacs and to relieve pain and cure fevers. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in West Africa. Wasabi is Japanese horseradish. and cumin. which has a slightly stronger taste than horseradish. In West Africa. They have less pungency than black pepper. meerettich. and wasabi daikon or radish wasabi. torma (Hungarian). peppery taste with bitter notes and a faint odor that is similar to cardamom. cabbage. and mustard. eggplant. peberrod (Danish). Origin and Varieties: horseradish is indigenous to eastern and northern Europe and the Mediterranean and is also cultivated in central Europe. hazeret (Hebrew). They are an important ingredient in the Moroccan spice blend ras-el-hanout. called peberrod or pepperot. pepparrot (Swedish). and rice. ginger. Japanese refer to it as seiyo wasabi or western wasabi. and gingerol. pepperrot (Norwegian). The German name for horseradish. They have a pungent. rafano (Italian). galat dagga. couscous. torob (Farsi). mronge (Swahili). and are added to tagines. and Flavorings.

kidney stones. It is also pickled and canned.K. It is a popular seasoning for venison dishes and German sauerkraut. soy sauce. jeneverbes (Dutch). Horseradish has high vitamin C (302 mg/100 gm) content. . and the United States. junipero. relishes. junipero (Portuguese). Since the allyl isothiocyanate is not heat resistant. root. scallions. Family: Cupressaceae (cupress family).K. or powdered. Properties: the root by itself does not give much aroma. the berries.2% to 1. mainly sinigrin. mustard. it is used with ham and grated apples as a relish. horseradish becomes a cocktail sauce or dip for seafood. prepared mustards. enebro (Spanish). Scientific Name(s): Juniperus communis. which quickly disappears.A to Z Spices 121 granulated.. and cay boch xu (Vietnamese). horseradish is popular in cocktail sauces. baked beans. It pairs well with tomato. cured ham. and also cultivated in Italy. sarv kuhi (Farsi). burning. such as shrimp and oysters. horseradish is usually best served with cold dishes or added after cooking and before serving. In Austria. cutting. and seafood. asthma. or shredding. When mixed with ketchup. Spice Blends: relish blend. but releases a pungent. cocktail sauce blend. Vinegar and other forms of acids are added with horseradish to prevent the pungency from disappearing quickly. JUNIPER Juniper characterizes gin flavor and comes from the colder regions of Europe and North India. mustardlike aroma upon grating. The leaves are broad and green. salad dressings. and phenethyl. cheese. burning.0% essential oil. It was used in Europe to prevent scurvy before vitamin C was discovered. Chemical Components: horseradish has about 0. Horseradish has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. and garlic. the U. junipero (Danish). ar’ar (Hebrew). borokha (Hungarian). arkevthos (Greek). vinegar. It accompanies gefilte at Passover meals. Horseradish has a sharp. and bladder infections. genièvre (French). Common Names: araar (Arabic). seiyo suzu (Japanese). acrid. Grated horseradish mixed into a paste is a home remedy for chest congestion and stiff muscles because it brings blood to the surface of the skin and warms the skin. Myrosinase enzyme acts on sinigrin to give allyl isothiocyanate. ardug (Armenian). The British use horseradish as a condiment that enhances the flavor of roast beef. The leaves are used in salads and stews. eggs. sinigrin-derived allyl isothiocyanate. which gives horseradish its burning taste. Origin and Varieties: juniper is indigenous to the U. bark. salad dressing blend. ardic (Turkish). and India. wacholder (German). phenyl propyl thiocyanate. mrteni (Swahili). diallyl sulfide. araar (Hindi). enbar (Swedish). bitter taste. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: horseradish was traditionally used by Europeans to treat gout. and other parts of the plant were used for medicinal purposes. einer (Norwegian). and mustard horseradish blend. abhal (Urdu). In ancient times. roast meats. the United States. How Prepared and Consumed: in Europe. ginepro (Italian). mozhzhevelnik (Russian).

makrut (Thai). Seasonings. knobby. goose. especially in Thai. potassium. lima Kaffir (Spanish). it was used to treat urinogenital tract infections and gonorrhea. Danish (kaffir lime). Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in ancient Europe. Chemical Components: juniper generally has 0. Origin and Varieties: indigenous to Southeast Asia. kobumikan (Japanese). and clean the air. It can be used as whole pieces. How Prepared and Consumed: juniper is commonly used in England and Europe to flavor pork and remove the strong. Scientific Name(s): Citrus hystrix. with sometimes as much as 2. and alcohol for marinades. pea-shaped. limettier herisse (French). lemon and pinelike overtones. juniper was used to treat tapeworms. suan gan (Cantonese. Spice Blends: bouquet garni. Its flavor is released when it is lightly crushed. cabbages. KAFFIR LIME (LEAF AND FRUIT) Kaffir lime is a very popular spice used in Southeast Asian foods. hojas de lima Kaffir (Spanish). or julienned. pear-shaped. and magnesium. Malaysian. kaffer citrom (Hungarian). 5% α-terpineol. The leaves and the rind of the fruit are similar in taste except the leaves are more intense with the zesty pungent citrusy notes which Southeast Asian cultures enjoy. vitamin A. vinegar. Also called lemo (Balinese). wrinkled fruit. kafir lime (Swahili).5%.122 Handbook of Spices. kaffernlimette (German). Indonesian). pickled meats. syun kahm. aley kafir (Hebrew).5% to 2% essential oil. and camphene with traces of sesquiterpenes such as caryophyllene. The fresh rind of the fruit is sliced or grated for use in cooking. shaunk nhu (Burmese). Second Edition Form: juniper is a bluish black. sauerkraut blend. and sabinene. phosphorus. kok mak khi hout (Laotian). and truc (Vietnamese). Family: Rutaceae (citrus family). Long known as a diuretic. It has a ginlike aroma with a slightly bitter aftertaste. chopped. Common Names: Indonesian lime and wild lime. such as venison. Unlike the lemon. daun jeruk purut (Indonesian). and seafood. and pickling spice blend. and rheumatic pains. and Flavorings. bay leaf. stuffing. with caraway and bay leaves. limau purut (Malaysian. and Balinese cooking. It is a home remedy for hangovers. kaffir limon (Dutch). It is dried and used whole. nardanga (Tamil). It pairs well with black pepper. Juniper was also used for gastrointestinal infections. and chanh sac truc (Vietnamese). barbeque blends. and wild boar. keep away evil spirits. Kaffir lime leaf is also called daun lemo (Balinese). gout. Juniper is added to cheeses. pot roasts.and β-pinene. kraunch soeuth (Khmer). bai makrut (Thai). It contains calcium. Properties: juniper’s flavor is woody and astringent with sweet. small. squab. Form: Kaffir lime fruit is a dark green. daun limau perut (Malay). and German sauerkraut. Kaffir lime fruit has virtually no . It is mainly made up of monoterpenes such as 80% α. Cambodian. thujene. Mandarin). geraniol. It is also used in liver pates. borneol. ripe berry. gamey flavor from roasted or barbecued wild meat. but generally crushed lightly or coarsely ground before use. The berry has three seeds inside. mauw nas (Hmong).

5% to 2. folhas de caril (Portuguese). karriblader (Norwegian). Kaffir lime pairs well with coconut. pungent. bignay (Tagalog). and western Cambodia. How Prepared and Consumed: Kaffir lime leaf characterizes Thai cooking and is used abundantly in soups. while the leaf is finely shredded or added whole to minced fish and cooked sauces. Form: kari leaf is very fragrant when used fresh. Properties: both the fresh and dried leaves have a strong. grilled fish or chicken. Scientific Name(s): Murraya koenigii. gai leu yiph (Cantonese). and lemonlike aroma. kariveppilai (Tamil).5% essential oil. When the British were in India. Spice Blends: tom yom goong blend. crushed. and pork curries. and a slightly tangerine peel-like taste. The fresh or dried leaf is used whole. kerriebladerer (Dutch). Southeast Asia. Origin and Varieties: indigenous to India and cultivated all over India. but it loses its flavor intensity when dried. South Indian traders introduced it into Malaysia. such as tom yom goong (hot and sour soup) and tom kha gai (coconut soup). Burma. curryblatter (German). Chemical Components: the essential oils vary based on different varieties. In Indonesia. kareapela (Malayalam). Malaysia. ginger. The leaf has higher essential oil (about 80%) with mainly citronellol. they called it curry leaf. The leaves are finely shredded and added to salads. chutneys. and mango. meetha neem (Hindi). including the Himalayas. garlic. curry levelek (Hungarian). chile peppers. karry blad (Danish). The fruit also has a lemonlike flavor with intense bitter overtones. vegetables. basil. Chemical Components: S-citronellal is responsible for its distinct aroma. frozen. fish broth. The dried fruit pieces are reconstituted and added to foods. bai karee (Thai). and citral. It is also used with stir-fries. Sri Lanka. bowala (Punjabi). Common Names: curry leaf. fogli di cari (Italian). galangal. yellow curry. khibe (Laotinan). and spicy Thai salad blend. tom kha gai blend. It also contains citral. kore rihu (Japanese). There is a . listya karri (Russian). mostly monoterpenes. and la cari (Vietnamese). feuilles de curry (French). It is also called barsunga (Bengali). floral. and chopped. the grated fruit is used in fish and chicken dishes. nerol. and limonene. squid. pindosin (Burmese). aley kari (Hebrew). and the United States (California and Florida). The fruit has limonene. or dried. spicy salads. β-pinene. kadhi limbu (Marathi). KARI (OR CURRY) LEAF Kari (or curry) leaf (called kariveppilai in Tamil) is grown all over India and has been used for centuries in South India and Sri Lanka as a flavoring for curries. and Singapore.A to Z Spices 123 juice. karapincha (Singhalese). karepeku (Telegu). while the rind is grated and added to sauces and curries. naming it after the seasoned sauce (called kari in Tamil) that it was added to. Family: Rutaceae (citrus family). hojas de curry (Spanish). sauces. strong piney-lemony aroma. karibue (Kannada). Kaffir lime leaves have a shiny green surface and an appearance of two leaves attached together on a stem. daun kari (Indonesian/Malaysian). bizari (Swahili). and beverages. The fresh leaf has about 0. Properties: the fresh leaf has a spicy. kari patta. They are sold fresh.

’ meaning ‘to wash. It is a favorite with the French who not only use its oil for perfumery and cures but for culinary purposes as well. β-phellandrene. and curries. soups. It gives a more intense flavor and crunchiness when it is toasted in oil or ghee. and an infusion made of roasted leaves stops vomiting. Kari leaf can be kept frozen or refrigerated in a plastic bag for about two weeks. such as fried cabbage. ginger. turmeric. and bark are used as medicinal aids in India. or eggplant. It is also recommended for relieving kidney pains. it is best not to remove the leaves from its branches until ready to use.’ As part of wedding bouquets. desserts. It is shown to prevent rancidity of ghee (or clarified butter). its dried flowers make up the potpourri used to mask unpleasant odors and for perfuming many household items. chutney blends. breads. okra. The leaves are used to help blood circulation and menstrual problems. samosas. chutneys. sambar podi. confectionary. Freezing better retains its flavor. with calcium (810 mg/100 gm). lentils. and later. and this mixture is then added to many vegetarian foods. The fresh leaves are taken to cure dysentery. There is great potential in using its flavor in many savory and sweet applications including soups.1 mg/100gm). and fiber (6. β-elemene. sambars. and vegetables. as well as found to prevent formation of free radicals. α-pinene (5% to 27%) and dipentene (6% to 16%) with β-caryophyllene (8% to 20%). A member of the mint family. fenugreek. Egyptians. beans. It also has high levels of oxalates (1.600 IU/100 gm). . Spice Blends: curry blends. root. Kari leaf also provides a distinct spicy flavor to cold dishes and buttermilk. dals. and ice creams. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the leaves. ground. garlic. Kari leaves par well with mustard seeds. phosphorus (600 mg/100 gm).35%). dressings. It provides a certain zest to yogurt-based salad dressings and vegetable dishes. but its color changes to black. and Flavorings. Lavender got its name from the Latin word ‘lavare. Though it is used mainly in the pharmaceutical industry and in a few culinary applications such as in sweet-based products and herbes Provence. vitamin C (4 mg/100gm). Seasonings. Curry leaf has a good amount of vitamin A (beta-carotene is 12. by Romans and Greeks to scent bath water. tomatoes. sauces. It is usually removed before the food is eaten. The essential oils mainly consist of sabinene (9% to 34%).124 Handbook of Spices. Sri Lankan. LAVENDER Used in ancient times by the Phoenicians. and bisbolene. β thujene. and Arabs as a perfume and for mummification. and yogurt. iron (3. ghee. sambars. and fish curry blends. Sometimes it is toasted. dosai fillings. limonene. Recent studies have shown that it has a hypoglycemic action. To retain its fresh flavor. snacks. β-gurjunene. and Malaysian curries.1%). cumin. thereby a possible treatment for diabetes. dals. rasam podi. coriander. Second Edition gradual decrease in volatile content with advancing maturity so fresh leaves have more volatiles than the older leaves. Kari leaf is popularly used in South Indian vegetarian and fish dishes and Sri Lankan meat and chicken curries. it sends a message of good luck to the bride and groom. or crushed to season or garnish soups. How Prepared and Consumed: it is an essential spice in South Indian.

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Scientific Name(s): Lavendula (L) augustifolia, L. stoechas (French lavender), L.latifolia (spike lavender), L. dentata, L viridis, L. multifada (fern leafed lavender), L. vera, L. officinalis, and many hybrid lavenders such as Lavandin. Family: Lamiaceae (mint family). Origin and varieties: originated in western Mediterranean region and cultivated today in France and Mediterranean regions, Hungary, Bulgaria, North Africa, India, and Saudi Arabia. About thirty other varieties are present and names can become confusing because of climatic and growing conditions. Common Names: khuzama (Arabic), hoosam (Armenian), lavandula (Bulgaria), fan yoi chou (Cantonese), xeun yi cao (Mandarin), lavendel (Danish), lavendel (Dutch), ostukhudus (Farsi), tupsupaallaventeli (Finnish), lavande, lavando (French, Provencal), lavendel (German), levanta (Greek), lavender (Hebrew), levendula (Hungarian), lavanda (Italian), rabenda (Japanese), rabandin (Korean), lavandel (Norwegian), alfazema (Portuguese), lavanda (Russian), lavanda (Spanish), lavendel (Swedish), lawendeot (Thai), lavanta cicegi (Turkish), and hoa oi huong (Vietnamese). Form: The plant has grey-green spikes of leaves and purplish flowers which are sold dried or as oils. The leaves are long, narrow, and spiky while the flowers are tiny and tubular and surround the stem in clusters. The dried flowers are used more often in cooking than the dried leaves. Fresh flowers are used to create a visual appeal for many dishes. Properties: The flowers have a strong perfumy odor with crusty woody undertones acamphorlike notes. The leaves have herbaceous and more pronounced bitter notes. Chemical Components: the flowers are rich in flavones and anthocyanins, with 1% to 3% essential oil, mainly linalyl acetate (about 35% to 55%), linalool, β-ocimene, 1,8 cineol, terpineol, coumarin, β-caryophyllene, and camphor. Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are common in the leaves. Lavandin has higher camphor and 1,8 cineol which provides its harsh notes while its content of geraniol, nerol, citronellal, neryl acetate, and geranyl acetate gives a sweet rose-like odor. Angustifolia, which has mainly linalool (25% to 37%) and linalyl acetate (25% to 46%), has a perfumy odor with less harsh notes (again subspecies differ here). How Prepared and Consumed: lavender is not commonly used as a spice but the French enjoy it in many dishes such as aioli, bouillabiase, ratatouille, meat dishes, and soups. Flowers are candied and also flavors fruit salads, sweets, and desserts. Lavender pairs well with strawberries, mango, guava, blueberries, vanilla, coocnut, white wine, citrus, rosemary, mints, basil, clove, cinnamon, shallots, chives, fennel, star anise, rose, or saffron. It is used to flavor cakes, biscotti, ice cream, syrups, liquers, preserves, lamb, cookies, and steamed or broiled fish. Lavandin and lavender oil is used to flavor baked products, frozen ice cream, confectionary, puddings, beverages, and teas. Spice Blends: herbes Provence, curry powder, ice cream blend, milk shake blend, kesari blend, and vinaigrette blend. Therapeutic and Folklore: believed to ward off insects, its essential oil has been since ancient times used externally as a sedative and to relieve stress and headaches. The French used lavender oil to dispel worms and heal wounds. They let lamb graze in lavender fields so the meat becomes tender and fragrant. The

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English take lavender tea to ease migraines. Recent research has led to its use in relieving rheumatic pain and for treating skin irritations.

LEMON BALM
Lemon balm, called bosem in Hebrew or citronelle in French, originated in the Middle East. While it is a popular spice in Mediterranean cooking, lemon balm is valued more for its medicinal properties, for stomach ailments or nervous disorders, than as a seasoning. The Latin word for lemon balm, melisa (which means bee) came from the Greek practice of planting this spice to feed bees. Scientific Name(s): Melissa officinalis. Family: Lamiaceae (mint family). Origin and Varieties: lemon balm is indigenous to Greece and the Middle East and is cultivated in Middle Asia, North Africa, Hungary, Egypt, Italy, and the United States. Bergamot (Monarda didyma) or bee balm, a relative of lemon balm, and which has harsher notes than lemon balm, is used to flavor teas. Common Names: balm mint, sweet balm, common balm, and true balm. It is also called habak, turijan (Arabic), heung fung chao, xiang feng cao (Cantonese, Mandarin), citronemellise (Danish), bijenkruid (Dutch), badrang buye (Farsi), citronelle (French), zitronenmelisse (German), melissa (Greek), bosem (Hebrew), mezfu (Hungarian), melissa, citronella (Italian), seiyo yamahakka (Japanese), sitronmelisse (Norwegian), erva cidreira (Portuguese), limonnik (Russian), balsamita maior, balsamo limon, toronjil (Spanish), citronmeliss (Swedish), and ogulota (Turkish). Form: the fresh and dried lemon balm leaves are used whole or chopped. Properties: lemon balm leaf is light green with jagged edges. It has a sweet delicate lemon aroma and a slightly minty taste. Chemical Components: it has about 0.1% essential oil, mainly citronellal, β-caryophyllene, geranial, including neral, citronellol, linalool, and limonene. How Prepared and Consumed: lemon balm is used as a garnish or is added to salads to give a lemony flavor. It goes well in teas, vinegars, stewed fruits, jellies, puddings, and custards. It is also added to fish, poultry, eggs, salads, and soups. Lemon balm pairs well with fresh fruits, so it is a common flavoring in fruit drinks, iced teas, and fruit-based desserts. It can be made into a pesto or a sauce with olive oil, garlic, fruits, and almonds. Lemon balm is sometimes used to substitute for lemongrass and to intensify a lemony aroma in a dish that contains lemon juice. Spice Blends: pesto blend, lamb stew blend, and barbecue blends. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: since ancient times, lemon balm was used to heal wounds, sores, and bee and wasp stings. Called the “elixir of life” in Europe, it was mixed into a drink to ensure longevity and to treat asthma, stomach ailments, indigestion, menstrual cramps, and fevers. Lemon balm has also been used traditionally to promote emotional well-being by relieving tension, helping depressive illnesses, calming nerves, and preventing headaches.

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LEMON VERBENA
Lemon verbena is a popular spice for European teas, fruit drinks, and desserts. It is indigenous to South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards. Verbena, a Latin word meaning leafy branch, was originally used as a perfume. Though not widely used in culinary applications, it adds a refreshing taste to many cold dishes. Scientific Name(s): formerly Lippia citriodora, now called Aloysia triphylla. Family: Verbenaceae (verbena family). Origin and Varieties: it is indigenous to Central and South America and is cultivated in Latin America, France, China, and Algeria. There are many species of Lippia in Latin America and Africa such as Mexican oregano and Ethiopian koseret. Common Names: lippia, cedronella, erba, ning mang mabinchou, meng ma bincao (Cantonese, Mandarin), jernut (Danish), citroen verbena (Dutch), limou (Farsi), verbena odorosacitronelle, verveine odorante (French), zitronen verbena (German), verbena (Greek), verbena, lipia limonit (Hebrew), citro verbena (Hungarian), cedrina (Italian), verbena limonnay (Russian), and yerba de la princesa, vervena, verbena limon (Spanish). Form: lemon verbena is a long, pointed, green leaf available fresh or dried. It is used whole or chopped. The dried form retains its flavor well. Properties: fresh lemon verbena has a strong, lemon-lime-like flavor, with a fruity and penetrating aroma. Chemical Components: lemon verbena contains 0.1% to 0.2% essential oil, which is yellowish green. It is chiefly composed of aldehydes-citral, neral, and geranial. Others are monoterpenes-cineol, dipentene, limonene, linalool, borneol, geraniol, and nerol. How Prepared and Consumed: it is commonly used by Europeans to flavor fruitbased drinks, fruit salad dressings, fish soups, marinades, puddings, jams, and desserts. It does not tend to lose its flavor during cooking. It pairs well with fruits, vanilla, and seafood dishes. Spice Blends: fish marinade blend, soup blend, and pickle blend. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: lemon verbena has been used traditionally by Europeans as a diuretic and a gout remedy, to treat inflammation of the liver or spleen, and even to aid depression. It is also brewed in tea as a home remedy to relieve colds and fevers. Lemon verbena is a natural insect repellent.

LEMONGRASS
Lemongrass derives its name from its characteristic scent and appearance. It is widely used in Southeast Asian (including Thai, Malaysian, Singaporean, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Indonesian as well as Sri Lankan) cooking – soups, curries, sauces, and desserts. Scientific Name(s): Cymbopogon citrates: Southeast Asian, West Indian; Cymbopogon flexuosus: Sri Lankan, Thai, Burmese/Myanmar. Family: Poaceae (grass family). Origin and Varieties: lemongrass is indigenous to Southeast Asia and South Asia. It is cultivated in Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, India, Australia, the Caribbean, Central America, Africa, and the United States. There are many species, but the two

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main varieties are the South Asian and Southeast Asian types. The latter is also cultivated in the West Indies. Common Names: Indian verbena, ginger grass, Java citronella, and Cochin grass. It is also called hashisha al limon (Arabic), zabalin (Burmese), chou geung, ng mao chao (Cantonese), citrongras (Danish), citroengras, sereh (Dutch), sitruunaruoho (Finnish), lemongrass, verveinedes Indes (French), zitronengras (German), lemonochorto (Greek), essep limon (Hebrew), sera (Hindi), tawng dubh (Hmong), sereh (Indonesian), citronella, erbe de limon (Italian), remonsou (Japanese), bai mak nao (Khmer), bai mak nao, si khai (Laotian), serai (Malaysian), xiang mao cao, chao jiang (Mandarin), erva cedeira, capim-santo (Portuguese), limonnoe sorgo (Russian), sera (Singhalese), zacate de limon, herbe de citron, hierbe de limon (Spanish), tanglad (Tagalog), servi-pillu, karpurapul (Tamil), ta khrai (Thai), limon ortu (Turkish), and xa, sa chanch (Vietnamese). Form: lemongrass has a long stalk (or stem), about 4 to 6 inches long, with pale green, slender, long leaves at the top and a bulbous base that is woody and fibrous. The hard, fibrous outer sheaths of the lemongrass stalk are peeled and discarded, and the delicate inner stalk is used. It comes fresh, frozen, or dried. The fresh form is whole, sliced, finely chopped, or coarsely pureed, while the dried form is whole, shredded, or ground. The fresh stem is bruised or macerated to release its flavor. The dried forms need to be soaked in hot water before use; otherwise, they are woody and fibrous. The ground form is added directly into cooking. Properties: its flavor is found in the lower tender part of the stem, about 4 inches from root end to 3 inches from the upper leaves. The root-end stalk gives the most flavor. The whole fresh stalk becomes aromatic when it is crushed or cut. It gives a refreshing lemon-lime-like taste with a tinge of mint and ginger. It has a delicate citral flavor with floral-like (rose) and a delicate fresh, grassy aroma. The dried form has very little aroma or taste. Chemical Components: the essential oils (terpenes, alcohols, and aldehydes) in lemongrass vary with the variety, from 0.2% to 0.5%. C. citratus has 0.3% to 0.4% essential oil with 70% citral, others being citronellol, geraniol, limonene, linalool, geranial, and neral. C. flexuosus has 0.2% to 0.5% essential oil with 80% to 85% citral. The other components are nerol, limonene, β-caryophyllene, myrcene (14%), geranyl acetate (3%), methyl heptenone (2%), and linalool (1%).     The essential oil has a pale yellowish to a brownish yellow color, depending on the variety. Lemongrass contains calcium, vitamin A, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and manganese. How Prepared and Consumed: lemongrass enhances many ingredients and does not dominate the flavor profile of a dish. It pairs well with garlic, galangal, shallots, cilantro, turmeric, kaffir lime leaves, candlenuts, ginger, chicken, pork, fish, and chile peppers. Lemongrass is used whole in soups or is chopped and pounded for use in soups, stews, curries, laksas, rendangs, and condiments of Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Malaysia. The ubiquitous sambals of Southeast Asia contain blended lemongrass as an essential ingredient with chilies, garlic, ginger, and shallots. Lemongrass is an important flavoring ingredient in Southeast Asian spice blends, especially in Nonya-style dishes of Malaysia and Singapore as well as in Thai,

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Vietnamese, and Indonesian cooking. Malay and Thai curry pastes and Nonya laksas frequently contain lemongrass. It provides a wonderful aroma to nasi lemak, a coconut-milk-based rice dish from Malaysia, enhances Vietnamese soups and meat marinades, and balances the fiery chilies and galangal in Indonesian bumbu pastes. In Southeast Asia, lemongrass is added to many local desserts that have rice flour, gula melaka (dark palm sugar), and coconut milk. The stalk is sliced into small rings and added to sauces and curries, or the stalk is cut into pieces, crushed with the back of a knife or spoon, and added to flavor soups or stews. The whole lemongrass stalk can be tied into a knot and added to soups or stews to give them an aromatic, fresh, citral flavor. It is discarded before serving. When cooked, lemongrass imparts a fresh floral, citrus, taste to foods. In Malaysia, whole lemongrass is made into a skewer or a brush to add marinade to meat and chicken satays (barbecues). In Indonesia, it is combined with turmeric, chile peppers, and other spices to make bumbu, a seasoning used to flavor the local sauces and soups. Spice Blends: sambal blends, nasi lemak blend, rendang blend, satay sauce blend, bumbu blend, assam fish blend, and Malay chicken curry blend. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in Southeast Asia, lemongrass is traditionally used to improve blood circulation and ease muscle pain. It is also used in teas to cure loss of appetite and reduce fever. In Thailand, lemongrass is used as a smelling salt and to relieve headaches.

LOVAGE
Lovage belongs to the parsley family, and its seeds, leaves, and roots are commonly used in Europe for flavoring foods and beverages and for their medicinal properties. The Romans, who introduced lovage to Europe, used it widely in their cooking as well as to reduce fevers and treat stomach ailments. Germans called it maggikraut because its aroma reminded them of maggi cubes (meaty yeast extracts). Today it is popular in South and Central European cuisines. Scientific Name(s): Levisticum officinale. Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (parsley family). Origin and Varieties: true lovage is native to Southern Europe but cultivated in western Asia, Germany, Italy, France, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the United States. There are two other types of lovage that grow wild. One variety, called sea lovage, Scottish lovage, or shunis, grows in northern Britain and along the north Atlantic coast of the United States. The other type, called black lovage or alexanders, grows in Britain and around the Mediterranean. Common Names: love parsley, garden lovage, Italian lovage, true lovage, maggi herb, and old English lovage. It is also called habak (Arabic), yuhn yih dong gwai, yahn ye dang gui (Cantonese, Mandarin), lovstikke (Danish), lavas, magi plant (Dutch), anjodan romi (Farsi), liveche (French), maggikraut/liebstockl (German), levistiko (Greek), levistico (Italian), robezzi (Japanese), monari (Korean), haulopstikke (Norwegian), levistico (Portuguese), ljubistok (Russian), ligustico (Spanish), and libsticka (Swedish).

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Form: lovage leaves, seeds, stems, and rhizomes are used in foods, but the leaves are the most commonly used flavoring. Lovage has green, serrated leaves and hollow stems that are sold fresh, dried, frozen, or crystallized. The leaves, which resemble celery leaves, can be used whole or chopped. The younger leaves are smaller in size. The seeds (which resemble ajowan seeds) are tiny, ridged, crescent-shaped, brown, and aromatic. The roots are slightly thick and fleshy with a greyish brown color. Properties: the fresh leaves have a sharp, yeast-like and musky taste with a lemon and celery-like aroma. The dried leaves have a stronger flavor than the fresh leaf. Chemical Components: the fresh leaf has 0.5% to 1% essential oil, while the dried leaf has 0.2% to 0.5% essential oil, which is yellow amber to greenish color. It consists mainly of phthalides (ligustilide, butylphthalide, sedanolide) with lesser amounts of α-terpineol, eugenol, and carvacrol. How Prepared and Consumed: ancient Greeks and Romans commonly used the seeds, leaves, and roots in their cooking. Today, lovage is a favorite flavoring in Britain and southeastern Europe. It is eaten cooked or raw. The leaves are used in soups, stocks, flavored vinegars, pickles, stews, and salads. In Italy, lovage is used with oregano and garlic for tomato sauces. The seeds are sprinkled over salads and mashed potatoes and are crushed for breads, pastries, biscuits, and cheeses. The stems and stalks are chopped for use in sauces and stews, while the crystallized leaves and stems are used for decorating cakes. The roots are peeled to remove the bitter skin and are then used as a vegetable or are pickled. Spice Blends: tomato sauce blend, soup blend, stew blend, and stock blend. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Europeans traditionally use lovage as a digestive stimulant, for stomach upsets, water retention, and skin problems. It was also taken to treat poor circulation and menstrual irregularities.

MACE
Called “flower of nutmeg” in France, Sweden, or Germany, mace was first introduced into Europe during the eleventh century by Arab traders to flavor beer. Mace’s popularity as a spice reached its height during the seventeenth century when the Dutch monopolized the nutmeg trade in the Spice Islands. Mace and nutmeg are from the same fruit. Mace is the lacy covering of the seed, which is the nutmeg (with a ratio by weight of 1:25). They have different color and flavor profiles. Scientific Name(s): Myristica fragrans. Family: Myristicaceae (nutmeg family). Origin and Varieties: mace is native to the Banda Islands in eastern Indonesia (Moluccas) and is cultivated in the Banda Islands, Grenada, the Caribbean, South India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Sumatra, and Brazil. Common Names: fuljan, basbasa (Arabic), meshgengouz (Armeinan), dao kao syuh, dau kuo shu (Cantonese, Mandarin), muskat blome, (Danish, Norwegian), foelie (Dutch), jouz hendi (Farsi), fleur de muscade (French), muskatblute (German), moschokarido (Greek), jaipatri (Gujerati), meyz (Hebrew), javitri (Hindi), szerecsendio (Hungarian), sekar pala (Indonesian), macis (Italian), mesu (Japanese), kembang pala (Malaysian), jathipathri (Malayalam), jaypatri (Marathi), muskatnot (Norwegian), macis (Portuguese), sushonaya shelukha (Russian), wasa vas

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(Singhalese), macia/ maci (Spanish), muskotblomma (Swedish), jattikai, athipalam (Tamil), jatikayi (Telegu), dok chand (Thai), besbasi (Turkish), and dau khau (Vietnamese). Form: mace is the deep red, lacy, netlike, leathery covering of the nutmeg seed called aril or mace blades. These blades are removed and dried in the sun, which then become brittle and assume a red color. Mace is used whole, broken, or ground. It retains its flavor better than nutmeg when it is ground. There are different grades of mace based on regional variations. Properties: mace blades are smooth and shiny and can be up to about 4 cm long. Mace can be pale orange, yellowish brown, orange, or reddish brown in color. The color and flavor of mace varies depending on its origins—reddish orange from Indonesia and brownish yellow from the West Indies. It is spicy and bitter with clovelike and piney overtones. Its aroma is terpeny. Mace is more aromatic than nutmeg but has more bitter notes. Ground mace is lighter in color than ground nutmeg. Chemical Components: depending on its origins, mace has 7% to 14% essential oil and about 30% fixed oil. It contains the same aroma compounds as nutmeg but in different amounts, mainly monoterpenes (87.5%), monoterpene alcohols (5.5%), and other aromatics (7%). Like nutmeg essential oil, the main constituents of mace essential oil are sabinene, α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, myristicin, γ-terpinene, and safrole. Mace oil is more expensive than nutmeg oil. The mace oleoresin is amber to dark red in color; 7 lb. of mace oleoresin are equivalent to 100 lb. of freshly ground spice. Mace butter, which has fixed oils and volatiles, has 60% unsaturated fats and 40% saturated fats. Ground mace contains vitamin A, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and calcium. How Prepared and Consumed: in Europe and the United States, mace is usually used in cakes, confections, and light-colored products, such as cream soups, cream sauces, chowders, crackers, pie fillings, and cakes. Mace is also used with fish and in vegetable purees, meat stews, and meat pies. Commercially, mace flavors frankfurters, doughnuts, pickles, preserves, ice cream, confections, icings, sausages, knockwurst, ham, soup mixes, and poultry. Mace pairs well with fruit, sugar, chocolate, and milk-based products—cakes, cookies, and doughnuts. It provides an intense aroma to Middle Eastern and Asian foods. In Middle Eastern, Iranian, and northern Indian recipes, mace is often combined with nutmeg. Arabs add mace to mutton and lamb dishes and many spice blends such as ras-el-hanout, baharat, and galat dagga. It is ground and sprinkled over North Indian pulaos, lamb, and other meat dishes to add aroma. Ground mace is commonly used in Southeast Asian, Chinese, and Indian foods such as garam masalas, curries, sauces, puddings, cakes, pies, and cookies. Spice Blends: curry blends, garam masala, ras-el-hanout, baharat, galat dagga, and rendang blend. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Asian Indians have traditionally treated stomach pains, dysentery, vomiting, and the symptoms of malaria with mace. It is also chewed to prevent foul breath.

which are not as strong as the leaves. in England. mayoran. and marva kusha (Urdu). Marjoram contains calcium. Its oleoresin is dark green. maggiorana (Italian). sodium. mah yeh lah fah. carvacrol. Form: marjoram leaf is used fresh. golden marjoram. linalool (9% to 39%). and ground. Called za’tar in the Middle East and often mistaken for oregano. It has the fragrant herbaceous and delicate. terpinen 4-ol (18% to 48%). are also used as flavorings. mejorana (Spanish). linalyl acetate (2. common marjoram. The flowering tops and seeds. za’tar (Arabic). onites and wild majoram: O.6%). marjolein (Dutch). vitamin A. Syrian majoram is called za’tar. majoran (German).2%). Greeks who wore marjoram wreaths at weddings called it “joy of the mountains. and dried whole or broken. marjolaine (French). bitter. myrcene (1. Marjoram is fresh. dictamo. oregano. Pot marjoram: rigani. A cousin of the oregano family. avishan (Farsi). Origin and Varieties: marjoram is indigenous to northern Africa and southwest Asia. it is also a popular spicing in eastern Europe.6%). South America. marjoram was a traditional symbol of youth and romantic love. Scientific Name(s): sweet marjoram: Origanum (O) hortensis (or Majorana hortensis). magnesium. Used by Romans as an aphrodisiac. ma yuek lan fa (Cantonese.0%). the United States.2%). majoran (Russian). It is cultivated around the Mediterranean. Central and Eastern Europe. mirzan josh (Hindi). are equivalent to 100 lb. za’tar (Hebrew). and flavored a wine called hippocras. matzourana (Greek). and slightly pungent with camphorlike notes. Its flavor varies widely depending on its origins.” It was used to brew beer before hops was discovered. gold splash marjoram. and niacin. phosphorus. It is yellowish to dark greenish brown in color. ρ-cymene (3. mayorana (Japanese). Common Names: sweet marjoram. and annual marjoram. Properties: sweet marjoram is a small and oval-shaped leaf. kekik out (Turkish). merjan (Danish). and al maraco. spicy. and α-terpineol (7. Seasonings. of freshly ground marjoram. potassium. marzanan (Armenian).3% to 1% essential oil. marjoram originated in Mediterranean regions and is now a commonly used spice in many parts of Europe. Chemical Components: sweet marjoram has 0. maruvammu (Malayalam). merian (Norwegian). There are also many wild varieties. It is light green with a greyish tint. French marjoram. as whole or chopped. Mandarin).132 Handbook of Spices. α-terpinene (7. and 2.6%). γ-terpinene (10%). Second Edition MARJORAM In Europe. It is also called marzanjush. vitamin C. it was used to cast love spells and was worn at weddings as a sign of happiness during the Middle Ages. mercankosk. the main one being pot marjoram: O. vulgare. . caryophyllene. knotted marjoram. curly marjoram. Family: Labiatae or Lamiaceae (mint family).5 lb. The Indian and Turkish sweet marjorams have more d-linalool. sweet aroma of thyme and sweet basil. majorama (Hungarian). Pot marjoram is bitter and less sweet. manjerona (Portuguese). and India. and Flavorings. and eugenol. maruvu (Tamil). iron. mostly monoterpenes. mejram (Swedish). caryophyllene (2. It mainly consists of cis-sabinene hydrate (8% to 40%). There are a few varieties of sweet marjoram.

arvensis. Origin and Varieties: peppermint is native to southern and central Europe and is now cultivated in northern Africa. It is popular in Greek cooking. teas. In Eastern Europe. spicata. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Greeks used marjoram extensively to treat dropsy. chilies. spearmint: M. rotundifolia. orange mint. cheeses. and poisons. India. In the United States. It was called Herba Santa Maria in Italy and Our Lady’s mint in France. From here it spread to Europe. fruits. The Greeks used it as an aphrodisiac. salads. apple mint. or Eau de Cologne. sausage blend. khmeli suneli. liqueurs. it is used commercially in poultry seasonings. butter-based sauces. for grilled lamb and meats and to complement onions. Spearmint is cultivated in China. it is added to grilled meats and stews with paprika. and chewing gums. The French add marjoram to bouquet garni and herbes fines for flavoring pork. cornmint or Japanese mint: M. pizzas. Today. and eggplant. and seafood. and to the United States. gentilis. spearmint is commonly used in chutneys. Spice Blends: bouquet garni. vinegar. and vegetables. the United States. marjoram is called the “sausage herb” and is used with thyme and other spices in different types of sausages. It is usually added at the end of cooking to retain its delicate flavor or as a garnish. convulsions. and England. and to clear sinuses. In Germany. Italians use it in tomato sauces. tomato-based sauces. orange mint: M. vegetables. The familiar “after dinner mints” originated in England to soothe the stomach after a meal. It goes well with vegetables including cabbages. Family: Labiatae or Lamiacea (mint family). and pickle blends. orange mint: M. soups. mutton. and sauces in India and Southeast Asia. There are many . fish dishes. where it was crushed and used in baths and other leisure places. nuts. calm nervous disorders.A to Z Spices 133 How Prepared and Consumed: marjoram is typically used in European cooking and is added to fish sauces. fines herbes. North Africa. Russia. sausages. while the Romans used its aroma as an appetite stimulant. fish. and beans.  Scientific Name(s): peppermint: Mentha (M) piperita. The seeds are used to flavor confectionary and meat products. clam chowder. mushroom sauces. and lamb dishes. Southeast Asia. and other dried spices. garlic. head colds. Traditionally. and wine. citrata. curries. bologna. it was used in tea to cure headaches. liverwurst. and salad dressings. It is found to have good antioxidant properties with fats and helps to retain color of carotenoid pigments MINTS: SPEARMINT AND PEPPERMINT Peppermint was discovered in the seventeenth century in England as a wild plant and was mainly used as a medicinal infusion. Spearmint was the symbol of hospitality in traditional Europe. mint is widely used in confectionery. barbecues. and ginger mint mainly used in teas. and Japan. Many other varieties include Japanese mint. North Africans and Middle Easterners use marjoram in lamb. Vietnamese mint or rau ram is not a true mint botanically but belongs to the coriander family. Nowadays. It is also a popular flavor for teas around the world. ginger mint: M. potatoes. Marjoram has also been used to comfort stomachaches and muscular pains and improve circulation. India.

Marathi. pothina (Tamil. pereminde (Swahili).8-cineol. menthe verte (French). and strong menthol notes. and rau thom. and fine or coarse. The dried form is sold whole. isomenthone (2% to 8%). piperita (Spanish). Vietnamese mint (or Vietnamese coriander). with a fresh. bai saranae (Thai). Spearmint has 0.134 Handbook of Spices. Punjabi). like Vietnamese mint or lemon mint. seiyo hakka. as flakes. grune minz (German). poliyas (Tagalog). podina (Hindi. The leaves can also be crystallized. menthe anglaise (French). pulegone (1. piparminta (Finnish). menthone. When bruised. Indonesian). menta (Hungarian). Portuguese). menthofurane (2% to 8%). . nanah (Farsi).8% to 7%). which is similar to the shiso. fresh and herbaceous taste. daun pudina (Malaysian. huacatyl or South American mint. these mints lose their flavor easily. hang que (Vietnamese). myata (Russian) hierba buena. pothina. and β-pinene (1. pineapple mint. boh he (Cantonese. Peppermint: naana (Amharic. bokh hoh.5% to 2%). meenchi (Singhalese). it is eaten raw. Malaysian). Telegu). Mandarin). Bengali.5% to 5% essential oil that is pale yellow. pepaminto (Japanese).and basil-like flavor. menta (Greek). mentastro verde (Italian). pebermynte (Danish). ananookh (Armenian). menthyl acetate (3. menta pepe (Italian). menta. has a lemony mint-like flavor. Common Names: mint (general): naana (Arabic). Punjabi). Menthol and menthyl acetate are responsible for the refreshing and cooling pungent odor and are mostly found in the older leaves. and rau thom (Vietnamese). nana (Hebrew). or lavender mint.5%). slightly sweet. pepermunt (Dutch). menthe poivre. shiso has a decorative mint. mentas (Spanish). daun pudina (Indonesian. and perilla. peppery. menthone (16% to 36%). and some plants that are called mints are not real mints but tend to have the flavor of mints. including dihydrocuminyl acetate. hierba buena (Spanish). Arabic). Spearmint has a slightly pungent. menta. menta meshubelet (Hebrew). and 1. limonene. phum hub (Hmong). menta. mente (Portuguese). Spearmint: naana (Amharic. pudina (Hindi. Other mints (and so-called mints) are lemon mint. pothina (Tamil). phellandrene. Other so-called mints: Vietnamese mint has aromatic coriander lemony flavor. Form: mint is available fresh or dried.4% to 4%). menta (Italian. It mainly consists of menthol (26% to 46%). Menthol gives peppermint its cooling sensation. and Flavorings. cheep poho (Khmer). orange mint. bai saranae (Thai). nane (Turkish). menthol. tangy. mutthina (Malayalam). and pepparmynta (Swedish). Arabic). hortela pimenta (Portuguese). apple mint. Spearmint and peppermint (whitish and black) are the two most commonly used mints. ginger mint. mainly 50% to 70% carvone and dihydrocarvone. naana (Hebrew). chopped. limonene (2. Properties: peppermint has bright green leaves. mutthina (Malayalam). or cooked. basil mint. Spearmint does not have menthol and so does not have the cooling sensation of peppermint. with lemony and sweetish notes. Marathi. Chemical Components: peppermint has 0. perilla (la tia to in Vietnamese is sometimes referred to as shiso in the United States because of its similar flavor). pfefferminze (German). Seasonings. pureed. Second Edition varieties and cultivars. shiso (or Japanese basil). myata pjerechnaya (Russian).5% essential oil. Fresh. warm. menthe (French). dihydrocuminyl valerate.

Today in the United States. sauces. lemongrass. liqueurs. mints are added at the end of cooking because heat rapidly dissipates their flavor. Normally. for soups.and β-pinenes. dips. and as food wrappers. In England. Middle Easterners use chopped peppermint in many dishes—yogurt dressings. salads. boiled mutton. It is also used to promote digestion and relieve stomach upsets. and vinegar. salads. headaches. chocolate. peppermint is used in savory products. In Malaysia and Indonesia. podina chutney blend. in fish and poultry curries. vitamin A. pungent. jellies. and other minerals. Vietnamese mint: although called mint. muscular aches. In India. cordials. vegetables. and cigarettes. and in teas. 16% to 31% menthone.A to Z Spices 135 Oil of corn mint or Japanese mint is referred to as mint oil in the United States and is blended with peppermint oil because it is less expensive. Mints contain calcium. phosphorus. They also have vitamin A (2700 IU/100 gm). chocolates. . cordials. Family: Polygonaceae (buckwheat family). and green mango. shallots. Peppermint tea helps relieve nausea and is taken to relieve seasickness. Scientific Name(s): Polygonum odoratum. Dried leaves are popular in many North African and Middle Eastern cuisines including Turkish and Iranian cooking. green papaya. potassium. potatoes. and green mango to flavor green or chat masalas for chutneys and curries. Spearmint pairs well with cardamom. and confectionery. poultry. Mint has antibacterial properties. and is added with yogurt and cucumber in raita as dips and drinks. tabbouleh blend. jams. niacin. basil. seasoned rice. biryanis. Malaysians. peas. fish. yogurt. 6% to 13% isomenthone. it is called daun laksa (or laksa leaf ) because it is an essential flavoring ingredient in the stew-like. green chilies. such as sauces for roast lamb. sodium. and iron. fevers. and soups. mainly 28% to 34% menthol. How Prepared and Consumed: Greeks and Romans used peppermint in condiments. teas. sore throats. Europeans use it in sweet products such as desserts. green chilies. They are also used as a general body cleanser and strengthener. grilled lamb. vitamin C. and a higher content of α. spring rolls. Spice Blends: chat masala. Malaysian kurma blend. stir-fries. Mint tea is widely consumed by Arabic cultures. and toothaches. Corn mint has about 1% to 2% oil. 5% to 10% limonene. In Europe. dips. In Mexico. It enhances the Mogul-style biryanis of North India. In Southeast Asia. Mint has been used to relieve cold and flu symptoms. mint sauce blend. peppermint is mainly used in bakery products. and Thai green curry blend. candy. They are used in dry blends. lime. onion. the crystallized leaves are also used as decorations in cakes and pastries. mint is popular in fruit-based beverages and teas. The Vietnamese mint is very popular in Vietnam and is always used fresh as a garnish for most southern Vietnamese dishes. spearmint is ground with coconut. and beverages. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: mints were used as a symbol of hospitality in many cultures. magnesium. it does not belong to the mint family. and Thais use fresh spearmint as garnishes in salads (along with basil and cilantro). phosphorus. hot noodle dishes called laksas created by the Nonyas of Malaysia and Singapore. and in teas. meat and fish marinades. Vietnamese. iron. cilantro. and fruits.

Scientific Name(s): there are three types of mustard seeds: pale yellow or white mustard (Brassica (B)/Sinapis alba or B. Indian brown and Oriental mustard. Seasonings. hirta Moench). and sesquiterpenes such as α-humulene and β-caryophyllene. Mustard oil is a popular cooking oil in North India. and before long. moutarde (French). northern Africa. Norwegian. Properties: it has a clean. (Brassica juncea). Canada. campestris). southern Italy. Mandarin). moustarda . coriander-like lemony taste. daun kesum. The Nonyas of Singapore and Malaysia add chopped fresh mint with fermented shrimp paste. pak pai (Thai). It is an important flavoring in Vietnam. or hot mint. These mustards are also cultivated in Nepal. kupiena lekarstvennaya (Russian). luam laus (Hmong). Black mustard seed is not as popular in the United States or Europe because it is difficult to harvest. the seed took this name as well. senafich (Armenian). chee krassan tomhom (Khmer). renouee odorante (French). Mustard paste making was introduced to central and northern Europe by the Romans. How Prepared and Consumed: native to Southeast Asia. which were called sinapis. and Central and South America.136 Handbook of Spices. Chemical Components: its essential oil contains aldehydes. a hybrid of B. and decanol (10%). laak sah yip. and black mustard is indigenous to South Mediterranean. Chinese. laksas (or spicy noodle broths). with grape must to make the first table mustard. Origin and Varieties: yellow or white mustard is indigenous to southern Europe and western Asia. and mustard flour was first made during the eighteenth century in England. mainly dodecanal (45%). MUSTARD Mustard seed was a symbol of fertility for the ancient Indians and has been used by Greeks. Singapore. Vietnamese mint is commonly used in Vietnam. turmeric. chieh kai (Cantonese. brown mustard is indigenous to northern India. where whole fresh leafy spices are a significant part of preparing or garnishing a meal or dish. mustum ardens became mustard. nigra and B. Vietnamese mint leaves are sometimes used to wrap beef. China. The prepared mustard condiment was first made by the French in Dijon during the thirteenth century. decanal (30%). and the black or dark brown mustard (Brassica nigra). Afghanistan. gai chay. Common Names: mustard (in general). and condiments. Cambodian mint. curries. or vegetables that are cooked or served as salads. Iran. daun laksa (Malaysian). Swedish). Family: Brassicaceae (cabbage family). Indians. and Africa. Mandarin).” Eventually. and Flavorings. Brown and white mustards are the most popular types used in the United States. Vietnamesischer coriander (German). senf (German). seafood. Vietnamesisk coriander (Danish). sennap (Danish. Cambodia. and Malaysia. smartweed. la sha ye (Cantonese. Second Edition Common Names: it is also called Vietnamese coriander. which they called mustum ardens meaning “burning or hot must. khardel (Farsi). Its other names are pakarmul (Bengali). galangal. and lemongrass to lend a unique flavor to their spicy soups. and Africans since ancient times. phak phew (Laotian). but black and brown are the most popular in Asia and Europe. The Romans ground mustard seeds. Vietnami menta (Hungarian). khardal (Arabic). Russia. mosterd (Dutch). and rau ram (Vietnamese).

but it becomes pleasant and sweeter during cooking. Malayalam). abba (Singalese). and bitter taste with an unpleasant aroma. also called brown mustard or true mustard. mananekh (Armenian). garashi (Japanese). huit sennap (Norwegian). The seeds are used whole. gorchitsa (Russian). senape (Italian). sugar. Yellow/white mustard seeds: netch senafitch (Amharic). sinapi agrio (Greek). Bengali. mostarda preta (Portuguese). and vinegar. and banh cai denh (Vietnamese). senape India (Italian). medium-sized brown to dark brown seeds or small black seeds. Mandarin). Mustard leaves. also called mustard greens. There are many cultivars of these different brown types. Mustard also comes in wet or prepared paste forms with water. angse mustar (Hungarian). have a radishy taste and are used as a prepared vegetable or are put into salads. chieh gai (Cantonese.A to Z Spices 137 (Greek). senape biancha (Italian). gorchitsa belaya (Russian). zwarte mosterd (Dutch). spices. and Southeast Asia. Prepared mustard is a smooth condiment made from mustard seeds. biji sawi (Malaysian. A wide variety of flours are available based on volatile oil and particle size. hved sennap (Danish). crushed. and mostaza negra (Spanish). and the other a darker. Black mustard is oblong and is the smallest in size. Their proportions depend on the region. Mustard flour/powdered mustard is usually a blend of yellow or brown mustard seeds. moutarde blanche (French). som sien (Laotian). Mustard oil is the fixed oil in mustard seed and has little pungency. moutarde de Chine (French). biji sawi putih (Malaysian. indischer sonf (German). mostaza (Spanish). The seed is ground with the bran. moutarde noir (French). ground. stronger brown mustard that is used by Indians. mostarda (Portuguese). schwarzer senf (German). mostaza silvestre (Spanish). sufed rai (Hindi). brun sennap (Swedish). fekete mustar (Hungarian). shiro garashi (Japanese). salt. Properties: the smaller and darker the seed. hardal (Hebrew). kadugu (Tamil. depending on the variety. Form: mustard seeds range anywhere from large yellow to yellowish brown seeds. gorchitsa chyornaya (Russian). and spices called prepared mustards. kardhal abyed (Arabic). It is pale yellow in color and has a raw. weiber senf (German). The most common mustard greens are from the brown mustard variety and are commonly eaten in the southern United States. India. and mostazo India (Spanish). sien (Laotian). khardel sefid (Farsi). kardhal asuja (Arabic). byaz hardal (Turkish). also called tikur senafich (Amharic). which are hybrids of the black mustard: also called gai choy. svart sennap (Norwegian). Black mustard seeds. mustar (Hungarian). rai kala (Hindi). biji sawi hitam (Malaysian. the more intense and hot the flavor is. oil. mostaza (Tagalog). pungent. rai (Hindi). haradali (Swahili). Mustard seeds are milled to remove the bran. China. mostarda branca (Portuguese). hardal shaor (Hebrew). molari (Marathi). Indonesian). mostaza blanca. bankh gai choy. senape nera (Italian). rai (Hindi. hardal (Turkish). bai chieh gai (Cantonese. Ground mustard is made from yellow or brown whole seeds. Urdu). hardal levan (Hebrew). Indonesian). Brown mustard includes two varieties: one called Oriental used mostly by Chinese. It has the sharpest flavor . and cai denh (Vietnamese). vinegar. sinapi nauro (Greek). vit sennap (Swedish). Mandarin). Indonesian). Mustard meal (that includes bran) is made mostly from yellow mustard and is sometimes blended with brown mustard. witte mosterd (Dutch). or as flour.

The release of sensation. sweeter and mellower burning note than black mustard. are equivalent to 100 lb. salad dressings. a very hot flavor is produced. Chemical Components: mustard is high in fat (35%) and protein (28%). With water. in the presence of water. milk. sinalbin is hydrolyzed by enzyme myrosinase to produce the para–hydroxybenzyl-isothiocyanate. spicier. myrosinase. or beer is added to mustard. Second Edition along with a nutty aftertaste. Mustard pungency is due to a variety of isothiocyanate compounds that exist in mustard tissue as glycosides. a milder flavor occurs. The press cake is hydrolyzed by enzymes and is steam distilled or solvent extracted to give the essential oil. and 4. The brown and black seeds have 1% sinigrin and 0. of ground yellow mustard. especially in brown and black mustard. This latter pungency is more intense and lasts longer than the former.138 Handbook of Spices. Seasonings.2%). which gives the characteristic pungent aroma. The brown mustard seed is spherical and medium in size. that. The odor lasts until all enzymatic activity has ceased. . The major pungent compound of black and brown mustard is allyl isothiocyanate. Oleoresin mustard is yellow to light brown in color. breaks down the glycoside (sinalbin) in yellow mustard or (sinigrin) in black or brown mustard to para-hydroxybenzyl-isothiocyanate or allyl isothiocyanate. This is due to the activation of an enzyme. Mustard seed is cold pressed to extract the fixed oil from the press cake. aromatic flavor in South India cooking. a very sharp and hot taste is produced. The heat experienced in yellow mustard is on the tongue. Mustard is a natural physical emulsifier and binder for hot dogs. Certain types of brown mustards contain up to 2.9% essential oil.5 lb. with a shooting sensation to the sinuses. though bite does not build up. and Flavorings. and pungent flavor is created. wine. but can provide a pungent taste after chewing for some time. Acids are poor triggers of mustard’s overall flavor. The pungent aroma varies among the different mustards. different degrees of flavor sensations are produced. The white or yellow mustard is largest and has a delicate flavor that is the least burning. sweetish. The black mustard seeds have the most pungency. and with beer. When water. and many sauces. The whole seed has no flavor. The white or yellow type has a less pungent aroma than the brown mustard seeds that have a very pungent aroma. and has a nutty. linolenic. called mustard oil that is pale yellow in color and contains linoleic. The white/yellow seed has 2. with vinegar. Heat stops the flavor release. but in brown and black mustard. so it is important to let the mixture of mustard and water stand for ten minutes before it is added to cooking. It has a taste sensation like horseradish.2% volatile oil.5% to 1. and 20% to 30% erucuc acids. a milder. is delayed and begins at the back of the mouth. Whole mustard seeds are toasted in heated oil or are “popped” to give a nutty. Ground mustard has no aroma. Mustard seeds have 28% to 35% fixed oil.5% sinalbin and very little volatile oil (below 0. Its flavor and pungency is experienced by triggering an enzyme action that releases mustard’s flavor or pungency. vinegar. with milk. mixed and left to stand for a few minutes. When the cells are damaged. but they extend mustard’s penetrating odor. mostly 95% to 99% allyl isothiocyanate. the heat is also felt in the nose and eyes.

hamburgers. which is high in protein. while the seeds are used as toppings on cooked vegetables. especially in southern India’s vegetarian meals. onions. vitamin C. and stews. wine. English. whole brown or black mustard seeds are “popped” in heated ghee or oil to bring out their nuttiness. Today. fruits. The English enjoy brown mustard with roast beef and ham. vinegar. It is also used as a flavor enhancer and a water binder in processed meats. wine. It is an important flavoring in baked beans. while sweet Bavarian has coarsely ground white mustard. when mustard is ground with its bran. and chilies. potassium. sausages. and sandwiches and luncheon meats. white/yellow mustard is preferable for condiments. Dry Coleman’s mustard and the North American hot dog mustards contain the white/yellow type of mustard. In the United States. The vinegar in mustard paste stabilizes and mellows its pungency. and they are then added to sauces. chutneys. Whole yellow mustard seeds are used in pickled condiments. brown mustard is mixed with yellow mustard. fish. and dals. The Japanese use the oriental brown variety as a dip for raw fish. phosphorus. yellow mustard is combined with sugar. Mustard seeds were sprinkled over foods by the ancient Greeks and Romans. and turmeric and commonly used as a spread for hot dogs. For English mustard. The paste form is popular in salad dressings and hot sauces. curries. Chinese mustard is powdered ground brown mustard mixed with water and other ingredients. grilled steak. Black mustard is sometimes used to flavor ghee . and other spices to accompany boiled or roast meats. or Oriental ground mustard that have more pungent aromas and bites. The early French mixed it with grape must or honey and vinegar. magnesium. The yellow prepared mustards have sharp tongue tastes but not pungent aromas because of their lesser pungent principles. Only a small amount of black mustard is used in preparing condiments because its pungent principle is very volatile. there are many customized prepared mustards that use different spices. and spices to accompany sausages. sambars. combined with brown sugar.A to Z Spices 139 Generally. ketchup. marinades. or added to stews and sauces in Europe. and Chinese prepared mustards contain black. How Prepared and Consumed: white/yellow mustard is mostly used for preparing mustard pastes or condiments with wine. pickles. Therefore. It is used as a table condiment in Chinese restaurants and for other ethnic foods. mustard seeds contain calcium. Dijon. herbs. sauerkraut and fruits. wine. Many emerging new types contain exotic spices. vinegar. and chile peppers. poultry. not only for flavor but also for their preservative function. and niacin. German. honey. Ground yellow mustard acts as a physical emulsifier and stabilizes mayonnaise and salad dressings. The Barbadians and other populations in the Caribbean use yellow or brown mustard with fruits and chile peppers for great tasting sauces. In Germany. Mustard goes well with cold meats. brown. French Dijon has a sharp taste and contains mainly black mustard with sour grape juice and spices for flavoring roasts and boiled meats. and bacon. In Indian cooking. garlic. while wine extends and enhances its pungency. it results in mustard meal. Also. black mustard is made into Lowensenf. beans. The milder Bordeaux has white mustard with its bran layer making it dark in color.

branches. Mustard also stimulates the flow of salivary and gastric juices and promotes appetite. especially in Bengali. Punjabi). It treats skin diseases because of its high sulfur content. murta mirto (Portuguese. and the Middle East. Origin and Varieties: myrtle is indigenous to Mediterranean regions of northern Africa. tao jian niang (Mandarin). Mustard has preservative properties. MYRTLE Myrtle leaves. German). heung tu much (Cantonese). camphene. Second Edition in South India. Ground mustard seeds provide flavor and consistency in Bengali fish curries. astringent. pungent notes of this oil dissipate with cooking. southern Europe. Sprouts from the mustard seeds are used in salads in many Asian recipes. jinbaika (Japanese). allspice. Corsica.8% essential oil. kulinaval (Tamil). and Crete and western Asia. and to induce vomiting or relieve coughs. and fruits have been used since Biblical times to flavor smoked or roasted meats in the Eastern Mediterranean islands of Sardinia. Kashmiri. myrte (Danish). Form: myrtle seeds are purple-black berries that are used whole or coarsely ground. mersin (Turkish). Mustard plasters were used to stimulate blood circulation and to warm up cold feet. Scientific Name(s): Myrtus communis. . Seasonings. Lemon myrtle: Backhousia citriodora is native to Australia. linalool. Bajan sauce blend. Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family). moord (Farsi). α-pinene. and Pakistani cooking.140 Handbook of Spices.2% to 0. Its leaf is used whole or chopped. myrtenol acetate. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in ancient times. Spice Blends: Dijon mustard blend. limonene. Properties: myrtle berries are sweet. with juniper and rosemary-like flavors. and to treat arthritis and rheumatism. citral (90%). bilati mehendi (Bengali). cineol. Lemon myrtle has a refreshing aroma and taste. to relax stiff muscles. baked bean blend. mirtia (Greek). chutney blend. mostly terpenoid aldehydes. mirte (Dutch). hadass. Fixed oil from the brown and black seeds is used in many northern Indian dishes and pickles. myrt (Russian). geraniol. mrdeni (Armenian). with myrtenol. It is also called adus (Amharic). myrtti (Finish). fragrant. vilayati mehndi (Hindi. mirto (Italian). panchphoron. Common Names: myrtle pepper: Corsican pepper. the Greeks used mustard for scorpion and snake bites. It has been used as a laxative. pickle blend. and it becomes sweeter. raihan (Arabic). arraya’n/mirto (Spanish). as a remedy for asthma. and Flavorings. neral. The raw. Chemical Components: leaves have 0. and bitter taste with a refreshing. myrte (French. Lemon myrtle leaf has 4% to 5% oil. Brazilian). and geranial. and habulas (Urdu). The dried berries were used in the Mediterranean as a substitute for black pepper. sambar podi. The leaves have spicy. and nerol. hadas (Hebrew). myrten (Swedish). It is becoming a popular drizzling oil in many Indian-inspired dishes in the United States. and Chinese mustard blend. Asian Indians use mustard oil in cooking to increase blood flow and cleanse the blood of any toxic materials. and orangelike aroma.

and other regions of northern Africa and central Europe. . The pods are harvested before they are fully ripe in order to prevent the pods from bursting open and discarding the seeds. or grano negro. has a warm. melanthion ninkela (Greek). kolongi. grani neri (Italian). kaluduru (Sinhalese). salad dressings. Form: nigella is a small. it is often confused with black cumin because of its similar size and color. black onion. ketzah (Hebrew). and meat ragout blend. NIGELLA Nigella. and charnushka (United States). Origin and Varieties: nigella is indigenous to western Asia and the Middle East. It was a culinary spice and a medicine for Romans. called kalonji in Hindi. birds. Spice Blends: smoked meat blends. poivrette (French). fennel flower. The leaves are used in stews. habit assuda (Arabic). roast meats. neguilla. core kotu (Turkish). The essential oil is yellowish brown in color while fixed oil is reddish brown. The burning myrtle wood and leaves provide a fragrant note to the meat. pasinara (Spanish). Lebanon. jintan hitam. or smoke them. and infuse it in vinegar. and curries. karun jeeragum (Tamil). siah daneh (Farsi). liqueurs. feketekomeny (Hungarian). and the leaves are used to relieve gingivitis and sinusitis. and sweet dishes. peppery. and Iran. and nutty taste. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the berries are used as an antiseptic for bruises. and Greeks. ancient Hebrews. nigelle (Dutch). roast blends. chernushka (Russian). many sauces. It is cultivated in northern India. broil. including kala jeera. irregular-shaped black seed that is used whole or ground. other game meats. nigela (Portuguese). Indonesian). hei jhong cao (Cantonese. western Asia. Egypt. svartkarve (Norwegian). From the Latin word “niger’ or “nigellus” meaning black. jintan hitam (Malaysian. It is also called tikur azmud (Amharic). Italians. schwarzkummel. Middle East. Scientific Name(s): Nigella sativa. Thus. Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family). devil in a bush. seafood. especially Sardinians. Mandarin). Sri Lanka. svartkummin (Swedish). kalonji. and poultry with myrtle branches and then roast. is a popular spice for breads and vegetables in North India. use myrtle branches in the same way allspice branches are used in the Caribbean. They wrap meat. the berries were initially used to flavor wine but are now more commonly used in desserts. It grows wildly in India and has been used as a flavoring for pickles since ancient times. nellajira kaira (Telegu). kala jeera (Hindi). nigella (German). The leaves are also stuffed in the meats and are removed before serving. The leaves are used to wrap wild game or roast pork before cooking.A to Z Spices 141 How Prepared and Consumed: in the Mediterranean. nigella. chernuska (Armenian). habat albaraka. and onion seed. love-in-a-mist. salads. hak jung chao. Properties: whole nigella has little flavor but when ground. stuffings. it is called black cumin in many cultures. Turkey. zortkommen (Danish). Nepal. nigera (Japanese). and meat ragouts. Nigella was introduced by the Armenians into the United States as charnushka. nigelle. Pakistan. Common Names: black caraway. Australians add it to roast poultry. slightly fruity and oregano-like aroma with a sharp.

fenugreek. nigella is used mostly to enhance vegetable dishes. whole seeds are dry roasted or fried in oil to give a more intense aroma to kormas and garam masalas. called panchphoron (five-spice seasoning). mustard seed. During the Middle Ages. Indians add nigella to preserve pickles. Nutmeg’s flavor varies depending on its origins. and calcium. South India. toothaches. NUTMEG Nutmeg has its origins in the Spice Islands of Indonesia. and lamb curry blend. Origin and Varieties: nutmeg is indigenous to the Banda Islands (Moluccas) in Indonesia. In the Middle East. it is added to bread dough and is important in choereg rolls. Its fat content or fixed oil is about 32% to 40%. The United States buys Indonesian nutmeg. vegetables.142 Handbook of Spices. Seasonings. and Flavorings. and ground meats. dal podi. Bangladesh. In North Indian cooking. The East Indian (Indonesian) nutmeg is superior in flavor to the West Indian nutmeg (Caribbean). α-pinene. Sumatra. and dihomolinoleic acid (20%). chutney blend. treat nervous and stomach disorders. and induce sweating. Arab traders brought nutmeg to India (thus called “Indian nut” by many European languages). limonene. Nutmeg is the seed that is covered by the lacy mace (see mace). ethyl linoleate. and Malaysia. melathingenin. mainly linoleic (55%). Turks. They are used in curries. mainly thymoquinone (54%). and eventually it was taken to the Caribbean by the Spanish. and intestinal parasites. squash. Today’s research shows it has strong antimicrobial activity and good immunological property. Spice Blends: panchphoron. It is also cultivated in the Caribbean. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Indians eat nigella to reduce flatulence. Middle Easterners. Egyptians drink tea made with ground nigella. It can also be used in salads. . and black pepper and is then fried in mustard oil to flavor eggplant. Ancient Greeks used it to treat headaches. cabbage. poultry. How Prepared and Consumed: Indians. Its melanthin content shows good emulsifying properties.5% to 1. dals. and chutneys. It was widely popular in Europe and in India for its flavoring and medicinal properties. and Egyptians commonly sprinkle whole nigella seeds on breads before baking to provide flavors and textures. Nutmeg and mace come from the same fruit. lamb. and Sikkim. It contains iron. naan. Nigella is an essential ingredient in a spice mixture of Bengal. Sri Lanka. melanthin. Second Edition Chemical Components: it has 0. and pickles. and dithymoquinone with smaller amounts of carvacrol. niacin. fashionable Europeans carried their own nutmegs and graters to eating establishments as a status symbol. In Punjab and Iran. then to Europe. Scientific Name(s): Myristica fragrans. There are many “adulterant” species found in South India and Indonesia with flavors that sometimes lack the aroma of true nutmeg. and 4-terpineol. It is blended with cumin.5% essential oil. carvone. which has higher volatile oils than Caribbean nutmeg. It is also taken by lactating women to induce milk flow. ρ-cymene (30%). It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. cottage cheese. Family: Myristicaceae (nutmeg family). and nigellone. yogurts. ajwain. citronellol. and other ingredients to treat diabetes. meaning musky nut. Other components include glucosides. Nutmeg’s name is derived from the Latin word nux muscatus. oleic (20%).

Urdu). jo tou kuo (Mandarin). it is an important ingredient in spice blends of India. bechamel sauce.5% to 16% essential oil. nutmeg is added toward the end of cooking. Nutmeg is also used in cheese fondues. Depending on the type. It loses its flavor easily when ground. pumpkin pies and apple pies. fruits. limonene (2. It complements chocolate. szerecsendio (Hungarian). Properties: nutmeg is used ground.1% to 3. It is sweeter in flavor than mace. sweet. and 6 lb. atipalam.8-cineole (1. muskatmod (Danish). muskatniy orekh (Russian).7% to 3%). is orange red to reddish brown and has the consistency of butter at room temperature. eggnog. jathikka (Malayalam). which consists of fixed oil and volatile oil. noix de muscade (French). jouz atib (Arabic). muskat (German). and kari leaves. custards. and it enhances savory products such as vegetable stews. tomato sauce. Nutmeg butter. pies. natumegu (Japanese). The fats are mainly saturated (90%) with 10% unsaturated fats. α-pinene (10% to 22%) and β-pinene (7% to 18%).5% to 13. camphorlike aroma. magnesium. bitter taste with a terpeny. or Sri Lankan origin. jaiphal (Hindi. processed meats. Indian. Europeans use it in mashed potatoes. fats (4%). spicy aroma to pastries. It contains trimyristin (70%). Form: nutmeg is a light brown or grayish wrinkled seed inside a smooth. myristicin (0. jaiphal (Gujerati. safrole (0. The pungent garam masalas of North India commonly . and pork patties. resins (13%). duguan (Tagalog). with myrcene (0. Italians flavor spinach with nutmeg for stuffed pastas. Depending on the source. its flavor can vary from a sweetly spicy to a heavier taste. vanilla. spicy. Also. coconut milk. chocolate. sweet.5%). The nut is dried in the sun until the inner seed rattles when shaken. How Prepared and Consumed: nutmeg loses its flavor quickly when ground. muskotnot (Swedish). Nutmeg provides an intense. such as ragouts or stews. ice cream. djus hendi (Farsi). the essential oil has mainly sabinene (15% to 50%). cakes. Marathi). Along with mace. Their amounts depend on whether the oil is of West Indian.A to Z Spices 143 Common Names: gewz (Amharic). chan thed (Laotian). jatikkai (Tamil). or crushed. Indonesian). who use it in potatoes and other vegetables. rice puddings.5% to 3. which is pale yellow in color and is called oil of myristica. and milkbased drinks. Chemical Components: nutmeg has 6. Nutmeg contains potassium. mutwinda (Burmese). and North Africa.2%). to retain its flavor. It is also a favorite spice of the Dutch. sweet rolls. meshgengouz (Armenian). quatre epices.7% to 4. of freshly ground nutmeg. and other constituents (2%). hard. sadikka (Singalese). lemongrass. The fixed oil is a pale yellow to golden yellow viscous oil. Nutmeg is an important ingredient in the French spice blend. so it should be bought whole and then ground when desired. pok kak (Khmer). and terpinen 4-ol (0% to 11%).5%). and lemon desserts. and luk jan (Thai). ego musket (Hebrew). notemuskaat (Dutch). moschokarido (Greek). It has a clovelike. and phosphorus. of oleoresin is equivalent to 100 lb.1%). blackish brown nut. the Middle East. 1. noce moscata (Italian). so generally it is grated just before cooking or baking. nuez moscada (Spanish). pastas. soups. biscuits. buah pala (Malaysian. noz moscada (Portuguese). banana bread. grated. rice dishes. is used to flavor meats that are braised or cooked for a long time.

sweet. hagyma (Hungarian). pias (Farsi). In Indonesia. and kidney ailments. and it is long noted for its flavoring and pickling properties. luk (Russian). onion is an indispensable ingredient for flavoring many ethnic cuisines. oignon (French). For example. Southeast Asia. pyiaz (Hindi. cipolla (Italian). in Indonesia and Malaysia. It is also known as key shinkurt (Amharic). and shallots. while Egyptians ate it raw. Scallions are salad onions or green onions that are chopped and added as garnish to Asian cooking. There are many types of onions that vary in color. Family: Alliaceae (onion family). native to Asia. bechamel sauce blend. The aromatic spice blends of the Middle East and Asia contain it as well. shallots are referred to as “red” onions (bawang merah) because of their red-colored sheath. purple. Greeks valued it for its curative powers. sibuya (Tagalog). Spice Blends: garam masala. zwiebel (German). The Chinese consider it to be an aphrodisiac. is favored in Southeast Asian and Mediterranean cuisines. Origin and Varieties: onion is indigenous to central Asia and is now cultivated in Egypt. Southeast Asians also treat fevers. cebolla (Spanish). kepalok (Norwegian). such as yellow. loeg (Danish). Today. jerk seasoning. shallot: Allium ascalonicum. ras el hanout. and flavor. North America. Seasonings. oi (Dutch). and Flavorings. It is generally used sparingly during the cooling process. pak bhou (Laotian). khtim slek (Khmer). Texas. and pearl onions. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: traditionally. hua hom (Thai). Second Edition use nutmeg. and Maui. kitungu (Swahili). sok (Armenian). ice creams. Nutmeg has become a popular spice in Caribbean cooking and is added to jerk seasoning. vengayan (Malayalam). onion and garlic have similar names.144 Handbook of Spices. Sweet onions include Vidalia. In some cultures. and cakes. ONION Onion is an ancient spice. atasuki. and nutmeg pulp is made into a local jam. West Asia. or pickled. kesuni (Burmese). and Indonesian ikan pedas curry blend. while garlic is called “white onion” (bawang putih) because of its white sheath. basal (Arabic). France. yan tsong (Cantonese. . bawang merah. vengayam (Tamil). yeung chung. headaches. South America. Shallot. size. Italian. and hanh (Vietnamese). whether sauteed. and Mexico. The yellow or white is the most common onion. bawang besar (Malaysian. fruit punches. Indonesian). ulli. poneru (Assamese). such as nausea and diarrhea. quatre epices. curry blends. Indians savor it not only for its flavor but also for the texture and consistency it provides to curries. lunu (Singhalese). nutmeg is used in sauces and curries. Japan. tamanegi (Japanese). btsong (Tibetan). Mandarin). whose name is derived from Askalon. Europe. From the Latin word “cep”’ meaning onion. pianj (Bengali). eggnogs. roasted. Common Names: common onion and garden onion. peyaz (Punjabi). pastries. red. lok (Swedish). nutmeg has been used to treat digestive disorders. kremidi (Greek). batzal (Hebrew). Scientific Name(s): onion: Allium cepa. and bronchial problems with nutmeg. nirulli (Telegu). Urdu). breads. baharat. Others are the Italian cipollini and purple onions. cebola (Portuguese). and includes the Spanish and Bermuda.

sjalott-lok (Norwegian). and texture to foods. sjabt (Dutch). and penetrating odor when raw but become sweet when cooked. it comes granulated. poultry. chopped. and have less sulfur than regular onions. and thiols. are long. or brownish red bulb. and 1 lb. shallot (Russian). The oleoresin is brownish in color. The fresh onions can be roasted. pungent. disulfide. Form: the common onion is a white. or pickled. The fresh form is chopped. pickled. and btsong gog (Tibetan). As dried. Sweet onions are tasty when baked. They are added whole and glazed for stews. eshirroto (Japanese). grilled. such as dn-propyl disulfide. scalogna (Italian). How Prepared and Consumed: onions add flavor. schalotte and Spanish garlic. Both their bulbs and stems are consumed. The flavorcontributing chemicals are methyl propyl disulfide. Chemical Components: regular onions contain 0. Yellow onions are good for stews. color. roasted meats. Properties: onions are mild or pungent depending upon the variety. They consist mainly of sulfur compounds. methyl propyl trisulfide. kitungu kidogo (Swahili). vinyl sulfide. or diced.to medium-sized bulbs with a reddish brown to orange brown outer skin. green onion. hong tsong (Mandarin). and deep-fried. Red onions are used raw in sandwiches and salads and can be pickled or curried. kanda lasum (Hindi). of dehydrated onions or 400 lb. Onions do not give any flavor until they are cut or bruised. red onions that are larger and round to oblong. Onion comes fresh or dried. or eaten with broiled or roasted meats. askalonia (Greek). vengayam (Tamil). sliced. chalota (Spanish). Pearl onions are glazed.01% to 0. chung tao. and dips. sliced and fried as toppings. yellowish white. slender onions that are immature yellow onion bulbs. and fried (as onion rings). ton hom (Thai). roasted.015% essential oil that has a dark brown color. soups. skalot (Danish). piaz che (Farsi). cebolha roxa (Portuguese). It is also called key shinkurt (Amharic). stir-fried. hom daeng/lek (Thai). bawang merah (Indonesian. and seafood. ciboule (French). In France. daun bawang (Malaysian. pickled. schalotte (German). of fresh onions. and shallots are a cluster of small. chopped or minced for soups and sauces. khtim kraham (Khmer). or roasted and used in salads. or added whole to soups and stews. pearl onions and shallots are glazed. simmered. and hanh tay (Vietnamese). or sauces that require long cooking times. Scallions. Malaysian). powdered. The shallot is more delicate and has a slightly pungent. In classic French cooking. Scallions are mild and slightly sweet. battered. Pearl onions are tiny. shallots are very popular . or toasted. The red onions are pleasant and sweet. depending on the variety and source. sweet flavor. minced. or pickled. jiao tou (Cantonese. mogorohagyma (Hungarian). chopped or sliced raw as garnish for salads. schalottenlok (Swedish). These actions cause an enzymatic action and give rise to a mixture of sulfides. Indonesian).A to Z Spices 145 Shallot: eschalot. Pearl onions do not have much aroma but taste sweet when cooked. ground. methyl-n-propyl. Onion-filled dumplings called pierogi are popular Polish food in the United States which was brought to central Canada by the Ukranian immigrants. Mandarin). Vidalia onions are sweet with high sugar content. ascalonia (Spanish). is equivalent to 100 lb. omelettes. Scallion: spring onion. ujhagyma (Hungarian). The regular white or yellow onions have a strong. and dipropyl trisulfide that are released through enzymatic action when the cells are damaged. also called spring onions or green onions.

OREGANO Oregano’s name comes from the Greek word oros ganos. and rices. meaning joy of the mountain. The word “oregano” in Spanish. pickle blend. Scallions are chopped or sliced raw and are commonly used in soups. thus. and Flavorings. in Burma. or mixed into condiments and dumpling sauces.146 Handbook of Spices. Second Edition and are used with red wine and are mostly braised or boiled. Mexican. The European. ginger. and Swedish means wild marjoram and. The Afghans have ravioli that is stuffed with scallions and served with yogurt sauce and onions. They are pounded and added to spice blends and condiments and cooked in sauces or rendangs. German. onions are blended with vinegar. stir-fries. French.” or fried in oil. Seasonings. onions are the base of many sauces and curries. coconut. providing not only flavor but also body. There are many varieties of oregano. Italian oregano: O. Raw onion has been used to fight colds and flus and prevent edema. and Mexican beans. Syriacum: Syrian oregano. tomatoes. Shallots are an essential ingredient that adds flavor and consistency to Southeast Asian cooking. oregano is used fresh or dried in North American cuisine while the Mexican oregano is popular in Mexican-style cuisine. In India. oregano is an essential spice in Italian pizzas. They are also fried in oil and added as toppings to stir-fried noodles and nasi goreng (fried rice) to give a crunchy texture and caramelized taste. before other ingredients. Onions pair well with garlic. Syrian. and spices. Tex-Mex chili con carne. or pickles in East Asian cooking. and ginger into a smooth paste and then fried in sesame oil until the oil separates and the sauce becomes fragrant. and to lower blood pressure. Mexican oregano (or called Mexican sage): Lippia graveolens. oregano is sometimes confused with sweet marjoram. O. They are chopped and fried in oil or ghee until golden brown. chilies. ginger. Fried onion rings are used as appetizers in the United States and in Germany as garnish with mashed potatoes. In Chinese and Southeast Asian cooking. Scientific Name(s): common oregano (wild European): Origanum (O) vulgare. including Greek. Family: Verbenaceae (verbena family). pierogi filling blend. and Indonesia. Thymus capitatus: Spanish oregano. Family: Labiatae or Lamiaceae (mint family). They are sliced and mixed raw into sambals or are served alongside satay. yogurt. onions become sweet and aromatic. they are chopped or sliced and added raw as toppings over cooked noodles. Spice Blends: cili boh blends. Originally used to flavor ale and beer in Europe. rojak blend. shallots are pureed with spices and chile peppers and are “tumised. Singapore. curry blends. They are an important ingredient with tarragon in béarnaise sauce and many other French sauces. Spanish. and onion soup blend. until a fragrant aroma develops to create cili boh. virens. . Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: onions have been used traditionally as an expectorant. In Malaysia. Similarly. Italian. such as garlic. and Moroccan. a diuretic. When fried. viride and O. laksas. Shallots are traditionally used to cure earaches and fevers. and many other spices. African. generally Greek. are added.

with slight lemony and pungent notes. and seafood dishes. α-terpinene (7%). chicken. dushitsa (Russian). origanum. brownish green liquid. flaked. Oleoresin oregano (made from Spanish oregano) is a dark. European or Greek oregano (used mostly in the United States) has about 1. sathra (Hindi). The common or Greek oregano has 5% thymol and 7. It also inhibits molds. Mexican oregano is not botanically related to the common oregano and has a more intense taste than the common oregano. anrar (Arabic). thus giving differences in flavor profiles. riboflavin. Mandarin). niacin. Turkish oregano 83% thymol and 0. and 4 lb.6%). iron. α-terpineol (7. chopped. hao le ganh (Cantonese. Greek oregano has terpinen-4-ol (46%). and phosphorus. wild European oregano. slightly floral. B. it has a phenolic. or minced. vegetables. oregano (Hebrew). Turkey. Oregano inhibits iron absorption. carvacrol and thymol. It is also used . calcium. magnesium. B6. Form: oregano’s dark green fresh leaves are larger than marjoram leaves. European or Mediterranean oregano is milder and sweeter in flavor than Mexican oregano that is darker in color and stronger and more robust in flavor. of oleoresin are equivalent to 100 lb. origany. and contains 60% to 70% phenols. which is higher than the Mediterranean types. marjoleine batarde (French). ρ-cymene z (3. Today. oregano (Spanish).5% carvacrol. and South America. and other bacteria. Typically. pasta sauces. E. origano (Italian). common marjoram. Greece. avishan kuhi (Farsi). linalyl acetate and β-caryophyllene (2. other fat-based dressings. potassium. pizza herb. and bitter taste. who use it in salads. herbaceous.0% to 2% essential oil. It has an aroma resembling that of marjoram. The United States uses Mediterranean oreganos (Turkish. It is an effective antioxidant for mayonnaise. Mexican oregano 50% thymol and 12% carvacrol. Morocco). wilde marjolein (Dutch). subtilis. mainly thymol and carvacrol. and wine. Dried oregano contains vitamins A. and roast or grilled meats. The dried light green leaves are available whole.A to Z Spices 147 Origin and Varieties: there are many species of oregano indigenous to the Mediterranean (Italy. India. Properties: Oregano can be mild or strong depending on its origins. It is also called mardakosh. oregano (Swedish). Greek.6%). Mexican oregano has 3% to 4% essential oil. coli. or ground. origan. oregano is still a popular spice for the Greeks. and meat products. Common Names: common oregano—wild marjoram.8% carvacrol. meats. Italian oregano 60% thymol and 9% carvacrol. and Spanish marjoram. The amounts of the two types of phenols. Italian. and Spanish oregano 18% thymol and 4. vary depending upon the origin of the oregano. and Spanish) and Mexican oregano. aureus. Syria.8%).2%). Chemical Components: fresh oregano has up to 4% essential oils. Fresh oregano is available whole. oregano (Armenian). France. E. kekik out (Turkish). dosten. rigani (Greek). mainly phenols and monoterpene hydrocarbons. ngau lakh gong. Oregano has a more potent flavor when it is dried. C. Mexico. sabinene (2. S. winter sweet. oregano (German). oregano (Japanese). which is yellowish red to dark brown.6%). It is an essential flavoring in Italian pizzas. How Prepared and Consumed: the ancient Greeks and Egyptians used oregano to flavor fish. and mirzan josha (Urdu). cis-sabinene (7. linalool (1%). of freshly ground oregano. oregao (Portuguese). Israel.5% carvacrol.

chile peppers. green chile-blend. Hungarians have different grades of paprika. garlic. throat inflammations. It is full bodied and pairs well with ground meat. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: ancient Egyptians used oregano for healing and as a disinfectant. and bean dishes. cumin. veal dishes. or tacos. skin irritations. zucchini. The Hungarians came to call it paparka. and Spanish paprika. and pungent. Oregano is also popular in Southwestern foods. Oregano is a popular flavoring in Middle Eastern dishes. soups. It has great affinity for garlic. a common flavoring for Tex-Mex style beans. pimienton. pod pepper. and the United States. Origin and Varieties: paprika peppers are indigenous to Central and South America but are now cultivated in Hungary. Common Names: pimiento. Brought by the Ottoman Turks to Hungary during the sixteenth century. whooping cough. chowders. lamb and pork roasts. Recent studies have found it to be effective against respiratory tract and urinary tract disorders. Second Edition in Italian. and Romans used it to stimulate hair growth and give a clear complexion. bean dishes. and Southwestern blend. salad dressings. cilantro. cumin. capers. soups. Scientific Name(s): Capsicum annum. and Latin American dishes—meat stews. sweet red peppers. eggplant. sauces. PAPRIKA It comes from the Hungarian word paparka. cumin. and in chile con carne. Mexican oregano is used in authentic Mexican cuisines. a variation from the Bulgarian piperka. Spanish. which means Turkish pepper. black beans. headaches. olives. taco fillings. Oregano is used as a traditional remedy for stomach upsets. Greeks used it to treat spider and scorpion bites. chili con carne blend. all varying in pungency and sweetness. Family: Solanaceae. burritos. Mexican. Morocco. and asthma. tomato pepper. Spanish. In the United States. frijole blend. soil conditions. low blood pressure. It is . pizza sauce blend. corn. and chili powder. meat stews. such as green chile blends. roasts. the Hungarian term paprika includes all of the fresh varieties of peppers. stuffings. onion. sweet basil. Mexico. vinegar. as well as the ground form of all capsicum annum fruits. and Hungarian. Hungarian paprika. There are four types: American. It is used with paprika. pasta sauce blend. semisweet. and Flavorings. tomatoes. which in turn comes from the Latin piper. Climate and environment affect the color of paprika. Seasonings. Turkey. chili. paprika is the term for the dried ground or powdered form of the dried peppers of the nonpungent to slightly pungent red varieties of Capsicum annum. and tension. the paprika used is the brilliant red. lemon. Spain. milder capsicum annums were obtained from earlier. Sante Fe seasoning. including green bell peppers. sweet type. Paprika was introduced from the New World into Spain and Turkey. In the United States and the rest of the world. and chile peppers in chili powder. Through different climates. it was taken into Hungary in the sixteenth century when the Ottoman Turks invaded Hungary. toothaches.148 Handbook of Spices. noble paprika. empanada fillings. and cheeses. Spice Blends: chili powder. based on the varieties and their degree of ripening. hotter American relatives. including sweet. Then. sweet paprika. soups. in sauces. It is added to tea and taken to treat exhaustion. and sauces. peppers. zatar. and crossbreeding. nervous disorders. meaning pepper. omelettes.

and onion). delicate. 8% to 23% alpha. pimentao doce (Portuguese). There are many grades based on degree of ripeness–pungency. a dark red and slightly pungent grade and rozsa (rose). Form: paprika is the brilliant red. and kirmizi biber (Turkish). and beef gulyas/goulash (beef stews with potatoes. with most of the seeds and veins removed. peret krasnij (Russian). paprica (Italian). rod peber (Danish). 3% to 5% cryptoxanthin. of freshly ground spice. and game with onions). Spanish paprika is slightly more pungent than the paprika consumed in the United States. it is an essential flavor in porkolt (thick stew of pork. apapr (Serbian). phosphorus. equivalent to 100 lb. pimiento dulce. szekelgulyas (sauerkraut and goulash). paprika (Dutch). Sugar is high in the ripe paprika. Paprika contains good amounts of vitamin A and vitamin C. paprika-edeo/piros (Hungarian). tian jiao (Cantonese. Depending on its origin and grade. paprikas have more pungent flavors. to more pungent flavors. Hungarian paprika has a deep. it becomes darker in color. and sometimes cured. It loses its color quickly (from a russet red to tan red and finally to a brownish red) when exposed to light and air. pilipili hoho (Swahili). magnesium. ground powder from the thick flesh of dried red capsicum annum pods. csemege (delicatesse). paprika (Swedish. from a purplish to almost blackish purple due to formation of anthocyanins. and mild pungency.001% to 0. 18% capsorbin. tokany.3% to 0. How Prepared and Consumed: paprika is an indispensable spice in Hungarian cooking and many eastern European countries. its color ranges from a dark purple to almost black color due to presence of anthocyanins. Its oleoresin is dark red with 8 lb. and calcium. Hungarians classify their paprika as fiery (eros). ground. pimenton (Spanish). semisweet (feledes) and premium sweet (edesnemes). In Hungarian cuisine. In . chicken paprikas (creamy chicken stew). goose. very sweet with caramelized notes. and which is exported around the world. The U. Paprika has a wide range of colors and pungencies.and betacarotene. Properties: paprika has a deep red or russet to a reddish orange and brownish red color depending on its grade. round flavor and can range from a delicate and mild. with no sweetness but most pungency. a dull yellowish red color. yafranj (Amharic). The ripe fruits are dried. German. timh jiu. sodium. When fresh paprika ripens further. aromatic. and flavor and include kulonleges (special) which is bright red. gamir bhbheg (Armenian). color. and sausages. it can be sweet to pungent. with stronger flavor but no pungency. and 8% to 10% lutein.8% in fruit) and consists of 35% to 60% capsanthin. deghi mirch (Hindi). duck. carrots. papurika (Japanese). Chemical Components: paprika has very little essential oil. stews. siling pangsigang (Tagalog). edesnemes (sweet). barbecues. paprika metuka (Hebrew). omelets. paprika. The paler reds and the brownish reds which are the poorer quality are the most pungent paprikas. beef. As it ripens. Dutch).A to Z Spices 149 also called filfil hila (Arabic). with niacin. 8% to 10% zeaxanthin. siper ngonpo (Tibetan). Paprika loses its aroma and develops bitterness when exposed to high heat. piment doux (French).005%. piperia (Greek). Its aroma is due to 3-isobutyl-2 methoxy pyrazine and overall flavor due to long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Its reddish coloring matter is due to carotenoids (0. potassium.S. It is used in Hungarian and Serbian soups. from 0. Mandarin).

Paprika is used in cream-based sauces in European cooking. Seasonings. ras-el-hanout. and cilantro. parsley was not always appreciated as a culinary ingredient. otherwise it will turn bitter. chili blend. Spice Blends: goulash blend. and Flavorings. paprika is fried in oil (not overdone to cause bitterness) with other spices to provide color and taste for curries. salad dressings. fish. tomato. It flavors stuffings containing olives. ham hocks. Throughout the centuries. romesco (red pepper almond sauce). Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: paprika is traditionally used to help prevent colds and influenza and aid circulation problems. and roasts. Paprika is used to color and garnish potatoes. and Middle Eastern stews. is a marinade or sauce used for meats and fish in Morocco. sofritos. Due to its high sugar content. Smoked paprika comes as dulce (sweet). paprika is valued for its coloring and mild flavor. fish. and rice. eggs (deviled eggs). salad dressings. paprikash sauce blend. baharat. called pimento. it is an important component of bouquet garni and fines herbes in French cooking. It develops a brilliant reddish orange color and a distinct sweet. soups. it should not be overheated. chermoula blend. black beans. But later. Second Edition gulyas. chile peppers. Paprika is a popular spice in North Indian. cayenne. mainly to add color. It provides visual appeal for lighter colored foods. berbere. it was associated with ill luck by the English and the Greeks. dips. berbere. nutmeg. a puree of paprika. such as ras-el-hanout. agridulce (medium hot). pungent flavor when fried in oil. meaning rock celery. In North India. black pepper. It is used commercially in sausages. and other neighboring regions. cheeses. the Greeks and Romans associated it with speed and strength. Derived from the Greek word petroselinon. and baharat. It is also used by Europeans as an after-dinner breath cleanser. curry blends. At one time.150 Handbook of Spices. PARSLEY Parsley is popularly used as a garnish all over Europe. and smoky flavor. In the United States. sour cream. Southwestern and Texas cuisines enjoy paprika in their chilis. Turkish. clove. and vegetables. and drizzled over meats and chicken. It goes well with the added cumin. . It has a rich. saffron. and sauces. and cilantro. garlic. corn. a thick bean soup with vegetables. and other meat products. condiments. Chermoula. coriander. black sausage (morcilla). sofrito. and picante (hot). oregano. and galat dagga. galat dagga. and garlic and pork. and in berza. Spanish paprika. chorizos. deep. lemon juice. It also gives the red coloring in Hungarian salami and is used as a tabletop condiment. turmeric. sauces. Paprika also pairs well with onions. is a favorite ingredient in Andalusian cooking. and cumin. It has also been used since antiquity in Jewish Passover meals as a symbol of new beginnings. porkolt blend. Baharat is a spice mixture that is fried in oil or clarified butter for use in mutton and other dishes. paprika forms an important ingredient in many spice mixtures. paprika is fried in lard to bring out its flavor. combined with other spices and lard. It is used in fish dishes. Moroccon. Yemen. soups. stews. romesco. In the Arab regions of the Middle East.

Form: the leaves come fresh or dried. and phenols. kintsaj (Tagalog). but the most commonly used types are flat leaf (or Italian parsley). Common Names: garden parsley. curly leaf parsley: P. The leaf has mainly myristicin (20. Turkey. harsh.8-triene (9. petersilie (German). of dried parsley.A to Z Spices 151 Scientific Name(s): flat leaf parsley: Petroselinum (P) satiuum. iron.340). pak chee farang (Thai). and its myristicin content is 13. The seed has 1. Family: Apiaceae (parsley family). or pureed. minced. flaked. Flat leafed parsley has a mild . Oleoresin parsley is prepared from the seed and blended with the leaf oil.3%. Properties: flat leaf parsley has a less harsh flavor than the seed. chopped. They are used whole. of fresh parsley. Chemical Components: commercial parsley oil is manufactured from the whole herb or seed. salsinha (Portuguese). is equivalent to 100 lb. niacin. maydanoz (Turkish). heung choi. Germany. kothambelari (Malayalam).2%. root parsley (Hamburg): P. α-pinene (5. xiang cai (Cantonese. IU/100 gm). The seeds. seledri (Indonesian). limonene (3. petrushka (Russian). Its apiole content is 36. It is also peterzili (Amharic). paseri (Japanese). persilja (Swedish). and Hamburg parsley. so only small quantities of fresh parsley should be eaten at any one time. Parsley leaf has 0. Flat leaf parsley has a grassy. pasli (Malaysian). the Middle East. potassium. petrozil’ya (Hebrew). The root has a strong aroma. root (Hamburg parsley). especially in Hungary. pmentha-1.1%). How Prepared and Consumed: curly leafed parsley is used primarily as a great garnish to add color and visual appeal to many foods. The greyish brown parsley seed has a bitter. maintano (Greek). and 3 lb.06% to 0. Apiole gives its characteristic odor and taste. The dried form has higher levels of vitamin A (23. ketones. sodium. persil (French).2%). phosphorus with vitamin C. Greece. France. perejil (Spanish). common parsley.2%). prezzemolo (Italian).1% essential oil and has a more desired aroma than the seed oil. and calcium. The oleoresin from the leaf is deep green. and Sardinia. Fresh parsley has high levels of vitamin A (8230 IU/100 gm) and vitamin C (125–300 mg/100 gm). parsley is referred to as a foreign or western coriander. and terpeny taste.6%). and the United States. green taste with a herbaceous and slight lemony aroma. azadkegh (Armenian). Mandarin). crispum tuberosum. and stems of the parsley plant (Neapolitan parsley) are also used as flavorings. It is now grown throughout Europe. so it is used as a garnish. called makdunis (Arabic). crispum. with folic acid.6%). sodium. ajmood (Hindi). apiole (18. peterselie (Dutch). are equivalent to 100 lb. curly leaf. It is toxic at higher levels. Curly leaf parsley has no flavor. myrcene (4. calcium. western coriander and Chinese coriander. Origin and Varieties: parsley is indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean regions. Holland. 1/3 lb. β-phellandrene (12. and rau mui tay (Vietnamese).1%).5% to 3.3%).3%). vhans bairang (Khmer). α-p-dimenthylstyrene (7. magnesium.5% essential oil. zaafari (Farsi). aldehydes. Dry parsley has no flavor. magnesium. with mature seeds containing up to 6%. There are many varieties. persille (Norwegian). In Asian regions. and manganese. iron.

PINK. and chimmichurri blend. and legumes. parsley has been used as a diuretic and to treat stomach ailments. arthritis. Flat leafed parsley is used as a garnish (for salads. and meat dishes. lentils. potatoes. Native to the Malabar Coast of southwest India. became the source of the word pepper. couscous. beef. thus. Seasonings. and egg dishes) and is chopped and blended in dips. and extend pungent types such as basil or mint. pesto blend. GREEN. meats. while long pepper’s use has disappeared. the Romans lavishly used it to spice their foods. black pepper is used abundantly all over the world. Parsley is a popular addition to Turkish. It retains its flavor after long cooking times. persillade blend. except in India. pies. TASMANIAN Black pepper has long been known as the “King of Spices. clean the blood. sauces. then saute this mixture and add it to broiled lamb. . PEPPERS: BLACK. and Flavorings. rents. Spice Blends: bouquet garni. or ransoms. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: traditionally. boiled potatoes. It is finely chopped and mixed with garlic or shallots to make persillade which is added toward the end of cooking to flavor French stews. beans. and other Middle Eastern dishes. it played a vital role as a medium of exchange. NEGRO. and colic. WHITE. and speed oxygen metabolism. The French finely chop parsley and garlic. because prolonged heat tends to destroy its flavor. Parsley root is used as a vegetable to enhance soups. Black pepper was a precious commodity in ancient times. Today. it absorbs odors and is used to remove halitosis. taboulleh. vinegar. chicken. rice dishes. Fresh parsley is typically added toward the end of cooking. and stews. butter. Long pepper or pippali has origins in India and Indonesia. LONG/PIPPALI. Second Edition flavor that can harmonize mild leafy spices. such as chives and chervil.” The word “pepper” comes from the Sanskrit word pippali. and stews. or fried fish. bay leaf. condiments. fines herbes. which is Indian long pepper. tame more assertive ones such as cilantro. Iranian. vegetables. In ancient times. meats. whether to pay taxes. Black pepper became so highly prized that it became a quest for European nations to discover the fastest routes to use to obtain the spice. Long before the use of black pepper. this pepper was highly regarded in Europe and. With its high chlorophyll content. It is commonly found in many European foods such as soups. bean soups. Parsley pairs well with garlic. Lebanese. menstrual problems. fish. soups. it is chopped and added with garlic and olive oil for chimmichurri and other sauces and condiments. and poultry dishes. Measured like gold. black pepper was introduced to Egypt and Europe through Arab traders. dowries. and condiments of Europe. and it became a status symbol of fine cuisine in Europe. quick cooked sauces. CUBEB. chicken. Parsley is chopped and used as a popular garnish in Central Europe. shallots.152 Handbook of Spices. It is believed to maintain the elasticity of blood vessels. In Latin America. It is used in appetizers such as hummus or baba ghanoush. or tarragon. a relative of black pepper. gremolada blend. stews.

they are rarely used. Origin and Varieties: black and white peppers are native to the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. Family: Annononaceae (custard apple family). South America. also called Moor pepper or “kien” in West African regions. it is referred to as “piment pays. stews. Negro pepper: Xylopia (X) aethiopica or X. Nowadays. It is popular with meat marinades. Belonging to the custard apple family. and sansho (Japanese pepper) and the pink and green peppercorns from South America are also popular peppers emerging in the United States. and Tasmanian pepper originates from Australia. and which resembles black pepper in color and size. and cubeb pepper were used abundantly in ancient times. Sarawak (in Malaysia). Sumatra (in Indonesia). It is also called kundo berbere (Amharic). kalomirich (Bengali). Sri Lanka. pungent. nayukhon (Burmese). and Brazil. north east Africa. Grades of pepper are identified by their origins. retrofractum (Indonesia). sort . with Tellicherry (or Thalassery) and Malabar being the higher grades of peppers. It is now cultivated in Thailand. derives its name from the Indonesian word “cabe” meaning pepper. long pepper: P. Many kinds of fruit peppers exist that have varying flavors and colors. fulfol aswad (Arabic). Vietnam. In Benin. Scientific Name(s): black/white/green pepper: Piper (P) nigrum. Negro pepper. It was popular in Europe before black pepper. “substitute” peppers. Negro pepper. Tasmanian pepper or mountain pepper. Later.” meaning “pepper of the country. Long pepper is native to India and Indonesia. these are long dark brown pods that are smoked before use. are not true peppers. It has a sweet. is becoming better known in the United States. North Africa). cubeb pepper: Piper cubeba (Indonesia. especially grown in Tasmania. Cubeb pepper. Family: Piperaceae (pepper family). It has a mixture of cubeb and macelike notes. and many other local applications. that are found in mixed peppercorns. from Brazil. and are similar in appearance to black pepper except that they have a “tail. based on their origins and how they are processed. beghbegh (Armenian). it became a popular spice in North Africa. Mandarin). are not from the pepper family but will be included here. Singapore. aromatica. except in West and North Africa and Indonesia. hay hu chiao (Cantonese. also called Javanese pepper. to Ghana. Madagascar.” They are also sometimes confused with cassia buds. southwest Africa. Cubeb pepper comes from west Africa while Negro pepper is found in Africa and Brazil. hak wuh jiu. and price of black pepper was high. They are from the cashew family. and numbing taste. Tasmanian pepper: Tasmannia (T) lanceolata or T. depending on its origins. It is indigenous to Indonesia and West Africa.” Ashanti peppers are false cubeb peppers. Cubeb pepper was first brought to Africa and the West by Arab traders who used it to season their meat dishes. such as grains of Paradise. Common Names: black pepper is known as black gold. These are small berries of a pepper relative. is a popular spice used from Ethiopia. Szechwan pepper or fagara (discussed earlier in this chapter) from China. West Africa. The mild and sweet-tasting pink peppercorns or rose peppers. longum (India) and P. popular in Australian cuisine.A to Z Spices 153 When pepper became a monopoly by Arab and other traders. aromatica. Family: Winteraceae. There are many varieties of black pepper.

Also called shan hu jiao (Mandarin). felfel siah (Farsi). poivre de Senegal (French). Urdu). poivre long (French). uzun biber (Turkish). merica hitam (Indonesian). lada hijau (Malaysian). gruner pfeffer (German). litlit (Tagalog). Ground pepper is available coarse or fine and is a mixture of light and dark particles. piperi mauro (Greek). koubeba (Greek). Senegalpfeffer (German). pimento branca (Portuguese). . zelyony pjerets (Russian). pepe bianco (Italian). salipi (Laotian). langwer piber (Danish). cubebe (French). poivre du Java. macro piperi (Greek). prik kao (Thai). Green pepper: poivre vert (French). kubeben pfeffer (German). pilpel lavan (Hebrew). pimiente verde (Portuguese). thada miri (Gujerati). and gronpeppar (Swedish). cubeba (Portuguese). piperi aspro (Greek). felfel sefid (Farsi). vella mulagu (Tamil/Malayalam). white. White pepper: fulful abyad (Arabic). tipli (Singhalese). and kumba perets (Russian). weiber pfeffer (German). Indonaga koshou (Japanese). bai hu chiao (Mandarin). poivre indigene (French). pipal (Hindi). kusillipia (Korean). cracked. chyorny pjerets (Russian). Moor pepper. and Flavorings. Tasmanischer pfeffer (German). pepe verde (Italian). lada berekor (Malaysian). kosho (Japanese). feherbors (Hungarian). piment noir de Guinee. Tasmanian pepper: mountain pepper. karu mulagu (Tamil). Seasonings. magha (Punjabi). lada hitam (Malaysian). vitpeppar (Swedish). and tailed pepper. green. kubeba (Dutch). hvit pepper (Norwegian). and beyaz biber (Turkish). Bengali bors (Hungarian). kubeba (Russian) and kubeba peppar (Swedish). merica putih (Indonesian). Senegal pepper. cabe bali (Indonesian). Called fulful as Sudan (Arabic). fleyfla taweela (Arabic). pipli. Malayalam). Cubeb pepper: Java peppercorn. Javai bors (Hungarian). kubeba (Japanese). prik (Thai). pimienta blanca (Spanish). zwarte peper (Dutch). svartpeppar (Swedish). Long pepper: Balinese pepper and Bengal pepper. byely pjerets (Russian). The black. langpeppar (Swedish). It is also called hab alaru (Arabic). pipul (Urdu). Second Edition peber (Danish).154 Handbook of Spices. pipara (Gujerati). kubabah (Farsi). tippali (Tamil). or ground. pimienta preta (Portuguese). kabab chini (Bengali). cabai Jawa (Malaysian). hay hu chiao (Mandarin). cabe java (Indonesian). bergpeper (Dutch). and Tasmanijskij perets (Russian). Tasman bors (Hungary). pipool (Bengali). and tieu hoi (Vietnamese). poivre noir (French). bhak wuh jiu. langer pfeffer (German). witte peper (Dutch). Negro pepper: also known as grains of Selim. Mandarin). hint biberi (Turkish). pepe nero (Italian). Kani pepper. bai hu chiao (Cantonese. pilpel yarok (Hebrew). It is also called timiz (Amharic). pilpel shahhor (Hebrew). kabab chini (Hindi). native pepper. and tieu den (Vietnamese). and tieu that (Vietnamese). merica hijau (Indonesian). Mandarin). morech ansai (Khmer). pipoli (Assamese). pimento da Africa (Portuguese). kali mirchi (Hindi. Afrikaniko piperi (Greek). hvid peber (Danish). xiang jiao (Cantonese. lada putih (Malaysian). Javanese pepper. arabbors (Hungary). kara biber (Turkish). phrik hang (Thai). and red peppercorns are berries picked at different stages of growth and processed using different methods. paminta (Tagalog). kala mire (Marathi). schwarzer pfeffer (German). yeung jiu. poivre blanc (French). kuru mulagu (Malayalam). Form: pepper is a dried berry called peppercorn and comes whole. pimienta negra (Spanish). feketbors (Hungarian). mirch (Hindi). thippali (Malayalam). china milagu (Tamil.

White peppercorns are berries stripped of the outer hull and picked when near ripe. which are all mild with little aroma. white pepper is actually the inside seed and not the whole fruit like black pepper. Most cubeb berries are hollow. The berries are then soaked in water or steamed to soften and loosen their skin. Brazil. Java. Long pepper/pippali are tiny berries that merge into a single rodlike structure that is about 1. from Malaysia. when they are yellowish red or red in color. fermented for a few days. Negro peppers are kidney-shaped seeds encased in long slender bean pods that are dark brown in color and come in clusters. Sarawak (Malaysia). a process called decortication. Malabar is the regular grade black pepper also with good aroma and little pungency. and Chinese. crushed. is very pungent but not as aromatic as Tellicherry pepper or Malabar pepper. They are also pickled. Other varieties include Chinese black pepper (light in color with a mild flavor). Cubeb pepper is a berry that is slightly larger than the peppercorn and has a furrowed surface. The outer hulls or skins are removed by rubbing. Lampong pepper. it is an essential ingredient of the spice mixture used with betel nuts in paan leaf. Its taste is similar to black pepper. This latter type of white pepper tastes more like black pepper. The essential oil gives the aroma. is milder than the Lampong pepper. The more popular varieties of white peppers are Muntock (from Banda Island near Sumatra. It comes with the stem attached. whereas the nonvolatiles. and then dried in kilns. This green or greenish yellow peppercorn (the immature berry) is picked. but it has a slight sweetness and a stronger taste. White peppercorns can also be prepared from black peppercorn by mechanically removing the outer hulls. from Amazonas. ginger. Madagascar. and Borneo in Indonesia. from the coast of southwest India. and thus. Properties: pepper provides aroma as well as a “bite” that is different from chile peppers. wrinkled.A to Z Spices 155 Black peppercorn is a globular. rinsed. Vietnam. it is also called tailed pepper. Ceylon. is the most aromatic black pepper. Cubeb pepper is sold whole. give the pungency. and from Brazil. light-colored berry. Sarawak pepper. Black pepper has a less biting taste than white pepper but has a wonderful bouquet—a penetrating pungent and woody aroma when freshly ground. So. It has slight lemony and clove tones. dried. with a fruity clean bouquet with little pungency. Green peppercorns. During drying. are the unripe tender berries that are picked and air dried or freeze-dried and then packed in brine or wine vinegar to retain their color. In India. Red peppercorns are the ripe matured berries that are dried at high temperature. and Singapore. mustard. unripe berry or fruit with its outer hull or skin intact. The most popular black peppers are as follows: Tellicherry pepper. Tasmanian peppers are sold dried and look like shriveled whole black peppercorns. and sun dried. winey. is small and grayish in color. Each pepper has different flavor characteristics.5 inches long and is slightly tapered. Brazilian. such as piperine. it shrivels and becomes wrinkled and black. and biting taste with less . which is chewed after a meal. or ground. leaving a smooth. or other pungent spices. Indonesia). from Sumatra. White pepper has a sharp. They are then bleached.

They have a terpeny aroma. cubebs release cumin-like notes and. sodium.8 cineol. β-ocimene. Black pepper generally contains 1% to 2. mostly sabinene. In white pepper. Its piperine content varies with its origins. Red peppercorns have a delicate sweet taste. Tasmanian pepper has polygodial which is responsible for its pungency. and 1. How Prepared and Consumed: peppers were used in ancient times to preserve meats. piperine and chavicin. Negro peppers are aromatic with slightly bitter and pungent notes that are quite similar to cubeb and nutmeg or mace. White pepper lacks chavicin (which is present in the epicarp) and most of the essential oil (present in the outer mesocarp). During storage. whereas Malaysian and Indonesian peppers are less aromatic but have more bite. It has little aroma and lacks the bouquet of black pepper. the essential oil is about 8%. like Sichuan pepper. Black. Essential oil consists primarily of monoterpenes (80%). such as sabinene. Second Edition harsh notes. Cubebs are pungent and tealike with slightly musky and bitter notes. Indian peppers are very aromatic. When ground. The bite and pungency in black and white peppers is primarily due to the nonvolatile alkaloids. Negro pepper has 2% to 4. Its leaves are also used sometimes. paradol. Black pepper has 10% to 15% oleoresin.156 Handbook of Spices. Tasmanian peppers resemble black peppercorns in regard to color and size. α-pinene. white. followed by pungent notes and a later numbness on the tongue. Long pepper is hot and more pungent but with sweet tones. all of which are responsible for the pungent aroma. and iron. The ratio of these two alkaloids varies in different peppers. β-pinene. Piperine accounts for about 98% of the total alkaloid compounds in both of these peppers. It cuts . but contains piperine. others being piperittine and piperyline. Pipalli or long pepper has 1% essential oil. thus giving rise to the different pungencies.0%. with less of a sharp flavor than black or white pepper. and carene. when cooked. Chemical Components: it has a colorless to pale greenish colored essential oil. 1.4-cineol. Both peppers lose flavor easily when ground. mainly β-pinene. The dried fruit of the cubeb pepper has up to 10% essential oil. limonene. and its essential oil contains monotrpenes and sesquiterpenes. Today. The fruits have an initial sweet taste. Black pepper has aroma and bite. Sesquiterpenes make up the other 20% which include β-caryophyllene and humulene. Seasonings.2% essential oil. Pungency is mainly due to cubebin with other related compounds. β-pinene. mainly phellandrene and limonene. while white pepper and long pepper contain less than 1. and other terpenes with traces of vanillin. and Flavorings. Fixed oil is 2% to 9% in black and white peppers. α-terpineol. pepper is the most important table spice throughout the world. Brazilian peppers have a milder bite than other black peppers because of their low piperine content. Green peppercorn is aromatic. which gives the bite but not the aroma. It has a slightly higher piperine level than black pepper. going up to 5%. depending on the fruit. ground black pepper can lose these monoterpenes.8-cineol. which is dark green to olive green.6% essential oil. and green peppers contain potassium. calcium. magnesium. they release an aroma that combines allspice with curry. long. linalool. 1.

ras-el hanout. Ethiopians add it to meat and chicken stews and seasonings such as berbere. Japanese. Spice Blends: mignonette pepper. hamburgers. They are also popular in North African and East African cuisines. cold cuts. Chinese. Negro peppers are used in West African cooking especially added to sauces and stews in Senegal and Cameroon. European. and wine. and cold cuts. baharat. soups. galat dagga. Black pepper is popular in North American. and Southern cooking in the United States uses black pepper abundantly. pepper is added during and after cooking to foods including steaks. and Thai cuisines. soups. and galat dagga. chile pepper. in West Africa. ginger. lemon myrtle. Cubebs were a popular substitute for black pepper in Europe in the seventeenth century. soup stocks. they are an essential ingredient in the spice mixtures of Morocco and Tunisia.A to Z Spices 157 across many ethnic cuisines. but they are not any more because of its strong bitterness. White pepper is popular in Europe and is usually used in delicate white sauces. Creole. It is no surprise that it is a popular spice in their cooking and is found in almost all of their spice blends. it is added with fried garlic. coconut milk. it is an essential ingredient in chicken and meat dishes. Jamaicans enjoy black pepper in goat curries and jerk dishes. and vegetables. clear salad dressings. charcuterie dishes. pest blend. fermented soybeans. salad dressings. added during cooking or sprinkled on foods at the meal table to adjust flavor. and Sarawak peppercorn blend. and pates and is the main ingredient in quatre epices. and stews. pestos. vinegar. while white pepper is popular in European. and South Indian cooking. soup stocks. cheeses (example. berbere. meatballs. pasta sauces. Today. beef. It is crushed and rubbed on meats which are then grilled. pot roasts. and spice blends. pepperoni. as seen in béarnaise sauce and black peppercorn sauce. red wine. emu hamburgers. berbere. Tasmanian pepper is significant in Australian cooking. In France. and added with acacia. basil. Cracked black pepper is popular in marinades. In Europe. Thais and other Southeast Asians use white and black pepper. and tomato to soups. curry blends. and is added more for visual reasons. Peppers are used in marinades or spice mixtures. vinaigrettes. eggs. ras-el-hanout. including zhoug/zhug. coarse or finely ground. fish dishes. and soy sauce. With European cooking. black pepper is added to steaks. Southeast Asian. Cajun. Arabs monopolized the pepper trade for years and carried it from the Far East to Europe. jerk seasoning. such as kangaroo steaks. including ras el hanout and stews of Benin. pickles. lemon. vinegars. in many stir-fry dishes. and curries. creamy sauces. grilled meats. . soups. Long peppers are used in curries and spicy pickles (or achars) of India and Indonesia. The leaves and roots are used to make locally brewed beers. achar blend. Black pepper can be cooked for a long time without losing its flavor. In Thailand. or salads. gravies. sausages. baharat. and other spices to fried chicken and pork dishes. seafood. boursin). cream soups. and fish curries. steak au Poivre blend. pork. black pepper is traditionally added to more hearty and stronger flavored foods such as steaks. cilantro. In Kerala. Pepper pairs well with garlic.

baked goods. Telegu). or as pale yellow nutty oil. paparouna (Greek). biji kas kas (Malaysian. India is also the largest producer of opium alkaloids. It was also used to preserve meats to prevent spoilage. yeung shuk huk. Norwegian). and Flavorings. pavot somnifere (French). slaapbol (Dutch). the United States. vallmo (Swedish. Urdu). ying shu ciao (Cantonese. papavero (Italian). Family: Papaveraceae (poppy family). pereg (Hebrew). the Egyptians described it as a sedative. When the seeds are ripe. In the Ebers Papyrus. which contains the alkaloid painkillers. Gujerati. As early as 1400 BC. the poppy plant was used as a narcotic beverage at the imperial courts during the Mogul era. Black pepper was traditionally used to treat headaches. the Egyptians produced edible oil from poppy seeds and mixed it with honey to make flavorful breads. France. China. papoula (Portuguese). as a bride’s dowry. morphine and codeine. Mandarin). Turkey. ababa. The poppy plant has been valued since ancient times as a medicine and painkiller. Marathi. depending on their origins. Indonesian). kasa kasa (Tamil. POPPY SEED Poppy seeds are not fully formed until the plant matures. the Greeks valued poppy seeds as a pain reliever. post (Punjabi). Cubeb oil is an ingredient used in throat lozenges. and sauces. There are many varieties but P. adormidera. Muslim missionaries introduced it into India and the Far East. coughs. garden poppy. as a paste. keshi (Japanese). Poppy seeds are used whole. and maw seed. khas-khas (Hindi. It is now cultivated in India. pepper is widely used to improve circulation and to improve hypersensitivity to cold. kidney-shaped seeds with creamy. khash-khash (Farsi). . The dried latex or exudates. Poppy seeds do not contain opium or narcotics. pepper was used for bartering. methionine. and cay thuoc phyen (Vietnamese). asthma. Form: poppy seeds are tiny. by which time the plant has lost all of its opium potential. red. semilla de amapola (Spanish). posto (Bengali). mak snotvornyj (Russian). brown. somniferum is the commercially cultivated variety. It is also called khash khash (Arabic). ton fin (Thai). ground. Origin and Varieties: it is indigenous to Eastern Mediterranean and West Asia. and lysine. a form of currency. hashas tahumu (Turkish). kidney inflammations. Scientific Name(s): Papaver somniferum. Seasonings. affugoch (Assamese). bluish black or grey color. as other parts of the plant. In India and China. mekon (Armenian). za zang (Laotian). Today. from the immature poppy plant gives opium. Second Edition Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in ancient times. Properties: they have a nutty and slightly sweet taste with a slightly smoky aroma. Holland. and muscle and joint pains. they are used as flavorings and for thickening sauces. and diarrhea. and Canada. Common Names: opium seed.158 Handbook of Spices. whole or ground poppy seeds are used in confectioneries. The seeds have high protein content but lack the amino acids. Later. mohn (German). kasha kasha (Malayalam). and rent money. constipation. In India. Long pepper is used for those who suffer from sensitivity to cold temperatures. mak (Hungarian). bhainzi (Burmese).

Arabs.” to Rosa Maria or rosemary. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Egyptians. and coleslaw. sour cream and cheese dips. The paste is used in desserts and sauces in Turkey and in the Mogul cooking of northern India. oleic acid (30%). cookies. Austrians grind poppy seeds and combine them with melted butter and powdered sugar and serve them with a yeast-based dumpling called germknodel.A to Z Spices 159 Chemical Components: narcotic alkaloids are not present in the seeds that are used in foods. The creamy seeds are roasted to obtain a more intense flavor and are then ground with other spices to thicken and add flavor to meat and fish curries in India. bagels. The oil has a pleasant aroma. Poppy seeds contain no volatile oil but have 40% to 60% fixed oil that is high in unsaturated fatty acids. and cakes. In Japan. cooked vegetables. In Europe and the United States. Today. It is low in saturated fatty acids (about 10%). such as linoleic acid (60%). beaten egg. in honor of Mary. and linolenic acid (3%). Spice Blends: shichimi togarashi. Poppy seed oil is used as a cooking or salad oil in Europe and Asia. How Prepared and Consumed: the Egyptians mixed poppy seeds with honey as a dessert for their pharaohs. it is still a popular spice in Europe. cookies. and the ancient Indians mixed it with sugarcane juice for a confection. Poppy seeds contain protein and good amounts of lecithin. and water or milk. the seeds are used as toppings to provide nuttiness to rolls. salt. the seeds are sprinkled on breads. They are also used to treat constipation and bladder issues. which means “dew of the sea. zinc. and manganese). Greeks. Poppy seeds are roasted and ground to a paste that forms the basis of many Turkish dishes. it was grown around monasteries. copper. breads. hamentachen blend. The Jewish holiday cake known as hamentachen is made with crushed poppy seeds. the Turks and Germans made a bread with poppy seeds and flour. It was used in religious ceremonies. quite similar to almond oil. especially in Italy and France. It was also a symbol of fidelity. It was noted for strengthening the memory. minerals (magnesium. and funerals and as a symbol against evil. buns. weddings. iodine. and ancient Greek students wore garlands of rosemary when taking exams so as to retain their knowledge. soups. The whole seeds are added to vegetables and curries to provide texture. and germknodel filling blend. . In the United States. and Asians used the unripe seeds for their narcotic properties to relieve pain and act as a sedative. boiled potatoes. lemon juice. Eastern Europeans mix poppy seeds with honey or sugar to make cakes and fillings for strudel and croissants. During the Middle Ages. fish curry blend. The oil is used as a cooking oil and salad oil. and oxalic acid. Mediterraneans and northern Europeans use poppy seeds in tuna fish and macaroni salad. and cakes. pastries. they are used as an ingredient in a popular seasoning called shichimi togarashi. ROSEMARY Rosemary is a flavoring that is deeply rooted in European cultures since 500 BC. Native to the Mediterranean region. honey. mother of Jesus. its name was changed from the Latin word rosmarinus. salad dressings.

vinegars. potatoes. kngooni (Armenian). rozmari (Greek). Fresh leaves are leathery. and phosphorus. stuffings. shrimp. Rosemary does not lose its flavor with long cooking. sodium. veal. Its oleoresin is a greenish brown semisolid. rosmario (Spanish). soup stocks. and pine or needlelike. fruit-based desserts. magnesium. alecrim (Portuguese). Morocco. cinnamon. France. Italians commonly use it with wine. peppery. It is used sparingly because of its strong aroma. In Tunisia. rosmarin (French). and α-pinene (25%). Portugal. Mandarin). rosmarein (German). Whole sprigs used in cooking are removed before serving. and the United States. and Flavorings. honey. . sagelike. rosmarin (Swedish). rozmaring (Hungarian). and dark green. Rosemary oleoresin is used as a natural antioxidant and helps preserve the color of processed meats. of ground. lemon. dried rosemary. lamb. and grilled vegetables. woody aftertaste. The dried form retains its strong flavor notes. chicken. Form: rosemary leaves are used fresh or dried. Italy. or veal. Britain. onion. clove. Germany.and cream-based sauces.5% to 2. eklil kuhi (Farsi). Different varieties differ in flavor depending on their constituents. It contains vitamin C. balsamic. cinnamon. garlic. rosmarin (Danish). bornyl acetate (2% to 7%). or vegetables. borneol (16% to 20%). and sausages. stews. Turkey. pot roasts. crushed. How Prepared and Consumed: rosemary is a very popular spice in the Mediterranean region. It is used by Europeans in roast chicken. chopped. maid it heung.160 Handbook of Spices. Properties: when the leaves are crushed. and tealike fragrance with a slightly sweet taste. marinades. mi tieh hsiang (Cantonese. and black pepper. fish. biberiye (Turkish). calcium. ramerino (Italian). or chile peppers on grilled or roasted lamb. The stems (stripped of leaves) are used as aromatic skewers for broiling or barbecuing chicken. The whole leaves are crushed before use to release their aroma. they provide a strongly aromatic. lamb. camphor (15% to 25%). Family: Labiatae or Lamiaceae (mint family). rozmarin (Russian). They are small. The flowers are used in salads or in fruit fillings and purees. pizzas. The stems and flowers are also aromatic. cold beverages. rusmary (Hindi). Rosemary leaves have a slightly minty. garlic. and la huong thao (Vietnamese). or ground.5% volatile oil. and camphorlike taste with a bitter. narrow. old man (English). piney. is equivalent to 100 lb. romero (Tagalog). vitamin A. mannenro (Japanese). rosemary is cultivated in Algeria. mainly 1. and rabbit dishes. rozmarin (Hebrew). Dried leaves are curved with dark green to brownish green colors.8cineol (30%) (which gives rosemary its cool eucalyptus aroma). shiny. Chemical Components: rosemary has 0. whole. Origin and Varieties: native to the Mediterranean. breads. pork. and 5 lb. romero. Russia. Spain. a strongly aromatic rosemary called kilil is used in a lamb tagine dish with paprika. potassium. goat. French add it to quatre epices to flavor slow-cooked lamb and vegetable dishes. tomato. Seasonings. iron. Common Names: it is also known as ikleel aljabal (Arabic). rozemarijn (Dutch). Second Edition Scientific Name(s): Rosmarinus offinialis. shellfish. Rosemary pairs well with olive oil.

SAFFRON Saffron derives its name from the Arab word za’faran. dates back to 2300 BC. dyes. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: rosemary has been used traditionally to treat whooping cough. Greece. and crocus. zafarani (Swahili). . Spain. and the saffron cloaks of the Irish kings. and lamb tagine blend. Called kumkum in Sanskrit. irritability. fan hong fah. zaafaran (Farsi). The most prized saffron comes from Kashmir. by the Sumerians. the Arabs used it to refresh the memory. poor circulation. They continue to grow saffron and use it in their cooking. the stigmas are then separated from the rest of the flower. France. and the French used it to sanitize the air in hospitals. Common Names: Spanish saffron. Family: Iridaceae (iris family). zaffarano (Italian). In the United States. The U. the Buddhist monks’ saffron-colored robes. fluid retention. keshar (Marathi). jaundice. and Kashmir (India). saffraan (Dutch). Norwegian). and the United States. and other plants such as safflower (also called false or bastard saffron. pizza sauce blend. It is also called za’faran (Arabic). About 80. the Greeks used it for curing jaundice. Most U. Origin and Varieties: saffron is indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean—Turkey. Turkey. German). safrani (Greek). safran (French. The yellowish orange saffron color is auspicious to many cultures: the saffron paste or kungumam in Hindu temples. Because saffron is very expensive. fan huang hua (Cantonese. kungumapu (Tamil). za’afran (Hebrew). rosemary oleoresin is used to preserve the color of meat. and the Middle East.000 crocus flowers (240. or Mexican saffron). shafran (Russian). and finally dried and sold as saffron threads. Commercially. chicken roast marinade. kerkum (Armenian). India. which means yellow. The Romans used it for insect bites. safran (Danish). azafran (Spanish). herbs de Provence. Assamese). Iran.S. hay saffron. In ancient times. In the United States. Today many varieties are cultivated in Spain. safuran (Japanese). mental fatigue. migraine. Iran. saffron (Amharic).000 stigmas) produce 1 lb of dry saffron threads using about 10–12 days of labor. kesari (Nepalese). Kashmir. and Iran. and the least expensive comes from Mexico. whole threads are often adulterated with other parts of the flower. India. safrany (Hungarian). Scientific Name(s): Crocus sativus. Greece. kashuba (Tagalog). kunyit kering (Indonesian. also known as Indian saffron. the Pennsylvania Dutch brought saffron farming from Germany. Saffron originated around ancient Greece and Turkey. saffron comes from Spain and is called saffron Mancha. Malaysian). The flowers are picked by hand. Iran. and was taken by Arab traders to Spain. saffran (Swedish. zaaffran/kesar (Hindi).S. saffron’s use as a dye. or the ground saffron is adulterated with turmeric. one pound of high quality saffron sell retail for $3000 to $5000. acafrao (Portuguese). and aching joints. saffron is emerging as equal in value to Iranian saffron.A to Z Spices 161 Spice Blends: bouquet garni. Mandarin). where it has become a popular coloring and flavoring. jafran (Bengali. panic attacks. it was used to preserve meat and as a fumigant in hospitals to kill bacteria. Saffron is one of the oldest and world’s most expensive spices because it is harvested and processed by hand.

Form: saffron is dried stigmas of the flower. terpenes (such as pinenes and cineol).5% to 1. the color of these foods varies from a deep orange to a turmeric-like yellow. curry blend. rouille. It is an essential ingredient in many flavored rice dishes: paella in Spain. ice-creams. including kheer. and the yogurt drink. reddish orange. mainly monoterpene aldehydes (such as safranal). The false types provide the yellow color but not the taste. mints. zafran pollous in Iran. such as Mughlai style biryanis. and phosphorus. Saffron is an important flavoring and coloring in festive dishes of India. The other carotenoid pigments are alpha. Each saffron flower has three stigmas. The flavors are stronger in the orange and red varieties from India. seafood. or yellowish orange in color. Cumin. saffron is a common flavoring in India in desserts. chicken. Ground saffron has no flavor and is often adulterated with turmeric. especially the bright orange yellow. rose essence. it can create bitterness in foods. soups. polenta. to stewed potatoes and other vegetables. Properties: saffron is deep burgundy.162 Handbook of Spices. The deep red or orange types of saffron are of the best quality. .0% essential oil. and raisins complement saffron. In the United States. and milder in the yellow varieties from Spain. calcium. For flavor release. Seasonings. cakes.6-cyclohexidienal. biryani blend. shellfish. in mayonnaise. kesari. cinnamon. lycopene. Second Edition kunkumapave (Telegu). kesari blend. and zeaxanthin. Saffron is an important ingredient in the fish-based dishes of the Mediterranean. vitamin A.6-trimethyl-4. as a marinade for roasts or for desserts. coriander. safran (Turkish). pullaos. and nghe tay (Vietnamese). nutmeg. bright orange. Its color is due to carotenoid pigments. manganese. honeylike taste with bitter back notes. and Flavorings. less expensive saffron is added to sauces for flavoring lobster and shrimp. and risotto Milanese in Italy. ya faran (Thai). Saffron contains vitamins B1 and B2. If used at high levels. and rasmalai. zafran (Urdu). earthy. sodium. cashews. rices. and meat dishes. such as curries. Also. Depending on the level of saffron used. and isophorone-related compounds. The English add it to scones. which are dark red to reddish brown wiry threads. marigold. The threads are crushed and then infused or steeped in hot water or milk for about twenty to thirty minutes for its color to be fully extracted. cream sauces. Saffron is sold as whole threads or ground. Saffron can also be toasted dry and added directly to rice dishes. Its odor is due to 2. and breads. whole saffron threads need to be soaked in warm to hot water or other liquids for at least ten minutes. such as zarzuela de pescado from Spain and bouillabaisse from France. garlic. and other ingredients. milk. flans. and pollou blend. The bitter taste is due to the colorless glycoside. The colored infusion is then added to foods. almonds. picrocrocin. water soluble crocin. puddings. Acidic ingredients such as vinegar or lemon juice inhibit saffron’s color development. The Arabs add saffron with cardamom to flavor coffees. It has a warm floral bouquet and a delicate. cardamom. Saffron pairs well with savory and sweet dishes. Chemical Components: saffron has 0. Spice Blends: paella blend. ice cream. cloves. and milkshakes. lassi. biryani and pillaos in northern India. brown sugar. potassium. bouillabaisse blend.2. How Prepared and Consumed: saffron is used sparingly for coloring and flavoring foods.and beta-carotene. kheer blend.

shao wei cao (Cantonese. salvie (Norwegian). Many Europeans called sage herba sacra. chopped. liver problems. saffron is used for urinary problems. It is also known as maryameya (Arabic). velvety. It is eaten with ghee to prevent diabetes. Arabs. It was used as a cure for kidney ailments and as an appetite stimulant in Greek medicine. sauge (French). salbei (German). and Persians have used it to perfume their baths. seji (Japanese). sclarea. and shavliya (Turkish). triloba. whole. as a digestive stimulant. Scientific Name(s): Dalmation (English sage): Salvia (S) officinalis. shalfej (Russian). salvia (Spanish). Russia.A to Z Spices 163 Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in India. salie (Dutch). It provides a cooling sensation in the mouth. or finely ground. sage has been used since ancient times in Europe as a seasoning and as a medicine. broad leaf sage. clary sage (France. fevers. Family: Lamiaceae (mint family). China. and it is still used as a natural dye to color robes for religious and royal occasions. salvie (Danish). kamarkas (Marathi). garden sage. English sage. Clary sage has muscatlike notes. . and rheumatism. minced. sathi (Punjabi). meaning “sacred herb” because of its powers with strengthening the memory and providing longevity. golden sage. Mexican sage. red sage. It is also used to symbolize the high castes in India. camphorlike notes. Origin and Varieties: sage is native to the northeastern Mediterranean region. depending on the variety. salvia (Swedish). In Ayurvedic medicine. Greek sage has stronger. saffron is regarded as a sacred color. and a wet paste is placed on foreheads when praying in temples. bhui tulsi (Bengali. marva (Hebrew). and bitter with a camphorlike aroma. Form: common sage is slender. lou mei chou. Turkey. There are many varieties—narrow leaf sage. and for relieving cramps. rubbed (ground coarsely). It is cultivated in Eastern Europe. and to reduce joint inflammation and uterus pains. Common Names: Dalmatian sage. Spanish sage is less bitter with a flavor in between the flavors of Dalmatian sage and Greek sage. Dried sage has a stronger flavor than fresh sage. Other ancient cultures such as Greeks. and the United States. Chinese. SAGE A member of the mint family. common sage. fine hairs. salva (Portuguese). balsamic to a strong camphorous and herbaceous-like taste. shiny. Spanish sage: S. Italy. It turns into a silvery gray when dried. and Morocco). yeghsbak (Armenian). crushed. mariam goli (Farsi). It is also used as a hair coloring for royalty and as a symbol of hospitality for the wealthy. Properties: sage’s flavor varies from a mild. It was commonly taken as a herbal tea. Mandarin). Common (or Dalmatian) sage is astringent. Sage is used fresh or dried. Greek sage has larger and thicker leaves. Hindi). Greece. zalya (Hungarian) salvia (Italian). clary sage: S. Romans. lavandulaefolia. Spanish sage. alisfakia (Greek). and true sage. tricolored sage. Greek sage: S. garden sage. spicy. it is used as a folk remedy for lowering cholesterol and inhibiting tumor growth. The central Americans used sage for religious ceremonies and for medicinal use. or furry green when fresh. The leaves are oblong or spear shaped and are covered with short. and pineapple sage. The yellow color was a symbol of royalty as well as piety. In Spain. purple leaf sage.

It tends to dominate the flavor of a dish. and other regions of Europe. borneol (4%). and red wine sauce in the the well-known saltimboca alla Romana dish. garlic.5 lb. Traditionally. is usually extracted from Dalmatian sage. Spanish. Dalmatian sage has mainly thujone (28%). charcuterie blend. sausages.8-cineol (39% to 67%) with smaller amounts of thujone (5%) and camphor (7%). It is used as a natural antioxidant because of its high phenol content. . fatty fish. The Greeks used it for snakebites. albidium. and 7. English in stuffed duck or pork. In the United States. Its oleoresin along with a small amount of ascorbic acid is used as a natural antioxidant to retain the color of processed meats.5% to 3% essential oil. The Choctaw Indians in Louisiana used ground or dried sassafras leaves (which are the major ingredient of file powder) to thicken stews and soups. and bornyl acetate (1. potassium. calcium. heavy meal. One of the popular ingredients used is sassafras.3%).8-cineol (27%) and camphor (20%).4%). Its composition differs in different varieties. so it is used sparingly in European cooking. camphene (7. Italians use sage with veal. saltimboca alla Romana blend. gravies. Sage oleoresin. SASSAFRAS Sassafras is a native North American spice and is an important ingredient in Creole and Cajun cooking of Louisiana. Greek sage has high levels of 1. 1. Germans use sage in eel soups. Greece. and calf livers. and turkey and goose stuffings. niacin. sage is considered good for throat and respiratory infections.3%). game. butter. camphor (23%). which is pale yellow to greenish yellow.31%). Dried sage contains vitamin A. poultry stuffings. particularly after a rich. baked fish. How Prepared and Consumed: sage is a popular spice in Italy. magnesium. Persians and Europeans associated it with long life. Spice Blends: lamb tagine blend. and goose stuffing blend. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the Romans considered sage to be a sacred herb. are equivalent to 100 lb. of freshly ground spice.8-cineol (12%). Middle Easterners use sage with fagioli in herb salads and in teas. Sage helps soothe digestion. and iron. Second Edition Chemical Components: sage has 1. while the French add it in charcuterie. calming nerves. and the British associated it with prolonged memory. β-caryophyllene (3. sausages. phosphorus. Spanish sage lacks thujone but has more 1. French settlers in Louisiana introduced many local ingredients and flavorings from Native Americans. α-humulene (5. limonene (3. breakfast sausages. Sage is also used in pizzas or with meat. Scientific Name(s): formerly under Sassafras (S) variifolium. and Flavorings. and stuffing. Seasonings. Sage pairs well with onions. and Africans and created spicier version of their dishes. prosciutto. and cheese. tomatoes. Sage also strengthens gums and whitens teeth. Family: Lauraceae (laurel family). sage is used in chowders. which is dark green to brownish green and very viscous. pork. poultry. calcium. and reducing fevers. pork. now called S. which is added to their gumbos.24%). pork.164 Handbook of Spices.

camphor. and eye inflammations. The root has a high oil content of 6% to 9%. and stews. and it was named by the AngloSaxons for its strong spicy taste. a traditional Louisiana dish made with seafood. and file (Creole). It is blended in well. and this oil is used for flavoring the beverage. cinnamon wood. Form: sassafras is light green in color and is available as fresh or dried leaves of varying sizes (1. phellandrene. allspice. file powder will give the gumbo a stringy texture. andouille sausage. gumbo file.” It is a popular ingredient for vegetable and legume dishes as it helps with their digestion. sasafras (Hebrew). sassafras (Russian). gumbo blend. and sage) to flavor and thicken meat. Ground leaves are called file powder. phellandrene. sassfrasso (Italian). poultry. The root has a woody and very bitter taste with a camphorlike odor. sasafras (Spanish). bisques. to lower high blood pressure. it was added with vinegar and used as a seasoning. and root beer. linalool. Properties: the leaf has a pleasant odor that is astringent. after safrole is removed. crawfish or chicken seasoned with thyme. or 3 lobes) that are used whole or ground. Early European settlers in America used it in teas and cordials as a pain reliever. Common Names: ague tree. File powder is added to gumbo right after it is cooked and before serving. huang zhang (Cantonese. If any additional cooking is performed. The bark has about 2% essential oil. 2. eugenol. okra. citral.A to Z Spices 165 Origin and Varieties: sassafras is native to the eastern and southeastern United States (Louisianna). black pepper. mainly -pinene. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the Choctaw Indians chewed sassafras roots to bring down fevers. file powder. wong jeung. vegetable and seafood dishes. In ancient times. Mandarin). root beer. and safrole. Young sassafras leaves are chopped and used in salads. which is not permitted as a food in several countries because it causes liver cancer. Europeans used savory as a substitute for black pepper and so it came to be called “pepper herb. Chemical Components: the leaf has about 2% to 3% essential oil. relieve arthritis. mainly α-pinene. It is used to thicken gumbo. and thujone. soups. sassafras (French). It is also called sasfras (Arabic). gout. and paprika. and cay de vang (Vietnamese). . The essential oil is obtained from the root. saxifrax. lemony taste. with a bitter and anisiclike. SAVORY Savory was introduced to England by the Romans. myrcene. as well as meat products and confectionaries. Safrole is removed from the leaf before it is used commercially in foods. as well as an aphrodisiac and cough medicine. Spice Blends: file powder. sassaforasu (Japanese). sassafras (Portuguese). How Prepared and Consumed: Cajuns and Creoles use file powder (which may contain other spices such as coriander. sassafras (Danish). bisque blend. to remove kidney stones. szassza franz (Hungarian). fenchelholzbaum (German). geraniol. mainly safrole (90%). The dried bark of root is also used as a flavoring.

winter or mountain savory: S. sharper. Most commercial applications use summer savory.25% yellow to dark brown essential oil. fung leung choi.1% to 60. montana. santoreggia (Italian). The essential oil of summer savory mainly consists of carvacrol (3. such as thyme. nadgh. but the two well-known types are summer savory and winter savory. Form: savory leaves are small. vitamin A. such as beans. segurelha (Portuguese). African: S. marzeh (Farsi). and dag rehani (Turkish). depending on its origins and types. Great Britain. chabjor (Russian).8%).25% essential oil. vegetables. and lentils. It pairs well with other sweet herbs. borsika (Hungarian). Second Edition The German word for savory. Winter savory is cultivated in Spain. Savory contains niacin. phosphorus. lentils. iron. Spanish or Iranian savory has spicy thymelike notes while African savory has spicy lemony flavor.4% to 50. hsiang bao ho (Cantonese. North Africa. and oregano.2% to 5. zaatar (Arabic). Family: Lamiaceae (mint family). limonene (0. sar (Norwegian). kyngeni (Armenian). potassium. It is reminiscent of thyme. means “bean herb” because they found that it reduces beans’ flatulent properties as well as complements green beans. sage. Albania. and Morocco. European types have very different flavor profiles than the North African or Canadian types. and mushrooms. Iranians and Arabs add to meat and vegetable dishes as well as for dips. Winter or mountain savory: also called sariette and savouree (French). savory is used mostly for vegetables. vitnisetraj (Slovenia). narrow. sabroso/tomillo salsero (Spanish). and green when fresh and brown green when dried. Germany.3%). These chemical constituents vary widely. African savory has mainly citral while Iranian has mostly thymol. and stuffing. mint.4%). sariette (French). Scientific Name(s): summer or garden savory: Satureja (S) hortensis.2%). while winter savory has 0.1% to 0. borneol (trace to 34%). myrcene (0.2% to 0. α-thujene (1. throubi (Greek). potatoes. and rosemary. potatoes. and spicier notes than summer savory. calcium. bonenkrvia (Dutch). Spanish or Iranian type: S. thymbra. and fish dishes. Savory is used fresh or dried and whole or crushed. kondari (Georgia) bohnenkraut (German). cabbage. Spain. Mandarin). The Europeans use it as part of their herbes fines and bouquet garni blends to flavor sauces. dried beans. Common Names: garden or summer savory is also called: tosinyi (Amharic). and Flavorings. How Prepared and Consumed: in the Mediterranean. chubritsa (Bulgaria). Yugoslavia. There are several varieties of savory including African and Iranian (sometimes referred to as zatar). Eastern Europe. bohnenkraut. γ-terpinene (2. sabori (Japanese).7% to 5. Summer savory leaves are slightly larger than those of winter savory. biflora. game meats.166 Handbook of Spices. Origin and Varieties: summer savory is cultivated in France.5%).5% to 2. Eastern Europeans including Bulgarians and Georgians add to grilled meats. thymol (trace to 22. camphene. and magnesium.3%). Chemical Components: summer savory has 0.3%). Canada. and the United States. Winter savory has stronger. kyndel (Swedish). ρ-cymene (3. santoreggia (Italian) and saborija (Spanish).8% to 4. Properties: summer savory has a fragrant herbaceous aroma with a sharp and slight peppery and bitter aftertaste. Savory is used in scrambled eggs and other egg . satar (Hebrew). Seasonings.

Punjabi). Commercially. savory was used to reduce pain from bee and wasp stings. There are a few varieties of screw pine that differ in flavor and appearance. schraubenpalme (German). It is also known as kathey (Arabic). pandanus (French). Common Names: pandan leaf. thin. Kewra is the flower of the South Asian variety of screw pine. vermouths. latifolius (Sri Lanka). bai toey hom (Thai).A to Z Spices 167 dishes. pandan (Dutch). amaryllifolius (Southeast Asia). soups. thazhai (Tamil). Scientific Name(s): Pandanus (P) odoratissimus (North India). Indonesian). and mutton. Malaysians. savory is used in liqueurs. Winter savory goes well with stronger flavors such as game meats. fish chowders. veitchii. The leaves and flowers also come as bright green extracts. and legume dishes. stuffing. rampe (Hindi). P. Family: Pandanaceae (screwpine family). pandan leaf is used to wrap chicken. and confections. ketaky (Bengali). . pandano (Portuguese). It was believed to stimulate the appetite. charcuterie. bitters. Savory has antioxidant properties. especially of difficult to digest foods. It was called “herb of amor” and was said to increase the sexual and love feelings of those who eat it. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in ancient times. sweet. It enhances pork. and cay com nep (Vietnamese). They add distinct. liver pates. salads. pandanuz (Hungarian). pandano (Italian). charcuterie marinade. soup mixes. rampe (Singhalese). The leaves have a roselike. and desserts before they are barbecued or steamed. P. khmeli suneli. Origin and Varieties: screw pine is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. SCREW-PINE LEAF/PANDANUS/PANDAN LEAF Daun pandan is the Malaysian and Indonesian name for this fragrant leaf. or dried. meat. depending on their origin. skrupalme (Norwegian). vegetable juices. takonoki (Japanese). Properties: the dried leaves are less fragrant than the fresh leaves. skruvpalm (Swedish). and sausages. and kebab mariande. narrow. It is sold fresh. treat gastric upsets. herbs de Provence. tay ban (Laotian). Mandarin) skrupalm (Danish). Pandan flower—kewra or keora (Hindi. Savory is normally added toward the end of cooking so its flavor is not destroyed. pandanus (Hebrew). The leaves have to be bruised or boiled in order to release their flavor. Spice Blends: fines herbes. gravy. fish. daun pandan (Malaysian. cabbage sauce blend. and Thais add the bruised leaves or its extract to flavor rice dishes and glutinous and tapioca-based desserts and puddings. hamburger marinade. chicken. and green. In Southeast Asia. condiments. hamburgers. The most aromatic types are from Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. P. Form: Screw-pine leaf is long. and promote digestion. Indonesians. Screwpine leaf was the name given by English traders who traveled to Asia. taey (Khmer). chan heung lahn. The whole leaf is used to wrap chicken and other meats before they are grilled or barbecued. floral-like notes to these products. pandano (Spanish). frozen. chan xiang lan (Cantonese. kaitha (Malayalam).

and nasi padang are some of the fragrant pandan-flavored rices eaten in Malaysia and Indonesia. It also provides color to Indonesian. The Assyrians believed their Gods drank sesame wine. rendang blend. white. and turmeric. Malay. How Prepared and Consumed: the leaf is used in curries of Sri Lanka and in Malaysian. and desserts before grilling. Shiva. Korea. The flowers are golden yellow and have a fragrant. is also commonly used to flavor Indian desserts such as rasgulla (cottage cheese in syrup). . candies. Scientific Name(s): Sesamum indicum. Seasonings. cumin. Thai. soups. brown sugar. fish. Spice Blends: nasi lemak blend. and sweet aroma. Nasi lemak. It also contains piperidine-like alkaloids (pandamarine. Egypt. Balinese. brown. It pairs well with coconut milk. Second Edition almondy. strong. India. biryani blend. pandamarilactones) that give screw pine its milky. glutinous rice. Origin and Varieties: sesame is indigenous to the Near East and northern India and today is cultivated in the Middle East. Its extract. rasmalai blend. Derived from the Greek word sesamon. and milky sweet. China. including 2acetyl-1-pyrroline (which also gives the aroma in Thai and Basmati rice). called kewra.and Nonya-style glutinous rice-based desserts. They are wrapped around chicken. and northern Africa.and Nonyastyle dishes. The screw-pine or pandan leaves are tied in a knot and placed in soups or stews that are being cooked. which is more delicate and fragrant than the leaf. The commercially available pandan leaf extract is much too bright green and does not totally capture its true flavor and color profiles. is used in North India to perfume biryanis. puddings. coconut. or even boiled to obtain its flavor. brown sugar. and beverages. pounded to release its aromatic juice. lemongrass. and nutmeg. each being preferred by specific cultures. vanilla-like flavor. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in India. or steaming. while the Greeks and Romans used sesame on their long journeys to conquer new lands. and coconut drinks. The leaf is also bruised or raked with the tines of a fork to release its aroma. lemongrass. rasmalai (cottage cheese with condensed milk). floral-like taste. gulab jamun (fried cottage cheese in syrup). and Flavorings. and Thai cooking. the leaves are also tossed into open wells to scent the drinking water. Pandan leaves are used as wrappers in Southeast Asian cooking to provide a distinct flavor to the foods. puddings. especially in Malay. beverages. It is commonly used as a flavoring and coloring in Malaysian and Singaporean cooking. Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. and black. Pandan leaves also enhance the flavor of seasoned rices. nasi kuning. and curries. styrene. East Africa. Family: Pedaliaceae. In many Indian villages. The dried leaves have no flavor. roasting. and β-cayophyllene. linalool. Screw-pine flower. milk. glutinous rice. cakes. It goes well with rices. barbecuing. Asia. screw-pine leaves are sacred to the Hindu God. SESAME SEED Sesame originated in India and is one of the oldest spices known since the Harappa civilization. kueh lapis blend. nasi kuning blend. pork. star anise. it is a popular flavoring in the Middle East. There are three types of sesame. and gulab jamun blend. Chemical Components: screw pine has low levels of essential oil.168 Handbook of Spices.

cooking oils. gingelly (English). the white seeds become golden colored and acquire a delicate almondlike flavor. and Mexico. sesame (Greek). Sesame pairs well with chicken. phenylethanthiol. with 30% protein. sauces. susam (Turkish). nga (Laotian). Asians prefer the more intense flavor of roasted sesame seeds. szezamfu (Hungarian). and nutty. and as a sauce in cooking. African slaves brought it to the United States. sesam (German. sousma (Armenian). and sweets (halva). ajonjoli (Spanish). wuh mah. nga (Thai). When sesame seed is mildly roasted. Chemical Components: sesame has no perceptible volatile oil. aromatic. Swedish). It is used in dips. Form: sesame seeds are small. mint. Middle Easterners use sesame to flavor a wide variety of foods. an accompaniment to kebabs and fruits. jaggery. sesamin. sesamo (Italian). oval. sesame seeds are roasted or left unroasted before the oil is extracted. Mandarin). or black. kunzhut (Russian). After roasting or toasting. ground. chickpeas. and furaneol—which give roasted sesame oil its characteristic flavor. nuvulu (Telegu). milklike buttery taste. sem sem. earthier. and mustard. How Prepared and Consumed: Romans. ufuta (Swahili). tisi (Assamese). sesamzaad (Dutch). furanes are formed—2-furyl-methanthiol. or licorice. The oil can be cold pressed or hot pressed or refined. stearin. Common Names: also called seli’t (Amharic). khae (Korean). pork. mainly olein. sumsum (Hebrew). palmitin. linoleic acid (45%). til (Urdu). zi mah (Cantonese. Sesame is used whole. myristin. Sesame oil is deep brown. breads. linga (Tagalog). til (Hindi). they come with different colors and flavors. till (French). Zahtar. Turks. or oil. as a paste. crackers. and saturated acid (10%). khonjed (Farsi). biscuits. cilantro. garlic. and breads. Depending on regional preferences. and sesaminol. Tahini is also used as a spread for pita breads. juljulan (Arabic). shallots. a spice blend of toasted sesame seeds with thyme and sumac. chitellu (Malayalam). Indians dry roast the seeds to develop a more intense flavor and a crunchier texture before they are added to many Muslim-style savory dishes. giving rise to oils with different flavor profiles. and. In Lebanon. mitho tel (Gujerati). The oil contains mostly oleic acid (40%). breads. depending on their origins. Hulled seeds are pearly white in color. and margarine. salad dressings. Punjabi). grilled meats. It has 45% to 65% fixed oil. unhulled seeds that are creamy white. falafel. and cay vung (Vietnamese). noodles. goma (Japanese). bi-jan (Malaysian/Indonesian). soy sauce. Unroasted white sesame seeds are ground to make a paste called tahini (sesame butter) that is used to flavor hummus or baba ghanouj. brown. rice. Arabs.A to Z Spices 169 Greece. a dip for vegetables. Marathi. cakes. Properties: sesame has a nutty sweet aroma with a rich. benne (Wolof language of Senegalese. and nuttier taste than the other varieties. When the seeds are roasted at high temperatures. Black sesame has a stronger. flat. Black sesame seeds are popular in . gingili. pyrazines are formed Sesame has antioxidant properties due to sesamol. sesame seeds are added to sugar syrup for a chewy sweet called simsmiyeh. guaiacol. ellu (Tamil). til (Bengali. and Indians have eaten sesame with honey. White sesame seeds are used whole to add texture to bread and rolls (hamburger buns). West Africa). pastries. dates. gergelim (Portuguese). There are many varieties. is used as a dip and to add zest to vegetables. Greeks.

commercially available in India and Southeast Asia. sansho (Japanese). gan jiao (Mandarin). Japanese pepper: Z. katmurikku (Malayalam). Burma. Gingelly oil (called nalanai in Tamil). SICHUAN OR SZECHWAN PEPPER/FAGARA Fagara originated in China. dumplings called mandu contain fillings made of garlic. meats. almonds. Second Edition Japanese and Chinese cooking. alatum: Nepalese pepper. sauces. mole blends. and soy sauce. sansho. Scientific Name(s): globally. fagara is commonly referred to as Szechwan pepper. rice. ksantosilum (Hebrew). cloves. tahini blend. kim chee. anizs bors (Hungarian). It is a popular spice in South China. sezchuan peppar .170 Handbook of Spices. Z. It is believed to rejuvenate the body and mind. tirphal (Marathi). chilies. tilfda (Hindi). Indian. sesame noodle blend. and dumpling sauce blend. poivre de setchuan (French). Origin and Varieties: szechwan pepper is indigenous to South China. In Korea. tippal (Konkani). garlic. anise pepper. Spice Blends: zahtar. sesame is thought to have magical powers and bring good luck. the oil is added to a dish just before serving or is added toward the end of cooking. timur (Nepali). sechuan peber (Danish). and North and Western India. is used to massage hair and body before baths. and North India. Seasonings. stir-fry sauce blends. and Flavorings. kok mak met (Laotian). Nepalese. Chinese pepper. They also grind them into a paste or extract the oil to flavor cold sesame noodles. This darker sesame oil is commonly used in Korean and Szechwan cooking with chile peppers. Japanese. Common Names: fagara. is light and is different in flavor from the roasted sesame oil. but the three most popular types are Chinese pepper: Zanthoxylum (Z) piperitum or simulans. sesame seeds. It is used for Indian pickles and as a cooking medium in India. Szechuan-pfeffer (German). and flower pepper. there are a number of varieties including Sichuan. or steamed vegetables. or Indonesian. Japanese prickly ash. chopi (Korean). and ginger. sesame seeds are ground and added with chocolate. Nepalese pepper. and confections. Korean. shichimi togarashi. Indonesian lemon pepper. acanthopodium: Indonesian pepper and Indian pepper: Z. mandu filling blend. hua chiao. sechuan peper (Dutch). also called gingelly oil. especially to flavor meat dishes. It is also called yan chiao. Chinese and Japanese dry roast sesame seeds and sprinkle them as a garnish on confections. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in Asia. The Chinese brewed it in teas and also gave it as a gift to friends. Vietnam. Sesame has strong antioxidant properties. piment sechuan (Portuguese). In Mexico. Japan. Family: Rutacene (citrus family). Sesame oil from roasted sesame seeds adds flavor to many stir-fry dishes and baked goods in East Asia and Southeast Asia. sychuan skij perets (Russian). rhetsa. chi fa chiao (Cantonese). The hot-pressed unroasted oil. Today. and spices for their famous moles. and Southeast Asia. roasted sesame oil. which possesses no sesame flavor. Z. where in ancient times it flavored foods and wines offered to the gods. For the best sesame oil flavor. Japanese pepper. to relieve constipation and hemorrhoids. Sesame was traditionally used as a laxative. andalimon (Indonesian). Japan.

Sansho leaves mainly have monoterpenes. ρ-cymene. and Z-3-hexenal. sansho is sometimes preserved in soy sauce and is typically used with fatty foods. and kim chee. citronelol. In Japan. Fagara pairs well with citrus. . Form: fagara is a dark red to a reddish brown dried berry that is used whole. The Indian variety has mostly sabinene. and noodles. and dipentene. Koreans add it to meats. mak kakh (Thai). This is sprinkled over grilled meats. add it to salt and grind this mixture coarsely for use as a dry condiment. vegetables. such as citronellal. and Indonesian variety has little pungency but with lime notes. and Chinese BBQ blend. and limonene. Its pungency is due to the amides hydroxy α-sanshool and β-sanshool. fivespice blend is used in Chinese-influenced meat. momo stuffing is made with yak meat. fish and vegetable dishes are seasoned with the Indian variety of fagara. They come as split-open berries. Sansho. How Prepared and Consumed: Chinese dry roast fagara. mainly terpenes such as geraniol. sometimes called Japanese pepper. citronellal. soups. Kerala. limonene. peppery. In Goa. seasoned with the local variety of Sichuan pepper. α. The Japanese grind sansho with nori and tangerine peel. shichimi togarashi. Chemical Components: the berry contains up to 4% essential oil. In Tibet. limonene. poultry. It is an essential ingredient in Chinese five-spice blend. In Southeast Asia. a favorite with the Bataks in North Sumatra. and black bean paste. and cineol while Indonesian has mainly geranyl acetate. The Japanese garnish their soups with sansho leaves and add its shoots to misos. It is the berry that is used. soy sauce. 1. crushed. The leaves (kinome) and young shoots are also used especially in Japanese cooking. which commonly barbecues and roasts. A spicier and hotter version of the seven-spice blend is made with fagara or chile peppers. Properties: fagara is aromatic with woody. This spicy blend is a commonly used seasoning for noodle soups and as a table condiment. Sansho is tangy and peppery and is characterized by biting taste and a numbing pungency. The leaves have a minty lime flavor. black sesame seeds. The Nepalese has mostly linalool. pickle blend. It is also called Japanischer pfeffer (German). momo stuffing blend. which give them their grasslike odor. sometimes containing black bitter seeds that are removed before use. linalool. It is usually not cooked but is added to the cooked dish just before serving.A to Z Spices 171 (Swedish). The Nepalis frequently add it in their curries and pickles. or coarsely ground. and dan cay (Vietnamese). methyl cinnamate. pork dishes.8-cineol. and the terpinenes.and β-pinenes. chiit (Tagalog). Both of these amides degrade quickly after the pepper is ground. are flavored with Indonesian variety. plum sauce. Spice Blends: Chinese five-spice. Szechwan sauce blend. and Gujerat. and poppy seeds to make the popular seven spice blend called shichimi togarashi. ginger. The seeds are round and hollow with a rough prickly exterior. In Indonesia. fish. limonene. yermah (Tibet). then steamed and served with a condiment. garlic. and tilfda (Indian pepper) are closely related to fagara. ma lakh. and duck dishes. citronellol. The fagara is roasted to provide a more intense flavor bite to Szechwan dishes. the Indian lemony pepper notes. Korean variety has anisey floral scent and not as pungent. and onion. and bitter notes with undertones of citrus. the Nepalese has citrusy notes.

SORREL The name sorrel is derived from the Germanic word sur. It is also used in teas. broad. cream-based sauces. wild sorrel. and to lower fevers. or astringent spinachlike taste with bitter notes to a milder. and Flavorings. It comes as fresh or frozen and chopped or whole. and spinach dock. light to dark green. French sorrel: R. sourgrass. Egypt. such as soups. Sorrel is a natural acidifier and can be a substitute for fresh lemon in salads. soups. The younger leaves are less acidic. It goes well with fish. it is a popular flavoring for whitefish. Sorrel is pureed to flavor goose. scutatus (buckler leaf). and acedera (Spanish). Family: Polygonaceae. and sauces. or soups or for use in condiments for meats. It is also called oseille (French). onions. Today. acetosella (smaller than garden sorrel but arrow shaped). arrow-shaped leaf). sauerampfer (German). The French variety has slight citruslike notes. It is an ancient herb used by Egyptians and Europeans to impart acidity to foods. and meat marinade. pepper. Another sorrel called Jamaican sorrel is from the Hibiscus family and used in beverages and preserves of Mexico and the Caribbean. salads. It is used typically in French and Egyptian foods. and little vinegar. sharply acidic. oblong-shaped. Tough meats can be wrapped in sorrel leaves to tenderize them before cooking. poached salmon. which gives it the acidic taste. Spice Blends: green sauce blend. potato soup blend. calcium. to treat liver problems and for throat and mouth ulcers. both meaning sour. stewed or braised meats. French. Chemical Components: sorrel has a high level of binoxalate of potash. salads. stews. It is traditionally used to treat scurvy and chronic skin conditions.172 Handbook of Spices. lemony taste. sandwiches. round leafed. Seasonings. and salads in French cooking. and goat cheese. spinachlike leaves. French sorrel. sheep sorrel: R. and the old French word surele. and magnesium. hamtzitz (Hebrew). Second Edition Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Chinese used Sichuan pepper as a traditional cure for dysentery. Common Names: garden sorrel. Properties: its taste ranges from a refreshing. Origin and Varieties: native to Europe and west Asia. potassium. eggs. Sorrel is cooked for a minimum time to preserve its fresh flavor. heavy foods. phosphorus. . The fresh leaf and flower are high in vitamin C. only stainless steel knives and noniron pots are used. and poached eggs. potatoes. To prevent sorrel from blackening and developing a metallic taste. The dried leaf loses its citrusylike flavor. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the Romans and Greeks used sorrel to aid digestion and temper the effects of rich foods. pork. Form: sorrel has large. Scientific Name(s): there are a few cultivated varieties of sorrel—garden. Garden sorrel: Rumex acetosa (6 inches. veal. acetosa (Italian). and parts of Europe and the United States. sorrel is now cultivated in France. fish. How Prepared and Consumed: Romans and Egyptians used sorrel in ancient times to offset rich. meats.

badyan (Russian). stjerneanis (Norwegian). Florida cranberry. Philippines. cinanasonu (Turkish). bunga lawang (Malaysian. with cooked vegetables. rosella in Spanish. Origin and Varieties: star anise is native to southwestern China and northern Vietnam. anice stellato (Italian). It was introduced to Jamaica from west Asia in the eighteenth century. or roselle) is not a true sorrel. Roselle is also used in curries and chutneys in India and Southeast Asia. is a dominant ingredient in Chinese five-spice blend. Common Names: it is called roselle in English. In Mexico. Jiao huei hsiang in Mandarin means “eight horned fennel. anis de la Chine (French). West Africa. badian/anis estrella (Spanish). anis estrelado (Portuguese). It is often adulterated with other “false” types of star anise from Japan. drinks. rozelle in French. Form: Roselle is the fleshy young calyces surrounding the immature fruits. stews. anis etoile. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Indians. Central America. poy kak bua (Thai). karkadi in German.” since the Chinese perceived its taste to be similar to fennel. and pies or tarts. badiyan (Farsi). aqua de Jamiaca blend. jellies. sternanis (German). Scientific Name(s): Illicium verum. Laos. Spice Blends: sorrel drink blend. Common Names: Indian anise. and Vietnamese foods. In Egypt and other Middle Eastern regions. and carcade in Italian. and it is an essential flavoring for many Chinese. It resembles cranberry in color and acidity. stjarnanis (Swedish). anison asteroeides (Greek). Roselle is used fresh in salads. It is now cultivated in China. suta anis (Japanese). Mexicans. to thin blood. lavangai poo (Tamil. Malaysian. Properties: Jamaican sorrel is very acidic. and Florida. Mandarin). Family: Malvaceae. bissap rouge in Senegalese. dried roselle is made into a refreshing drink called aqua de Jamaica. India. Chinese anise. and sweets. especially fruit salads. baht gokh. sternanijs (Dutch). Japan. Roselle is also dried and used as natural coloring. and Egypt. and to lower blood pressure. Africans add sugar to their roselle drink to tone down the sourness. anasi poo. chakriphool (Hindi).A to Z Spices 173 Jamaican sorrel (red sorrel. STAR ANISE Star anise. daehoihyang (Korean). kinai anizs (Hungarian). . and Badian anise. How Prepared and Served: it is used to flavor drinks. Mexico. jams. a native spice of China. Mexico. and in sauces. Family: Illiaceae. Scientific Name(s): Hibiscus sabdariffa. and Africans use it as a diuretic. It is also called albadyan (Arabic). stjerne anis (Danish). and sauces in the Caribbean. and Korea. and cay hoy (Vietnamese). it is added to desserts. karkadeh in Egypt. Indonesian). phkah cahn (Khmer). It also comes in dried form. wine. Vietnam. Malayalam). and in foods and beverages of Cuba. The Caribbeans enjoy it as a traditional Christmas drink (also called sorrel) that is mixed with spices and rum. bah jiao (Cantonese. Baht gokh in Cantonese and bao jiao in Mandarin mean eight corners.

orange.5% to 3. Chemical Components: the fresh fruit pod/pericarp has 5% to 8% essential oil. stews. and steamed or roast duck. Star anise has a licoricelike. Properties: the carpels are reddish brown and hard. . Brought to India by Chettiars of Tamil Nadu who traded in China and Southeast Asia. Goan. liqueurs. Called “vinegar tree” by Germans and sour condiment by the Dutch. and other Chinese-style cooking in Asia. The Europeans use star anise to flavor cordials. Typically. Vietnamese. Star anise pairs well with roast poultry. curry powder. it is discarded before the dish is served. similar to fennel and anise but stronger. ginger. The Chinese have introduced it to every region where they have settled. How Prepared and Consumed: star anise characterizes Chinese. Malaysians and Singaporeans add it to their curries. syrups. phellandrene. They chew it after a meal to promote digestion and sweeten breath. to flavor soups and sauces. 1. The seeds have less flavor than the pods. It is also used in Caribbean masalas and spice blends. stir-fried vegetables. It is used in marinades. roasts. Iran. and the dried fruit pericarp/pod has 2. and the Middle East.5%. Thais add to tea with milk. mainly anethole (85% to 90%). soy sauce. hoisin. jams. barbecues. sugar.174 Handbook of Spices. braised meats. and steamed chicken. ρ-cymene. and d-terpineol. roast pork. It is used in the following forms: dried whole. Spice Blends: Chinese five-spice. The fruits are picked when green. Star anise is also used in teas to cure sore throats and coughs. Egypt. sweet. and pungent flavor. sumac is now a popular spice in Turkey. Singapore pork curry blend. It is an essential flavoring in the red cooking of the Shanghai region of China and is one of the five spices in the five-spice blend which is used as a marinade for meats. Its oil is used as an ingredient in cough lozenges. It is a popular spice in North Vietnamese beef noodle soups called phos. and Chettinand cooking. limonene. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: east Asians use star anise to relieve colic and stomach pains. cinnamon. In Southeast Asia. it is a popular spice in Kashmiri. each carpel containing a seed. curry leaves. sumac was used by Romans who enjoyed its sour taste and referred to it as Syrian sumac. star anise is used in Chinese-style dishes. Star anise gives a spicy. and soups that require long simmering. and other spices. α-pinene. and Flavorings. chile peppers. SUMAC Native to Iran. Second Edition Form: star anise is an irregular star-shaped fruit with eight carpels joined around a central core. and for batters. and confectionaries.4-cineol. Star anise pairs well with mint. and sauces to give them unique tastes. and the broken pieces of pods are less aromatic. It has about 20% fixed oil. rose essence. such as simmered beef. sweet flavor that becomes more intense as it is cooked. Seasonings. barbecue blend. broken pieces. and black pepper. soups. before they ripen and become sun dried. and fish. and Chettinand chicken curry blend. or ground. It can leave a bitter aftertaste if used at high levels.

meats. sumach (German). ascorbic. and the thick extract is added as a lemon substitute for flavoring drinks. and astringent taste. somagh (Farsi). Chemical Components: sumac has about 4% tannins (chrysanthemin. sumac (Danish). meaning “date of India. which gives its sour notes. such as zahtar and dukkah. Form: sumac are small. sumakku (Japanese). Properties: sumac is reddish purple in color with a fruity. Rh. Known as asam . There are many other varieties of sumac. The whole berries are soaked in water for about twenty minutes and are then squeezed to extract their juice before they are dried. garlic. TAMARIND Tamarind with origins from Africa or India is referred to as tamr Hindi in Arabic or tamar Hindi. parsley. tamarind has been an important flavoring in Indian cuisine for a long time. Iran. meat dishes. sommacco (Italian). Sumac goes well with pine nuts. It forms an important ingredient in spicy dips that are eaten with flat breads that are sold in the streets of Egypt and other parts of the Middle East. sumac (French). and some ornamentals that are referred to as sumac in North America which are poisonous if eaten or are toxic to the skin. and sumak/somak (Turkish). The wild variety has green white berries that are poisonous. purplish red berries are safe. others being citric. shumac/Sicilian sumac (English). cilantro. zumaque (Spanish).A to Z Spices 175 It is found growing in the mountains around the Mediterranean. and to season kebabs. and other regions of central Asia. and other spices in Lebanon and Syria. boiled. chile pepper. Native Americans prepare sour beverages with sumac berries. It is also commonly eaten with sliced onions. red. while the white or green white types are poisonous to touch. Israel. and rice in Turkey. kankrasringi (Bengali). Family: Anacardiaceae (cashew family). delphinidin) and high acid content. roudi (Greek). karkhada garchingi (Tamil). kankrasing (Hindi). dried berries that are sold whole but are usually ground and sometimes mixed with salt. karkararingi (Telegu). myrtillin. especially malic acid. as an appetizer. Common Names: summak/summa (Arabic). The Native Americans make a sour drink from ground sumac. sumac (Hebrew). and fish stews. Origin and Varieties: sumac is native to the Mediterranean region—Sicily. Middle East. which are used as dips to perk up barbecued meats in the Middle East—Egypt. dukkah. vegetables. The bright. zuurkruid (Dutch). salads. succinic. Aromatica. glabra and Rh. and other Middle Eastern regions.” Called amlika in Sanskrit. Sumac is an important ingredient in spice blends of these regions. in Farsi. It is rubbed on roasted lamb. cumin. It is mixed with sesame. sumakh (Russian). which is then grilled to give m’choui (Morocco) or khouzi (Egypt). arkol (Punjabi). tart. szomorce (Hungarian). fish stews. and Jordon. thyme. and khouzi marinade. How Prepared and Consumed: the ground spice is a popular spice that is sprinkled over salads. Syria. and fumaric. and coriander. Scientific Name(s): Rhus coriaria. Spice Blends: zahtar. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: Middle Easterners use it to ease an upset stomach.

kok mak kham (Laotian). The pods are cinnamon colored with an inner dark brown. tamarinduz (Hungarian). legumes. tamarindo (Spanish). loh won ji (Cantonese. Tamarind provides sweet sour notes to many South Indian foods such as sambars. deseeded. curry powder. shallots. amli (Marathi). dried pulp concentrate or paste. chinta (Telegu). which is fibrous and sticky. Seasonings. tamrhindi (Hebrew). makham (Thai). Africa. dried pulp slices. phosphorus. chutneys. tamarindo (Japanese). It also has small amounts of terpenes (limonene. or tamarindo. puli. How Prepared and Consumed: before use. Scientific Name(s): Tamarindus indica. is the part used in cooking. Tamarind is high in pectin. and vegetables. The sugars are mainly glucose and fructose. amli (Bengali). Common Names: Indian date. It tends to complement fiery hot dishes. Tamarind has calcium. fish curries. and rasams and in Latin American beverages and candies. The pulp. rasams (soups). It is used to provide sweet and sour notes to many Indian and Southeast Asian dishes. The pods are dried. potassium. It has acidic. Central America. and are used in soups and salads in Africa. The young leaves and flowers are cooked as vegetables in India. tamar Hindi (Farsi). tamarind (Russian). mostly tartaric acid (12%). ampil khui (Khmer). poultry. It is also sold dried and ground. it is now an important spice in many Asian and Latin American regions. and me chua (Vietnamese). tamarind (Danish). tamarinde (German). sampalok (Tagalog). Second Edition koh. brown sugar-like aroma. It is also called tamr Hindi (Arabic). Tamarind is sold as fresh whole pods. dry. malic and succinic. loh tong jee. tamarindo (Portuguese). Urdu). and sugars. Form: tamarind refers to the dark brown. brown sugar. Origin and Varieties: tamarind is indigenous to East Africa (Madagascar) and India. molasses-like notes. and sodium. and goes well with chile peppers. tamarindo (Italian). about 35%. Tamarind juice to an Easterner is like lemon juice to the Westerner. puli (Tamil. asam koening (Dutch). and is now cultivated in India. ripe fruits/pods or the fleshy pulp inside the pods. Family: Caesalpiniaceae (closely related to Leguminosae family). imli (Punjabi).176 Handbook of Spices. Chemical Components: the concentrate has 20% organic acids. and packed into blocks. siyambala (Singhalese). It is also one of the essential flavorings in Worcestershire sauce. chinch. tamarin (Greek). tamarind pulp is soaked in hot water for about ten minutes and is then squeezed and strained to obtain its juice. cinnamic acid. fleshy pulp that surrounds the black seeds. so it is used in abundance in South Indian fish curries and pork vindaloos. and Flavorings. The concentrate has no seeds or fiber. sweet. The seeds and pulpy material are discarded. peeled. and the Caribbean. chutneys. or dried as a solid block. Properties: the pulp has a sharp. Southeast Asia. geraniol). amli (Gujerati). Tamarind enhances fish. amli. tentul. tamarinde. tamarind (Swedish). the Middle East. and mushrooms. meat. Tamarind juice is the strained liquid obtained when the paste is combined with warm or hot water. and Gujerati lentil. and pyrazine. methyl salicylate. sour. tamarindi (Finnish). Mandarin). assam jawa (Malaysian. tetuli (Assamese). Malayalam). vinegar. . safrol. Indonesian). imli (Hindi. demir Hindi (Turkish). tamarin (French). ma-gyi-thi (Burmese). sambars (stews). fruity taste and a sweetish. ukwaju (Swahili).

Chinese hot and sour soups. It is also used in Angostura bitters and sherbets. tom yom soups and stir-fries. It is used in Puerto Rican juice drinks and as a cooling drink in India. In India. Tamarind is popular in Mexican candies. tamarind is used to relieve asthma and fevers and is also used as a mild laxative. According to the Ayurvedics. and desserts. palm sugar. Because tamarind is high in pectin. It moderates the fiery notes of sambals. tarragon derives its name from the Greek word drakoon. vindaloo blend. curries. rasam blend. and during cooking. . or kokum (scientific name: G. and the Spanish word taragoncia. Today. Assam gelugor should also not be confused with asam kandis fruit (scientific name: Garcinia globulosa). traditionally. TARRAGON Also called estragon. galangal. and Singaporian cooking. Malaysian. clove. it heals wounds and joint pains. rendang blend. and curries. and Vietnamese soups. and curries. all of which mean little dragon and which describe its coiled. popular souring fruit used in Indonesia and Malaysia. sauces. Africa. Spice Blends: sambal blends. Tamarind is also added to Thai salads. which contains tamarind and other characteristic Indian flavorings. peanuts. Tamarind goes well with chilies. it swells up and is discarded before the food is served. Assam gelugor is used in Southeast Asian and South Indian cuisines. tom yom blend. and Nonya laksa blend. It is commonly used in Indonesian. How Prepared and Consumed: assam gelugor is dried and thinly sliced. Malaysian and Indonesian satay marinades. and bronchial disorders. Latin America. Many dips and condiments in Southeast Asia are prepared with tamarind juice. The Muslims take a tamarind drink at Ramadan. it can be used as a natural stabilizer in foods and beverages. and black pepper. their holy month. Tamarind dip is made for samosas and dahi wada (dumpling of North India) that is smothered with yogurt and tamarind sauce. and jams. sore throats. Tamarind is also popular in Southeast Asian cooking especially Indonesian and Malaysian meat marinades and sauces to give sour sweet notes. Scientific Name: Garcinia atroviridis. garlic. indica) that is commonly used in Gujerati and Kerala cooking. tamarind is also mixed with salt and becomes an excellent brass polisher. especially in French cuisine. soy sauce. and the Mongols introduced it to the West. it is a popular spicing in southern European cooking. It is not tamarind even though it has a similar flavor. In Senegal. Worcestershire sauce. serpentine root. ginger. tamarind is used to prevent dysentery and reduce blood pressure. south Indian curry blends. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in Thailand. and satay marinades. turmeric. The British love of Indian spices resulted in another popular condiment. fermented shrimp paste. Thailand. It is native to Southern Russia and Western Asia. and the Caribbean. stews. Worcestershire sauce.A to Z Spices 177 vegetables. Jamaican rices. In India. it is taken with sugar as a thirst-quenching beverage called dakhar. the Arabic word tarkhun.

and chemicin. Its harsh notes are due to quercetins and petuletin. has been used since the Aztecs. and tarhun (Turkish). mainly sabinene. Seasonings. ai hao (Cantonese. Russian tarragon has little essential oil (about 0. iron. of ground. dragon (Swedish). salads. and myrcene. German tarragon: Artemisia dracunculus. Dried tarragon has haylike tones and has less flavor than the fresh form. . ngao hou.and β-pinenes. magnesium. Tarragon contains niacin. estragon (Italian). In the United States.5% essential oil. French tarragon is commonly used. narrow. It is now cultivated in southern Europe. These sauces are added to broiled. grayish green leaves. Common Names: French or German tarragon: estragole and little dragon. taragon (Hebrew). Mandarin). dragon (Dutch). phosphorus. Mexican tarragon has pleasant aniselike notes. and is slightly bitter and harsh in flavor. estragon (Russian). estrago’n (Spanish). estragon (Norwegian). baked. It is also called tarkhun (Arabic). or ground. There are two varieties: French tarragon (also called German tarragon) and Russian tarragon (withstands cooler climate). and Flavorings. German. vitamin A. camphene. also referred to as Mexican marigold. Form: tarragon has long. The Russian variety has larger leaves. dried leaves. esdragon (Danish). methyl eugenol. or fried fish. The oleoresin is dark green and viscous. Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family). There is less volatile oil (about 0. It is grown in Mexico and southern United States. phellandrene. potassium. and chicken.3% to 0. meat. How Prepared and Consumed: in Europe. is considered inferior to French Tarragon. Fresh. Spanish tarragon. Mexican tarragon. and hollandaise.5% to 2. and western Asia. and sodium. béarnaise. It is also used in cream soups. such as tartar. omelettes. licorice-like aroma with slight bitter tones. limonene. and the United States. with anise. lacks the anisic taste. are equivalent to 100 lb. Sometimes the stems are included with the leaves.). tarragon is popularly used to flavor many sauces. Dried. also known as false tarragon. Origin and Varieties: tarragon is native to eastern and central Europe. esutoragon (Japanese). yerba anis. sweet. or yauhtli. Mexican or Spanish tarragon: Tagetes lucida. It does not have estragol (so lacks the sweet notes) and thus. chopped. rakuna (Finnish). Tarragon is an important component of fines herbes and is one of the optional ingredients of herbs de Provence of France. it is used whole. Its taste is green and herbaceous. Russia. which is pale yellow to amber in color and consists mainly of 60% to 75% estragol (also called methyl chavicol). It is more delicate in flavor than the Russian variety. α. it is used whole. for religious and medicinal purposes. manganese. quite similar to French tarragon. tarkhun (Farsi). and gravies. tagete. Second Edition Scientific Name(s): French. estragon (French. calcium. It also has 10% anethole (which mainly contributes to tarragon’s aroma). tarkony (Hungarian).178 Handbook of Spices.1%). and 2 lb. and mayonnaise. or minced. estragao (Portuguese). It is a favorite spice in France and characterizes French Dijon mustard and sauces based on sour cream. eggs. French tarragon has a cool. Properties: Fresh tarragon has stronger notes than the dried form. crushed. Chemical Components: fresh French tarragon has 0.and basil-like notes. southern Russia.8%) in the dried herb.

Italy. tsotor (Armenian). so it is usually added to a dish toward the end of cooking to retain its characteristic aroma and taste. awishan shirazi (Farsi). In the United States. and meat dishes. timian (Hungarian). timi (Indonesian). timjan (Swedish). and Moroccon thyme. scallops. It is combined with vinegar and capers in salad dressings. thymian (German). satureioides. Tarragon pairs well with salmon. tham. chicken. Germany. Origin and Varieties: thyme is native to the Mediterranean regions and is now cultivated in France. Spice Blends: fines herbes. fish. Moroccon thyme: T. Common Names: garden thyme. taimu (Japanese). and herbs de Provence. Morocco. lentils. lemon juice. tartar sauce blend. tijm (Dutch). red thyme. eggs. especially by heavy-meat-eating cultures. Spain. During the Middle Ages. and mild leafy spices such as parsley and chives. In traditional medicine. It is also called wilde tijm (Dutch). pulegioides. the word zahtar for thyme is also the name for majoram. zatar (Farsi). England. and serpoleto (Spanish). The Egyptian word for thyme. kryptimian (Norwegian). THYME Thyme comes from the Greek word thymon. sores. tartar sauce. tarragon is used to increase appetite. white (or Spanish thyme): T. orange thyme. thym (French). and seafoods. caraway thyme. lobster. timin (Hebrew). Tarragon enhances roast chicken or turkey and can also be used in stuffings. and hung tay (Vietnamese). timo (Italian). caraway thyme. herba barona. tymyan (Ukranian). citriodorus. and the United States. timian (Norwegian). zygis. Spanish origanum: T. and it was mainly used in embalming. which refers to its strong smoky odor. capitatus. timian (Danish). lemon thyme. it is an important leafy spice for New England clam chowder and Cajun blackening spice mixture for meats and seafood. Portugal. Tarragon has also been used as an anesthetic for aching teeth. serpyllum. the Caribbean. or cuts. wild thyme. Dijon mustard blend. serpolet (French). béarnaise sauce blend. . wild (or creeping thyme/serpolet): T. tomilho (Portuguese). and French thyme. vinegar. timyan (Russian). T. quendal (German). veal. It is also called tosinyi (Amharic). za’tar (Arabic). Scientific Name(s): garden (common thyme): Thymus (T) vulgaris. The United States mainly uses the Spanish and Moroccon varieties. In the Middle East regions. There are numerous varieties of thyme. savory as well as a mixture of spices. Algeria. bhak liew heung. Mandarin). thimari (Greek). each different in flavor based on the climatic conditions: garden thyme. to flush toxins from the body and as a digestive stimulant. tomillo (Spanish). serpillo (Italian). thyme was used as a symbol of courage and love. banajwain (Hindi). it is used in vinegar. Cooking intensifies and changes its flavor. Egypt. Family: Labiatae or Lamiaceae (mint family). dag kekigi (Turkish). Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the Arabs used tarragon in ancient times to cure insomnia and to dull the taste of medicines. anise thyme. Wild thyme: creeping thyme. bai li hsiang (Cantonese. chicken. broad leaf thyme: T. means strong smelling. lemon thyme. In the United States.A to Z Spices 179 Armenians use tarragon on vegetables. hasha (Urdu).

sauces. The bundles are removed before serving. and it is combined with marjoram in many dishes. of freshly ground thyme. linalool (2. such as Moroccan. The dried form is sold whole.5% to 5% and has mainly phenols. . so their flavor is retained. How Prepared and Consumed: thyme is added during cooking or toward the end of cooking or is even sprinkled over the dish at the serving table.3%). about 0. and in poultry stuffing and sausages. The French tie up thyme with other herbs in bundles and add this to soups. where the broad-leaved variety of thyme is combined with allspice and other spices to make jerk seasoning. fish. potassium. Seasonings. and carvacrol (18%). Thyme is a very important spicing in European cooking. fish.5% to 2. especially in the southern areas of Europe and England. and stews. it flavors soups. Some have bitter. and curries. ρ-cymene (9. and 4 lb. Wild thymes yield less volatile oil. long-simmered poultry. phosphorus. slightly rolled. and game. slightly lemony. Properties: Thyme has a piney. which is colorless to pale yellowish red and contains predominantly thymol (45%). Its flavor is retained better when dried.2%).9% to 6. black pepper. such as mutton. It is also a popular spice in the Caribbean.5%. have lesser thymol. or orange thymes. α-pinene (0. smoky taste with a herbaceous and slightly floral aroma. Common thyme yields about 1. Thyme contains vitamin A. It turns black in an acidic medium (tomato sauce) and loses its aroma quickly with heat. of oleoresin are equivalent to 100 lb. borneol (0. vegetable soups.8%). thyme is found in spice mixtures such as zahtar from Jordan and dukkah from Egypt. eggs. roasts. Moroccon thyme is broader and shorter leafed with higher volatile oil content than Spanish thyme. and sodium. and cheese. thyme is a prominent flavoring in Manhattan and New England clam chowders. It pairs well with fatty foods. tomato sauces.5%). and camphor (0% to 7. Its oleoresin is green to brownish green and is viscous. In Central Europe. Second Edition Form: The fresh leaves are green. calcium. Most other varieties. Chemical Components: The essential oil content of thyme ranges from 1. niacin. stews. for stuffings. In the Middle East. minced. 1. In the United States. duck. sodium.4% to 20. Lemon thyme has mainly geraniol and citral with little thymol. meat. It is used to flavor pickled olives and the liqueur benedictine. and minty notes. seafood. stuffings. and wine. goose.6% carvacrol. It is used with roasted sesame seeds. and covered in fine hairs. other seafood dishes.8-cineole (0. Spanish thyme (which provides 90% of the world’s thyme oil) has 12% to 61% thymol and 0. Cajun and Creole cooking use thyme as part of a coating mix for fish or meat before they are blackened.6% to 7. The blackening spices become dark brown but not charred. magnesium.180 Handbook of Spices.6%). meats. oval. It is an important ingredient in herbs de Provence and bouquet garni.0% essential oil. pointed.1% to 22. lemon. beef bourguignonne. and Flavorings.2%). or ground. They can be broad leafed or narrow leafed or large or small based on the variety.2% to 14. sausages. mutton stews. and other spices to flavor meat or is eaten with bread and olive oil. They are used fresh or dried. pork.2% to 4.

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Spice Blends: bouquet garni, dukkah, zahtar, Cajun spice, herbs de Provence, curry blend, and jerk seasoning. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: thyme was used by the ancient Greeks to purify temples and by Romans to infuse bath waters. In traditional European medicine, thyme was used to treat infections, digestive complaints, and respiratory ailments, such as bronchitis, laryngitis, and whooping cough. It has been used to treat circulation problems, relieve muscle pains, and as a tranquilizer, as an expectorant, and to help hangovers. Thyme is also used as a mild insect repellent. It has good antibacterial properties.

TURMERIC/TUMERIC
Called yellow root in many European languages and referred to as yellow ginger in Chinese, the name turmeric comes from the Latin terra merita, meaning deserving earth. The use of turmeric dates back to 1500 BC when turmeric was mentioned as haridra in the Vedas, the sacred scriptures of the Hindus. Known to Westerners as “Indian saffron,” turmeric is an important spice in India where it is used to flavor and color foods, as well as added to cosmetics. It is a must in curries, stews, and sauces of India and Southeast Asia. It is used in religious ceremonies and is a traditional Ayurvedis medicine for treating digestive complaints, colds, and wounds. Its leaves are popular in Indonesian cooking, for wrapping meats and fish, before they are cooked. Scientific Name(s): Curcuma (C) longa or C. domestica. Family: Zingibearaceae (ginger family). Origin and Varieties: indigenous to South and Southeast Asia, turmeric is cultivated in India (Alleppey and Madras), Sri Lanka, Java, Malaysia, China, Peru, and Jamaica. There are numerous varieties in India alone, and the most valued turmeric is Allepy, which has the best color value and flavor. Other types of turmeric, including C. zanthorrhiza called temu lawak in Java and C. zoedoaria, known as zedoary or white turmeric, are used abundantly in Southeast Asian cooking. Zeodary is discussed separately. Common Names: Indian saffron, yellow ginger. It is also called ird (Amharic), kurkum (Arabic), toomerik (Armenian), haladi (Assamese), halud (Bengali), sa nwin (Burmese), wong yeung, yu-chin, (Cantonese, Mandarin), gurkemeje (Danish), geelwortel (Dutch), zardchubeh (Farsi), curcuma, safran des Indes (French), gelbwurz, Indescher safran (German), kourkoumi (Greek), halad (Gujerati), kurkum (Hebrew), haldi (Hindi), kurkuma (Hungarian), curcuma (Italian), ukon (Japanese), romiet (Khmer), khimin khun (Laotian), kunyit (dried), kunyit basah (fresh) (Malaysian, Indonesian), shuva, manjal (Malayalam), curcuma, acafrao da India (Portuguese), haldi (Punjabi), zholtyj imbir (Russian), kaha (Singhalese), cu’rcuma (Spanish), manjana (Swahili), gurkmeja (Swedish), dilaw (Tagalog), manjal (Tamil), pasupu (Telegu), haladi (Urdu), khamin (Thai), gaser (Tibetian), hint safrani (Turkish), and cu nghe (dried), bot nghe (fresh) (Vietnamese). Form: turmeric is a rhizome with a brownish yellow skin and a bright yellowish orange interior. It is cured (boiled or steamed) to intensify its aroma and color, then dried and sold whole or ground into powder. It is used fresh (chopped, grated, cut)

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and dried (whole or powder). Its color varies depending on its origin. The fresh form looks like ginger except it is thinner and its inner flesh is yellow. In Indonesia, the fresh leaves are used whole as wrappers or are chopped and used in local dishes. Properties: fresh turmeric has a bright orange flesh. It has a fragrant musky and earthy aroma with gingery, slightly bitter, peppery notes. It loses its aromatic flavor during storage and when exposed to light. The dried rhizome is lemon yellow to orange yellow in color. Madras turmeric is lighter and brighter yellow, while Alleppey tumeric is a brownish yellow color on the outside with a deep orange color to yellowish orange on the inside. Turmeric leaves are large and aromatic. Chemical Components: turmeric contains three components: essential oil (1.5% to 6%), with coloring compounds called curcuminoids (3% to 8%), and starch. The essential oil contains mainly turmerone (30%), dihydrotumerone (25%) and zingiberene (25%), along with sabinene (6.0%), 1,8-cineole (1.0%), borneol, sesquiphellandrene, curcumene, bisabolene, and α-phellandrene. The essential oil is highly aromatic. The Alleppey turmeric has 3.5% to 6.9% essential oil, with 5.3% to 6.5% curcumin, while the Madras turmeric has 2.2% essential oil, with 2.1% curcumin. Javanese variety has 6% to 10% essential oil. The chief coloring component is curcumin. The oleoresin is a deep red to orange red viscous oil and contains 15% to 25% volatile oil and coloring matter. About 8 lb. are equivalent to 100 lb. of freshly ground turmeric. Turmeric contains vitamin C, potassium, iron, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium. How Prepared and Consumed: turmeric pairs well with cilantro, kari leaf, galangal, ginger, mustard seeds, nutmeg, coconut, pandan leaf, bay leaf, lemongrass, cumin, clove, coriander, mustard seeds, dill, and black pepper. It is an essential ingredient in all curry powders and is used in most Indian dishes to help digest the complex carbohydrates. In Asian Indian and Southeast Asian cooking, turmeric is a popular spice for providing color and flavor to curries (especially vegetarian curries), pickles, soups, lentils, vegetables (especially potatoes and cauliflower), fried fish, pullaos, and desserts. In Thai, Malaysian, and Indonesian cooking, turmeric is commonly used freshly grated in yellow and red curries, yellow rice (nasi kuning), stews, laksas, and vegetables. It is combined with chile peppers, lemongrass, lesser galangal, cinnamon, clove, ginger, and coriander to create bumbu, a spice blend used for rendangs, gulais, and other fiery sauces and soups. In Western countries, turmeric imparts a bright yellow coloring to mustard condiments and sauces. It is also used in deviled eggs, Worcestershire sauce, chicken stock, potatoes, cheeses, yogurt, sausages, egg salads, pickles, relishes, spreads, and beverages. Today, in the United States, turmeric oleoresin, extracts, or curcumin (mixed with solvent and emulsifiers) are used commercially as natural colorants. Spice Blends: curry blends, laksa blend, pulao blend, nasi kuning blend, vegetable spice blend, and bumbu blend.

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Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: turmeric is often used as a dye in the Middle East, in China to color Buddhist robes, and by Indonesians as body paints and to ward off evil spirits. Chinese herbalists and Indian Ayurvedics use turmeric to treat liver problems, high cholesterol, and digestive problems. Turmeric is also used for healing bruises and sores and to prevent hair growth. Turmeric helps inhibit blood clotting, strengthens the gall bladder, and treats skin diseases. Traditionally in Europe, turmeric is not recommended for pregnant women because it may induce uterine stimulation, but in the Indian culture, it is given to heal the uterus after childbirth and to help restore loss of blood. In Ayurvedic medicine, it is used as an anticancer agent and to lower cholesterol. Curcumin is found to have strong anti-inflammatory properties. With ongoing research, turmeric is found to have good antioxidant for many cooking oils and antimicrobial properties against Salmonella typhi, Staphyloccus, Vibrio cholera, and Micrococcus pyogenes.

WASABI
Wasabi or Japanese horseradish is a popular flavoring in Japan. Served with raw fish or mixed with sauce for tempura, it is also an important flavoring ingredient for Japanese snacks. In Japan, it is eaten fresh but sold as a pale green paste or powder around the world. Scientific Name(s): Wasabia japonica. Family: Brassicaceae (cabbage family). Origin and Varieties: wasabi is indigenous to Japan and is now also grown in the United States. Common Names: Japanese horseradish. It is also called saan kwai, shan kui (Cantonese, Mandarin), Japansk peberrod (Danish), Japanse mierikswortel (Dutch), raifort du Japon (French), Japanischer kren (German), vasabi (Hebrew), Japan torma (Hungarian), and Japansk pepparrot (Swedish). Form: wasabi is a thick rhizome that is creamy white when young and brownish green when mature. It comes freshly grated, as a pale green dried powder or as a green paste. Properties: dried wasabi root does not have a pungent taste but develops it when it is mixed with water. The flavor is sharp, clean, burning, pungent, and nutty with a biting aroma like horseradish, but it comes through with a sweet note. The heat perceived is instantaneous and stronger than horseradish. Dried wasabi is less aromatic but more pungent than the fresh form. Chemical Components: the essential oil contains sinigrin and glucocochlearin. When the tissues are cut or bruised, or when water reacts with wasabi powder, enzymatic reactions occur that break down the sinigrin to allyl isothiocyanates which give the penetrating odor. How Prepared and Consumed: wasabi is used coarsely grated or as a smooth paste, often alongside soy sauce, with Japanese foods such as sashimi, sushi, soba, and tofu. At the meal table, sashimi or raw fish is first dipped in soy sauce and then into wasabi paste before it is eaten. Sushi, a glutinous rice seasoned with vinegar and sugar and wrapped in dried toasted seaweed (nori) or stuffed with raw fish, other seafood dishes, fresh or pickled vegetables, and omelettes, are served with

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wasabi paste. Sometimes, wasabi paste is placed between the raw fish or vegetables and glutinous rice in sushi. Wasabi pairs well with soy sauce, brown sugar, glutinous rice, chicken, ginger, and fish. It does not retain its flavor in cooked foods, so fresh wasabi is used toward the end of cooking or is added to cold foods. The fresh paste also loses its flavor quickly. Wasabi powder is mixed with warm water and let to stand for ten minutes to develop its flavor. It can be used in marinades, barbecue sauces, creamy salad dressings, soups, and steamed fish. Spice Blends: wasabi snack blend, Japanese sauce blend, and pickle blend. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the Japanese believe it can kill parasites.

WATERCRESS
A favorite with the English, this leafy green spice can be traced back to the Greeks, Romans, and Persians who used it for medical purposes, as a treatment (with vinegar) for insanity, as a stimulant, and as a breath freshener. It belongs to the cabbage family, along with mustard, horseradish, and wasabi. Soldiers and sailors ate it to treat scurvy. Referred to as the poor man’s food in England, in the early 1800s, watercress sandwiches were a staple breakfast for the working class. Brought by European immigrants to the United States in mid-1800s, it has become a popular garnish and vegetable for North Americans. It is also a popular seasoning with Chinese and Vietnamese who add it to soups and stir-fries. Scientific Name(s): Watercress: Nasturtium officinale; garden cress: Lepidium sativum. Family: Brassicaceae (cabbage family). Origin and Varieties: Watercress is native to western Asia but cultivated in Europe, United States, and Asia. In many languages watercress means water, as it is grown in water. Other botanically related plants are garden cress (or pepper cress), winter cress, bitter cress, and nasturtium or Indian cress (more of an ornamental plant originating in South America). Common names: barbeen (Arabic), jhri godem (Armenian), sai yeung choi (Cantonese), waterkers (Dutch), tazer alaf shesmeh (Farsi), isovesi krasi (Finnish), cresson de fontaine (French), brunnenkresse (German), nerokardamo (Greek), garga hanazir (Hebrew), selada air/ayer (Indonesian, Malaysian), votakuresu (Japanese), vaistino rezuiko (Lithuanian), shui jee cai (Mandarin), bronnkarse (Norwegian), agriao (Portuguese), kress vodianoj (Russian), vodna kresa (Slovenian), berro di agua/crenchas (Spanish), kallfrane (Swedish), lampaka (Tagalog), phakat nam (Thai), su teresi (Turkish), and cai soong (Vietnamese). Form: the watercress leaflets or clusters of leaves are enjoyed fresh. Dried leaves do not have the flavor as fresh leaves do. With garden cress, the flowers and unripe fruits, too, are eaten. Watercress has a crunchy texture which is appealing for salads. Properties: The fresh leaves have a refreshing, sharp, and savory aroma with a peppery, pungent taste. Chemical Components: Its aroma is due to isothiocyanates which are formed from its precursors, glucosinolates from chopping or chewing. Gluconasturtin in

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watercress is converted to 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a volatile that is sensitive to heat and moisture. It is high in potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, folic acid, and calcium. How Prepared and Consumed: Europeans and North Americans enjoy watercress in sandwiches, in potato salads, in omelets, as cottage cheese spreads, or as garnishes in soup and scrambled eggs. It is pureed and made into watercress soup, a favorite with the English who claimed it to cleanse the blood. The French add it to fines herbes, many white sauces, and flavored vinegars. It adds crunchiness to salads, soups, and sandwiches. Westerners enjoy it fresh while Asians cook it. It is a popular vegetable in Asia, where it is added to stir-fries and soups. As a simple stir-fry, rice wine, sugar, and salt are added. Or it is blanched, chopped, and flavored with sesame oil, garlic, and miso. Spice Blends: herbes fines, watercress soup blend, stir-fry blend, and blend for omelet. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: It was believed to be an aphrodisiac and a stimulant by the Arabs, Greeks, English, and many other ancient cultures. Hippocrates used it as a blood purifier and for bronchial disorders, and to increase stamina. The Persian soldiers ate it to prevent and treat scurvy. Made into tea, it was taken to ease aches, pains, and migraines. Today, in South America, it is believed to be an antitumor agent, and North Americans are researching its PEITC’s effect in preventing lung diseases such as cancer and emphysema through tobacco smoking.

ZEDOARY
Called white turmeric, zedoary is a close relative of turmeric, and originated in India or Southeast Asia. Zedoary has its origins from the Arabic word zadwar and Farsi word zedwaar. It flavors curries in Southeast Asia and South India, while in China and Japan it is used as a medicine. In Thailand, it is prized as an aromatic vegetable. The Arabs introduced this spice to the West. It is called amb halad in many Indian languages because of its mango-like aroma. Scientific Name(s): Curcuma (C) zedoaria. Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family). Origin and Varieties: zedoary is native to Northeast India and Southeast Asia but today cultivated in India, China, and Southeast Asia. There are many varieties which vary in size and color but two types are commonly used, the long, slender turmeric-like C. zerumbet and the small, round, gingerlike C. rotundae Common Names: white turmeric, wild turmeric. It is also called zadwaar (Arabic), ngo seut, i zhu (Cantonese, Mandarin), zadoarwortel (Dutch), zedwaar (Farsi), zedoaire (French), zitwer (German), amb halad, kachur (Hindi), feher kurkuma (Hungarian), kencur zadwar, kunir putih, kentjur (Indonesian), zedoaria (Italian), gajutsu (Japanese), khi min khay (Laotian), zedoari (Russian), kunchor (Singhalese), cedoaria (Spanish), zitherrot (Swedish), khamin khao (Thai), cedwar (Turkish), and nga truat (Vietnamese). Form: zedoary is used fresh and dried, and sliced or ground. It is sold as whole fresh or dried, sliced, and ground.

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Properties: it is a pale yellow, large and fleshy tuberous rhizome with many branches and large, long, fragrant leaves. The inner slices of the fresh rhizome are bright orange with a hard texture, while the exterior is dark brown. Its flavor is gingerlike, bitter, and camphoraceous, with a musky mango, turmeric aroma. The dried zedoary has a yellowish to grayish white interior. Chemical Components: the essential oil is viscous and dark green with about 79% sesquiterpenes (mainly germacrone-4, 5-epoxide, furanodienone, curzerenone, curcumenol, isocurcumenol, and zederone), 1,8-cineol, camphor, and α-pinene. How Prepared and Consumed: fresh zedoary is added to pickles and poultry, lamb, and fish dishes of South India. In Indonesia, the dried rhizome flavors seafood dishes and meat curries while the fresh aromatic leaves and shoots are added to fish dishes and to wrap foods for grilling or baking. Zedoary is used at low levels because of its bitter flavor. In Thailand, the young rhizome is eaten as a vegetable or used in curries, condiments, and spice mixtures. In China and Japan, it is used in liquors and as a medicine. Spice Blends: pickle blend, fish marinade, and chicken curry blends. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: zedoary is used to treat colds in India and is used as a digestive aid in Indonesia and Thailand. It is valued as a blood purifier and heals cuts and wounds.

6 Emerging Flavor
Contributors
INTRODUCTION
Other significant flavor, color, and texture contributors in addition to spices are gaining in importance. This chapter describes the roots and rhizomes, nuts, seafoods, flowers, wrappers made from edible and inedible leaves, and husks and processed “skins” from beans and grains that can be used to contribute taste and texture. Flowers impart visual appeal and flavor to applications. Roots and rhizomes are versatile ingredients that can add intense, pungent notes or simply provide texture and consistency to a product. Wrappers are natural cooking vessels that enhance the taste of the foods they contain. Spices can also be combined with many ingredients, such as fish sauce, shrimp pastes, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts to provide characterizing tastes or textures to a product. In the cuisines of many cultures, these flavorings are paired with chilies, coriander, lemongrass, onions, and spices to create distinct flavors. These flavorings can also be salted, fermented, dried, or pickled and added with spices to create unique seasoning blends (some of which are discussed in Chapter 7, “Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings”). Other flavorings such as vanilla, chocolate, tea, and coffee contribute sweetness and bitterness to foods and beverages. They have been used to balance savory and spicy profiles in some traditional ethnic cuisines. Finally, preparation and cooking techniques help create new flavor profiles and contribute to a product’s final taste. Table 21 gives examples of these other flavorings from around the world. These “other flavorings” also provide nutrition and valuable phytochemicals that are being tapped as therapeutic aids and natural cures. Fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, seafood, and other flavorings have phenols, isoflavones, isothiocyanates, antioxidants, glucosinolates, omega 3 fatty acids, and flavanoids.

ROOT/TUBER/RHIZOME FLAVORINGS
Roots, tubers, and rhizomes provide consistency, flavor, and color to foods. Some roots provide intense, pungent notes, such as licorice, ginger, horseradish, wasabi, coriander, and turmeric. Others serve merely as a bland starchy base, such as cassava (manioc/yuca), arracachia (Peruvian carrot), yautia, or yam. Roots are a good source of complex carbohydrates and easily digestible starches. They can be used as natural thickening agents or natural starch modifiers. Many roots such as jicama, yam, or lotus root are boiled, roasted, stir-fried, or stewed.
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cabbage. pomegranate (India. candlenuts (Malaysia. East Asians take panax ginseng to provide energy and lotus root to relieve stress. used roots as cures. mam cho (Laos). dashi. Seasonings. misos (Japan). especially Native Americans and Asians. and as a tonic for mental problems. Mediterranean). jiangjou (China). United States) Ghee. pinenuts/pinones (Italy. kanjang (Korea) Nam pla (Thailand). Caribbean). Indonesia). Latin America). France) Corn husk. orange peel (China). Southeast Asia. ngapi ye (Burma). daikon (Japan. Japan). Southeast Asia). Second Edition TABLE 21 Other Flavorings Used around the World Flavorings Roots. kokum. Roots and tubers are a good source of . Singapore). many cultures. salted beans (China. Malaysia. zucchini blossoms (Mexico. United States). liquamen (France) Ponzu (Japan). mustard greens (China. Hawaii. Asia. paellera Wrappers Soybean Soy sauce Fish/shrimp flavorings Fruits Vegetables Nuts. chocolate. tomato (Mediterranean. steam. lotus (China. bagoong. Latin America. kecap soy masin. Africa). Southeast Asia. buttermilk (India. taucheo (Malaysia. Southeast Asia. tubers. nuoc mam (Vietnam). Singapore). Caribbean). Japan). Africa. banana leaf (India. Southeast Asia. Middle East. mushrooms (Japan. pra hoc (Cambodia). rhizomes Flowers Product Name/Region Lotus root (Asia). leaf (Latin America. coconut (India. Italy. toenjang (Korea). Caribbean) Pickled/salted: radish. tagine. Korea) Tamari. mango. Europe. Philippines). Bombay duck (India). braise. trassi (Indonesia). United States). Malaysia. cocoa. Middle East) Broil. jasmine (Southeast Asia). Tandoor. lichee (Southeast Asia). Mediterranean). kecap soy pekat. plum. almonds. collard greens (United States. hoba leaf (Japan) Fermented pastes (jiangs). yautia (Latin America. bacalao (Mediterranean. cheeses (global) Vanilla. lotus leaf (China). Caribbean. Southeast Asia. Caribbean. treat nosebleeds. Traditionally.188 Handbook of Spices. burdock. Singapore. blacan. coffee. Singapore. sesame seed (Asia. shotturn (Japan). Mexico). Southeast Asia). orange blossoms (Mediterranean). stir-fry. oyster sauce (China. Caribbean) Rose petal (India. patis. kimchee (Korea. yu lu. Native Americans used American ginseng to ease childbirth. walnuts (China). kecap manis and kecap asin (Indonesia. (Philippines). saeujot (Korea). Brazil). grill. Korea). seeds Dairy products Sweet and bitter flavorings Cooking techniques Others are pureed and act as nondescript bases for sauces and as thickeners for soups and curries. Africa. maldive (Sri Lanka). Sri Lanka). pickle. Mexico. parsley root (Mediterranean). Asia. claypot. tea (United States. United States. China. almonds (India. and Flavorings. taro (Southeast Asia. ferment. Asia) Pumpkin seeds/pepitas (Mexico). petis (Indonesia. Shoyu (Japan). salam leaf (Indonesia). olives. Southeast Asia. yu jiang (China). yogurt.

stews. AND RHIZOMES IN ETHNIC CUISINES Roots. and Thais use coriander root for their spicy red curries. This was called “coui” by the Caribs. beans. yam has plant sterols. They use potatoes. the coriander root is used to create pungent recados. and malanga to provide texture and to add bulk to soups. yams. ROOTS. Sicily. boiled it with chile peppers. but stronger. Table 22 is a chart of the more popular roots and rhizomes. which is used in sauces and barbecues. cinnamon. Yuca is mashed and made into flour for cakes and breads. The Balinese grind the root of salam leaf plant to create intense spice pastes called jangkap. or brown sugar to flavor sauces. candy. ice cream. TUBERS. and South Russia. tubers. sweet potatoes. vitamin A. AND RHIZOMES AS INGREDIENTS Several of the more important roots and rhizomes are explained in detail below. and Africans who could not afford or procure meat or fish. jethimadh (Hindi). Glycyrrhiza is derived from the Greek word glukos. and texture to foods by many indigenous groups such as Mayans. licorice contains triterpenoids and glycyrrhizin. color. or galangal. . rice. and stews (such as pepperpot) in Brazil. and orozuz (Spanish). their flavoring properties. liqueriziz (Italian). iron. Licorice is an essential ingredient of the Chinese five-spice blend. The Amazonian Indians from South America used roots and tubers as a staple flavoring in their foods. horseradish and wasabi contain isothiocyanates. Sweet potato (also called batata and boniata) contains carotenoids. and Barbados. and flavored many of their dishes. sauces. Chinese use galangal for their five-spice sauces. The Romans changed the name to liquiritia. meaning sweet. and their ethnic preferences. clove. The scientific name for licorice is Glycyrrhiza glabra. arpsous (Arabic). cassareep by Brazilians and Caribbeans. Licorice is also called gancao (Chinese). burdock contains high levels of iron. It has a medicinal. ginger. and curries. It is mixed with chile peppers. vitamin A. Many roots are popular in China and Southeast Asia as foods. Spanish licorice and Russian licorice. and today. Aztecs. an easily digestible starch that provides a medium for the gut bacteria.Emerging Flavor Contributors 189 phytochemicals. TUBERS. Turkey. The Arawaks and Caribs in the Caribbean extracted juice from grated cassava root. and rhizomes were traditionally used to add flavor. which subsequently evolved into licorice. and calcium. It is also used in soft drinks. SPECIFIC ROOTS. Liquorice/Licorice/Chinese Sweetroot Licorice comes from the root of a legume that is indigenous to China and the Middle East and is also cultivated in Spain. smoothies. Asian Indians. and inulin. In Puerto Rico and Thailand. and jicama has high levels of potassium. Jamaica. reglisse (French). such as ginseng. especially in soups and beverages. There are two varieties. bittersweet taste. Trinidad. and sauces. and its aroma is similar to anise or fennel.

Lotus Root Lotus root is used by Chinese. and beer. Seasonings. It also masks bitterness in medicines. color Mealy texture Ethnic Preference China. United States Latin America. sweet flavor Aroma Crispy texture Sweet flavor. niacin. Korea Japan. The root has about 20% to 30% of water-soluble extractive and 4% of a glycoside called glycyrrhizin. and gums in addition to 12% to 20% glycyrrhizin. sore throats. United States Middle East. potassium.190 Handbook of Spices. magnesium. it shows a starlike pattern with symmetrical round openings. crunchy texture Pungent flavor Crunchy texture. Lotus root is available fresh or dried. Licorice is sold as peeled or unpeeled dried whole root. curries. It has the sweet and slightly astringent-like flavor of anise. or circulation problems. starches. and Flavorings. confectionaries. Hawaii. Licorice contains vitamin C. In the United States and Europe. Caribbean Caribbean. It can be seasoned and eaten as an appetizer or ground and made into flour or sauces for Japanese and Chinese dishes. Second Edition TABLE 22 Global Roots and Tubers and Their Flavoring Properties Roots Licorice Burdock Celeraic/celery root Wasabi Lotus root Parsley root Daikon Sweet potato/boniato Taro/eddo/coco-yam Yam Yautia/malanga Cassava/manioc/yuca/tapioca Flavoring Property Bittersweet flavor Chewy texture Chewy. It has high phenols and triterpenoids. Korea. When it is cut crosswise. Latin America drinks. which is fifty times sweeter than cane sugar. The Chinese have used licorice since ancient times to treat many ailments. Licorice can be a noncaloric sweetener but must be used at very low levels in foods so it does not impart a licorice taste. Mediterranean Japan. Asia. mealy texture crispy. Latin America. United States Japan. Indians. United States Southeast Asia. and calcium. creamy texture Mealy texture Creamy texture. It is slightly sweet and has a texture like water chestnuts. United States Asia. . It consists of sugars. “Block juice” is the black brittle concentrated extract from the root that is free of insolubles. and lozenges. licorice is used in cough syrups. Southeast Asia. and Southeast Asians for soups. Mediterranean Mediterranean. Southeast Asia. It is grated or sliced for stews and soups or candied and eaten as a sweet. stews. such as ulcers. in pieces or powdered. Caribbean Africa. and as a stir-fried vegetable. sodium. Americas Southeast Asia. It has a potato-like skin and is cream to salmon colored. Lotus root is also eaten pickled or as a garnish for salads.

while orange blossom complements clove. and Asian. Lime. The other two ginsengs are Siberian and American. each flower complementing certain spices. sweet. fruits. Spices such as rosemary. chamomiles. and chile pepper. primroses. teas. mint. Asian ginseng is classified as “yang” and is used to increase energy and strength and to promote appetite. such as violets. crystallized.” The Chinese and Koreans add ginseng to chicken and vegetable dishes. and nigella. and increase stamina. and strengthen the nervous system. Flowers tend to blend well with many spices. and teas to relieve stress. the latter is used by Native Americans to increase mental strength. elderflowers. caraway. and liqueurs. rose complements star anise. Flowers obtained from spices. dried. Other flowers. stews. blossoms have been popular not only for flavoring but also for healing. . stuffed. plum. which are sweet snacklike tonics containing ginseng. Marigold has been used as a digestive stimulant and to heal tumors and wounds. lightly fried as appetizers. bitter. and candies. and roses have been traditionally used for their medicinal properties. There are three major varieties of ginseng—Asian. coriander. American ginseng is classified as “yin” and is used to reduce fatigue and increase immunity. marigolds. and garlic have blossoms that add a floral scent to foods and beverages. pansies. and marigolds have unique aromas. and orchids. and other unique tastes to many dishes. turmeric. the root is chewed or brewed into a tea or tonic. ginger. For example. or dried to blend with spices. rose hips. create visual effects for entrees and desserts. Asian ginseng (panax ginseng) from Japan and Korea is aromatic and has a sweet licorice-like taste.Emerging Flavor Contributors 191 Ginseng Root The ancient Chinese believed that ginseng root had the spirit and power of God to strengthen the body and cure illnesses. FLOWER FLAVORINGS Many cultures around the world. reduce serum cholesterol. Latin American. pasta sauces. and vegetables are fried. and Siberian. geraniums. cinnamon. ginger. or in essence form to give unique flavors and colors to foods and beverages. and to treat nosebleeds. chive. dill. are taken to increase energy. It is eaten to boost energy. Siberian ginseng is used to increase energy and to treat lower back pains. In the United States and Europe. stimulate the immune system. which are high in vitamins A and C and bioflavanoids. Ginseng is from the Chinese word jen shen. crystallized for cakes. bay leaf. Traditionally. Tong shui. Flowers with vivid colors and fancy shapes. thyme. soups. including Mediterranean. American. Flower petals are served fresh in salads. or chopped to provide floral. to induce childbirth. infused for teas. Since ancient times. such as jasmines. roses. and orange flowers (or blossoms) with strong tastes or delicate aromas are commonly used in desserts. have been used to treat cold symptoms and relieve rheumatic pains. nasturtiums. Jasmines. use flowers whole. which means “essence of the earth from the form of man.” East Asians take ginseng as a “cure. Asian ginseng is used in beverages. carnations. violets. boiled. or roasted. It is stir-fried. In Chinese traditional medicine.

and sauces. The fragrant bunga kantan (or wild ginger bud) is a characteristic flavoring in Nonya and Malay sauces and curries of Malaysia and Singapore. It is sold as dried petals or as a distillate called rose water.192 Handbook of Spices. They are used fresh. and floral aroma. stews. They provide color. since medieval times. liqueurs. sorbets. neroli. desserts. and custards of India. and in Europe. sweet. cakes. Second Edition and violets. gulab (Hindi). and sweet dishes with marigold and violets. and syrups. Rose has about 1% or less essential oil consisting of geraniol (75%). jellies. Thailand. soups. curries. cordials. syrups. battered. banana blossoms. The English and Persians have favored their extracts. In northern Africa and India. marigolds. soups. and spice blends. lotus petals are added to soups. jams. noodles. chocolates. salads. jams. Its petals emit a perfumed. stir-fried noodles. and it garnishes meals to provide visual enhancement. rose petals are added to teas. In Mexico and many other regions. The scientific name for Rose is Rosa damascena. bunga ros (Malaysian). butter. in Asia. FLOWERS IN ETHNIC CUISINES In Europe. jellies. and it belongs to the Rosaceae family. citronellol (20%). Rose is a popular flavoring among many ethnic groups. pansies. or cooked. the Middle East. Violets are highly fragrant. chutneys. and damascenone. it is called mioga bud. Europeans and Mexicans color rice. and entrees of Europe. Flower blossoms and oils have also been popular in massage and aromatherapy. salads. terrines. In Japan. . Flowers such as rose petals. they are used in sweets. and sauces. and Flavorings. and salads. vegetables. sweets. and dried lily buds add texture and mild aroma to stir-fries and soups. Marigold is crushed to give a saffronlike color and a slightly bitter herbal note to salads. confectionaries. flowers have been distilled for their aromas and candied or boiled into jams and syrups. marigold oil is added to chicken feed to provide a yellow color to chicken and eggs. Dried lily buds (dok mai jeen) are commonly used in Cantonese and Southeast Asian soups. Latin America. and chilled soups. They add visual appeal to salads and sandwiches and add flavor to vinegars and marinades of the Mediterranean. SPECIFIC FLOWERS AS INGREDIENTS Nasturtiums are orange or yellow in color and have a slight pepperlike flavor. Mexico. They enhance the color of spreads and margarine. stewed fruits. and Europe. Seasonings. ros (Swedish) and irosa (Tamil). ice creams. puddings. zucchini blossoms. and jasmines perk up salad dressings. visual appeal. Its odor is due to 2-phenyl ethanol. flowers serve important culinary purposes. Today. Rose is also called gul (Arabic). Elder flowers have a muscatel aroma and are used in England to flavor wines. the Middle East. In China. and Europe. rosa (Italian). jasmines and chrysanthemums flavor teas and wine. which are high in vitamins A and C. or fragrances to a wide number of applications such as cordials. have been used as expectorants.

sorbets. It has a strong. Roselle or Jamaican sorrel (hibiscus family) is very acidic and flavors jams. and in many Malaysian. clove. To Buddhists. Lavender’s scientific name is Lavendula angustifolia. They also tend to lose aroma after a few days. Called ma’el-ward. dipped in milk and flour. and in some pork dishes of northern China. cineol. North Africa. camphor. it is a symbol of beauty and purity. Zucchini blossoms are also commonly used in Italian and French cooking. chutneys. gulab jamun. restaurants. wine. and rasgullah in India. They go well with spices such as cardamom. is used in blancmange. and it is a member of the Lamiaceae family. Lavender is indigenous to western Mediterranean regions and is commonly found in French spice blends. Singaporean. called orange oil (or neroli oil). coffees. and Southeast Asia. Oaxacans chop the flowers and add them to soups and sauces or saute them with poblano peppers. In France. a drink called loukoum. it is used in candies. In the Middle East. and yogurt drinks of the Middle East. cold beverages. they are stuffed with cheese.S. In Turkey. The essential oil of orange blossom. it is given to revive persons from fainting spells. and enchiladas. China. They are also used as wrappers. and pastries of the Mediterranean. jasmine essence is mixed with coconut milk to flavor many cakes and desserts. spices. stews. especially with prolonged heat. and jams. In Mexico.Emerging Flavor Contributors 193 Rose water (or rose essence) is greatly enjoyed in the Middle East and India. and so are typically added to foods toward the end of cooking or after cooking. these blossoms are added whole or chopped to risottos. They have a slightly bitter taste so are added sparingly. It is a common flavoring in desserts and preserves around the world. Rose petal is used in spice mixtures. It is also used in Central America. and sauteed or stuffed with cooked seafood and herbs and steamed or deep-fried. are added to fruit salads. puddings. and Southeast Asia for sauces. basil. such as kheer. mint. In Thailand. and caryophyllene. and Southeast Asia. and Thai rice desserts. Lotus flower is used to scent Chinese and Vietnamese soups or Sri Lankan curries. and wine in the Caribbean and Mexico. They are braised. especially in the . lavendel (German). curries. In Italy. Jasmine and chrysanthemum are popular flavorings of teas and beverages in Japan. β-ocimene. It is a common ingredient in Indian sherbets and sweet desserts. sweets. perfumed aroma and is popular as a garnish. pastas. cilantro. nutmeg. and herbs. and candies. Lavender has 1% to 3% essential oil. stuffed. vinegars. and salads and are an essential ingredient in frittata alle erbe. and subtle flavor of zucchini blossoms lends them to “stuffed” concepts. The beautiful shape. Iran. North India. Arabs commonly add it to meats. liqueurs. la-vanda (Russian) and lavendel (Swedish). tacos. thin papery texture. Orange blossoms. lightly fried. or battered and deep-fried. and sauces. cinnamon. jams and rice puddings in Iran and Turkey. It is also called lavand (French). mainly linalyl acetate (30% to 50%). and onions and add them to quesadillas. and sorrel. and soups. called zhaar in Moroccon and ma’el zahr in Arabic. linalool (20% to 35%). sweets. Squash or zucchini blossoms are found in Mexican salads and appetizers and are becoming trendy in U. India. in curries and biryanis of North India.

They are being used to create authenticity or an enhanced visual appeal to a meal. There are several basic categories of wrappers: Corn husks: they are sold fresh or dried. or Native American equivalent of cooking en papillote. lotus leaf. WRAPPERS IN ETHNIC CUISINES Different types of wrappers are used in ethnic cuisines. ginger flower. Before use. Second Edition United States. or salam leaves to wrap fish. these wrappers are becoming a trendy restaurant item to provide fresh-cooked aromas and textures at a meal table. They are then pat dried. and the Mediterranean use wrappers as cooking and serving utensils. they are brought to a boil in water and left submerged for about an hour to make them more pliable. baked. They are used with meat. and banana blossoms provide fragrant aromas and colors to meals in many parts of the world. . and Flavorings. such as maguey. and colors to the foods they contain. Seaweeds: in Japan. grape leaves. spinach leaf. rose petals. dried rice paper. These wrappers include a variety of leaves. sticky rice. and soy milk skin. banana leaf. fish. cabbage leaf. meats. Others give crunchiness and crispiness. or barbecueing. poultry. corn. Some wrappers make the food succulent and tender. or banana leaves are inedible. Flowers: zucchini blossoms. or hoja santa to prepare foods. grape leaf. hoba leaf. Maguey/cactus fiber provides succulence and moistness to steamed pork and other meats in Mexico. flowers. to provide texture to other foods. Latin America. such as corn husks. and shiso. or texture are contributed to the finished product. Examples of such wrappers are lettuce. fish. cheeses. WRAPPER FLAVORINGS Many cultures from Asia. lettuce leaf. color. Latin American. Southeast Asians and Indians commonly use banana. nori. Leaves: leaves used as wrappers include pandan leaf. Mexicans use corn husks and a variety of leaves. Seasonings. banana. seaweeds. Today. Hollow bamboo segments are commonly used by indigenous groups in Southeast Asia to cook rice and meats. seafood. vegetables. In China. seaweed is used to wrap fried foods such as tofu. They provide texture. or spice pastes before foods are barbecued.194 Handbook of Spices. chicken. and vegetables. Wrappers can be edible or nonedible and provide distinct flavors. textures. or vegetables before steaming. or vegetables. or steamed. rice. corn husks. nori (seaweed) is lightly toasted and used to wrap glutinous rice. grilling. This is the Asian. which is called sushi. grilled. salam leaf. The Japanese use hoba leaf and nori to wrap beef. and a seaweed-type flavor. flavor. pandan. cactus fiber. turmeric leaf. deep-fried. lotus leaves. hollow bamboo stems. Others. hoja santa. They can be battered lightly and deep-fried to provide crunchiness in a meal. corn leaf. Depending on the type of wrapper. varying amounts of color. roasted. rice. paan leaf. Edible wrappers are used to wrap fresh ingredients and are eaten whole as salads or appetizers. and papaya leaf. The following is a list of geographic regions that use different wrappers.

or rice before steaming. smooth. It provides a firm yet chewy consistency to foods. and Tunisia (in North Africa). slightly chewy texture to the finished product. it is used as a plate for serving a whole meal. Soymilk skin. spinachlike leaf. fuchok. Bamboo leaf is a greenish ribbed leaf with a magenta tinge that is used to wrap sliced fish. Palestine. lentils. meat. popularly eaten in Egypt. vegetables. spices. vegetables. It is cut up in pieces and used to wrap whole fish or fillets to be baked. as a main vegetable entree with boiled rice.Emerging Flavor Contributors 195 Greece Tender grape leaves are blanched and used to stuff rice.” to freshen breath as well as aid digestion. It is sold dried and is soaked before use. Hindus serve meals at temples on banana leaves because they signify cleanliness and purity. It is used in Chinese cuisine to wrap seasoned fish. spices. It provides a tender. pieces of coconut kernel. chicken. rice paper is commonly used to wrap freshly cooked rice. It is mainly used with meat. and sugar. and meats before serving. called yuba. and raisins. or rice before it is steamed. it is soaked in warm water until it softens. or grilling. with the resulting food called dolmades. Middle East Meloukhia leaf is a deep green. chicken to be grilled. or fu zhu. accompanied by onions. It is like an “after dinner mint. The leaf is wrapped around the filling and tied with a clove. It is sold frozen or dried and can be used as a wrapper. Paan leaf is used to wrap a dry filling of chopped betel nuts. or chopped finely and cooked as a side dish. Similarly. Before use. or duck soups. boiling. It has a glutinous texture that gives the finished product a gelatinous. or meats before baking or grilling. France Zucchini blossoms are used to wrap cheese or fish with herbs and spices. and fish that are then steamed or grilled. and rice. dumplings. rice. In Asian Indian cultures. meat. or beans with nuts. is dried bean curd that is creamy yellow in color. They give a lemony tang to the food. hot chilies. It gives a smoky aromatic flavor to foods. It is commonly used in Cantonese-style cooking for stuffing rice. It provides a sweet tealike flavor to foods. India Banana leaf is a large green leaf that provides moistness and a delicate flavor to foods. especially with the vegetarian communities. . viscous texture. China Lotus leaf is a large and round inedible leaf. Dry yuba needs to be soaked until fully hydrated before use.

moles. Local condiments and desserts are also served in pandan leaf. fish. Second Edition Japan Hoba leaf is a large leaf used in Japanese cuisine to wrap beef and chicken for grilling. and vegetables are wrapped in corn husks before cooking. chilies. Salam leaf is a favorite wrapper of the Balinese in Indonesia for fish and ground meat cooked with spicy condiments. Caribbean In many Caribbean regions. banana leaves also serve as natural and elegant plate liners that provide visual appeal to meals. Central America. or steaming. These bamboo segments provide a slightly smoky aroma and a distinct texture to the finished foods. Indonesians also use the long. Vietnamese. masa with fillings are wrapped in fresh corn leaves (or hojas de milpa) before they are steamed to make tamales. narrow.196 Handbook of Spices. Singapore. Maguey leaf from the Agave plant (not a cactus) is a common wrapper in the Yucatan and other regions of Mexico. corn dough. In Thailand and Malaysia. and Thailand. Cabbage or local salad leaves are also used to wrap beef before grilling. recados. sausages. Before use. fragrant turmeric leaf to wrap spiced fish or meats. and Flavorings. whole fish. and Nonyas in Malaysia and Indonesians commonly use banana leaf for wrapping fish. vegetables. chicken. and South America for steaming. Latin America Fresh corn leaves and husks or dried corn husks are used in Mexico. Sulawesi. the dried corn husks are soaked in hot water until they soften. Mexico. It has a thin. The fragrant Nonya’s and Malay’s fish and rice dishes commonly use pandan leaf. or cheese). In Thailand. beef. In Cuba and Puerto Rico. barbecuing. simmering. and other seasoning pastes. rice and beans. grilling. tamales (masa or corn dough filled with seasoned chicken. chicken pieces. and meats before grilling and for wrapping glutinous rice and desserts before steaming. glutinous rice with dried shrimp is steamed in lotus leaf which adds a unique flavor to this dish. meat. transparent skin called mixiote . fish. or vegetables are steamed or grilled in corn husks. Southeast Asia Thais. indigenous populations stuff hollow bamboo segments with glutinous rice and finely chopped meats or poultry seasoned with spices and place them directly in open fires to cook. and West Sumatra. and rice are wrapped in pandan leaf (or screw-pine leaf) before grilling. baking. Seasonings. Jamaicans. In Malaysia. and Dominicans create their picadillos by stuffing spicy ground meat into corn husks that are then steamed. Malays. or roasting tamales. Puerto Ricans. In Sarawak. Sabah. It is an indispensable ingredient in Balinese cooking for wrapping food before roasting or steaming. fish. In Michoacán. fish.

or paste forms. Seafood flavorings come in whole. a popular spread called anchoiade is a salted paste made with anchovy fillets. The leaf gives an aniselike flavor to the cooked foods. The ancient Greeks used a fish seasoning called garon. Anchovies are also added to tomato sauces that are then used as spreads.Emerging Flavor Contributors 197 that is like a pliable parchment paper. shellfish. and even today in many Asian. oysters. In the Yucatan. In Holland and Belgium. or brined. In the Caribbean and Mediterranean. fish and other seafoods are dried. and other meats. the larger codfish is also used. European. and marinades. Their preparation varies in different regions of the world. salted. garlic. SEAFOOD FLAVORINGS IN ETHNIC CUISINES European Seafood Flavorings Small bony fish or tiny shrimp. Liquamen. capers. moles. and Malaysia). is used for intensifying the flavor of seafood dishes in southern Europe. and vinegar. such as anchovies or whitebait (also called ikan bilis in Malaysia and Indonesia or karuvaddu in Sri Lanka. sauce. stews. venison. called garum. Hoja santa (also called acuyo/holy leaf/hierba santa) is a large green leaf in which corn dough with seasoned fish. The French and Italians use cured anchovies with salt. or fermented fish. ground. and the Romans used fish and its entrails with salt. pork. a fish sauce that is a by-product from anchovy manufacture. smoked. Italy. and squid. black pepper. Many indigenous cultures combined them with spices to “spike up” a meatless meal. South India. The paste is the solid portion of the dried and fermented product. In Piedmont. olive oil. and olive oil are made into a dip for raw vegetables called bagna cauda. In southern France. and spices to flavor many of their soups. olive oil. anchovies and pickled herring are used as flavorings and appetizers. to enhance main entrees and side dishes. particularly in Asia. Before use. butter. Banana leaf is used to wrap and slowly roast pork. which wraps seasoned goat (barbacoa). salted. and the sauce is the liquid portion. salads. The fish used as flavorings are usually small fish. banana leaf is used to wrap marinated whole pig that is cooked in a pit to make the local speciality called cochinita pibil. and chicken before steaming or barbequing. anchovies with garlic. In Europe. Seafood flavorings are essential to the cuisines of many countries. scallops. anchovies are marinated in wine vinegar with onions and lemon rind . and Caribbean cultures. are used to make fish stocks that are the basis of many fish soups. They are obtained from dried. This is an economical way to preserve them as well as to add flavors and textures to foods. stews. Brazilians use whole dried shrimp or codfish (bacalhau) to flavor many dishes. SEAFOOD FLAVORINGS In days before refrigeration. Banana leaf is sold fresh or frozen. and sauces. along with the bones and heads. and meats are wrapped before they are steamed or roasted. it is steamed for about twenty minutes to make it pliable and soft.

198 Handbook of Spices. stuffing in pastas. In Spain. They come with different flavor intensities and consistencies as viscous pastes or as thin liquids. salt cod or baccala is softened in water and cooked with parsley. and seafood dishes and condiments. spices. as pastes. Southeast Asian Seafood Flavorings Fermented and dried shrimp are a staple flavoring and food in Southeast Asia. In Vietnam. onions. In Liguria. bacalhau or bacalao. smoked mollusk and guedge. parsley. flaked and made into fillings for savory pastries. or gyomiso in Japan. pine nuts. bay leaf. fermented soybeans. dashi. called yu-jiang and yu-lu in China. dried mushrooms. both used in Senegalese stews and sauces. The Swedish use pickled herring with sugar. Asian Seafood Flavorings East Asian Seafood Flavorings Fish sauce and pastes or dried whole seafood. and Malaysia. and Flavorings. and as sauces. a fish sauce. pungent flavors. a popular cooking sauce. and onions. Some examples include dried. and vegetables to make a codfish stew called stoccafissa (or stocchefisso). These fish or shrimp flavorings are unacceptable by themselves. capers. noodles. much like the French use roux or wine. Oyster sauce. and vegetables for sauces or is combined with flour to make fritters. In Egypt and Sudan. but when cooked and added to other dishes. sugar. dried seafood to add zest and enhance rice. or salads. they round off other flavors or add zest to sauces. soups. Philippines. Second Edition and used as a condiment. Ikan bilis is used as a seasoning as well as a crunchy side dish and appetizer in Malaysia and Singapore. African Seafood Flavorings In West Africa. Indonesia. dried. The Portuguese enjoy cod in a variety of ways—mixed with potatoes. Salt-dried cod. as codfish balls with sweet spices and parsely. is a popular flavoring for sauces. and added to croquette. smoked fish). and condiments. contains oyster juice (from cooked. dried and smoked fish or shrimp are used to flavor many dishes. Thai nam pla. and vegetables in the Basque region of France. Malaysian belacan. Portugal. and Italy. eggs. vegetables. Italy. They can be light colored with mild flavors or dark colored with heavy. or shotturn. a seasoning sauce called faseekh is made by fermenting small fish with salt. are used abundantly to season cooking sauces or soups. and the Chinese and Japanese use soy sauce . Southeast Asians use fermented or salted. marinades. curries. bacalao is prepared with garlic and pil pil. or Filipino patis are essential ingredients for enhancing many sauces. or as cod balls. dried oysters). is commonly used in many Indonesian and Malaysian dishes. Spain. Southeast Asians use the pastes and sauces as condiments or seasonings. paellas. It is also soaked in milk and cooked slowly in olive oil. and other ingredients. Seafood flavorings come as dried whole pieces or ground. allspice. salads. The Vietnamese nuoc mam. starch. Seasonings. and dill to flavor many of their cream sauces. a meal does not taste right without salted or fermented seafood condiments. smoked shrimp used in the Gulf of Benin. Kecap ikan. (a dried. vinegar.

or tom kho in Vietnamese. soups. Laotian laab (minced beef salad). and pungent seasoning and is generally sold as a purplish pink to beige paste. called kung haeng in Thai. called petis or hay koh. The Cristangs (of mixed Portuguese and local ancestry) from the Malacca region of Malaysia use a popular condiment called chinchaluk. soups. lemongrass. put in a ceramic urn and aged another month before bottling. noodles. sugar. basil. crumbly brownish black block. and stews. condiments. The first extraction from the fermented fish is used in a fresh batch of dried fish and fermented for another three months. rice. are commonly used for vegetables. It is added as a freshly prepared table condiment. They can be ground to a coarse powder and sprinkled over salads or stir-fried for sauces and soups. and noodles. Dried whole shrimp or prawns (boiled and dried). . They flavor broths. It is a light brown extract made from salted and fermented small fish. Then. potatoes. stir-fries. It adds a subtle flavor. Thai nam prik gaeng ped (red curry paste). and sauces or are used as marinades. This method produces the saltier. salads. and spicy salads called rojak. or sambal belacan. cilantro. as a dipping sauce for spring rolls. This toasting creates a more acceptable flavor in the finished product. Nonya laksa (fragrant curry noodles). tofu. It pairs well with chile peppers. whereby the mixture ferments for about three months. The aroma is intense and overpowering. They can be deepfried and served as an appetizer with a dip or added to vegetables. but if it is used in uncooked foods. salty. soups. The heavier dark to black shrimp paste. stewed noodles. lime juice. The fish are dried in the sun for a few hours then layered in barrels with salt and water and kept submerged. chopped. coconut milk. They are soaked in warm water for about five minutes and then used unpeeled or peeled. udang kering in Malaysian. it is toasted before being added to the food. garlic. Though the sauce has a fishy aroma and salty taste. made from salted and fermented krill (a type of shrimp) with chile peppers. Singapore. It does not dominate the flavor of the dish but enhances the other flavors. is a molasses-like seasoning. Malay sambal udang (fiery shrimp dish). and Indonesia. These barrels are exposed to the sun. It is a favorite of the Nonya and Muslim cooks in Malaysia. and sauces. and stronger fishy note that is so desired in local cooking.Emerging Flavor Contributors 199 or rice wine. Shrimp paste is a moist greyish to a hard. nuoc cham. its raw taste and aroma disappear and it develops a more fragrant flavor. They are pinkish brown in color and perk up blander ingredients such as noodles. Shrimp paste is generally cooked with other ingredients. It is a shrimpy. sambals. the liqueur is drawn off slowly. or pounded. Burmese balachaung (condiment). darker. cassava. Commercial fish sauce is most commonly made from fish but can also be made from shrimp. sambals. rices. spearmint. These dried shrimp are used whole. or mellows stronger flavors. enhances other ingredients. as a marinade. who use it in noodle soups. Shrimp paste adds pungency and a fragrant aroma to condiments. Other dishes using these flavorings include: Vietnamese pho bo (beef noodle) soup. and galangal. but when cooked. stir-fried noodles. and cabbage. fried rice. They become part of Japanese dashis and Chinese stir-fries. Fish sauce (nam pla) is the main flavoring in Thai cooking. as well as pad thai. shallots. the fishy aroma disappears during cooking and adds a delicate overall flavor to the product. or toward the end of cooking. and lime juice. and Filipino chicken binakol. sliced.

kapi (Thai). and sweet bell peppers and is used to flavor potatoes. It is mixed with habanero peppers. South Asian Seafood Flavorings Bombay duck. lemongrass. and flavors rice and beans. pickled. (3) Whole dried fish or shrimp: ebi (Indonesian). It is shredded and added to vegetables. or even bread and butter. and mam ruoc (Vietnamese). and cabbage. salted shrimp/tom kho (Vietnamese). Caribbean Seafood Flavorings In the Caribbean. and the skin of the fruit. squash. nuoc mam (Vietnamese). onions. maldive fish. especially for breakfast. eggs. and color to . ground. soups. coconut. and mamcho (Laotian). and many root vegetables. tomatoes. Indonesian). spinach. Brazilian Seafood Flavoring Salted codfish (bacalhau) and dried whole shrimp are common flavorings in many stews and sauces. rice. Fruits are used fresh. such as ackee. gelatinous. tomato. and olive oil to create buljol. only the rind is used. heavier fish sauces include bagoong Balayan (Filipino).200 Handbook of Spices. trasi (Indonesian). and lime juice. B vitamins. In Sri Lanka. and liquamen (southern European). yautia. omelets. Whole fruits are chopped. and omega 3 fatty acids. or grated in salads. a Goan condiment from southwest India. chile peppers. curries. and nettali karuvaddu (Sri Lanka). garlic. spicy fish paste used to perk up sauces or condiments. In Puerto Rico. Pureed. and garlic to flavor mashed potatoes. and fish. Second Edition Some of the more popular fish and shrimp flavorings include the following: (1) Small fish/anchovy sauces and pastes: patis (Filipino). calcium. onions. (2) Shrimp paste: bagoong alamang (Filipino). onions. sugar. salt cod fish (saltfish or bacalao) is a common base flavoring for stews. sauejot (Korean). made into souffles and pies. A refogado is made with salted codfish or dried shrimp. Heavy. darker pastes include petis (Indonesian) and hay koh (Singaporean). consistency. sliced. pureed. dried. nam pla (Thai). they provide flavor. Seasonings. chile peppers. cinnamon. is a dried. stews. Also. puttu. It is also eaten as a snack. FRUIT FLAVORINGS Fruit flavorings come from the edible fleshy pericarp. dried shrimp/udang kering (Malaysian). salted shrimp/kung haeng (Thai). and as condiments. or chopped. These dried and or fermented sauces and pastes are rich in protein. belacan (Malaysian). or made into spicy fritters called bacalaitos or accra. parsley. and Flavorings. Dried small fish called nethali karuvadu are combined with green chile peppers. and curries. chives. dried bonito flakes/kat-suobushi (Japanese). pounded and dried maldive fish are popularly used in a variety of sambols (local condiments) combined with green ginger. ngapi (Myanmar). Sambols are prepared in different ways and are commonly eaten with local breads such as thosai. bacalao is combined with sweet chile peppers. pimientos. which is served for breakfast or brunch. salted fish/pla haeng (Thai). With some fruits. tomatoes. coconut milk. in Trinidad. shallots. and vegetables for sauces. sometimes the receptacle. whole salted fish/ikan bilis (Malaysian.

stoned fruits (apricot. and pomes (apples. Fruits complement many savory ingredients. orange peel with chicken. guarana. papaya. dried or pickled plums with beef and shiso. melons. They can be used to flavor or color vinegars. carambola. cherry). side dishes. and Asian cuisines combine fresh. lime. pomegranate (anardhana). Traditionally. belimbing wuluh. and varies with their ripeness. Sweetness in fruits is due to sugars. cooking oils. and all other foods. acerola. sweetness. green mango. Tomato. Fruits that are typical of North American and European cuisines include berries (cranberry. citric. lime. and chile peppers. fig. and condiments or serve as attractive serving vessels for condiments. Today. rambutan. The flavor profile varies between ripe and unripe fruit and also changes when the fruit is dried or cooked. sour jackfruit. Carambola (or star fruit) can be mildly sweet when ripe and sour when unripe. differ in their flavors. North Americans and Europeans have used ripe or dried subtropical or temperate fruits to provide characterizing fruity flavors or sweetness to beverages. astringent. green papaya. depending upon their regional origins. sour orange. banana. dried. plums. condiments. desserts. or tartaric. and cucumber are fruits but will be placed with vegetables because they function as vegetables. and sauces. Tropical fruits also provide the variety that consumers seek. grapes. gooseberries with mutton and coriander. cherries and plums with duck and star anise. quinces. and lemongrass. Fruits complement many spices. mango can have a pulpy or stringy texture and can be sweet and fragrant or sweet and tart. Apples and apricots go well with pork. They provide natural colors and visual appeal and can also become natural acidulants. mainly fructose and glucose.Emerging Flavor Contributors 201 many dishes and condiments. Because of their tartness. tamarind. The acidity is due to organic acids such as malic. balance flavors. For example. and pomegranates are used to provide acidity and astringency to foods and can be tapped as “natural” souring agents for foods and beverages to replace citric or malic acids. kalamansi. ham. fruity. are many examples of tropical fruits. and tamarind are commonly used in Asian. Lemon. fruits can be natural acidulants. and color to dishes. or salads. colors. and confectionaries. or melon. pineapple. At the same time. dates. pineapple with pork. and lychee (or litchee). pears). consistency. Caribbean. salads. and textures. avocado. fruitiness. yuzu orange. cranberries with turkey and nutmeg. These tropical fruits. they will add other enhancing notes to the food—sweet. citrus. fish flavorings. or tone down pungent flavors. or pureed fruits to complement their savory and hot flavors and to create visual appeal. blueberry. or floral. Mango. such as mango. Fruits provide tartness. duck and basil. Mediterranean. Fruit flavorings can create new flavors. antioxidants. guava. pomegranate with legumes and bay leaf. Fruits can be further explored as natural coloring agents. nuts. Nuts are fruits that will be discussed separately. soups. Many unique fruits such as kokum. strawberry). star fruit. Fruits are added fresh or cooked to main dishes. breadfruit. and antimicrobials in beverage and food applications. Caribbean. and Latin American cuisines and are also becoming known in the United States. North Americans are adding fruits to savory dishes and to create unique salsas. olive. .

plum (Japan. Fruits are great sources of vitamins A.” There are many types of mangoes that vary in size. Grapefruit. Southeast Asia). Europe). Mandarin orange peels give sweet and citrusy notes to Chinese stir-fries and sauces. Specific Fruits as Ingredients Below is a detailed description of some of the more significant fruits for food applications. or North Americans are fond of the flavor of unripe (or green fruits) and sour flavors and use them to flavor curries. Consumers are also seeking “natural” ways of staying healthy. shape. Fruits are also candied and used in many dishes of the Mediterranean. smaller varieties of carambola. or kalamansi with steak and pork. coconut with pungent laksas. salads. Latin American). ackee (Caribbean). Florida). and color. their flavors. is popularly used as a souring agent for marinades. Africa. prunes. and rice puddings. olive with garlic and tomato. Asian. sapote. In Mexico. and other qualities they add to foods and the ethnic cuisines in which they are typically found. Indonesia. Indonesia). and Singapore and curries of South India and Sri Lanka. Belimbing or bilimbi. the Caribbean. and Latin America. and soups in the Philippines. K. Caribbean. Mango Mango is indigenous to India. Table 23 describes various fruits. green jackfruit (Vietnam. carambola. moles. Papaya. minerals. green mango (India. when ripe or unripe (green). kokum with fish and chutneys. dates. and the word “mango” is derived from the Tamil word “mangai. prunes and raisins are blended to add flavor and texture to desserts. and desserts. a relative of star fruit. Indians. belimbing wuluh (Malaysia. and guava add unique fruity notes to hot Caribbean sauces and beverages. C. and tomatilla spike up Mexican condiments and salsas. while passion fruit and jackfruit provide consistency to Indonesian sambals and gulais. Second Edition prunes with pork and ginger. Vietnam). and Flavorings. the Pacific Islands. Southeast Asians. meats. give flavor and color to many ethnic savory dishes. soups. and green apple (United States. and salads. China). Kamia. green carambola (Caribbean. texture.202 Handbook of Spices. figs. dates. Mango is used fresh or dried (unripe) in Indian cooking and provides tartness and flavor to curries and chutneys. and Mediterranean dishes. and E. are added to soups. . Seasonings. and figs are popular flavorings in Middle Eastern rices. including green papaya (Thailand. flans. pickles. Southeast Asia. mango with lamb curry and chile peppers. Southeast Asia. and marinades in Malaysia. plantain (Caribbean. Indonesia). FRUITS IN ETHNIC CUISINES Fruits. flavor. They are grown in India. stews. Unripe carambola is used as a flavoring in many Southeast Asian and Caribbean foods. Dried fruits such as amchur. Caribbeans. meat picadillos. and raisins and dried persimmons and pomegranate add flavor to many Mexican. Prunes. and other important nutrients.

The dried pieces are pickled and become a popular condiment in every Indian home. Mango pairs well with coriander. fresh mango is sliced and eaten after a meal. Caribbean Southeast Asia. acidic Sweet. Indonesia India. color. East Asia. Mediterranean Mangoes’ colors range from a yellowish red to yellow to a yellowish green. Indian varieties are much sweeter and aromatic and less fibrous than other varieties. Its flavor is due to citric acid and terpenes such as ocimene. Sri Lanka Philippines. The powder has very little aroma but gives tartness to foods. lamb. sl. bitter Ethnic Preference Caribbean. depending on the variety. and potassium. Caribbean. Mexico United States Southeast Asia Mediterranean. called amchur in Hindi. Caribbean Latin American. or made into desserts or juice beverages. It is also an essential component of a green spice blend called chat masala that is commonly used in North India. vitamin C. Bilimbi Kalamansi/ponzu Mango. sour Sweet. floral. Traditionally. and vegetable dishes. The inner flesh is generally yellow. fruity Sweet. fruity Sour. astringent. China Mexico. chile pepper. Caribbean South America.Emerging Flavor Contributors 203 TABLE 23 Global Fruits and Their Flavoring Properties Fruit Flavorings Star fruit/carambola Belimbang. fruity Sweet. India Japan. mango is generally made into jams. added to salads. fruity Creamy Creamy Sour. fruity. dietary fiber. It is also used in chutneys and in marinades for the barbecued meats (tandooris) of North India. In Asia. ginger. sherbets. Guava Rambutan Guarana Persimmon Pomegranate Plum Atemoya Cherimoya Cranberry Langsat/duku Fig Jujube Acerola/West Indian cherry Papaya Pineapple Orange (Seville. The dried green mango. It has a sour. sour. and ice cream. Asian. is sliced and ground into a powder. Southeast Asia. fruity Sweet. mint. Mandarin) Flavoring Property Sour. sour. thus making them succulent and juicy. with aldehydes and esters. fruity Sour. astringent taste and is especially popular with vegetables and pickles. United States China South America. In the United States and Europe. Mango has a high level of beta-carotene (an average-sized mango has 8000 IU). fruity Sour. Caribbean Southeast Asia. Fresh mango has a sweet to slightly tart taste. and kaffir lime leaf and is generally added to poultry. Southeast Asia Southeast Asia South America East Asia. Mexico. . South Mexico. In the Caribbean. tamarind. astringent Astringent. sweet Fruity sweet Caffeine. sweet Fruity. Amchur tenderizes the meats and chicken cooked in the tandoors. Southeast Asia Mediterranean. limonene. Japan. acidic Acidic. it is made into beverages or added to sauces. floral Sweet. myrcene. it was used to help the body fight infections. Southeast Asia South India. sweet Sour.

The vegetarian Jain community of Gujerat uses pomegranate seeds as toppings on fiery legume curries. They are common eating oranges and are used in desserts. pakora fillings. mattalam in Malayalam. especially in Trinidad and other islands where there is a substantial Indian population. and other fruits and vegetables for a spicy salad called rojak. In Punjab. bergamot orange. Mediterranean. is peeled and shredded to give a crunchy texture to spicy salads of Thailand and Vietnam. In North India. Dried pomegranate is darkish red in color and adds sourness to cakes. deep yellow to orange fleshy fruit with centrally located black seeds. rumman in Arabic. which is noted for its spicy sweet flavors. pomegranate seeds are used as garnishes for a white sauce topping on stuffed poblanos. This is a renowned dish of the Puebla region called chile en nogada. and Flavorings. naranga agria (Seville. it is mixed with chilies. such as chile peppers. sour. pomegranate seeds are dried. and desserts. In the Caribbean. Pomegranate Pomegranate is native to Persia. beverages. sour/bitter orange). and tangerine. Mandarin orange. aid digestion. In Malaysia. Papaya is high in vitamin C. Pomegranate is called anardana in Hindi.204 Handbook of Spices. tight skin. beta-carotene (about five times that of orange). and paste made from the seeds (pekmez) are essential flavorings in Turkish. The dried seeds are sprinkled over salads. or cinnamon. The ripe fruit has a sweet taste and enhances many spices. desserts. such as Spanish. or granada in Spanish. Pomegranate juice. it was eaten to help resist infection. anar in Farsi. papaya is added with habaneros. Iranian. Seasonings. In the Caribbean. called du du xanh. fruity taste to meats and vegetables. A variety of green papaya. The sour and bitter . or ground and used as a garnish and souring agent in chutneys. In Mexico. They are large beige to red skinned fruits with numerous pulpy seeds that have a sweet-sour taste. and the red color of pomegranate seeds gives visual appeal and provides a bittersweet flavor to the product. chutneys. They are used as marinades and in sauces and desserts. brown sugar. The juice of the unripe fruit is used as a meat tenderizer in many Southeast Asian regions. ground mustard. Traditionally. Orange Oranges are native to India but spread to China and were brought to the Mediterranean by the Arabs. crushed. mint. Sweet oranges. have a firm. hummus. pomegranate seed juice is used to marinate meats and is added to desserts. and other Middle Eastern regions. Second Edition Green mango is also eaten with fermented fish paste or is mixed with salads in the Philippines and Bali. cardamom. and Singapore. and vinegar to create a hot fruity sauce. melogranate in Italian. and curries. it is added to curries and chutneys. onions. and baked products. nutmeg. its seeds. paratha stuffing. blood or navel types. Papaya Papaya or pawpaw is a juicy. mustard. They are commonly used in the vegetarian cooking of Gujerat. and curries. and help prevent hardening of the arteries. There are many types of oranges commonly used to flavor savory foods—naranga China (sweet). They give a sweet. It is these seeds that are used in culinary applications. and fiber. Indonesia.

5% essential oils. The rind and peels are used in Chinese. stir-fries. and meat dishes. and desserts. or narangia agria. beverages. bitter glycosides. and sour Szechwan dishes of China. The highly scented flowers of oranges are extracted for their essential oil. limette (German). Lemons are rich in essential oils (6%) that are mainly composed of limonene (90%) and citral (5%). and Mediterranean cuisines. mustard. It pairs well with star anise. also called limau kesturi. stews. and is a popular flavoring in Latin American marinades. limau nipis (Malaysian). Limes are green to greenish yellow with thin. The orange peel or rind is strongly aromatic with a bittersweet taste. and manao (Thai). lemon peel is ground and used to flavor rice. limau (Malaysian). grated. sambals. It adds a fruity. limun (Farsi). Lemon and Lime Lemon is derived from the Persian word limun. jeruk Cina. it is added to bouquet garni. fresh or dried. cakes. and they have similar names. and stews. ning meng (Chinese). ginger. Lime and lemon are fundamental ingredients in Southeast Asian cooking. is a less acidic and more fragrant small lime that is used in noodles. fennel. Its peel is aromatic and bitter and is also used as a flavoring for fish soups. called som na (in Thai). is an important flavoring in many European and Asian cuisines. Mandarins and tangerines are loose-skinned oranges that have less acidity than the sweet orange. lower LDL. Dried orange peel is a common ingredient in many Chinese-based sauces for chicken and beef that require long simmering or stir-frying. depending on their origins. couscous. The rind of yuzu orange is an essential ingredient in the Japanese spice mixture shichimi togarashi. Lime juice and lemon juice have long been used to flavor many cuisines. soy sauce. and flavanoids. Southeast Asian. Oranges are high in vitamin C. Bergamot orange is a variety of bitter orange. and salads. It has about 2. In many regions. or Arabic word lemun. lime has a sour and slightly bitter juice and. citral. and prevent colds. Typically. and desserts and as marinades in Southeast Asian and Japanese cooking. In India and Iran. and rutin. ceviches.Emerging Flavor Contributors 205 types of oranges are commonly used to flavor meats. Yuzu orange. seafood. Southeast Asian. are used for marmalades. Kalamansi. fish. citron (French). adobos in the Dominican Republic. cidra (in Spanish). Mojos in Cuba. brown sugar. lai meng (Chinese). zitrone (German). tight skins and are generally smaller than lemons. and recados in Yucatan contain this sour. Lime is called limon agria (Spanish). . potassium. Kumquats are tiny orangelike fruits but are not related to oranges. and rosemary. lemun (Arabic). ceviches in Ecuador. They are used in traditional medicine to protect against cancer. sweet. called neroli oil. or ponzu. Orange peel. and manao leung (Thai). In France. beta-carotene. soups. lime is often confused with lemon. Lemon is the principal souring agent in the United States and in Europe. whether sliced. and Mediterranean cooking and also as a flavoring in many European liqueurs. with some glycosides and coumarin. mainly limonene. or ground. can have a lemony flavor. Seville oranges. and condiments of Asia and the Mediterranean. bitter orange juice. Lemon is called limon (Spanish). and turung (in Arabic) is commonly used in Japanese. elimicham (Tamil). bitter flavor to the many hot.

and that decreases during ripening. depending on the variety) is from the mesocarp. One of the oldest known fruits. Brine is used for the green (unripe) olive. biscuits. pale green astringent belimbing wuluh (relative of star fruit) is an acidic fruit that provides tang to the fish dishes. They are tiny. The juice of the sour kalamansi (called jeruk Cina in Indonesia) is used to marinate fish and meats of these regions. zeytin (Turkish). and vinegar. Romans. Pickled olives are black or green depending on whether they were picked ripe or unripe. breads. The oil (25% to 55%. Olive is a fleshy fruit (a drupe). and desserts. Raw olives are very bitter but lose their bitterness and develop an aroma after several months of curing. made from salted plums. either ground or whole. hard. and there are many types that vary in size. become purple before they are fully ripened. The soft seeds of the Mahlab cherry (a black cherry). and Thailand. It has a banana. kalamata from Greece. Indonesia. and green when they begin to ripen. they were valued by the Egyptians. oil content. color. It aids digestion of a meal. A popular flavoring in the Philippines. Spain. aceituna (Spanish). sambals. In Greece. Olives contain a glycoside. and stews. zaytun (Arabic). which also removes the bitterness. chilies. Italy. Jackfruit or nangka (Indonesian and Malaysian) is used green or unripe to flavor stews. . provide a delicate aroma and bitterness to Turkish and Middle Eastern sweets. Indonesia. Each type goes through different curing methods after a lye or water wash. or saidun (Tamil). The oil mainly contains oleic acid. and other regions of southern Europe and western Asia. or extracted as olive oil. liguaria from Italy. who decorated Olympic winners with olive branches. and Greeks. Other Tropical Fruits Salty pickled sour plum (umeboshi) gives a fruity aroma to plain glutinous rice which is taken for breakfast in Japan. The small. and Singapore. Olives are picked at various stages of maturity.and cantaloupe-like flavor. or curries. northern Africa. while salt is used for the fully ripe olive. Second Edition Kaffir lime does not have juice. and flavor. Green olives are picked and treated with lye solution before pickling. and Flavorings. fermented. and nicoise from France. but its peel and leaves add zest to the curries and sauces of Malaysia. is a popular dip that is added to many Cantonese poultry and pork dishes. it is pickled. stews. Olives are sold whole and pickled (in brine). or added to soups. a phenol that causes the bitterness in the unripe fruit. the fully ripened or black olives develop a strong flavor when they are treated with salt. Examples include sevillano from California.206 Handbook of Spices. and are plump and black when fully ripened. Leafy spices are added to pickled olives to enhance their flavor and create new flavors. crushed as a paste. soups. Plum sauce. and sambals of Malaysia. which removes the bitterness. and condiments. olives are indigenous to Greece. Seasonings. It also adds aromatic citrus notes to noodles. Olives Called oliva (Italian). manzanillos from Spain. laksas. called oleuropein.

and spices in tagines. especially in Kerala. In Kerala. tart. Olives are an essential flavoring in Mediterranean cuisines. It is believed to relieve skin allergies and sunstroke. cooking. and pasta or is used as a dip for breads and salads. These different types of oils are used for specific applications and are often added at the end of cooking to add flavor. with some eicosenoic acid and palmitoleic acid. sour. which is bitter. potatoes. is a popular flavoring in India. chicken. Kokum/Kodampoli Kokum fruit. and palmitic acid. It is available as a whole fruit. Gujerat. Olive oil is used for frying. The skin of the fruit. and spreads. It goes well with garlic. the pits are removed. and prayers. Coconut Coconut’s scientific name is Cocos nucifera. and Brahma. Garcinia globulosa (or called asam kandis in Indonesia) is a small. Olives are commonly served as tapas or mezzes accompanied by cheese. or tomatoes. oregano. or almonds. nuts. aioli. The green coloring of the olive is due to chlorophyll. zhoug. breads. It adds flavor to hummus. depending upon its stages of extraction or pressing of the oil. olives are chopped and combined with ground meat and spices for sweet. They are even eaten as a snack. especially in Sumatra. It is . anchovies. In Mexico. tomato. many leafy spices (basil. vegetables. olives are cooked with lemons. and green chile peppers. especially green olives that are used in cold (or uncooked) dishes such as salads and in sauces. sesame paste. coconut-based curries. dried rind or skin. beans. It has a fruity. rosemary. In Morocco and Tunisia. black olives are an essential ingredient of tapenade. Its sourness is due to malic and tartaric acids. Olives add slightly sharp. and its creamy firm kernel (meat) is eaten as a blessing. breads. and the green olives are stuffed with sweet red pepper. It is broken as an offering to the Gods. and kokum is used to provide the sourness to fish. scientific name Garcinia indica.” it is a holy fruit for the Hindus and is used in Hindu religious ceremonies. It is generally discarded before the dish is served. and slightly salty taste. savory picadillos. and Maharashtra regions. tarragon and parsley). thin-skinned fruit that is used as a substitute for tamarind in Indonesia. In the Veracruz region. thyme. It has a pinkish purple or deep purple skin that is sticky to the touch when ripe. and as a flavoring. it is known as kodampoli or referred to as “fish tamarind” and is used for many fish dishes instead of the tamarind.Emerging Flavor Contributors 207 linoleic acid. Vishnu. or as a paste. weddings. In Spain. is dried into a hard black piece that is used in many of the local dishes. and bitter notes to salt cod. Kerala is noted for its hot and sour flavors. and eggplant. Hindus believe that the three eyes on the coconut represent the Hindu trinity of Lord Shiva. slightly smoky. Called “shripal” in Sanskrit or “fruit of the Gods. France. and many chutneys. capers. chicken. and capers. a spread with garlic. Olive oil comes as heavy and fruity or light with a delicate perfumed note. Black olives are used in many cooked dishes of Italy as pizza toppings and in tomato sauces. anchovies. In Provence. they give a sour note to the popular red snapper dish.

dried.” which are made from rice flour. as well as rounds off flavors. asafetida. vanilla. Coconut pairs well with fish sauce. Coconut cream is a must in many dishes of Kerala. toasted. They are also popular in desserts and cakes such as wajik. fermented breads called “hoppers. tomato. The copra can be sold desiccated. and nutty and is a popular flavoring in South India. a popular local vegetable dish. chocolate. Coconut juice is extracted with water from the grated coconut or endosperm and is called coconut milk or santan in Indonesia and Malaysia. capric and palmitic acids. myristic (15% to 20%). milky white. basil. yellow. with small amounts of oleic acid. while the toasted coconut flavor is due to maltole and cyclotene. coconut milk. and dadar (pancakes with a sweet coconut filling). nariel (Hindi). nalikeram (Malayalam). medium. coconut milk and grated coconut are essential flavorings in rendang (which is beef simmered in coconut milk). thenga (Tamil). Southeast Asia. Avial. breads. turmeric. Palm Sugar Palm sugar is made from the sugary sap of the sugar palms of Southeast Asia and India and the flowers of the coconut palm. dodol. turmeric. polgaha (Singhalese). It is an essential ingredient in the local curries. In Indonesia and Malaysia. toasted lentils. potatoes. and Flavorings. soups. and sweets. galangal. and the Caribbean. or as an extract (concentrated form) and contains 60% to 70% oil. and South Indian cooking. gula . sauces. coconut milk is used with toasted spices to mellow and give body to hot curries. In Sri Lanka. kari leaf. the endosperm or meat is grated and used fresh or dried (called kopra or copra) to thicken sauces and to provide texture or flavor foods. contains toasted. especially gamma-deca lactone. or maprow (Thai). Mussaman or Panang. eggplant. lemongrass. The dried coconut is sold as desiccated and comes in three grades—fine. caprylic. fruits. and yeast and are served for breakfast. Palm sugar (called gula melaka. or as a paste concentrate that can be reconstituted. pandanus. Coconut flavoring as coconut milk is indigenous to Southeast Asian. desiccated coconut and dried chilies. Coconut provides many flavorings—milk. stews. and vegetables. including red.208 Handbook of Spices. creamed (canned sweetened or unsweetened). The coconutty flavor is due to delta-lactones. vinegar. Coconut oil is the most popular frying medium in South India. Sri Lankan.” The inner fleshy pulp (endosperm) is scooped and eaten fresh when the coconut is green or unripe. Seasonings. marinades. Second Edition also called kelapa (Malay). curries. mainly lauric (40% to 55%). and other spices. coconut milk is an essential ingredient in curries. water. and coarse. Coconut milk is also used in the steamed. It is sweet. coco fruto (Spanish). and gula melaka. belacan. glutinous rice. kokos (German). The dessicated coconut gives texture and visual appeal to many dishes and steamed breads. Caribbean. When the coconut becomes ripe. coco (French). green. In Thailand. Coconut milk is available canned. The sweet flavor of coconut milk tones down intense heat. especially in the local fish curries. and a fermented beverage called “toddy” or “arrak. black rice pudding.

especially C and A. The darker types are stronger in flavor. Thai sweet dumplings called kanom tom daeng are served with a sauce of palm sugar. and glutinous rice). or gula jawa) flavors the sweet and savory dishes of Thailand. pumpkin. vitamin C. Cauliflower has high levels of iron. and pandan leaf. and caramelized sugar. cabbages (green savoy. red. To use these hard sugars. and chlorophyll and is an especially good source of lutein. pantothenic acid. and has an aromatic flavor and caramel-like taste. eggplant is high in bioflavanoids. with consumer’s interest in a healthy lifestyle. It is sold as golden to light brown compressed cylindrical packs or thick pastes. Many vegetables contain volatile oils that give sauces and beverages pungent aromas and savory sweet or bitter tastes. and folic acid. pantothenic acid. certain cultures survived only on vegetarian meals. Gula melaka is also the name of a Malaysian dessert that contains palm sugar. Jaggery is light brown to dark brown. used commonly in Indian desserts. VEGETABLE FLAVORINGS In the West. They are a good source of fiber. . The cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli. such as sauteing. minerals. or currying. especially Asian types. they must be grated. monoterpenes. thiols. Asian preparation techniques. baking. plantains have high folic acid. and pandan leaf essence) and in Malay desserts (with jackfruit. It is used commonly in desserts and puddings in Thailand (with water chestnuts. steaming. In many regions around the world. they contain many minerals and vitamins. such as India or Southeast Asia. banana. collard greens. Chinese cabbage or bok choy). Since palm sugars are unrefined sugars. boron. comes from another palm called palmyrah. and Indonesia. vegetables traditionally have been boiled or served raw and have been eaten mostly because of their nutritive value. and indoles and sulfur compounds that have antimicrobial activity. and bananas). vitamins. It has a caramel. These cultures learned to season vegetables to give them great flavors. Spinach contains iron. thiols and indoles. vitamin A. kohlrabi. The Mexican piloncillo or panela are sold as large. or stews. pearl sago. Today. and pumpkin has folic acid. Carrots contain a high level of carotenoids and antioxidants. and cauliflower are high in vitamins. compressed cakes and small or large cones. Mushrooms. mustard greens. Bitter melon has polypeptide P (an insulin-like compound that can replace insulin).Emerging Flavor Contributors 209 merah. thiols. or softened in water. braising. coconut milk. vitamin A. the latter method being the best. indoles. have created many unique flavors and textures in vegetable dishes. kale. and vitamin C. Malaysia. and antioxidants. are rich in zinc. and potassium. Singapore. coconut milk. and sulfur compounds. coconut milk. Broccoli contains high levels of calcium. chopped with a knife. vegetable extracts and purees can be substituted for meat and chicken stocks or pastes for flavoring soups. carotenoids. in Nonya cooking (with adjuki beans. maple-sugarlike flavor. sauces. has less sweetness than cane sugar. nam taan peep. Jaggery. either for economic or religious reasons. grilling. flat.

Southeast Asia United States. and Mexicans add them to their salsas to give sweet notes. The Chinese add them to characterize their sweet and sour sauces. Tomato Tomatoes are a global flavoring. Asia Asian. Canned tomatoes primarily have dimethyl sulfide. Tomatilla or Mexican green tomato is not a true tomato but comes from the cherry family. curries. Seasonings. Europe. Tomatoes are high in lycopene. their sensory qualities. color Meaty. Southeast Asia . and eugenol. Asia. as it grows. Second Edition IN VEGETABLES ETHNIC CUISINES Table 24 lists various vegetables. as paste. acidity. Southeast Asians add tomatoes to most dishes to add a sweet acidic flavor or to balance the pungent fiery notes of sambals whose main ingredients are chile peppers and fermented shrimp. sambals. United States United States. Mediterranean Southern United States. and their ethnic preferences. and color to many ethnic foods. or sweet and sour sauces. Specific Vegetables as Ingredients Some vegetables that add significant flavorings are described in detail below. South America. It has a sweet-sour taste. pasta sauces. Global East and Southeast Asia. chutneys. Latin America United States. such as salsas. texture Texture Ethnic Preference Mediterranean. color Color Color Color. Southeast Asians add ketchup as a source of tomato flavoring in their sweet-sour sauces. or whole. Latin America. betaionone. pizzas. sweet Bitter Color Texture. Indians add tomatoes to chutneys and curries to balance the spiciness. They provide sweetness. Sometimes. United States Caribbean. Latin America Caribbean. Asia. Mediterranean Mediterranean. with a fresh haylike aroma. Tomatoes are eaten raw or cooked and are used chopped. 3-hexenol. pureed. United States India. and Flavorings. and curries. texture Mealy texture Texture. Africa Asia. 3-methylbutanal. the calyx also grows and becomes a brownish and TABLE 24 Global Vegetables and Their Flavoring Properties Vegetable Beet Bitter melon/karela Broccoli Cabbage Carrot Collard greens Eggplant Plantain Pumpkin Spinach Tomato Shiitake mushroom Chayote/cho cho/christophene Flavoring Quality Color. Asia. sambals.210 Handbook of Spices. A calyx surrounds the tomatilla and. The volatile oils in raw tomato include 3-hexenal. juiced. color Color Acid. Mediterranean Caribbean.

soups. They are popular grilled or roasted. are a variety of button mushrooms that has a richer flavor and a firmer texture. Cremini mushrooms. it is popular in Southwestern dishes. which has a meaty flavor and is used in East Asian dishes. and smokier flavor. or curries. Central American. due to their resemblance to pigs. called the black diamonds. are the king of wild mushrooms. each with its own unique flavor. wood ears. gives a firm chewy texture. and they are eaten raw or slightly sauteed to intensify their flavor. or brown color. Shiitake. The dried types have a stronger. In the United States. have an apricot-like aroma. is used in Mexican. Cloud ears. Mushrooms Mushrooms are great flavorings for many foods. and cepe in French). are good for stuffing. Chanterelles (from Europe). They have thick. The French began cultivating mushrooms in the seventeenth century and called them mousseron. which are tan to dark brown. or tree ears. There are many Asian mushrooms that provide great textures to soups and stirfries of East Asia. they were eaten as a tonic for longevity. which are usually dried. earthy. Truffles. the Egyptians only served mushrooms to the pharaohs. They are popular in Europe. soups. Tomatilla is green to pale yellow in color and is eaten when unripe. There are many varieties. deep brown caps. In ancient times. which has a chewy texture and subtle flavor that it loses when overcooked. while the more intense flavored flat mushrooms are used in sauces. They are popular in Chinese and Korean cuisine. black mushrooms. It has a slightly smoky and meaty flavor. They have a white.” Mushrooms come wild or cultivated. especially to provide meaty. Portobellos or brown mushrooms are bigger than the creminis and have more intense and steaklike flavor. also called wood fungus. Enokis. which have stronger flavors. or sponge mushrooms. bright yellow. The cultivated wild mushrooms include shiitake. and today. which is also called the Chinese or Oriental black mushroom. also called girolle. Mushrooms are fungi and come fresh or dried in many varieties. and when cooked. and the oyster mushroom. are creamy white and . It was a staple flavoring in Mayan and Aztec cooking. flat. and the Romans and Greeks saw them as food fit for their Gods. which have very little flavor when raw. is dark brown to almost black. or red. France) or the white truffle (in North Italy). Cup mushrooms. are a “poor man’s truffle. earthier. are conical shaped and spongy looking. especially in French cuisine.Emerging Flavor Contributors 211 papery form that encloses the tomatilla. These dried types are dark brown to reddish brown in color and have a rich. tan. Each mushroom has its own type of flavor. Other types include the boletus (called porcini in Italian. Truffles are said to have the best flavor. such as the black truffle (in Perigord. and a nutty taste that mellows with long cooking times. In Asia. The common cultivated field mushrooms are the button mushrooms. They provide texture to salads.” They are orange. and meaty flavor. are shriveled and greyish brown with an earthy flavor. and South American green salsas (or salsa verdes). with an umbrella shape. Morels. or stews. but which develop a rich nutty and earthy flavor when cooked. earthy profiles to vegetarian cooking. also called golden mushrooms. which means “growing on moist moss.

garlic. cumin. and tomato. sliced. Chinese dried mushrooms. Certain mushrooms can take on the flavor of the food with which they are cooked. turmeric. coriander. Mushroom extract is from the dried mushroom and is a dark brown viscous paste with a rich meaty flavor. Dried mushrooms have no sugars but are high in folic acid. Dried shiitake. when fresh (or uncooked) and when they are cooked or dried. It is bluish gray and has a smoky. Fresh mushrooms contain about 7% sugar. ginger. Seasonings. more in-depth notes. is eaten as a delicacy in Mexico. Second Edition have a mild flavor with a crisp texture (sold as enokitaki which are clusters of creamcolored stalks with tiny caps). Cooking releases the true flavors of mushrooms. are fan shaped and cream colored. potassium. The earthy and meatlike flavor of mushrooms enhances the flavor of soups. meaty flavor. Oyster mushrooms. Sauteing and long cooking bring out the flavors of most mushrooms. or corn smut that grows on corn kernels. and sauces. 3-octanone. 2-octenol. olives. noodles. They . couscous. rice products. Mushroom extracts are added to soy sauce. The mushrooms can be coarsely blended or ground to powder and added with other ingredients to vegetable dishes to give meatier. Mushrooms have two distinct flavors. and epazote. strained. chocolate. Mushrooms can be used whole. and shallots and added to risottos. or used as toppings for seafoods and steaks. Dried morels enhance cream sauces. or butter. paddy straw (used in Chinese stir-fries). and black pepper.4% fats. They can enhance fermented soy blends and are used to coat fish and vegetables to give a meaty brown color. eggs. and salads. garlic. potatoes. with a delicate flavor and chewy texture. and stews to provide brothy beeflike notes. and white matsutake (also called Japanese oysters mushrooms) that are marinated.212 Handbook of Spices. 88% water. 0. and Flavorings. and are popular cooking methods used in Chinese and Japanese cuisines. chopped. Huitlacoche. julienned. vanilla. cilantro. eggplant. or slowly braised or sauteed with leafy spices. sauces. Most dried mushrooms have more intense flavors than fresh mushrooms. Other Asian mushrooms include nameko (with reddish brown cap and a slippery texture). They can enhance mayonnaise. and sushis. rice. caramelized onions. The flavor of mushrooms is due to glutamic acid (which is the major component of MSG). stuffed. Fresh shiitake has not much of an aroma. stews. but the dried shiitake has a smoky. also called maiitake. Dried mushrooms are soaked in boiling water for twenty minutes. It enhances meats and corn-based foods. They are available fresh or dried. It pairs well with chile peppers. chewy texture for soups and stir-fries. The strained water is sometimes added to soups and stews or in marinades. chile pastes. marinated. lenthionine. vegetables. sulfury aroma due to 1-octane-3-ol. salad dressings. Dried boletus goes well with pasta sauce or risottos. polenta. reishi (in Japanese soups). shimeji (aromatic and meaty). 3% to 5% protein. have a mild flavor but when reconstituted add a glutinous. and some volatile compounds. or pureed. They are popular in Japanese soups. Unsaturated alcohols are found in fresh mushrooms. and then used. Porcinis taste great when grilled. has a tough and fibrous texture when reconstituted. such as cloud ears. soups. and phosphorus. a popular ingredient in Chinese and Japanese dishes. poultry. Mushroom pairs well with meats. and octanol.

granos. soups. soups. texture. Caribbean. Certain legumes are very flavorful and can add variety to a meal. and peanuts. noodles. and North American cooking. Other types are economical because they are nonassertive in flavor and can “stretch” a meal. noodles Grilled or smoked meats. cannellini). and include frijoles. soups. lentils. They are now a staple in . Korean. meat. Asian mushrooms have been used traditionally to thin blood. masoor dal. quesadilla fillings. or used whole. peas. or vegetables as main dishes. soups. Mediterranean. Beans originated in the New World. or crepes. pigeon peas. and stimulate the immune system. were brought here by the West Africans. depending on the culture or region. with scrambled eggs Soups.or meat-based roux. Southeast Asia France Mexico France Culinary Uses Omelet fillings. LEGUMES IN ETHNIC CUISINES Beans are known by different names. and leafy spices to create intense spreads or pestos (Table 25). Legumes can provide different textures and mouthfeel properties depending on cooking techniques. as spreads Spreads. therefore. or dals. There are many types of beans or lentils that vary in flavor. sauces. stir-fries Stir-fries.Emerging Flavor Contributors 213 TABLE 25 Global Mushrooms and Their Culinary Uses Mushroom Chanterelles Button Shiitake Enoki Cloud ears Truffles Huitlacoche Morels Ethnic Preference Europe United States and Europe China and Japan Japan China. red kidney beans. soups Stuffing. nuts. such as black beans. They can give background notes to a sauce and. Latin American. red or pink beans. and shape. and Southeast Asian sauces. They are combined with rice. color. Korea. soybeans. mousse. Legumes are popular in vegetarian cooking as a source of protein. are the edible seeds and pods of certain plants. Black-eyed peas. called cowpeas in the United States. white kidney. toppings for pasta. and today they are a staple item in Asian. kacang. soups. stews. pois. or ground into flour for snacks. lower cholesterol. and stir-fries. pureed. also called pulses. navy. desserts. and gandules in the Caribbean. Japanese. habichuelas. Soybeans are made into fermented pastes and sauces that are commonly used as seasonings in Chinese. or chickpeas. black. White beans (lima. size. LEGUME FLAVORINGS Legumes. replace chicken. and blackeyed peas are commonly consumed legumes in the United States. sauces Soups and salads Stir-fries. sauteed in butter can be blended with olive oil. including beans. pintos. condiments.

214 Handbook of Spices. organic acids. Once they are hulled (skin removed) and split. are the more commonly used pastes. or salads. are favorites of North India. They have varying flavor profiles and colors depending on other added ingredients and the method of preparation. Soy sauce originated in China over 2500 years ago. The fermented or brewed soy sauce that is commonly used in Asian regions has a characteristic umami (brothy or MSG-like) taste. and dou bain jiang) and soy sauce (called jiangyou. urad. yellow. Many foods and appetizers use misos to enhance their tastes. hot. but take longer to cook and are harder to digest. and kala channa. lentejas. or taoyu) made from soybeans are essential flavorings for condiments and many dishes in East Asia and Southeast Asia. The unhulled lentils look attractive. miso made from soybeans and barley is dark brown and semisweet. or peas. and the more pungent black. . Fermented soybeans paste (misos. or brown colors. toenjang. bitter la ba jiangs for seafood. Specific Legumes as Ingredients Soybean The soybean. and chutneys (Table 26). mung. fermented soybean paste or toenjang is flavored with garlic to perk-up many dishes including wrapped rice and as dipping sauce for meats. lentils. soups. salty. pork. salty. The yellow or brown. alcohols. sweeter and less bitter tian mian jiangs used in stir-fried vegetables of northern China. masoor. and toovar dals are commonly used in Indian vegetarian curries. and sauces. The urad and toovar dals are toasted (dry roasted) and combined with spices to create spice mixtures that enhance many sauces. sharp. and Caribbean cooking. Seasonings. Misos are used abundantly in Japan to flavor soups. esters. and Flavorings. tan or tow jiew. the smaller and darker variety of chickpeas. while miso made from soybeans and rice is light yellow and sweet. soups. pink. The split chana. namsiew. is ubiquitously used in Asian cooking. or dals. or sweet depending on the added ingredients and how they are prepared. In Korea. Texture and consistency differ among lentils. seasonings. the split version of kabuli channa. The word dal is used for beans. such as shumai (or steamed Japanese dumplings) that are dipped into a miso-based sauce. and salt and are thin. Second Edition Creole. thick. they become easier to cook and digest. kecap. These fermented pastes are smooth or chunky. These forms are popular in India. Channa dal. referred to as one of the “grains” in China. Different misos are used for different applications. Its unique flavor is due to over 300 chemicals that it contains— amino acids. They come in white. stir-fries. East Asians have developed their own unique processes for fermenting soybeans to achieve varying flavoring end products. They have meatier and sweeter tastes than the yellow split pea and are used as braised vegetables or in dal soups. Southern regional. and beef dishes in Shanghai style as well as Southeast Asian dishes. Lentils are aromatic and delicate in taste when cooked. and desserts. sugars. Lentils. taucheong. are the most commonly eaten legumes in India. Sometimes the same split dal has a different name from the whole dal. shoyu. They are also pureed or processed into flour for snacks. Chickpeas or garbanzos are widely used in Mediterranean and Indian cuisines. Miso made from only soybeans is dark red with a salty taste. Dals are generally available hulled and split and come with different names and colors.

and help alleviate menopausal symptoms. North India. It is used to flavor vegetarian foods that do not use garlic or shallots. Korea. slow calcium loss from bones. rice wine. Nutritionally. Italy. Northeast United States India. Mediterranean South India. ginger. France. Mediterranean India. Brazil South. Southeast Asia. Singapore India. South Mexico. Mediterranean Southern United States. calcium. is ground for desserts and fillings for buns and pastries. Southeast Asia sweet. vegetables. Malaysia. Adjuki bean. Spain. walnuts. hazelnuts. Southeast Asia. North Africa. Mediterranean Middle East. South and Southwest United States. or glutinous rice. Southeast Asia India. garlicky or hot. Southern United States. cashew nuts. Japan Japan. They are also a good source of folic acid and minerals such as iron. Caribbean Northern Mexico.Emerging Flavor Contributors 215 TABLE 26 Legumes and Their Ethnic Preferences Legumes Beans Soybeans Adjuki beans Black beans Red beans Pinto beans Red kidney beans/rajma dal Lima beans Flageolets Lentils Chana/Bengal gram/yellow split pea Masoor/red/pink (whole or split) Urad/black gram (whole or split) Toor/toovar/translucent yellow dal/arhar Mung bean/green gram/Pale yellow when split Peas Chickpeas/garbanzo/kabuli channa Pigeon peas/gandules Black-eyed peas/chowla dal (split) Yellow. Southeast Asia Cuba. SE Asia. lower serum cholesterol. NUT FLAVORINGS Nuts are seeds or fruits that consist of kernels and are surrounded by shells. macadamia nuts. Peru. brown split peas Kala channa (whole dark brown) Ethnic Preference China. Caribbean Mediterranean. chestnuts. depending on local preferences and applications. Examples include almonds. green. United States. pistachios. Europe Creole. butternuts.S. India. Asia North India. and phosphorus. which has a sweet taste. Brazil Mediterranean. soybeans are a good source of protein and fiber and have little or no fat. North India. China. Northeast and Southwest United States South. They contain isoflavones that help prevent breast and colon cancer. and shiitake mushrooms and is added to pork. it is seasoned with star anise. Puerto Rico. Egypt. Southwest United States Caribbean. Northeast and Western United States. West Africa. U. North India. Caribbean United States. . Southeast Asia. In China and Southeast Asia. Venezuela. Brazil nuts (also called cream nuts. candlenuts.. Korea. or Para nuts).

chicken stuffings.) Nuts have been used since ancient times as food and as an oil.216 Handbook of Spices. or steamed to provide toasted flavors to soups. and can be used in desserts or as a crunchy garnish. Nuts can be roasted. and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). cardamom. chopped. calcium. They can be added during cooking. Second Edition kola nuts (or cola nuts). Asian Indians used cashews. NUTS IN ETHNIC CUISINES Nuts. Pistachios are indigenous to the Middle East. Ginkgo nuts have a high amount of flavonoids and traditionally have been used to help prevent memory loss and improve blood circulation. and almonds are used. such as chestnuts or cashews. poppy seeds. chia seeds. lotus. like pine nuts. and pili nuts (Java almonds). Peanuts and Brazil nuts are not true nuts. The kola nut is indigenous to West Africa and is used to provide the “cola” type of flavoring to many carbonated soft drinks. Seasonings. They have a bright green color and are used in a dessert called locoum . pecans. rice. but they are included here because they function as nuts in foods. peanuts (that are legumes). niacin. and visual appeal. Nuts are an excellent source of arginine. or curried. boiled. they are mostly used in baked goods. curries. seeds are classified with nuts and vice versa. In many other cultures. They are high in fat. In European regions. steamed. They go well with chocolate. lotus seeds. stir-fried. flavor. jackfruit nuts. and sesame seeds. peanuts. nuts are used as flavor and texture contributors for sauces and curries. such as almonds. hazelnuts. and omega-3 fatty acid. magnesium. toward the end of cooking. cinnamon. Sometimes. Nuts provide consistency. and pastries. Nuts can be boiled. lotus. and citrus. sliced. Some possess sweet tastes. The fat is nearly all monounsaturated (with walnuts having polyunsaturated fats). lotus. or as a topping. slivered. or ground. They are used in rice dishes. in which nuts such as pistachios. Popular seeds include pine nuts (pignolias/pinons). flaxseeds. walnuts and pistachios. or for cakes. and South American Indians favored Brazil nuts. phosphorus. stews. caramelized onions. and pectin. and Brazil nuts are ground coarse or fine to provide a creamy texture and a rich flavor to sauces. Some can be eaten raw. or pumpkin seeds. snacks. and Turks used nuts to thicken sauces and to garnish many of their dishes. zinc. Roasting brings out their full flavor. sunflower seeds. stews. coconuts (a drupe). tumised. The Arabs. Pumpkin seed has high magnesium. are an essential ingredient in Middle Eastern cuisines. chilies. They are good sources of protein. folic acid. ginkgo nuts (ya-chio). macadamia nuts. curries. and Flavorings. the Aztecs used peanuts and pecans. Almond is a good source of omega-3 fatty acid and linolenic acid (60%). saffron. and confectionaries for textural effects. watermelon seeds. Sunflower is high in vitamin D and B complex vitamins. vitamin E. generally 50% to 70%. Seeds are also used as flavorings in foods. Nuts can be used whole. jackfruit nuts. coconut. raisins. roasted. Nuts and seeds have many health benefits. The Romans used almonds. Walnuts are commonly used in Turkish tarator and baklava. sunflower. (Nuts and seeds are included together here because they have similar applications and functions. pumpkin seeds. Candlenuts. and many vegetarian dishes. Persians. flaked. Nuts can even be used in beverages. ice cream.

and pine nuts are toasted or fried and then finely ground to thicken and provide flavor to sauces and moles. They were the original ingredient (along with coca leaf extract from Peru) in the Coca-Cola® beverage and are still used as a flavoring in many cola-type beverages. In North India. Roasted peanuts (a legume by classification) provide the dominant flavor in Southeast Asian sauces. cakes. pestos. In the United States. Their taste is slightly bitter and sweet. In Europe. Pipian is also mixed with smoked pasilla. Walnuts are ground and used in pestos of Italy and Provence. indigenous to the southern United States. grassy. salad dressings. Pipian. pies. Pine nuts. stuffings. Walnuts go well with fruits. chipotles. as thickeners for soups and stews. nuts and seeds are added to give texture to burgers. cheeselike flavor and are grilled or boiled by the Chinese and Japanese. are used as a stimulant in West Africa. thus. They are also used to thicken curries. and grilled meats. and in desserts. liqueurs. desserts. stir-fried noodles. and in Middle Eastern minced meat stuffings and fruit dishes. and pralines.Emerging Flavor Contributors 217 (known as Turkish Delight). or also called Indian nuts. and pistachios are commonly used in biryanis. containing ground pumpkin seeds. almonds. They have a high level of caffeine and tannins. . pumpkin seeds. Hazelnuts are roasted and used in romesco sauce of Spain and the meat dishes and confectionaries of the Middle East. are used in stuffings. They are used in a variety of Italian dishes. In Mexican cooking. hazelnuts. cashews. They were traditionally chewed by West Africans to relieve fatigue. also called pignoli in Italian. sausages. almonds. their properties. stews. and. such as satay sauce. They are used to provide flavor and consistency to sauces. Cashews and peanuts are used in Szechwan and Southeast Asian stir-fries and sauces with chile peppers. Specific Nuts as Ingredients Some of the more important nuts and seeds are examined in detail below. vegetarian dishes. Nuts are also ground into flour and are sometimes added to make polenta or crepes. and spices. rolls. as garnishes. and ice cream. Kola nuts are ground and used as flavorings in beverages of West Africa (from which the cola-flavored beverages sprouted globally). Chestnuts are typically used in sweet dishes. cinnamon. and in the soups of southern Europe. and the region in which they are preferred. Almonds are also used in the famous moles of Oaxaca and in chocolate beverages. is a popular sauce in Oaxaca and other parts of Mexico. Mexico. sesame seeds. pastries. they are toasted and sprinkled over lamb patties. Table 27 lists some popular nuts and seeds. Called groundnuts in Africa. and pastries. confectionaries. they are also a staple ingredient in West African cuisines. desserts. cakes. pastries. cakes. puddings. Sweet almonds are used in butter. and grain-type breads. soups. In Lebanese cuisine. Ginkgo nuts have a mild. and ice creams. and laksas. and fillings and are an important ingredient in chile en nogada of Puebla. and curries. sugar. Pecans. are indigenous to the Mediterranean and the United States. and aniseed and added to corn dough and then steamed in hoja santa leaves to create tamales. and chestnuts are used in desserts.

which breaks down to benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid). Almonds are blanched and toasted before use. Bitter almond is distilled for essence that is used to flavor cookies. Second Edition TABLE 27 Global Nuts and Seeds and Their Flavoring Properties Nuts/Seeds Almond Walnut Macadamia Lotus Peanut Pecan Pinon Pumpkin Sunflower Watermelon Candlenut Kola nut Coconut Pistachio Ginkgo biloba Flavoring Quality Texture. mandorla (Italian). dulcis) and a bitter type (P. amygdalus). They are popular ingredients in Middle Eastern and North Indian cooking. almendra (Spanish). Bitter almond contains amygdalin. sweet Texture. linoleic (15%). and palmitic (5%). lawz (Arabic). amara). Africa. Asia West Africa. flavor Nutty. and marzipan. and over sauces and condiments in North India. Sweet almond is mostly used for desserts and confectionaries. Almonds have a bland fixed oil of 54% and 18% protein. United States United States. are fried in ghee for biryanis and pilafs.7% volatile oil. The oil of almond is colorless to pale yellow and consists mostly of benzaldehyde. sweet Texture Creamy. Japan. In the West. Southeast Asia. omega 3 fatty acids. var. Vietnam Southeast Asia. oil Nutty. China United States Italy. Brazil. a. while sweet almond has only small amounts of amygdalin. phosphorus. India. Italy. oil. Almonds have about 50% fat. var. Asia. texture. calcium. cakes. central and western Asia. niacin. The deoiled press cake of bitter almonds has 0. It is toasted until golden brown and sprinkled over chicken in Tunisia. Middle East Mediterranean South America. a sweet type (P. caffeine Creamy sweet Texture Nutty Ethnic Preference India. United States. China Southeast Asia West Africa. Almonds are a good source of tocopherol E. Caribbean Middle East.218 Handbook of Spices. folic acid. Mexico Asia. pulpy Texture. Bitter almond has about 3% to 5% amygdalin. texture Nutty. toasted Sweet. and Flavorings. and arginine. almonds are mixed with rose water and sugar in a confectionary called marzipan. Middle East China. There are two varieties. and the United States (California). Java India. Europe. buttery Flavor. almonds are now cultivated in Spain. and amande (French). which is the soft interior of a fruit from the Rosaceae family. Iran China. Europe. .5% to 0. Indigenous to North Africa. Korea Almonds The scientific name for almond is Prunus amygdalus (P. These are poisonous compounds that are removed through heat before it is used as an oil. They thicken curries. Seasonings. consistency Bitter. Almonds are also called badam (Hindi). and are mixed with saffron for kheer. mainly oleic acid (80%). a. flavor Creamy.

These popular ingredients provide characterizing creamy. Pumpkin Seeds/Pepian/Pepito Pumpkin seeds can be eaten raw or toasted and are excellent as snacks. desserts. SWEET AND BITTER FLAVORINGS IN ETHNIC CUISINES Next. Europe. as offerings to their Gods. vegetables. or aromatic flavor profiles to many ethnic dishes. salads. coffee. and stews. For example. Mexican. after extraction. and African cuisines often utilize the sweet. and white and have a delicate buttery taste and a soft texture. and they are used in pestos. chocolate. Romans. curries. vanilla. Candlenuts have a walnutlike flavor and are roasted. cacao and chocolate. Candlenuts Candlenuts are also called buah keras (or “hard fruits” in Malaysian or Indonesian) or Indian walnuts. and the sour tastes of Caribbean colombos. yogurt. Middle Eastern. and Middle Eastern foods. and vegetables. or chile peppers for sauces. creamy. They are oily fruits that are also used abundantly in Hawaii and other Pacific Islands. sauces. cacao. bitter. and ground with shallots. They are high in protein and potassium. on salads.Emerging Flavor Contributors 219 Pine Nuts/Pignoli Nuts Pine nuts are seeds from the pine tree species. They can be eaten raw or lightly roasted. Chinese. such as ghee (clarified butter). which. The bitter notes offered by chocolate and coffee provide a balance or background roasted notes to the spicy profiles of Mexican moles. and Navaho Indians used them for flavoring. While some of these ingredients are familiar to North Americans. and as garnishes in Mediterranean. The Greeks. their use has been substantially limited to beverages and sweet products. buttery flavors of vanilla and ghee. They contain a poisonous residue. In the United States. pasta. Indian. laksas. in breads as purees for sauces and cakes. They are finely ground and used to thicken and enrich curries. and coffee will be discussed. sauces. cracked open. and sambals of Southeast Asia. Pine nuts are small. They are named candlenuts because at one time they were threaded into the rib of a palm leaf and then burned as candles. garlic. and America for sauces. the sweet. They are pureed and commonly used in Mexican moles. Pumpkin oil (dark green) is used in India. pungent notes of Indonesian sambals. and tea. they are also called Indian nuts. thin. sweet. . or in magical potions. It contains omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. or used as a cooking oil. we can anticipate finding these ingredients as enhancing flavors of savory applications with much greater frequency. that are used around the world to flavor sweet and savory products and are used as beverages and cooking oils. of which there are many varieties. vanilla. As North American exposure to emerging ethnic cuisines grows. is inactivated at high heats and long cooking times. SWEET AND BITTER FLAVORINGS There are many other flavorings.

vanilje (Norwegian). banira (Japanese). French vanilla beans (from Reunion. also called Antilles vanilla or Guadeloupe vanilla. vanikkodo (Tamil). Vanilla comes as whole beans. long. German). Properties: the flesh of the cured vanilla bean has a perfumed. the next section discusses how various cultures use these preparation techniques to add flavor to foods. and waneela (Thai). such as tonka beans. Caribbean islands. baunilha (Portuguese). vanil (Hebrew). Powdered vanilla is obtained by mixing the ground beans with sugar or by extracting the flavor from the beans and then mixing with sugar. Urdu. roasting. Vanilla bean is a dark brown. and as extracts. vanilla (Hindi. tahitiensis: Tahiti vanilla. Their ruler Montezuma offered this drink to the Spanish invader Hernan Cortez who then introduced it to Europe. vanille (Dutch). Vanilla is sometimes adulterated with other ingredients. and Central America. Various grades of vanilla beans are blended to obtain vanilla for ice cream and other . paneli (Indonesian). pompono: West Indian variety.220 Handbook of Spices. These beans are called Bourbon vanilla because they were first grown on Isle de Bourbon. ground. V. Indonesia. vanille (French. dried fruit or seedpod of the creeping orchid. Seasonings. In addition to the flavoring ingredients. Vanilla flavor is extracted with alcohol. narrow. Tahiti. Comoro islands. is much cheaper but lacks the flavor of true vanilla. is bound as a glycoside and needs to be cleaved by enzymatic action. meaning “little pod. barbecuing. Origin and Varieties: vanilla is indigenous to southeast Mexico and is now cultivated in Madagascar. made from wood wastes or other beans. and Flavorings. which is now known as Reunion Island. vanilj (Swedish). which means “black flower. waneela (Malaysian). prepared by steeping the macerated beans in alcohol.) supply about 75% of the world’s demand for vanilla. vainilla (Spanish). It was called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. and V. tobacco-like aroma. Second Edition While not technically flavorings.” The Aztecs flavored their chocolatl (cocoa beans-corn-chile pepper-honey-annatto drink) with ground vanilla pods. Comoro Islands. vaniglia (Italian). and the northwest tip of Madagascar. Vanilla extract. rich flavor. Synthetic vanilla. Family: Orchidaceae. Vanilla is expensive because it is pollinated and harvested by hand. Synthetic vanilla is made from wood or pulp waste and lacks true vanilla flavor. which is responsible for its flavor. Reunion Island. Scientific Name(s): Vanilla planifolia (or V. has a delicate sweet aroma and a mellow aftertaste. Specific Other Flavoring as Ingredients Vanilla Vanilla is the second most expensive flavor after saffron. fragrans): French or Bourbon vanilla. Form: vanilla is the cured. and waxy wrinkled fruit. Vanilla is derived from the Spanish word vainilla. Fresh vanilla pods do not have any flavor because vanillin. Malayalam). Pure vanilla has a mellow. vanil’ (Russian). hsiang ts’ao (Mandarin).” It is derived from the fruit of the orchid vine. Common Names: vanila (Arabic). and other cooking and preparation techniques also add flavors to prepared foods.

When picked. gives vanillin and sugar. annatto. and 30% cellulose. 6% minerals. chile peppers. and phenols. butter. anisic acid. In West Africa. Vanilla is released through enzymatic reaction during the curing process to give aroma and taste. similar to Madagascan vanilla. sambal blend. or spices. Vanillin appears as a white crystalline covering on the surface of the beans. depending on the region. yogurts. Vanilla has about 25% sugars. cardamom. the green pods have no vanillin because the vanillin is bound to a sugar molecule. and drying) the beans. blanching for Bourbon vanilla or steaming for Mexican vanilla. Chocolate and Cocoa The word cocoa comes from the Greek words theobromo cacao. eggs. aldehydes. thus resulting in different quality beans. lactones. p-hydroxy methyl ether. liqueurs. phenols. mixing cacauatl (cacao . baked fish. Enzymatic action of beta-glucosidase on the precursor. 15% fat. fermenting. The curing process differs. Mexican vanilla has a creamy. delicate. ginger. fruits. custards. saffron. Synthetic vanilla (from pulp waste) or imitation vanilla (from clove oils) has a heavy aroma and a grassy and bitter aftertaste. Vanilla contains calcium and phosphorus.or ten-fold strengths. and has stronger notes. now grown on Reunion Island and Madagascar. Spice Blends: corn chowder blend. The fermented bean contains about 2% vanillin. alcohols. and creamy flavors. vanillic acid. it is used to flavor stews. sweets. Chemical Components: fresh vanilla has no taste. delicate. and perfumed. parsley. The Reunion type is sweeter and more delicate in aroma than Madagascar vanilla. meaning “food of the Gods. alcohols. sweet sauces. chocolate. vanilla was used as a stimulant and an aphrodisiac. acids. It is developed through curing (sweating. phydroxy-benzaldehyde.” The Aztecs first drank chocolatl (chocolate). aldehyde. It enhances the flavor of other ingredients such as fruits. Different vanillas exhibit varying flavor profiles: Bourbon vanilla. woody. and mellow aroma. has smooth. coffee. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: in ancient times. furans. Vanilla is also used in soft drinks. shallots. It pairs well with sugar. It was sometimes used as a digestive stimulant. mint. vanilla has a sweet. chilies. acids. and wine. anise. How Prepared and Consumed: Europeans introduced the world to vanilla through sweet dishes such as cakes. The Tahiti type is more floral. Other components are glucovanillin. and ice cream blend. or mole negro. Oleoresin vanilla is derived by evaporation under vacuum of the vanilla extract. and as a treatment for nervous disorders. The oleoresin is diluted with solvents to give one-. and curries and can provide sweetness to lemon chicken. mole negro blend. antidote to poisons. Pre-Columbian Indians used vanilla to flavor chocolate and savory foods such as corn. glucovanillin. esters. carbonyls. Natural vanilla extract includes hydrocarbons. almonds. chocolate. rich. two. puddings.Emerging Flavor Contributors 221 products. milk. and esters. and chocolates. tea. It can be used to round off stronger flavors in salsas. fruity. and chile peppers. lactones. and ice cream. Generally. cookies. Indonesian (Java) vanilla is smokier. chutneys. cinnamon. rich and creamy flavor.

and 3% polyunsaturated fat. cschokolade (German). After fermentation. When cacao is dried. theobromine. and starch. Second Edition beans) with chile peppers. coklat (Malaysian. and formed the paste into cakes. but it is now being used more frequently in savory applications. Family: Sterculiaceae Origin and Varieties: there are two main varieties of cacao beans. Carupano. and bitterness almost disappears. mints. Seasonings. and Criollo types include Arriba. sjiokolade (Norwegian). and chokolet (Thai). Criollo and Forastero. and semisweet or bitter chocolate. Indonesian). chocolate (Portuguese. shokolad (Hebrew). Europeans have traditionally used cocoa powder and chocolate in beverages and sweet products. chocolat (French). while the Forastero variety is very bitter. Both cocoa powder (for beverages) and chocolate are made from the cacao beans.222 Handbook of Spices. Chocolate pairs well with chile peppers. The Criollo varieties are sweet with less bitterness. Cacao beans contain an outer shell and an inner kernel. The nib is ground into a fine paste called chocolate liquor. csokolade (Hungarian). Bahia. cokolada (Czech). Aztecs toasted the cacao beans. pandan leaf. Properties: cacao seeds are bitter because of the tannins. cinnamon. fat free. and beverages. baked goods. lemongrass. chakeleti (Swahili). . while the fat is separated and made into cocoa butter. This mixture was beaten and stirred slowly over fire until it became a frothy liquid. and oxalic acid. Chemical Components: cocoa contains caffeine (230 mg/100 g) and theobromine (2057 mg/100 g). The Aztec King Montezuma offered this chocolate drink to the Spanish explorer Cortez who brought its manufacture to Spain. How Prepared and Consumed: chocolate and cocoa powder are used in confectionaries. Mexico. Machala. and the Caribbean (Trinidad and Jamaica). They are filled with a pale pink to whitish soft pulp that contains the seeds. Scientific Name(s): Theobromo cacao. cocoa powder or chocolate. Chocolate is an essential ingredient in the popular mole negro from Oaxaca. depending on the variety. they become more reddish and less bitter. it becomes less astringent. tannic acid. caffeine. Common Names: sjokolade (Afrikaan). reddish dark brown to purple. 32. which they diluted with water and spiced with annatto and chile peppers. clove. annatto. Roasting develops the bean’s aroma and flavor. and sugar. and Guayaguil.9% monounsaturated fat. suklaa (Finnish). Chocolate products are white/milk chocolate (with whole milk and sugar). Form: the ripe pods are 7 to 12 inches long. sweet chocolate. called the nib. West Africa. both cultivated in South America. crushed them between stones. purine. Cocoa butter contains 59. fennel. Malaysia. and Porto Cabello. The chocolate liquor is blended to give the desired. which is also produced by the brain when one is “in love. curry. annatto. Spanish). and Flavorings. Their flavors and aromas vary from mild and sweet to bitter. The commercial Venezuelan types are Caracas.” Cocoa powder contains tannins (which give cocoa its color and flavor). Cacao is indigenous to South America and Mexico. nutmeg.7% saturated fat. Chocolate is rich in phenylethylamine. chocolade (Dutch). corn kernels. cioccolata (Italian). There are other varieties from Mexico. ginger. and many flower essences. Java. Sri Lanka. choklad (Swedish).

” Coffee Coffee comes from the Arabic word “qahwah. Danish. but today in Europe. Swedish. and climate conditions. It was spread by Muslims to Italy. Spanish). kave (Hungarian). caffe (Italian). as blends. also the name for coffee with added chocolate). Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: the Aztecs and Mayans used cacao beans as currency. or meat roasts. or Kenya AA. region. Roasted coffee ranges from light to very dark colors and varies in flavor. then finely ground. Indonesia. Ethiopia. and the first coffeehouse opened in New York in 1696. Kona. Chocolate was forbidden to the ladies during those ancient times. In Spain and Italy. onion. robusta is less delicate with an earthy flavor but has higher caffeine than the former. Portuguese. or as flavored coffees. Coffee was introduced to Turkey in the thirteenth century. kahvi (Finnish). and England. Scientific Name(s): there are many types of coffees. sofrito blend. including the skin. Arabian coffee. Origin and Varieties: differences in coffee flavors depend on the type of beans. are less fragrant than the former two. koffie (Dutch. Norwegian). The seeds are greenish yellow in color and are separated from the rest of the pulpy material. and mocha (Yemen coffee. are the most highly valued because of their delicate flavor. Coffee is sold as whole roasted beans. and kopee (Tamil). They are separated by a central groove. grown at higher altitudes. France. The first coffeehouse was opened in Italy in 1645 and in England in 1650. Costa Rican. Mexico. coarsely or finely ground. wine was made from the dried beans. and Columbia. around AD 575 to 850. Coffee arabica beans. Family: Rubiaceae. Indonesian). who mixed dried coffee berries with fat to make food balls. Instant (soluble) coffee is roasted coffee extracted with water under pressure. tomato. altitude. C. recados. Brazil. Coffee is grown in India. Common Names: the names of coffee originate from the country. Afrikaan). and all over the world.” and began in ancient times as a food rather than a beverage. such as Java. Later. Examples are American roast (usually medium color). Coffee’s color changes as it ages. It is also called café (French. and parsley in meat and fish dishes. soil. fish soups. in AD 1000. stenophylla. recado negro blend. ko pyi (Korean). it has become the symbol of “amor. Uganda. Other types.Emerging Flavor Contributors 223 It can add a new dimension with its chocolatey bitter notes to sofritos. or quality grade of coffee the beans come from. and corn chowder blend. corn chowders. and from then on the Arabs roasted and ground coffee to produce their favorite beverage. French roast (very . Form: the coffee bean or fruit contains two seeds with adjacent sides that are flat and contained in the fleshy pulp. and spray-dried or freeze-dried. decaffeinated (97% caffeine free). It was first used by the Galla tribe in Ethiopia. it is used with garlic. Spice Blends: mole negro blend. Coffee came to the United States in 1668. liberica and C. kopi (Malaysian. the two main varieties being Coffee arabica and Coffee robusta. the United States. the Netherlands. kahawa (Swahili). chicken curry blend. such as C. kaffee (German. Coffee is ground to different degrees of fineness depending on the method of brewing.

Chemical Components: coffee contains chlorogenic acid. Roasting decreases chlorogenic acid. lose moisture. cinnamon. coffee’s bitterness balances savory and other taste profiles. dark-roasted coffee. and even roast turkey or chicken. sambals with shrimp paste. Spices have been used with coffee to create regional coffee favorites. Today. including roasting coriander seeds in oil. Green coffee beans are fermented. the beans are quickly washed and cooled. produces distinct flavors and colors. Seasonings. chicory. dry roasting chilies. In certain cultures. anywhere from about 3 to 17 minutes. starch pentosans. In the United States. FLAVORINGS FROM PREPARATION AND COOKING TECHNIQUES Many spices and ingredients are common to different ethnic cuisines. dark curries. the beans are cooled quickly (by air cooling. called gahira or gahwa. It tends to pair well with tamarind. Ethiopians and Middle Easterners chewed on coffee to increase energy or appetite. or a combination of both) to stop the roasting process. sambal blends. the darker it becomes and the higher its acidity. When the beans are roasted to their peak flavor. is served to guests as a symbol of hospitality. . and its acidity also decreases. it serves the same purpose. tannin. and roast chicken blend. cardamom. It is also used to flavor desserts and ice creams. The longer coffee is roasted. lime. or mango. The chemical composition of coffee beans changes as it matures and ages. Then. allspice. caffeine. and oil. Properties: green coffee does not have any aroma. kaffir lime leaf. Spice Blends: curry blends.224 Handbook of Spices. Fondues and other sauces can be flavored with coffee blended with spices or fruits. tannin. with lower tannins. Flavors such as almond. water quenching. During roasting. seeds are roasted at about 400˚F. mixed with ground cardamom. dried and washed. sucrose. Over-roasting gives rise to bitterness and burnt and smoky aromas. After roasting. How spices are cooked (refer to Chapter 3). Sugar is usually added to decrease its bitterness. In Saudi Arabia. or popping mustard seeds in hot oil. and swell (from 50% to 100%). cinnamon and chicory coffees are popular. hemicellulose. cellulose. Its moisture level decreases from 7% to 2%. during which chemical changes called pyrolysis occur. Chemical substances are released that characterize coffee’s taste and aroma. proteins. How Prepared and Consumed: globally. The reason being these spices and ingredients are prepared and cooked in different ways using different techniques. caffeic acid. cafetannic acid. and some trigonelline. thus separating the pulpy material. such as red salsas. the beans also become a brown color. coffee is used principally as a beverage. or chocolate are added after roasting to give flavored or regional coffees. galangal. and Italian roast (almost black). Therapeutic Uses and Folklore: traditionally. Coffee can enhance or give roasted notes to savory foods. soy sauce. trigonelline. Second Edition dark brown). yet they assume distinct flavor profiles and colors. and Flavorings.

balti. and sometimes modify colors. refogado. and claypot.Emerging Flavor Contributors 225 Cooking techniques also remove raw notes. or grilled tomatoes. colors. North Americans traditionally added spices in boiling water. barbacoa. claypot. claypot. affect the food’s ultimate taste. broil. and most importantly. simmering stews. bake. we see a growing demand for smoked chile peppers. or mace. With certain bitter spices. So cumin seeds when boiled. boil. roast. dry roasting cumin seeds mellows the bitterness and gives a different characteristic flavor profile. caldero. cocido. tagine TABLE 29 Specific Global Cooking Techniques Type of Cooking Techniques Grill. The cooking utensil’s size. chutney. or crock-pot. jerk tumis. smoke. these three techniques are called by many names. pibil. roast. moist heat (water. broil. sandpot. ferment Global Names tandoor. stew. Thus. enameled aluminum. kwali. roasting in oil tends to take out some of their bitterness. fat). Cooking techniques fall into three basic categories: dry heat (air. pan-fry. ceramics. such as fenugreek. The equipment the food is cooked in creates distinct flavors. Different techniques give differing flavor profiles with the same spice. or pickling solutions. or other liquids except fat). poach. anodized copper. deep-fry. bargar. North Americans are learning some newer techniques that can be used with spices to obtain more enhanced and intense flavor profiles. simmer. steam. bake Steam. bakar. roasted spices. kimchee . TABLE 28 Types of Cooking Techniques with Ethnic Cuisines Type of Cooking Techniques DryHeat Moist Heat Dry and Moist Combination Ethnic Cooking in General Grill. Today. barbecue Stir-fry Steam Braise Stew Pickle. pokkum kallia. braised. pressure cook Braise. the material from which it is constructed. cast iron. Globally. These preparation methods did not necessarily give spices their optimum flavor characteristics. daubiere. Typical materials of cooking utensils include stainless steel. dry roasted or roasted in oil give various flavors. saute/stir-fry. and a combination of the two (Tables 28 and 29). intensify flavors. barbecue. clove. tarkar couscousiere. For example. shape. tagine korma. bhoona. and textures. tagine escabeche.

garlic is sauteed first. For example. rice. corn husk. texture. are generally added toward the end of cooking. such as fenugreek or clove. and pandan leaf are used to wrap chicken. . color. and visual appeal to foods. Spices that add bitterness. we can simulate the flavors of these cooked wrappers. They are discussed earlier in this chapter. smoked. Though commercially we may not be able to present food in these wrappers. then ginger and onions are added. As discussed earlier. followed by spices and chilies and tomatoes. in making Southeast Asian sauces. or barbecued. These wrappers enhance flavor and provide moistness. grilled. and Flavorings. Seasonings. fish. or meat which are then steamed.226 Handbook of Spices. banana leaf. Second Edition The order in which ingredients are added to a recipe is crucial in creating a wellbalanced flavor profile.

or pasta. not all salsas. meats. spicy curries with mustard seeds. rice. how their constituent ingredients are treated. nuts. and raisins. The fragrant Nonya curries of Malaysia contain pandan leaf. depending on the countries or cultures of origin. fenugreek. Other spices such as cinnamon. clove. Other consumers are not afraid to try something totally different. and the order in which they are added to the applications. are looking for something new and flavorful. or fish sauce. Latin American adobos or moles. pomegranate juice. Their possible combinations are almost endless. and coconut milk. Some consumers want familiar foods but with new twists. fiery. or texture (creamy or thin) can occur. vegetables. Others contain unique spices such as fenugreek. cilantro. dukkahs. variations in flavor (sourness. and left to the imagination of the creator or spice blender. pestos. the food designer must understand that not all generic ethnic blends are the same. Spice blends and seasonings are mixtures of spices or other ingredients. and sweet. anise. Thai basil. Both types of consumers want more flavor. color. Many ethnic seasonings have spices such as ginger. good visual appeal. cilantro. wine. or sweet basil that are recognizable to mainstream consumers and can safely “spice up” traditional foods. sweetness. or sambals taste the same. That is. For example. The Punjabis in the north of India eat milder curries with cardamom. masalas. hot chile peppers. curry powders. spearmint. a basic curry blend from India predominantly contains cumin. Consumers. Thai curry blends are pungent. galangal. whether traditional or adventurous. They have little time to prepare meals and want products that are convenient. lemongrass.7 Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings INTRODUCTION North American tastes have become culturally diverse. candlenuts. so unique ingredients and bolder flavors appeal to them. and distinct textures. and ground red pepper. while Tamils in the south eat very hot. the applications in which the blends are used. When combining different ingredients to create a seasoning blend. soy sauce. 227 . coriander. hot. and Mediterranean harissas or pestos can provide desired flavors to poultry. Asian curries or teriyaki sauce. tamarind. or recao leaf that will appeal to the adventurous consumer. Curry blends vary in flavor and color. seafood. turmeric. or heat). Spice blends and seasoning blends can help create the foods that these consumers desire. black cumin. Other variations in curry blends occur wherever they are enjoyed. with galangal. kaffir lime leaf. and curry leaves. depending on the application. fish sauce. Among different cultures or regions. yogurt. such as vinegar. cinnamon. and cardamom are added.

Some blends have fresh pureed (or blended) spices. whole. desserts. we will look at some of the popular global seasoning blends categorized according to region. green blends and chile blends. black pepper. fried or smoked. The focus will be on Latin American. dried. or added to. water. chile pepper. and the Caribbean. and beverages. and they are more intense with varying heat. They can be added “as is” or roasted. Many of these seasonings are found in traditional U. In addition. For the latter. rice mixes. Seasonings. African seasonings will also be discussed briefly to give the creator some idea of its regional flavors. fat. sesame seed. soups. third.S. we can create authentic spice blends or appropriate fusion blends. Mediterranean. and Flavorings. Second Edition dried shrimp pastes. In Asia. cooking. and complex spice blends in the world. But again. Malaysia. pH. and a perception of freshness Spice blends can be authentic or fusion. or tumising) and how the foods are presented in a meal contribute to the overall flavor and texture of the foods. The wet mixtures are ground with. Seasoning blends come as freshly made paste. with many spices. curries have ground mustard. spices and seasoning blends interact in a system based on other ingredients (such as starch. Seasoning blends can be created for snacks. Asian. The food creator must also understand spices and flavorings in all of their varieties. or ground forms that are added to cooked or uncooked products. intense. Northern European seasoning blends will not be discussed in detail because they are not emerging “new flavors” in North America unless it has become part of the fusion craze. oil. Several . India. liquid. spices are more complex in their combinations. Latin America. Spice blends can also be created for regional United States preferences based on the residing ethnic groups. because spices are the fundamental building blocks of these seasoning blends. or coconut milk and are usually refrigerated after use. and processing techniques. marinades. or citrus flavor. and coconut milk. habaneros. The emerging trend for spice blends is to provide the diverse flavors. In this chapter. Singapore. the chapter will examine popular regional North American blends and two types of seasoning blends that are popular globally. Additionally. roasting. Seasoning blends in western countries are usually a simple combination of spices that are generally mild. Thailand. There is more than one type of basil.228 Handbook of Spices. vinegar. as discussed in Chapter 2. Generational differences and acculturation or adaptation to the United States by immigrant communities need to be considered when developing spice blends. and Caribbean seasonings because they are the hot trends in the United States. The first generation will have eating patterns and buying behaviors that are different from the second. Some are already well known in the west. By understanding the similarities and differences among the spice varieties. The method of preparation of the spices (braising. Some cultures or regions have specific preferences for particular varieties. there are regional variations with varying flavors. vinegar. and later generations who have adjusted to a new culture and language. intense aromas. while others have dried whole or ground spices. and Sri Lanka traditionally have the most varied. fusion blending gives a “taste of home” with the “new’ flavors from North America and other flavors. On the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. and proteins). Others are less familiar but are growing in popularity. pasta sauces. and chives. Indonesia.

the Mediterranean. or fish. Spice blends in this section are dry. and Spanish spice blends are discussed under the Mediterranean blends. They can be captured and made into spice blends or seasonings that provide the flavor profiles for many products. It also comes in different flavors. Tandoori. and adobo con pimienta for those who desire a little heat. the subsections of this chapter introduce the foods and ingredients of Latin America. adobos. such as Indian. Asia. the Caribbean. The Puerto Rican sofrito is pungent with culantro. or as wet pastes. they can be tailormade for specific applications once the characterizing spice blend is created. lamb roasts. Seasonings such as achiote. Likewise. and chicken tikka masala have become mainstream items in the United Kingdom. chicken. Also described are the spices and other ingredients that provide each region’s characteristic flavors. and varies depending upon its origins. and sofrito add traditional flavors and colors to foods from many Latin American regions. rice. and stews in many Latin American regions. The chapter also describes the many regional variations of these complex cuisines. and pestos. Some seasonings have mass appeal throughout the Latin American market. and many other European cuisines. the Caribbean islands. For example. in England. LATIN AMERICAN SPICE BLENDS The Latin American category includes the Spanish-speaking peoples and indigenous Indian populations of Mexico. Curry to an Englishman is like salsa to a North American. In this book. biryani. such as five-spice blend. Latin American food is milder where there is greater European influence and spicier and hotter where it is more influenced . Thai. and green bell peppers. sazon. and the Cuban sofrito is mild with parsley. Africa. or TexMex. their traditional flavors are also slowly changing. The discussion of emerging seasoning blends contained in this chapter will help the food product designer also understand emerging European flavors. Shepherd’s pie. Indian and Asian flavors have become mainstream. and other traditional English dishes now often contain Asian Indian or Thai flavor. Italian. Included in each subsection are examples of blends that are commonly sold as prepared dry spice mixtures or pastes. Not all Latin American food tastes hot. curry blends. As in the United States. seasonings from Spain will appear under the Mediterranean category. flavor preferences vary among Latin American countries. sofritos are used to flavor beans. “Foreign” flavors are also infiltrating French. based on the country of origin and other socio-cultural differences. A basic sofrito blend is made from chopped onions. with unique seasonings emerging from the old favorites. adobo is a popular all-purpose seasoning that is used to marinate meat. However. fish. For example. Central and South America. nasi goreng. garlic. as a consequence. liquids. liquid. As noted above. German.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 229 popular French. adobo con naranja agria for the Dominicans. and Portuguese-speaking Brazil. Whether pastes. and the United States. European cities are becoming more culturally diverse and. They are fusing ingredients from newer immigrants. the Yucatan sofrito is hot with habanero peppers. tomato. adobo con limon for Puerto Ricans. or dry mixtures.

Salsas are very popular in the United States. with rice. and now there emerge more varied salsa flavors. and Flavorings. poultry. The Oaxaca region has the most diverse cuisine of Mexico. using ingredients from different Hispanic groups: salsa de aji from Peru. and black pepper with mild chilies to flavor their foods. The next largest Latino groups in the United States are Puerto Ricans and Cubans. and chocolate. The other Latino groups that constitute the remaining one-quarter of the growing Hispanic consumer market are Central and South Americans. Their seasonings for meats. through trade or conquest. garlic. tomato. meat. these three groups comprise three-quarters of the total U. fish. Latin American foods. and Brazilians constitute a major portion of this growing U. spices. South Americans are becoming a large and integral part of North America’s Latino population. and today consumers seek the more authentic regional Mexican profiles. garlic. It’s unique moles vary in color. and saltenas are becoming better known in the United States. Like other Latin American foods. particularly Mexican flavors because they are the largest Latin American group in the United States. These sweet. rice. pastels. tangy sauces are served fresh (uncooked) or cooked. spicier and hotter foods predominate with the influences of the Caribbean and the Mexican Mayans. and texture depending on where it is prepared. and sweet and sour sauces.230 Handbook of Spices. and coriander. tomato.. desserts. and other vegetables. the food is milder. especially Mexican foods. or chimichurri from Argentina. Cubans. tomatoes. their fillings vary in flavor. the French offered their cooking techniques and bread making. toward Oaxaca and the Yucatan regions. pico de gallo nortena from Mexico. noodles. hot chile peppers are used extensively in the Andes areas of South America and in the Yucatan and Oaxacan regions of Mexico. The Aztecs and Mayans used chile peppers. chilies. Peruvians. our taste in food has been greatly influenced by Latin American flavors. . the Spanish brought wheat. and Dominicans use oregano. Together with Mexicans. In these Caribbean regions. with chile peppers. the Chinese. Puerto Ricans. onion. In contrast.S. Hispanic population. Mexican food has been one of the three most popular ethnic foods for the last fifteen years. Ecuadorians. flavors tend to be generally milder. snacks such as empanadas. or avocados. and cocktail beverages are becoming increasingly popular. spicy hot. In northern Mexico. garlic. Let’s look into the regions of Latin America and see how they are different and how they influence the overall Latin American flavor. Second Edition by the indigenous population. Similarly. Latino category. Authentic Mexican foods differ in their flavors and heat levels. eggs. salsa Criollo from Puerto Rico. but farther south. REGIONAL CUISINES Mexico OF LATIN AMERICA Mexican cooking has been influenced by many cultures. pebre from Chile. cilantro.S. Seasonings. In the United States. based on their ingredients and how they are seasoned. corn. citrus. Colombians. with tomatoes. flavor. give intense flavors through dry-roasting and smoking of chile peppers. and potatoes.

influenced by Spanish and Creole cooking. as well as Asia and Europe. Moles. guacamoles. squash blossoms. pozoles. cassava. or banana flambé. cassava. caldo gallego. This cultural diversity has given rise to a fusion-style cooking with jerked meats. while the Chinese. sofritos. chile en nogada. tamales. mulato. provides old and new flavors such as nopales. Spanish. East Indians have brought their curries and rotis. mango. birria (mutton or goat stews). coconut. pepperpot. avocado. and British. poblanos. epazote. and jalapenos abound. The area around Mexico D. sapote. Their cooking is based on hot and fruity sauces. ginger. Arabs. and cumin. especially mole negro. Rice. French their bouillbaise and rouille. fried rice. and indigenous Mexicans exert their influences in Central Mexico. which includes Oaxaca. gusanos. The South Pacific region. conch chowder. chipotle.F. called el Norte (Monterrey region). pork. coconutty stews. Zapotecs. tomatoes. and New Mexican chilies. and guacamole. corn tamales. guajillo. is influenced by the indigenous groups (Toltecs. caldillos (beef stews). Iberian. and chili xcatik. misantle paste. corn husk. cinnamon. which includes Michoacán. from the Spanish-speaking regions of Cuba. Spanish their sofritos and escabeches. San Miguel. The food is mild with cheeses. tacos. cochinata pibil. . Soups and stews including sopito. chile de arbol. seafood. Its foods include mole poblano. curries. Dutch.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 231 the Lebanese love for stuffed sweet pastries. frijoles. burritos. bebele. anchos. and Guanajuato. beef. fish. salsa verde. tamale. mariscos. cumin. but there are also distinct flavor preferences in the islands. taco pastor. moles. The Bajio region. influenced by the Caribbean and Florida. tubers. and al ajillo. jalapenos. beef. and others). their fried rice and noodles. pepperpot stew. barbacoa. taco pastor. Caribbean Caribbean cooking blends indigenous Amerindian ingredients with others who settled there—Africans. Muslim. paella. maguey. thyme. okra. French. the food is influenced by the Mennonites (German) and North American cowboys. and habaneros have a mass appeal in all the islands. chiltomates. and quimbomba are staples of the Caribbean diet. ancho. tomato sauces. huitlacoche. Spanish. has influences from the Spanish and indigenous Mexicans. and the famous mixiotes. ancho. mango. enchiladas. ceviches. Mexican flavors vary from region to region. pasillas. tortilla soup. cho-cho. olives. chipotle. Yucatan flavors include recados. Cactus. habaneros. pinto beans. rice and beans. the foods are traditional (from Mayan influence) as well as fusion. fish tamale. chalupas. achiotes. and oxtail stews. In the North Pacific region (Jalisco. Sinaloa. moles. and pico de gallo predominate. seafood escabeches. and pipian stews are popular. cheese. tlacoyos. Criollo cooking. Africans yam. and the Germans with their cheeses and beer making. has garlic. In the Yucatan region. and marinated meats and seafood. seasoned rice. Chinese. Queretero. sancocho. The Veracruz region (Gulf area). Creole-style sauces. hierba sante. rice and beans. In the north. recados. Flavors and cooking styles differ from island to island with each island boasting its special dishes. Asian Indians. Chiapas has milder flavors than the Oaxaca region. tortilla. Colima regions). frijoles charros. banana leaf.

tamale. coconut. achiotes. with Amerindian dialects. ajaico (vegetable stew). bistec. tamales. paprika. corn. mojos. from the French-speaking islands of Martinique. black beans. and hardy grains—quinoa. Germans. Spanish. South America South America’s culture and “foodways” are as diverse as its geography and people. Guaranis. and Africans) use cilantro. mango. and the Dominican Republic (influenced by the Spanish. seafood. ceviches. Mapuches. Central Americans who live along the east coast use a more Caribbean style of cooking. and Barbados enjoy rice and peas. The British islands of Jamaica. Largely dominated by the Inca civilization. and adobos abundantly. Smoky-tasting tortillas form the staple meal with grilled (parillas) or roasted meats (asados). specifically from the Quechuas.232 Handbook of Spices. annatto. oregano. Chinese. apples. chilies. Taino Indians. Japanese. tacos. and corn. North Americans. or Africans) and what ingredients are abundant in the region. and chile peppers. and the Zambos. squash. South America is home to potatoes. mulattos. plantain. They feature adobos. Seasonings. Trinidad. oranges. Caribs. chuletas (pork). and Flavorings. platanos. congri (rice and beans). Brazilians and Guyanese and other Caribbean South Americans largely constitute the indigenous. They are served with spicy condiments of cilantro. onions. Guatemalan cooking has strong indigenous Indian influence and influence from Mexican cooking with corn. Italians. pineapple. pacaya. beef. kañiwa. picadillos. later colonized by the Portuguese and Spanish who brought in African slaves. and enteros (boiled beans with onions) are commonly eaten. Guadeloupe. non-Hispanic South American population. mofongo. chile rellenos. and Brazil. South America is home to the mestizos. and beef. peaches camu camu. cilantro. . pork. culantro. yuca. Cuban flavors can be mild or hot depending on the region and feature pork. Potatoes are daily foods of the indigenous peoples of the Andes highlands with maize (corn). parsley. with rice and beans. and curries. Rice and beans and plantains. bananas. seafood. and paellas. stews (caldos). mojos. sofritos. frijoles. rice and beans. beans. pork. and Portuguese in Brazil. passion fruit. Puerto Rican and Dominican foods are mild to slightly spicy. guarana. Spanish is spoken all over. Arawaks. refritos (boiled mashed beans refried in lard). seafood. Creole cooking. or chile peppers. and meals are generally served with white rice or potatoes. Second Edition Puerto Rico. squash. and Jewish emigrants are prominent in Argentina. yuca (manioc or cassava). which is very different from the cooking of those who live inland. recados. cachucha. and citrus. and kiwicha. This Criollo cooking is influenced by the various cultures from the Caribbean and Africa. Central America The flavors of Central America differ depending on what cultures influenced their cooking (Mayans. and Haiti flavor seafood stews and soups with bouquet garni and chives. The Dutch islands of St Maarten and Curacao add Indonesian touches with satays and nasi goreng. and eventually settled by other Europeans. Guava. sweet potato. whether rice. jerk meats and seafood. Aymaras. aji dulce. Peru. annattos. and curry dishes.

Colombian and Venezuelan foods with strong Spanish influences are generally mild. vinegar. ajis. aji molido. ham. corn. meats. tamales. salsa Criolla. squash. ajiacos. and coconut milk are sustaining meals for the indigenous population. manioc. Brazilian favorites include fish sauces. seafood. northeast Brazil). have spicier and hotter flavors. Desserts and pastries—with Moorish and Portuguese influences—are rich and sweet. cheese. lime juice. Regions that have more European influence (Germans. or molho apimentado. Its cooking uses beef. avocado. pickapeppa sauce. Dutch and Italians—have flavors that vary from hot to mild. puréed young corn. or beverages. consist of cornmeal dough filled with chicken. seafood. chupes. which the indigenous population also uses to color and flavor dishes. potatoes or corn. and cheese. pumpkin. salsa de mani. creamy sauces. Africans. and many other local fruits. annatto. carbonadas. and empenadas. Empanadas. red onions. empadas. chopped olives. and grains. and African influences (Bahia. arepas. made with coconut. Italians. dried shrimp. and then wrapped and cooked in corn husk. potato. churrascos. feijoada completa. Paraguay is very much influenced by the indigenous population (Guarani Indians) and Europeans. banana leaf. empenadas. Chinese. meat. onion. chickpeas. rice. avocados. onions. Bolivia has picante flavors and uses rocotos. Seviches or cebiches are enjoyed throughout South America prepared with raw fish or shellfish in citrus juice. Brazil. casseroles. tomatoes. Sofrito. poblano. and fruits. Portuguese. chicken. with more seafood. foods are spicy and hot. with a diverse culture—indigenous Indians. corn.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 233 acerola. shrimp chowders. couscous. dried shrimp. and seasoned with ajis. parsley. saltena. cassareep. mango. or to flavor cooked potatoes. or caja and pears are abundant. also called humitas in Peru. pabellon criolla. corn. a mixture of onions. empenadas. avocado. salsas (parsley based). with corn. salteñas. or other vegetable leaves. Where there is a strong Amerindian or African presence. açai (berrylike). rice. parsley. forms a foundation for many Spanish-style sauces. and generally seasoned with chilies. Japanese. pebre. and Argentina. apio (celery root). bell peppers or tomatoes. and other spices. seafood. also called pastels. bananas. Argentina and Uruguay have similar flavors with grilled steaks (matambre. Bolivia. rice and beans. chopped hard-boiled eggs. and garlic. squash. potatoes. tortillas. coconut. meats. chicken. Chileans enjoy less meat. fruits. Some sofritos call for aceite de achiote (annatto-infused oil). dende oil. potatoes. bakery items. and hearts of palm. Its foods include fruits. and fruits. as sides for seafood stews and soups. peanuts. while those with a strong Inca and other indigenous Amerindian (especially Andes regions). or Spanish) have milder flavors. humitas. Soups and stews (caldos. locros. Lebanese. Bananas. black pepper. or beans. garlic. like steak (biftec). sauteed in olive oil. oregano. become marinades and dips for barbecued or grilled meats. fish . Of Amerindian origin. garlic. made with chilies. cheese. capers. French. or hallacas in Venezuela. seafood. malagueta peppers. and parillas) served with chimmichurri. cocidas. cooked with hot chilies. limes. Chimichurris. and olive oil for soups and stews. hearts of palm. or empanitas with fillings of ground meat. garlic. plantains. and eggs. ajis. cilantro. and coconut milk are also plentiful to season dishes or make into snacks. prepared with potatoes. cilantro. vatapas. black beans. and raisins. or guisados). lemon.

such as onion. black pepper. cilantro. olive oil. Applications Adobo provides flavor to flank steaks. garlic. and sauces. Adobo without black pepper is prepared for Hispanics who do not want any heat. vinegar. The earliest adobos were salt and vinegar mixtures used to preserve meat. made with lime juice. or chicken. Mexicans use a fiery hot adobo made with habanero or chipotle peppers and sour orange juice. onions. or sauteing. corn. fish. The Caribbean South America. and fish. and shellfish before grilling.234 Handbook of Spices. and slightly bitter ceviches. beans. and potatoes. or olives. jalapenos. as well as the Asian and African workers brought to their colonies. the adobos in Table 30 can be tailored for each Latin American region. or empenadas seasoned with garlic. Accordingly. the dry spice blend. meaning pickling sauce of olives. and turmeric. In Latin America. curries. fish. garlicky flavor. pickapeppa sauce. pork. or cumin are added to appeal to specific Hispanic groups. Cuban. milk. and brown sugar. all-purpose seasoning that has a savory. Following. or from adobado. while Nicaraguans prefer it with annatto. sour. paprika. adobo. chipotle. and Vietnamese noodles and soups abound. seville orange juice. and Flavorings. ajis. find the basic Latin American spice and seasoning blends that need to be known in order to develop authentic Latino and increasingly popular Latininfluenced foods. Puerto Ricans prefer vinegar and oregano. Salsa Criolla. pebre. or vinegar. Ecuador is well known for its hot. fish. Dominicans use sour orange juice. deep-frying. poultry. lime juice. Indonesian satay and fried rice. Pepper-pot stew. or to zip up rice. Ingredients Adobo consists of salt. Cubans enjoy garlic. served with hot pebre sauce. is added to fried fish and meat dishes. POPULAR LATIN AMERICAN SPICE BLENDS Adobos Description Adobo is a popular. It is an indispensable item in Puerto Rican. Potatoes are seasoned in a variety of ways with cheese. stews. and onions. chilies. Peru’s staples are corn. cumin. and corn. chile peppers. but specific ingredients. and spices. Optional ingredients include onions. or wine and spices. their European colonizers. with tomatoes. Guyana (English). which has seafood. ketchup. and Dominican kitchens. adds a punch to many dishes. parsley. black pepper. aji molido. lemon or lime juice. sour orange juice. and French Guiana follow the foodways of the Caribbean. oregano. peanuts. Seasonings. and peanut sauce are commonly eaten. and cilantro. and sour orange juice. vinegar. quinoa. Second Edition stews. is used with vinegar and olive oil to marinate beef. The basic adobo has mass appeal among Latin Americans. cheese. this preparation is so essential . In Guyana. which means pork pickled in olives. pork. including Suriname (Dutch). Today. Chile’s national dish is porotos granados. The word adobo comes from the Spanish. Potatoes. chicken. cow-foot soup. naranga agria. plantains. which are added to create marinades for meat. which were the staples of the Incas.

which means sauce or mixture. roasted. The most popular moles. In fact. and as a rub on chicken. oregano. Garlic. spices. mole de almendra. the . pureed nuts and seeds. and slightly bitter flavors are used with chicken and seafood dishes. and chocolate. and green. vinaigrette. sour cream. steamed vegetables. The chile peppers provide the mole’s characteristic color and flavor. The word mole comes from the Nahuatl word molli. mole amarillo. browning. Preparation and cooking techniques. every Oaxacan seems to have his or her own idea of what the seven moles are. with their sweet. brick red. an ingredient reserved for royalty. mole coloradito. Oaxaca is known as the “land of seven moles. Mole Blends Description Moles are the “royal” sauces of regional Mexican cuisine. these smooth. lime-coated ceramic pan). each family seems to have their own variation. However. Ingredients There are hundreds of mole recipes in Mexico. fish. roasted tomatoes. using chocolate (made from cacao).” However. herbs. such as grinding. chicken stock. roasting. nutty. black pepper. mole verde. Most ingredients are roasted on a comal (a large. or meats before they are barbecued or roasted. It takes hours to prepare a good mole. baked potatoes. After roasting.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 235 TABLE 30 Types of Latin American Adobos Latin America Basic adobo Puerto Rican Cuban Dominican Republic Mexican Nicaraguan Types of Adobos Types of Latin American Adobos. come from the Oaxaca and Puebla regions. mole manteles. mole rojo. and perhaps the best. depending upon their preferred ingredients and cooking techniques. In fact. turmeric Adobo con limon (adobo with lemon) Adobo con cumin (adobo with cumin) Adobo con naranga agria (adobo with sour orange) Adobo con chipotle (adobo with chipotle) Adobo con annatto (adobo with annatto) that the verb “adobar” (to adobo) is commonly used during food preparation. and toasting are essential for intensifying ingredient flavors and obtaining the right consistency. not all moles have chocolate. The uncontested king of moles is Oaxaca’s mole Negro. rich sauces. However. most moles contain dried chilies. grilling. there seems to be at least eight types that are popular in Oaxaca: mole Negro. yellow. Nowadays. sauces. Mole poblano is the most popular mole from the Puebla region of Mexico. They were originally created for the rulers of pre-Hispanic Mexico. Adobo can be used as a base seasoning for stews. That is why moles seem to come in so many different colors: black. and mole chichilo. pureeing.

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Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings, Second Edition

ingredients are either hand ground on a heavy, granite metate or commercially ground at the local market in a machine called a molino. Finally, once the ingredients are prepared, the sauce mixture is cooked with lard in a cazuela, or mole-pot, and stirred continuously. Mole negro is a complex, fiery, black sauce made from numerous ingredients: toasted and ground dried chile peppers (chilhuacle negro, pasilla, mulato, guajillo and chipotle), blackened chili seeds and stems, almonds, tomatilla, spices (garlic, onions, sesame seeds, black peppercorns, canela, cloves, thyme, marjoram, Mexican oregano), and chocolate. Mole poblano has several types of dried chilies (ancho, mulato, pasilla, chipotle), with anise, clove, canela, black pepper, fried garlic, tomatillas, sesame seeds, ground almonds, peanuts, and bitter chocolate. Table 31 lists the ingredients of nine mole blends. However, there are many interpretations of these nine blends and their ingredients. Applications Moles are generally eaten with white rice or tortillas, the latter used to scoop them. The thick sauce is poured over chicken, turkey, seafood, pork, or beef. Mole sauce can also be used as a filling for empanadas and tamales or poured over enchiladas. A few popular moles are not sauces at all. In pre-Hispanic time, moles were more like soups and were served as bowl meals. Some of these ancient moles such as mole de maiz quebrado (corn mole), bean mole, and shrimp mole are still consumed today. A popular one, mole de lla, is a hearty soup full of beef, onions, vegetables, cilantro, lime, and epazote, with added rice and corn tortillas.

TABLE 31 Types of Latin American Moles
Mole Blends Mole negro Ingredients Chipotle, chilhuacle, negro, pasilla, mulatto, guajillo, chili seeds and stems, almonds, onions, tomatillas, garlic, sesame seeds, black peppercorns, canela, clove, thyme, Mexican oregano, chocolate Ancho, mulatto, pasilla, chipotle, anise, clove, canela, black pepper, sesame seeds, almonds, tomatillas, garlic, peanuts, chocolate Red chilhuacle chili, ancho, pasilla, and peanuts Ancho, pasilla, guajillo, canela, raisins, sesame seeds, almonds, chocolate, and fried bread Green jalapeno, epazote, cilantro, parsley hoja santa, tomatillas, and masa Guajillo, chiluacle amarillo, ancho, cloves, cumin, chepil, zucchini, chayote, and tomatillas Anchos, pasillas, chilcostle chilis, sesame seeds, fresh pineapple, ripe plaintains, tiny apples Almonds, ancho, cloves, sesame seeds, and fried bread Chihuacle negro, pasilla, guajillo, blackened chili seeds, roasted avocado leaves, and masa

Mole poblano Mole rojo Mole coloradito Mole verde Mole amarillo Mole manches manteles Mole de almendra Mole chichilo

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Mojo Blends Description Mojo is to Cuban cuisine as vinaigrette is to French cuisine. Also called Cuban garlic citrus sauce, it is tart, tangy, and garlicky. It can be used to marinade meats or as a condiment to add zest to meals. It is Cuba’s national table condiment. Ingredients Mojo’s ingredients include garlic, olive oil, sour orange juice (narangia agria), and black pepper. Ground cumin is optional. In Cuba, naranga agria, a green, bumpy orange that tastes like lime juice, is the acid used. In other Caribbean regions, including Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, vinegar is substituted for the naranga agria. In the Miami area, lime juice or other fruit juices, such as pineapple, carambola, and grapefruit are generally substituted for naranga agria. Application Mojo is a vinaigrette-like Cuban sauce used as a marinade, especially for poultry and meat. Mojo is also served on Cuban sandwiches, grilled seafood and meats, boiled yuca, and many other foods. Rosemary, cilantro, or mint can be added to create new flavors. Salsa Blends Description Salsa means sauce in Spanish, and it comes in many forms and flavors. Some Latin American sauces are called salsas, while others have specific names, but all are added to provide zest or heat to foods. Latin American regions have many versions of salsas that range in flavor from sweet and mild to hot, pungent, and slightly tangy. They vary depending upon ingredients and preparation techniques used. Salsas can be fresh or uncooked (salsa cruda, salsa fresca, salsa de molcajete) or cooked, based on roasted chilies, tomatoes, and other ingredients. Salsas can be smooth or coarsely textured, thick or thin. Salsa verde (green salsa) is uncooked and is tart and hot. Salsa rojo (red salsa) is cooked and is sweet and spicy. Popular salsas include red (rojo) and green (verde) salsas of Mexico, xni pec from the Yucatan, pico de Gallo from northern Mexico, salsa di aji from Peru, pebre from Chile, salsa criollo from Puerto Rico, and chimmichurri from Argentina. Ingredients When North Americans refer to salsa, they generally mean a condiment of tomatoes, onions, chilies, and bell peppers. Spices such as garlic, cumin, oregano, and cilantro are also added. Whole tomatoes, diced tomatoes, and tomato pastes form the basis of commercial salsas. Lime, lemon, sour orange juice, or vinegar are often added to provide acidity. Depending on regional preferences, tomato, bell peppers, habaneros, ajis, jalapenos, corn, or fruits are added. The basic red salsa is made from red roasted tomatoes, red bell peppers, and roasted red chile peppers. Green salsa is made from tomatillas, cilantro, and green

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TABLE 32 Types of Latin American Salsas
Salsa Blends Salsa rojo Salsa verde Ingredients Chipotle, red jalapeno, red bell peppers, garlic, tomato, cilantro Green jalapeno/serrano, cilantro, tomatilla, garlic, onion, lime juice Pico de gallo, Red serranos/jalapenos, cilantro, oregano, onions, tomato, lime, orange, jicama, melon, cucumber, olive oil, shredded coconut Garlic, parsley, cilantro, vinegar, black pepper, oregano Aji, onion, tomato, cilantro Malagueta pepper, olive oil, vinegar, onion Garlic, sweet chile peppers, black pepper, olive oil, lemon Onion, cilantro, parsley, green hot peppers, lemon juice, olive oil Aji, olive oil, garlic, vinegar Onion, tomato, garlic, black pepper, parsley, olive oil, vinegar Tomato, onion, cilantro, habaneros, sour orange juice

Chimichurri Salsa de aji Molho Malagueta Ajilimojili Pebre Aji molido Salsa criolla Xni pec

chile peppers with green leafy spices. Nowadays, the emerging trend in the United States is to incorporate fruit flavors with salsa blends to create new flavors. Salsa fresca, salsa cruda (or fresh salsa) uses basic seasonings—chopped jalapenos, serranos or habaneros, tomatoes, white onions, and cilantro. These salsas are eaten raw or are cooked briefly in lard or oil. Cooked salsas generally use dried, roasted chilies, such as chipotle or ancho, with roasted tomatoes and garlic. Some examples of Latin salsa blends and their ingredients are given in Table 32. Applications Salsas are used as dips for snack chips or tortillas, or poured over eggs, fajitas, and enchiladas. Salsa crudas (uncooked salsas) appear on Mexican tables like salt and pepper. They are used as condiments to add zest to rice and beans, meats, fish, eggs, and beans, and also serve as toppings or garnishes on enchiladas, tacos, quesadillas, and for antojitos. Puerto Ricans serve salsa ajilimojili with meats, tostones, and boiled vegetables. South Americans serve chimmichurri sauce as a dip or condiment for grilled meats (or churrascos). Salsas add a flavorful topping for grilled foods, baked fish, fillings for crepes and wraps, and as exciting condiments to add extra flavor to foods. They are also being used as marinades, salad dressings, and even as a topping for baked potatoes. Recado Blends Description Recados are ground spice mixtures or wet pastes that are essential to traditional Yucatecan, Central American, and Puerto Rican cooking. They come in different flavors and colors, depending upon their ingredients (Table 33). Most widely used is the recado rojo (sometimes referred to as achiote). Others are recado negro (or chilmole), recado cumin de bistek, recado de adobo, and recaitos. They can be mild, pungent, smoky, and hot with red, black, or olive colors. The chilmole is black and

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TABLE 33 Types of Latin American Recados
Recado Blends Recado rojo Recado de bistek Recado de negro (Also called chilmole) Recado de adobo Ingredients Ground annatto seeds (achiote), garlic, peppercorn, onion, cilantro, oregano, allspice, and sour orange juice Oregano, canela, garlic, onion, black pepper corns, cumin, cloves, chili de arbol, and sour orange juice Annatto paste, toasted chili xcatik, allspice, roasted onions, roasted garlic, cumin and burned totillas Red chilies, oregano, garlic, clove, cumin, cilantro, saffron, canela, Seville orange

pungent, while the recaito is greenish. Recados are used to zip up sauces, stews, meats, seafood, and beans. They can be served over cooked poultry or rubbed on meats, chicken, and pork, before grilling or barbecuing. Ingredients Recados’ ingredients include garlic, chile peppers, oregano, onions, annatto, and black peppercorns. Other ingredients are cumin, allspice, cilantro, canela, culantro, or cloves depending on regional preferences. There are many variations, even in the Yucatan. Applications Most Yucatecan dishes use recados as a base flavoring for many dishes. Turkey is roasted in recado Negro and fish is grilled in recado rojo. To create the famous pibils of the Yucatan, recado is rubbed on pork or chicken that is then wrapped in banana leaves and pit roasted. Chilmole is used to season meatballs or ground meat. In Puerto Rico, an olive green spice mixture called recaito is used as a base seasoning in the local sofritos. Recaito contains onion, cilantro, recao leaves, garlic, and aji dulce. Sofrito Blends Description Sofrito is an aromatic mixture of spices used to flavor meats, rice, beans, stews, and fish. It originated as tomato sauce from the Catalan region of Spain. Now, it is an essential seasoning in Puerto Rican, Spanish, Cuban, and Mexican cooking. The word sofrito comes from the Spanish word sofrier, which means lightly cooked. Sofrito blends range in color from bright orange to red, and their flavors are mild or pungent. Preferences and ingredients vary with country of origin (Table 34). Ingredients Typical sofrito ingredients are green and red bell peppers, onions, annatto, garlic, oregano, tomatoes, cilantro, or parsley. Puerto Rican sofrito is pungent, and its ingredients include recaito leaves, culantro stems and roots, aji dulce (also called

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TABLE 34 Types of Latin American Sofritos
Sofrito Blends Basic sofrito Spanish sofrito Puerto Rican sofrito Cuban sofrito Mexican/Yucatan sofrito Ingredients Sweet and mild with garlic, tomato, sweet bell peppers, mild chile pepper Sweet, mild with garlic, red or green bell peppers, onions, olive oil Pungent, slightly spicy with recao leaves, culantro root and stem, aji dulce, tocino, alcaparrado, annatto Mild with garlic, onion, cachucha, cured ham, parsley Peppery hot with roasted garlic, black pepper, cumin, habaneros

rocotillos or sweet chile peppers), annatto, garlic, onions, oregano, cilantro, and tomato sauce. In Puerto Rico, it is added with ham, tocino (salt pork), or alcapaardo (salted capers, olives, and pimentos). Cuban sofrito is mild, with garlic, onion, cachucha (or aji dulce), and cured ham. Spanish sofrito is sweet, with bell peppers, onions, tomatoes, and olive oil. The Yucatecan sofrito is peppery and spicy with habaneros, roasted garlic, black pepper, and cumin. Applications Sofrito is used as a starting base seasoning or added toward the end of cooking to give a finishing touch to many Latin American and Spanish dishes. Cubans flavor soups, stews, and casseroles with sofrito or use it as a topping sauce over grilled chicken, beef, and pork. In Puerto Rico, sofrito is lightly sauteed in lard or olive oil and added to stewed beans, braised chicken, or fish. In Spain, sofrito is made with toasted almonds and is an essential ingredient in a seafood stew called zarzuela de pescado. When sofrito is made with annatto, the annatto is first heated in oil or lard until it becomes red, then the other ingredients are added to complete the sofrito blend. Annatto gives a wonderful orange yellow hue to the foods in which the sofrito blend is used.

ASIAN SPICE BLENDS
The abundance and variety of Asian spices and spice blends provide the wellbalanced and intense flavors found in no other cuisine. Asian foods have spice and seasoning blends that mainstream consumers are comfortable with, such as ginger, sesame, hoisin, or teriyaki sauce. They also have the aromatic sensations and unique tastes that excite adventurous consumers, such as sambals, curry powders, or kimchis. Authentic Asian blends have the well-balanced flavors and textures, great visual appeal, and variety that today’s consumers are seeking. The growing demand for foods that promote a healthier lifestyle is also fueling consumer interest in the Asian way of flavoring and eating. Asian seasonings provide both the flavor and a healthy meal. Many seasonings also contain ingredients such as lentils and soy products that are perceived as natural and healthy.

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North Americans are combining Asian food concepts, including ingredients, cooking techniques, and presentation styles, with traditional foods to create new American foods, including Pan Asian, Asian Latino, New Californian, or Pacific Rim. Some Asian ingredients and seasoning blends, such as ginger, soy sauce, fish sauce, garlic, star anise, and curry may have mass appeal throughout Asia, but Asians come from many ethnic backgrounds—including Indians, Pakistanis, Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Thais, and Vietnamese—and each Asian region has its preferences. There are also differences in flavor profiles within each region. For example, in Southeast Asia, Malaysian foods are distinct from Thai or Vietnamese foods. Even within Malaysia, flavor differences occur because of its diverse cultures. The Malay dishes are seasoned differently from the Chinese, Indian, or Nonya foods. Religion also adds to the variety and unique differences in seasonings found in Asian foods. Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Christians, and Jews of Asia have specific preferences and prohibitions for ingredients. Certain ingredients and preparation techniques are specific to different religious groups. Rice wine, widely used in Chinese and Japanese cooking is Haram (not Halal), so regions of Muslim predominance, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Pakistan, do not use it in their cooking. Garlic and onions are not used by the Buddhists. As a consequence, there are endless varieties of seasoning blends in Asia for use with fish, chicken, beef, or vegetables. Asian concepts of meals and food preparation differ from North American and European cooking in several basic ways. In traditional Western meals, there is a tendency to segregate tastes on a plate. Meats, fish, pasta, potatoes, and or vegetables are not mixed together and eaten, and sweet flavors are left for dessert. In contrast, Asian cuisines, including Chinese, Indian, and Southeast Asian foods, combine tastes and textures in a meal, often even within a single dish to create balance and harmony in a meal. And sweet and savory flavors are all interacting in a dish. For example, Indian cooking categorizes foods into six tastes: sweet, sour, salty, spicy, bitter, and astringent. The proper, well-balanced Indian meal contains all six tastes. This principle explains the complex spice combinations and depth of flavor in Indian foods. Similarly, in Chinese cooking, there are also six different tastes: sweet, salty, bitter, sour, spicy, and umami. The proper balance of these different flavors with appropriate textures and colors creates good taste in Chinese cooking. Asian cooking principles go beyond the balancing of tastes. Foods can be hot, cold, moist, dry, heavy, or light. Every meal should be well balanced between these sensations to promote digestion and well-being (see Chapter 3). Asian presentation techniques are designed to carry out this philosophy of eating. For example, Asian foods redefine the concept of an entree. In traditional western meals, the entree typically consists of a large piece of dry unseasoned or lightly seasoned meat or fish. In contrast, Asian meals feature smaller servings of meat or fish that are more seasoned and sauced, cut thin, and served with steaming white rice. In Malaysia and Indonesia, the word “nasi” means cooked rice but is also the word for “meal.” Many Asians believe that rice nourishes body and soul. Without rice, food is only a snack, not a meal. Thus, rice is the centerpiece of every Asian meal, accompanied by a variety of crunchy stir-fries, pungent condiments, and aromatic curries. Rice is also a comfort food for Asians. Rice porridge with shredded chicken and pickled vegetables, called congee, is often taken when one is sick.

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In Southeast Asian cuisines, the concept of a “main entree” and side dishes sometimes blend together to form a “one-pot,” “one-dish” meal or bowl meal. A one-pot meal may be a stew, soup, sauced noodles, or fried rice containing onions, tofu, chilies, leftover meat, vegetables, or anything available in the pantry, served with a spicy condiment. However, the addition of these ingredients is not simply random. They are chosen and added to create a balanced “system” of taste and texture. A variety of seasoned rices and noodles are commonly eaten all over Southeast Asia, for lunch, dinner, breakfast, and even as “pick me ups.” Side dishes and condiments contribute variety to an Asian meal. The hot, sour, and crunchy flavors of side dishes and condiments, whether chutneys, curries, sambals, or dals, enhance or provide balance to the overall flavor and texture of the main entree. Condiments are an integral part of Asian meals, whether teriyaki, sambal trasi, mango pickle, or koch’ujang, that perk up a dish and provide added appeal to individual tastes on a meal table. One of the most notable aspects of Thai and Vietnamese cooking is the emphasis on condiments based on fish sauce, garlic, tamarind juice, leafy spices, and chile peppers. Aromatic hot sauce to an Asian is like ketchup to a North American or salsa to a Mexican. Every region has its own hot sauce or condiment, fresh, pickled, or cooked. Southeast Asia is noted for its pungent fruity, sweet, sour, and hot condiments. There are a variety of condiments—sambal olek, chili garlic, Sriracha, sambal trassi, and nuoc cham—which contain vinegar, tomato, brown sugar, shallots, tamarind, coconut milk, garlic, lemongrass, turmeric, and black pepper. Artfully presented garnishes and toppings also provide a final note of contrasting textures, flavors, and colors. Malaysian and Indonesian seasoned rices and noodles are served with nutty roasted peanuts, caramelized crispy shallots, or crunchy bean sprouts. Fresh leafy spices are important Southeast Asian garnishes that provide fresh aromas, appealing colors, and many textural variations. The way spices and spice blends are prepared in Asian cuisines is of significance in providing distinct flavors, colors, and textures to Asian foods. Chile peppers, coriander seeds, or sesame seeds are smoked, pickled, or toasted before being added to spice blends to give more intense flavors. Steaming or grilling meats, fish, or rice in pandan or papaya leaves gives them unique flavors and visual appeal. In Asian cuisines, texture is an important element, especially in vegetable entrees. Consumers perceive crispy, crunchy vegetables as fresh and natural. In traditional American cooking, vegetables are often boiled soft and become unappetizing. Cantonese cooking, which uses steaming and stir-frying techniques with light seasonings, brings out the vegetables’ fresh colors, flavors, and textures. Appearance is also an important factor in Asian cooking. Thai and Japanese foods add sculptured fruits, chilies, flowers, and vegetables to rice dishes, noodles, grilled chicken, and fish. Spice blends provide to Asian foods the balance of hot, sweet, sour, savory, and aromatic sensations all in one meal. The spices commonly used in Asian cooking are ginger, cumin, cassia, coriander, star anise, galangal, chile peppers, coriander leaf, basils, spearmint, turmeric, clove, and garlic. A variety of fresh leafy spices, including mint leaf, cilantro, basil leaf, lemongrass, and scallions, is important in flavoring and garnishing foods and drinks.

kimchi. roasted in oil. formerly called East Pakistan. and dumplings. wheat-based breads called naan. and they use plenty of dried and fermented foods derived from buffalo meat. Buddhists. stews. These cooking techniques remove bitter notes. such as curries. only specific preferences exist. They vary depending on where they originate. vegetables. or chat masala. or teriyaki. mutton. North Indian. poppy seeds. Pork and alcohol are rarely consumed because of Pakistan’s Muslim population. The major religious influences are Hindus. soups.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 243 Seasonings such as hoisin. and Parsis. Nepal and Tibet are influenced by Chinese. and panchphoron create magic with fish. Certain spice blends have a “cross-over” appeal among different Asian ethnic groups. Sikhs. masalas. bay leaf. or add fragrant aromas. However. Yakhni or akni is the South Asian seasoning equivalent to the bouillon cubes of the western world. not all generic spice blends have the same flavor such as curry. Pakistani foods have Arabic. and nigella are popular foods. rice. fruits. Because the population is mostly Muslim. In the next section. This blend is used as a base flavoring for many Indian dishes. and wheat are eaten. cloves. Asians have mastered the art of preparing spice blends—as dry roasted. and parsley. fish. chutneys. legumes. or sauces. sauces. five-spice blend. green and red cayenne. millet. along with soups. garlic. fennel seed. coriander seed. Corn. such as curry. mustard seed. marinated mutton. kari leaf. and what end product they go into. and Europeans. and vegetables flavored with mustard. or five-spice. sambal. and lamb kebabs. chutneys. Rice. cardamom. and Afghan influences. with other blends. ginger. snacks. A basic bouillon seasoning used in India and Pakistan is an example of regional variations in South Asia. Indian cuisines have great aromas and in-depth taste . Indians. Turkish. REGIONAL CUISINES South Asia OF ASIA South Asians have mastered the art of combining different spices to create numerous blends with unique depths of flavors. fenugreek leaf. and legumes. what ingredients are added. Different preparation techniques suit specific spices and these create a multitude of flavor dimensions and colors in Asian cuisines. Jains. and cayenne. It is made from mutton or lamb with basic spices such as onions. and parsley are added to create regional tastes. such as nam pla. Also. some of the Asian spice blends from different regions will be discussed to provide an understanding of the similarities and the distinct differences in creating authentic Asian foods or Americanized Asian flavors. The seasonings are mild. Iranian. Bangladesh. Black cumin. and curries are sweeter. A North Indian version is made from onion. pork is prohibited. steamed chicken. intensify flavors. has flavors similar to India and Pakistan. Indian foods have tremendous variety because India is influenced by many cultures and religions. sambals. and grilled foods. They are noted for their festive biryanis. Muslims. or braised—all of which enhance the flavor of the finished product. fish. soups. cinnamon. green ginger.

milder and yogurt-based curries are popular. Arabs. yet each region prepares and uses them to their taste preferences. hot chilies. kodampoli. and kormas. Second Edition profiles that are derived from a complex combination of spices and preparation techniques of spices. Some of the cultures that have influenced Southeast Asia include Chinese. raisins. in the northwest. In the northern regions (around Punjab and Kashmir with Mogul. green jackfruit. tandooris. fish. for example. Christians. and Hindu influence). chile peppers. and Jews). with British influence). turmeric. fenugreek leaves. pomegranate. In the southwest (Goa). There is no one type of Indian spice blend or flavor. and mango. channa dal. Portuguese. saffron. and Dutch. British. dried fish. coriander leaf. chilies. nigella seeds. mint. coconut. fenugreek seeds. nigella. and panchphoron flavor chutneys. bay leaf. Arabs. It has fiery hot curries of fish. the Indians introduced curries. and mustard seeds flavor fish curries. hot chile peppers. sambars. and consumed based on regions. the Chinese introduced soy sauce. sambars. fenugreek. and garam masala flavor parathas. chicken. and numerous spices. mustard seed. taucheos. Seasonings. lotus seeds. while the southerners enjoy fiery tamarind and coconut-based curries. resulting in unique flavors. Sri Lankans. Rice and wheat are popular ingredients. bhel poori. urad dal. wheat predominates in the north and rice in the south. lamb. Malaysians. sambals. depending on regional and cultural preferences. black pepper. and Afghan influences). Southeast Asia The countries of Southeast Asia are geographically close and have common ingredients and similar preparation techniques. tamarind. pilafs. around Gujerat and Bombay (with Parsi. almonds. the Spanish introduced tomatoes. and crabs. Yet each region has its own unique flavors. dill seed. The Malays enjoy their pungent shrimp pastes. Arabs. noodles. Muslim Keralites/Moplas. and kala masala flavor sweet and sour sauces. kari leaf. English. It has flavors that are a fusion of many cultures. tubers. fennel seeds. Indians. Dutch. spicy sour curries. sambols. Conquerors and traders have had a significant impact on their languages. tamarind. Other commonly used ingredients are legumes. coconut milk. and adobos. chutneys. asafetida. And. lemon juice. and aromatic biryanis. Muslim/Bohris. In the south (Kerala and Tamil Nadu. mustard oil. kedgeree. green chili. kari leaf. and fermented breads. fruits. Buddhists (Singhalese). Sri Lankan cooking is influenced by Hindus (Tamils). lamb kebabs. and dals. French. ghee. Portuguese. religions. and Americans. Southeast Asia has been the crossroad for trade and religious exchange between the East and West. beef. Pakistani. Indian cuisine possesses distinct flavors that vary. dried apricots. savory rices. Spanish. Their cuisine is flavored by darkly roasted spices. coconut. mutton. the Portuguese-influenced vinegary vindaloos and tomato-based flavors are popular. Ginger. In the north. and vegetables. For centuries. leafy greens. nuts. Jews. and coconut milk. and legumes are widely used in all of these regions. Jain. vegetables. influenced by Hindus. and Flavorings. and sour dosais. the Portuguese introduced their . shrimp paste. black cumin. heavy cream. beans. fish sauce. and foods. tamarind. rose petals. In the east (Bengal.244 Handbook of Spices. dairy products. and tofu.

curries from India and Sri Lanka. coconut-based curries. Indonesian flavors in cooking vary widely among the different islands. fruits. satays. When we taste Southeast Asian foods. and mustard seeds. including soy sauce. Sumatra has fiery hot rendangs and spicy root vegetables. wrappers. shrimp paste. poultry. fruits and curries. Indian curries and dals. quick-fix dinners. a vegetable dish. peppery. which has Hindu influence. lighter and mild versions of Indian and Thai-style curries and French baquettes. The meal ends with fresh cut fruits. Singapore. and the Arab world. as snacks. basil. crunchy. sweet. noodles. hybrid flavors with elegant presentations of rice. Their foods are fragrant. while the Arabs introduced kebabs. Soups are typically served in Chinese meals. and an accompanying condiment. crepes. sweet. with influences from Malaysia. All this is balanced with pungent fish sauce. seafood. Cristiang (Portuguese influenced) hot condiments and seafood. Its charcoal-fired grilling techniques and crispy salads combine with Chinese cooking styles and sauces. crispy. lime. or fish dishes. has lemongrass. or astringent. and sour and have wonderful textures and colors. and several condiments. In the central regions. flatbreads. tangy salads (laab) are popular in the northeast. chile peppers. a Chinese influence. foods are seasoned with galangal and lime. chilies. sour fruits. Simple or complex combinations of many well-balanced sensory perceptions can be tasted at the same time. the cuisines of Southeast Asia are some of the most varied in the world. mints. aromatic leafy spices. shrimp pastes. and rice. and Bali has pungent curries and fish sambals.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 245 vinegar. vegetables. As a result. In the Northwest. and pungent shrimp paste. Nonya chilibased laksas. Most islands have a Muslim background. Vietnamese foods have fragrant aromas and vivid textures. and European-style cutlets and salads. mushrooms. bitter. surrounded by one or two meat. sour. including hot. . Java has stir-fried noodles and hot salads. and pungent fish and coconut sauces from North Malaysia. steamed glutinous rice. A typical Southeast Asian meal consists of white rice. Spicy. They have unique regional and cultural flavor variations derived from fermented bean pastes. Foods in North Vietnam have more Chinese flavors. sweet. and pastries. ginger. with wild game. Flavors vary among its regions. has spicier flavors with fish sauce.and sauce-based dishes that consist of rice or noodles. and pick-me-ups. the home of former royalty. China. Fiery. Foods from Malaysia and Singapore have similar flavors. leafy vegetables. and a variety of spices. nuts. meats or seafood. tomatoes. and pates. with pungent Malay sambals and tamarind-laced fish. and cooked rice. al dente textures derived from vegetables. and fish sauce. and grilled over charcoal. The south. spicy. bordered by Cambodia and closer to Thailand and Malaysia. except for Bali. with minced pork and chicken. and chili-lime dips. In Thailand. Mild and hot flavors predominate in the mountainous regions of the north. One-dish or bowl meals are a local favorite for lunches. and crunchy. soups and noodles. we experience a burst of differing flavors and textures. and lemongrass soup characterize the foods of the south. and black pepper with stir-fries and claypot dishes. and desserts are enjoyed. They are either stir-fries or soup. The central region. coconut milk. Chinese stir-fried noodles and soups.

dark red sauces. roasted or barbecued pork. the latter two being preferred by the Muslims. East Asia East Asian flavors such as Japanese and Chinese have become mainstream foods with North Americans. fermented fish pastes. Shanghai cuisine on the east coast has sweeter flavors and uses plenty of noodles. soy sauce. fagara. simmering. garlic. tofu. fish sauce. such as gomasio or shichimi. and koch’ujang (hot red pepper paste). tomatoes. and onions are popular ingredients. and black and white peppers as essential flavorings. Foods from Myanmar (or Burma) are influenced by neighboring India. and North American influences with pungent fish pastes. and kimchis. soy sauce. and cloves. coconut. meat. gingko nuts. coriander. depending on the regions. Their staple is glutinous rice. They have some influence from China and Korea.246 Handbook of Spices. China. In South China. A typical Korean meal. fish. Their foods delight the senses and are based on cooking techniques using fresh ingredients. using chile peppers. Philippine foods have Malay. and Thailand. Sticky rice. seaweeds. Japanese foods are lightly seasoned. The south has spicier and saltier flavor profiles than the north. Second Edition Kampuchean (or Cambodian) foods have a strong Chinese and Indian influence with rice. . pork. Rice. pickled vegetables. or deep frying). and black bean sauce. while the northerners eat wheat. Cambodia. and lamb. Szechwan and Hunan cuisines in the west are hotter. steaming. chicken. focusing more on preparation techniques. consists of steamed white rice with side dishes of kimchi. and sesame. and Flavorings. sansho. seaweeds. fish. Vegetables are eaten in abundance. and chile peppers. people eat mainly rice or noodles. garlic. chilies. pickled vegetables.” toasted seaweed. Mongolians. ginger root. with a variety of noodles. The most popular meats are pork. Japanese foods have aesthetic appeal and simplicity. The three essential sauces are kanjang (soysauce). and fruit juices. garlic. stir-fried or steamed dishes. tubers. If seasonings are used. steamed buns. soup. mushrooms. Korean foods have been influenced by neighboring Japan and China. and Indians. Seasonings. ginger. shrimp. ginseng. like French cuisine and rely on the subtle juices of ingredients and preparation techniques. Spanish. duck. turmeric. Essential flavorings include sesame. Cantonese foods have mild seasonings and. wasabi. toenjang (fermented soybean paste). adobos. sesame oil. noodles. pork. spinach “namul. preserved vegetables. Their seasonings are soy sauce. and oyster sauce. coconut milk. fish and other seafood. Laotian foods have flavors similar to Cambodian and Thai foods as well as origins from China. peanuts. beef. or pickled seafood. Japanese flavors are obtained mainly from the way ingredients are prepared and cooked (such as grilling. and sorghum. ginger. Regional cooking of China has become better known in the United States. scallions. chicken and fish curries. Chinese foods have some influences from Japanese. Beijing (or Peking) cuisine incorporates pancakes. they are used as garnishes and condiments. and fish sauce are important ingredients. millet. pickled vegetables. miso. Chinese. and lamb. pickled vegetables. ginger. mirin. sesame seeds. beans. called panchan. mint. textural and visual appeal. Rice is the staple with noodles.

aging. nutty. taotsi (Philippines). sweet bean paste made from adjuki beans is used in pastry and bun fillings and in the puddings of the Guandong (Cantonese) region. marinades. and miso (Japan). and dressings of China. black. They are also important in Singaporean braised meats and stir-fries and Indonesian sambals. sesame oil. sweet. spicy. brown. colors. taucheo (Malaysia). chile peppers. Fermented bean pastes are made to complement or enhance particular dishes. and marinades. Korea. seafood. salt. and other added ingredients. sugar. soups. Ingredients Soybeans or rice. Miso is a common ingredient in Japanese and Korean soups. Some of the fermented soybean products are the Japanese and Korean misos. white. The sensory properties of fermented soybean pastes vary with fermentation time. Each region uses its own distinct aging process and raw materials to create unique. sweet. Their flavor and color depend on whether they are made from soybeans alone or with rice or barley. The black. Japan. and vitamins. seaweed. red chile peppers. oyster sauce. barley. garlic. dips. their fermentation time. or salty. They are red. flavors. depending on the added ingredients (rice. Korea. onions. peanuts. seafood. ginger. and pickle soybeans and other beans to create sauce blends with intense flavors. Soybeans are frequently fermented to achieve end products that are richer in appearance. or dark red colored. They can be smooth or chunky. and added ingredients—chile peppers. salt. sesame. sweet. pungent soybean paste is made with garlic and is used to flavor seafood and pork dishes of Shanghai origin. sweet bean sauce (timcheo). dark black and brown Chinese bean pastes. salty. The yellow or brown bean paste is slightly sweet and flavors stir-fries of Peking origin. jang (Korea). wheat. and oyster sauces. intense flavors. taucheo). sauteed dishes. Fermented Bean Seasonings Fermented bean seasonings include soybean sauce/paste (jiangs. Salt. nutty. and the salty. or hot. and sesame oil) and their aging times. They are commonly used as seasonings to flavor the meats. Description Asians ferment. and textures. barley. and toenjang. and Japan.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 247 POPULAR EAST ASIAN SPICE BLENDS Fermented Soybean Blends Soybeans have inspired many dishes in China. and buckwheat are the starting ingredients used in creating fermented bean pastes. salted and fermented. proteins. or garlic. or scallions are some of the typically added ingredients. . rice wine. hoisin. garlic. They are sweet. pungent Korean toenjang. or yellow and are pungent. These blends are rich in flavor and have high levels of B vitamins and minerals. and Southeast Asia. These fermented bean pastes are called jiang (Mandarin). vegetables. misos. The red. the salty Malaysian taucheo. or salty and white. They are a major ingredient in Szechwan sauces.

Oyster sauce (also called hou yu jiang in Mandarin. marinades. and vegetables. Meat and seafood go well with aka miso. hacho. pork. barley. vegetables. and kicap tiram in Malaysian. nam man hoi in Thai. or stir-fries. vinegar. cooking sauces. stir-fries. For example. Thailand. and the slightly sweet pungent brown bean sauce (timcheo). whereas the yellow bean sauce is sweeter and less pungent. wheat. and slightly smoky flavor to beef. and pork dishes. or hearty. It adds a sweet. depending on the raw materials available. together with other ingredients such as rice. intense. stir-fries. such as soups. sugar. sugar. or sesame seeds are added to koch’ujang to create a hot pungent table condiment. salad dressings. depending on the raw ingredients and fermentation time. the shiro miso (soybean and rice). aka miso in northern Japan. Garlic. or used as a “sprinkle on” . It contains oyster extract or juice combined with fermented soybeans. Taucheo. a must in Japanese cooking. soba. pungent chunky black bean sauce. Second Edition Bean pastes enhance or complement many dishes. and savory tastes to many Chinese dishes. noodles. and Singaporean) is a thick. which is sweet and light yellow. sweet. Seasonings. and eating customs. Black bean sauce is thick with a deep reddish brown color and a rich flavor. such as China. They are also used as spreads for fresh spring rolls or moo shu pork skins. wherever there is Chinese influence. starch. and meat dishes and is used with spices as a topping sauce for fried tofu. Aka. meaty. shiro miso is typically used in the Kyoto region of Japan. Chinese Five-Spice Blend Many Asian regions. and Flavorings. sweet and sour. seafood. and soups use different types of misos. marinades. is used whole or pounded to flavor fish. and stirfries. The sauces are thick. or kome are different misos that are mild. which contains red pepper paste and glutinuous rice powder. and dips. and other ingredients. hoisin. Misos’ applications vary by region. Spreads. the salted whole soybean. vegetable dressings. They are mixed with hoisin. They also thicken and provide consistency to these products. climatic conditions. which is semisweet and dark brown. fish. sesame oil. and soy sauce to intensify the flavor of stir-fries. soy sauce.248 Applications Handbook of Spices. pungent. is flavored with garlic for a spicy pungent flavor which is a staple flavoring in Korea. and the shinso miso (soybean and barley). soups. pungent. which is dark reddish black and salty. have their own five-spice blend that is commonly used to season many dishes. The three most popular misos are the aka miso (all soybean). They are used throughout East Asia and Southeast Asia. fish. tofu. and India. or tomato sauce to give a wonderful blend of sweet. Miso blend. is an essential ingredient for stews. Soybeans are fermented to create salted whole beans (taucheo). salty. is a fermented product made from soybeans with sea salt and koji. shinso. a fermented soybean paste. shiro. reddish black seasoning that is commonly used for Cantonese-style cooking. while shiro miso pairs well with soups and salad dressings. or marinades. Koch’ujang. mugi. It is added to fish sauce. salty. or sweet and provide consistency and flavor to pork. Dwenjang/toenjang. Indonesian. or buckwheat. and shinshu miso in Nagano region.

soups. braised. and other meats. especially Szechwan. dried orange/tangerine peel flakes. duck. Black peppercorns can be substituted for Szechwan pepper. paste. Five-spice is mixed with salt and used as a dipping sauce for roast meats. and liquid forms. Today. cassia. anisey taste with slight camphorlike notes. Description Chinese five-spice blend is a ground mixture that is popular in Chinese cooking. fennel. Ingredients It contains sansho. It is generally used to season grilled meats. The Chinese believe that the number five has curative powers. and white poppy seeds. roasted. . white and black sesame seeds. and noodle and rice meals. grilled. this seasoning is sprinkled on prepared foods. and Peking dishes. and garlic. It is used in the Chinese-influenced dishes of Vietnam. Application In Japan. It has a pungent. Thailand. so this blend started its use as a medicine. such as pork. and its color ranges from a tan to gingery brown. Malaysia. chile peppers. and sesame oil to create the popular Chinese roast pork called char siew.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 249 seasoning at the meal table. clove. Its texture is gritty. dried nori/seaweed flakes. cardamom. The Chinese five-spice is the most well-known five-spice blend in the United States while the Bengali panchporon is an emerging blend. It is also used as a popular table condiment. poultry. It is slightly sweet and soy-sauce-like and is sold in dried. It is mixed with red color. licorice. Japanese Seven-Spice Blend/Shichimi Togarashi Description Shichimi togarashi is a finely ground mixture of spices that is essential to Japanese cooking. It is also called wu xiang fen in Mandarin and phong pha lo in Thai. and Szechwan pepper. Ingredients Chinese five-spice blend is made from star anise. Hunan. Foods get bitter if too much of the spice blend is used. It has a hot spicy taste with a citrus aroma. commercially sold blends also contain ginger. and Singapore. dry sherry. soy sauce. Each one contains different ingredients based on regional preferences. Applications Chinese five-spice blend is an important flavoring in hoisin sauce and other Chinese marinades for deep-fried. Teriyaki Blend Description Teriyaki adds flavor and color to raw and cooked foods in Japanese cuisine. The blend pairs well with rice wine. or barbecued foods. chicken. or ground dried tangerine peel. soy sauce. and raw or deep-fried vegetables. shallots.

” In Cantonese. spicy. other ingredients are used. roasts. sugar. Hoisin pairs well with chicken. vinegar. it is made with wheat flour and sugar. and vinegar to create char siew or roast pork (a Cantonese specialty). reddish brown or dark brown sauce with a slightly sweet. Plum puree. shellfish. and tangy flavor. and fivespice blend. duck. deep-fried and battered seafood. Sometimes. tomatoes. seafood. Ginger. sugar. garlic. onions. or garlic. and fish stocks can be added to give extra edge or different flavor notes to enhance specific applications. red beans. and ginger. dumplings. a marinade for ribs. sesame oil. Traditionally. sesame oil. ribs. wheat. It is combined with chilies. tofu. sesame oil. oranges. and seafood dishes. such as ground sesame seeds. which means “sweet wheat paste. Application Teriyaki complements broiled and steamed dishes such as steaks. Hoisin sauce is widely used in Cantonese-style cooking to season meats. vegetables. scallions. Pineapples. garlic. Hoisin provides a deep. rice wine. . and Flavorings. soy sauce. chicken. chicken. Seasonings. Applications Hoisin is used as a dipping sauce. and duck and as an accompaniment to Peking duck and moo shu pork. or chile peppers are sometimes added to create differing flavor variations in applications. chives. sashimi. or vegetable tempuras. The basic teriyaki ingredients are soy sauce. It originated in northern China and is called tianmian jiang in Mandarin. Second Edition Ingredients There are many versions of teriyaki sauce. and bell peppers are chopped or sliced and added to teriyaki sauce. vinegar. and spinach.” Ingredients Hoisin sauce blend is made from soybeans.250 Handbook of Spices. It flavors dipping sauces that are used for wontons. shrimp. and stir-fry dishes. hoisin means “sea fresh sauce. lychees. Peking. It is commonly used as a Japanese-style marinade for grilled or roast beef. and barbecues. and Cantonese cooking. rich flavor and color to stir-fries. and vegetables. and sweet rice wine. caramel. It is a thick. double-cooked pork (a Szechwan specialty). plum sauce. It is also used as a table condiment and dipping sauce. Hoisin Sauce Blend Description Hoisin sauce is one of the most important seasonings in Szechwan. vegetables.

the types and proportions of ingredients used. The English coined the term curry from the word “kaari” or “kaaree” in the South Indian Tamil language. A basic curry blend from South Asia consists primarily of cumin. mango. There are many versions of how the word “curry” originated. fenugreek. Africa. or rices. curries are a mixture of many different spices (whole. Through trade. and the Caribbean. or crushed) with fruits. kari leaf. clove. vegetables. or colombo. and turmeric. They are becoming “hot” in the United States because curries satisfy consumers’ increasing appetite for spicier ingredients. Curry blends pair well with garlic. It would be difficult to develop an industry-wide standard for curry blends because of the numerous types of curries. depending on who creates them. cultural influences. and immigration. other vegetables. with resulting variations. vindaloo paste. ginger. or sambar podi. coriander leaf. or poultry. black or red pepper.” Other stories say that the British took the word curry from “kari leaf. Whether called curry powder. Europe. such as rendang. ground. tamarind. lime juice. Ingredients A good curry blend or masala contains a well-balanced proportion of spices. panchphoron. colonization. and other ingredients. and the application—meat. curry spread to other parts of Asia. vegetable. and celery seeds are added to create these variations. and vinegar. gulai. lemon juice. Many versions exist depending on regional preferences. lemongrass. the availability of ingredients. all contain mixtures of spices blended for specific applications and to suit regional preferences. Spices such as cardamom. Generally. yogurt. snacks. mint.” a pungent leafy spice used in sauces of South India. gaeng. While spice mixtures called kari podis and masalas for flavoring sauces have been made for thousands of years in India. chat masala. their preparation. Madras curry powder.” which was shortened to “turri” and mispronounced as curry by the Westerners. Yet another source traces curry from the Hindustani word “turcurri. nuts.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 251 POPULAR SOUTH ASIAN SPICE BLENDS Curry Blends/Kari Podis/Masalas Description Curry originated in India.” Curry or curry powder is an English term for a commercialized spiced sauce or spice mixture from India. shallots. Curry blends differ in flavor and color. the term “curry” is derived from the Indian word “Kari. seeds. cinnamon. low fat and low sodium dishes. coriander. fish. There are hundreds of curry blends in South Asia. South Asians toast the whole spices then grind them to obtain more fragrant aromas and crunchiness and to remove raw tastes of spices so proper digestion of food is achieved. w’et. and the end application. korma paste. mustard seeds. garam masala. coconut milk. Another origin of the word curry is derived from “karahi. tomato. Curry blends are used not only to flavor sauces but also to flavor stews. . which means “sauce” or “gravy.” a woklike vessel used to cook curries in North India and Pakistan.

sweet. chicken masala blend. Others contain pomegranate seeds. chicken. and green cardamom. most curries are chile-based. Second Edition South India South Indian curries. Garam masala is the most popular masala used in North Indian cooking. fennel. darkly roasted spices such as coriander. black pepper. They are generally made with lamb. Specific Curry Blends Chat masala is a popular green curry mixture used in North India. and Flavorings. eggplant. sorpotel. it includes the cooler . It is commonly used to flavor sauces and snacks. dried fruits. and Bangladesh are influenced by Mogul and Persian cooking and often have yogurt. The “black” curries contain kari leaves. and extremely hot. ground mustard. cinnamon. “Popped” mustard seeds are usually added. channa makhani blend. and pungent with some sour notes. mace. are hot. or vegetables. and fenugreek. saffron. Seasonings. cinnamon. mango. Some curries have dried and powdered Maldive fish. mint leaves. Garam masala means “hot or warm spice mixture” containing spices that create heat in the body. creamy. and nutmeg. and unripe jackfruit. goat. Madras curry. rogan josh blend. pork padam. and cardamon. korma blend. lentils. ginger. Its ingredients vary. cumin seeds. Pakistan. and kofta curry blend. coconutty. Sri Lanka In Sri Lanka. and Bangladesh Curry spice mixtures in the north are generally called masalas (plain masala or garam masalas). pungent. along with shallots. ajwain seeds. or thin and are generally made with fish. Tiny bird’s eye peppers provide the heat. salty. lime juice. turmeric. Curries from North India. clove. frikkadel. Kashmir curry blend. fruity. or kari. and kokum. saucy. matar keema blend. or dry. cumin. traditionally. It is generally used with curry blends to add zest to sauces. erachi kotu (mutton). and legumes. and xacuti curry. Some popular curry sauce blends are saag blend. fenugreek. nutty. cinnamon. which comes from the Arabic language. soupy. and other ground spices including cloves. black peppercorn. and cardamom. keera kootu. keema bafat. cinnamon. jalfrezi blend. and dried mango powder (amchur). meen kolambu. and nuts to characterize them. Essential ingredients in the curry blend are chile peppers. and kari leaf. The milder curries contain coconut milk and tamarind. Today. asafetida. but. chicken. A typical blend uses green chilis. rich. beef smoore. bay leaf. and duck padre. Other ingredients are coriander leaves. and there are many versions of it. They can be dry. Chat masala has a tart. coriander seeds. vegetables. ginger. and aromatic.” more pungent spices such as brown cardamom. spicy. konju meen. Some popular Sri Lankan curries are fish pindun. methi leaves. cloves. coconut milk. masala murgh blend. black peppercorns. garam masala contains the “warmer. North India. Optional spices are clove. They are mild. These curry blends characterize vindaloo.252 Handbook of Spices. coriander leaves. tamarind. Pakistan. and ghee. These spices are ground for use in North Indian curries. and hot flavor. It comes as a wet paste or a dry mix. paprika.

or fish are marinated in a blend of yogurt. mutton. black peppercorn. fenugreek. turmeric. and rarely in vegetable or fish dishes. cinnamon. or vegetables. onion. sesame seeds. Korma blend has almonds. less in poultry and biryanis (layered meats and rice). sauces. and bay leaf. green cardamon. In Muslim-style biryanis. Xacuti curry blend is from Goa and contains cumin. and bay or cinnamon leaf. It is generally added to meat dishes. cinnamon. lamb. fennel. cardamom. It goes well with lamb. lemon juice. or celery seeds are added. kari leaf. cumin. cardamom. was created by the Moguls of North India who baked food in a “tandoor” or clay-type oven heated with charcoals. coriander. and ground red chili. green cardamon. such as fennel. curry . It contributes to the aroma of a finished sauce and is usually sprinkled on just before serving or toward the end of cooking to avoid bitterness caused by prolonged cooking. cumin. Applications Commercial curry blends come as powders. It contains roasted dry spices such as dried ground red chilies. medium. nutmeg. ginger. It can also contain ground. dals. an aromatic. dry curry from North India. clove. cassia. or idli. with a creamy consistency. shrimp. which are roasted until a dark color is obtained. cumin. a black spice mixture popular in Sri Lanka. yogurt. and shredded coconut. korma sauce is layered between cooked basmati rice and is baked to give biryanis their characteristic aromatic flavor. mustard seeds. a typical one having cumin. and mild. coriander. and ground spices. and shredded toasted coconut. has kala masala in many versions. consists of roasted and ground clove. It generally complements fish. coriander. especially at breakfast. and black pepper. black peppercorn. and certain vegetables. chile peppers. coriander. coriander. red chile peppers. cumin. coriander. spicy marinade. cardamom. cumin. They also are available hot. chicken. Samanthi podi is another popular dark brown spice mixture in Kerala. Garam masala is dry-roasted and used to enhance many curry dishes. pastes. It is used for baked dishes. and kari leaves. It contains dried toasted coconut. While in the United States. pungent curry from Tamil Nadu in south India. Maharashtra. Other spices are similar to the garam masala. thosai. mace. Based on regional preferences. and vegetable dishes.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 253 spices. in north India. chile peppers. such as ground chile pepper. It usually lacks turmeric. cinnamon and cloves. coriander seeds. black pepper. fenugreek seeds. aromatic. Kashmiri masala is mild and aromatic with green cardamon as the predominating spice. It is brown. contains any combination of cumin. Korma is a braised. Toasted and ground lentils are optional. or oils that offer convenience and consistency for a recipe. turmeric. cinnamon. toasted lentils and rice. Prior to baking. Madras curry blend is a hot. Char masala. This spice blend is added to chicken. a four-spice mixture used in Afghanistan. Kala masala. or mild depending on the amount of chile pepper added. It flavors condiments and chutneys that are served with local breads such as puttu. tamarind. Panchphoron is a five-spice mixture from Bengal that contains fennel. or black pepper. chicken. fish. mustard. Tandoori blend. asafetida. fenugreek. and kalonji. and onion.

or seeds provide the “body. mint). or toor/toovar dal. garlic. cayenne. toasting. and urad dal (black lentil/black gram) that are mixed with spices. They are added directly into cooking “as is” or they are dryroasted or “popped” whole in hot oil to render them fragrant. texture. Ingredient preparation and cooking techniques create numerous flavor. channa dal. black peppercorn. Color is also an important sensory attribute of curry. or chile peppers. braising. such as dry-roasting. then ground into the “podis” or mixtures. texture. It is used in stews. Second Edition blends contain ingredients that have mass appeal. This blend is added with tamarind juice to make a spicy. . nuts. onions. such as coriander seeds. cumin. toovar dal. cumin. black peppercorns. mustard seeds. ginger. such as mace. cayenne. dips. kari leaves. and onions. poultry. When creating a sauce or curry. and color profiles of fish. are added later to retain their aromas. but they often lack the flavor-enhancing effect required for a specific application. then cooled. The spices are roasted for a few minutes. basil. ground. Sambar podi contains channa dal (Bengal gram). It is also important to maintain the aroma and taste of freshly ground spices. and Dal Podi Description South India vegetarian dry spice mixtures often contain ground or whole “dals” (lentils) and are used in sauces. channa dal. green leafy spices (cilantro. dry or wet. Many other lentils or beans are also used in combination with spices to add zest or texture to foods. and snacks. or vegetables. Some spices are more volatile than others. channa dal. meat. The more volatile spices. vegetables. Cumin. Seasonings. or sauteing. and rasam podi. Rasam podi contains toor dal. and ground red chilies. The podis usually contain urad dal. asafetida. black peppercorns. different flavor dimensions can be achieved. fenugreek seeds. saffron. To create the authentic products that consumers demand. nuts. These spicy lentil mixtures include sambar podi. coriander. asafetida. Dal podi contains toor dal. urad dal.254 Handbook of Spices. coriander. curries must include specific or specially prepared ingredients that will enhance the flavor. turmeric. dal podi. turmeric. and cardamom. By using ground or whole spices and cooking techniques. certain vegetables. and used for stews and soups. and curries and to enhance flavor and texture of chutneys.” The consistency of a finished curry varies and can be thick or thin. paprika. and color profiles in a curry sauce blend. sour soup. cumin seeds. soups. such as cumin and turmeric. The order and time when ingredients are added in the cooking process are also crucial in obtaining the flavor desired. and fennel are dry-roasted and added first. potatoes. sauces. Sambar Podi. Color is contributed by turmeric. coriander. and dips. and kari leaves. cinnamon. Rasam Podi. then added whole or ground with spices and other flavorings. Ingredients Indian “dals” or lentils are fried or dry-roasted. and Flavorings.

ginger. and an understanding of their usage will help create appropriate lentil spice mixtures. Pickle and Chutney Blends Description Pickles and chutneys are essential accompaniments to Indian meals. is used raw in chutneys. and fried foods. There are many variations of chutneys and pickles. Pickles contain discrete pieces of mangoes. plums. vinegar. and sweet flavors. garlic. Urad dal is widely used in South India where it is fermented with rice and mixed with spices and curry leaves to create dosai. fish. mint. and sugar. soups. pickles. Chutneys or chatnis. and dates. sesame seeds. ground for sweets. tandooris. They are served alongside hot curries and cold foods. mustard oil. They are usually eaten with local breads or rice. incorporating fresh or dried fruits such as citrus. Ingredients The main ingredients used in pickles and chutneys are mango. is popularly used in the Punjab region and is braised for use in tangy. pineapples. or tomato. whereas chutneys contain smooth or coarsely textured ingredients such as coconut. and appetizers. coconut. and snacks such as vadai or pappadum. bread. uncooked. snacks. mint. figs. The leafy spices are usually added crushed or added whole to the ground spices. They consist of spices. and pickles. steamed idli. They add zest and texture to the main meal with their hot. These podis are added to chutneys. cranberries. These chutneys can be compared to the freshly made or cooked salsas of Latin America. bell peppers. and tamarind. Channa dal. soups. are essential condiments and side dishes in every Indian meal. peaches. Chutneys originated in India and were introduced into England and Europe by British colonials. mustard seeds. popular in all of India. . green chile peppers. There are unlimited variations of these condiments. sour. dals are used in many different applications. turmeric. or vegetables. carrots. Kala channa. breads. smooth-textured chutney that goes well with roasted/grilled meats. vegetables. Toovar dal exhibits a thick and more gelatinous consistency and is combined with channa dal. roasted whole as a spicy snack. or limes. and chilies to create sambars. cucumbers. ginger. a smaller. chile peppers.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 255 Applications In Indian cooking. Mint/pudina chutney is fragrant. characterizing flavors. lime. and sauces of south India. The British chutneys tend to be sweet and tart. apricots. darker chickpea. depending on regional preference as well as on the type of food it is eaten with—meat. squash. and green tomatoes are added. and some are included below. It contains mint. fresh vegetables such as corn. apples. or whole with vegetables and chutneys. They can also be freshly prepared (uncooked) or cooked. spicy cumin and corianderbased sauces. Today. apples. salty. rice. fruits. cilantro. These ingredients are usually fermented or pickled to achieve intense. which translates to “licking good” in Sanskrit. spices.

lime. soups. ginger. They are used for breakfast. Green chile achar is a pungent spicy pickle with green cayenne. or dinners. chicken. Applications Pickles containing mango. cucumber and pineapple sambal (Malaysia). Tomato/thakali chutney is an uncooked or cooked. Some examples include sambal belacan (Malaysia. sweet. ginger. ground cumin seeds. mustard oil. ginger. They are also used as dips for breads. and spicy condiment. Coconut/nariel chutney is an uncooked. Mixed pickle/sabzi achar is a spicy. and sugar. green chilies. onions. POPULAR SOUTHEAST ASIAN SPICE BLENDS Sambal Blends Description Sambals are the hot sauces of Southeast Asia and are used the same way Tabasco sauce is used in the United States or salsa is used in Mexico. garlic. sambal olek (Southeast Asia). They are essential table condiments used to perk up rices. mild curries. sambal badjak (Indonesia). ginger. white radish/mooli. turmeric. Chutneys usually accompany snacks and tone down fiery sauces. carrot. or slightly sweet and include mango. Seasonings. shredded carrot. eggplant. They can be spicy. It has roasted tomatoes. sambal trasi (Indonesia). and turmeric. tomato. green chile peppers with vinegar. onion. cauliflower. sambal tomat and sambal matah (Bali). green mangoes. meat. thosai. black mustard seeds. and vegetables and for spicing fruit and vegetable salads. black mustard seeds. It is also commonly served as dips with samosas. roasted cumin seeds. Indonesia and Malaysia have many varieties of sambals with their meals. cayenne. sour. and lotus root. barbecues. tart pickle with green/ripe mango with mustard seeds. It has toasted coconut flakes. mustard oil. . mustard oil. or chappatis. and lemon juice. pakoras.256 Handbook of Spices. mint. It usually accompanies fermented breads. and roasted curry leaves. fish. and very fragrant. Second Edition coriander leaves. such as dosai or idli. and hot mixed vegetable pickle commonly eaten all over India with any meal. ginger. and garlic. and tamarind. lemon juice. black pepper. sweet. and other appetizers. breads. coriander leaves. “popped” mustard seeds. coarsely textured. roasted. Sambals are also used as base sauces for cooking shrimp. turmeric. cayenne. carrots. and fish and chicken. Mango pickle is a spicy. and nam prik (Thailand). fenugreek seed. It complements seafood dishes. commonly used in South and North India. It contains garam masala. or chilies with spices and yogurt are generally used to provide bite to vegetarian meals as well as to balance the flavors in curries or dals. snacks. and Flavorings. Singapore). sesame oil. and fried foods. such as idli. fennel. garlic. Sambals are hot. and spicy sweet specialty condiment of South India. nigella. The fragrant aroma is developed when the sambal sauce blend is “tumised” or sauteed slowly with constant stirring until the oil seeps out from the mixture. and noodles. coconut. sour. sour. lunch. onions. ground mustard. green chilies.

candlenuts. bengkuang ( jicama). Ingredients and Applications Burma/Myanmar Their dishes are influenced by the Chinese. fried rice. and carrot are added to sambals. Applications Southeast Asians add sambals to almost anything. Their curries are oily. bird peppers. green papaya. cucumber. pork. cucumber. Their curry blends are mild or medium hot as compared to South Indian curries. cuttlefish. ginger. Each region has developed its own distinct curry blends. fish paste. or a little curry powder and coriander leaf by the Indians. tofu. generally serve sambals with laksas. Examples are kyethar peinathar hin. tomatoes. or belimbing in their sambals and serve them as side dishes with their “nasi” or boiled white rice. and the bark of the banana tree. ginger. garlic. fish sauce. Curry Blends Description Indians have influenced Southeast Asian with their curry blends. petis (fermented shrimp pasta). ikan bilis. stir-fried noodles. Thais. tamarind. tomatoes. even as spreads to sandwiches and as fillings to buns and pastries. coconut milk. or noodles that are enjoyed by Malaysians and Singaporeans are served with fiery pungent sambals. or fish dishes. which have become important flavorings in Southeast Asian cooking. mango.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 257 Ingredients The basis for most sambals is chile peppers. Chettiar or monsoon curry. such as lemongrass. Malays add fish. Every meal has a choice of one or more sambals to suit the accompanying dish. from Malaysia. and chile peppers. tamarind. peanuts. called “nasi lemak. Indians. and pazun hin. chicken. with sesame. belimbing wuluh. rices. Fruits and vegetables. laksas. . prawns. and peanut oils. Nonyas. turmeric. such as ginger and soy sauce (for less heat) by the Chinese. with other added vegetables. Like sambals. bairather sepiyan. they are used in sauces (wet or dry). galangal. and condiments. mango. Curry blends are used in duck. It can be as simple as shallots with cili boh (pureed chilies) and lime juice or more complex with other added ingredients. Salads. A typical breakfast in Malaysia and Singapore. or “bunga kantan” by the Nonyas. nutmeg. and lime juice. mohinga. and coconut milk by the Malays. Burma’s curry blends include basic spices such as onion. mint. shallots. such as pineapple.” is a coconut milk and lemongrass-based rice dish that is topped or served with sambals made from prawns or ikan bilis (an anchovy-like fish). palm sugar. shrimp paste. and vegetable dishes. brown sugar. fish. soups. belacan (fermented shrimp pasta). Each ethnic group adds its special flavoring to these sambals. and tomatoes. and Cambodians. kaffir lime leaves. candlenuts.

sweet. egg and potato curry. which has influences from Penang (in North Malaysia). Curry blends are used with pork and chicken. fish sauce. Thai curries. and sweet potatoes. which is influenced by Indian Muslims. Second Edition Cambodia/Kampuchea Cambodian dishes have strong Chinese and Indian influences. coconut milk. and cardamom. garlic. mint. fish sauce. red chilies. are hot and fiery with plenty of fresh or dried chile peppers that include cayenne or bird peppers. garlic. chile peppers. and the coconut milk gives them a creamy consistency. Their neighboring Thais have also influenced with their curries. Examples include lemongrass curry. South Vietnam has been influenced by Indian traders who introduced curries. and coriander leaf. Indians. The curry blends include lemongrass. called gaengs or kaengs. taro. The lemongrass provides their curry blends with a fibrous texture. has coconut milk shallots. seafood. yellow curry includes fresh turmeric and yellow chilies. North Vietnam cuisine is influenced most by the Chinese. Kaffir lime leaves. kalee peel. shrimp paste. The southern region of Laos uses fish sauce. Some examples include Saigon cari. and green eggplant. nutmeg. Thai curry . chicken. They are milder than Thai curries. shallots. and chile peppers. Curry blends are used with meats. peanuts. and chicken. Thai curry blends pair well with pork. and eggs but rarely with vegetables. peanuts. coconutty flavor. chile peppers. lemongrass. sour. catfish. and Cambogee. green curry has coriander leaves. The essential ingredients are fish sauce. Vietnam Vietnamese curries are influenced by Chinese. and less intense than Indian curries. lime. and Flavorings. vinegar. including clove. cari ga. Laos Laos is greatly influenced by southern Chinese and northern Thai cooking. influenced by Chinese cooking. which are called caris. frog legs. turmeric. Seasonings. Bean sprouts. such as pork and water buffalo. mung bean noodles. mint.258 Handbook of Spices. Thailand Thai curry blends are hot. and tamarind. eggplant. and dried. potatoes. and Panang. contains more spices. pungent. coconut milk. and chile peppers as essential ingredients to spice up their sauces. lemongrass. Curry blends are added to ground meats. galangal. and sweet potatoes. Thai red curry is pungent and intense with coriander root. uses soy sauce instead of fish sauce to flavor their foods. coconut milk. sugar. cinnamon. The Hmong cuisine of Laos. taro. lemongrass. yams. and French. which are usually stir-fried. Thai basil. and Echnau cari. Laotian curry blends’ essential ingredients are ginger. They are slightly sour and sweet with a strong turmeric color. Laotian curries are very smooth and starchy. Mussaman curry. coconut milk. Examples are catfish curry. bamboo shoots. and eggs are other added ingredients. galangal. and aromatic and some of them have a strong. and green beans are some essential ingredients in their local curries. green chilies. coconut milk. shrimp paste. and mok pla. Their flavors are similar to Cambodian cooking and have influences from India.

They are generally hot. Essential ingredients in curries are galangal. The Nonyas add tamarind. coconut milk. mint. ginger flower. and gulai putih. turmeric. Indians. fish balls. Singapore. tomatoes. and chile peppers. roasted flavors. galangal. lime. shallots. and spices that provide . Chinese. trendy. galangal. belacan. seafood. Essentially. Malaysia/Singapore Malaysian and Singaporean curry blends are influenced by South Indians. kurma blend. or sambals are some of the ingredients that are added for variety. asam pedas blend. and lemongrass to make pungent. kapitan curry blend. as dips for flat breads (naan. coconut. sambars. curry pastes are rubbed on fish. Nonyas. tamarind. garam masala. Dutch. yogurt. candlenuts. and local vegetables to create their famous fish head curry. lemongrass. wrapped in banana leaves and then grilled or baked. mint. They can be dry or soupy. shrimp paste. tandooris. roti canai). dry mutton curry. Gujerati. terong kari. chappati. Panang. masak lemak. gulai kambing. nuts. coconut milk. keema blend. Indians use many spices. but vary regionally. Their curries vary depending on their South Asian ancestry: Punjabi. They use plenty of fruits. Malays. tamarind. tart. pandan leaf. and spicy basil are some of the popular Thai curry blends. manioc. star anise. In Singapore and Malaysian curries. including kari leaves. pickles. dosai. or as bases for soups. Other ingredients are eggplant. In Bali. potatoes. or beef and are used to perk up soups. ubi kentang kari.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 259 pastes are added to pork. and sayur lodeh blend. and lime leaves. with a heavy Hindu influence. Examples are rendang blend. and stir-fries. Bengali. Red (nam prik gaeng ped). Fried shallots and sliced boiled eggs are common toppings for curries. and coconut milk to create hot and aromatic fish curries. and tamarind to make vindaloos. to flavor rice (called biryanis). pork. turmeric. olive oil. chicken. and fiery laksa curries. dips. kari ayam blend. sothis. Mughlai blend. and very aromatic. salads. fish sauce. and the Balinese. laksa blends. yellow. or Sri Lankan. adds soy sauce. or keemas. ginger. The Malays add bird peppers. vegetables. the Javanese enjoy sweet and hot curries with kecap manis and ginger. chicken. debil kari blend. salam leaf. sandwich fillings. and the Portuguese. Keralan. their curry blends contain Indian spicing with added Malay and Nonya ingredients. and part of a healthful lifestyle. Chinese. and rendangs. The Minangkabaus in East Sumatra eat fiery curries with beef and coconut milk. MEDITERRANEAN SPICE BLENDS Mediterranean foods are tasty. fish head curry blend. Curries are very popular as side dishes to rice. dry mutton curry blend. green (kreung gaeng kiow wahn). and spicy salads. biryanis. mutton curry. coriander leaf. candlenuts. or beef. use more aromatic spices with the local sambals. trasi. Mussaman. They are similar to Malay curries. Some Indonesian curry sauce blends include beef rendangs. which has a stronger Chinese influence. pungent. okra. Indonesia Arabs. and Portuguese influenced Indonesian curries.

Turkey. and Parmigiana (parmesan) are common in Mediterranean meals and are used for salads. pilaf. manchego. Pork and veal are popular in Spain. and harissa. breads. bourride. and olives are some of the other unique flavors. Certain ingredients and preparation techniques are specific to different religious groups. or to flavor other dishes. or risotto) using arborio. pureed. the east (Middle East) by mint. romano. Basque regions) is characterized by sweet leafy spices (basil. dried. cayenne pepper. and the south (northern Africa) by coriander. so regions of Muslim predominance do not use it in their cooking. The cooking is simple and rooted in the soil. or a beverage. It is served plain or with fruits and is used as a cooking medium. as stocks for a main entree. Jews. and Arabs have specific preferences and prohibitions for ingredients such as lamb. Muslims. and pimientos have mass appeal in all of the regions. It is sauced over fried eggplant. gruyere. Seafood plays an integral part in the Mediterranean diet with many varieties of fish which can be used fresh. Christians. Patna. Antipasti. The natural flavors and textures of the ingredients are kept intact using light sauces. and Flavorings. Egypt. Mediterranean foods will continue to grow in popularity because of their light sauces and healthy ingredients and cooking techniques. Rice is served plain accompanied by stew or condiments. northern African. Italy. The Middle East. There are no intricate flavor combinations with Mediterranean cooking. widely used in southern French and Tuscan cooking. Bouillabaisse. with vegetables.260 Handbook of Spices. Spiced and preserved meats and fish. Seasonings. where eating of pork is forbidden. fish. and Italy. Each Mediterranean . and served alongside pollou. buffalo. domiatti. zarzuela de pescado. in desserts. or as a one-dish meal (paella. Olive oil. sofrito. Religion adds to the variety and unique flavor differences found in Mediterranean foods. beans. mixed into cucumber soup. fruits. a thickener. mozzarella. Likewise. soupe de poisson. and the Middle Eastern countries that surround the Mediterranean. is not a Halal item. sesame. thyme. Northern Mediterranean cuisine (Provence. the west (Spain) by bacalao. parsley. mezzes. Certain ingredients are commonly used throughout the Mediterranean. garlic. and olive oil are a way of life with Mediterraneans. France. but each region has its own unique flavors. The variety comes from the different ingredients. Lamb and mutton are seasoned and grilled as kebabs in the Islamic regions. and tagine del hout are some of the popular fish dishes. Wine. or Spanish rice. or goat’s milk. and wine. and Tunisia) have stronger and spicier notes that will excite an adventurous consumer. grilled. or as toppings for main entrees. tomatoes. and saffron. and yogurt. or pork. pecorino. rosemary). pickled vegetables. pomegranate juice. crystallized and dried fruits. dried fruits. and northern Africa (Ethiopia. ricotta. Mediterranean foods take their unique flavors from many regions and encompass all of the varied foods of southern European. Second Edition great variety and visual appeal. They are typically derived from sheep. Mediterranean blends range from the familiar Italian pasta blends to the more exotic North African harissas. lamb. Cheese such as feta. pippali. Muslims or Jews do not use pork flavoring. Morocco. Yogurt is used abundantly in Middle Eastern and North African meals. beef. and tapas using a variety of vegetables.

roasted. melons. fluffy. pureed. They can also be pitted or stuffed with anchovies. Nuts. it is steamed (covered or uncovered) in the aromatic vapors of a meaty stew or broth. fish. butter. and nafplion olives from Greece. whether pickled. garlic. black-eyed peas. almonds. nectarines. In Ethiopia. and are ground into flour for desserts. risottos. pizzas. and puttanesca sauce are many of the familiar items with olives. wheat. Mediterraneans enjoy a variety of flat breads that are fermented. Chickpea flour is used in a hearty vegetable soup for breaking the daily fast during Ramadan. navy beans. persimmons. is precooked pasta that takes on the flavors of other ingredients with which it is prepared. or clarified butter. are popular foods eaten in the Middle East. and sorbets. and Lebanon is made with white fava beans or chickpeas with spices and chile peppers and is served at breakfast. candy. and salads. lentils are seasoned with berbere seasoning and eaten with injera. Broad beans. spreads. tagines. tomatoes. and salads. spreads. tarts. firm. They are compatible with many leafy spices. breads. and chorizos. soft. stews. falafel.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 261 region has its own preference for rices. soups. anchovy paste. They are combined with vegetables. scoop up food. stews. green and yellow split peas. vinegar. an aromatic olive and caper spread. or cayenne before they can be eaten. Borlotti beans. North African baladi and injera. such as walnuts. raisins. lamb patties. and sauces or are steamed with couscous. yogurt dips. In traditional Moroccan cooking. chickpeas. It is served as a side dish or a one-bowl meal and made into wonderful desserts with fruits and spices. or added to ice cream. Spanish manzanilla and Spanish Queen. or as a base to spread olive oil. Egypt. rice. Couscous. shapes. preserved in syrups. Fruits are eaten fresh. made from pureed chickpeas and sesame. flageolets. as garnishes. whether sticky. such as citrus. to season foods. The presentation and preparation of couscous varies depending upon the country. and Middle Eastern pita. fava beans. pears. Olives are ubiquitous in Mediterranean cooking. cassoulet. and the Italian green and Moroccan types have become regular items on our grocery shelves. or creamed. and chile peppers. thicken soups. ful medamus. and tanoor are eaten with spicy condiments. Olives are served as appetizers with cheese. and red kidney beans are the peasant foods of this region. spicy lamb stew. figs. Italian focaccia. a popular dish from Morocco and other regions of North Africa. separate. casseroles. and black-eyed peas provide body and texture to dishes of rice. barbari. or capers. and as purees. a street food in Israel. pomegranates. and cholent. a garlicky herb puree made from fava beans. or dinner. Tapenade. salad nicoise. lentil salad. Black kalamata. noodles. grapes. or tapenade. braised. baked. fried chicken. The long French baguette. and bissara. such as pasta e fagioli. Hummus. antipastos. There are a variety of fresh fruits. There are many varieties with different colors. and meat to provide a complete meal. They are pickled and seasoned with lemon. icon-ian. almonds. a holy time of the year for Muslims. Falafel. fresh leafy spices. or pine nuts add crunchiness to poached fish. quinces. lunch. peaches. They are prepared and seasoned in a variety of ways and used in salads. or as a cooking oil. and sizes. great northern chickpeas. red lentils. or fried and are used to soak up sauces. It can be eaten with stews. or seasoned vegetables. apples. In the Middle East. nuts. wine. and . meat kebabs. lemon rind.

picada. basil. meats. clove. and beans from the New World. salsa verde. REGIONAL CUISINES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN The northern Mediterranean includes Spain. is a popular item in eastern Mediterranean cooking and has many variations using garlic. pomegranates. and mint. which are used in dishes such as paella Valenciana. . The essential ingredients in Spanish cooking are olive oil. peppery with cayenne. tapenade. and ginger. pine nuts. tomatoes. but also with cooking styles. North Africans. Italians. mint. pickled. potatoes. marinated. pistachios. tasty side dishes with variety and excitement. There is great diversity not only with ingredients. served as a mezze. olives. pumpkin. asparagus. walnuts. black pepper. kohlrabi. Let’s look into the regions of the Mediterranean. vanilla. pickling. dill. tarator. or dill. stuffed and baked. or in Middle Eastern ratatouille. There are numerous seasonings used with fish. savoy cabbage. cumin. Garlic and olive oil are popular items used with a variety of ingredients such as cayenne pepper. gam-bas al ajillo. meats. and Flavorings. They are usually eaten raw. Mediterranean foods offer a variety of vegetables. cardoon. Second Edition strawberries. thyme. and dips. tarragon. Eggplant is popular in soups and dips. Spain Spain had influences from the Moors. and French. how they are different. cinnamon. sauces. savory with coriander. eggs. Mediterranean foods are aromatic with fresh leafy spices such as mint. Other typical flavorings in Spain include saffron. and seasoned with garlic. sauteed. grilled. lemon juice. figs. leeks. southern France. cayenne. and the many different tomato sauces. harissa. Grilling creates wonderful aromas and flavors with vegetables. braised or pureed. basil. onions. Dried fruits such as figs. and sweet bell peppers. artichoke. Grilling techniques using aromatic woods are popular around the northern Mediterranean. Seasonings. stuffed piquillos. garlic. or radicchio. pork. Spanish explorers also brought peppers. raisins. and fish. and the Italian regions. oregano. sofrito. nora peppers. couscous. aioli. Phoenicians. and bread to create unique marinades. zarzuela de pescado. prunes. spices cooked with fish. potatoes. and appetizers. dates. chocolate. or steamed. Turkish. and fruity with citrus. which vary among the Arabs.262 Handbook of Spices. piquillo peppers. fennel. courgette. apricots. Cucumber and yogurt salad. Some of the popular seasoning blends are pesto. parsley. or yogurt. mushrooms. Marination. romesco. deep-fried. nutty with almonds. and gazpacho. and chervil. grilled. zucchini. relishes. and their influence on overall Mediterranean flavor. and braising are preparation techniques that create healthy. paprika. such as aubergine. and nectarines. and raisins are mixed with nuts. chorizos. salads. mint. or duck and used as stuffings for lamb. Romans. rouille. and caraway. parsley. Arabs. mint. paprika. and walnuts. paprika. It is fried in oil. sweet red peppers. grilling. parsley. and southern Europeans. baked.

dairy products. chocolate. garlic. The Basque region. Etruscans. olives. has garlic. Corsica. These sauces are popular with grilled meats and fish and are used as base sauces for rices and stews. rouille. pimientos. lemon peel. and savory provide aromatic flavor to the foods. almonds. oranges. daube. onions. tomatoes. anise. and bread crumbs) and allioli (garlic and olive oil). game meats. crushed garlic. which neighbors France. and pork with tomato and olive oil. Languedoc (with Roman and Arab influences). and juniper to flavor anchoiade. brandade. garlic. and bouquet garni are popular flavorings. In Languedoc. hot sausages. tomatoes. and onions characterize its cooking. and almonds). sanfaina (onion. and seafood. mushrooms. saffron. parsley. and fried seafoods. almonds. and pimiento characterize the flavors of the Spanish Basque region. rosemary. romesco. thyme. and almonds. and cultural heritage and with the effects of trade and conquest. In the central region (Extremadura). lamb. and Spanish paprika/pimenton are typical of Andalusia. polenta. has given Spain its olives. nutmeg. and olives. In Provence. clove. tomatoes.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 263 Spanish cuisine has many varying flavors and ingredients. mint. Tomatoes. These regions tend to have lighter sauces than the north and other regions of France. Greek. seafood. white wine. sweet and hot peppers. juniper. with Arab. ratatouille. garlic. garlic. and sweet peppers flavor cassoulet (white beans and meat stew). Manchego cheese (from sheep milk). citrus. which includes the regions of Provence (with Roman. and aioli are some of its popular dishes. charcuterie. romesco (dried red chile peppers. has hotter flavored versions of sauces and spicier tomato pastes than Provence. pot-au-feu and polenta. Roman. olive oil. sausages. The south (Andalusia). Corsica. olive oil. and potatoes are popular foods in the French Basque region. bourride. Many sweet leafy spices such as rosemary. On the north coast (Galicia and Asturia). cinnamon. soup de poisson. black pepper. leeks. Codfish. raviolis. pepper. garlic. . and coulis. beans. and regional history. Italy The flavors of Italy vary with its terrain. the hearty cooking of the local Spanish nomads has contributed roast lamb. and aubergine). bouillabaisse. while ham. and Phoenician influences. terrain. pissaldiere. depending on its regions. ham. sauce provençale. red wine. and rice in Valencia. garlic. soupe au pistou. cured meats. Italian cooking is influenced by Greeks. forms the northern boundary of the Mediterranean. tapenade. fennel. tomato. Their characteristic ingredients include hot peppers. and parsley the Catalonia region. picada (pureed almonds. figs. mutton. oregano. Valencia has a Moorish influence with paellas. honey. with French and Italian influences. climate. the northeast (Catalonia) with Italian and French influences has various sauces—sofrito. marjoram. citrus. The south and southwest of France. and the Basque country. anchovies. and Italian influences). sage. onions. citrus. Arabs brought saffron. France France has many diverse flavors that vary with climate. saffron. and sweet and sour sauces to Andalusia.

but each region has its own flavors and methods of preparation. and sausages. bean salads. carpacio. butter. and marjoram). figs. Umbria. thyme. Spanish. vanilla. Second Edition French. spinach dumpling. and Arabs. capers. accompanied by a vegetable dish (contorno). and Flavorings. meat. peanut. Onions and garlic are essential flavorings along with fresh leafy spices such as rosemary. Olive oil. tuna. Olives (made into olive oil) and grapes (made into balsamic vinegar) are significant ingredients in Italian cooking. Piedmont and North Lombardy. Inland Tuscany. While every Italian region does not border the Mediterranean. pecorino. citrus. In Lazio (Rome). tomatoes. sage. paprika. bollito (sauced meat and vegetable dish). and béchamel sauce. or pork dishes. onions.264 Handbook of Spices. and South Lombardy are risi e bisi (rice with peas). pesto is added to pasta. . bagna cauda. and chicken diavola. and marjoram flavor carbonara sauce. and potato from the New World. sun-dried figs. Saracens. olive oil. green sauce. Typical foods from Emilia-Romagna. red wine. spit roasted pheasant. Basilicata has Greek-influenced pork and lamb sausages and vegetable dishes. are served with pasta. proscuitto. It is followed by the first course of rice. Calabria and Sicily (which have Asian. antipasto leads a typical meal. pasta. Sardinia (also influenced by Greeks) has robust hearty foods such as stewed and roasted meats and game. such as red sauce. Typical ingredients of these regions include basil. chicken. cayennes. and lamb. stewed veal. citrus fruits. porchetta. and mussels are common ingredients. cream. beans. chocolate. and Le Marche have simple. chowders. Austro-Hungarian. cheese. pecorino. osso bucco. salted pork. saltimbocca. Citrus fruits. citrus fruits. pimiento. In Italy. and feta cheese flavor stuffed calamari. Chinese. The second course is the main dish of meat. Leafy spices (sweet basil. Pasta is eaten in all of the regions. and plenty of meat and vegetables predominate. have simple hearty and rich foods such as potato dumplings. and fettucine alla abruzzese. ham. gorgonzola. sausages. gorgonzola. Spanish. fennel. ham. marsala wine. myrtle leaves. and fennel. In Liguria and coastal Tuscany. cheese. northern African. bay leaf. Italian flavors vary widely around the country. and clams. rice. Early explorers also brought tomato. mozzarella. with tomato an essential ingredient in the central and south regions. Condiments and sauces. and barley soup flavored with bacon. ricotto. stewed red cabbage. In the Abruzzi and Apulia regions. with German. Austrio-Hungarians. minestone soup. and spicy chile peppers (pepperoncini) are added to fish chowders. risotto alla Milanese flavored with mortadella. or seafood. olives. Seasonings. Campagnia (Naples) has spicy flavors with diverse pastas such as spaghetti alla puttanesca or spaghetti alla vongole. butter in the north. horseradish. corn. mushrooms. saffron. white truffle. sausages. light cooking with soups. and hot peppers in the south. and seafood chowder are also popular foods. bread. These cultures introduced tarragon. sage. and creamy mascarpone. Germans. stuffed pork chops. salted cod. and Greek influences) use pickled vegetables. olive oil and garlic in most regions. orecchiete alla puglese. Veneto. Stoccafissa (codfish stew). veal scaloppine. seafood stews. fennel. and French influences. all of Italy’s regional flavors have influenced Mediterranean cuisine. Arab. and poppy seeds. and trofie (Genoa dumpling). or soup. ricotta. pork. potatoes. vegetables.

onion. Syria. paprika. cardamom. and baharat spice blends are popular in most regions. fish bones. kibbeh. meats. A popular seasoning that is essential in Middle Eastern cooking is a stock called yahni. parsley. saffron. zahtar. chicken. and cabbage soups are popular. pine nuts. mint. Greece. paprika. and lemon juice used as a spread on breads before it is baked. cholent. yogurt. or meats. there are ingredients and foods that have a mass appeal. pilafs. The east (Iran) prefers aromatic leafy spices and almonds. aromatic salt. and cumin. and pepperoncini to flavor cheese. stoccafisso. Armenia. garlic. garlic dips. milder flavors. goat cheese. sumac. Armenia. and pomegranate juice. fenugreek. cassia. mahlab cherry. mint. The Middle East The Middle East includes Israel and Arab regions (Lebanon. garlic. Turkey. and vinegared chile pepper as essential flavorings for their kebabs. and mint are popular flavorings in all of these regions. while others use clarified butter (smen/samneh) from sheep or goat’s milk. cumin. Iran. uses garlic. and Cyprus have quite distinct cultures. kofta. Torshi or pickles. onion. Aleppo peppers. predominantly Muslim. cumin. lemon juice. kebabs. tomato. Zhug. raisin. cinnamon. nutmeg. allspice. and Cyprus Greece. but each region has its own specific flavor preferences. Some regions prefer olive oil. Throughout these regions. lamb. Jordon. mahleb cherry. tomatoes. Gulf States. olive oil. garlic. fish. nutmeg. Turkey. nuts. Aleppo pepper. cayenne. Aromatic salt. cinnamon. The Middle East has been influenced by Arab. fresh coriander leaf. Other popular ingredients include sesame oil. dips. and vine leaves. and clarified butter with lamb or mutton bones. sweet. almonds. influenced by Ottomon Turks and West Asians. Indian. carrots. salt cod. tomato paste. Greece. The northern regions of Iraq and Syria enjoy spicy. caraway. Italians have basic stocks to flavor fish. almonds. hilbeh. is used as an essential flavoring in many Middle Eastern dishes. garlic. and celery are used with chicken bones.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 265 couscous. and garlic. turmeric. dill. coriander. which is made from onion. and talia. cilantro. and European cultures and thus has varied ingredients. baharat. or beef bones. walnuts. Turkey. parsley. grape. and pungent spices such as pomegranate. Iran. yet certain seasonings have mass appeal throughout these countries. which is sea salt combined with spices. ground fenugreek seeds combined with garlic. bay leaf. soups. and lentil soups are also popular foods. Yogurt is a staple flavoring in all of these regions. fish. olive oil. green chilies. Generally. fenugreek. These spice mixtures generally come dried. raisins. Palestine. pomegranate juice or concentrate (pekmez). baharat. garlic. The west (Israel and Lebanon) has sesame paste. uses oregano. Caponata. Some typical dishes are muhammara. hilbeh. black peppercorn. a garlic. Generally. kofta which are meatballs made from lamb. olive oil. yogurt. walnuts. and capers as base . Iranian. and eggplant. pickled lemon. and chile pepper seasoning used in Yemen. yogurt. or duck. cloves. sesame. and Yemen). thyme and parsley. bay leaf. black olives. fennel. tahini. and sour. a Syrian spicy hot dip that contains Aleppo pepper. The southern Gulf States like hotter and curry-type flavors.

It has been influenced by many cultures through trade and conquest. Typical dishes are koresh (a creamy. dill. combines sweet. cayenne. parsley. Aleppo pepper. harissa. semit. paprika. and sumac. Aryan. cloves. cinnamon. and Ethiopia. nuts. including the French. and labneh (fried cheese) from Egypt. harissa. Grilled chickpeas. dukkah. coriander. cumin. turmeric. Popular flavorings include saffron. pippali. dukkah. mint. and fruit. and coriander. nutmeg. such as cayenne pepper. while Ethiopians prefer sesame seeds. garlic. Moors. dates. lamb sauce with cloves. Libya. tarator soup. sumac. roasted spices. clove. dried fruits. skordalia sauce. red chile peppers. and dried fruits (figs. and mahi now rooz (stuffed fish with spinach. kifto. Second Edition flavorings for its simple cooking. pickled green chilies. Phoenicians. Typical North African seasonings are tabil. Romans. Sephardic Jews. and pickled lemon). clarified ghee. cinnamon. Chermoula. lemons. bay leaf. Moroccan food is not as spicy and is famous for its couscous. pistachio. dill. berbere. Tunisian blends have spicy and hot profiles with turmeric. marjoram. paprika. rose petals. Algeria. smen. marinated olives. saffron. kibbeh. soups. meat. and injera. black pepper. rasel-hanout. chermoula. Seasonings. yogurt. prunes. mahleb cherry. sweet-sour. ful medamis (bean with mint. Boukovo pepper. and dried mint. anise. Other ingredients include onions. pilafs. savory and sour tastes using molasses. honey. Lamb and mutton are preferred meats. Pickled foods called cisbech are very common Algerian appetizers or accompaniments to foods and use spices. Most North Africans are Muslims. popular in Morocco. or poultry. mint. cassia. cumin. The Berbers contributed the slow-cooked tagine dishes to North African cuisine. and salads. and the Far East. turmeric. northern Egypt. is a paste made from garlic. and bistilla and tagines from Morocco are commonly eaten foods in north Africa. parsley. and doro w’ets of Ethiopia. and berbere. brochettes. North Africa North Africa includes Tunisia. . parsley or coriander leaf. Arabs. aromatic pollou (which contains cardamon. lemon. smen. Some of the typical Mediterranean spice blends are discussed below.and flowerbased drinks are enjoyed. sesame paste. cinnamon. La kama. and onion). olive oil. and saffron. and onion and is used for marinating fish. cinnamon. nutmeg. and many leafy spices). Egyptians enjoy falafel. nit’ir qibe (spiced butter). and coffees. taramosalata. lime. Greek. almonds. raisins. saffron. Berbers. cumin. or many herbs. paprika. and garlic). and pickled sardines from Algeria. Iran. and tagine dishes. white fava beans. vine leaf. and cinnamon is also a popular flavoring in Morocco for stews. with Arab. so pork and alcoholic beverages are taboo. Greeks. zahtar. cilantro. sesame. la kama. ginger. which consists of ground black pepper. sohleb (millet porridge). apricots). and Flavorings.266 Handbook of Spices. or trahanas. and Ottoman influences. These flavorings are used in many dishes such as dolmas. paprika. moussakas. turmeric. Morocco. cumin. spiced teas. dried chilies mixture.

tomatoes. chile peppers are boiled with vinegar. sweet bell peppers. or stews. and fricassees. garlic. the Philippines. onions. nutty. vegetables. a dip for vegetables. and juniper berries). and garlic and onions. Soffritto is combined with pancetta (cured ham seasoned with black pepper.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 267 POPULAR MEDITERRANEAN SPICE BLENDS Spanish Spice Blends Romesco Sauce Blend Description Called salsa romesco in Catalonia. toasted white bread. Italy. There are many versions of romesco from the Catalan region in Spain. butter. onions. and seafood broth. chile peppers. Ingredients A basic sofrito blend has tomatoes. vegetables. dip. pasta. Its name comes from the mildly hot. It has a rich. red chile peppers are added. dried. and boiled vegetables. red wine vinegar. garlic (with the skin on). or added to zip up pasta sauces. olive oil. and saffron (Table 35). All ingredients are roasted to give romesco sauce its deep rich flavor. olive oil. and spicy taste. sauces. celery. Other Mediterranean versions can be created with bell peppers. or hazelnuts. red peppers (romesco) that are the main ingredients in this sauce blend. tomatoes. cilantro. salads. and Egypt. If more heat is desired. Sofrito/Soffritto Blend Description Sofrito is an aromatic mixture of spices with tomato. Application Romesco sauce accompanies fish stews. annatto oil. carrots. salt. hot. thyme. . Then. (Latin American versions are discussed earlier. garlic. its taste varies from slightly sweet to spicy and peppery. or sauce used to perk up fish. nutmeg. and onions (no skin) are roasted in olive oil. pimiento. It can be used as a spread for breads. oregano. Called soffritto in Italy. dried.) Sofrito comes from the Spanish word “sofrier.” which means to lightly fry. parsley. All are browned in olive oil and are used as a flavor base for seafoods. The vinegared chile peppers are added to the onions and roasted until the onions brown. soups. lemon. and chicken. cinnamon. Ingredients Romesco sauce is made from dried romesco pepper. This principal sauce characterizes the Catalan cooking of Spain. cloves. and black pepper. Other ingredients that can be added are black pepper. roasted almonds. Spain. The Spanish also introduced sofrito to the Caribbean islands. smoky. Tomato and garlic are peeled and deseeded. All ingredients with their juices are blended together until a smooth puree is obtained. To prepare romesco sauce. and pimientos that are browned in olive oil and added to soups. which have other flavor versions. it is a popular table condiment. other seafood dishes.

olive oil Sweet and mild with sweet bell peppers. Second Edition TABLE 35 Sofritos of the Mediterranean and Their Characterizing Ingredients Sofrito Blends Basic sofrito Spanish sofrito Italian soffritto Ingredients Garlic. olives. it comes as a smooth and dark paste. drained. Application Tapenade is used as an appetizer or spread on toasted bread and topped with leafy spices and cheese. soups. capers. celery. Herbs de Provence Description Herbs de Provence is a mixture of fresh or dried French and Italian leafy spices. saffron Mild and savory with onions. onion. pungent. deseeded tomatoes and/or other ingredients are added and gently stirred until the sauce becomes somewhat thick. and blended with the rest of the ingredients until a smooth. or sauces.268 Handbook of Spices. and beans. ground black pepper. as a rub for chicken and fish. pimiento. carrots. It is used as the starting base for many dishes and adds zest to dishes such as the famous Catalan seafood stew called zarzuela de pescado. Ingredients Ingredients in tapenade include capers. sharp taste. France. with a salty. tomato. Its name is derived from the French word tapeno for capers. Other ingredients are anchovies. rices. thick sauce is obtained. olive oil. black olives. lemon juice. It is also served with boiled potatoes and cold fish and can be added to perk up blander foods. and Flavorings. or anchovies are soaked to remove excess salt. To prepare tapenade. garlic. and other leafy spices. Seasonings. Then. They are then rinsed. The blend has sweet. bay leaf. and slightly spicy . onions. Dijon mustard. floral. or mashed cooked vegetables are added to tone down its bold flavor. Tomato paste. There are many versions of tapenade. Sofrito is used to flavor stews. sugar. onions are gently fried in oil until they become light brown. pancetta Applications To make sofrito sauce. and as a condiment. soups. French Spice Blends Tapenade Blend Description Tapenade is a caper and olive paste from Provence. parsley. paellas. It has its origins in southern France. Generally. and dark rum.

and allspice. cloves. Ingredients Rouille’s ingredients include garlic. The rouille mixture flavors fish stews and soups. and fish stock. and bread pieces (soaked in water and squeezed dry) are blended with stock and water in a food processor or blender. thus. mayonnaise-like condiment that is used to accompany fish-based sauces and stews in Provence. peppers. They also perk up stews. especially the noted bouillabaisse. It is thick. Sweet basil and tarragon are the other spices added. In French. Leafy spices such as bay leaf. One version of rouille uses mayonnaise as a starting base. The olive oil is slowly added until the mixture gets a thick consistency. marjoram. paprika. bread. baked vegetables. sauces. cheese. thyme. the presence of Italian sweet basil and fennel seed. and spicy. oregano. mace. (In France. fennel seed. then adds spices and other ingredients. nutmeg. cornish hen. It is the most popular seasoning used in France. other parts of Europe and the French islands in the Caribbean. rosemary. which is then topped with grated cheese and eaten with fish stew or soup. Ingredients Herbs de Provence has sweet spices such as savory. chervil or sage. Application Herbs de Provence is used as a rub to add a sweet.” describing its reddish coloring. ginger. quatre epices is also the name for allspice. dried hot red pepper.) Ingredients The basic ingredients in quatre epices are white or black peppercorns. roasted red bell pepper. The Romans had a great influence in Provence. thyme. and rosemary are also added. smooth. and tomato paste are added. followed by the warm fish stock. rouille means “rusty. black pepper. All of these spices are then blended and pounded with the leafy spices added at the end. and. parsley. cinnamon. . Rouille is also served in the French islands of the Caribbean. garlic. Rouille Blend Description Rouille is a garlicky. olive oil. and marjoram with lavender. Quatre Epices Description Quatre epices is a mixture of dried spices that is also called Parisian/Parisienne spice or epices fines. herblike flavor to roast chicken. sage. Black pepper and salt are added.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 269 notes. and salads. Sometimes saffron. and pork tenderloins. Application To create rouille. France. spicy. beef. where it is spread over toasted bread.

bay. thyme. pine nuts. especially those requiring long simmering. and bay are added for pork. parsley. parsley. and chives are added for fish. and bay are added for poultry. The essential ingredient is sweet basil. Second Edition Quatre epices is used to flavor French charcuterie. Pesto alla Genovese contains sweet basil. Bouquet Garni Description Bouquet garni is a mixture of leafy spices. mint. Seasonings. and pine nuts. Crushed garlic is sometimes included. tarragon. Applications In Italy. mint. Ingredients In a bouquet garni blend. almonds. Application Fresh leafy spices are tied in bundles with a string. Italian Spice Blends Pesto Blends Description Pesto is a green blend of spices that is traditionally used in the cooking of Genoa. while the dried herbs are tied in a cheesecloth bag. lemon verbena. Thyme. and meat dishes of Europe. fish. and sage. In Provencal cooking. pungent. Bouquet garni is used to flavor soups. is influenced by the Genovese pesto but is much milder in flavor. thyme. The traditional blend. It flavors many European dishes. and cheese (pecorino or parmesan). rosemary. The classic mix is parsley. green chile peppers. Olive oil is added drop by drop until the desired consistency is . and fresh tasting. and red cabbage dishes. and daubes. marjoram. slow-cooked meats. dried orange or lemon peel is also used. pesto alla Genovese (or basil pesto). such as poultry. These bundles are removed at the end of cooking or when sufficient flavor has been imparted but before bitterness is added to the application. Ingredients There are many versions of pesto. The more recent versions add walnuts. the leafy spices that are added need to complement each other. Other versions add sun-dried tomatoes. stews. Other spices are added to complement specific applications. especially the sweeter types. basil leaves are deveined and ground in a mortar and pestle with garlic. Bouquet garni is a French term for a bundle of herbs. or lamb. or sweet red bell peppers. or cilantro. adjoining Liguria). basil. rosemary. and thyme are added for lamb. and Flavorings. and bay leaf. sauces.270 Application Handbook of Spices. parsley. called pistou (in the French Riviera. especially France for pot-au-feu. garlic. game meats. and savory are added for game meats. bouillabaisse. is sharp. salt. olive oil. in Liguria (Italy). The French version. The types of herbs used and their proportions vary to complement particular dishes. juniper berries. dill.

Other sauces contain ingredients that are generally preferred on a regional level. Today. sun-dried tomato. tomatoes (for color and flavor). or pappardelle. or stirred into soups. saffron.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 271 obtained. in making a pasta sauce. or Burgundy wine flavor. Pasta Sauce Blends Description Italian sauces give their foods character. Nowadays. a food processor is used to make pesto. Each region of Italy has its own characteristic sauce. or as a topping sauce for chicken and seafood. and basil. parsley. or pancetta. pestos are used as dips. while some creamy sauces are common around Rome and the north. sage. garlic. sugar. Sugar and vinegar are added for a sweeter or more acidic preference. Bolognese sauce blend is a creamy meat sauce from Emilia-Romagna. such as cayenne pepper. It is an . mushrooms. thyme. garlic. containing ground beef. Ingredients A basic cooked pasta sauce blend has tomatoes. They are added fresh or cooked. meat broth. olive oil. peas. Another says that these ladies attracted their clients with the sauce’s enticing aromas. angel hair. fettucine. and many spices such as basil. sweet and sour flavors. carrots. like the ladies of the night. Generally. tossed with pasta. white wine. penne. spinach. Applications These sauces are generally applied over differently shaped and sized pasta. such as spaghetti. porcini mushroom. garlic is sauteed first in olive oil. Pesto is typically served with gnocchi. Other ingredients such as parsley and red pepper flakes are optional. fusilli. the most basic pasta sauce blend. and Parmigiano reggiano (parmesan cheese). Emerging pasta sauces contain fireroasted garlic. and finally. onion. linguine.” because Italians say that the sauce is spicy. butter. Puttanesca sauce blend is called the “style of the prostitute. olive oil. garlic. flavoring for rice. or cream to give varying flavors for a finished bottled sauce. Cheese is usually added before serving. but there are freshly made uncooked sauces that are most frequently eaten during the summer. squid. anchovies. onion. A third mentions that the sauce was quickly prepared as a fast food and eaten in between clients. olive oil. These sauces can be made into seasonings that can contain a tomato base. Most pasta sauces are cooked. capers. or sage. The seasonings are simmered. celery. meats. vinegar. such as minestrone. Endless varieties of these sauces are used for flavoring bland pastas. then tomatoes are added. bay leaf. clams. contains olive oil. cheeses are ground and added. tagliatelle. wine. garlic. parsley. The heavier tomato-based sauces are more popular in the south. cream. orecchiete. These sauce blends can come as pastes or dried mixtures that are then added with vinegar. the other ingredients are added. sausage. and parmesan cheese. black pepper. Examples of Classic Pasta Sauce Blends Aglio e oilo. carrots. Finally.

µ Zhug/Zh oug/S’µg Description Zhug is a spicy. garlic. Marinara sauce. from the far south. Sesame seeds are dry-roasted for about one minute until aromatic and are then added to the rest of the ingredients and blended well. Tomatoes are added if red wine is used instead of white wine. Zhug originated in Yemen where it has a hotter flavor profile than other regions. pungent sauce that contains olive oil. Parmigiano reggiano. is a sweet aromatic sauce that contains tomatoes. It is also the term for wild thyme in Arabic. and Cyprus Spice Blends Za’atar/zahtar Blend Description Za’atar is a blend of spices that varies in flavor. garlic. Vongole sauce contains clams. thyme. that has tomatoes. butter. pancetta. Za’atar is also used as a dressing in salads with other leafy spices such as parsley and mint. Za’atar spice blend can be mildly tart or very tangy depending on the amount of sumac added. In Morocco. Ingredients Za’atar is usually a blend of ground thyme. black olives. sumac. black pepper. olive oil.272 Handbook of Spices. It goes well with lemon juice. and olive oil. Pistachios. heavy cream. whether it comes from Turkey. olive oil. Greece. it is mixed with olive oil and is used as a dip for pita bread. parsley. mint. olive oil. it is referred to as a leafy spice that is a hybrid of oregano. deep reddish orange sauce. Lebanon. anchovies. and red pepper flakes. nutmeg. and pecorino romano. red cayenne pepper. and olive oil. Its flavor varies from country to country. and is eaten with cheese. hazelnuts. white wine. Carbonara sauce is a mild and creamy sauce that contains pecorino romano (or Parmigiano reggiano). or garlic are added to create varying flavors. Application Za’atar is used as a seasoning for dips. Second Edition aromatic. pancetta. tomatoes. Arrabbiata sauce is a very hot. marjoram. eggs. spicy. hysop. basil. parsley. It can be called the “pesto” of the Middle East. white wine. Seasonings. Alfredo sauce is creamy with butter. parsley. and black pepper. garlic. and roasted sesame seeds. . Olives and capers are optional ingredients. Iran. olive oil. basil. fresh oregano. rich. hyssop. and Flavorings. Jordan or Syria. It is usually tossed over penne. crushed red peppers. In Syria. Armenia. Middle East. capers. North Africa. tomatoes. and black peppers. oregano. Turkey. black pepper. and black pepper. green blend of spices used in Middle Eastern cuisines. popular in the south. to flavor breads and salads. aromatic. garlic. and marjoram. garlic. garlic.

salads. baba ghanoush. cumin or clove. The ground spices and garlic are fried in oil until they are aromatic and are then cooled. and salads or is used as a base sauce in stews and sauces. from Israel to Syria to Egypt. and Northern Africa. and a spread or filling for sandwiches. roasted sesame flavor. Zhug can be tossed over salads. and garlic. and lemon juice. Application Hummus is made from pureed chickpeas (garbanzo) and tahini paste. Ingredients Tahini is made from sesame seeds. shiny paste with a very strong. cardamom. Jalapenos or serranos. lemon. thin or very thick puree. paprika. Application Zhug is a table condiment and is used to add zest to meats. vegetables. . sesame seeds are lightly roasted. It provides a strong. or as appetizers. Tahini Blend Description Tahini is a base blend or paste that adds zest to many cold and hot dishes of the Middle East. ground cumin. such as hummus. tomatoes. vegetables. It is creamy.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings Ingredients 273 Ingredients include coriander leaf. Tahini blends well with yogurt. yogurt. creamy sauces. olives. nutty flavor to soups. chopped parsley. sesame oil. ground chile pepper. mint. soups. and pomegranate. used as a rub for barbecues. Depending on regional preferences. or dumplings. They are served chilled or at room temperature. cooked meats. nutty. usually with a little paprika oil and chopped parsley. bagels. and blended into a paste. while baba ghanoush is made from pureed roasted eggplant and tahini. or olive or hazelnut oil can be added with tahini. nuts. and fish. or fish. Hummus is a very smooth to coarsely textured. Hummus and baba ghanoush are typically eaten as dips with pita bread. as spreads. Boiled chickpeas with water and the tahini paste are pureed in a food processor or blender to achieve a smooth or coarsely textured puree. and roasted sesame taste. then ground and mixed with the sesame or olive oil and other ingredients to make a smooth paste. green chilies. garlic. pitas. hummus has different colors and flavor strengths. Tahini is an oily. Turkey. breads. combined with other ingredients. They are favorites throughout the Middle Eastern regions. or vinegar can be added to give varying flavor profiles. mint. and sauces. Depending on the type of sesame seeds used (white or brown) or how long seeds are roasted. almonds or walnuts. with a slightly sweet. or as a sauce over pasta or noodles. In preparing tahini. salad dressings. They accompany shish kebabs.

mace. chile flavor. and olive oil. cinnamon. It has a garlicky. dung beetle. monks pepper. soups. lovage. lavender blossoms. It is often sold as pastes. orange blossoms. These vary in ingredients depending on the shopkeeper. or noodle dishes. ground cumin. as a topping for hot dogs. fresh. In Tunisia.274 Handbook of Spices. Ingredients A typical blend includes cardamom. The Tunisian version is the hottest of all three. caraway. black pepper. allspice. harissa is placed over a variety of foods and is even used with bread and butter for breakfast. and are then blended in a food processor or blender with all of the other ingredients to achieve a smooth texture. nigella. long pepper. Ingredients Harissa has a deep red color with a smooth. In the Middle East. slightly sweet. belladonna berries. Spanish fly. fenugreek. harissa accompanies mezzeh (called aadou in Tunisia and kemia in Algeria) or finger foods and dips for breads. vinegar. tomatoes. Hotter versions omit the red bell peppers and increase the chile peppers. It is scooped over couscous. The word in Moroccan means “top of the shop. Tomato and red bell pepper tone the heat down. harissa enhances the flavor of entrees and side dishes. grains of paradise. There are many different versions of harissas. orris . Tunisia. and Flavorings. a mortar and pestle are used to grind all of the ingredients into a smooth puree. bell peppers and chile peppers are roasted. Traditionally. depending on the region. rose petals. chile pepper. ground coriander. Seasonings. dried flowers. berries. thick paste.” The shop owner mixes and creates a blend that is perceived as his or her ultimate creation. and some aphrodisiacs (cantharides). cumin. ash rhizome. Its other versions are called felfel sudani in Morocco and dersa in Algeria. garlic. Algeria. Harissa goes well with grilled meats and is used as a rub for barbecues. Applications As a table condiment. lemon juice. and sauces. It accompanies appetizers and many other dishes in North Africa. Preparation Dried chile peppers are soaked in water until soft. cilantro. or Morocco. turmeric. For more intense flavor. cubeb. thick consistency. rice. In Tunisia. ginger. nutmeg. Other added ingredients are crushed mint leaves. All of these blends contain spices. it accompanies meat and fish and adds zest to salads and soups. Enough olive oil is added to form a smooth. or to add zest to stews. It has dried chile peppers. Ras-El-Hanout Description Ras-el-hanout is a Moroccan classic mixture of twenty or more spices. Second Edition North African Spice Blends Harissa Blend Description Harissa is a fiery chile-based sauce that resembles sambals and is a fiery North African version of ketchup. or olives.

bouquet garni. Trinidad. The Africans have influenced the cooking with groundnuts. CARIBBEAN SPICE BLENDS Caribbean cooking is a beautiful collage of tropical ingredients with varied cultural influences. cassava. and the Dominican Republic—except for Jamaica. with certain ingredients and seasonings having mass appeal. Some Caribbean products that are becoming more familiar in the United States are jerk seasoning. For example. At the same time. cilantro. olives. and in the Dutch islands of Curacao and St. Jonkanoo hot pepper sauce. couscous. Barbados. rices. For example. This cultural diversity has resulted in a popular fusion cooking with a wide range of tastes. chutneys. REGIONAL CUISINES OF THE CARIBBEAN Because of the proximity of the Caribbean islands. the Dominican Republic. and vegetable sources common to all of the islands. and pigeon peas. The eastern Caribbean—Trinidad. Whole spices are generally mixed with the rose petals and leafy spices. and jerk foods are enjoyed. Rasel-hanout is used on game meats. the Asian Indians have influenced it with curries. Spanish. and colors that differ from island to island. but diverse preparation techniques create variations on the theme. and cream-based sauces predominate.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 275 root. Cassava. while in the British-speaking islands of Jamaica. Application It is used to enhance many dishes in Morocco and other neighboring regions. cornmeal. hot pepper sauces (Solomon Gundy. habaneros. It blends indigenous ingredients grown by the Caribs and Arawak Indians with ones imported by the different peoples who settled there. they draw ingredients from spice. coconut run down sauce). curries. What makes each island’s flavors distinct is the way food is seasoned and prepared. and Cuba. each island’s flavors reflect the tastes of its European colonizers. Maarten. meat with Edam cheese fillings. and garlic are commonly used. and annatto. thyme. in the Spanish-speaking islands of Puerto Rico. Through the years. and curry colombos (also called poudre de colombo). textures. and the French islands—generally eat hotter foods than the western Caribbean—Puerto Rico. including Africans. rice and beans vary in flavor from Puerto Rico to Guadeloupe to Jamaica to Trinidad. nasi goreng. Cuba. depending on the type of beans. rotis. and oxtail. lesser galangal. on the French-speaking islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. fruit. authentic profiles have been modified to suit changing tastes. Arabs. chives. and rice and beans are widely eaten in all of the regions. Also. satays. and the Amerindians have influenced it with habaneros. chufa nuts. lamb tagines. Dutch. Asian Indians. and ristaffels are popular. seasonings. and Barbados. distinct taste preferences reign on each island. Chinese. and added ingredients. French. and British. and desserts. Appearance is an important factor in Caribbean . and rosemary.

can be stuffed. or when green and mealy. boniato. Chicken is made into poulet colombo. and picadillos. and ackee flavor nectars. cherimoya. thyme. sculptured fruits. coconutty flavors. Beef is popular in the Spanish-speaking islands and is added to ropa vieja. Okra. guava. Tubers or vegetables lend bulk. stewed. Jug jug (a Barbadian dish with pigeon peas. baked. They are often made with meats and seafood (including leftovers) and are spiked with spices and hot peppers. vegetables. soups. pepperpot. and allspice). is traditionally used in dishes of African or Amerindian influence. chilies. sauced. also called gumbo or quimbombo. they thicken sauces and are used in breads and cakes. Caribbean cooking is based on hot. Pork is a popular meat. cho cho. which is often served with saltfish for breakfast in Jamaica. soursop. quimbomba. nutmeg. habaneros. and Flavorings. and habaneros). preserves. Colorful. sauced. clove. Fruits. which are larger than their banana cousins. fish. curried. a mild-flavored vegetable found in most regions. Tubers play a prominent role in Caribbean cooking. callaloo. Seafood. called paw paw. and pumpkin soup are staples of Caribbean diets. pineapple. texture. breads. When ripe and sweet. salted. Second Edition cooking. plantains. steamed. lemon chicken. Each island offers its own seafood specialty. Soups and stews such as sopito. or added to soups and stews. and chayote are added to create body and textures in stews and soups. caldo gallego. and a Caribbean take on Scottish haggis are popular dishes. Tropical fruits such as mango. and chile peppers are in abundance throughout the year and are easily available as fresh ingredients that add flavor. and desserts. or blaff du poisson (with bouquet garni. or processed into a sausage called boudin. fried flying fish. sancocho. and salads when green. has the texture of scrambled eggs. cassava. When ground. grilled. pumpkin. conch chowder. such as yuca (also called manioc or cassava). frequently making the soup or stew into a one-pot meal that is typically eaten with rice or breads. Coconut is a versatile ingredient in these islands’ cooking. stewed. It is made into snacks. white wine. is used in stews. cordials. Creole pork chops. yuca. and desserts before cooking or serving. calypso chicken. jerk chicken. or served with hot condiments. whether pickled. and marinated meats. or Bajan chicken. seafoods. feroce de morue (salt cod with Scotch bonnet and lime juice). tamarind. Plantain leaves are used to wrap meats. and vegetables sit on a backdrop of rice and beans. cut thin for tostones. they are thinly sliced and fried. There is an abundance of fruits in the Caribbean. okra. Dasheen. or roasted and added to soups and stews. such as pigeon peas (also called gandules or gungo peas). stews. especially curried. bebele.276 Handbook of Spices. fried. flowers. or christophene. seasoned with allspice. or fried is a common part of the diet in the Caribbean. and color to foods. is frequently eaten in Trinidad and Jamaica. papaya. citrus. beef al ajillo. soups. and stews. added to rice and peas. seasoned rices. Ackee. or used in stews and soups. fried. and cinnamon. hot sauces. relishes. Chayote. and lobster and add visual pizazz to our plates. passion fruit. Beans. sweet potatoes. . or used as cream in curries. rice. such as conch fritters. grilled chicken. and yams that are added to provide bulk and texture to soups and stews. turned into a refreshing beverage. Papaya. breadfruit. grilled. fruity sauces. are popularly eaten as a side dish with rice and beans. Plantains (sometimes called platano macho). are curried and used in fillings for rotis or pastries. Breadfruit has a starchy pulp that is boiled. Seasonings. Goat.

They are available in powder and paste forms and are mostly consumed in Trinidad. pork chops. Rice is popular on all of the islands. and vinegar that add a sweet and slightly sour taste. It is added to steaks. Jamaican peas and rice. and other islands where there is a greater Asian Indian population. a tart.S. and fish and is part of a Jamaican tradition of marinating and slowly smoking seasoned meat. is derived from the Spanish and is an integral part of Puerto Rican and Jamaican cooking. stews. red pepper remoulade. fruity. fried chicken. grilled chicken. vinegar. sauce ti-malice. the flat breads of the Caribbean. hamburgers. and fried fish. cilantro. The spices commonly used in Caribbean cooking are allspice. Hot pepper sauces are integral to Caribbean cooking. chive. depending on the islands’ preference. soy sauce. chicken. POPULAR CARIBBEAN SPICE BLENDS Jerk Seasoning Description Jerk seasoning is a hot. market. rouille. coucou (with okra and spices) and tutu with black-eyed peas. beans. and they are served with white rice or as fillings in rotis. and jerk create magic with fish. clove. mojo. The first hot sauce was created by the Arawak and Carib Indians. or sauces. or paella. curries. using habanero peppers. cachuchas. turmeric. rouille. It is cooked with onions. conch. spicy marinade for pork. celery. or peas to make Cuban Moros y Christianos (rice and black beans). pork. sauce Creole. sofrito. black pepper. Each island has its own preference for its hot sauce. come with added green mangoes. ground mustard. or pimientos as the principal ingredients. hot. lemongrass. with tangy. Another popular sauce is Creole sauce. the original settlers of these islands. adobo. sweet. which comes from the Frenchspeaking islands but is also popular elsewhere. Jerk barbecue. Escovitch (or escabeche). and a variety of other fresh leafy spices season foods and local drinks. bird peppers. and vegetables. lamb. stews. but flavors vary depending on the island. or fish . or chicken. rocotillos. shrimp. ginger. thyme. Bay leaf. Curry seasonings often flavor dishes made with goat. Today. soups. and garlic. curry seasoning. and fiery notes enhancing barbecued steaks. sauce chien. vegetables. hot peppers. Jamaica. Pickled and chopped Scotch bonnets with sliced onions and spices are important table condiments. Chinese fried rice. mango chutneys. chicken wings. or coconut milk.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 277 Cornmeal is made into many products such as funchi (dumplings with spices). many varieties are becoming better known. fish. pork. Curries called colombos in the French islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe are heavily laden with turmeric. sofrito. sour. curry. cinnamon sticks. clove. ground mustard. a classic Caribbean item that has captured the U. and spicy marinade for fish. Indian curry powders and garam masalas found their way to most Caribbean islands. Seasonings such as adobo. soups. recao leaf. Their flavors are generally mild and. Hot sauces such as salsa ajillo. is from Jamaica. sauce picante. or is wrapped in banana leaves and boiled. nutmeg. grilled fish. or ajilimojili are some of the local popular sauces. salt cod. nasi goreng.

The technique of jerking came from the Maroons. and spicy. Seasonings. onions. chicken stock. and Cuba and is also an integral part of Jamaican cooking. Sometimes. scallions. tomato puree. and in the French-speaking islands it is called Creole sauce. hot. Jerking the meat from side to side was a method of texturizing it. chicken. depending on the island preferences. This smoking was a way of preserving the meat. pork. this sauce is called Criollo sauce. . It is commonly used in the Spanish-speaking islands of Puerto Rico.278 Handbook of Spices. Ingredients Escabeche consists of pimientos. Creole/Criollo Sauce Blend Description Another popular Caribbean sauce is Creole or Criollo sauce. chicken. ketchup. hot pepper. garlic. the whole fish is deep-fried before it is simmered in the marinade. Ingredients Creole or Criollo sauce contains onions. It also seasons tamale fillings and vegetables. Worcestershire sauce. and pork. and Flavorings. white wine. and North American Creoles. and Scotch bonnet peppers. Applications Fish. Spanish. This seasoning is generally used as a marinade for fish. They hunted wild boar and pigs. and lime juice are added. including Africans. black pepper. It has a spicy and slightly sour and sweet flavor. and black pepper. chicken. It is popular in the English-. scallions. Its heat varies with different regions. and Scotch bonnet peppers. vinegar. or seafood or as a sauce to perk up boiled or grilled dishes. It is sold as a dry mix or a wet paste. tomatoes. Second Edition over a fire pit of pimiento wood.and Spanish-speaking Caribbean Islands and has flavor contributions from many ethnic groups. vinegar. Escovitch/Escabeche Blend Description Escabeche is the Spanish word for a pickled product and has its origins in the Spanish-speaking islands. celery. which is a cooked tomato-based sauce. Where the islands have Spanish origins. and other seafood or game meat are marinated with escovitch and are also simmered in this marinade. Chinese. It is a spicy version of the Chinese sweet and sour sauce. Applications Jerk seasoning is used as a marinade for meats. French. Dominican Republic. Other ingredients such as bell peppers. nutmeg. French. thyme. which they preserved and cooked in deep pits lined with pimiento wood and leaves. Ingredients Jerk marinade consist of allspice. cloves. the runaway Jamaican slaves who escaped the British in the 1600s. Escovitch is the Jamaican version of the blend that is tart.

mustard. Applications Caribbean hot sauces can enhance barbecued steaks. bird peppers. are aromatic. The finished sauce is spooned over steaks. sweet. then sliced tomatoes. There are other numerous varieties of hot sauces on the market that include West Indian hot sauce. onions are sliced and sauteed. Scotch bonnets (also called Congo peppers. chile peppers. turmeric. and vegetables. and vegetables. mangoes. hamburgers. Matouk’s calypso hot sauce. are popular condiments in the United States. soups. Pickapeppa sauce is used for basting. and fried fish or is served as an accompanying condiment. West Indian hot sauce. buffalo wings. and have hints of apricot. while Trinidad is well known for its Scotch bonnet and papaya-based sauces. used hot pepper juice with cassava and spices to season their foods and developed the first Caribbean hot sauce. rocotillos. Barbados has mustard-based sauces. seafood.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings Applications 279 To make the sauce. Hot peppers have been relished in the Caribbean throughout history and come in many varieties. Pickapeppa is a hot steak sauce with tomatoes. Pickapeppa sauce. stews. pork. sauteing. pimientos. Bahama mama. vinegar. and citrus. Hot sauce to a Carib is like ketchup to a North American or sambal to a Southeast Asian. sliced onions. and pimient) form the principal ingredients of the hot sauces. flambeau sauce. peppers. Bonney peppers. and citrus or pungent with garlic and mustard. Each island has developed its own preference for hot sauce. Hot Sauce Blends Description The Caribbean has a reputation for its tangy. sour. peach. grilled fish. Jonkanoo hot pepper sauce. and cachuchas. and calypso sauce. crayfish. Jamaican hots. fruity. and spices are added and cooked until the sauce becomes slightly thick. the original settlers of these islands. Other ingredients typically used in the Caribbean hot sauces are mango. each claiming to be hotter and tastier than the other. pastas. It is a spicier version of A-1 sauce used in the United States. Pickled. or tomatoes with allspice. lobsters. The Carib and Arawak Indians. chopped. chives. papaya. or black pepper. Solomon Gundy. each one claiming to be hotter than the other. and spices. hot peppers. leafy spices. Then vinegar is added and the whole mixture is simmered. sugar. grilled chicken. and spices are important local table condiments. onions. Hot sauce can be aromatic with hints of apricot. vinegar. peach. They come in many colors and sizes. grilling. Ingredients The popular hot peppers in the Caribbean are the Scotch bonnets. and fiery hot sauces. Guadeloupe makes a sauce with chive and garlic. Matouk’s. . and Busha Browne’s hot sauce. and stewing meats.

and many vegetables. do not usually contain turmeric or chili powder.280 Handbook of Spices. turmeric. brown mustard seeds. tamarind. fenugreek. mangoes. and mangril but usually lack chile peppers. and allspice. Seasonings. fish. black pepper. Colombos or poudre de colombo are fiery aromatic local curries in the French islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe. turmeric. When they emigrated to the Caribbean. eggplant. Spices can be in whole or ground form. green tomatoes. and lime juice are optional ingredients.” that are popular street foods. Most whole spices are roasted and then ground. They are added to the curries toward the end of cooking or are served as a condiment. depending on the islands’ preference. cilantro. Roucou (annatto oil). Curry blends are also added to barbecues. called “rotis. They are generally sold in powder or paste forms. Second Edition Curry Blends/Colombo Blends/Garam Masala Description Asian Indians have had a significant influence in the Caribbean. pumpkin. and vinegar. onions. mangril. black peppercorns. or coconut milk. Most Trinidadian curries are mild and contain ghee. such as allspice. Chicken pieces are seasoned with curry blend and browned. where curry goat is a specialty. vinegar. coriander. Then water. beans. Poudre de colombos are heavily laden with mustard. toasted rice. curries are generally very hot and contain a good amount of black pepper. Curries are accompanied by mango chutney. Scotch bonnets. and are added with curry blends to curries. Ingredients A typical Caribbean curry blend contains coriander seeds. tomatoes. chayote. and vinegar. Garam masalas in the Caribbean are mild. and fennel seed. ginger. Coconut milk is not added to fish or shellfish colombos. stock. especially in Trinidad. A general curry powder contains cumin. anise seed. fenugreek. ground turmeric. hot peppers. and Flavorings. papaya. shrimp. onions. hot peppers. and vinegar mustard flour are some of the other added ingredients. Jamaica. . the masalas do not have ground chilies. lamb. or fried plantains. turmeric. Applications Caribbean islands are noted for their goat curries. White wine. and Martinique. Curries can be mild or hot and spicy. These dishes accompany boiled white rice or are used as fillings for the famous Caribbean flat breads. yielding a sweet and slightly sour taste. yam. coriander. chicken. Scotch bonnets or Congo peppers are added for heat. okra. vegetables. which were then modified using locally available ingredients. and other vegetables are added and simmered until they are cooked. In Jamaica. and ground ginger. turmeric or saffron. pork. Those who want heat in their curries use hot sauces. taro. salad. thyme. poppy seeds. cloves. They include spices familiar to the islands. soups. celery seed. Other ingredients cooked with curry are conch (lambi). Scotch bonnets. Colombos have mustard seeds. grated coconut. green mangoes. shellfish. Guadeloupe. Generally. they brought with them the curry blends of India. Caribbeans usually add vegetables to curries. and stews. onions. pumpkins. garlic. cumin seeds. black pepper. coconut milk.

English. and Middle Easterners. grated roasted cassava porridge (gari). and other Asians. with little meat. who are mostly vegetarians. cassava (gari). and Portuguese. and South Africa. The Indian influence is predominant in the local cuisine and comes mainly from Ismaili Muslims and Gujeratis. and exploration have influenced the indigenous cuisines of Africa. Coptics. bitter leaf. or moinmoin are served with spicy stews and sauces. and plantains predominate. olives. West Africa West African cuisine is influenced by Africans. Curries. palm oil. Stews form the foundation of the meal. black pepper. Persians. stews. and vegetables. or seafood are served with boiled roots. and rice are essential foods. couscous. Ugali (cornmeal porridge). Arabs. red cayenne. groundnut stew. Asian Indians. East Africa East African cuisine is influenced by Africans. and French. millet. samosas. mace. Ground cornmeal (foofoo). and hot peppers. breads. Curry blends. West. flat breads. groundnuts. ghee. cassava. cornmeal. Jews. Dutch. Soups are thickened with okra and nuts and are also eaten with a starchy base. Greeks. leafy spices. meats are used more as flavorings. fish. mashed root vegetables. Asian Indians. each with foods that have quite distinct flavors. potato. Sauces containing hot peppers. Starch-based meals and stews are the staples of most regions of Africa.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 281 AFRICAN SPICE BLENDS Many groups. mint. fenugreek. Arabs. . They are flavored with peanuts. and waterblommetjie are some typical ingredients used in African cuisine. stews. or yams are typical foods of the indigenous population. matoke. They are mostly made from beans and root or leafy vegetables. Europeans. Arabs. Tagines. For purposes of discussion. and condiments characterize the cuisine. groundnuts. colonization. Because North African cuisine follows a Mediterranean-style diet. peanut or palm oil. legumes. cassava. tomatoes. yams. or fish. Middle Easterners. slavery. East. spicy sauces. including Arabs. REGIONAL CUISINES North Africa OF AFRICA North African cuisine is influenced by the Berbers. and couscous are used abundantly. poultry. beans. pilaus. through wars. breads. masalas. roasted corn flour (ablemanu). okra. this section has divided this vast land into four geographic sectors: North. Except in South Africa. kababs. English. okra stew. or cubebs. cloves. coconut milk. grains of paradise. plantains. Typical ingredients are lentils. Starchbased meals made from rice. southern Europeans. rose petals. This book classifies North African cooking under Mediterranean. egusi seeds. pumpkin leaf.

groundnuts are added to give some crunchiness to their curries. POPULAR AFRICAN SPICE BLENDS Curry Blends Description Curries in Africa are influenced by Muslim Indians. and bay leaf. They are used with lamb. with or without ground chile pepper. these curry blends contain cumin. Seasonings. soups. and bird chilies flavor kormas. They can be hot. beeriani (rice-lamb dish flavored with ginger. have chopped beef. vegetables. pastries. Dutch. saffron. turmeric. and in South Africa. ginger. Berbere. dried fruits. pickled condiments). casseroles. Malays. red chile pepper. curries accompany cooked rice. medium. stews. pippali. In West Africa. samosas.282 Handbook of Spices. coriander. and tomato. sweet basil. fennel seed. A popular style of cooking is Cape Malay cuisine. or chutneys. garam masalas. Cape Malay dishes include bobotie (sweet curried meat casserole). Second Edition South Africa South African cuisine is influenced by Europeans. Common flavorings are curry powders. and coconut. cardamom. Arabs. tomato. ginger. murghi kalya. are hot. black pepper. South African curries. and atjars. paprika. Africans. French Huguenots. sweet. bredies (vegetable/legume stews). clove. coriander. indigenous Khoisan. or breads. cumin. Ingredients There are many types of curry blends. and Portuguese. fennel. allspice. and onion). cinnamon. such as kima. Cape masalas. black peppercorn. Ethiopians have their own versions of curries called w’ets with ajowan. East African curries. Asian Indians. curry spices. clove. fish. sosaties (sweet and pungent grilled lamb marinated with curry powder and coconut milk). Malays. especially in East and South Africa where they are popular. Different regions have their own curry blends influenced by different cultural groups. kimasin in East Africa. and atjars (spicy. Mozambique’s curries use piri-piri peppers and nuts to provide flavor and consistency. Arabs. a melting pot of flavors from Malays. chile peppers. Europeans. and kefta tagine in North Africa. Indonesians. Some of the different types of curry blends include frikkadel in South Africa. mint. Cornmeal is made into pap or putu and served with seasoned stews. Usually. mustard. ras-el hanout. and vegetarians from India. eggplant. and sweet with dried fruits and apples. qalat dagga. spicy. couscous. and Malawi curry powder are some examples of African curry blends. Applications In Africa. poultry. tomatoes. and fenugreek. and Asian Indians. or mild and dry or soupy. and Flavorings. Curried dishes are served with chutneys and sambals. . influenced by Malays and Indians.

tomato. butter. It is used as a wet marinade. Berbere is also used in a condiment that accompanies grilled meats or poultry and is also added to soups. yams. olive oil. potatoes. tomatoes. cinnamon stick. Bebere primarily enhances fish and lentils. habanero pepper. Today. or a hot dipping sauce. ground piripiri pepper. ginger. The West African version has tomatoes. bay leaf. mint. the spices are first dry-roasted for a few minutes until they become aromatic. Angola in South Africa. and prepared or grated horseradish. especially the currylike. red. which are the mainstay of their meals. Other ingredients such as black pepper. and the mixture is dry-roasted again for about a minute. black pepper. dried chile powder. nutmeg. and vegetable or lentil stews (shiro wat). Piri-piri is also the name of a small. hot paprika. Basil. Applications To make a berbere paste. fenugreek. which is made from a grain called teff. coriander leaf. chile powder is added. It flavors many Ethiopian and Eritrean mutton and lamb dishes. turmeric. cardamom. It pairs well with peanuts and shrimp paste. and lemon juice. and coconut milk. Berbere pairs well with salted fish. garlic. paprika. or Mozambique. mustard. cardamom. Other versions have added cardamom. Then. There are several versions of it. Berbere is an indispensable seasoning of Ethiopian dishes. It is pungent and aromatic. Ingredients Berbere has ajowan. ground ginger. onions. basil. ground red piri-piri peppers. black cumin. rice. onion. hot mixture that characterizes Mozambique’s cuisines. Berbere is used to flavor lamb stews. and ground. onion. especially traditional stews called wats or w’ets. They are eaten with local sourdough flat bread called injera. . Piri-Piri/Pili-Pili/Peri-Peri/Peli-Peli Description Piri-piri is a slightly sweet. garlic. butter. chicken stew (doro wat). Muslims eat shiro wat during their fasting month of Ramadan.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 283 Berbere Description Berbere is a spicy. cloves. with slightly sweet and peppery to very peppery notes. and allspice go well with it. or olive oil can be added. stewed dishes called w’ets. a table condiment. Garlic and onions are blended with the other ingredients until smooth. classic blend that resembles the curry blends of India. piri-piri refers to any hot spicy blend made from fresh or dried. parsley. long pepper. which resembles bird pepper. depending on whether it is made in West Africa. fiery capsicum pepper. and peanuts. a dry rub. lemon juice. Ingredients Piri-piri is made from garlic.

and chile peppers. To make a piri-piri marinade or rub. or green beans. Application Atjars are used to perk up entrees of fish. prawns. Ingredients Atjar was originally made with fish oil and brine. and vegetable or meat dishes. There are many versions of dukkah in the Middle East. The South African favorite is a lime atjar. carrots. cucumber. Coconut milk can be substituted for lemon juice. or rices. and nuts and is a staple flavoring in Egypt since ancient times. bay leaves. It usually accompanies breads on the mezze (or tapaslike) table. blend all ingredients and cook gently for about five minutes. It is an essential flavoring in the Cape Malay cuisine of South Africa. To prepare a lime atjar. Mayonnaise flavored with piri-piri sauce is used for cold chicken salad and coleslaw. vegetables. oregano. turmeric. and cooking sauces. and dried. and Flavorings. Other ingredients added are thyme. chile peppers. cumin seeds. savory. meats. ground fenugreek. which is a sweet. They are served as accompaniments to rice. Atjar Blends Description The South African term “atjar” came from the Indonesian Malay word “acar” that originated from the Indian word “achar. broiled. and brinjal can be atjared. okra. unsalted roasted hazelnuts or peanuts. garlic. It gives added zest to stews. or savory to give varying tastes. fish. or barbecued chicken. It is crisply textured. but today olive oil and peanut or other vegetable oils are added with brine. marjoram. limes. Seasonings. salt. black peppercorns. mangoes. spicy type that contains olives. Other variations come with green mango. A general atjar marinade has anchovy fillets. Ingredients Dukkah is a dry mixture of coriander seeds. Second Edition Piri-piri is used as a marinade or rub for cooked. lightly roasted sesame seeds. curry powder. onions. For use as a table condiment. limes. charcoal-grilled. mustard seeds. simply blend all of the ingredients. and shrimp. it is spicy and sweet. Piri-piri is also used to add extra flavor at the meal table. Vegetables such as green beans. It has a spicy and nutty taste with a coarsely ground or crumbly texture. roasted chickpeas. Dukkah (Also Called Za’Tar Or Do’Ah) Description Dukkah is a blend of spices.284 Applications Handbook of Spices. roasted chickpeas.” Achar translates to spicy pickled vegetables or unripe fruits in oil or sauce. curries. Generally. . fish. and vegetable oil. cauliflower. and vinegar are combined. piri-piri is used as a condiment and cocktail sauce and as a flavoring for grilled meats or sandwiches. It is also used as a table condiment for the Indian-influenced cuisine of East Africa. mint leaves. In West Africa. and its flavor varies depending on its ingredients.

lemongrass. meat. no uniform cooking style arose. cubebs. The Jews. pastas. and English explorers. South Asians. pumpkin spice. dumplings. and dried shrimp. In Egypt. They are also used as a flavoring base for stews. Caribbeans. lentils. The African slaves brought groundnuts. All of these influences created traditional American cooking. beans. roast beef. sassafras. and fried rice. and palm oil. as an appetizer. benne (sesame seeds). Native Americans grew chile peppers. dried shrimp. or vegetable dishes. curry powders. The latest migration of Latin Americans.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings Application 285 To make dukkah. stewed. Italians. and sauces and as condiments for boiled. squash. and Middle Easterners have brought cilantro. habaneros. hot blend is made from black peppercorns. old world. allspice berries. a Nigerian hot sauce. A popular dry. a bread called aish is dipped into olive oil and then into this blend before it is consumed. and Old Bay seasonings are some traditional seasonings used for shrimp and crab boils. soups. coleslaw. Rather. pumpkin pie. eastern Europeans. Early European immigrants brought cinnamon. many regional cuisines emerged that reflected the tastes . West African Hot Pepper Blends Description West African hot pepper blends are a fiery mix of hot peppers with other ingredients and are used commonly to add heat or spike West African fish. corn. It is sprinkled over many main entrees to add texture and flavor. ground ginger. central. They come as dry mixtures or as pastes. bagels. It is eaten for breakfast with breads. and pickled vegetables. While North American cooking combined many different flavors. grains of paradise. adobos. pink peppercorns. There are other variations based on applications and preference. or allspice to season their wild rice. sumac. barbecue-style. and other foods. onions. Ingredients A common hot sauce has chile peppers. tomatoes. red chile peppers. clove. green peppercorns. palm or peanut oil. or on the streets as a snack. steak. sesame. nutmeg. venison. Japanese. pork chops. and molasses to the Americans. red cayenne pepper flakes. Ata. or fried root vegetables. and southern Europe and East Asia contributed their own seasonings and foods. Poultry. Southeast Asians. and Koreans gave olive oil. chow mein. mustard. pizzas. NORTH AMERICAN SPICE BLENDS Prior to the arrival of Spanish. and ground dried habaneros. The later immigrants from northern. Chinese. cowpeas. cheese. Hungarians. soy sauce. ginger. and many West African ingredients. Applications Hot pepper blends are used as rubs on meats or chicken before they are grilled. garlic. sweet basil. red bell peppers. is made from onions. whole spices are roasted. mixed with the remaining ingredients and pounded in a mortar and pestle or blended in a food processor. French. Chesapeake Bay. Germans. and tropical fruits. white peppercorns. cooled. buffalo meat.

The Southern states had the most diverse flavors derived from Africans. salt. Pigs and chickens were less expensive to raise than beef. Second Edition of the local populations. collard greens. Mashed potatoes. The Carolinas offer seafood. Creole. the so-called comfort foods.286 Handbook of Spices. Mexicans. such as gravy. Southern cooks improvised by using less expensive cuts of meat. lard. Cajun. All of these influences are noted in the ingredients and preparation techniques found in this modern cuisine—stir-fries. and cheeses. country ham. Soul food has also influenced other regional cuisines as African-American cooks migrated from the South. macaroni and cheese. sweet potatoes. Koreans. and Mexicans. taro. and fried turkey. Hawaiians. African-Americans contributed their unique soul food flavors that remain the heart of Southern cooking. these blends are characterizing North America to the world. POPULAR REGIONAL CUISINES Southern OF NORTH AMERICA Southern cooking is being revived as an important flavoring style today because many North Americans are going back to the basics. Japanese. Through wars and depressions and poverty. pickled pigs feet and ears. and Native Americans. Southern. and butter. chili con carne. citrus . Economics have also influenced Southern cooking. fried chicken. sauerkraut. a variety of fruits. barbecued ribs. and other regional seasoning blends of North America are evolving into new. corn muffins. sausages. corn dogs. cayenne pepper. popular. such as fatback. Of all of these various influences on Southern cooking. Native Americans. Scandinavians. biscuits and gravy. macaroni and cheese. relish. olives. Spices such as black pepper. roast turkey. and barbecued ribs are many of the typical comfort foods from the South. gumbos. Germans. peas. Spanish. and vinegar-based sauces are typically used with cream. pork. figs. The South combines the home cooking of West Africans and Native Americans and the peasant cooking of southern Europe with influences from English and Spanish explorers. ribs. black-eyed peas. Southern foods tend to be heavy and rich and generally not too spicy. hearty soups. Vietnamese. schnitzel. Seasonings. to season beans. seafood. pizzas. Southwest. catfish stew. Europeans. avocados. and rice. Virginia and Georgia are known for their seafood. sugar. chile peppers. bratwurst. frankfurters. and Flavorings. and foods were fried because lard was cheap and provided flavor. They are looking for foods they grew up with. trendy flavorings. one of the greatest was from the West Africans who were brought here as slaves. The cuisine of the Pacific West has been influenced by many ethnic groups— Chinese. dumplings. succotash. and noodle soups. and nachos. pork. Tabasco sauce or other vinegar-based condiments provide heat. wine. sushis. biscuits. There is tremendous variety in traditional Southern cuisine. and vegetables. Today. chicken-fried steak. leafy greens. Both before and after the Civil War. smothered pork chops. Overseas. In the Midwest. grills. Northern Florida gives us seafood. and Eastern Europeans contributed dairy and baked products. corn kernels. onions.

onions. jalapenos. corn biscuits. and crawfish etouffee. including jambalaya and etouffee. These cuisines have given us “spiced up” dishes such as gumbos. blackened fish. Apache. Mexican. In the East. bell peppers. and Zuni provided the corn. The South also includes Louisiana. which is discussed separately because of its distinct spicy flavors. and beef are staple ingredients in this region. sassafras. and many other familiar foods. nuts. jambalaya. tomatoes. cumin. parsley. tomatoes. garlic. and onions. Tomatillas. and European. This diverse mix has given us fajitas. and tomato sauce. red rice and beans. and uses a dark roux and a lot of animal fat. butter. burritos. Texas is a large state. chocolate. Pueblo. groundnuts. corn. oregano. Spanish. Spaniards and Mexicans brought their chile peppers. whether a base for sauces. Haitians. garlic. Native Americans. Africans. shrimp bisque. or etouffees. and French) and uses a light roux with more cream. rice and beans. and mashed potatoes. Cajun (from the Native American pronunciation of Arcadian. French settlers from Nova Scotia) food is so-called “unsophisticated” country cooking that is influenced by African. Mexicans. green onions. there is a strong African influence. Creole sauce. Native Americans such as Hopi. and fish flavorings. Louisiana Many ethnic groups have influenced the cooking of Louisiana—Arcadian French. and pecans. shellfish. Creole food is so-called “refined” city food (influenced more by Italians. cornmeal. and Italians. In Memphis. shrimp Creole. Cajun food has many one-pot meals. avocados. tacos. Roux is the basis of traditional Cajun-Creole cooking. we enjoy its barbecues. and. from Asians. gumbos. and its cuisine varies with neighboring influences. There are differences between these types of Louisiana cooking. Southern. black beans. and fish. game. It is hot. with rice. oysters. Navajo. and chile peppers. Cowboy cooking and the flavors of northern Mexico predominate in the West. Tex-Mex or Texan Tex-Mex cooking incorporates many diverse flavors: Native American. dirty rice. berries. and Caribbean flavors. avocado. Other important ingredients of these cuisines are garlic. Native Americans. Spanish. with okra. very spicy. resulting in barbecues and fajitas. The Gulf Coast region is influenced by Louisiana. Two major styles of Louisiana cooking have emerged: Cajun and Creole. Southwest The new Southwest cuisine spearheaded the modern concept of fusion cooking in North America. chilis. especially in south and southwest Texas. Jezebal sauce. breaded okra. nachos. Native American. There are strong Mexican and Native American influences. while the . and gumbos. recently. beans. celery. squash. This cuisine focuses on visual appeal and taste and combines preparation techniques and ingredients from Europeans.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 287 fruits.

Recently. Thus. corn. mashed potatoes. or Virginia curried ham. in New York. Cajun blend is used as a dry rub on chicken. and pungent. and Asian Indians. Ingredients Cajun blend combines sweet paprika. Today. chicken. cardamom. paprika. cayenne red pepper. Newer immigrants from Central and South America. depending upon its end usage—whether to flavor rice. tabasco pepper sauce. and Flavorings. mace. soy sauce. rosemary.S. which combines habaneros. including wasabi. and red and green bell peppers in “dirty rice. soups. It is used with red beans. we can expect many traditional American comfort foods to be revived in new regional flavors. It is spicy. Puerto Rican-Chinese. and mustard. and vegetables to create a Southwestern flair. or French-Indian will reflect its global diversity of Southeast Asians. mango. Mexican cilantro. Cajun blend gives spicy. grilled meats. basil. steak. Chili. new fusion foods such as Italian-Thai. mojos. whereby adding the authentic blackened flavor and crunchy texture to the product. oregano. thyme. salsas. black pepper. the Chinese and Japanese introduced newer seasonings. yuca. Applications To prepare Cajun blend. and meats. and lime predominate their cooking. ground celery. Other regions of the United States are also developing new flavors that reflect their current populations. onion. dillseed. cumin. and lima beans from the South. including anchos. POPULAR NORTH AMERICAN REGIONAL SPICE BLENDS Cajun Blend Description Cajun blend is a classic Louisiana spice blend used with barbecued meats. For example. marjoram. cumin. Dominicans. such as Floribbean. and rice and beans. as a dry rub to “blacken” fish and chicken. the Caribbean. With blackened foods. and basil. and green New Mexican chilies. garlic. all of the spices are ground. The leafy spice particulates get burnt in the process. and Southeast Asia are adding their touches and giving rise to newer versions of the regional cuisines. poblanos. and Virginia ham will appear with many new twists such as chipotle chili. fish. fried chicken. chipotles. fish. except for the leafy spices— bay. and nutty notes to the finished applications. Juniper berries.” which is a popular flavored rice in the South. chilis. All of these spices and ingredients are added to stews. or fish to create “blackened” finished products. which are crushed and added at the end. marjoram. garlic. There are many variations. thyme. Seasonings. ginger.288 Handbook of Spices. caraway. sofrito mashed potatoes. black pepper. New. and marinated steaks from the Caribbean and Central America with key lime. aromatic. coriander. it leaves a slightly bitter aftertaste. Greek oregano. nontraditional regional foods are appearing. regional blends. and bay leaf. sauces. or as a cooking sauce. onions. India. Second Edition European missionaries added their wheat. Jamaicans. turmeric. hot. oregano. the traditional regional North American cooking is evolving to new levels of visual appeal and creativity. Below is a description of several of the more popular U. jalapenos. fruits. Many varieties of chilies are used. Italians. .

grilled meats. all spices are mixed well. Texan barbecues. more recently. cumin. tomatoes. It can be considered the spicy ketchup of Louisiana. Today. and green New Mexican chilies. Chili Powder Description Chile powder was created by the poor Mexicans of Texas who added some spices and chile peppers to meat to make a hearty stew. bell peppers. Ingredients Creole sauce blend is made from onions. . rich flavor with very little heat. oregano. and mustard can also be added. Applications All of the spices are ground or pureed to make a smooth or coarsely textured sauce. chicken. The seasoning blend that went into this stew finally came to be called chili powder.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 289 Creole Sauce Blend Description Creole sauce blend is a smooth. poblanos. Mexicans use this spice blend for burritos. garlic. They are mixed with juniper berries. It has a red to burgundy color and a deep. chili powder is a mildly pungent seasoning that is used commonly in Tex-Mex foods. Green Chile Blend Description Green chili blend is a Southwestern-style seasoning with a mix of European. spicy. slightly sweet seasoning that is used with Burgundy wine. seafood stock. Wasabi. parsley. paprika. Mexican. chili con carne and other chilis. Ingredients The typical chilies used are anchos. thyme. black pepper. celery. and green onions are added and blended gently. onions. and shrimps. ginger. ground black pepper. chipotles. thyme. bay leaf. Mexican cooks served this to the local cowboys who called this stew chili con carne because of the chile peppers that predominated the flavor. chilis. Native American. and lime flavor. coriander. garlic. Applications To make Creole sauce blend. or vegetables that require a Southwestern flair. This sauce can be used as a spicy accompaniment to grilled meats and fish or as a rub for barbecues. Other flavorings used are oregano and lemon juice. except the leafy spices. fish. Mexican cilantro. parsley. There are medium to hot chile powders for those who desire varying heat levels. Then bay. It can also be used as a dip for chips or fresh. The sauce is simmered with chicken. ground red cayenne pepper. Asian spices. and tamale fillings. fish. or shrimp and topped over white rice. cut vegetables. and. soups. and green onions. Green chili blends enhance stews. enchiladas.

Beer. and black pepper. hoisin. red and green bell peppers. allspice. garlic. honey. . chili powder is added to tomato. Worcestershire sauce. Mexican oregano. cilantro soy sauce. black pepper. Corn and other beans such as pinta. Kansas City type is a thick tomato based sauce with sweet and tangy notes. or seafood is basted with these sauces and slowly barbecued over charcoal. South Carolina. About 80% of the blend is ground chile pepper. slowly cooked in a pit or on a spit using hot coals or flavored wood chips or hardwood. and vinegar. chili powder. and jalapenos. spicy. which is a mild chile pepper. onion. serranos. Today’s BBQ contains olive oil. thyme. Seasonings. and Flavorings. wine. onions. and seafood. Chili blend can also be applied to curries. dark brown sugar. chipotle. such as tandoori. There are many types of North American barbecue sauces in Texas. Newer versions and concepts of barbecue sauces are emerging that incorporate many Latin. or chipotle flavors. orange juice. and other spices are optional ingredients. corn syrup. The ground chile pepper used is usually ancho chile pepper. broiling. Barbecue Sauce Blends Description Barbecue is the icon of North American cooking and is meat. and condiments to create varying notes. ketchup. Asian. and salt. Texas sauces are thick. Second Edition Chili powder is a blend of ground chile pepper with ground cumin. or mildly tart flavors. brown sugar. tomato juice. black and white. onion. and Caribbean concepts. cloves. or pork for grilling. dry mustard. Red kidney beans. traditional-style flavors. lamb. molasses. They are typically marinated or covered with barbecue sauces that are clear yellow to dark reddish brown with spicy. Kentucky. For chili con carne. vinegar. to add zest. and many other regions which all have their own distinctive.290 Ingredients Handbook of Spices. all of the ground ingredients are well mixed. beef. or mutton can be substituted for beef. crushed red pepper. mustard. Memphis. garlic. Memphis sauce is spicy and sweet. sweet. or other flavored chips until the finished product develops a charred or dark brown color and an aromatic flavor. or barbecuing. pork. mustard. The hotter versions have the ground red cayenne pepper. and brown sugar with smoky or grilled notes. can be used to make a vegetarian chili with chili powder. or to enhance existing flavors. whole or pieces. black pepper. and brown sugar. Carolina and Virginia sauce is tart and thin with cider vinegar. Then this mixture is added to ground beef and cooked to a thick consistency. coriander. This chili blend is then mixed with lime juice and water and used as a rub to prepare poultry. hickory wood smoke chips. and hot and consist of paprika. ketchup. poultry. bell peppers. Kansas. and cilantro. Applications Chicken. with paprika. Ingredients The basic barbecue sauce is made from tomatoes. beef. sauces. garlic. ribs. ancho. and lemongrass. smoky. Applications To prepare chili powder.

sage. pastas. cucumbers. or in chopped forms. A green blend’s color can range from a bright to dull green. salads. Other ingredients such as nuts. These have a common theme. achari. sauces. They are popular because their flavors combine well with a wide variety of ingredients—onions. depending on the end usage. tomatoes. stews. such as chives and parsley. coarsely textured. such as zhug. Applications Green blends can be added as a major seasoning in a sauce or curry or to provide zest to a stew. Commercially. POPULAR GLOBAL SPICE BLENDS Green Blends Description Green blends are savory mixtures of green leafy spices and green chile peppers. Italian pesto is the most familiar green blend. Every country has its own green blend and chile blend that is used as seasonings. or chat masala. the result is a wonderful balance of flavors in the finished product. The most commonly used green leafy spices are basil. applications. or as marinades. or mint provide the green blend’s dominant flavor. cilantro. green mango. celery. Each ethnic green blend has its own favorite leafy spice that gives its distinctive flavor profile. or soup. dips. Vegetables such as cucumber. whether in soups. or salad dressings. garlic. and cheeses. chutneys. green blends come in dry or paste forms. parsley. with other spices and ingredients. Whether one desires a green blend’s domineering notes or its enhancing profile. To North Americans. salad. and cilantro is preferred in Mexican . and how it is presented in a dish. but contain different spices because of their availability and regional and cultural preferences. They can be smooth. and mint. sweet basil characterizes Italian pesto. and whether it is served fresh or cooked. yet there are some spice blends that are found throughout the world. Two primary examples are the green spice blends and chile blends. coconut milk. or bell peppers are sometimes chopped and added for a crunchy texture. or lemon are added to give the blend added character or flavor. depending upon the type and amount of green ingredients and spices. while basil. cilantro. For example.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 291 GLOBAL SPICE BLENDS Seasoning or spice blends are generally unique to particular regions. Almost every ethnic cuisine has its own version of a green blend. lemongrass. They are added fresh or cooked to flavor salsas. Some green leafy spices. Ingredients Essential to any green blend are the ingredients that provide the characteristic color— green leafy spices or green chile peppers. salsa verde. coriander. mustards. rices. ginger. provide the greenness but with little flavor. but there are other green blends. with varying flavors and textures based upon the ingredients. while the more pungent Thai basil is favored in Thai green curry. Some of the well-known global green spice blends and their typical ingredients are listed in Table 36. preparation styles.

unripe mango. green tomato. Chile blends now provide flavor and color to foods in countries in all corners of the world—India. and texture to the blend. star anise. Seasonings. Second Edition TABLE 36 Global Green Spice Blends Green Blends Thai green curry paste Italian pesto Mexican salsa verde Puerto Rican recaito Middle Eastern tabbouleh Malaysian kurma Indian green masala Argentinean chimmichurri Kenyan achari Ingredients Thai basil. Southeast Asia. green cayenne chilies. such as cili boh or sambal olek. coriander seed. as well as heat. parmesan and romano cheese. and pequins. avocado. olive oil Cilantro. With the increasing availability of new ethnic ingredients and the growing demand for variety and stronger flavors. garlic. sorrel. pine nut. green chili. the Caribbean. salt. Mexicans choose poblanos. as well as other ingredients. such as a spicier Thai-Italian pesto or Mexi-Italian pesto. Lemongrass. . lemongrass. coriander seed. the chile pepper has traveled globally to become the dominant component of many spice blends. and the United States. flavor. ginger. Chile blends incorporate one or more types of chile peppers. jalapenos. and green chilies can be combined to create a new version of the traditional Italian pesto. serrano. garlic. lemon juice. Cubanelle. jalapeno. cilantro. green jalapeno. and serranos. Green cayenne. dried mango Parsley. adventurous consumers will seek other “new” pestos. Latin America. mint. parmesan cheese. black pepper. and Flavorings. or curry leaf are added in smaller amounts to enhance its characteristic ethnic profile. lime juice. cilantro. and sugar. or a complex mixture with other added ingredients. shredded coconut green salsas. lime. cilantro. coconut milk. cilantro. cardamom. shallot. black pepper Green cayenne chile pepper. rocotos. pine nuts. shrimp paste. culantro. coriander seed. Caribbeans enjoy habaneros. garlic Parsley. green bell pepper Cilantro. or New Mexican chile peppers provide color. Chile blends are prized not only for their heat but also for their delicate flavors. cilantro. North Africa. Sri Lanka. tomato Cilantro. spearmint. and Peruvians like ajis. Each of these regions has its own favorite chile peppers—Thais and Malaysians prefer cayennes and bird peppers. onion. Other spices or flavorings such as lemongrass. sweet basil. vinegar. culantro. Concepts for new pestos can be derived from the other green blends around the world. Chile Blends Description First cultivated in the Andes of South America. bulgar wheat.292 Handbook of Spices. black pepper. galangal. Chile blends can be a simple mixture of chilies. kaffir lime leaf Sweet basil. coconut milk Green cayenne chili. thus creating many different tastes.

nuts. coconut milk and fermented liquor of coconut Jalapeno. bay leaf. caraway. vinegar Cayenne. seeds. Malaysians with their sambals or cili boh. oregano. cinnamon. chili blends can be added during cooking to provide zest to sauces. The particular form used depends on the end product and how it is used. cilantro. or served as a dip or freshly made condiment/relish to a meal. tomato. green mango. and coconut can also be used. lemongrass. Every ethnic group has its own chile blends that contain locally available and typically preferred ingredients—Mexicans with their moles and ceviches. Ingredients Many ingredients are mixed with chile peppers to create unique flavor releases. chocolate. brown sugar. vinegar. onion. chopped. Atole. and they are not limited to foods. shallots. liquid. dried apricot. shallot. garlic. coriander. fruits. lemon juice. black pepper. . papaya. fruits or vegetables. sugar. Garlic. or simply to perk up a dish. The choices depend on the particular application. Some global chile blends and their typical ingredients are shown in Table 37. apricot puree. coriander seed. Chile peppers can be roasted to modify their flavors and used seeded or deseeded to modify their heat. Caribbeans with jerk blends or Indipep sauce. and lime juice lend well to chile blends. olive oil Cayenne. parsley. vegetables. fermented shrimp or fish. Asian Indians with their curries and achars. or stews. almond paste. garlic. mustard. and Africans with their piri-piri blatjang and berbere. to tone down their heat. Other spices. ethnic preferences. Applications The number of applications that use chile blends is almost endless. used as marinades. Mediterraneans with their rouille and harissa. garlic. black pepper. continues to be a favorite Mexican breakfast item. cumin. Even certain Latin American drinks.Emerging Spice Blends and Seasonings 293 TABLE 37 Popular Global Chile Blends Chile Blend Tunisian harissa Malaysian sambal belacan Bajan hot sauce Kenyan bajia Argentinian chimichurri South African blatjang North American hot sauce/ Tabasco sauce Ingredients Cayenne/New Mexican. and availability. vinegar Cayenne/bird pepper. which is a corn-chile-chocolate-based drink enjoyed by the Aztecs. or even to add color to the finished product. onion. lime juice Cayenne/Tabasco pepper. chives. Chile blends come in dry. onions. Thais with their salads and kaengs. soups. pureed. tamarind. Whether to provide heat. such as atole. tomato. shrimp paste. and paste forms. lime juice Habanero. or ground to create spice blends. tepache. Chile blends lend well to pickling or preserving in brine or vinegar and with other seasonings and. flavor. salt Chile peppers can be added fresh or dried. if desired. or chilote contain chile blends.

sweet and sour notes with tomatoes and palm sugar. rich roasted brown and bitter notes with coffee or chocolate. Second Edition Chile blends go well with grilled. a sweet garlicky note for the Thais (Sriracha sauce). . a sour and spicy green note for the Indians (achars). a fishy.294 Handbook of Spices. a pungent and slightly bitter taste for the Oaxacans (moles). sweet mouthfeel with coconut milk. chicken. Their flavors are complemented with certain spices and flavorings. sharp and sour tastes with lime juice and tamarind. mustardy note for the Caribbeans. and a fruity. Seasonings. and Flavorings. or roasted meats. Certain profiles are added to chile blends to appeal specifically to different ethnic groups: a tartness for North Americans (Louisiana hot sauce). They are given a creamy. or fish. pungent note for the Vietnamese (nuoc cham). a sweet and sour note for Chinese. steamed. and savory fermented flavors with shrimp paste and spices.

Consumers continue to look for flavor in meals. they want simple guides and shortcuts. render food and beverages more palatable. and have spices and other ingredients that are not easily found in local supermarkets. and friend’s homes. yeast extracts or hydrolysates. cooked rice. but with a difference—combining them with flavors that they have been exposed to at school. MSG. Spice blends. savory and sweet. variety and ease in preparation. with growing frequency. have complicated recipes for Americans. hydrolysed plant protein (HPP).8 Commercial Spice Blend and Seasoning Formulations Americans are beginning to demand the flavor and consistency of freshly prepared foods. corn syrup solids. the Caribbean. They consist of spices and other ingredients. with quick and easy preparation. Latin America. restaurants. or the Mediterraneans presents many creative and technical challenges to food developers. color. dextrose. Many Americans want to experience spices and seasonings from their travels. or nucleotides. including as garnishes for salads. Creating commercial batches of ethnic foods from Asia. including flavorings. that also provide the flavor and variety in meals. salt. desire the foods of their homelands. Ready-made or commercial spice blends or seasonings solve this dilemma and meet consumer’s requirements for flavor. As explained in detail in Chapter 2. soups. In short. whether Asian Americans or Latino Americans. and at local supermarkets. with their multidimensional flavor and texture profiles. When spice blends are sold with simple recipes that explain how to use them. These ingredients are added with spices to enhance or intensify the overall flavor of the application. and noodles. Generally they are added to foods before they are cooked. sugar. As a consequence. Americans are seeking well-seasoned and balanced meals that provide variety and flavors from faroff lands. cooking with spices becomes a pleasurable activity. Spice blends allow consumers to create meals that are authentic. but at the same time. The acculturated ethnic groups in the United States. continue to be the trend. both authentic spices and ingredients and “cross-over ethnic” or fusion foods. starches. but may also be added as toppings to dishes before they are served. However. Or they must be purchased in volumes greater than required for the occasional ethnic meal. maltodextrin. Commercial spice blends or seasonings can provide consistency in flavor. there is a 295 . Many ethnic meals take a long time to prepare. or texture required in food service and industrial kitchens. Many enjoy preparing their meals or being part of the preparation and cooking process. but cut the long preparation times required for many ethnic meals.

or HPP. Meat or Fish. David Michael & Co. Missouri 7. The red mole or mole rojo is popular in the regions around Mexico City and Oaxaca State. Brazilian Savory Pineapple Seasoning for Chicken. Texas 3. before being mixed with other spices or ingredients. with each region and even each family having their own style. The spices and other ingredients in the formula are based on a formula which totals 100%. are added (below 2% by weight of the total blend) to prevent caking. chicken. Newly Wed Foods. Philadelphia. or turkey and eaten with tortillas or white rice. and food companies. Pennsylvania 6. Horn Lake. T. salad dressings. Many emerging spice blends or seasonings are being formulated to follow this market trend. Seasonings. rubs. Moroccan Seasoning for Lamb. New York MEXICAN RED MOLE SEASONING FOR CHICKEN (CON AGRA FOOD INGREDIENT COMPANY) Moles are traditional “royal” sauces from Mexico. Dallas. A traditional mole rojo contains ground . Illinois 5. Illes Seasonings & Flavors. Second Edition growing demand for spice blends that are natural. sugar. such as salt. New Rochelle. without chemical preservatives. and dehydrated or freeze-dried vegetables or fruits. The mole rojo sauce is cooked with or poured over roast pork. Hasegawa USA. they are first plated on a carrier. Dayton. or maltodextrin. dextrose. flavor. International Flavor & Fragrance. Vietnamese Nuoc Cham (Fish Sauce Condiment) Seasoning. When spice extractives are used in the formula. Jamaican Jerk Seasoning for Meats. Con Agra Food Ingredient Company. as examples of commercial products that are available for creating marinades. South Indian Spice Blend for Lentil (or dal) Curry. MSG. Thai Red Curry Seasoning for Shrimp. Anti-caking agents such as tri-calcium phosphate or silicon dioxide. are added after the blended ingredients are sifted so as not to disintegrate or break their form. Mexican Red Mole Seasoning for Chicken. New Jersey 2. and is nutty and slightly sweet. This chapter offers seven commercial spice blends and seasoning formulations kindly contributed by spice. Cranberry.296 Handbook of Spices. sauces. Inc. They can be used as a guide for formulating your spice blends or seasonings. New Jersey 4.. Horizons Consulting LLC d/b/a Taste of Malacca. and written in descending order of amount used in the formula (in accordance with regulations). Spice particulates. and Flavorings. including parsley or cilantro. Moles were originally created for rulers of preHispanic Mexico.. or condiments. soups. Northbrook. These formulas have dried spices and extractives as well as other ingredients that can enhance specific applications. dips. The seven commercial formulations provided in this chapter are: 1. with bitter roasted notes.

3 0. artificial.5 lb 0.5 0.3 0. Add chicken breasts to vacuum tumbler.75 0. onion. Pull a vacuum to approximately 25 psi.55 0. and citric acid in a blender.Commercial Spice Blend and Seasoning Formulations 297 almonds. Sift. ground Peanut flavor.15 100 * SHU . 10. Stir in Red Mole Seasoning until completely dissolved. ground. ground Yeast extract Cloves. fine. ground Garlic powder Onion powder Sugar Tomato powder Cocoa powder. dried red chilies and cilantro. Pour the Red Mole marinade on top.3 6.4 3 3 2.Scoville Heat Units Mix salt. with wheat or corn flour as thickeners. powder Oregano.88 1 0.35 0.97 4 3. peanuts or pumpkin seeds. ground Red pepper.000 *SHU Caramel color. Tumble under vacuum . ground Allspice. Add the spices and blend well.3 lb Dissolve phosphate in cold water (maximum 45°F). sugar. garlic. 10/12 alkalized Chicken flavor powder Chipotle pepper Cinnamon. liquid Citric acid. Then add silicon dioxide and blend until uniform. For a 20% vacuum tumble marinade: Chicken breast Cold water Red Mole Seasoning Phosphate 100 lb 16.4 0. granular Silicon dioxide Tween 80 % 25 22 9 8. liquid Coriander.65 7. Application of Red Mole Seasoning (as a marinade) for chicken.3 0.2 lb 3. Slowly add peanut flavor and annatto extract and blend well. ground Annatto extract.2 0. Red Mole Seasoning Ingredients Salt Ancho chile pepper.

Let the seasoned meat.0 1. It is a dry spice blend or a paste that is used as a marinade or rub for flavoring meats or fish before they are grilled or barbecued. granulated Chile pepper. scallions or onion. Seasonings. Jamaican jerk blend is generally a blend of Scotch bonnet peppers. Add ground spices (except whole thyme leaves and crushed red pepper). Grill. Cook as desired.298 Handbook of Spices. garlic.5 0.6 0. ground Cocoa powder Soybean oil (processing aid) Thyme leaves. ground Thyme leaves.0 6. JAMAICAN JERK SEASONING FOR MEATS (ILLES SEASONINGS & FLAVORS) Jerk seasoning is the soul of Jamaica’s food culture. or seafood sit for about an hour or more. In Jamaica.6 0. . Jamaican jerk seasoning can also be used at 4% to 6% in a dip. jerk pork ribs and chicken are the most popular items. They are cooked slowly on half-cut steel drums placed over smoky open pit fires of allspice (or pimento) branches or wood. Blend in sugar and cocoa powder. poultry. BBQ. and is commonly applied as a rub or marinade for pork. cloves. or dressings at 4% to 6%). Jamaican Jerk Seasoning is mixed with oil or water and made into a paste which is then rubbed onto meats (beef or pork). chicken. and or nutmeg. or seafood at 3% to 4% (and to soups. Remove chicken and refrigerate overnight (30°F–35°F) to stabilize for better flavor impact. Combine all ingredients and blend well.5 6. or saute. or soy sauce (sometimes with dark rum). or stock liquid. allspice. ground Allspice. sugar. whole Red pepper. depending on the cook. and Flavorings. Sift. soup. white. thyme. Jamaican Jerk Seasoning Ingredients Salt Sugar. cinnamon.5 3. stocks. The ingredients in the blend vary. crushed % 25 18 18 12 6. Second Edition for 20 minutes at 35 rpm. granulated Sugar. dressing. dips. light brown Onion.0 100 Disperse oil on salt. ground Black pepper. sold at roadside food stalls. and fish.3 2. poultry. ground Cinnamon. ginger. Then add whole thyme leaves and crushed red pepper and mix evenly. The blend is added with vinegar.

potatoes.4 8. breads. oregano. black pepper. corn.40 0. Use at 2% to 3% on chicken.07 5. OR FISH (INTERNATIONAL FLAVOR & FRAGRANCE) Brazil. Other predominant ingredients include rice. and Asian—as well as bordering countries. which reflects the flavors of its diverse population—Indians. Spanish.50 1. fish. sugar and other ingredients to add a savory sweet seasoning for chicken.80 7. desserts. Brazilian Pineapple Seasoning Ingredient Salt Pineapple. freeze-dried Sugar. vanilla. manioc. and beans.33 7. beverages. Pineapple is not only made into sweets. Add silicon dioxide and blend well. Middle Eastern. Sift.20 4.50 1. soy products. Seafood stews predominate in the North. or vegetables. 40 mesh Granulated garlic Vanilla extract Oregano. pork. or seafood. Portuguese. African.80 0. meats. and prepare as desired.50 3. Add remaining ingredients and blend. sausages. ground Thyme. bananas and other fruits. eggs. . ground Basil. ground Onion.63 100 Disperse Durkey oil and vanilla extract on salt.33 0. pastas. Tropical fruits like pineapple play a key role in flavoring Brazilian dishes. CHICKEN. fine Dextrose Red pepper 40 SHU Paprika.17 1.10 0 . cheese. granulated Black pepper.17 0. the largest country in South America.Commercial Spice Blend and Seasoning Formulations 299 BRAZILIAN PINEAPPLE SEASONING FOR PORK. has a multiethnic cuisine. ground Yeast extract autolysate Chardex hickory (dry smoke) Durkex oil Citric acid Silicon dioxide % 38 17. pineapple is combined with paprika.40 0. In the seasoning formula below. while the South is the land of churrascos (grilled meats).70 1. but also flavors many savory dishes.

add another . Seasonings. Ground spices (cumin and coriander). chopped Natural coriander flavor Natural lemon WONF Natural spearmint flavor WONF % 50. very different from the Asian Indian curries. pungent.94 0. and kaffir lime leaves). keftas. Add the chopped parsley and marjoram. Second Edition MOROCCAN SEASONING FOR LAMB (T. galangal. coriander root. and coriander are popular flavorings for salads. sweet. Let sit for few hours or overnight depending on the cut and size of lamb.37 1. merguez. with Thai red chilies.02 1. HASEGAWA USA) With Arab. Moroccan Seasoning Ingredient Olive oil. or fish.with other natural flavors. vegetable soups.87 0. The commercial Thai red curry seasoning comes as a dry blend or a wet paste. and Flavorings. and leafy spices (cilantro. or tagines. Berber. today. paprika. seafood.50 1. parsley. lemongrass. couscous. mint. Turkish. saute. Combine all ingredients and flavors and mix well. Garlic. It possesses a hot. THAI RED CURRY SEASONING FOR SHRIMP (NEWLY WED FOODS) Thai red curry is a fiery. chopped Salt Natural caramelized garlic flavor *WONF Natural caramelized onion flavor WONF Natural Black pepper flavor Natural red chile pepper flavor Natural capsicum flavor Natural oregano flavor Marjoram. extra virgin Lemon juice Parlsey. creating many versions of ras-el hannouth or chermoula or any other meat or chicken marinades used for kebabs. and coconut-laden curry that is a favorite with Thais and.16 2.0 17.0 10. onion. Coat lamb well in marinade. and garlic. and European influences. Olive oil is a favorite in Moroccan cooking. in addition to clarified ghee.300 Handbook of Spices.36 100 * WONF . Every vendor or cook makes her own seasoning recipes.02 2. Moroccan cuisine has mild to moderately spiced dishes. stews. Americans and others around the world. lemon. or ovenroast the lamb. Blend well and pour over lamb. chickpeas. lamb.16 2. Grill. black pepper.1 8.50 2. cumin. and sour flavor.00 0. basil leaves.

03 4. whether roast chicken. and vegetables. Garnish with fresh Thai basil. INC.75 1. meats. Sift.31 5. Application: Use about 2% Thai Red Curry seasoning for shrimp red curry: Raw shrimp. fish. (except kaffir lime leaves). eggplant. the pungent flavor mellows out and enhances the finished product. onion. and water. dips. Thai Red Curry Seasoning Ingredients Thai red chilies. and lemon juice. The seasoning is combined with coconut milk.71 12. dried % 29.98 100 Combine all ingredients. Korea. chicken. dried.45% 37. dried. slivered bamboo shoots. such as red bell peppers.38 7.) Fish sauce. carrots. peeled.72 8. dried. deveined Coconut milk Fish sauce Red curry seasoning 57.82% 100% Cook as desired. fermented in large wooden vats in dark warehouses. and blend well. Lower quality fish sauces.58 20. or nuoc mam. dried.Commercial Spice Blend and Seasoning Formulations 301 dimension to its flavor. Fish sauce to Southeast Asians is as soy sauce to Chinese. and the Philippines. It enhances and perks up most dishes. Add more salt if necessary. grilled seafood. The sauce is then cooked with shrimp. brown sugar. ground Cumin. VIETNAMESE FISH SAUCE SEASONING FOR CONDIMENT (DAVID MICHAEL & CO. anywhere from three months to a year. or wine to the French. fish sauce. High quality fish sauce has a rich pungent flavor and a golden color.. . ground Garlic. are less pungent but sweeter. green beans.20 6. and or bamboo shoots. and green and red bell peppers. or stir-fried vegetables. salt. ground Sea salt Shrimp. Add kaffir lime leaves and blend. It is made from anchovies. During cooking. ground Lemongrass powder Galangal powder Coriander. Thailand.34 3. is a widely used condiment in Vietnam.75% 2.98% 1. ground Shallots. ground Kaffir lime leaf. with less fermentation.

and cilantro. and Flavorings. . fenugreek. Mix with shredded carrots. lime juice. while Malaysians savor star anise and fennel. and cumin. in Jamaica. depending on the regions. and coconut milk. rice dishes. SOUTH INDIAN SPICE BLEND FOR LENTIL (OR DAL) CURRY (HORIZONS CONSULTING LLC D/B/A TASTE OF MALACCA) In India. clove. HPP. cook. or meats. Seasonings. It is also added to dressings for salads (prepared with papaya or lotus root). cooked meats. which is favored in fish.45 6 100 * (There are many brands of fish sauce in market but Three Shrimps Brands or Three Crab Brands are recommended) Combine and mix all ingredients together and bring to a boil. salads. MSG. shredded carrots. and nutmeg perk up meat dishes. vinegar. seafood. stir-fries. which enhances fish dishes. salt. Nuoc mam is combined with sugar. the Thais add lemongrass. cardamom. Nuoc mam and nuoc cham are essential items in every household kitchen in Vietnam or Thailand.302 Handbook of Spices. sliced chilies or chile sauce. sauces. Nuoc cham is used as a dipping sauce for various types of fried or fresh spring rolls. black pepper and turmeric predominate. other spices are layered on top. and/orjulienned cucumbers. or spring onions for preparing the popular condiment nuoc cham. lentil. In England curry has a touch of sweetness. and fish. curry powders vary with each dish or application.Let simmer for 15 to 20 minutes. while cinnamon. kaffir lime. coriander. Then according to the type of application. soups. without chemical preservatives. Second Edition It is commonly used for marinades. Fish Sauce Seasoning or Nuoc Cham Ingredients Fish Sauce* (Three Shrimps Brand) Coconut Soda Sugar Lime Juice % 25. poultry.55 49 19. But. the three essential spices in all curry powders are turmeric. or sugar. Indians prepare lentils and beans in different styles. Chile powder or black pepper is optional if heat is desired. and region. rice noodles. Use as a dip or to perk up soups. such as ginger. and steamed savory cakes. Allow to cool and regrigerate. or vegetarian curries. Keralans enjoy curry leaves. Below is a simple curry blend for lentils (also can be used for vegetables) from southern India that meets the growing trend for all-natural labeling. or sausages. Numerous variations of curries abound depending on taste preferences and ingredients. green chilies.

ground. In a separate pan. Optional: In a separate pan. add 1 lb sliced ginger and half cup sliced onions. roti canai. 35 mesh Cinnamon. 20.Commercial Spice Blend and Seasoning Formulations 303 South Indian Curry Blend Ingredients Turmeric. Then add the sauteed spice blend-onion mixture to the cooked lentils. heat oil. heat oil and add 1 tsp mustard seeds till it “‘pops.59 3.44 19. ground Red pepper. Add one medium sliced tomato and cook till done. ground % 30.05 14. and saute till done. Add salt to taste. ground Fenugreek.00 25. or chappati.54 1. Serve with cooked rice or use as a dip for flatbreads such as naan. Blend in 1–11/2 tbs South Indian curry blend and saute for a few seconds.54 2.27 0. paratha. ground Coriander.76 100 Preparation of lentil curry: Boil 1 cup lentils till somewhat soft. pita bread. ground Cumin.81 2. add some water to create sauce consistency and blend well. ground Black pepper.” Toss in some fresh kari (or curry) leaves and add this to the lentil curry and blend well. ground Ginger.000 Scoville units Clove. . blend and cook for another minute.

.

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1996. Publishers Group West. Susheela R. Hippocrene Books. The Food of Philippines. Madhur. Berkley. Roclin. Ethnic Extravaganza. 2000. Food Product Design. Heidi Haughy. 1995. Reynaldo G. April. 2000. Periplus Edns. Taste of the Caribbean. Uhl. Flavors of India. Arthur. . Dorinda. 1998. Wendy. Jennifer. CA. St. Ethnic Entrees. Spice Translator. Uhl. Brennen. Culinary Journey through China. New York. Susheela R. 1998. Takawaki and Wagner. Susheela. CA. 1994. Dell. Harris. Taunton Press. Tettoni. May. 1996. Uhl.. 1996. 1998. Food Product Design. Food Forum. 1995. Great Britain. Berkley. Millon. Hafner. June. BBC Books. Food Product Design. March. Refrigerated and Frozen Foods. 1995. Walter.com. Hafner. William Morrow.. 1994. Lother.. The Food of Japan. 1991. Bhumichitr. Vatcharin. 1998. May. Susheela R. Susheela R. Food Product Design. Uhl. CA.... Wendy. Luca Invernizzi and Hutton. Ten Speed Press.. Trieu Thi and Isaak.. Periplus Edns. Flavors of Korea. January. Marcel. Asian Ingredients in American Cooking. Mediterranean Medley. Sri. CT. Periplus Edns. Heinz and Arsana. Simon & Schuster. Indonesian Regional Cooking. ASIAN Alejandro.. April.von Holzen. Hachten. Little. Uhl. 1998. Susheela R. Jessica B. Uhl.SusheelaConsulting. 1993. Susheela R.. Great Britain. Yan. Perplus Edns . Marc and Kim. Jaffrey. Uhl. Best of Regional African Cooking. 1998. A Taste of Africa. New York. Sven. Periplus Edns. J. Vatch’s Thai Cookbook. 1984..307 Uhl. July. Pavilion Books.. Martin. Hot & Spicy Foods. CARIBBEAN Dedeaux. The Food of China. Newton. 1991. New York. retrieved from www. Exploring Asian Ethnic. Periplus Edns. Mai. and Vira Sanguanwong. New York. Prima Publishing. Sahni. 1996. New Ethnic Entrees. The Food of Vietnam. Savoring Spices and Herbs. Krauss. 1995. Dorinda. DeWitt. Ganguillet. 1999. Pham. 1994.. The Best of Vietnamese and Thai Cooking. 1996. 1999. London. Susheela R. The Food of Thailand. Uhl. Chronicle Books. San Francisco. Andre Deutsch. Luca Invernizzi and Hutton. Food Product Design. 1997. Kosaki. A World Of Curries. Susheela. Brown & Company. R. 1998. The Food of Indonesia. Laurent. 1999. Uhl. Fine Cooking. The Sugar Reef Caribbean Cookbook. Devra. (HK) Ltd. The Africa Cookbook: Taste of a Continent. Owen. San Francisco. 1998. June. London. Soul and Spice. Food Product Design. New York. Encyclopedia of Chinese and Oriental Cooking. Harva. Dave and Pais. Ten Speed Press. Tettoni. COOKBOOKS AFRICAN Cusick. Periplus Edns. The Food of Malaysia. Martins Press. Creatively Carribean. Doubleday. Cilantro: Flavorings. R. 1996. Choi. December. Susheela R. Boston. 1995.

1994. Berkley. Random House. Seasonings. The Art of Brazilian Cooking. Yvonne. Alfred A. 1997. 1998. . 1992. Stromquist. Ortiz. Linette. div. Martin’s Press. CA. The French Chef Cookbook. Foods from My Heart. New York. Marcella.308 Handbook of Spices. Stewart. Stephan. Doubleday. Aris Books. New York. Ecco Press. Pat. div. MacMillan. Claudia. New York. Ramallo. Ortiz. Workman. Barbara. 1984. Vintage Books. 1993. NORTH AMERICAN Pyles. LATIN AMERICAN Botafogo. Homestyle Middle Eastern Cooking. 1990. Hazan. A Taste of Cuba. The Classic Pasta Cookbook. Dolores. New York. Ducasse. 1999. Paula. Rice and Beans and Tasty Things: A Puerto Rican Cookbook. New York. Zaslavsky. Salzer. A Taste Of Puerto Rico. Karoff. Zarela. New York. and Flavorings. Root.. Mediterranean Cookbook. div. 1992. div. 1994. Reinhardt and Sabine. Dora. New York. Martínez. Hazan. Nancy. South American Cooking. Ballantine. Random House. NY. Waverly. Freedom. Waverly. Penguin. The Flavors of France. New York. The Book of Latin American Cooking. The Food of Italy. New York. 1993. Hazan. The Food of France. Penguin. A Book of Middle-Eastern Food. 1993. Sante Fe: Hot and Spicy Recipe. Sante Fe. Artisan. A Cooks Tour of Mexico. New York. Barron’s Educational Series. Marcella. of Bantam Doubleday. 1992. Giuliano. NJ. Second Edition EUROPEAN Child. Patricia. Ballantine Books. 1995. MEDITERRANEAN Chapman. New York. 1998. New York. The Crossing. Claudia. Wolfert. Steven. 1987. div. Quintana. Workman . Puerto Rico. NM. Julia. New York. Hess. Dorling Kindersley. New York. Romano. 1993. Hippocrene Books. Tierra Publications. New York. More Classic Italian Cooking. Knopf. 1993. Marcella Cucina. New York. 1997. Green. St. Roden. Roden. Elisabeth Lambert. The Taste of Mexico. Hauppauge. 1993. Regional Italian Cuisine. New York. see Publishing Group Inc. Random House. New York. Joan. 1989. Alain. 1994. Random House. HarperCollins. Hopewell. Tabori and Chang. 1993. Mediterranean Cooking. Miami Spice: The New Florida Cuisine. 1974. CA. Editorial Offices and Test Kitchen. Vintage Books. HarperCollins. Raichlen. Root. The New Texas Cuisine.

25. 35. 3–4 Asafoetida. 40–41 spice examples. 283–284 Agents. 281 atjar blends. 59 Asia as birthplace of popular spices. 28 as primary function. spice volatiles solubility in. 29. 31 Aromatherapy. 66–67 Annatto. 55 Aglio e olio. 197 in ethnic cuisines. 39 New World origin of. 272 Aryan people. 247–248 309 . definition of spices. 243–244 Southeast Asia. 218 Alzheimer’s inhibition by turmeric. 55–56 Anchovies in ethnic cuisine. 36 role of volatile components in. 244–246 Asian spice blends. 282–283 berbere. 31 Active compounds. 246 South Asia. 8 Arils. 2 Appearance. 57. 6–7 as dominant middlemen between India and West. 35. 11 African spice blends. 211–212 Asian regional cuisines. 281 dukkah. 38 Antimicrobial properties. 192 Arrabiata sauce. 46–47 Adjuki beans. 240–243 Chinese five-spice blend. cinnamon. 36. 227. 243 East Asia. 238 Ajowan. 248–249 fermented soybean blends. 41 Antipasto. isolation from spices. 26 Aroma loss. 264 Aphrodisiacs turmeric. 282 West African hot pepper blends. 279–280. 191 American Spice Trade Association (ASTA). 42. 235 Adobo spice blends. 40 Antioxidant properties. 215 Adobo. 229 applications. 242 Aquaresins. 198–200 Asian-Americans. 68–69 coloring properties of. 263 Anise/Aniseed. 1 Andalusian regional cuisine. 200 Ancient civilizations. 234–235 ingredients. 40 Africa ethnic spices and seasonings of. 25. 64–66 bactericidal properties. 284–285 piri-piri/pili-pili. 1 complexity of seasoning blends in. 48 Allergy labeling. 47 American ginseng. 279–280 African Americans. 28 with aging of essential oils. 198 spice blends. 2 Almonds. 4 vanilla. 234–235 Adulteration. 217 in ethnic cuisines. 32 Arabs. 63–64 Akni. in Asian cooking. 5 Renaissance end of spice monopoly. 35 as component of flavor. 22.Index A Acid-amides. 228 history of ancient spice emporium. 3–4 seafood flavorings in. 11 Asian ginseng. 42 turmeric benefits in. 18–19 seafood flavorings in. 69–70 Ash level. 283 North African. 57 Allspice. 39–40 spice examples. See also Middle East conquest of Alexandria and spice trade. anise. 53. 12. 271 Ajilimojili. inhibition by thyme. 243 Alcohol. 191 Asian mushrooms. 234 regional differences in. 281–282 curry blends. 25 Aroma. 58 Aflatoxin.

13. 4 South Asian origins of. 77–78 Capsacinoids. 57–58 in spice blends. 37 in Ayurveda. 9 Caper. 37 Caradamom/cardamon. 195. 36 Black bean sauce. 195 Bamboo segments. in ethnic cuisines. 20 Brazil commercial pineapple seasoning preparation. 209 Brokers. 57 Bites. 15 Braising. 47 Boldo leaf. 250 Japanese seven-spice blend. Brazilian.310 Handbook of Spices. 290 Bargharing. 76 Beijing cuisine. 20 in ethnic flavorings. 218 Bitter melon. 233 seafood flavorings in. in Ayurveda. in history of spice trade. 25 Bioterrorism regulations. 17 growing global demand for. 70–73 Basque regional cuisine. 31 Bitter almond. 43–45. 228 wrappers to create. as wrappers. 25 Basil. 49 Bark. 9 Broccoli. 197 Bangladesh. 192 Burma. 299 Britain. 263 Batu giling. xv. 79–82 Caramelized Chinese cabbage. 194 Ayurvedic medicine. 270 Bowl meals. 246 Berbere spice blends. regional curries. 4–5 Bunga kantan. regional curries. xvii. in history of spice trade. as major spice supplying nation. 248 C Cabbage leaves. 3 Blenders. as spice preparation method. 177 Astringent taste. 249 South Asian. 2 Authenticity global demand for. 43 Atjar spice blends. 42 Blood sugar. 42 Blood pressure. 47 Candlenuts. 249–250 Assam gelugor. and Flavorings. 275 Hoisin sauce blend. 43 perception of. 288 Canada. 213 Black peppers. 76–77 Bolognese sauce blend. 15 Cajun spice blend. mild seasoning of. 272 Carcinogens detoxification by spices. 49 Brass baltis. 55 Blood clotting. 48 B Bacalao. 101–103 Black-eyed peas. 246 Cape Malay cuisine. lowering with spices. benefits from fenugreek seed. Seasonings. 39 Bajio regional Mexican cuisine. 32 Indian origins of. as wrappers. 57–58 in preparation and cooking techniques. 36. 196 Cacao. 200 Brazilian pineapple seasoning. 13 Cancer prevention. 152–158 hot and pungent nonvolatiles in. 15 Caraway. 281–282 Bergamot. 194 Banana leaf. 299 regional cuisines. 196. 60 Cardamom medical uses. 19 in ethnic spices. 282–283 Atole. 76 West Indian. 219 Cantonese cuisine. 78–79 Carbonara sauce. 31 Capsanthin. 15–16 regulatory definitions. 257 Busha Browne’s hot sauce. 231 Bamboo leaf. 76–77 Indian. 126. 209 Bitter taste. 219 Caiprinhas. 29. as wrappers. Second Edition Black cumin. xvi. 271 Bombay duck. 75 Indonesian. with curcumin. 50. 56. 50 Bay leaf. 204 Berries. 25 issues for buyers and consumers. 3 . 252 Barbecue sauce blends. inhibition by chile peppers. 200 Bactericidal properties. 226 as wrappers. 200 Bouquet garni blend. 36 Bixin. 55 Buddhism. 42 irradiation production of. 251–256 Teriyaki blend. 73–75 Boldo leaf.

224 coriander/cilantro. 176 tarragon. 189 Cassia cinnamon. 156 poppy seed. 147 paprika. 106 fennel seed. 83 chervil. 174 sumac. 77 caraway. 131 marjoram. 127 lemongrass. 232 Ceviche. Ecuadorian. Indian curry powders in. 27 Caribbean spice blends. 65 anise. 94 Chai masala. 77 caper. 134–135 mustard. 276–277 hot sauce blends. 209 Celery. 136 wasabi. 52 ethnic spices and seasonings of. 76 juniper. 164 savory. 140 nigella. 279 jerk seasoning. 74 boldo leaf. 34 Cashews. 17 common names. 100 cumin/black cumin. 274–279 wrappers in. 276–277 Creole sauce blend. 121 Indonesian bay leaf. 263 Cauliflower. 108 fenugreek seed/leaf. 186 311 . 276–277 escovitch/escabeche blend. 93 chocolate. 70 basil. 18 regional cuisines. 222 cinnamon. 279 Indian curry powders in. 30 of global curry blends. 175 tamarind. 162 sage. cuisines of. 15 Ceylon cinnamon. 196 Caribbean cuisine. 252 Chanterelle mushrooms. 104–105 epazote. 274. 183 watercress. 88–90 chives. 168 sesame seed. 36. 109–110 galangal. 63 allspice. 161 sorrel. 277–279 seafood flavorings in. 138–139 myrtle. in Mediterranean cuisine. 217 Cassava root. 122 kaffir lime. 81 celery. 37 Carrier substances. 184–185 West Indian bay leaf. 149 parsley. 123–124 lavender. 275–276. 142 nutmeg. 172 star anise. 160 saffron. 277 Colombo blends. 279 Carotenoids. 182 vanilla. 211 Char masala. 17. 115 ginger. 260 Chemical components ajowan. 274 garam masala. 126 lemon verbena. 231–232 curry blends in. 78–79 cardamom. 125 lemon balm. 52 Cheese. 117–118 grains of paradise. 169 sichuan pepper. 94 Catalonia regional cuisine. 200 spice blends. 143 onion. 159 rosemary. 132 mints/spearmint/peppermint. 221 Vietnamese mint. 96 common names. 274. 274–275 curry blends. 82–84 Central America. 145 oregano. 180 turmeric. 112–113 garlic. 151 peppers. 276 cuisines of. 120 horseradish. 67 asafoetida. 253 Characterizing aromas of essential oils. 72 bay/laurel leaf. 178 thyme. 84 chile peppers.Index Caribbean Asian Indian influence. 30 examples. 123 kari leaf. 95–96 coffee. 128 mace. 76 zedoary. 166 screw-pine leaf/pandan leaf. 102–103 dill.

80 celery. See also Paprika antimicrobial properties. 300–301 Common names ajowan.. 238 China in history of spices. 208 Coconut milk. 219 in ethnic cuisines. 38 as emerging global spices/flavorings. 114 ginger. 92 chocolate. global. 195 Chinese chives. 109 galangal. 59 Cloud ears. 286 Commercial spice blends. 3 Cleanliness concerns. 13 regional cuisines. 40 antioxidant properties. 4 Coacervation. 40 applications. 86 varieties and cultivars. 15 Chutneys. 116 grains of paradise. 222 cinnamon. inhibition by spices. 66 annatto. 292–293 Chile peppers. Caribbean. in ethnic cuisines. 15 Chives. 99 dill. 298 Moroccan seasoning/T. 78 cardamom. 98–101 Cinnamon. Seasonings. 214 Chile blends. 82–83 chervil. 256 . 15 Chili powder. 187. 89 geographical origin of. 84–85 Chicken tikka masala. 42 Chrysanthemum. 71 bay/laurel leaf.312 Handbook of Spices. 2 Cholesterol. Argentinean. 45–46 Chinese vegetarian cooking. 187. 255–256 Cilantro. 223–224 Colombo blends. 90 species and varieties. 19 fresh and dried versions. 2 in ethnic cuisines. 42 Chronic fatigue. and Flavorings. 64 anise. Inc. 299 Fish sauce seasoning/David Michael & Co. 42 capsacinoids in. 94–95 clove. 22. 276–277 Color. 248–249 Chinese medicine. 68 asafoetida. 39 regional varieties. 104 epazote. 119 horseradish. xvi. Hasegawa USA. 4 as major spice supplying nation.. 92 blood clotting inhibition action. 91–92 Chocolate. 84 chile peppers. 89 Scoville units by variety. 34. 76 caper. 211 Cloves. 107 fenugreek seed/leaf. 193 Churrasco. 33 Cocoa pods. 207–208 Coconut chutney. 96–98 antimicrobial properties. 219 in ethnic cuisines. 14. North American. 38 Comfort foods. 120 Chervil. 223 coriander/cilantro. 93–96 bactericidal properties. Second Edition Coconut juice. 87 Chili-based sauces. 221–223 Coconut. 86–87 chives. 56 Coffee. 2 physical descriptions by variety. 106 fennel seed. principles of taste in. as primary spice function. 85–86. 21. 74 boldo leaf. 246 wrappers in. 93 Chinese five-spice blend. 69 basil. 16 Chickpeas. 77 caraway. 111–112 garlic. 208 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). 295–296 Brazilian pineapple seasoning/International Flavor & Fragrances. 17 sequiterpines in. 29 from Sri Lanka. 63 allspice. 289–290 Chimichurri salsa. 36–38 for selected spices. 300 red mole seasoning/Con Agra. 97 coffee. 36 Coloring components properties. 221–223 New World origin of. 286–287 South Indian spice blend for dal curry/Horizons Consulting LLC. 41 medical uses. 301–302 Jamaican jerk seasoning/Illes Seasonings & Flavors. 1. 302–303 Thai red curry seasoning/Newly Wed Foods. 31 coloring properties.

37 Cross-over flavors. use of spices as. 225 Cooling taste. 161–162 sage. 263 Cosmetics. 144–145 oregano. 147 paprika. 227 Curry leaf. 128 lovage. as wrappers. 136 wasabi. 179 turmeric. 125 lemon balm. 194. 44 Dravidians. 127 lemongrass. 296–297 Condiments. 15 Cornmeal. 75 Indonesian bay leaf. 288–289 Crocin. 172 star anise. 6 Constitutional types. 101–103 bactericidal properties. 266 D Dal podi. 295 Constantinople. 276–277 Indian variations. 26 in ethnic cuisines. 21 global blends and characterizing aromas. 152–158 Cumin. 45 garlic. 196 Corn pudding. 160 saffron. Bolivia. 148–149 parsley. 184 zedoary. 98–101 antimicrobial properties. 387 Caribbean. 36. 220 Vietnamese mint. 7 Cuban cuisine. 52 Curry blends African. 281 Caribbean. 56 Consistency. 104–105 Dim sum. 189 Corn husks. 173 juniper. 176 tarragon. role in ethnic food diversity. 13 Cooking techniques authentic. 76 Jamaican sorrel. in Ayurveda. 166 screw-pine leaf/pandan leaf. 3 . 132 mints/spearmint/peppermint. 211 Curcumin. mojo blends in. 237 Cubeb. 231–232 Creole sauce blend. 181 vanilla. 15 Dispersibility. of ground spices. 35. Inc. 20 313 classification in China. 46 effect on spice chemistry. 129 mace.Index Indian bay leaf. 130–131 marjoram. 123–124 Cyprus. 136–137 myrtle. cuisine characteristics. 47 Curries. 44 spices to balance and reduce. 173 sumac. 228. 27 Distribution channels. 185 Con Agra Food Ingredient Company. in Caribbean cuisine. 261 Creole cuisine. 61 Cooking schools.. 52–53 definitions. 123 lavender. 183 watercress. 27 spice extractives. 141 nutmeg. 36. 143 onion. 33 Couscous. 278–279 Corsican regional cuisine. 151 peppers. 122 kari leaf. 153–154 poppy seed. fresh spices. 42 enhancing by balancing hot/cold foods.. 163 sassafras. 39 Cup mushrooms. 134 mustard. 47 Dill. as spice city. 167 sesame seed. 301–302 Dextrose. 170–171 sorrel. 44 Containers. 55 Doshas. 165 savory. 140 nigella. 158 rosemary. 34 Digestive properties. use of tightly closed. 9. 14. 1 Cost effectiveness dried vs. 175 tamarind. 295 global demand for. 178 thyme. 25 Crusades. 121 kaffir lime. See also Texture of commercial spice blends. 254–255 David Michael & Co. 37 Coriander. 40 Coriander root. 274–275 North American. 126 lemon verbena. 169 sichuan pepper. as carrier substance.

See also Flavor contributors Emerging secondary spice functions. 8 E E. 188 ginseng root in. 12 Ethnic seasoning formulations. spices suppressing growth of. 59 Europe historical spice use. 225 Dukkah spice blend. 57. 60 Japan prohibitions against. 30–31. regional cuisines. regional cuisines. 17 spices and seasonings of. 198–200 Dried fruits. 17 authentic preparation and cooking techniques in. 17–18 Southeast Asian. 28 disadvantages. Second Edition Ethnic cuisines African. 8–9 European herbal medicine. 18–19 authentic ethnic spices. 57 Fennel seed. in ethnic cuisines. coli. 1 European conquests. 17–19 Tex-Mex. 13. 32–34 adulteration concerns. 43–46 Emerging spice blends. 57 Exotic flavors. 229 Enoki mushrooms. Drug & Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). in history of spice trade. 18 licorice root in. 37 East Africa. 52 ethnic spices and seasonings of. 16–17 East Asian. 43 European Spice Association (ESA). 198 Eastern Caribbean. 107–109 Fenugreek leaf. 189–190 Lotus root in. 199 commercial seasoning preparation. spice regulations. 39 spice use for. 15 Ethnic grocery stores. 247–248 Filth levels. 190 Mediterranean. 49 Fish sauce. 57 sterilization with. growing global demand for. 225 Dry roasting. 18 contemporary trends in. 20–21 South Asian. 31. 42 Ethnic comfort foods. 34 Dried fish/shrimp. 28–29. 34 determinants of characteristics. 42 modern medical research. in history of spice trade. 277 Eggplant. xxi Fire roasting. 227–229. 170–172 Federal Food. 32–33 production methods. 60 Epazote. 197–198 spices originating in. 198. 28. 5. See also Spice blends African. 20 Caribbean. 192 Embalming and preservative nature of spices. 109–111 reported therapeutic effects. 33 England curry blends in. 259–262. 279–280. xv Extractives. 211–212 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 18 seafood flavorings in. 5–6 seafood flavorings in. 52 popularity of Indian and Asian flavors. 48 Dryheat cooking techniques. 191 Latin American. 5 Emerging flavor contributors. 240–259 Caribbean. 18 preparation and cooking techniques in. 202 Dried ground spices. 26. 39 Earthy notes. 58 advantages and disadvantages. 46–48 traditional medical uses. 280 East Asia curry blends in. 267–273 North American. 22 F Fagara. 209 Elder flowers. 42 medicinal properties. 229–240 Mediterranean. 290–293 Latin American. 47 Fermented bean seasonings. Seasonings. 224–226 presentation styles. xvii Ethylene oxide. 60 Fine Cooking. 301–302 . See also Volatile oils Estrogen. 61 advantages and disadvantages. 274 Essential oils. 106 Escovitch/Escabeche spice blend. 109–111 Fenugreek seed. 18 Middle Eastern. 18 flavorings used in. 187. 59 European Union.314 Handbook of Spices. 285–290 Encapsulated oils. 283 Dutch traders. blocking with spices. 274–279 global. and Flavorings. 281–285 Asian. 28 Dry/moist combined cooking techniques.

219 Ginger. 287 in spice blends. 187 Flavorings authentic ethnic. aroma. inhibiting with spices. 206 olives as flavorings. 116–119 antimicrobial properties. in Asian cuisine. 17–21 rhizomes as. 19. xxi Food spoilage. xvii Floral notes. 24 Germicides. 242 Garum. xxi France in history of spice trade. See Therapeutic uses Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 200–202 in ethnic cuisines. 39 hot and pungent nonvolatiles in. 7. 21–22. xvii wrappers as. 208–209 papaya flavorings. 21–22 of popular/authentic ethnic cuisines. in Asian cuisines. Lord. 202–204 in Mediterranean cuisine. 47 French Culinary Institute. 47 sesquiterpines in. 29 Gingered potatoes. 19 creative use of. 263 spice blends. 37 Fumigants. 20 Food processors. 207 lemon flavorings. xvii seafood as. 278 coconut flavorings. See also Antioxidant properties protection by curcumin. 31. 47 Garnishes. 45–46 Fixed oils. 55 Food coloring. 207 Five-spice blends. 275 Flatbreads. 36 Flavor contributors. 7. 59 spice use as. 19 flowers as. 42 reported therapeutic effects. growing demand for natural. authentic techniques. 207–208 as emerging global spices/flavorings. 191–194 as flavorings. 37 Flowers as emerging global spices/flavorings. xvi Food preparation. 192–194 Folklore. 252–253 Caribbean variations. 14. 205–206 mango flavorings. 248–249 Five-spice lentils. 14. xvi goals of. 195 Free radicals. 41 hot and pungent nonvolatiles in. 202–207. 3 bactericidal properties. 19. 50 Food Product Design. 22 G Galangal. 203 as flavorings. 39 Food Technology. xvii fusion. xvii specific ingredients. 26–27 advantages and disadvantages. 206–207 orange flavorings. emerging. 27 Food marketers. 57 turning away from. 28 as primary function. 261–262 miscellaneous tropical flavorings. 40 Aryan disdain for. 268–270 wrappers in. 261 Flavor as combination of taste. 40. 228 Fusion sauces. 188 . 295 in Southwest cuisine. xv criteria and skill set for. 34 315 Fruits in Caribbean cuisine. 113–116 antimicrobial properties. 40 antioxidant properties. 111–113 Ganesha. 242 Fresh spring rolls. 5 Fusion flavors. 204–205 palm sugar flavorings. 276–277 Garlic. xv Food developers. 9 regional cuisines. 197 Genetically modified ingredients regulations concerning. 32 motion sickness prevention with. 204 Fruity taste. 14 Fresh whole spices. xxi Fresh leafy spices. 205–206 lime flavorings. texture. 1 Ghee. 15 Five tastes. 15 Ginseng root. 16 in Mediterranean cuisine. xvi emerging global. xvii fruits as. 204 pomegranate flavorings.Index Fish tamarind. spices as. 32 reported therapeutic effects. 4 Garam masala. 229 Chinese. definition of spices. in Chinese medicine. 29 Flambeau sauce. xvii kokum fruit.

13 Gums. 32 Hot pepper sauces in Caribbean cooking. 290–292 Grinders. 50 Heat treatment. 52. 6–7 Isolated compounds. 273 Hunan cuisine. 265–266 Irradiation treatment. 55 India in history of spices. 42 Importers. 246 Hydrolysed plant protein (HPP). increasing with spices. 302–303 Horseradish. 263–265. 283–284 Hot sauce blends in Asian cuisines. growth and Arab control of spice trade. 299 International Pepper Community (IPC). 70. demand for. 290 chile blends. 3 as major spice supplying nation. 250 Hoja santa. characterizing flavorings. as major spice supplying nation. 61 International Flavor & Fragrances. 5 Islam. 14 Heat stability. principles of. 6 Green chile acar. 3 Harissa blend. 56 Indian vegetarian foods. role in ethnic food interests. 195 Greek spice traders. 13 regional curry blends in. 35 Humitas. 75. 259 as major spice supplying nation. vs. North American. 202 Green mango. 284 Harvesting methods. 227. 56 terminology of. 28 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems. 195 Indian bay leaf. 29 I Immune activity. as wrappers. global. 58 Ground spices adulteration concerns. 191 Glazes. 27 Growers. 42 Ishmaelites. 29 in ethnic cuisines. xvii Herbs de Provence. 76 Indian cooking. xv. 23 growing public aversion to. definition of spices. 120–121. 59. length of storage before. 7 Hoisin sauce blend. 14. 242 Caribbean. 15. 279 .316 Handbook of Spices. 76 Indonesian cinnamon. 243–244 wrappers in. 268–269 Hinduism in history of spice trade. 31 Italy regional cuisines. 51 Global curry blends. 1. 59. 212 Humidity. 204 Green spice blends. 190 Grains of paradise. 256 Green chile blend. contribution to taste. 37 Indian Spice Board (ISB). 58 dispersibility characteristics. 60 Irritable bowel syndrome. 4 supplanting by Arab spice traders. 15 Hummus. 227 religious influences on cuisine. 59 Herbaceous notes. 279 West African. 119–120 Grape leaves. 245 Indonesian bay leaf. xxi. 71 Horizons Consulting LLC. 197 Holy basil. 36 Huitlacoche. 208 Green fruits. whole spice. 296 Hydrophilic compounds. 265–266 wrappers in. 37 Herbs distinguishing from spices. Seasonings. 55 Grinding. 59 International Standards Organization (ISO). 13 Iranian cuisine. 13 regional cuisine. 55 Guatemala. 270–272 H Harappa civilization. 290–292 Glycyrrhizin. See also Wasabi hot and pungent nonvolatiles in. 48. 45 Indonesia curry blends. 61 Healthy ingredients. 21. Bolivian. Second Edition in Caribbean cuisine. 195 Greece cuisine characteristics. and Flavorings. 48 Isothiocyantes. in ethnic cuisines. 52 Global spice blends. 43–44 Indian saffron. 289 Green curry. 275–276 Hot taste. 292–293 green blends. 95 Infestation concerns. 55 Internet. 16. peppermint and. avoiding in storage. 37 perception of. 264–265 spice blends.

44 Kari leaf. 229–230. 253 Krill. 195 Lotus root. xix Long pepper. Aryan disdain for. 207 Kola nuts. 15 wrappers in. 213–215. in Malaysian cuisine. 298 Jamaican sorrel. 15 Laurel leaf. 126 Lemon basil. 230–234 South American regional cuisines. 258 Latin America Caribbean regional cuisines. 124–126. 73–75 Boldo leaf. 249 Jasmine. effects of exposure to. 298 Juniper. 44 spices to balance/reduce. 193 Japanese cooking. 205–206 Liquid soluble spices. 279 commercial preparation. 122–123. benefits from curcumin. 239–240 Latin Americans. 206 Jaggery. 33 Languedoc regional cuisine. 194 Leeks. 129 M Mace. 152–158 Lotus flower. 3 Kernels. 286–287 Lovage. 193 Jerk seasoning. 196–197 La tin American spice blends. 253 Kerala. 18 Mexican regional cuisines. 123–124 in etymology of curry. 55–56 of spice extractives. 173. 61 Lily buds. 214 as dals in South Indian vegetarian cuisine. 76 Lavender. 205 sour. 199 L Labeling. 76 West Indian bay leaf. 251 Karnataka. 215 soybeans. 130–131 antioxidant properties. 192 Lime. 47 Light. 21 King Solomon. 25 Kimchis. 12. 213 in ethnic cuisines. 234 adobos. as wrappers. 3. 209 Jamaican jerk seasoning. 263 Laos. in ethnic cuisines.Index 317 J Jackfruit. 254 Licorice in ethnic cuisines. spice names in. 234–2345 mojo blends. 19 as wrappers. 75 Indonesian bay leaf. 33 Liver. 41 . 121–122 K Kaffir lime. 193 Lotus leaf. 127–129 Lentils. 217 Korma. 214–215 Lemon. 246 regional curries. 206 Kampuchean cuisine. 127 Lemongrass. xvii. 232 ethnic spices and seasonings of. regional curries. 25 Leaves emerging global spices/flavorings. in ethnic cuisines. 258 Kapha dosha. 206 Kala masala. 3 Legumes as emerging global spices/flavorings. 71 Lemon verbena. in ethnic cuisines. 251 Kari podis. 246 characteristics of. 190 Louisiana cuisine. 22. 3 Kashmiri masala. 234–240 wrappers in. 238–239 salsa blends. 274. 237–238 sofrito blends. 5 Kokum fruit. 232–234 spice blends of. 230–231 regional cuisines of. 19. 189–190 reported therapeutic effects. 11 Latino cuisines. 32 uniform dispersion of color and flavor with. 76–77 Indian bay leaf. 193 Leafy plant parts. 47 Local dialects. See also Jerk seasoning commercial preparation. 231–232 Central American regional cuisines. 196 Japanese seven-spice blend. 253 Kalamansi. 235–236 recado blends. 205–206 Lemon balm. 237 mole blends.

48 of spices. 18 regional cuisines. 251–252 Matouk’s calypso hot sauce. 60. 267–268 tahini blend. 272–273 Methyl bromide. whole spice. 5. as carrier substance. 60 Mole spice blends. 272 Marjoram. 270 French blends. and Flavorings. 227. 268 zahtar blend. 275 Medicinal properties. 16. 263–265 Middle Eastern. fumigation with. 296 Monoterpenes. 265 North African. 266 Mortar and pestle. specification limits. 61 Middle Ages. 253 Magical properties. 132–133 Masalas. 272 zhug blend. 202–204 Mango pickle. 35 debate over isolated phytochemicals vs. 5 Malaysia curry blends. 29 Miso soups. investigations into spice properties. 262 Armenian. 1 wrappers in. 259–262 spices originating in. 60 Morocco commercial seasoning blend. 195 Mint chutney. 257 Myrtle. 7 Middle East curry blends in. 1 Mediterranean cuisines. 230–231 as major spice supplying nation. 212–213 Mushrooms. 208 Mustard. 231 Microbial quality. 133–136 monoterpenes in. 15. 7 Marigold. 248 Modern medicine. 42 Mushroom extracts. 59 Mojo spice blends. 265–266 Iranian. 214. as wrappers. role in spice trade history. 225 Moisture content. 205 Mango. 238 Moist heat cooking techniques. 2 Montreal Protocol for Ozone Protection. 235–236 Moluccas. 267–268 Spanish blends. 266 French. 209 Aryan disdain for. Seasonings. preventing with ginger. 52 ethnic spices and seasonings of. 259 introduction of spices from. 269–270 Romesco sauce blend. 266 Italian. 34 Mandarin oranges. 272–273 pasta sauce blends. 266 Cyprian. 32 Myanmar. 18 regional cuisines. Second Edition tapenade blend. 273 . 3. 256 Marco Polo. 59. 267 Rouille blend. 50. 263 Greek. 255–256 Mints. 191. 266 Spanish. 206 Maltodextrin. 29 Monsoon winds. 136–140 antimicrobial properties. 1 Maguey. of spices. 196 Malabar Coast. 59 Motion sickness. 265 spice blends.318 Handbook of Spices. 268–270 herbs de Provence. 42 Mediterranean area ethnic spices and seasonings of. 192 Marinades. regional curries. 271–272 quatre epices. 3 in ethnic cuisines. 247. 25. 266 Mediterranean spice blends bouquet garni. 1 spice use during. 23 growing public aversion to. 51 Marinara sauce. 300 regional cuisine. 13 regional cuisines. 245–246 Malhlab cherry. 237 Molds. 269 sofrito blend. xv. 140–141 Madras curry blend. in ethnic cuisines. 46–48 Moiho malagueta. 204. 59 Mexico cuisines of. 268–269 Italian blends. 213 Mussaman curry. 8 regional cuisine. 262–266 spice blends of. 231 Montezuma. 194. 270–272 Middle Eastern blends. 6 Monterrey Mexican cuisine. See also Spice Islands Monosodium glutamate (MSG). 272–273 spices originating in. 40 hot and pungent nonvolatiles in. xvi. 262–263 Turkish. 211–213.

288 chili powder. 41 Natural medicine. 289 North India curry blends. 215–216 almonds. 266. 69 basil. 32 Orange blossoms. 288–289 green chile blend. 13 Ointments. 23–24 countries involved in. 21 New York University. public desire for. 235 Oil frying. 193 Orange peel. 228–229 Nut flavorings. 286 Louisiana cuisine. 280 spice blends. 19 Nuts and seeds. 242. seasoning blends. 41 Nutraceuticals. 245 Onions. 84 . 38 Natural preservatives. 3–4 regional cuisines. 63 allspice. 286 in Southeast Asia. emerging global spices/flavorings. See also Bowl meals in Louisiana. 205 Oranges. 244 use of nuts. 284–285 North America history of spices in. 2 New England cuisine. 23–24 Negro pepper. 286–287 Southwest cuisine. 190 in mango. 203 in mushrooms. 285–286. 64 anise. 287–288 Tex-Mex. 31–32 Olives in ethnic cuisines. 231 mole blends. 39 hot and pungent nonvolatiles in. 288 barbecue sauce blends. 5 Oleoresins. growing demand for. 80 celery. 202 in licorice. 13. xvi Nuts. 206–207 in Mediterranean cuisine. 24 Origin ajowan. 290 cajun blend. vanilla. 287 North American spice blends. xxi Newly Wed Foods. 74 caraway. 192 Native American Indians. 217 Northern Europe. 227–228 Noodle dishes. 16 Nasturtiums. 218 in fruits. 82 chervil. 31–32 hot and pungent. 205 in papaya. 142–144 antioxidant properties. 67 annatto. 286–287 Southern. 71 bay/laurel leaf. 219 in ethnic cuisines. 219 pumpkin seeds. 286–288 typical fruit flavorings. 252 in history of spices. 289–290 creole sauce blend. 3 bactericidal properties. 15 North Africa regional cuisines. 216 in oranges. 144–146 Aryan disdain for. 146–148 antioxidant properties. 78 cardamom. xv Natural spice trends. 209 in nuts and seeds. 37 O Oaxaca cuisine.Index 319 N Naan. 33 Natural foods. 9 regional cuisines. labeling of. in ethnic cuisines. 2 contribution to Southwest cuisine. 218 candlenuts. 42 Nutrients in almonds. 141–142 Nonvolatiles. Food Studies and Public Health. 9 curry blends. 300–301 Nigella. 204–205 Oregano. 261 One-dish meals. public desire for. 32 Nonya cuisine. spice use for. 287 Natural flavors. 201 North American regional cuisines. public desire for. 216–219 in Mediterranean cuisine. 204 Nutritionists. in ethnic cuisines. 218 Nutty taste. 230. Department of Nutrition. 28. 219 Nutmeg. 152–158 Nerve stimulants. 39 Organic foods. 68 asafoetida. 41 bactericidal properties. 261 pine nuts. 38 Organic spice trends. 38.

8. 142 onion. use in spice purification. 136 myrtle. 111 garlic.320 Handbook of Spices. 208 Panchphoron. 37 Pippali. with curcumin. 125 lemon balm. 176 tarragon. 227. 161 sage. 48 Pickapeppa sauce. 129 mace. in ethnic cuisines. 168–169 sichuan pepper. 107 fenugreek seed/leaf. 208–209 Palmyrah. 114 ginger. 132 mints/spearmint/peppermint. 167 sesame seed. 42 Pakistan curry blends. 120 Indonesian bay leaf. 47 . 275 Pickle blends. 217 Pitta dosha. 127 lemongrass. 183 P Paan leaf. 144 oregano. 58 Oyster mushrooms. 119 horseradish. 31. 116 grains of paradise. 37. 38 monoterpenes in. 181 vanilla. 172 star anise. 151 peppers. 36. 52 regional curries. trends in aversion to. 229. 198. 104 epazote. 219 Piney notes. 148 parsley. 148–150 coloring properties of. 106 fennel seed. Seasonings. 94 clove. 163 sassafras. and Flavorings. roasted. 211. 2 Pine nuts. 147 paprika. 126 lemon verbena. 175 tamarind. 252 Palm sugar. 153 poppy seed. 233 Parsley. 44 spices to balance/reduce. 165 savory. 170 sorrel. as wrappers. 121 kaffir lime. 44 Platelet reduction. 255–256 Pickled vegetables. 152–158 Piri-piri spice blends. 76 zedoary. 133–134 mustard. 178 thyme. 184 West Indian bay leaf. 42 Peppers. 216. 122 kari leaf. 24 chile peppers. 130 marjoram. in history of spice trade. 204 Paprika. 217 in ethnic cuisines. 102 dill. 226 as wrappers. 247. 271 Peanuts. Italian. 133–136 and irritable bowel syndrome. 248 Ozone. 238 Pepper sauce. 21 Pimento. 160 saffron. 152–153 Pesticides. 195 Pad Thai. 220 wasabi. 196 Papaya. 85–86 chives. 150–152 coloring properties of. 173 sumac. in ethnic cuisines. 282 Pistachios. 179 turmeric. 76 juniper. 141 nutmeg. 270–271 Phoenicians. Second Edition watercress. debate over isolation of. 92 chocolate. 253 Pandan leaf. 5 Phytochemicals. 109 galangal. 16 Pain reduction. 7 Peppermint. 217 Pebre salsa. 209 Panang curry. 97 coffee. 23 Pesto blends. 140 nigella. 38 Paraguayan cuisine. 166 screw-pine leaf/pandan leaf. 185 Origination concerns. 123 lavender. 158 rosemary. 167–168. 36. 127–128 lovage. 212 Oyster sauce. 223 cumin/black cumin. 29 Pasta sauce blends. 270–271 Italian. 222 cinnamon.

183–184 watercress. 142 nutmeg. 126 lemon verbena. 131 marjoram. 204 Poppy seed. 72 321 . 175 tamarind. 171 sorrel. 147–148 paprika. 26 Processors. 173 juniper. 121 Indian bay leaf. 68–69 asafoetida. retaining red color with rosemary and sage. 169 ajowan. 172 star anise. 166–167 screw-pine leaf/pandan leaf. 110 galangal. 58 Properties. 118 global equipment used in. 122 kaffir lime. 77 caper. 70 assam gelugor. 177 basil. 151–152 peppers. 187 ajowan. 123 kari leaf. 90–91 chives. 168 sesame seed. 41 Processing techniques. 96 clove. 185 West Indian bay leaf. 221 Vietnamese mint. 222–223 cinnamon. 65–66 anise. 60 grains of paradise. 164 sassafras. 84–85 chile peppers. 120 horseradish. 186 Prepared foods. 149–150 parsley. 21 Pomegranate. 211 Portugal. 295 coriander/cilantro. 182 vanilla.Index Plum sauces. 39 Primary spice functions. 75 Indonesian bay leaf. 67 annatto. 124 lavender. 141 nigella. 160 saffron. 83–84 chervil. 63 allspice. 158–159 Portobello mushrooms. 180 turmeric. 241 ethnic variations in. 174 sumac. 76 Jamaican sorrel. 76 zedoary. 162 sage. in ethnic cuisines. 113 garlic. 13 Presentation styles Asian. 125 lemon balm. 8 Posole. 103 dill. 176–177 tarragon. 135 mole blends. 97–98 coffee. 165 savory. 130 mace. 74–75 boldo leaf. 63–64 allspice. 77–78 caraway. 224–226 fennel seed. 224 complexity of ethnic. 55 Product development. 145–146 oregano. in Andean region. 2 Potatoes. 178–179 thyme. xxi adulteration and quality concerns. 105 epazote. 35–38 Processed meats. 106 in ethnic cuisines. 115 ginger. 139–140 myrtle. 65 anise. 159 rosemary. 67 annatto. 28 effect on chemical compounds. 93 chocolate. 100–101 cumin/black cumin. 296 spices as. 72–73 bay/laurel leaf. 143–144 onion. 68 asafoetida. in history of Renaissance spice trade. 156–157 poppy seed. 133 mints/spearmint/peppermint. 69–70 basil. sesame seed. 48–50. 235–236 mustard. 136 wasabi. 81–82 celery. 79 cardamom. 127 lemongrass. 108 fenugreek seed/leaf. 128–129 lovage. 169–170 sichuan pepper. 232 Preparation methods. 20–21 Preservatives growing public aversion to.

109 galangal. Second Edition star anise. 162 sage. 84 chile peppers. 104 epazote. 83 chervil. 262–266 North American. 123 kari leaf. 178 thyme. 136 wasabi. 209 Pumpkin seeds. 128 lovage. 32 Regional American flavors. 74 boldo leaf. 93 chocolate. 123 lavender. 112 garlic. 41 Ras-el-hanout spice blend. 37 in Ayurveda. 125 lemon balm. 165 savory. 140 nigella. 180 turmeric. 172 Q Qi. and Flavorings. 184 zedoary. 269–270 R Raghavan. 277–279 Latin American. 163–164 sassafras. 167–168 sichuan pepper. 106 fennel seed. 3 Rancidity. 149 parsley. 77 caraway. 174 sumac. 107–108 fenugreek seed/leaf. 158 rosemary. 176 tarragon. example foods. 151 peppers. 147 paprika. 117 grains of paradise. 76 Jamaican sorrel. 286–287 Red pepper. 130 mace. 57–58 Quality specifications. 300–301 Red mole seasoning. 88 chives. 57–58 Quality concerns. 230–234 Mediterranean. 160 saffron. 263 Pulses. 132 mints/spearmint/peppermint. 186 Provencal regional cuisine. 56–57 Rehydration. 59–61 regulatory definitions. in ethnic cuisines. See Legumes Pumpkin. 97 coffee. 95 clove. 173 juniper. 43 Recado spice blends. 271–272 bay/laurel leaf. 175 tamarind. 99 cumin/black cumin. 280 Asian. 155–156 poppy seed. 43 Puttanesca sauce blend. 254–255 Rasas. 222 cinnamon. 145 oregano. 27 Religion in Indian cuisine. xxi Ramayana. 143 onion. 182 vanilla. 243–244 . 224 coriander/cilantro. 58–59 Quatre epices blend. 45 Quality maintaining. commercial blend. 114 ginger. hot and pungent nonvolatiles in. 166 screw-pine leaf/pandan leaf.322 Handbook of Spices. 284–285 Rasam podi. Seasonings. commercial blend. 120 horseradish. 126 lemon verbena. 121 Indonesian bay leaf. 102 dill. 238–239 Red curry seasoning. Susheela. 286–288 Regulations. 131 marjoram. for buyers. 77 caper. 220–221 Vietnamese mint. 183 watercress. 127 lemongrass. 171 sorrel. prevention by spices. 122 kaffir lime. 137–138 myrtle. 243–246 Caribbean region. 219 Pungent taste. 21–23 Regional cuisines African. 78 cardamom. 141 nutmeg. 81 celery. 134 mustard.

34 Salt-dried cod. 269 Rubs. 189. in ethnic cuisines. 177 basil. 2 turmeric. 102 dill. 21. 260–261 as neutral food. 46 Rice bowls. 36 Samanthi podi. 237–238 Latin American variations. 75 Indonesian bay leaf. 106 fennel seed. 82 chervil. 122 kari leaf. 119 horseradish. 191 licorice root. 84 chile peppers. 241 Religious uses. 39 Rouille spice blend. 25. 190 Salted cod. coloring properties of. 230 Salt.Index influence on Mediterranean regional cuisines. 159–161 antimicrobial properties. 187 as emerging flavor contributors. 99 cumin/black cumin. 238 Salsas. 206 Salty taste in Ayurveda. 238 Salsa verde. 58 coloring properties of. 32 Sassafras. 187 as emerging global spices/flavorings. 25. 21. in ethnic cuisines. 187–189 in ethnic cuisines. 63 allspice. 189 as flavorings. hot and pungent nonvolatiles in. 94 clove. 77 caraway. 222 cinnamon. 40 antioxidant properties. 39 Salam leaf. 253 Sambal spice blends. 163–164 antimicrobial properties. 97 coffee. 85 chives. 43 perception of. 21. 238 Salsa rojo. 76 caper. 161–163 adulteration concerns. 64 anise. 267 Roots. 15 Roman spice traders. 36. 80 celery. 165–167 Scientific names ajowan. as wrappers. 238 Salsa de aji. as preparation method. 200. 223 coriander/cilantro. 107 fenugreek seed/leaf. 6 Romesco sauce blend. xvii Rice as Asian staple/comfort food. 68 asafoetida. 71 bay/laurel leaf. 29 Restaurant USA. 3 Resins. 4. 200 Salty pickled sour plum. xvi Salsa criolla. 116 grains of paradise. 120 Indian bay leaf. 38 Saffron. 76 Jamaican sorrel. 260 and regional differences in Asian foods. 190 Rose. 173 juniper. 190 ginseng root. xxi Rhizomes. 38 Sage. 41 as broad-spectrum antimicrobial. xvii. 191 Rose water. 92 chocolate. 113 ginger. 16 Sansho pepper. 187–190 in ethnic cuisines. 189–190 lotus root. as carrier substance. 40 antioxidant properties. 121 kaffir lime. popularity of. 1 chocolate. 78 cardamom. 123 S Safflower. as flavoring. 41 as broad-spectrum antimicrobial. 66 annatto. 104 epazote. 49 Savory. 241 in Mediterranean cuisine. 164–165 Sauteeing. 69 assam gelugor. 196 Sales professionals. 192–193 Rose hips. 193 Rosemary. 74 boldo leaf. 109 galangal. 19. xvii. 111 garlic.S. 51 323 U. 254–255 Samosas. 256–257 Sambar podi. 238 .

185 Scoville units. 172 star anise. 76 zedoary. 220 Vietnamese mint. 58 dried spices. 19. 49 Soba. 166 screw-pine leaf/pandan leaf. 176 tarragon. 52 of popular authentic ethnic cuisines. 200 spice blends of. 172–173 Sour citrus. 25 emerging global spices/flavorings. of chile pepper varieties. 173 sumac. 251 char masala. 20 Silk Road. 132 mints/spearmint/peppermint. 198–200 . in ethnic cuisines. 19 Sensory characteristics. 21 in Asian cuisines. 40–41 emerging. as wrappers. 212 Shrimp flavorings. 140 nigella. 17–18 seafood flavorings in. 36 Sesame-scented bean curd. 260 Seafood flavorings. 41 Shiitake mushrooms. 15 Sesame seed. 184 West Indian bay leaf. 197–198 South Asian. 38–39 antimicrobial properties. 194 Secondary spice functions. 15 Sofrito spice blends. 198–200 Brazilian. 153 poppy seed. 242 role in ethnic foods. 168–170 antioxidant properties. xvii. 43 perception of. 251–256 South Asian spice blends. 16 ethnic spices and seasonings of. 43–44 Slow stir frying. 158 rosemary. 239–240. 160 saffron. 13 Smoking. 42–48 preservative effects. 197–200 European. 15 South Asia. 211. 161 sage. 144 oregano. 253 lavender. 168 sichuan pepper.324 Handbook of Spices. 127 lemongrass. 27 in Ayurveda. 167 sesame seed. 136 myrtle. 245–246 Six tastes. 130 marjoram. 280 South America cuisines of. 200 Siberian ginseng. 127 lovage. Asian perspectives. 241 in Ayurveda. xvii African. 167–168 Seafood in Caribbean cuisine. 200 Southeast Asian. 29 Shelf life. 278 in Mediterranean cuisine. 129 mace. 142 onion. 49 abundant spice use in. 148 parsley. 199. 267–268 Sorrel. and Flavorings. 125 lemon balm. 197 in ethnic cuisines. 163 sassafras. 164 savory. 6 Singapore. 28 Western vs. 229. 141 nutmeg. 190 Shrimp paste. 151 peppers. xvi Seasonings. 191 Sichuan pepper. 39–40 antioxidant properties. 200 Caribbean. 178 thyme. Seasonings. 52 regional cuisines. Second Edition Seasoning development. 183 watercress. 146 paprika. 181 vanilla. 135 wasabi. 200 East Asian. 198 Asian. 3 Sour taste. regional cuisine. 37 determinants of. 170 sorrel. 126 lemon verbena. 133 mustard. 179 turmeric. 90 Screw-pine leaf. 175 tamarind. 170–172 Side dishes. 232–234 ethnic food diversity in. 17–19 Seaweeds. 27 extending with spices. 41 Sesquiterpenes. 39 Seeds. 36 South Africa curry blends in. 198 as emerging global spices.

51 condiments. 254 Samanthi podi. 85 with chile peppers. 21. 253 korma. 196 Southeast Asian spice blends. 295–303 complex vs. 70 with assam gelugor. 252 curry blends and masalas. 228 with coriander/cilantro. 223 with cinnamon. 133 Mediterranean. 129 with lovage. 25 Spice applications. 118 global. 67 325 with annatto. 105 emerging flavor contributors in. 214 Soybean sauce. 290–293 with grains of paradise. 110 with galangal. 255–256 rasam podi. 51 seasonings. 126 with lemon verbena. 302–303 curries in. 288–290 with nutmeg. 69 with asafoetida. 25. 214–215 Soymilk skin. 131 with marjoram. 285 Southwest cuisine. 75 with Jamaican sorrel. xxi. 252 Southeast Asia abundant spice use in. simple global variations. 256–257 Southern cuisine. 228 with basil. 108 with fenugreek seed/leaf. 227–229 with epazote. 142 North American. 252 Sri Lanka variations. 267–273 with mints/spearmint/peppermint. 66 with anise. 16 ethnic spices and seasonings of. 195 Spain in history of Renaissance spice trade. 252 Tandoori blend. 96 with clove. 252 panchphoron. in ethnic cuisines. 121 with Indian bay leaf. 234–240 with lavender. 73 with bay/laurel leaf. 224 commercial preparations.Index chat masala. 3 commercial spice blend for dal curry. 267–268 Spearmint. 252–253 Kashmiri masala. 253 sambar podhi. 78 with caraway. 133–136 Spice. 52–53 African. 257–259 sambal blends. 64 with allspice. 52–53 glazes. 256 curry blends. 287–288 Soy sauce. 123 with kari leaf. 140 with myrtle. 251–252 dal podi. 79 with cardamom. 203 with chervil. 106 with fennel seed. 254 South Indian variations. 52–53 spice blends. 124 Latin American. 177 authentic vs. 98 with coffee. 198–200 spice blends of. 279–285 with ajowan. 113 with garlic. 286–287 diversity