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SS7 Signaling System
By Common Technologies Department
Course Code: OIA0005
Upon completion of this course,you will be able to: Understand the basic concepts in SS7 Understand the important composition of SS7 signalling units Understand the basic signalling procedures of SS7
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Fundamentals of SS7 Message Transfer Part
Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7
Telephone User Part
ISDN User Part Signaling Connection Control Part Transaction Capabilities Application Part Intelligent Network Application Part
HUAWEI Chapter One Fundamentals of SS7 4 .
signaling means the passing of information and instructions from one point to another relevant to the setting up and supervision of a telephone call.e.e. By tradition. and Trunk Signaling i. Signaling has been divided into two types: Subscriber Signaling i. Local Exchange Local Exchange Subscriber Signalling Trunk Signalling Subscriber Signalling c c s c a s c c s c a s 5 . signaling between exchanges. signaling between a subscriber terminal (telephone) and the local exchange.HUAWEI An Introduction to Signaling In a telephony context.
HUAWEI Subscriber Signaling Calling Party A_Number HOOK OFF DIAL TONE NUMBER RINGING TONE RINGING SIGNAL B ANSWER Called Party B_Number CONVERSATION HOOK ON HOOK ON 6 .
e. Switch 1 Switch 2 Voice Trunk Signaling Link 7 .e. either On-speech-path. the signals are transferred in a separate signaling channel. the signals are transferred in the speech channel (in-band signaling) or Channel-associated. Limited information capacity. i.HUAWEI Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) Characteristic for CAS is that for each speech channel there is one unambiguously defined signaling path. etc. All of these signaling systems have a number of limitations like: Relatively slow. for example the line signals are transferred in time slot 16 in PCM system. i.
with one signaling channel in each direction. SS7 is a kind of CCS signaling system. Besides the signaling information itself. Voice Trunk SP SP Signaling Link STP STP 8 . there is also need for speech circuit identification and address information (label) and information for error control. signaling for numerous circuits can be handled by a few fast signaling data links. The signaling information that will be transferred is grouped into signal units (data packets).HUAWEI Common Channel Signaling (CCS) In type of CCS. The signaling is performed in both directions.
SS7 signaling has not only been designed to control the setting up and supervision of telephone calls but of non -voice services also. both national and international. 9 .e.. where the high transmission rate (64 kb/s)can be exploited. 7 (i. SS7 or C7). is intended primarily for digital networks.HUAWEI Evolution of SS7 Common Channel Signaling System No. It may also be used on analog lines. which was specified in 1979/80.
10 .HUAWEI Advantages of Using SS7 SS7 has several advantages compared with traditional signaling systems.by using alternate signaling routes.the system can contain many more signals. FLEXIBLE . compared to traditional signaling systems. and can be used for other purposes than telephony. for example. Some obvious advantages are the following: FAST .the time for call set up is reduced to less than one second in most cases. RELIABLE . the signaling network can be made very secure.each signaling link can handle the signaling for several thousand simultaneous calls. HIGH CAPACITY . ECONOMICAL .much less signaling equipment is required.
ISDN network. which is called CCS7 signalling network. etc. signalling links are independent of voice channels. CCS7 signalling network is a packet switching data network used for dedicated purpose.HUAWEI Definition of CCS7 Signalling System In CCS7. 11 . and intelligent network. Fundamentally. It is a multifunctional supporting network. circuit-switch data network.. can be used in telephone network. These signalling links form a network dedicated to the transmission of signalling.
Link Voice Channel 12 .HUAWEI Three Elements in CCS7 Signalling Network A CCS7 signalling network is composed of three elements: signalling Point (SP). signalling Transfer Point (STP) and signalling Link.
only NI+SPC can uniquely locate a SP.HUAWEI Three Elements in CCS7 Signalling Network SP (Signalling Point) SP is the originating or destination point of a CCS7 message. SPC (binary) SPC (Hex) 00 0000 1011 0101 00b5 10 0011 1101 0111 23d7 13 . Following are some examples of SPC shown in binary and hex. In each signalling network. a SP has an exclusive signalling point code: SPC (14 bits). Since the four signalling networks assign the SPCs independently. Notes: In data setting we usually describe SPC in Hex.
HUAWEI OPC and DPC ( I ) DPC: Destination Point Code OPC: Originating Point Code A message going from one SP to another SP should bear the SPC of the originating SP and the terminating SP. If we compare sending a message to sending a letter. 14 . which are called OPC and DPC respectively. OPC and DPC are similar to the sender's address and receiver's address.
HUAWEI Three Elements in CCS7 Signalling Network STP (Signalling Transfer Point) STP is the network node which transfers CCS7 messages. 64 kb/s 15 . Link Link is the data channel which connects the nodes (SPs and STPs) in CCS7 signalling network. Digital link.
All the Signaling Routes that may be used between an origination point and a destination point by a message traversing the signaling network is the Signaling Route Set for that signaling relation.HUAWEI Signaling Route & Signaling Route Set The pre-determined path. It may consist of a succession of SP/STPs and the interconnecting SLs. 16 . that a message takes through the signaling network between the origination point and the destination point is called a Signaling Route.
17 .e..HUAWEI Working Modes of CCS7 Signalling Network Working mode refers to the relationship between the signalling link and the voice channels the link serves. Presently two modes are in use: Associated mode The messages between two adjacent points are conveyed over a link-set directly interconnecting those signalling points. the link is parallel to the voice path. i.
HUAWEI Working Modes of CCS7 Signalling Network Quasi-associated mode In the quasi-associated mode the message which is going to arrive at a SP goes through a path which is predetermined and via one or more STPs. 18 .
HUAWEI When the links between any two offices are transferred by a STP. how will be the link path? Note: the sole purpose of using signalling is to serve the voice path. 19 .
how will be the link path? Note: the arrows show the paths that signalling messages go through. Remember. a signalling path always starts from one end of the voice path it is going to serve. 20 . and ends up at the other end of the voice path.HUAWEI When the links between any two offices are transferred by a STP.
HUAWEI An Example of Signaling Network 21 .
HUAWEI SS7 Protocol Stack The OSI Reference Model and the SS7 Protocol Stack 22 .
HUAWEI Chapter Two Message Transfer Part 23 .
and functional characteristics of the digital signaling link. 24 . electrical. DS-0 (64 kb/s). MTP Level 1 defines the physical. and DS-0A (56 kb/s). DS-1 (1544 kb/s.35 (64 kb/s). 32 64 kb/s channels). 24 64 kp/s channels). MTP Level 1 is equivalent to the OSI Physical Layer. Physical interfaces defined include E-1 (2048 kb/s. V.HUAWEI MTP Level 1 The lowest level.
MTP Level 2 is equivalent to the OSI Data Link Layer. the message (or set of messages) is retransmitted. and error checking. message sequence validation.HUAWEI MTP Level 2 MTP Level 2 ensures accurate end-to-end transmission of a message cross a signaling link. When an error occurs on a signaling link. 25 . Level 2 implements flow control.
26 . MTP Level 3 is equivalent in function to the OSI Network Layer.HUAWEI MTP Level 3 MTP Level 3 provides message routing between signaling points in the SS7 network. MTP Level 3 re-routes traffic away from failed links and signaling points and controls traffic when congestion occurs.
Signaling Unit (SU)
An SS7 message is called a signal unit (SU). There are three kinds of signal units: Fill-In Signal Units (FISUs), Link Status Signal Units (LSSUs), and Message Signal Units (MSUs)
Fill-in Signal Units (FISUs)
Fill-In Signal Units (FISUs) are transmitted continuously on a signaling link in both directions unless other signal units (MSUs or LSSUs) are present. FISUs carry basic level 2 information only (e.g., acknowledgment of signal unit received by a remote signaling point). Because a CRC checksum is calculated for each FISU, signaling link quality is checked continuously by both signaling points at either end of the link.
Link Status Signal Unit (LSSUs)
Link Status Signal Units (LSSUs) carry one or two octets (8-bit bytes) of link status information between signaling points at either end of a link. The link status is used to control link alignment and to indicate the status of a signaling point (e.g., local processor outage) to the remote signaling point.
and network maintenance data in the signaling information field (SIF). MSUs have a routing label which allows an originating signaling point to send information to a destination signaling point across the network. 30 . database query and response. network management.HUAWEI Message Signal Units (MSUs) Message Signal Units (MSUs) carry all call control.
2 Signal Unit Type Fill-In Signal Unit (FISU) Link Status Signal Unit (LSSU) 3. If the number of octets which follow the LI and precede the CRC is less than 63.. 31 .63 Message Signal Unit (MSU) The value of the LI (Length Indicator) field determines the signal unit type. An LI of 63 indicates that the message length is equal to or greater than 63 octets (up to a maximum of 273 octets).HUAWEI Length Indicator (LI) LI Value 0 1.. the LI contains this number. The 6-bit LI can store values between zero and 63. Otherwise. The maximum length of a signal unit is 279 octets: 273 octets (data) + 1 octet (flag) + 1 octet (BSN + BIB) + 1 octet (FSN + FIB) + 1 octet (LI + 2 bits spare) + 2 octets (CRC). the LI is set to 63.
MTP Level 2 removes "false flags" by adding a zero-bit after any sequence of five one-bits. The binary value of the flag is 0111 1110.HUAWEI Flag The flag indicates the beginning of a new signal unit and implies the end of the previous signal unit (if any). MTP Level 2 removes any zero-bit following a sequence of five one-bits to restore the original contents of the message. 32 . Duplicate flags are removed between signal units. Before transmitting a signal unit. Upon receiving a signal unit and stripping the flag.
33 .HUAWEI CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) The CRC value is used to detect and correct data transmission errors.
BIB (Backward Indictor Bit) indicates a negative acknowledgment by the remote signaling point when toggled. The BSN contains the sequence number of the signal unit being acknowledged.HUAWEI BSN. BIB. FSN (Forward Sequence Number) contains the sequence number of the signal unit. FSN & FIB BSN (Backward Sequence Number) is used to acknowledge the received signal units by the remote signaling point. FIB (Forward Indicator Bit) is used in error recovery like the BIB. 34 .
HUAWEI Basic Error Correction Method FSN=63 FSN A BSN BSN=63 BIB=FIB B Positive Acknowledgement FSN=63 FSN A BSN Negative Acknowledgement B 35 BSN=62 BIB=Toggled Value of FIB .
HUAWEI SIO (Service Information Octet) Service Information Octet SubService Field Service Indicator DC BA International Network International Reserved National Network National Reserved 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 Spare DCBA 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 to 1111 Signaling Network Management Maintenance Test Message Spare SCCP Telephone User Part ISDN User Part Data User Part Network Indicator Spare 36 .
37 . SCCP. refer to the description below.g. LSSUs and FISUs contain neither a routing label nor an SIO as they are sent between two directly connected signaling points. and ISUP message data).HUAWEI SIF (Signaling Information Field) The SIF in an MSU contains the routing label and signaling information (e. For more information about routing labels. TCAP..
g. The DPC in a message indicates the receiving signaling point.. The routing label is comprised of the destination point code (DPC).HUAWEI MTP Level 3 Routing Label MTP Level 3 routes messages based on the routing label in the signaling information field (SIF) of MSUs. The selection of outgoing link is based on information in the DPC and SLS. ISUP or SCCP) indicated by the service indicator in the SIO. and signaling link selection (SLS) field. and the OPC in a message indicates the originating signaling point. The message is distributed to the appropriate user part (e. Signaling Points Codes are numeric addresses which uniquely identify each signaling point in the SS7 network. 38 . originating point code (OPC).
HUAWEI MTP Level 3 Routing Label MSU .Message Signal Unit F CK SIF SIO LI Error Correction F ROUTING LABEL SLS OPC DPC NI (Spare) SI 39 .
The point code always uses 3-segment format. the point code 5557 (decimal) may be stated as 2-1825 (binary 010-10110110-101). area/network.HUAWEI MTP Level 3 Routing Label ITU-T point codes are pure binary numbers which may be stated in terms of zone. For example. and signaling point identification numbers. 40 .
The SLS is used to: Ensure message sequencing. MTP Level 3 re-routes traffic away from failed links and signaling points and controls traffic when congestion occurs. Allow equal load sharing of traffic among all available links.HUAWEI Signaling Link Selection (SLS) The selection of outgoing link is based on information in the DPC and Signaling Link Selection field. Any two messages sent with the same SLS will always arrive at the destination in the same order in which they were originally sent. if a user part sends messages at regular intervals and assigns the SLS values in a round-robin fashion. the traffic level should be equal among all links (within the combined linkset) to that destination. In theory. 41 .
HUAWEI OPC and DPC ( II ) In the following two figures. what's the DPC and OPC of the messages? 42 .
HUAWEI Answer 43 .
HUAWEI Chapter Three Telephone User Part 44 .
The telephone signals are transferred in the signaling network as the form of signaling messages.HUAWEI Overview of TUP The Telephone User Part defines the necessary telephone signaling functions in SS7 for international as well as national telephone traffic. It provides the same features for telephone signaling as other ITU-T signaling systems. 45 . which are the contents in the SIF field in the Message Signal Units (MSUs).
HUAWEI TUP Message Structure MSU of TUP F 8 CK 16 SIF SIO 8n.n¡ Ý 2 8 2 LI 6 Error Correction 16 F 8 Transmission Direction Signal Infor H1 H0 Label 12 CIC SLS 14 14 OPC Routing Label DPC 46 .
reserved for international and national use CNM 1010 1011 NSB NCB NUB NAM 1100 1101 Spare. reserved for national use IAM GSM GRQ ACM SEC ANU ANC RLG MGB CGH CGC ANN BLO MBA NNC CBK BLA MGU ADI CLF UBL MUA CFL RAN UBA HGB SSB FOT CCR HBA UNN CCL RSC HGU HUA GRS GRA SGB SBA SGU SUA LOS SST ACB DPN MPR EUM IAI SAM COT SAO CCF FAM FSM BSM SBM UBM CSM CCM GRM 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 Reserved ACC Spare.HUAWEI TUP Signals Message Group H1 H0 0000 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Spare. reserved for national use 1110 1111 47 .
Initial Address Message 0001 0001 Address signals n¡ Á 8 Number of address signals 4 Message Indicators 12 S P A R E A-Category H1 4 H0 4 Routing Label 40 Transmission Direction 2 6 48 .HUAWEI An Example of TUP Signals IAM -.
Subsequent Address Message). IAI is sent from LS to TS. but IAI has the caller identification. Generally. if any. may be sent individually (SAO Subsequent Address Message with One digit) or grouped together (SAM . IAI is the same as IAM. 49 .HUAWEI Commonly Used TUP Signals IAM or IAI The Initial Address Message (IAM) is the first message of a call set -up. SAM or SAO The remaining digits. It generally includes all of the information required to route the call. Efficiency can be gained by grouping together as many digits as possible.
HUAWEI Commonly Used TUP Signals ACM The Address Complete Message will be originated by the last Signaling System No. 7 exchange. the charging process should be initiated after receiving the ANC signal. In the case of ANC signal. ANC or ANN The signals Answer Charge and Answer No Charge are sent as a result of the first off-hook signal from the B subscriber. 50 . echo suppresser information etc. It is sent as an acknowledgment signal if the B -subscriber is free and contains information like charging.
HUAWEI Commonly Used TUP Signals CBK A Clear Back signal is sent if the B -subscriber hooks on first. 51 . This signal does not disconnect the established speech channel. CLF The Clear Forward signal is sent when the A -subscriber hooks on. RLG The Release Guard signal is the last signal in the signaling procedure of a call. After this signal has been sent. All exchanges must respond by releasing the speech (or data) circuit and send a Release Guard (RLG) as an acknowledgment. the speech circuit will be released and available for new traffics again.
HUAWEI An Example of a Toll Call (A Hooks on) LSA IAI SAM SAO ACM TSA IAM SAM SAO ACM LSB Ringing ANC CLF RLG ANC CLF RLG 52 .
HUAWEI An Example of a Toll Call (B Hooks on) LSA IAI SAM SAO ACM TSA IAM SAM SAO ACM LSB Ringing ANC CBK CLF RLG ANC CBK CLF RLG 53 .
HUAWEI An Example of Requesting Calling Number LSA IAM GRQ GSM ACM ANC LSB CBK CLF RLG GRQ: General Request Message GSM: General Group Reset Message 54 .
HUAWEI Chapter Four ISDN User Part 55 .
56 . manage. ISUP is used for both ISDN and non-ISDN calls. and release trunk circuits that carry voice and data calls over the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or ISDN network.HUAWEI Overview of ISUP The ISDN User Part (ISUP) defines the protocol and procedures used to set-up. Calls that originate and terminate at the same switch do not use ISUP signaling. ISUP is capable of processing ISDN specific information which is more complex than telephony signaling.
no longer part of CIC. 57 .HUAWEI ISUP Message Structure Unlike TUP. SLS is an independent 4-bit. And ISUP uses Message Type instead of H1 and H0.
Address Complete Message (ACM) An ACM is sent in the "backward" direction to indicate that the remote end of a trunk circuit has been reserved. The originating switch responds to an ACM message by connecting the calling party's line to the trunk to complete the voice circuit from the calling party to the called party. An IAM contains the called party number in the mandatory variable part and may contain the calling party name and number in the optional part. The originating switch also sends a ringing tone to the calling party's line. 58 .HUAWEI Commonly Used ISUP Signals Initial Address Message (IAM) An IAM is sent in the "forward" direction by each switch needed to complete the circuit between the calling party and called party until the circuit connects to the destination switch.
59 . An REL is sent when either the calling or called party "hangs up" the call (cause = 16). Release Complete Message (RLC) A RLC is sent in the opposite direction of the REL to acknowledge the release of the remote end of a trunk circuit and end the billing cycle as appropriate.HUAWEI Commonly Used ISUP Signals Answer Message (ANM) When the called party answers. the destination switch terminates the ringing tone and sends an ANM to the originating switch. The originating switch initiates billing after verifying that the calling party's line is connected to the reserved trunk. An REL is also sent in the backward direction if the called party line is busy (cause = 17). Release Message (REL) A REL is sent in either direction indicating that the circuit is being released due to the cause indicator specified.
HUAWEI Basic ISUP Call Control 60 .
HUAWEI Chapter Five Signaling Connection Control Part 61 .
HUAWEI Where is SCCP? INAP TUP ISUP CAP TCAP SCCP MAP MTP INAP: IN Application Protocol CAP: CAMEL Application Part TUP: Telephone User Part MTP: Message Transfer Part MAP: Mobile Application Part TCAP: Transaction Capability Application Part ISUP: ISDN User Part SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Pa 62 .
Provide enhanced addressing and routing function. Enable to provide connectionless service and connectionoriented service.HUAWEI What is SCCP? In SS7 signaling system，SCCP and MTP layer three together are responsible for signaling network layer function. SCCP expands the MTP functions in the following points: Enable to convey various non-circuit-related signaling message. SCCP supports up to 256 kinds of sub systems in stead of 16 in MTP. and enable to achieve the direct global transmission between different SS7 networks by using GT addressing. 63 . Expand the user part of MTP.
64 . Class 2: Basic connection-oriented class. Class 1: In-sequence delivery connectionless class. The four classes are: Class 0: Basic connectionless class.HUAWEI Service Functions of SCCP Network According to the various service requirements. SCCP provides four classes of service: two connectionless services and two connection-oriented services. Class 3: Flow control connection-oriented class.
Sub-System Number (SSN).HUAWEI Addressing and Routing Functions of SCCP The SCCP routing provides a powerful addressing information translation function on behalf of its users. SCCP Addressing makes use of three separate elements: DPC. 65 . Global Title (GT). The routing function also responds to the MTP and SCCP congestion reports.
the information exchange between two adjacent layers is called primitive which includes primitive name.HUAWEI Primitive In SS7 system. There are four types of primitives: Request Indication Response Confirmation 66 . primitive type and primitive parameters.
N-Primitives can be traced on SSP maintenance terminals. N_NOTICE_IND：is used when SCCP reports the reason why the SCCP-User data cannot be sent to peer point. The connectionless services use the following N_Primitives: N_UNITDATA_REQ：is used when SCCP-User requires SCCP to send data.HUAWEI Primitives between SCCP and SCCP-User Primitives between SCCP and SCCP-User (TCAP) are N_Primitives. N_UNITDATA_IND：is used when SCCP reports the received data to SCCP-User. 67 .
Caller Address. SCCP-USER Octet (83H) Routing Label (DPC、OPC、SLS) Sequence Control (SLS) Protocol Class (81H) Parameter Location Pointer (Called Address. SCCP makes no change to them) 68 . User Data Pointer) Called Address (Destination Address) Caller Address (Originating Address) User Data (SCCP-User Data to be sent by SCCP transparently.HUAWEI N_UNITDATA Parameters N-UNITDATA_IND and N-UNITDATA_REQ have the same parameters.
but the Protocol Class is changed to return reason.HUAWEI N_NOTICE Parameters N_NOTICE has the same parameter structure with N_UNITDATA. 69 .
INAP only uses UDT messages.HUAWEI SCCP Message Types There are 17 kinds of SCCP messages. Among them UDT (Unit Data) and UDTS (Unit Data Service) are used for connectionless services. The codes for UDT and UDTS are 09H and 0AH. 70 .
HUAWEI Chapter Six Transaction Capabilities Application Part 71 .
HUAWEI Applications of TCAP Applications of TCAP: Data Exchange between switching systems Switching systems access network database center Network databases establish remote operation dialogue Examples of TCAP applications: Mobile service applications Free phone service (800-service) Credit Card calling Operation & Maintenance applications 72 .
73 . The procedure of message exchange between two signaling points is similar to man-machine dialogue mode.HUAWEI Dialogue Dialogue is the association established between two TC users exchanging data. It is TCAP that initiates. maintains and releases of a dialogue. But TCAP does not care the functions of the dialogue. which involves all necessary messages such as BEGIN and END. Whenever two signaling points are going to exchange data. they will setup a dialogue via TCAP.
number translation. e. The operation is decided by applications. 74 . i. Components include the invoke operation by initiator and the returned result of the operation.e. Components are defined by TC-Users.g.HUAWEI Component Component is the protocol data unit exchanged between TC – users. the information exchanged in a dialogue is just a set of components.
A service procedure is just one dialogue. all the operations of a service procedure constitute a dialogue.HUAWEI The Relationship Between Dialogue and Component A dialogue has one or more components.e. 75 . the dialogue is the carrier of the operations. i.
Return Error (RE) is used to return the components of error information. in which an error code is embedded.HUAWEI Categories of TCAP Components Invoke (INV) is used to send an operation request to remote TCUser. Return Result-not Last (RR-NL) is used to return the components of non-final result of last INV operation. Return Result-Last (RR-L) is used to return the components of final result of last INV operation. Reject (RJ) is used to reject last INV operation. 76 . in which a reason code is embedded.
77 . a RR-L or RR-NL will be returned. Class 4: No result returned no matter the operation is successful or not. a RE will be returned. RR-NL or RE must be returned. TCAP are classified into 4 classes: Class 1: Result will be returned no matter the operation is successful or not.e. i.HUAWEI Classes of TCAP Operations According to different requirements of operation results. Class 3: Only when the operation succeeds. Class 2: Only when the operation fails. a RR-L.
among them there 9 Component TC-Primitives which are related to components and 7 Dialogue TC-Primitives which are related to dialogues. from TC-User to TCAP are Request primitives.HUAWEI TC Primitives TCAP and TC-User exchange data via TC_Primitives. The TC_Primitives from TCAP to TC-User are Indication primitives. There are 16 kinds of TC_Primitives. 78 .
Note: all above primitives have both Indication and Request types. but only returns the middle result.HUAWEI Component TC_Primitives (1) TC－INVOKE is used to invoke an operation. TC－RESULT－NL is similar to TC－RESULT－L. TC－RESULT－L is used to return the result of an operation. 79 .
80 . TC－U－CANCEL is a Request Primitive which is used for TCUser to request TCAP to cancel an operation.HUAWEI Component TC_Primitives (2) TC－U－ERROR is a Request Primitive which is used to return the error code when the operation fails although TC-User has received the correct operation request. TC－U－REJECT：is a Request Primitive which is used to return reject code when TC-User has received an incorrect operation request.
HUAWEI Component TC_Primitives (3) TC－L－CANEL is an Indication Primitive which is used to notify TC-User an operation is overtime. 81 . TC－L－REJECT is an Indication Primitive which is used to reject an operation by local TCAP. TC－R－REJECT：is an Indication Primitive which is used to reject an operation when remote TCAP rejects the operation.
Unstructured Dialogue in which only unidirectional (UNI) messages are included. CONTINUE and END or ABORT messages. Structured Dialogue has initiating. 82 .HUAWEI Types of TCAP Dialogues There are two types of TCAP dialogues. Intelligent Network seldom uses this kind of dialogues. maintaining and ending processes. It has BEGIN. No response to be returned from opposite point in unstructured dialogue (e. Intelligent Network just uses this kind of dialogues.g. a dialogue for sending an alarm message).
HUAWEI Dialogue TC_Primitives (1) TC－UNI TC-User or TCAP request to begin a UNI dialogue. 83 . Request or indicate to begin a dialogue. TC－BEGIN TC－CONTINUE TC－END Request or indicate to end a dialogue. Request or indicate to maintain a dialogue.
TC－NOTICE：Indicate TC-User that the network service provider cannot provide the required service (e.g. 84 . STP does not support INAP).HUAWEI Dialogue TC_Primitives (2) TC－U－ABORT：Request to abort a dialogue. TC－P－ABORT：Indicate TC-User to abort a dialogue because of the error in transaction layer.
Node1 (SSP) TC-Begin TC-Invoke (Invoke) TC-Continue TC-Invoke (Invoke) TC-Continue TC-Result-L (RR-L) TC-End TC-Result-L (RR-L) SSP returns the password. SCP returns balance of the subscriber. 85 . SCP asks SSP to return the password.HUAWEI An Example of TCAP Process Node2 (SCP) SSP begins a dialogue to query the balance of a calling card subscriber.
HUAWEI Chapter Seven Intelligent Network Application Part 86 .
87 . SRF and SDF. using connectionless services. SCF. INAP is transmitted by SCCP UDT data.HUAWEI The Functions of INAP INAP defines operation criterion among the IN functional entities SSF.
INAP uses class 0 and class 1 connectionless services of SCCP. 88 .HUAWEI The Relationship Between INAP and SCCP INAP usually uses DPC+SSN routing mode of SCCP. INAP can also use GT routing mode of SCCP.
i. Class 2: Only when the operation fails. a RR-L. Class 4: No result returned no matter the operation is successful or not. a RR-L or RR-NL will be returned. a RE will be returned. 89 .e. Class 3: Only when the operation succeeds. RR-NL or RE must be returned.HUAWEI INAP Operation Categories Class 1: Result will be returned no matter the operation is successful or not.
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Activate Service Filtering. BER 90 . all INAP operations are also classified into 4 classes. P&C Initial DP. In INAP protocol. RRBE AT Class 4 RC.HUAWEI INAP Operations INAP is a kind of TC-User.
called number. caller number. 91 .HUAWEI IDP: Initial DP IDP is the first INAP message sent from SSP to SCP. number attributes. etc. The parameters included in IDP are: access code. requesting SCP to establish the control relationship for an IN call. service key (the unique identifier of an IN service).
When SSP meets these DPs in later call process. SSP will report call information to SCP. 92 . RRBE provides SCP the condition of controlling calls. The parameters of RRBE include DP type.HUAWEI RRBE: Request Report BCSM Event RRBE is sent from SCP to SSP. requesting SSP to configure DP dynamically. DP condition. One RRBE can configure several DPs. etc.
requesting SSP to connect the user to IP. connecting the users to IP through PSTN voice channels. SSP communicates IP via TUP messages. CTR provides the users the condition of using IP. 93 . If IP is independent from SSP. SSP makes only the internal connection with IP.HUAWEI CTR: Connect To Resource CTR is sent from SCP to SSP. If IP is integrated with SSP.
94 . P&C needs IP to return operation results.HUAWEI P&C: Prompt & Collect User Information P&C is sent from SCP to SSP. requesting IP to play voice prompts the users and collect the users’ input.
95 . requesting SSP to disconnect the connection between the users and IP.HUAWEI DFC: Disconnect Forward Connect DFC is sent from SCP to SSP.
charging party. etc. 96 . the balance of the subscriber. The parameters of AC include: charge class. requesting SSP to charge the call.HUAWEI AC: Apply Charging AC is sent from SCP to SSP.
HUAWEI Connect Connect is sent from SCP to SSP. 97 . requesting SSP to connect the users to the designated number.
call length. called number. etc. reporting the charge result. call end time. fee. The parameters in ACR include: the call start time. charging number.HUAWEI ACR: Apply Charging Report ACR is sent from SSP to SCP. caller number. 98 .
HUAWEI ERB: Event Report BCSM ERB is sent from SSP to SCP when SSP detects the DPs configured by SCP in last RRBE message. 99 . reporting the call information to SCP.
HUAWEI RC: Release Call RC is sent from SCP to SSP. requesting SSP to release the occupied IN call resources. 100 .
requesting IP to play voice prompts to the users. 101 .HUAWEI PA: Play announcement PA is sent from SCP to SSP. PA does not need result return from IP.
102 . notifying SCP the end of playing announcement.HUAWEI SRR: Specialized Resource Report SRR is sent from SSP to SCP.
AT: Activity Test
SCP sends AT to SSP every 6 minutes when the call is established to check the communication between SSP and SCP. If SSP can return AT_ack, the communication is good. If no AT_ack returns to SCP, the communication is broken, and SCP will release the resources occupied this IN call.
An Example of INAP (FPH Service)
SSP Initial DP
Request Report BCSM Event
Apply Charging Report BCSM Event Report Release Call
An Example of INAP (Continue)
which processes IN calls in SSP.HUAWEI SCCP、TCAP and INAP (FPH Service) INAP TC-BEGIN-REQ TC-INVOKE-REQ N_UNITDATA-IND TC-CONTINUE-IND Request Report Bcsm Event TC-INVOKE-IND TC-CONTINUE-IND Apply Charging TC-INVOKE-IND TC-CONTINUE-IND Connect TC-INVOKE-IND TC-CONTINUE-REQ TC-INVOKE-REQ TC-CONTINUE-REQ Event Report BCSM TC-INVOKE-REQ TC-END-IND Release Call TC-INVOKE-IND N_UNITDATA-IND UDT MSU N_UNITDATA-REQ UDT MSU N_UNITDATA-REQ UDT MSU N_UNITDATA-IND N_UNITDATA-IND UDT UDT MSU UDT MSU AP InitialDP TCAP N_UNITDATA-REQ SCCP UDT MTP MSU SCP MSU Apply Charging Report AP: Application Process. 106 .
HUAWEI Summary Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Fundamentals of SS7 Message Transfer Part Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Telephone User Part ISDN User Part Signaling Connection Control Part Transaction Capabilities Application Part Intelligent Network Application Part 107 .
HUAWEI Thank you ! 108 .
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