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1.

GENERAL

This section covers the stormwater drainage works for the section of the main road
located between stations 0+000 and 3+500.

The objective of the proposed stormwater system is the collection and disposal of surface
run-off water generated over various roads and open lands within the project area. This
will include the main road and a short length from the branches.

2. STORMWATER DRAINAGE WORKS

2.1 DESIGN CRITERA

1) The following criteria were adopted for the concept design of the project. These
criteria were selected in accordance with the British Standards (BS) and codes of
practice.

2.2 DATA COLLECTION

Information required for hydrological analysis and design was collected. The collected
data include the following:

1. Topographic Contour Maps: a 100 m contour interval topographic maps were


obtained and were used for the delineation of the watershed.

2) Rainfall data: Rainfall data was collected from rainfall gauging stations.

3) Survey: Additional survey should be carried out for the existing culvert status.

2.3 HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Hydrologic analysis is the most important step prior to the hydraulic design of a highway
drainage structure. It includes the estimation of the catchment physical parameters,
calculations of the time of concentration, establishment of intensity - duration - frequency
curves, and calculation of runoff.
2.3.1 ESTIMATION OF CATCHMENT PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

Physical parameters of the drainage area are very significant for the hydrologic analysis.
Boundaries of catchments are delineated from the 100m topographic maps which was not
very significant. Main streams are also traced as well as the maximum and minimum
elevations along them. The area of each catchment as well as the difference in elevation
within the catchment are used for computing runoff quantities. The runoff
coefficient/curve number for every catchment is generally estimated from the ground
cover, the topography and the shape of the area. These are discussed in the following
sections.

2.3.2 RUNOFF QUANTITY

2.3.2.1 RUNOFF FORMULA

Several methods, each with its own assumptions and constraints, may be used to estimate
watershed runoff. Two methods are used in the preliminary analysis for estimating
runoff from the drainage areas crossed by the project. The application of each method
depends on the availability and type of rainfall data, flow records, and the catchment size.
Methods considered in this analysis are:
• The Rational Method for areas < 50 ha.
• The SCS Unit Hydrograph Method for areas ≥ 50 ha.

a- The Rational Method

This method is based on the assumption that a steady uniform rainfall rate in time and
space will produce maximum runoff when all parts of the watershed are contributing to
outflow. This condition is met when the storm duration exceeds the time of
concentration. It is used to calculate surface runoff discharges generated from a design
storm with a specific return period and a duration time equal to the time of concentration
of the catchment areas. The method relates rainfall to runoff using the following formula:
CIA
Q =
360

where
Q = Maximum rate of runoff, m3/s
A = Catchment area, hectares.
I = The rainfall intensity in millimeters per hour, for the period of maximum
rainfall of a given frequency of occurrence and for a
duration corresponding to the time of concentration.
C = Runoff coefficient

The run-off coefficient is the ratio of runoff to rate of rainfall. Taking in


consideration the type of the Project and its location.

b - The SCS Unit Hydrograph Method

The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS - now the Natural Resource
Conservation Service) method estimates runoff using in addition to rainfall, catchment
characteristics such as antecedent soil moisture conditions, types of soil, initial
abstraction of rainfall, slope, length of the longest channel, and surface treatment and
land cover. These characteristics are reflected by a Curve Number (CN) value.

This number typically ranges from 25 (for low runoff depressions) to 98 (for paved
impervious areas). An initial abstraction factor (Ia) can be specified. The SCS-CN
method typically uses an initial abstraction of 0.2S, where S is a maximum soil storage
depth (in inches) and is calculated from the equation below (other values may be used).

1000
S= − 10
CN
where: CN = Curve Number
S = Maximum storage depth
Soils are classified, into four hydrologic groups: A, B, C, and D based on their runoff
potential. Soil A has a low runoff potential, it has a high infiltration rate and high rate of
water transmission. This group covers soils such as deep sand, deep loess, and
aggregated silt. Soil B has moderate infiltration and water transmission rates. This
group includes shallow loess and sandy loam. Soil C has slow infiltration and water
transmission rates even if thoroughly wetted. This group includes layered soils with high
fine textures such as clay loam, shallow sandy loam, soils low in organic contents, and
soils of high clay contents. Finally, soil D has a very high runoff potential due to low
infiltration and water transmission rates. This group includes most of clay soils and soils
of high swelling potentials. Table 1 below shows typical CN values for different land
use/cover/soil complexes.

Table : Typical Runoff Coefficients Values (C) For Rural


Areas
Watershed Characteristics
A B C D
Relief Soil Infiltration Vegetal Cover Surface Storage
0.40 0.20 0.20 0.20
Steep rugged No effective soil No effective plant Negligible : surface
terrain :Average cover; either rock cover; bare or very depression few and
slopes greater than or thin mantle sparse soil cover shallow; drainage ways
30% negligible steep and small, no ponds
infiltration or marshes 30%
capacity
0.30 0.15 0.15 0.15
Hilly with average Slow to take up Poor to fair; clean Low; well defined system
slopes of 10 to water; clay; or cultivated crops or of small drainage ways, no
30% other soil of low poor natural cover; ponds of marshes.
infiltration less than 10% of area
capacity such as under good cover
heavy gumbo

0.20 0.10 0.10 0.10


Rolling with Normal, deep Fair to good, about Normal; considerable
average slopes of 5 loam 50% of area in good surface depression storage;
to 10% grass land woodland typical of prairie lands,
or equivalent cover lakes ponds, and marshes
less than 20% of area
0.10 0.05 0.05 0.0
Relatively flat land High, deep sand or Good to excellent; High, surface depression
average slopes 0 to other soil that about 50% of area in storage high; drainage
5% takes up water good grass land; system not sharply
readily and rapidly woodland or defined, large flood plain
equivalent storage; large number of
ponds and marshes
Note: Runoff coefficient is equal to the sum of coefficients from the appropriate block
in rows A, B, C, and D. These runoff coefficients shall be proportioned to the
percentage of area covered.

It shall be noted that all units of runoff nalysis in the SCS method are in inches (unless
otherwise stated), conversion to metric units is possible at the end of analysis.

The SCS-CN method calculates the volume of runoff given the input rainfall depth and
the CN value. The relation is given by

Q=
( P - 0.2S)
2

P + 0.8S
where:

Q = the accumulated depth of runoff (inches);


P = the accumulated depth of storm rainfall (inches); and
S = the value of S is a function of the CN value as given earlier.
According to existing conditions, hydrologic soil groups C and D were chosen to
represent the hydrological condition of the soil in general. The Curve Number (CN)
associated with normal (average) Antecedent Moisture Conditions (AMC II) for desert
soils with poor vegetation cover ranges from 80 to 85 but for low lands it is 77. The
project area is considered to be in a low land.

The shape of the SCS flood hydrograph is standard and depends on the watershed area
and the lag time of the basin. The lag time is about 0.6 times the time of concentration.
The peak flow for one unit of rainfall excess is given by
2.08A
Q =
peak
T R

where
Qpeak = the peak discharge in (m3/s);

A = the drainage area in (km2); and


TR = the time of rise of the flood hydrograph which equals the lag time plus one-
half of the storm duration in (hours).

2.3.2.2 Rainfall Intensity

The drainage design is based on the rainfall-intensity duration relationship (IDF)


extracted from Warry Gaging Station.

2.3.2.3 Recurrence Interval

The recurrence interval was select according to Qatar Drainage manual. Generally, the
following intervals are adopted.

Road Body 10 years


Culverts 50 years
Underpasses 50 years.

2.3.2.4 Time of Concentration

The time of concentration is the longest time, without unreasonable delay, required for a
drop of water to flow from the upper limit of a drainage area to the point of collection or
concentration. This time depends on the size and the shape of the catchment area, its
hydraulic characteristics, and upon the hydraulic characteristics of the drainage system.
For cross drainage works (culverts); the time of concentration may be estimated using
Kirpich or the Kinematic wave equation. For areas less than 50 ha, Kirpich is used; while
the Kinematic wave is used for larger areas.

Kirpich’s equation is given by:

1 L1.155
Tc = x
52 H 0.385
where:
Tc = Time of concentration, min.
L = Horizontally projected length of drainage basin along the main water course,
(m)
H = Difference in elevation between the farthest point on the drainage area and the
point of collection, (m)

The Kinematic equation is defined as follows:

 L0.6 × n 0.6 
T `c = 0.93 ×  0.4 0.3 

i ×S 
Tc = Time of concentration, min.
L = Length of Overland flow (ft)
n = Manning Overland Roughness
i = Rainfall Intensity (in/hr)

For road drainage works in urban areas, the time of concentration for each area served by
stormdrains may be divided into two parts:
to = Time of entry.
tp = Time of flow in the conduit.
The time of flow in the storm sewer may be evaluated from the design velocities and the
length of the reach considered.
The time of entry may be determined by the following formula developed by the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA). The minimum time of entry is taken 6 minutes.

Tc = 1.8 (1.1-C) L0.5/S1/3

Where,
tc = Time of concentration, minutes
C = Rational method runoff coefficient
L = Length of overland flow, ft
S = Surface slope, %.

2.4 SIZING OF CHANNELS

The Manning formula is used for the design of the collection network – pipes or
channels. The equation states:

Q = (1/n) x A x (R2/3) x (S1/2)

Where,
Q = The discharge in cu.m/sec.
n = The roughness coefficient of the channel or pipe.
A = The area of flow in sq.m.
R = The hydraulic radius in m. and is the ratio of the flow section over the wetted
perimeter.
S = The slope of channel or pipeline in m/m.

Values of n adopted for concrete channels is 0.016

The following criteria has been set for the design work:

A minimum free board of 50 cm for the drainage channels is adopted. The free board is
based on the peak design flow and is a safety margin for carrying either higher frequency
storms or for future increase in surface run-off.
4)
5)
2.7 STREET INLETS (INTERCEPTORS)

The street inlets shall be installed at sag points road intersections and whenever the
spread of water across the road is expected to extend beyond the permissible limit. They
shall be connected to the positive drainage collection system with a pipe gradient equal or
greater than 1% or to the positive drainage collection system.