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GENERAL

This section covers the stormwater drainage works for the section of the main road

located between stations 0+000 and 3+500.

The objective of the proposed stormwater system is the collection and disposal of surface

run-off water generated over various roads and open lands within the project area. This

will include the main road and a short length from the branches.

1) The following criteria were adopted for the concept design of the project. These

criteria were selected in accordance with the British Standards (BS) and codes of

practice.

Information required for hydrological analysis and design was collected. The collected

data include the following:

obtained and were used for the delineation of the watershed.

2) Rainfall data: Rainfall data was collected from rainfall gauging stations.

3) Survey: Additional survey should be carried out for the existing culvert status.

Hydrologic analysis is the most important step prior to the hydraulic design of a highway

drainage structure. It includes the estimation of the catchment physical parameters,

calculations of the time of concentration, establishment of intensity - duration - frequency

curves, and calculation of runoff.

2.3.1 ESTIMATION OF CATCHMENT PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

Physical parameters of the drainage area are very significant for the hydrologic analysis.

Boundaries of catchments are delineated from the 100m topographic maps which was not

very significant. Main streams are also traced as well as the maximum and minimum

elevations along them. The area of each catchment as well as the difference in elevation

within the catchment are used for computing runoff quantities. The runoff

coefficient/curve number for every catchment is generally estimated from the ground

cover, the topography and the shape of the area. These are discussed in the following

sections.

Several methods, each with its own assumptions and constraints, may be used to estimate

watershed runoff. Two methods are used in the preliminary analysis for estimating

runoff from the drainage areas crossed by the project. The application of each method

depends on the availability and type of rainfall data, flow records, and the catchment size.

Methods considered in this analysis are:

• The Rational Method for areas < 50 ha.

• The SCS Unit Hydrograph Method for areas ≥ 50 ha.

This method is based on the assumption that a steady uniform rainfall rate in time and

space will produce maximum runoff when all parts of the watershed are contributing to

outflow. This condition is met when the storm duration exceeds the time of

concentration. It is used to calculate surface runoff discharges generated from a design

storm with a specific return period and a duration time equal to the time of concentration

of the catchment areas. The method relates rainfall to runoff using the following formula:

CIA

Q =

360

where

Q = Maximum rate of runoff, m3/s

A = Catchment area, hectares.

I = The rainfall intensity in millimeters per hour, for the period of maximum

rainfall of a given frequency of occurrence and for a

duration corresponding to the time of concentration.

C = Runoff coefficient

consideration the type of the Project and its location.

The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS - now the Natural Resource

Conservation Service) method estimates runoff using in addition to rainfall, catchment

characteristics such as antecedent soil moisture conditions, types of soil, initial

abstraction of rainfall, slope, length of the longest channel, and surface treatment and

land cover. These characteristics are reflected by a Curve Number (CN) value.

This number typically ranges from 25 (for low runoff depressions) to 98 (for paved

impervious areas). An initial abstraction factor (Ia) can be specified. The SCS-CN

method typically uses an initial abstraction of 0.2S, where S is a maximum soil storage

depth (in inches) and is calculated from the equation below (other values may be used).

1000

S= − 10

CN

where: CN = Curve Number

S = Maximum storage depth

Soils are classified, into four hydrologic groups: A, B, C, and D based on their runoff

potential. Soil A has a low runoff potential, it has a high infiltration rate and high rate of

water transmission. This group covers soils such as deep sand, deep loess, and

aggregated silt. Soil B has moderate infiltration and water transmission rates. This

group includes shallow loess and sandy loam. Soil C has slow infiltration and water

transmission rates even if thoroughly wetted. This group includes layered soils with high

fine textures such as clay loam, shallow sandy loam, soils low in organic contents, and

soils of high clay contents. Finally, soil D has a very high runoff potential due to low

infiltration and water transmission rates. This group includes most of clay soils and soils

of high swelling potentials. Table 1 below shows typical CN values for different land

use/cover/soil complexes.

Areas

Watershed Characteristics

A B C D

Relief Soil Infiltration Vegetal Cover Surface Storage

0.40 0.20 0.20 0.20

Steep rugged No effective soil No effective plant Negligible : surface

terrain :Average cover; either rock cover; bare or very depression few and

slopes greater than or thin mantle sparse soil cover shallow; drainage ways

30% negligible steep and small, no ponds

infiltration or marshes 30%

capacity

0.30 0.15 0.15 0.15

Hilly with average Slow to take up Poor to fair; clean Low; well defined system

slopes of 10 to water; clay; or cultivated crops or of small drainage ways, no

30% other soil of low poor natural cover; ponds of marshes.

infiltration less than 10% of area

capacity such as under good cover

heavy gumbo

Rolling with Normal, deep Fair to good, about Normal; considerable

average slopes of 5 loam 50% of area in good surface depression storage;

to 10% grass land woodland typical of prairie lands,

or equivalent cover lakes ponds, and marshes

less than 20% of area

0.10 0.05 0.05 0.0

Relatively flat land High, deep sand or Good to excellent; High, surface depression

average slopes 0 to other soil that about 50% of area in storage high; drainage

5% takes up water good grass land; system not sharply

readily and rapidly woodland or defined, large flood plain

equivalent storage; large number of

ponds and marshes

Note: Runoff coefficient is equal to the sum of coefficients from the appropriate block

in rows A, B, C, and D. These runoff coefficients shall be proportioned to the

percentage of area covered.

It shall be noted that all units of runoff nalysis in the SCS method are in inches (unless

otherwise stated), conversion to metric units is possible at the end of analysis.

The SCS-CN method calculates the volume of runoff given the input rainfall depth and

the CN value. The relation is given by

Q=

( P - 0.2S)

2

P + 0.8S

where:

P = the accumulated depth of storm rainfall (inches); and

S = the value of S is a function of the CN value as given earlier.

According to existing conditions, hydrologic soil groups C and D were chosen to

represent the hydrological condition of the soil in general. The Curve Number (CN)

associated with normal (average) Antecedent Moisture Conditions (AMC II) for desert

soils with poor vegetation cover ranges from 80 to 85 but for low lands it is 77. The

project area is considered to be in a low land.

The shape of the SCS flood hydrograph is standard and depends on the watershed area

and the lag time of the basin. The lag time is about 0.6 times the time of concentration.

The peak flow for one unit of rainfall excess is given by

2.08A

Q =

peak

T R

where

Qpeak = the peak discharge in (m3/s);

TR = the time of rise of the flood hydrograph which equals the lag time plus one-

half of the storm duration in (hours).

extracted from Warry Gaging Station.

The recurrence interval was select according to Qatar Drainage manual. Generally, the

following intervals are adopted.

Culverts 50 years

Underpasses 50 years.

The time of concentration is the longest time, without unreasonable delay, required for a

drop of water to flow from the upper limit of a drainage area to the point of collection or

concentration. This time depends on the size and the shape of the catchment area, its

hydraulic characteristics, and upon the hydraulic characteristics of the drainage system.

For cross drainage works (culverts); the time of concentration may be estimated using

Kirpich or the Kinematic wave equation. For areas less than 50 ha, Kirpich is used; while

the Kinematic wave is used for larger areas.

1 L1.155

Tc = x

52 H 0.385

where:

Tc = Time of concentration, min.

L = Horizontally projected length of drainage basin along the main water course,

(m)

H = Difference in elevation between the farthest point on the drainage area and the

point of collection, (m)

L0.6 × n 0.6

T `c = 0.93 × 0.4 0.3

i ×S

Tc = Time of concentration, min.

L = Length of Overland flow (ft)

n = Manning Overland Roughness

i = Rainfall Intensity (in/hr)

For road drainage works in urban areas, the time of concentration for each area served by

stormdrains may be divided into two parts:

to = Time of entry.

tp = Time of flow in the conduit.

The time of flow in the storm sewer may be evaluated from the design velocities and the

length of the reach considered.

The time of entry may be determined by the following formula developed by the Federal

Aviation Administration (FAA). The minimum time of entry is taken 6 minutes.

Where,

tc = Time of concentration, minutes

C = Rational method runoff coefficient

L = Length of overland flow, ft

S = Surface slope, %.

The Manning formula is used for the design of the collection network – pipes or

channels. The equation states:

Where,

Q = The discharge in cu.m/sec.

n = The roughness coefficient of the channel or pipe.

A = The area of flow in sq.m.

R = The hydraulic radius in m. and is the ratio of the flow section over the wetted

perimeter.

S = The slope of channel or pipeline in m/m.

The following criteria has been set for the design work:

A minimum free board of 50 cm for the drainage channels is adopted. The free board is

based on the peak design flow and is a safety margin for carrying either higher frequency

storms or for future increase in surface run-off.

4)

5)

2.7 STREET INLETS (INTERCEPTORS)

The street inlets shall be installed at sag points road intersections and whenever the

spread of water across the road is expected to extend beyond the permissible limit. They

shall be connected to the positive drainage collection system with a pipe gradient equal or

greater than 1% or to the positive drainage collection system.

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