* Foramina, openings and what runs through them in the internal surface of the cranial base, arranged from

anterior to posterior: 1. Anterior cranial fossa: Foramen cecum (Between the frontal crest and the cribriform plate of Ethmoid): (During development only!) A vein that connects the veins of the superior sagittal sinus with the veins of the frontal sinus and nose roots. Olfactory foramina (Penetrations through the cribriform plate of Ethmoid): Olfactory nerves (Cranial I). 2. Middle cranial fossa: Optic canal (In the lesser wing of sphenoid): Optic nerve (cranial II). Superior orbital fissure (Between the lesser and greater wings of sphenoid): 1. Ophthalmic vein. 2. Cavernous plexus. 3. Cranial nerves: a. oculomotor (III). b. Trochlear (IV). c. Ophthalmic branch (V 1) of the Trigeminal (V). d. Abducens (VI). Foramen rotundum (in the greater wing of Sphenoid): Second branch of the Trigeminal nerve (V), called the Maxillary nerve (V 2). Foramen ovale (Posterio-lateral to rotundum, in the greater wing of Sphenoid): Mandibular branch (V 3) of the Trigeminal (V). Foramen spinosum (Posterio-lateral to ovale, in the greater wing of Sphenoid): The Middle meningial artery.

Foramen Lacerum (between the Sphenoid and the Temporal) 3. Posterior cranial fossa: Internal acoustic meatus (In the petrous part of Temporal, anterior to the jugular foramen): Cranial nerves: a. Facial nerve (VII). b. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII). Jugular foramen (between the Temporal and the Occipital bones): Internal jugular vein (IJV), Cranial nerves: a. Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX). b. Vagus nerve (X). c. Accessory nerve (XI). Foramen magnum (in the basilar part of the Occipital bone): Medulla Oblongata, meninges, vertebral arteries, spinal accessory nerve. Hypoglossal canal (between foramen magnum and the Occipital condyles): Hypoglossal nerve (XII).

Done by: MHD Hajsaleh

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The Cranial Nerves

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There are twelve cranial nerves, they are: anteriorly to posteriorly: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. Olfactory Optic Oculomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal Vagus Accessory Hypoglossal

* They’re a lot easier to memorize using this rhyming scheme: “ Oh, Oh, Oh! To Touch And Feel Very Giant Volcanoes! Ahhh, Hot!! “ * To remember their function (Motor, Sensory or Both): “Some Say Money Matters; But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More.“

Done by: MHD Hajsaleh

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