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of Relativity) 1. Describe the Michelson Morley experiment and discuss the importance of its negative result. 2. Calculate the fringe shift in Michelson-Morley experiment. Given that: l = 11 m , λ = 6238 A , v = 3 × 10 6 cm / s , and c = 3 × 108 m / s . 3. State the fundamental postulates of Einstein special theory of relativity and deduce from them the Lorentz Transformation Equations. 4. Explain relativistic length contraction and time dilation in special theory of relativity? What are proper length and proper time interval? 5. A rod has length 100 cm. When the rod is in a satellite moving with velocity 0.9 c relative to the laboratory, what is the length of the rod as measured by an observer (i) in the satellite, and (ii) in the laboratory?. 6. A clock keeps correct time. With what speed should it be moved relative to an observer so that it may appear to lose 4 minutes in 24 hours? 7. In the laboratory the ‘life time’ of a particle moving with speed 2.8x10 8m/s, is found to be 2.5x10-7 sec. Calculate the proper life time of the particle. 8. Derive relativistic law of addition of velocities and prove that the velocity of light is the same in all inertial frame irrespective of their relative speed. 9. Two particles come towards each other with speed 0.9c with respect to laboratory. Calculate their relative speeds. 10. Rockets A and B are observed from the earth to be traveling with velocities 0.8c and 0.7 c along the same line in the same direction. What is the velocity of B as seen by an observer on A? 11. Show that the relativistic invariance laws of conservation of momentum leads to the concept of variation of mass with speed and mass energy equivalence. 12. A proton of rest mass 1.67 × 10 −27 kg is moving with a velocity of 0.9c. Calculate its mass and momentum.
2 c to 0. c2 21.6 c relative to the original body.60 c. The speed of an electron is doubled from 0. At what speed does the kinetic energy of a particle equals its rest energy? 18. is given by p = Ek2 + 2m0 Ek . A stationary body explodes into two fragments each of mass 1. 15. Given: me = 9. Verify that v/c = pc/E 2 . (i) Derive a relativistic expression for kinetic energy of a particle in terms of momentum.4x106 J/Kg when it explodes. Find the speed of the particle in terms of ‘c’. An electron is moving with a speed 0. Find the momentum (in MeV/c) of an electron whose speed is 0. Find the mass of the original body. 17.9c.67x10-27Kg.4 c. 13. Dynamite liberates about 5.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics TUTORIAL SHEET: 1 (Module1: Special Theory of Relativity) . 19. Calculate (i) its total energy and (ii) the ratio of Newtonian kinetic energy to relativistic energy.0 Kg that move apart at speeds of 0. (ii) Show that the momentum of a particle of rest mass m0 and kinetic energy Ek .11 × 10 −31 kg and c = 3 × 108 m / s . 20. What fraction of its total energy is in this amount? 16. A particle has kinetic energy 20 times its rest energy.1x10-31Kg and mass of Proton =1. By what ratio does its momentum increase? 14. What should be the speed of an electron so that its mass becomes equal to the mass of proton? Given: mass of electron=9.
7.67 ×10 −27 kg . Energy of a particle at absolute temperature T is of the order of k BT . their wavelength taking relativistic correction into account is Ve 1 − m c2 . 4.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics TUTORIAL SHEET: 2(a) (Module2: Wave Mechanics) 1.60 ×10 −34 Js and k B = 8. Calculate the de-Broglie wavelength of an electron and a photon each of energy 2eV. Calculate the de-Broglie wavelength associated with a proton moving with a velocity equal to 1/20 of the velocity of light. 9. 5. Given: mn = 1. 0 λ= h 2Vem0 where e and m0 are charge and rest mass of electrons. Two particles A and B are in motion. 6. respectively. Show that when electrons are accelerated through a potential difference V. If the wavelength associated with particle A is 5 ×10 −8 m . 8. 3. h = 6. Show that the wavelength of a 150 g rubber ball moving with a velocity of 50m / s is short enough to be determined. What do you understand by the wave nature of matter? Obtain an expression of de Broglie wavelength for matter waves. A particle of rest mass m0 has a kinetic energy K. 2. Calculate the wavelength of thermal neutrons at 27 0 C . Show that its de Broglie wavelength is given by λ = hc K K + 2m 0 c 2 ( ) 3 .6 × 10 −5 eV K . calculate the wavelength of the particle B if its momentum is half that of A. Can a proton and an electron of the same momentum have the same wavelengths? Calculate their wavelengths if the two have the same energy.
and rest energy of electron. 11.0 pm. 12.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics TUTORIAL SHEET: 2(a) (Module2: Wave Mechanics) 10. Explain Heisenberg uncertainty principle. 13. An electron has de-Broglie wavelength of 1. Define group velocity. Show that the phase velocity of de-Broglie waves associated with a moving particle having a rest mass m0 is given by m cλ v p = c 1 + 1 + 0 .626 × 10 −34 Js . Given: h = 6. h where the symbols have their usual meanings. 16. Describe gamma ray microscope experiment to establish Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Prove that product of phase and group velocity is square of velocity of light. Derive an expression for phase velocity of wave in terms of angular frequency and propagation constant. Calculate its kinetic energy and the phase and group velocities of its de-Broglie waves.136 × 10 −15 eV − sec . 0 2 4 . How does the Heisenberg uncertainty principle hint about the absence of electron in an atomic nucleus? 18. h = 4. 17. E0 = 511 keV . Calculate the uncertainty in momentum of an electron confined in a onedimensional box of length 1 A . Show that the phase velocity of wave associated with a material particle is not equal to particle velocity. Discuss wave particle duality and describe briefly Davisson and Germer experiment for qualitative verification of matter wave. 14. Given: Planck’s constant. Distinguish between phase and group velocity. 15. Show that group velocity of a wave packet equals the particle velocity.
Write down the set of conditions which a solution of Schrödinger wave equation satisfies to be called a wave function. 8. Find (i) the value of A. Discuss Born postulate regarding the probabilistic interpretation of a wave function. Derive the time independent Schrödinger equation from time dependent equation for free particle. 5. 9. p 10. The wave function of a particle is given is given as ψ = A sin 2 x for − π π <x< and ψ = 0 elsewhere. 4 4 probability of finding the particle between x = − 6. Show that Ψ ( x) = e ikx is an acceptable eigen function. Show that time independent Schrödinger equation is an example of Eigen value equation. show that Schrödinger wave equation leads to the deBroglie relation λ = h .Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics TUTORIAL SHEET: 2(b) (Module 2: Wave Mechanics) 1. For a free particle. Also normalize it over the region − a ≤ x ≤ a . 5 . <p> and 〈 p 2 〉 of a particle trapped in a one dimensional box of length L. Explain the meaning of expectation value of x. linear momentum and total energy. Find the expectation values <x>. 3.Differentiate between Ψ and IΨI2. 2.What do you mean by normalization and orthogonality of a wave function? 4. where k is some finite constant. 7. write down the Eigen operators for position. and (ii) the 2 2 π π to x = + .
Find the expression for the normalized wave function.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics TUTORIAL SHEET: 2(b) (Module 2: Wave Mechanics) 11. 13. Assume this to be one dimensional square well problem. L 14. Calculate the lowest three permissible quantum energies the electron can have.5 × 10 −10 m . 15. Calculate the value of lowest energy of an electron moving in a onedimensional force free region of length 4 A . A particle of mass 10 −6 kg is moving with a speed of 10 −4 m / s in a box of length 10 3 A . calculate the value of n. A particle is moving in one dimensional box and its wave function is given by Ψn ( x ) = A sin nπx . Does this predict that the particle can possess zero energy? 12. 0 0 6 . An electron is bounded by a potential which closely approaches an infinite square well of width 2. Write Schrödinger equation for a particle in a box and determine expression for energy Eigen value and Eigen function.
76x1011Coulomb/kg and λ=6000 A . D3/2 → P3/2 . the specific charge. Differentiate between L-S coupling (Russel-Saunders Coupling) and j-j coupling schemes. 10.1. 9.4 weber/m2 . Applying the selection rule. D3/2 → P1/2 .3 Web/m2.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics TUTORIAL SHEET: 3(a) (Module 3: Atomic Physics) 1. 2. 3. An element under spectroscopic examination is placed in a magnetic field of flux density 0.the magnetic field used is 0. 6. What are the essential features of Vector Atom model? Also discuss the quantum numbers associated with this model. Illustrate Zeeman Effect with the example of Sodium D1 and D2 lines. 8. For an electron orbit with quantum number l = 2. show which of the following transitions are allowed and not allowed D5/2 → P3/2. Why does in normal Zeeman effect a singlet line always splitted into three components only. state the possible values of the components of total angular momentum along a specified direction. 4. Find the possible value of J under L-S and j-j coupling scheme if the quantum number of the two electrons in a two valence electron atom are n1 = 5 n2 = 6 l1 = 1 l2 = 3 s1 =1/2 s2 = 1/2 5. The Zeeman components of a 500 nm spectral line are 0. Find the ratio (e/m) for the electron. 11. Calculate the Zeeman shift of a spectral line of wavelength 450 nm. P3/2 → S1/2 . 0 TUTORIAL SHEET: 3(b) (Module 3: Atomic Physics) 7 . P1/2 → S1/2 7. Find the spectral terms for 3s 2d and 4p 4d configuration. where .0116 nm apart when the magnetic field is 1. Calculate wavelength separation between the two component lines which are observed in Normal Zeeman effect.0 T.
3 nm.8 × 1019 . 4. Ruby laser gives a laser beam of wavelength 694. Calculate the energy difference between the two energy levels involved in the transition. Derive the relation between the transition probabilities of spontaneous and stimulated emission.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics 1. Calculate the number of photons emitted per second by 5 mW laser assuming that it emits light of wavelength 632.8nm. 6. What are the characteristics of laser beams? Describe its important applications. 8. calculate the energy of laser pulse. the transition between which results in the emission of a light of wavelength 632. Explain the operation of a Laser with essential components. the total number of Cr3+ ions is 2. Explain (a) Atomic excitations (b) Transition process (c) Meta stable state and (d) Optical pumping. 7. 2. 3. If the laser emits a radiation of wavelength 700 nm. Calculate the energy difference in eV between the energy levels of Neatoms of a He-Ne laser.8 nm. In a ruby laser. Distinguish between spontaneous and stimulated emission. 5. 8 .
6 x 10-19 C and = 9.187nm. Electrons are accelerated by 344 volts and are reflected from a crystal.71 A .62 x 10 -34 Js . 2. An unknown substance emits of Lα X rays of wavelength 0. 3. 5. An X ray tube operated at 100 kV emits a continuous X ray spectrum with short wavelength limit λmin = 0. e = 1. (R= 1. Calculate the Planck’s constant. How Mosley’s law can explained on the basis of Bohr’s model. Explain the origin of characteristic X-radiation spectra of the element.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics TUTORIAL SHEET: 3(c) (Module 3: Atomic Physics) 1. 11.966 A .125 A . Describe how Bragg’s Law can be used in determination of crystal structure? 4.1 x 105 cm-1).1 x10-31 Kg) 6. The atomic numbers of Silver and Platinum are 47 0 0 0 0 0 m 9 .321 A . Calculate the wavelength of X-rays.154 A and 1. 10. In Bragg’s reflection of X-rays. The wavelength of Lα X ray lines of Silver and Platinum are 4. determine the wavelength of the corresponding radiation of Cu (Z= 29). (h = 6. 8. What is the importance of Mosley’s law? Give the important differences between X-ray spectra and optical spectra of an element? 9. Deduce the wavelength of K α line for an atom of Z = 92 by using Mosley’s Law. The first reflection maxima occurs when glancing angle is 30 0 . respectively. If this is a second order reflection. Determine the spacing of the crystal. 7. Distinguish between continuous X-radiation and characteristic X-radiation spectra of the element. State Bragg’s Law. Why the diffraction effect in crystal is not observed for visible light. a reflection was found at 300 glancing angle with lattice planes of spacing 0. If the Kα radiation of Mo (Z= 42) has a wavelength of 0.
10.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics and 78 respectively. How does the band structure model enable you to better understand the electrical properties of these materials? 11. 7. Prove that Fermi level lies half way down between the conduction and valence band in intrinsic semiconductor. Calculate the Fermi energy. Define the Fermi energy of the electron. the energy states below Fermi level are filled with electrons while above this level. 6.5 × 10 28 free electrons per cubic meter of sodium.25 eV above the Fermi energy will be occupied by an electron. Discuss the basic assumptions of Sommerfeld’s theory for free electron gas model of metals? 2.5 g/cm3 and atomic weight is 108. 3. 8. insulators and semiconductors. 4.4x1028m-3. Show that the average energy of an electron in an electron gas at absolute zero temperature is 3/5 ε F (0) . Given that density of silver is 10. where ε F (0) . Obtain the expression for energy of a three dimensional electron gas in a metal. Consider silver in metallic state with one free electron per atom. 9. Calculate the Fermi energy. Determine the temperature at which there is one percent probability that a state with energy 0. Determine the atomic number of the unknown substance. TUTORIAL SHEET: 4(a) (Module 4: Solid State Physics) 1. the energy states are empty. Explain how the energy bands of metals. is Fermi energy at absolute zero. (b) Semiconductors are opaque to visible light but 10 . Prove that at absolute zero. Discuss the differences among the band structures of metals. Calculate the Fermi energy at 0 K for the electrons in a metal having electron density 8. semiconductors and insulators account for the following general optical properties: (a) Metals are opaque to visible light. There are 2. 5.
How a superconductor is different from a normal conductor. Describe the V-I characteristics of p-n junction diode. (c) Insulator such as diamond is transparent to visible light. copper etc. Find the critical magnetic field at 2K. Discuss the effect of magnetic field on a superconductor. 12.0306 Tesla at 0 K.7 K at zero magnetic field and a critical magnetic field 0. A superconducting tin has a critical temperature of 3. 17. 13.Amity School of Engineering and Technology (NOIDA) Applied Physics II: Modern Physics transparent to infrared. Describe the phenomena of carrier generation and recombination in a semiconductor. The metals like gold. 16. 18. why? 11 . silver. What do you understand by drift and diffusion current in the case of a semiconductor? 14. 15. What do you mean by superconductivity? Give the elementary properties of superconductors. Discuss the position of Fermi energy and conduction mechanism in N and P-type extrinsic semiconductors. do not show the superconducting properties.