Formule trigonometrice 1

Formule trigonometrice
1. sin α =
a
c
; cos α =
b
c
; tg α =
a
b
; ctg α =
b
a
;
(a, b – catetele, c – ipotenuza triunghiului dreptunghic, α – unghiul, opus catetei a).
2. tg α =
sin α
cos α
; ctg α =
cos α
sin α
.
3. tg αctg α = 1.
4. sin
_
π
2
±α
_
= cos α; sin(π ±α) = ∓sin α.
5. cos
_
π
2
±α
_
= ∓sin α; cos(π ±α) = −cos α.
6. tg
_
π
2
±α
_
= ∓ctg α; ctg
_
π
2
±α
_
= ∓tg α.
7. sec
_
π
2
±α
_
= ∓cosec α; cosec
_
π
2
±α
_
= sec α.
8. sin
2
α + cos
2
α = 1.
9. 1 + tg
2
α = sec
2
α.
10. 1 + ctg
2
α = cosec
2
α.
11. sin(α ±β) = sin αcos β ±sin β cos α.
12. cos(α ±β) = cos αcos β ∓sin αsin β.
13. tg(α ±β) =
tg α ±tg β
1 ∓tg αtg β
.
14. ctg(α ±β) =
ctg αctg β ∓1
ctg β ±ctg α
.
15. sin 2α = 2 sin αcos α.
16. cos 2α = cos
2
α −sin
2
α.
17. tg 2α =
2 tg α
1 −tg
2
α
.
18. ctg 2α =
ctg
2
α −1
2 ctg α
.
19. sin 3α = 3 sin α −4 sin
3
α.
20. cos 3α = 4 cos
3
α −3 cos α.
21.
¸
¸
¸sin
α
2
¸
¸
¸ =
_
1 −cos α
2
.
22.
¸
¸
¸cos
α
2
¸
¸
¸ =
_
1 + cos α
2
.
Formule trigonometrice 2
23.
¸
¸
¸tg
α
2
¸
¸
¸ =
_
1 −cos α
1 + cos α
.
24. tg
α
2
=
sin α
1 + cos α
=
1 −cos α
sin α
.
25.
¸
¸
¸ctg
α
2
¸
¸
¸ =
_
1 + cos α
1 −cos α
.
26. ctg
α
2
=
sin α
1 −cos α
=
1 + cos α
sin α
.
27. 1 + cos α = 2 cos
2
α
2
.
28. 1 −cos α = 2 sin
2
α
2
.
29. sin α ±sin β = 2 sin
α ±β
2
cos
α ∓β
2
.
30. cos α + cos β = 2 cos
α + β
2
cos
α −β
2
.
31. cos α −cos β = −2 sin
α + β
2
sin
α −β
2
.
32. tg α ±tg β =
sin(α ±β)
cos αcos β
.
33. ctg α ±ctg β =
sin(β ±α)
sin αsin β
.
34. sin αsin β =
1
2
[cos(α −β) −cos(α + β)].
35. sin αcos β =
1
2
[sin(α + β) + sin(α −β)].
36. cos αcos β =
1
2
[cos(α + β) + cos(α −β)].
37. Ecuatii trigonometrice elementare:
sin x = a, |a| ≤ 1; x = (−1)
n
arcsin a + πn;
cos x = a, |a| ≤ 1; x = ±arccos a + 2πn;
tg x = a, x = arctg a + πn;
ctg x = a, x = arcctg a + πn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n ∈ Z.
38. arcsin x + arccos x =
π
2
, |x| ≤ 1.
39. arctg x + arcctg x =
π
2
.
Formule trigonometrice 3
40. arcsec x + arccosec x =
π
2
, |x| ≥ 1.
41. sin(arcsin x) = x, x ∈ [−1; +1].
42. arcsin(sin x) = x, x ∈
_

π
2
;
π
2
_
.
43. cos(arccos x) = x, x ∈ [−1; +1].
44. arccos(cos x) = x, x ∈ [0; π].
45. tg(arctg x) = x, x ∈ R.
46. arctg(tg x) = x, x ∈
_

π
2
;
π
2
_
.
47. ctg(arcctg x) = x, x ∈ R.
48. arcctg(ctg x) = x, x ∈ (0; π).
49. arcsin x = arccos

1 −x
2
= arctg
x

1 −x
2
= arcctg

1 −x
2
x
, 0 < x < 1.
50. arccos x = arcsin

1 −x
2
= arctg

1 −x
2
x
= arcctg
x

1 −x
2
, 0 < x < 1.
51. arctg x = arcsin
x

1 + x
2
= arccos
1

1 + x
2
= arcctg
1
x
, 0 < x < +∞.
52. arcctg x = arcsin
1

1 + x
2
= arccos
x

1 + x
2
= arctg
1
x
, 0 < x < +∞.
53. arcsin x+arcsin y =
_
¸
¸
_
arcsin(x
_
1 −y
2
+ y

1 −x
2
), daca xy ≤ 0 sau x
2
+ y
2
≤ 1;
π −arcsin(x
_
1 −y
2
+ y

1 −x
2
), daca x > 0, y > 0 si x
2
+ y
2
> 1;
−π −arcsin(x
_
1 −y
2
+ y

1 −x
2
), daca x < 0, y < 0 si x
2
+ y
2
> 1.
54. arcsin x−arcsin y =
_
¸
¸
_
arcsin(x
_
1 −y
2
−y

1 −x
2
), daca xy ≥ 0 sau x
2
+ y
2
≤ 1;
π −arcsin(x
_
1 −y
2
−y

1 −x
2
), daca x > 0, y < 0 si x
2
+ y
2
> 1;
−π −arcsin(x
_
1 −y
2
−y

1 −x
2
), daca x < 0, y > 0 si x
2
+ y
2
> 1.
55. arccos x + arccos y =
_
arccos(xy −
_
(1 −x
2
)(1 −y
2
)), daca x + y ≥ 0;
2π −arccos(xy −
_
(1 −x
2
)(1 −y
2
)), daca x + y < 0.
56. arccos x −arccos y =
_
−arccos(xy +
_
(1 −x
2
)(1 −y
2
)), daca x ≥ y;
arccos(xy +
_
(1 −x
2
)(1 −y
2
)), daca x < y.
57. arctg x + arctg y =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
arctg
x + y
1 −xy
, daca xy < 1;
π + arctg
x + y
1 −xy
, daca x > 0 si xy > 1;
−π + arctg
x + y
1 −xy
, daca x < 0 si xy > 1.
Formule trigonometrice 4
58. arctg x −arctg y =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
arctg
x −y
1 + xy
, daca xy > −1;
π + arctg
x −y
1 + xy
, daca x > 0 si xy < −1;
−π + arctg
x −y
1 + xy
, daca x < 0 si xy < −1.
59. 2 arcsin x =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
arcsin(2x

1 −x
2
), daca |x| ≤

2
2
;
π −arcsin(2x

1 −x
2
), daca

2
2
< x ≤ 1;
−π −arcsin(2x

1 −x
2
), daca −1 ≤ x < −

2
2
.
60. 2 arccos x =
_
arccos(2x
2
−1) cand 0 ≤ x ≤ 1;
2π −arccos(2x
2
−1) cand −1 ≤ x < 0.
61. 2 arctg x =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
arctg
2x
1 −x
2
, daca |x| < 1;
π + arctg
2x
1 −x
2
, daca x > 1;
−π + arctg
2x
1 −x
2
, daca x < −1.
62.
1
2
arcsin x =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
arcsin
¸
1 −

1 −x
2
2
, daca 0 ≤ x ≤ 1;
−arcsin
¸
1 −

1 −x
2
2
, daca −1 ≤ x < 0.
63.
1
2
arccos x = arccos
_
1 + x
2
, daca −1 ≤ x ≤ 1.
64.
1
2
arctg x =
_
¸
_
arctg

1 + x
2
−1
x
, daca x = 0;
0, daca x = 0.

|a| ≤ 1. arctg x + arcctg x = . x = arcctg a + πn 38. tg α ± tg β = sin(α ± β) . cos α cos β sin(β ± α) . cos α cos β = [cos(α + β) + cos(α − β)]. x = (−1)n arcsin a + πn. 2 2 α+β α−β cos . arcsin x + arccos x = π . cos α − cos β = −2 sin 32. 2 1 36. 2 29. sin α sin β 33. 2 1 − cos α sin α α 27. 2 1 + cos α sin α α = 2 1 + cos α . 1 + cos α α sin α 1 − cos α = = .Formule trigonometrice 2 23.  n ∈ Z. 2 π 39. sin α ± sin β = 2 sin α±β α β cos .     ctg x = a. 2 1 35. x = ± arccos a + 2πn. ctg 26.  tg x = a. ctg sin α 1 + cos α α = = . |a| ≤ 1. 1 − cos α 25. 2 2 α+β α−β sin . cos α + cos β = 2 cos 31.     cos x = a. tg α = 2 1 − cos α . 1 − cos α = 2 sin2 . 2 |x| ≤ 1. 2 37. sin α cos β = [sin(α + β) + sin(α − β)]. 1 + cos α = 2 cos2 . 2 α 28. x = arctg a + πn. Ecuatii trigonometrice elementare:  sin x = a. ctg α ± ctg β = 1 34. sin α sin β = [cos(α − β) − cos(α + β)]. . tg 24. 2 2 30.

daca x + y < 0. y > 0 si x2 + y 2 > 1.  √ 53. daca x + y ≥ 0. sin(arcsin x) = x. √ x 1 − x2 49. 1 x 1 = arccos √ = arctg . π). x 1 − x2 √ √ 1 − x2 x 50. 0 < x < 1. cos(arccos x) = x. π]. 56. arcsin x−arcsin y =  π − arcsin(x 1 − y 2 − y 1 − x2 ). daca x > 0. x 1 + x2 1 + x2 0 < x < +∞. arccos x − arccos y =  (1 − x2 )(1 − y 2 )). x+y arctg . +1]. daca x ≥ y. daca xy < 1. tg(arctg x) = x. arcctg(ctg x) = x.  √ daca xy ≥ 0 sau x2 + y 2 ≤ 1. x ∈ R. π π . arccos x = arcsin 1 − x2 = arctg = arcctg √ . 47. 43. . daca x < 0.  1 − xy   x+y . y < 0 si x2 + y 2 > 1. daca x > 0 si xy > 1. (1 − x2 )(1 − y 2 )). 48. y < 0 si x2 + y 2 > 1.Formule trigonometrice 3 π . daca x < 0. x 1 − x2 51. arcctg x = arcsin √ 55.  √ −π − arcsin(x 1 − y 2 + y 1 − x2 ). x 1 + x2 1 + x2  √ arcsin(x 1 − y 2 + y 1 − x2 ). 45. 2 2 x ∈ [−1. y > 0 si x2 + y 2 > 1. +1]. daca x > 0. 2 2 x ∈ R. daca x < y. 46. x ∈ [0. daca x < 0 si xy > 1. 0 < x < +∞.  √ 54. arctg(tg x) = x. x ∈ (0. arccos x + arccos y = arccos(xy − (1 − x2 )(1 − y 2 )). arcsin(x 1 − y 2 − y 1 − x2 ). arcsin(sin x) = x. 2 |x| ≥ 1. 42. 40.  √ −π − arcsin(x 1 − y 2 − y 1 − x2 ). arcsec x + arccosec x = 41. 52. x2 0 < x < 1. arctg x = arcsin √ x 1 1 = arccos √ = arcctg . 57. ctg(arcctg x) = x. arccos(cos x) = x. π π x∈ − . daca xy ≤ 0 sau x2 + y 2 ≤ 1. arctg x + arctg y =  π + arctg  1 − xy   x+y −π + arctg . 2π − arccos(xy − − arccos(xy + arccos(xy + (1 − x2 )(1 − y 2 )). arcsin x+arcsin y =  π − arcsin(x 1 − y 2 + y 1 − x2 ). 1 − xy . arcsin x = arccos 1 − = arctg √ = arcctg . x∈ − . √ x ∈ [−1. 44.

daca arctg  1 − x2   2x 61. daca x > 0 si xy < −1.  1 + xy   x−y . arcsin x =  √  2  1 − 1 − x2 − arcsin .Formule trigonometrice 4  arctg x−y . daca  1 − x2   2x −π + arctg . x > 1. arctg x =  2 0. 2 arccos x =  arccos(2x2 − 1) cand 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. daca |x| ≤ .  2 1  62. |x| < 1. daca 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. 58. daca x = 0. 2π − arccos(2x2 − 1) cand − 1 ≤ x < 0. daca − 1 ≤ x < 0. 2  √  √ 2 2 ). daca − 1 ≤ x < − . daca x = 0. 1 + xy √  √ 2 arcsin(2x 1 − x2 ). 2 63. daca − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1. 2 2  √ 1 + x2 − 1 . x < −1. 2x . 2 arcsin x =  daca < x ≤ 1. 1  arctg x 64. daca 1 − x2  √ 1 − 1 − x2  arcsin . arctg x − arctg y =  π + arctg  1 + xy   x−y −π + arctg . . daca xy > −1. daca x < 0 si xy < −1.  2  √  2  π − arcsin(2x√1 − x2 ). 59. 2 arctg x =  π + arctg . 1 1+x arccos x = arccos . −π − arcsin(2x 1 − x 2 60.

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