BUSINESS ENGLISH TEXTS
BUSINESS ENGLISH TEXTS
Editura Universităţii „Aurel Vlaicu” ARAD, 2008
MONICA Business English texts / Monica Ponta. Huţiu.Arad : Editura Universităţii Aurel Vlaicu. Otilia Huţiu . Otilia Liana 811.111:336
. ISBN 978-973-752-248-1 I. 2008 Bibliogr.Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României PONTA.
English Banks Unit 2. English Grammar The Noun Exercises The Article Exercises The Adjective Exercises The Numeral Exercises The Verb Exercises
7 9 9 11 13 15 18 21 23 25 28 30 32 34 36 38 41 43 46 49 51 53 56 56 61 63 71 73 77 79 83 83 98
.The Banking System (1) Unit 3 – The Banking System (2) Unit 4 – Financial Markets Unit 5 – The Euro Unit 6 – Money Market Unit 7 – Euromarkets Unit 8 – Banking Risk Management Unit 9 – Securisation Unit 10 – Money Laundering Unit 11.What is Business ? Unit 12 – Organization of Business Unit 13 – What is a franchise? Unit 14 – Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Unit 15 – Two Basic Concepts in Finance: Assets and Liabilities Unit 16 – What is marketing ? Unit 17 – The Stock Exchange Market Unit 18 – Functions of Commerce Unit 19 – An Export Transaction Unit 20 – Methods of Payment in Foreign Trade Part II . Business Texts Unit 1 .CONTENTS Introduction Part I.
Commercial Correspondence Addressing envelopes Parts of a letter References Enquires and replies Quotations.The Adverb Exercises Part III. Letter order Invoices and adjustments Debit and credit notes Statement of accounts Methods of payment Complaints Contracts Special business letters Memorandums Report Leaflet Notice Minute Letter of application Curriculum Vitae Banking and Home Business Transport Refrences
115 119 121 121 121 122 124 128 129 129 138 139 140 141 142 144 151 154 157 159 160 161 162 165 167 171 174
. estimates and tenders Orders and their fulfillment. Printed Order Forms.
Part III (Commercial Correspondence).
. contracts. commerce and accounting. Part II. Part III comprises the Commercial correspondence with the most frequently used types of letters. Otilia Hutiu : Units 11-20 . finance. The book has three main parts: Part I includes texts and specialized vocabulary from the field of economics. Part II (Grammar exercises ).Grammar (the theoretical outline). as well as other types of documents pertaining to finance. The contribution of the two authors is as follows : Monica Ponta: Units 1-10. accounting and trade. Part II offers a theoretical background for the most important issues of English grammar followed by a series of exercises.INTRODUCTION The present collection of business texts is intended mainly for the use of those who study for a degree in economics and finance and who have an intermediary level of English.
which. Banks and insurance companies are allowed to own stock exchange subsidiaries. they operated speculatively with the funds owned by their customers. 9
. the Banking Act was passed. had freedom to develop themselves but some restrictions were also imposed. it peplaced another Banking Act. it licensed deposit-takers. called themselves banks. that of 1979. to find the beginning of the banking system. Speaking about the UK. BUSINESS TEXTS UNIT 1 ENGLISH . Its purpose is the introduction of a prudential supervision. London became an important banking town and started to attract international banks. All the institutions that are banks are under the control of the Banking Act. But it does not regulate the day to day banking operations. In 1987. These banks were not subject to rigorous supervision.BANKS There are a lot of banks in our tows and villages and even the internet offers you the opportunity to do “on line banking” as you can pay for goods and services with a little smart card. The banks were subject to the provisions of the various Acts of the Parliament. one has to go back in time. A new electronic system has been introduced bringing the old fashioned banking system up to date. many companies set themselves all over the country. This crisis was caused by the fringe banks which got into difficult situations because of their short term borrowing and long term lending. The financial markets developed very quickly. answered to the 19731974 banking crisis. After the second world war. The Banking Act abolished a two-tier system of the recognized banks. at its turn. The Bank of England was established in 1694 and it was nationalized in 1946 due to the Bank of England Act and got legal powers to enforce its directives.PART I I. three hundred years ago. there are other institutions that have the right to take deposits and they are subjects to the Acts of Parliament which are relevant to their operations.
In fact the banks act as intermediaries between borrowers and lenders. credit) 10
. obligatie) Loan(imprumut. institutie comerciala autorizata sa atraga depozite) Borrower( persoana care face un imprumut ) Deposit (suma de bani. ca parte a pretului de vanzare a unui produs. in scopul rezervarii acelui bun. tangibila sau intangibila.Banking vocabulary:
• • • •
• • • • •
Asset (orice posesiune. This is done in different ways. platita in avans de catre un comparator. in special in privinta investitiilor ) Interest(dobanda perceputa la imprumutarea unei sume de bani) Intermediation(activitatea unei banci… care actioneaza ca intermediary intre doua parti ale unei tranzactii) Liabilities(datorie. Answer the following questions: When was the Bank of England founded? What acts control the banks? What happened in 1946? What happened after the Second World War? When was an important bank crisis and what happened? What did the Banking Act abolish and license? Does it regulate the every day operations? Who control the banks What o the acts of Parliament do? What are the banks? 2. Text Comprehension 1. care are valoare pentru posesorul sau) Bank (banca. suma de bani depozitata intr-o banca) Financial adviser (orice persoana care ofera consiliere pe plan financiar altei personae.
International banking is developing. They operate through branches which offer cash deposits. it regulates the monetary and credit conditions and supervises the banking system. it manages the national debt. especially in the large cities and important towns of the countries. and South America. Retail banks offer their services to the individuals and medium sized businesses. you are a bank clerk and try to convince somebody to become the bank customer UNIT 2 THE BANKING SYSTEM (1) Banking and financial market operations involve special institutions and financial markets. Topics for speaking and writing Write a short composition about the bank you are working with Build up a conversation about a bank. deposit accounts.•
Payer(persoana sau organizatie care face o plata)
3. The commercial banks are ruled by the Banking Act of 1987 and are allowed to take deposits and lend money on the retail and wholesale markets. they act within a legislative framework and offer specialized services to individuals. it lends money to all the banking institutions. South Africa. They offer banking services. 11
. Asia. It acts as a banker to all the other banks and government. companies. Foreign banks have branches everywhere. withdrawal facilities as well as possibilities of transferring funds. There are banks which operate mainly overseas and are specialized in particular areas of the world: Far East. They provide facilities to different types of account such as current accounts. The Bank of England is the central bank of the kingdom. they offer loans and different financial services. London is famous for this. it issues the bank notes. governments. Let’s present some of them.
Text Comprehension a) Answer the questions: 1. Do you know anything about the National Bank of Romania? 4. What does the Bank of England do? 3.Topics for speaking and writing : 12
. Can you describe some Romanian banks? 7. What can you tell about international banking? 8. What do banking and financial markets involve? 2. What do the retail banks do? 6. What do you know about the commercial banks? 5. parte sociala) • Withdrawal (retragere ) 3. Are there international banks in Romania? 9. Are there Romanian banks abroad? Banking vocabulary:
Account (cont gestionat de o banca) Balance of payments (registrele care reflecta tranzactiile unei companii cu lumea din afara) • Bank deposit (deposit bancar) • Bank charge (comision bancar) • Bank draft (trata) • Current account (cont curent) • Drawer (persoana care semneaza o cambie) • Drawee (persoana careia i s-a tras o cambie) • Insurance (asigurare) • Liquidity (masura a lichiditatii activelor unei organizatii) • Market (piata) • Negotiable (negociabil) • Overdraft (plafon de creditare) • Penalty (penalizare) • Profitability (capacitatea de a face profit)) • Savings (economii) • Share (actiune.
.Translate the following sentences:
.Write a short composition (200 words). using the above given vocabulary .
Discount Houses are specific to Britain and are an important element of the British monetary system. Investment institutions collect the savings from the persons and corporation sectors. unit trusts. at the very beginning. factoring companies. lend to the government for the weekly offer of Treasury Bills.Do we have such banks in Romania? 3.UNIT 3 BANKING SYSTEM (2) Merchant Banks have their roots in the banking activity the merchants were involved in. National Savings is a saving scheme supported by the government which aids government borrowing using a set of saving instruments. Text Comprehension 1. pension funds.Does Romania have such a system and how does it act? 14
. they promote the orderly flow of funds between the authorities and the banks. The National Savings. they offer services including corporate finance. they invest them in securities and in different assets. They offer loan finance and equity capital. They trade on the wholesale money market. foreign exchange dealings. Answer the questions: 1. leasing houses. venture capital companies. investment trusts. Some of them are: insurance companies. Who founded the merchant banks and why? 2. security trading. They used to help foreign governments to get loans. as an extension of their own trading. to accept bills of exchange. Some of these are the fixed-interest and indexlinked Savings Certificates. through Post Office branches. insurance brokers.What can you tell about the National Savings ? 4. Nowadays. They are between the Bank of England and the rest of the banking sector. Special financial institutions operate in the public sector and in the private one. It does not make loans. They receive the liquid money of the banking sector. The latter include finance houses. offered deposit services to customers.
How do discount houses act? 6.Where do special finance institutions operate ? Banking vocabulary
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Acquisition accounting (proceduri contabile efectuate cand o companie este preluata de o alta ) Bill of exchange (un tip de cambie) Bill of lading (conosament) Charge (ipoteca legala asupra unui teren/ proprietate) Collateral (categorie de titluri de valoare) Commercial loan selling (tranzactie care implica doua banci si un client industrial) Due date ( scadenta de plata. de ex. persoana in numele careia actioneaza un mandatar) Solvency (suma cu care activele unei banci depasesc obligatiile) Unit banking (sistem bancar.What are the investment institutions? 7. spre a imprumuta debitori ) Finance house (societate de credit) Fund (fond comun de resurse monetare si de alt tip ) Funds transfer (transfer al fondului ) Home banking (sistem bancar national) Interest (dobanda perceputa la imprumutarea unei sume de bani) Liability (datorie. in care o banca infiinteaza o companie unica.5. obligatie) Merger (fuziunea a doua sau mai multe firme) Principal (mandat. fara filiale ) Wholesale (banking imprumuturi interbancare sau imprumuturi acordate catre sau de catre alte mari institutii financiare) 3. Topics for speaking and writing Build up sentences using the above given vocabulary Write a short composition (about 200 words) about Romanian
. data maturitatii unei cambii) Financial intermediary ( o banca care detine fonduri imprumutate de la creditori .
Parallel markets are to be found and are known under names such as: 1) inter bank market (it lets the banks to deposit surplus cash with each other) 2) CDs market (it involves large companies. the negotiations are done by phone. A great number of people own shares directly and indirectly (through collective investment schemes .pension funds. particularly in the cross border securities. The market is coordinated electronically and operates in three markets: 1) domestic equities (they include listed securities of large corporations and unlisted securities for smaller and growing companies) 2) gilt-edged stock (gilts are issued by the Bank of England under the government control.UNIT 4 FINANCIAL MARKETS One of the most important financial markets is represented by the stock exchange And the most famous one is the one existing in London. insurance investments). bonds. the prices are displayed on the information screens all over the world. bills of exchange. institutions. the financial instruments being CDs. The exchange has a dominant position in international equity trading. oversea securities. London has regional offices. it deposits large surplus sums for a given rate of interest) 16
. There is no physical market place. they are traded in a secondary market through exchange) 3) international equities The money markets are directed between buyers and sellers which are banks. The security houses offer selling and buying prices for domestic securities. financial institutions. treasury bills. private persons. automated dealing system.
the brokers act as intermediaries. argint. What do you know about the Free Market Exchange? Banking vocabulary: • Affiliate (afiliere) • Bank branch (filiala bancara) • Bond (obligatiune) • Bearer ( purtator al unui cec sau cambii) • Bearer bond (titlu de valoare) • Bullion (lingouri de aur. Can you describe the parallel markets? 8. efectuata pe baza unui cec. The quotes are given in many currencies for the buying and selling rates on a daily basis for all types of transactions. este transferata dintr-un cont in altul) • Clearing house (sistem centralizat si computerizat de stabilire a sumelor datorate reciproc) • CD = Clearing deposits 17
. financial institutions. Do people own shares and how? 5. How the money market managed and which is are its elements? 6. London and Tokyo are famous for these dealings) The Foreign Exchange Market conducts transactions through the phone and data links between banks. metale pretioase) • Clearing cycle process (proces prin care. How are the prices displayed? 4. Text comprehension Answer following questions: 1.3) Commercial bills market (it deals with unsecured promissory notes. Where is the most important financial market? 2. firms. What do the security houses offer? 3. short term ones. o plata. How is the money directed? 7. these are issued by the companies listed on the Stock market) 4) Euro currency market (it deals with currencies lent outside the domestic market place.
dupa ce u fost platiti toti creditorii) Financial instruments (ocumente financiare) Gilt edged security (itlu de valoare cu dobanda fixa. parte sociala) Stock(stoc de active.• • • • • • • • • •
Corporate bond (obligatiune sau titlu de valoare care reprezinta un imprumut obisnuit) Creditworthiness (evaluarea capacitatii unei persoane/firme de a achita bunurile/serviciile primite ) Equity (activele nete ale unei companii.) Writing Build up sentences using the above mentioned vocabulary
. titlu de valoare cu dobanda fixa) Subsidiary (iliala. emis de guvernul britanic sub forma obligatiunilor guvernamentale sau a bonurilor de tezaur) To issue ( a emite) Margin (marja) Share ( actiune . sucursala.
an euro area has been created. new coins and banknotes have been issued.). tourists. The introduction of the single currency has three phases: 1. For this. an easier flow of goods and services. euro is used in the EU countries.e. marketing and organizational challenges. the launch of the EMU (early 1998) 2. The companies have faced important strategic. the start of the EMU (1 January 1999) 3. The Euro assures currency stability and an advance towards European integration. Banks have been confronted with the losing of revenue streams due to the introduction of the single currency. It has been set up a legal framework for the use of the euro which helps the market operators to have the legal security for contracts and obligations. the functioning of markets has been improved (i.s. The major banks have made the technology changes which have been required for euro compliance as they need to minimize the euro impact to their customers. the single currency (begins with 1 January 2002) Beginning with this date. The trade between EU countries is done in Euro. members of the European Union. It has brought about a change in the life of the Europeans (businessmen.UNIT 5 THE EURO It is a strategic and technical challenge for the European nations.o. a. it was established the legal framework that ensured the legallyenforceable equivalence between the single currency (euro) and the national currency units. bankers. The banks have completed the changeover and the national currencies have been withdrawn. 1 January 1999 and 1 January 2002 was the period when the euro coexisted with the national currency. lower transactions costs. the impact of the new cross border payment systems. The business has eliminated the exchange risk. Text comprehension Answer the questions: 19
pt dobanzile percepute clientilor) Bridging loan (credit punte) Business credit (imprumut facut corporatiilor) Capital (valoarea totala a activelor unei persoane. currencies? 7. rambursarea unui imprumut. in schimbul banilor ) 20
. intr-o zona determinate. 4. folosita ca referinta de catre banci. distribuitor… care le permite acestora sa produca/vanda un anumit produs/serviciu. care nu este o rata obisnuita) Base rate (rata a dobanzii.
What does the euro assure? Which is the currency used by the businessmen? What have the banks done? What has the introduction of the euro bring about? What did the companies face? Was it a coexistence of the euro with the national Can you mark the main EMU phases ?
Ballon ( suma mare de bani platita pt.1. 5. 3. 6. mai ales la achizitionarea bunurilor in regim de vanzare in rate) Money market unit trust (fond de investitii finaciare care investeste in instrumentele pietei monetare. pe o perioada stabilita) Installment (o plata dintr-o serie. 2. fara obligatiile aferente) Consumer credit (credit pentru bunuri de folosinta indelungata) Credit line (limita unui credit) EMU (European Monetary Union= Uniunea monetara europeana) EMS (European Monetary System= Sistemul monetary european) Exposure (riscul pe care il asuma clientul) Franchise (licenta acordata unui producator. pentru a oferi investitorilor venit fara risc) Open market operations (cumpararea/vanzarea de catre guvern a obligatiunilor guvernamentale.
negociat pentru o anumita perioada) Secured (denota un imprumut /garantat/ in care creditorul obtine active de vandut ca despagubire)
Personal loan (credit pentru nevoi personale) Ratio analysis (utilizarea indicatorilor pentru evaluarea activitatii operationale si stabilitatii financiare a unei companii) Revolving credit (forma de credit bancar.
either directly or by means of a broker who gets a commission for this. there are used short debt instruments which are financial instruments such as certificates of deposits. Answer the following questions: Can you tell what the last decades look like? How are deals transacted? What do you know about bank foreign exchange What is a money market? What do you know about it? What do the dealers do? 22
. banker’s acceptances. commercial papers. customers. in fact. 2. Deals are effected by phone or electronic system. Tokyo are famous for their money markets. one may speak about a globalization of the economic activity of the European countries. it is a form of network. networks of dealers and institutional investors. phones. Money markets can be defined as market places for short term lending and borrowings (it means less than 90 days) and are. the dealer is doing this job. central banks. New York. The dealers are in constant communication with each other. financial institutions.UNIT 6 MONEY MARKETS In the last decades. 5. customers who can communicate easily. The capital flows from a country to another one easily because the fixes rates of exchange have been dropped and one currency is used in the EU. 6. The new market has facilitated the settlement of debts resulting from the international trade. production and investment have become more international. between commercial banks. market? 4. An inter bank foreign exchange market is created. using computers. 1. brokers. Foreign exchange traders make markets. Deals are transacted with a counter party. with borrowers and investors taking advantage of the arbitrage opportunities. London. For dealing on such markets. i. treasury bills. 3. Trade. speculate in different currencies. banks. e-mails.e.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Arbitrage (transfer non speculative de fonduri. de la o piata la alta ) Asked price (pret solicitat) Bid (pret la care un market maker cumpara actiuni) Broker (agent care pune in legatura doua parti. la o anumita rata de schimb) Dealer (comerciant de orice fel) Financial market (piata financiara) Foreign exchange (schimb valutar) Hard currency (sistemul valutar al unei tari care are o economie puternica) Hedging (operatiune facuta de un comerciant/ dealer care doreste sa protejeze o pozitie vulnerabila) Investment securities ( active financiare folosite pentru investitii) Maturity date (data la care un document ajunge la maturitate) Money market (piata britanica a imprumuturilor pe termen scurt) Primary market (piata care vinde pentru prima data titlurile de valoare) Secondary market (piata secundara care comercializeaza titluri de valoare existente) Spread (diferenta intre pretul de vanzare si cel de cumparare) Trader (persoana care face negot) 23
. oferindu-le acestora posibilitatae de a incheia un contract intermediat de el) Capital market (piata de capital) Cross rate (rata de schimb intre doua sisteme valutare exprimata intr-un al treilea sistem valutar) Currency backing (aur sau valori care mentin puterea internationala a unui sistem valutar Currency future (contracte futures in care se cumpara/vinde.
governments. The bonds are payable to bearer without deduction of tax. it cannot be a national control over this market. the rates do not diverge from the domestic lending ones. Euro bonds. The market deals with US dollars as well and it can be named Euro dollar market. there is a capital flow which seems to be uncontrolled. can be named Euro market. The corporations can borrow more cheaply than via bank loans. the company obtains a loan underwritten by banks which issue series of short term Eurocurrency notes used for replacing the already expired ones. so. London and Luxemburg have developed a secondary market in bonds which has become a supranational market. the market forces dictate the lending rates. multinational corporations. Euro notes are short term notes issued in US dollars. financial institutions are also allowed to enter the market. municipal authorities). The Euro dollar market is complemented by Eurobond and makes longer term funds available. Euro-notes. the investors may 24
. They are issued at a discount to the face value they have. Euro commercial papers. It has in view all the transactions done by the banks in Euro currencies. A note issuance facility is a credit facility. Euro-notes are notes issued in bearer form and negotiable. it is not subject to normal domestic regulations but it is affected by the international events. it happens only for short interval of time. Important sums of dollars have been deposited in banks which are outside the USA and many USA banks have branches overseas. They are issued by bank consortia and are placed with investors (national industries. The international banks are the main operators. Theoretically. Commercial papers relate to short term promissory notes issued by companies.UNIT 7 EUROMARKETS Euro is the currency used by the EU countries. From the practical point of view. It is a market that has developed itself in Europe. Currency is borrowed and lent by institutions located in different countries. the market the Euro is used for. they are purchased by investors.
earn a higher return on their funds than it is available on bank deposits. What about the supranational markets? 6. Text Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1. What do you know about Eurobond? 5. document emis de debitor unui creditor) Ceiling (cantitatea cea mai mare de bani pe care o poate depune un client) Deficit financing (crearea unui deficit bugetar guvernamental) Direct investment (investitii in operatiile straine ale unei companii ) Eurobond (euro obligatiune ) Eurocurrency (valuta depozitata intr-o tara europeana. What is the Euro market? 2. Which complements the Euro dollar market? 4. actiune realizata de catre o banca) 25
. What is a commercial paper? Vocabulary
• • • • • • • • • • •
Bond (obligatiune. alta decat tara de origine) Eurodollar (dolari depozitati in institutii financiare in afara SUA) Eurocredit (imprumut intr-o euro-valuta) Money supply (masa monetara emisa de autoritatile monetare ale unei tari) Treasury bill (bon de tezaur. A bank usually undertakes the issuing of these papers either directly or through dealers. What happens to the currency? 3. What are Euronotes? 7. cambia) Underwriting (a garanta o emisie de obligatiuni.
UNIT 8 BANKING RISK MANAGEMENT All the businesses are confronting themselves with macroeconomic and microeconomic risks. The companies face breakdowns in technology. liquidity risk. wars. Risks can become excessive because of hostile reactions of the institutions already existing and acting in the new area banks have moved in. The banks are supposed to manage the risks which arise from balance sheet business. The methods and instruments the banks use for carrying out this purpose are very different and are permanently changing and up dating. market risk. Banking transactions are to take into account the following type of risks: credit risk. banks have fee generating activities which do not appear directly on the balance sheet. banks can get profits if they charge prices higher than the costs of delivering products/ services. commercial failures of suppliers/ customers. legal and regulatory risks. operational risk. Banks can also suffer because of the problems caused by the financial 26
. natural disasters. while the latter have in view competitive threats. health and safety risk. interest rate risk. Competition among banks exists but it can be tempered by a strict surveillance which prevents banks to take excessive risks. Monetary authorities try to develop new and dynamic systems of controlling the banks’ money adapting them to the environment and seek to control the risks caused by new types of operations. environmental risk. political interferences. If competition reaches a very high peak. the former are including different effects of recession. the banks can move in other areas of higher profitability for them. So the banks are supposed to identify the risks which are associated with each business they are running. currency risk. Risks can be caused by business transactions and processes of the banks with different customers. for example.
They must create effective risk management systems which can manage the risks the banks are exposed to because exposure to risks reduces the value of future cash flows they expect. What are the businesses facing? 2. Which risks do banks face? 4. economic bad management of the government. What are banks supposed to do under these circumstances? 7. Bank managers are supposed to analyze the risks. Is there competitions among banks? 6. Do banks manage risks? 3. Text Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1.markets. What are managers supposed to do under these circumstances?
• • • • • • • • • •
Vocabulary Bankruptcy (faliment) Bank cash flow (Flux de fonduri reprezentand miscarea fondului monetar prin banca) Cash flow (plati in bani lichizi) Credit risk (riscul ca o posesiune sau imprumut sa devina de nerecuperat ) Forfaiting (forma de rabat) Gearing (efectul de levier ) Gearing ratios( indici care caracterizeaza intensitatea efectului de levier ) Insolvency (incapacitatea de a onora datoriile) Interest rate risk (risc provocat de rata dobanzii ) Market risk( risc provocat de piata) 27
. What do monetary authorities try to do? 5. find out new procedures to diminish them or to get rid of them. fraud. corruption and other problems that can affect the prosperity of the area the work in.
• • • •
Payment risk (plata facuta de catre un partener inainte de asi primi proprii sai bani) Price risk (bancile suporta preturile pe instrumentele negociate pe pietele bine stabilite) Risk management (management de risc) Risk of global banking (diversificarea globala a activelor permite bancii sa –si imbunatateasca managemntul de risc marind profitabilitatea si valoarea adaugata actiunilor) Sovereign risk ( se refera la riscurile pe care un guvern nu le indeplineste cu privire la o datorie pe care o are la o banca private) Systematic risk (posibilitatea ca esecul unei banci de a regla platile cu alte banci sa provoace o reactie in lant privand alte banci de fonduri) Volatile (o piata/marfa/actiune etc. a carei valoare poate fluctua rapid si frecvent)
The bankers consider the loan quality in terms of their marketability in the capital markets rather than the probability of their repayment by borrowers. The bank does not have to allocate loan loss reserves against these assets. It involves transfer of block of assets to a special purpose vehicle company (issuer) which finances its purchase by the issue of debt . the bank can sell assets and enhances its capital adequacy ratio retaining some of the servicing income. it can grant new loans from security proceeds sold to investors. Securisation turns traditional non marketed financial assets into marketable securities. An institution that transfers the assets continues to manage them as servicing agent. The capital ratios are improved. the mostly used form being the securisation of mortgages. 30
. Securities offered for sale can be purchased by other depositary institutions. Banks securitize and sell a broader base of loan receivables. The note holders are protected from risks associated with the assets.UNIT 9 SECURISATION Securisation is a phenomenon according to which it is cheaper and more convenient for the borrowers to issue securities rather than to borrow money from the banks. In the UK securisation loses popularity. banks receivables are repackaged as bonds and other types of credit. These arrangements are facilitated by an investment bank and involve a letter of credit guarantee from a foreign bank/ insurance company. in the USA it is more common and covers a greater variety of loans. The process merges the credit markets and the capital markets. Activity banks tend to act as sellers of assets rather than portfolio lenders who keep all the loans in their own portfolio. non bank investors. Securisation is the conversion of bank loans and assets into marketable securities for sale to investors. If the securisation is successful. Some of the bank’s borrowers raise money in securities markets.
What is securisation? 2. USA and Romania? 9. Who facilitate these arrangements? Vocabulary:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Borrower (persoana care imprumuta) Convertion (delictul echivalent al crimei sau furtului) Holder (persoana aflata in posesia unei cambia) Lender( persoana care imprumuta bani) Marketable securities (titluri de valoare ce pot fi vandute sau cumparate la o bursa de valori) Marketability (posibilitatea de a vinde ceva usor) Proceeds (bani primiti dintr-o vanzare dupa deducerea cheltuielilor ) Repack = to pack again (a reimpacheta ) Receivables (creante) Securities (gajuri/ ipoteci) Securisation (actiunea de transformare a imprumutului intrun gaj) Securitize( a trasforma un imprumut intr-o ipoteca/un gaj) Servicing agent (agent care achita dobanda unui imprumut) Servicing a loan (achitarea dobanzii unui imprumut)
. What conversion is it? 3. What can you tell about securisation in the UK. What does it involve? 4. What happens to note holders? 6.Text Comprehension Answer the questions: 1. What does this process merge? 7. What happens if the securisation is successful? 5. How do the bankers consider this loan? 8.
Text Comprehension Answer the following questions: 1. involving numerous transactions of the launderers. It allows them to maintain control over the proceeds and provide a legitimate cover for their source of income. the proceeds are placed back into the economy. these proceeds are results of criminal activities. they re-enter the financial system and seem to be normal business funds. Money laundering is accomplished in three stages. Such an action is done easily under these conditions of free movement of capital. Where does it come from? 3. The people who are involved in such an action exploit the facilities of the financial institutions of the world. What is money laundering? 2.UNIT 10 MONEY LAUNDERING Money laundering is a process used by offenders who attempt to conceal the true origin and ownership of the proceeds. there are created complex layers of financial transactions meant to disguise the audit trail and they assure anonymity 3. integration – supposing that the laundering process was successful. How is money laundering accomplished? 32
. layering – it implies a separation of illicit proceeds from their source. Banks involved in such actions risk to lose their market reputation. Here they are: 1. The laundering of the proceeds that result from criminal activity is done through the financial system. What do the people involved in laundering 4. placement – it means a physical disposal of cash proceeds got from illegal activity 2.
Which are the stages? Can you describe them? Is money laundering to be found in Romania?
la o banca britanica) Net margin (marja neta/ bruta ) Outstanding (expirat.Vocabulary
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Accounting (contabilitate) Arrears (bani datorati dar care nu sunt platiti la scadenta) Audit (examinarea independenta a rapoartelor financiare ale unei organizatii si formularea ulterioara a unei opinii) Balance sheet (bilant) Book value (valoarea contabila a unui active) Capital gain/ loss (castig/ pierdere rezultat/a din operatiunile de capital) Depreciation (diminuarea valorii unui active imobilizat) Financial accounting (contabilitate financiara) Goodwill (diferenta dintre valoarea activelor nete separate ale unei companii si valoarea totala a acesteia) Gross margin (diferenta dintre incasarile din vanzari ale unei firme si costurile bunurilor vandute) Money laundering (spalarea banilor) Net interest (dobanda platita la un cont de economii sau la unul current. neachita)t Profit and loss account (cont de profit si pierderi) Reconcilement (reconciliere) Trial balance( balanta de verificare) Value data (data la care anumite fonduri devin disponibile pentru utilizare)
Text comprehension 1) Answer the following questions.market economic system ? 35
. a) How can you define profit? b) How can you define business? c) What are the goals of businesses? d) What are the benefits of competition in a free. to tighten financial controls and sometimes even to close plants or cut jobs. Is making profits the only goal of businesses? Should businesses strive for the achievement of some other goals as wellsuch as environmental protection or fairness to consumers? In a traditional and very broad sense. These changes have affected to a great extent traditional ways of running business. a speedy development of technological progress has brought forth some undreamed-of amusements and conveniences : robots.Though some of these difficulties now seemed to have lessened. Defined as such. people are wondering nowadays what the social responsibility of business is to the society it operates in. video recorders. business implies an enormous variety of tasks.Besides these difficulties. More than ever. people no longer feel assured of the living standards their parents took for granted . Managers have been forced to adopt new techniques. "smart" telephones" computers. Western countries have been going through major changes. that flash information on displays in seconds. we can define business as all the work involved in providing people with goods and services for a profit.UNIT 11 WHAT IS BUSINESS? In recent years. some economic difficulties appeared in the 70's and early 80's . After a period of 25 yeas following World War II in which these countries enjoyed unprecedented growth and prosperity.
a scadea supply = oferta demand = cerere business= afacere . to boost. company. purchase foundation . to strive . firma (mica) profit and loss = profit si pierdere environment = mediu inconjurator to purchase = a cumpara.e) How can demand and supply affect prices? 2. Give synonyms for the following words : profit . to supply . to lesssen . entrepreneur. scop economic growth = crestere economica to lessen = a micsora. a achizitiona to run a business = a conduce o afacere to tighten = a strange labour market = piata fortei de munca Speaking and Writing Topics market 1) Speak about the advantages and disadvantages of a
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
economy 2) Influences of the speedy technological development on the labour market
.to demand Basic Vocabulary achievement = realizare to boost = a dezvolta rapid goal = tel.
. doctors and brokers usually work in partnership. sweets. In the UK. canal. A partnership may consist of a small number of persons called partners that contribute the capital for the business. Registration is the most usual way and the companies in which the members are limited to the value of their shares are of two types: private companies and public limited companies. the joint stock companies can be set up by Royal Charter of England). The partners who play an active part in the management of the business a known as active partners as distinct from the other sleeping partner Accountants. The amount and nature of capital. methods of raising it as well as the manner of its control obviously depend on the type of business organization The simplest form of business organization is the oneman business or sole trader (sole proprietor) who has control of his capital with almost complete freedom from external interference. newspapers are in regular demand and where the market is local But there are also serious disadvantages since a sole trader's responsibility is great and the expansion of such a business is limited to the financial' resources of the owner. gas. before any business starts. solicitors. the partnership. capital must be obtained. This business can succeed particularly where commodities such as foodstuffs tobacco. When further capital or specialization is needed this generally leads to another type of organization. A company is a more complex business organization consisting of an associate: of people who both contribute capital and agree to share the resulting profit or loss. by a special Act of Parliament (companies which are usually monopoly of public utility services such as railways. either in equal or in agreed proportion.Unit 12 ORGANISATION OF BUSINESS Legal and financial aspects are closely linked to business because. water and by registration. They may take an active part in the management of the business but the share the resulting profit or loss as well.
the shareholder can sell their shares to people who wish to buy on the Stock Exchange. The shares are held among their members companies are not allowed to invite public to subscribe shares or debenture.The private limited companies have the letters LTD after their name and consist of a number of. temporary partnerships constituted for carrying out one particular trading objective are called joint ventures.e. unlike the former. i. members (shareholders). The public limited companies have the letters PLC added to their name and consist of a number of members and they can offer their shares for sale. companies. the PLCs have limited liability but. to transfer shares is only with the consent of the directors and this restriction implies a high degree of risk.00 Another form of business. The partnership is dissolved after the venture is completed. Like the private . The capital of the PLCs must amount a minimum of £50. Answer the following questions Vocabulary Topics for speaking and written essays
. Topic comprehension 1.
Some will even mortgage their homes to buy franchises. many people prefer to work fourteen hours a day. the franchisee has the advantage of being able to buy supplies and to obtain credit and insurance at low costs. fast food establishments and even real estate dental care and video. motels.This: type of operation enables the company to establish outlets for its product o service without major capital in vestment. because the large organization provides financial and managerial assistance. advice on advertising. But if accepted. Still.If the outlet does poorly. there are also some important drawbacks to be considered. as well as instructions in the routine day-to-day operations are also provided by the large company. Franchising helps to solve two major problems the small businesses are constantly faced with: lack of money and of knowhow. Franchising began in America already in the nineteenth century.The franchise operation brings a corporation with a famous product together with an individual desiring to start a small business. Therefore buying a franchise seems to be the perfect solution because it brings together independence and a measure of security . Training. The franchisor unlike many independent proprietors has enough experience to estimate start-up costs realistically and therefore he will not grant the franchise unless the prospective franchisee has enough money for the start-up costs. hotels. during times of high unemployment people are more likely to buy franchises.UNIT 13 WHAT IS A FRANCHISE? Although owning your own business has proved to be rather risky. most of the profit 39
. According to some experts. Chief among the disadvantages is the monthly payment or royalty . At the same time the franchise faces less risks than an independent entrepreneur. At present the fastest growing franchise operations in the areas of foodstuffs soft drinks. The franchisor grants this franchisee the exclusive right to use the franchisor's name in a certain territory. taxes and other business matters. five days a week for a large corporation. seven days a week for themselves than eight hours a day. in exchange for an initial fee plus monthly royalty payments .
franchise .managerial assistance .What is a franchisor? .What are the duties of a franchisee? .grant .advertising . they should be carefully considered before every decision is made. Text Comprehension 1.What kind of assistance does the large organization provide to the franchisee? -When did the first franchising businesses start in America? 40
.Which is the perfect solution for independent businessmen without financial means? .lack . Although franchises can offer the small business person a good way to set up a shop.real estate .start-up company 2. Answer the following questions : . Read the text carefully and try to explain the following key words: . Another drawback of franchises is that they allow very little independence .venture-capital .mortgage .royalty .Has franchising any advantages for a large company? .If the business is so tightly controlled .some franchises might in the end.small businesses .Why do many people prefer to work on their own ? .may end up going to the franchisor. feel like employees.
-Mention some drawbacks of franchising. Topics for speaking and written essays a) The bright side and the dark side of franchising b) Possible franchise businesses in the town you live c) Advantages and disadvantages of small businesses as compared to large corporations. UNIT 14 MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS People involved in economic activities who want to start and run successfully their own businesses must understand both microeconomics and macroeconomics so that they may make sound economic decisions. Microeconomics refers to the study of costs and revenues of individual enterprises .Prices of individual items are set at the "microeconomics" level , by means of the demand and supply curves. If the price of a certain product declines, it generates a greater demand. Correspondingly, the supply of a product (i.e. the production) increases following a rise of its price. By combining the demand and the supply, the market places manage to establish a point of equilibrium where the ideal price of a product can be found. But the prices have a great influence not only on producers but on investors as well. Therefore, the customers or the buyers are those who through their willingness to buy a certain product basically shape the allocation of resources and production of goods. Price affects the supply of a product by helping business people to decide which industries to invest in .New factories and new companies came into being because the market price of a certain item signaled high profit potentials to managers and investors. These signals come largely from the behavior of 41
consumers. Whereas eighteenth century economists believed that all production and allocation decisions could be made by businesspeople on the basis of prices set by the free-market, in our modern society, the government can use its power to change prices or change the way resources are allocated. Society needs things such as: police, fire protection, road building or satellite launching, which the free-market system cannot supply properly. This is where government intervenes, supplying public goods and services, setting up taxes and duties to regulate business and making transfer payments. The macroeconomic level helps us view a national economic system as a whole .At the macroeconomic level, the concept of circular flow illustrates the interrelationships among businesses, households and governments .If one looks at an economy as a giant circulatory system, then businesses and consumer households can be regarded as two vital organs: the heart and the lung. Each needs the other to keep going just as the bloodstream carries in one direction and carbon dioxide in the other, the economy carries goods and services on way and money the other .Consumer households pay money for the goods and services provided by businesses. With this money businesses pay for raw materials and for the labor force which also comes from households. Meanwhile, the government is involved in the system as well. It buys goods and services, as well as labor. Households, which provide workers, are producers and consumers at the same time, businesses are consumers of labor and producers alike. Money in this pattern appears under different names (taxes, pay, and purchase) depending on what goods and services are exchanged for money. The circular flow shows the interrelations between all the elements taking part in the economic activity .This flow is measured in terms of the gross national product (GNP) which indicates a nation's economic growth and provides a comparison with the output of other nations. Every year thousands of hopeful entrepreneurs launch new businesses. If they come up with a good product or service, if they manage to get enough financial aid to see them through the first difficult months or even years, they may make a go for it. 42
Text Comprehension 1. Answer the following questions - How can you define microeconomics? - What does macroeconomics involve? - What does the concept of circular flow mean ? - What are the effects of prices ? - What is the role of the market places ? -What does GDP indicate? - What is the role of government in a market-oriented economy? 2. Vocabulary - sound decision = decizie corecta, potrivita - to be involved = a fi implicat - cost and revenues =cheltuieli si venituri - demand and supply curve = curba cererii si ofertei -to rise- rose- risen = a creste, a se ridica, a se inalta - to raise (ed) = a creste, a mari, a ridica - customer = client -household = gospodarie - allocation of resources = alocare de resurse - flow = flux - raw materials = materii prime - GNP (gross national product) = produsul national brut - entrepreneur = intreprinzator - to launch = a lansa - output = productie 3.Topics for speaking and written texts Should governments intervene in economic activities ? When and why ? Give examples of good/bad interventions at macroeconomic level . How do supply and demand influence product prices? 43
salaries. plus retained earnings. Dividends are sums of money paid to shareholders of the corporation out of earnings. or a warehouse of T-shirts ready to be dispatched to stores are all short-term assets. each with its own advantages and disadvantages. There are different kinds of assets and liabilities. The faster any asset can be converted into cash. Raw materials. cotton.This is often called owner's equity. Other short-time liabilities include: rent. or shareholder's equity namely the portion of a company's assets that belongs to the owner after obligations to all other creditors have been fulfilled. Managing a company's finances means thinking in terms of two opposite categories: assets and liabilities.e.minus the funds returned to shareholders as dividends. and unpaid bills for raw materials. Companies that may have excess cash on hand for short 45
. The short-term assets are often termed current assets and are defined as the resources that can be turned back into cash within a year. Assets' are the items 'of value that the company owns (including money itself). 15 TWO BASIC CONCEPTS IN FINANCE . Borrowed money that must be paid back within the year is a prime example of a short -time liability. it knows exactly where it stands financially: the reminder is what belongs to the owner of the business . the money that is owned to the company for items or services it has sold. like for instance. i. Cash itself is a short-term asset.UNIT NO. the sums that the company owes to other businesses or individuals.the total net income a company has earned over its life .ASSETS AND LIABILITIES Finance is the management function through which money is effectively obtained and used. or a short-time debt. Inmost corporations shareholders' equity consists of common stock shares of ownership of a business) sold to thousand of individual investors through a stock exchange . the higher its liquidity. steel. If a company subtracts its liabilities from its assets .Liabilities are debts. Others include a company's accounts receivable.
How can you define assets? .What does equity consist of? .What are the advantages and disadvantages of long-term
Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • assets = active accounts receivable = sume de incasat liabilities = passiv. datorii debt =datorie to own = a detine in proprietate ownership = proprietate equity = capital shareholder = actionar stock exchange = bursa de actiuni earnings = castiguri dividend = dividend interes rate = rata dobanzii short-term = pe termen scurt long-term = pe termen lung to substract = a scadea
. Text comprehension Answer the following questions .Which are the short-term liabilities in a company? .Why are current assets important for a company? .Give example of short –term assets? .periods. The financial managers must be informed about interest rates as well as the overall economy in order to time borrowing to their best advantage. must place it in short-term investments.
UNIT 16 WHAT IS MARKETING? The business environment has been continually changing and business people are worried about keeping up with it. Consumer values change rapidly and competition in the market becomes fiercer. As a result business people’s attention focuses on customers and they try by means of polls, interviews or questionnaires to win the customers over Even such conservative industries as 'railroads and utilities are courting consumers, for as one marketing consultant pointed out: "The customer is the most important product ......... because if he doesn't like what we have, he can go elsewhere ...." Many companies are learning that they need not only good products but also marketing skills in order to succeed. They must be able to identify consumer needs and to satisfy in a mutually beneficial manner. Those people who want a given product and can buy it constitute its market. Marketing has changed radically over the past halfcentury. At one-time, most firms were production-oriented and restricted marketing activities mainly to taking orders and shipping goods. Then came sales-oriented marketing and it emphasized selling. Since World War II , however, most large companies in the world have shifted to a consumer-oriented approach known as the total marketing concept. This concept relies heavily on marketing research activities .The total marketing approach gives The buyer has a say in what goods or services the company sells. Therefore the efforts of the company’s departments should be coordinated to produce what the consumer wants. Essentially marketing research gets -.information about : a) what products or services the consumers want ; b) what forms ,colours, packaging, prices and retail shops they prefer ; c) what 47
type of advertising, public relations and selling practices are most likely to appeal to the consumer. Population statistics are a basic marketing tool. They can indicate with reasonable precision how many people there are, how old they are, what they earn, how they spend their money and where they live. The reasons why consumers decide to buy a product may be rational or\and emotional. Rational factors include cost, dependability; usefulness. Emotional factors are satisfaction of the senses, fear, pride, sociability and emulation. Besides individual consumers, there are also industrial consumers and the marketer has to adopt a different marketing strategy for them .For instance, a major banking institution wants to overhaul its entire computer system. The motivation for acquiring technical business equipment or services is usually rational, based on its usefulness to the buyer. Businesses try to avoid investing in unnecessary services or products. Emotional motives do not influence such buyers to a great extent .Moreover the business buyer possesses technical background and negotiating skills that ordinary consumers lack. Text comprehension 1. Answer the following questions - Why do businesses today focus on customers? - What is marketing ? - How has marketing changed over the years and why? - Why do consumers decide to buy products? - Which are the rational factors involved in buying decisions? - In what way are the industrial customers different from the individual ones? • • • 2. Vocabulary to keep up with = a tine pasul cu business environment = mediu de afaceri consumer needs = nevoile consumatorului 48
• • • • • • • • •
fierce competition = competitie stansa/ feroce to focus on= a se concentra asupra pollls = sondaj to win over = a castiga de partea sa, a atrage skill= aptitudine, talent to emphasize = a accentua approach = abordare to shift to = a se orienta spre retail shops = magazine cu vanzare en detail
3. Topics for speaking and writing Compare the different approaches used in marketing. Give examples of emotional motives used by marketing strategies to sell their products. Ethical and unethical marketing strategies. Give examples of your own .
we speak of a bull market. 51
. When it is declining. The name of this average comes from two American economists C.D. but you can remember which by recalling that a bull tosses an attacked upward with its horns while a bear wrestles downward to the ground. Jones (died in 1920). Many important national newspapers print reports of daily tradings in specific stocks and bonds.H. They operate amazingly fast .UNIT 17 THE STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET Securities market provides a means whereby investors can buy and sell stocks.S.The New York Stock Exchange boasts that once the order to sell has been placed. it can take less than one minute to dispose of a stock such as IBM. The best known average is the Dow Jones industrial index which represents an average of thirty leading industrial stocks from the U. They do not hold an inventory of stocks for sale. The origin of these terms is rather uncertain.They are also ready to purchase stock from their customers and thus they are said " to make a market " in that stock. they are merely a place for matching a buyer with a seller . When the stock market is rising.A.Stock exchanges provide a key service : they organize all the information that exists at any one moment about the price at which investors are currently willing to buy and sell particular stocks..This market consists of a network of registered stock and bond representatives scattered across a country who trade with each other by phone or teletype They provide stocks to their customers by holding stocks in inventory . A stock exchange is an organization whose "members join together and provide a trading room where members can meet to buy and sell securities for their customers . along with various stock averages. we speak of a bear market. very important kind of market place for stocks and other securities is the OTC market .The second.Dow (died in 1902) and E. • The two kinds of securities markets are stock exchanges and over-the-counter (OTP) markets.
). They also offer liquidity to their customers that can turn their shares into cash whenever they want. Vocabulary • Securities = hartii de valoare • Stocks = pachete de actiuni • Share = actiune individuala • Shareholder/ stockholder = actionar • Bonds= obligatiuni • OTC (over the counter.Due to their diversified portfolio. are traded on commodity exchange markets. These investment societies are especially useful for small investors who don't have time or experience to find investment opportunities .Each investor owns shares in the fund and the fund uses the pooled money to buy stocks or bonds issued by various companies. These markets operate just as the stock exchange market.la vedere/pe tejghea) market = piata actiunilor necotate la bursa • Bearing = influenta • Average = mediu (adj. Customers may also invest through a mutual fund or an investment company in which many investors pool their money to buy securities . which are known as commodities.Business people and investors also carefully follow other news that may have a bearing on the market. including broad social trends and the state of the national and international economies.These raw materials. mutual funds diminish investment risks.) • A bull market= pata bursiera in crestere • A bear market = piata bursera in scadere • Commodities = bunuri de larg consum
. medie (subst. Text Comprehension 1. Many business people are interested in the prices of the raw materials they use to produce finished goods .
Answer the following questions: exchange ? What are the functions of the stock exchange market? Who were C. change in political regimes. etc. Give examples of the way in which such events (wars.Dow and E. earthquakes.) have influenced the stock exchange and the economic life as a whole.H. rising prices. D. Jones ? Who influence the increase and decrease of the stock What is the OTC market ? What do investment companies do ?
Speaking and writing Stock exchanges all over the world react to various events whose nature may or may not be economic.2. .
This function not only enables goods to be supplied whenever they are wanted. sea or air as well as the work of agents. wholesaler or retailer until they are required. each producer makes use of numerous depots at specially arranged places. As the goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption. E-mail. their way from the producer to the consumer is a long and complicated one. but also wherever they are wanted.. without communications endless delays and hindrances occur in all stages of commerce. trade representatives. While the manufacturer has a limited production range. 55
. Trade is essentially the general exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers. Also. people who altogether carry it out. travelers. Communications are generally linked to the commercial activity as a whole since no transaction is possible without communications. cables. Communications are made possible through the postal and telegraph system. In this respect. radio mobile systems and satellite. namely the exchange and distribution of goods and services. etc. Moreover. telephones. usually at the consumer's reach. Trade consists of Home Trade including Wholesale Trade and Retail Trade and Foreign Trade dealing with Imports and Exports. facsimile (fax). Transport concerns the moving of goods by land. Warehousing is a major function in modern conditions as production is usually in advance of demand and goods have to be stored appropriately in the warehouses of the manufacturer.UNIT 1 8 FUNCTIONS OF COMMERCE Commerce as a human activity is essentially the moving of goods from the seller to the buyer. the consumer's requirements are almost unlimited in variety and it is the function of commerce to provide links between the stages of this process and the actual tools needed to make it work. The main functions of commerce are as following. the goods are produced in large quantities but used in small ones.
Text comprehension 1. The risk of loss or damage in a business is covered by insurance policies which render trade secure and stable. • services the banks provide their customers with. • the importance of the insurance functi 56
. • the need of storing goods in adequate places. etc. • means of communications used in the commercial activity. shipwreck. fire. Written work .Write briefly on one of the following
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • topics:
• the function of trade.Warehousing also provides a central pool for goods from where supplies may be taken at any time so that the wide fluctuation of prices caused by glut or short supplies can be avoided. • transport function and requirements for an efficient transport activity. Vocabulary Seller = vanzator Buyer =comparator Goods= marfa Production rang = gama de productie Requirement = cerinta To provide = a furniza Wholesale trade = comert en gross Retail trade = comert cu ridicata Foreign trade = comert exterior To deal with = a se ocupa de To carry out = a efectua Whare housing = activitatea de depozitare Damage = paguba Insurance policy = polita de asigurare 2. since it enables the businessman or businesswoman survive losses by damage.
etc. (cost. the freight and other shipping charges.O. (free on board) means that the seller bears all the expenses until the goods are loaded on board the ship. freight) means that all charges from the warehouse to the port of destination are borne by the exporter. FRANCO means a free of charge delivery to the customer's premises. A Customs Specification is sent to the Customs Office of the point of shipment within six days of the clearance of the ship.e. i.UNIT 19 AN EXPORT TRANSACTION When an exporter receives an order from an old customer. insurance. When the indent may require goods from several manufacturers it has to be split up accordingly and separate orders are placed with the various firms which are given instructions as to time and place of delivery. marks. while under C&F the insurance premium has to be paid by the importer.B. the carriage to the port. and numbers of the containers and the total value of the goods. 57
. the shipping company makes out the Freight Note which is sent to the exporting firm expected to pay the amount of freight to the company. Then. This is usually made out in triplicate and gives all the necessary details of the goods. The quotation F. the charge for the containers. they are packed and made ready for dispatch. If the Invoice is marked Loco it means that he importer has to pay all charges from the exporter's warehouse to his own. make-up. If the price and terms are satisfactory and the goods do exist in stock. the exporter first acknowledges it. The staff in the exporting firm now has all the data required for making out the Invoice. The goods are sent to the port of embarkation either by truck or rail way and the superintendent at the docks is informed of the dispatch of the goods by a Shipping Note. On the back of the Invoice is printed the Certificate of Origin certifying the origin of goods. the marks. the insurance premium and the cost of the Bill of Lading. The shipping agents charge a commission and relieve the exporter of a lot of complicated formalities. C.l.F. packing. This specification gives all the particulars of the goods in compliance with the Official Export List. The goods are packed in lined cases (containers) which are sent to a Shipping Firm.
I.B.Who bears the shipping and insurance expenses in an export transaction ? .Text Comprehension 1.O.What is the difference between F. and Franco delivery terms ?
.What is the function of the shipping company in an export transaction ? . Answer the following questions? .F. Vocabulary • Indent =comanda • To acknowledge = a confirma • Dispatch = expediere • To be split up = a fi impartita • Delivery = livrare • Make-up = structura • Shipping firm = firma de transport • To charge a commission = a incasa un comision • Amount =suma • In compliance with = in conformitate cu • To bear the expenses = a suporta cheltuielile • Invoice = factura comerciala 2. .What are the duties seller after he acknowledges receipt of an order? . C.
the Foreign Bill of Exchange must be protested in order to protect the creditor's rights in the Bill. The banks provide an international system of Bank Transfers in place of the cheques system and. i. thus recovering the use of his capital. the documents which form the title to the goods can be handed over either against payment (D/P) or against acceptance of the Bill (D/A). or at a given period after sight(30. The Foreign Bill of Exchange is made payable either at sight. the day when it is presented to the drawee. Credit Cards also meet the same needs. For bank notes and coins the banks issue Traveler’s Cheques which can be mainly used for traveling and personal expenses. 30 days after sight. In case of dishonour. Depending on the arrangements between the importer and exporter.UNIT 20 METHODS OF PAYMENT IN FOREIGN TRADE
For the payment of debts and settlement of accounts in the foreign trade. 60. The specimen given is the original Bill which is called First of Exchange having two more copies. The drawee accepts or pays the Bill and can either hold it until maturity or have it discounted in his bank. 59
. The oldest method of payment in foreign trade is the Foreign Bill of Exchange which differs from the Inland Bill in two important points: the payment method and the number of copies. the payment can be made by Cable Transfer. Insurance Policy and Invoice) are attached to the Bill of Exchange they create a Documentary Bill of Exchange and it is then sent to the bank for collection. The due date of the Bill is determined by the number of days after sight. 1. 90 days after sight or even later) and it is drawn in sets of two or three copies. e.e. in case of urgency. When the Shipping Documents (the Bill of Lading. both the organization and instruments are provided by the banks with their branches and correspondents all over the globe.g. 2.
The bank is generally instructed not to present the Bill before the merchandise has actually arrived. he often approaches his bank for an advance on the shipment which is generally granted on the signing of a Letter of Hypothecation. the importer consequently draws the Bill on the bank and not on his customer thus establishing an Irrevocable Documentary Credit which gives the exporter a complete protection. platitor In case of dishonour = in caz de neplaa Bill of lading= conosament . For contracts that imply a large amount of money and time a Letter of Credit (L/C) is preferred as a secure means of payment. e. Answer the following questions? . trata Merchandise = marfa Letter of credit = acreditiv To cancel= a anula Irrevocable = irevocabil 2. foaie de expeditie Bill of exchange = cambia . if a Bill is drawn 60 or 90 days after sight and the documents are to be released only against payment. On the other hand. The Irrevocable means that the Letter of Credit cannot be changed or cancelled without the agreement of all parties. 30 days after sight. Since the disadvantage of this method is that the exporter has to wait quite a lot before he receives the money. Vocabulary Payment =plata Bank note = bancnota Coin =moneda Payable at sight = platibil la vedere Drawee = tras.g. The correspondent bank will be then prepared to accept the Bill on behalf of the exporter. Text Comprehension 1. the importer can get possession of the documents by paying earlier.Which payment methods are given in the text for 60
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Explain how the letter of credit works and what are the advantages of such a payment method?
.How does the Foreign Bill of Exchange differ from the Inland Bill of Exchange ? .export /import transactions? .
Classification of nouns: On the morphemic level: a) simple or root nouns : man. snow-ball. relationships.affixation: work-er. He spoke about his invention. car. cat b) derived nouns. courage. ex.PART II ENGLISH GRAMMAR THE NOUN Definition: part of speech that denotes beings. friendship. sleep. boy. predicative. movement. house b) derived nouns: work-er. lab/laboratory. chair. phenomena. fish. ill-ness. rain. object: My father is a teacher. things. room. On the derivational level: a) simple nouns : man. darkness. -ship: friendship. the rich / rich(adj. Syntactic functions: subject. flower. -dom: freedom. dis-agree-ment c) compound nouns: hand-bag. conversion: (the) work / (to) work. beauty.ment:movement. -ness: darkness Grammatical categories: number and case. I see a man. states. qualities. departure. 62
. abstract notions. fish. friend-ship. penholder. actions. Stem building morphemes: -er: worker.) shortening and abbreviation: exam/ examination. obtained from different kinds of derivation: . table.
milk 3) collective nouns. (several fam.(family= a single unit) My family are here. concrete-abstract: table. a go. common-proper: city. c) compound nouns: composition of various stems: lamp-shade. a native’s house. the singular form connotes either a singular or a plural concept: family-families My family is here.sound interchange: to feed –food. a somebody Classification of noun according to meaning: 1. friendship 3. (all the members) Many families are here. book 2. to import-import. -tree.Bucharest. pencil –idea.) Number: Singular. phenomena): sand. Plural Plural formation: -(e)s added to Singular form Pronunciation : a) /s/ after voiceless consonants: lamps /lamps/ b) /z/ after voiced consonants: boys /boiz/ c) /iz/ after sibilants: classes /klasiz/ 63
. country. qualities. girl.Italians… b) partially substantivized Substantivization of Participle II: the accused. pen-holder Substantivization of adjectives: a) wholly substantivized: native(adj)/ a native(noun). any part of speech may become a noun: a try. Italy Classification of noun according to number 1) countable (denotes countable objects): a book-two books 2) uncountable (denoting materials. animate-inanimate: boy. Substantivization of other parts of speech: by conversion. Italian.
men child – children tooth – teeth goose – geese foot – feet mouse – mice louse – lice die .phenomena French: bureau – bureaux Italian: bambino – bambini Hebrew: seraph – seraphim Most of them have already an English plural form equivalent. 64
.boys c) -f -ves: half halves d) -f -fs: cliff-cliffs e) -th -ths: bath-baths Irregular Plural Forms: woman – women man .oxen Foreign Plural kept in English: Latin: radius –radii. stratum – strata Greek: analysis – analyses.dice ox . concertos b) shortened forms of longer words: photos/ photographs Spelling peculiarities: a) –y ies: country. cargoes Not to be applied to the foreign nouns:
a) foreign nouns completely adopted into English: cantos. phenomenon .-es ending after sibilants and –o when the letter is preceded a consonant: potatoes. heroes.countries b) -y ys : boy.
Plural of Letters. -woman. I am tired of your ifs and buts. the plural ending is added to the last element: forget-me-nots.s / M.Plural Formation of Compound Nouns: a) the main element gets the Plural form fellow-workers. passers-by. b) compounds with -man.Agreement Problems 65
. change these into Plural: Englishmen. the spelling with apostrophe and without it varies: His life was full of ups and downs. c) when man-.are the first. d) add –s with apostrophe or not : M. merry-goesrounds. womenservants c) the compound does not contain a noun. Frenchwomen. mothers-in-law. b) give with apostrophe: Write two t’s.P.P. c) their pronunciation: Write two els. Abbreviations and Words which are not Nouns a) without apostrophe: Write two ls. Singular and Plural Nouns . editors-in-chief.’s e) –s is added to the end of the word or to the last word of the group. woman. then all of them get the plural : menservants.
A pair of trousers is on the chair. no determinatives : a goose-two geese. thousand. income = venit/venituri A number of nouns with non-countable content are found in the plural form. fruit Units of measure: foot. tens of books. Uncountables are with Sg. dozen. The sheep is here/ the sheep are there.1) town names as Brussels. swine. I have goose for dinner. pound etc. two pound(s) tenHundred.. hundreds of people. verb Naples is a seaport. no article = human race: Man is mortal. 2) geographical names that usually get a plural form verb: The Hebrides are situated near the West costs of Scotland. Lyons. furniture = mobilier. steag/drapel e) have the same plural form identical with that of the sg. c) used in the Plural with a non countable content to express an intensified concept: to stroll through fields and woods d) plurals of some countables : colour = culoare. b) man used in the Sing. and it is used when the nouns are followed by numerals expressing their subdivisions: three foot/feet eleven high. million. Naples get a Sg. but five thousand books Pluralia tantum nouns: scissors. have the plural form identical with that of the Sg. Countables a) used with uncountable meaning as nouns of material. verbs : advice = sfat.: sheep. pincers. Such examples are: 66
. spectacles. trousers. Two pairs of trousers are here. tongs. deer. score get the plural form when used without any numerals. colours = culori.
daughter. crew. boy b) Feminine gender: mother. Kate’s book ‘ added to the plural forms of the nouns: the boys’ car(s) but ‘s after irregular plural nouns : children’s toys 67
.a) nouns which take the plural verb : alms. The families are here. Acoustics Collectives : a) nouns having two numbers: family. Middle Ages. ashes. billiards. exception are widow/widower. alms . Alms are distributed b) nouns that take the singular form: news. The family is here. b) nouns expressing a plural concept: 1) denoting animals: poultry. The family are here. c) nouns which take the verb both in the singular and in the plural: wages. cattle 2) denoting persons: police. bride/bridegroom 2) feminine nouns are different from masculine ones: man –woman. son – daughter 3) combination with other words: he wolf. News is very interesting. house Masculine and Feminine forms of nouns denoting living beings: 1) by adding –ess to the Masculine form: poet – poetess. girl c) Neuter gender: chair. billy-goat – nanny-goat Case Possessive case: ‘s added to the singular form of the noun the boy’s car. son. contents d) names of sciences: Mathematics. mumps. cavalry Gender: a) Masculine gender: father. measles. mortal remains. landlord – landlady.she wolf.
schools. The businessman is considering the new taxes. 7. such as: a) nouns indicating space and time. two days ’ holiday.home. city. That knife should be handed in immediately. 10.group possessive case: Tom’s and Mary’s books(each has books).business or places of business: tailor’s. Paul’s (Cathedral). My cat never catches a mouse. 2. five pounds ’ box b) names of seasons. wind. 11. moon d) proper nouns. two dollars’ book. Have you observed the classifying criterion? 3. value and weight: three miles ’ walk. hospitals. but there are some exceptions. The housewife and the middle-aged woman are the principal buyers of this product. Exercises 1. My brother r-in-law is an acountant. sun. 68
. 8. the toys of the children ‘s /’ Genitive is used with names of human beings.The inspector will speak to the witness who has seen the accident. The child in that family has bad manners. 12. She has lost the key to her office. 4. Tom and Mary’s room (they share the same room) of possessive : the book of Peter. . months. of various kinds –colleges. butcher’s . Last night a hostel was robbed by a thief. Turn the italicized nouns into the plural and make all the other necessary changes in the sentences: 1. days: a winter’s day c) nouns such as: country. The birds were eaten by a fox. The farmer has a hen. a goose. designation of tradesmen. town. the domestic circle or the house.. and a sheep. churches: St. 9. guests are received in: You can have a drink at my mother’s. 6. cinemas. 5.
Each passenger is allowed to take three . why won't you take it? 4.. 5. There are two interesting . and very (little. the table). With a . of cold veal left over from yesterday's dinner. We don't need to buy so (much. He painted only one (wall. 5.2. 2. newspaper)? 10. were) lost yesterday. of furniture for their sitting-room. 7. parents) were invited to the graduation.. of good advice. This is a . You didn't give me (much. office ).. 4. 3. of bread to make some sandwiches. Use either the analytical or the synthetical genitive with the nouns in brackets: I... are) several means of accomplishing our aim. 2. words). The news printed in that paper (is. Fill in the blanks with nouns derived from the words in brackets: 69
. were) here a few minutes ago. A (little. Choose the right word from the brackets: I. John is trying to fix the (leg. many) people on the ship (was. 9. 3. are) never objectively described . words). distance) from the moon? 4.. Have you seen (today. of soap on your way home. 7. 2. future). 6. 3. piece.. Your future depends on your (company. of news in today's paper. bit. item.. 6.. 9. Do you know the (earth. 8. many) furniture. The (students. You can have that . 1. few) knowledge (is. They have bought a new . 8. many) chairs here. many) ideas about the job. many) information do you have about our new employee? 10. (much. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar. are) a dangerous thing. 4.. few) advice. There (is. of luggage. are) his favourite game. there (is. Don't forget to buy a .. 3. 8. I'll always remember (the manager.. How (much.. She cut several . the stairs) he heard a strange noise.. Billiards (is. When he reached the (bottom. 5.. of luck we can get rid of them. natural wonders). 6. The scissors (was. 5. 7. The Grand Canyon is one of the (world. We are not deceived by (that woman. His luggage (was.. are) (much. slice. were) getting seasick from the waves.
I. a boy.. The (begin) ... an apple . The (advertise) .it pronounced differently /ti/ apple . an ice cream... The neighbour gave the police a detailed (describe) .sometimes it takes the value of the demonstrative pronoun: 70
... He is a fantastic (football) ..... 2. (visit) ... / / book . Definite Article .. 6. . 3. Cats are said to have a great deal of (curious) . was rather .a noun determined by it may get a descriptive attribute: a woman with the black hair. a red book Classification of Articles: I Definite Article II Indefinite Article Indefinite Article ... are requested to sign their names in the book.. of the novel was interesting. but the (end) . 4. He couldn't give a satisfactory (explain) . of the accident. THE ARTICLE It is a form word and has a lexico grammatical meaning that of definiteness indefiniteness It has invariable forms: a /an : a book.it is used with nouns in the Singular only .. etc. 8. but also a good tennis (play) .. between the two educational systems.it indicates that the object denoted is one of the whole class. There is a great (differ) . and Plural :the girl(s). 7. an apple and is placed in front of the noun/noun equivalents: a table.. the apple(s)... no specification of its individual features is given: Give me a pencil! (any will do) .. 5.its forms are : a/an : a book..its form is the both for the Sing. for his (behave) . an interesting book. was published in the evening paper.
mood.articles may be omitted for the sake of conciseness in newspaper headings. occupation not used as title. Smith whom I know 6)when a personal name is preceded by a noun denoting state.with the uncountable nouns it marks a limited quantity: The water in the glass is cool. one of: He is a Forsyte 3) both articles are used in front of names of persons when they are used as common nouns: He has the humor of a Dickens. dear Bob 5) names of persons used with Definite Article when theyare modified by a limiting attribute even if they are preceded by one of the above mentioned adjectives: the poor Bob of his youth. Absence of the Article . 3) names of persons in the Plural meaning the whole fam 4) names of persons used with Definite Article when preceded by an attribute expressing state. telegrams. lazy Mary. old. silly : poor John.the whole combination is preceded by Definite Article 71
. poor. the Mr. lazy. stage remarks. or a permanent characteristic: NO Article when the attribute is expressed by one of the adjectives: young. Smith. speciality. Use of Articles with different Classes of Nouns Proper Names : NO Article is used :John. meaning a certain of. dear. honest pretty. little. profession. London BUT 1) names of persons accompanied by Indefinite Article.Give me the book from the bed! (that one ) .
lakes.the girl Mary. France BUT the USA. Westminster Abbey 5) names of streets may/ may not get an article: Oxford Street. straits. they get an Indefinite Article: I went there on a Wednesday. the Congo. the West Indies. Monsieur Laporte Geographical Names NO Article with the following names: 1)names of countries: Romania. London Bridge. mostly with the preposition in. 72
. Tuesday when they get a descriptive attribute. during : winter was coming. the poet Byron. in(the) autumn WITH Definite Article 1) names of oceans. rivers. the United Kingdom of Great Britain the Netherlands. Captain Scott. the Sudan. in (the) autumn. King Richard. the Transvaal 2) names of towns: Bucharest. 7) names of seasons when the nature / season is expressed BUT with Article when a certain period of the year is marked. July Monday. June. southern Paris 4) compound nouns of places. the composer Mozart BUT most English titles and some foreign ones have NO Article Queen Ann. Chancery Lane BUT the Strand. the Mall 6) names of months and days: May. monuments. the first part being a proper name: Hyde Park. seas. the High Street. during (the) winter. London. channels. England. the Lebanon. New York BUT the Hague 3) names of towns having a geographical or historical attribute: ancient Rome. buildings.
the Straits of Dover.when the words lake. the English Channel. the Gulf of Mexico. the Isle of Wight. buildings. the Channel 9) names of cardinal points: the North.the Atlantic Ocean. the Thames. the Leman. loch.when the noun cape precedes the proper name: Cape Horn. Michel’s Mount 3) names of chains of mountains: the Alps. the Carpathians NO Article . Gotthard 4) names of groups of islands: the Hebrides. Cape Cod 8) names of places. St.when the names of the river are part of a compound noun Stratford-on-Avon 2) name contains an of phrase: the City of London. lough precede the proper names: Lake Leman. the St. The City. Helen’s Island. Bernard. the Canaries 5) names of deserts : the Sahara. the East NO Article . the Riviera. the Cape of Good Hope NO Article .with single mountain peaks: Mont Blanc BUT some exceptions: the Jungfrau.when used adverbially: to sail north 10) proper name resulted from an adverbial phrase: the Argentina ( the Republic of Argentina) 73
. the Suez Canal NO Article . the Tyrol 7) names of capes : the North Cape. monuments which do not contain proper names : the Tower. the St. the Gobi 6) names of provinces: the Ruhr. NO Article .when the Saxon Genitive is in the structure: St. Loch Ness . the Black Sea.
Time (uncountable) The Spectator. nurse. Life. hotels. the book. brother. cook may be used as proper names by family members or friends not preceded by Article and written with capital letters: Where is Father? What about Baby? Cook has gone to the market. magazines= attribute + common name the Daily Telegraph. afternoon. this book 2) countable nouns used in the Sing. baby. the Queen Mary(ship). 3) nouns denoting members of the family :father. The Star (countable) Common Nouns 1) Countable nouns in the Sing. night get the Definite Article when a particular morning/evening/night is meant and is used with the preposition in : It is seven o’clock in the evening. dark and dreary. theatres: the Savoy (hotel). evening. The day is cold. NO Article 74
. 4) nouns denoting parts of the day :morning. clubs. mother. generically (representing a whole class) both articles can be used: A lion (any lion) is a ferocious animal. aunt. my book. The lion (the whole class) is a ferocious animal.the Tate (the Tate Gallery) Other Proper Names with Article: 1) names of ships. the Globe theatre. the Iseeum (club) 2) names of newspapers. the Daily Worker BUT Punch (proper name). must be preceded by one of the Articles if there is no determinative: a book.
are used without articles when treated as abstract nouns and denote state. activities or the aim associated with them: to go school=to be a pupil to go to bed=to go to sleep BUT institute. lunch. court. sea . when used in a general sense BUT both Articles are used when the content of a meal/ definite meals are meant: The day of the dinner has come.. at night. sort of + Indefinite Article (wavers) 75
. market. It gets the two articles when it has the concrete meaning: Arad is the town where I live. to give a special dinner nouns school. jail. things get NO Article : Conditions were abnormal. by day. college. matters. bed. from morning till night names of meals get NO Article : breakfast. Definite Article + adj. The idea was a great success. He is the right man in the right place. kind of. wrong. camp. in the Institute the noun town used with preposition in the meaning town life get NO Article : I’m going up to town. prison. conditions.when they are used with the preposition at. …the rush of events. right+ countable I took the wrong bus.. events. table. nouns like: circumstances. It is a nice town. university are used with Definite Article: at the University. by at noon.
dignity used predicatively or in apposition: He is President of the Academy. little girl? NO Article + predicative noun(adjectival character) + enough :He is not fool enough to believe all these. son of late Professor Smith NO Article + nouns denoting title.) are used with Article in exclamatory sentences and without article in interrogative ones: What books are you reading ? What an interesting book! NO Article is used with nouns in direct address: What is the matter. It is more usual to use the Definite Article in front of the 76
. rank. either …or... is Rector of our University. She married Peter Smith. What kind of (a) woman is Mary? Indefinite Article may have a distributive value: Six lessons a day(per day) countable nouns ( in the Sing.11) 12) Indefinite
She was now engaged as (a) governess. She took from the box tea-pot. Mrs. X. state. NO Article with homogenous parts of the sentence expressed by countable and connected by the conjunctions and. both…and. neither. he suffered much. NO Article + predicative noun in adverbial clause
13) 14) 15)
concession when the noun is placed at the head of the clause: Child as he was.nor: Both books and copy books are on the table. 16) NO Article + nouns denoting kinship used predicatively He was (the) son of a fisherman. sugar-bowl and milk-jug.
there is hope .the use of Articles depends on the general meaning of articles and on the aspect predominant in the given context: Mine is a small family. 1) 2) shelf. to have a cold/ cough/headache/pain/ others with definite article: to have the toothache/ the measles/the mumps Collectives . The family are in the garden. The police are searching the house.when they are narrowed in their meaning. Uncountables . they get definite articles: the life that was behind him .names of illness are a special category: some of them are used with an indefinite article: to catch a cold . The family is small. . they do not get articles: Where there is life.when used in a general sense.both articles may be used with nouns of material when they denote various sorts of the substance or the objects made of the material: It is a very good wine. Special Cases of Using the Article the + most + adjective: the most beautiful most+ nouns : Most of the books are on the 77
. pencils and copy books on the table.the nouns of multitude are used with the definite article: The cattle are grazing. . The wines of this region are excellent.first noun of the sequence: I put the books.
and . Manchester by . 7.. and quite a child... to catch sight Place of Article . article in set expressions: to play the piano/
/the fool/ to pass the time... double: Half a minute ! We paid double the value. young boy on her right is . . 9... We often go to .. bread. Insert the definite article or the zero article: I. goods. just... Asia . elephants are used for carrying . to take part.. on board. Lizzie. lions are ... 12.both articles follow the words half.. how so short a time. as black a house inside as outside . 6. by train. One of Mark Twain's well-known works is "Life on . .... rather lonely. children and elderly people. night and told .. too. .. put . 2.. Uncle Rick how he had spent . wild animals.. such a thing.. He came to his room late at . on shore.Indefinite Article after the attribute expressed by an adjective preceded by one of the adverbs: as. In . door. Please.Indefinite Article after the adverbs: quite.. the new house .. refrigerator.. He ran into . 8.. by car.... 5.. Exercises I. breakfast rather early. train.. pronouns: both. to get the upper hand BUT some set expressions are without article: by land... 13. 10.. English... milk is good for ... evening at . rather... cinema.. in view of to take place. .... We have . 78
.. 4. moon? 11. . restaurant near me is very good.3) books yet. . Mississippi". the second article + pronouns: I’ll take the other book. butter... How many rockets have been sent to . house and locked . 4) 5) 6) 7) violin
article + numeral: She has not read the ten article + ordinal number: the third... 3. food in . eggs in ..its usual place is in front of the noun: a long way... article + adjective: the last... . so. the next.
.baby-sitter . After several attempts.. When I arrived in . smoke. bad weather we are having today! 14....... 11.. 13. Insert the indefinite article or the zero article: 1... All the people in ...... courage that surprised me.. law.... dozen....He made .. . . 6. .. II. ... He is studying . theatre is near . very good advice.. Meeting your family has been . I was told to stay at . River Avon.. .. courage. water... genius is 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration.. matching gloves. We all admire .. genius of Edison is universally recognized. She wants to become ... 4.. Where there's . beautiful river in which you can bathe and sail . In some houses . Browns three weeks ago. hotel called ".. 4... great embarrassment of the event. The bank manager gave his client . loyalty are . 14. III. Exeter is . boats.... 6.. difficult question. 3.. Stratford... favour? 3.. 9. biggest meal of ... 15. Shakespeare. Sunday. 10... village go to .. ... 12..... 8. authority on urban development.. day.. water used in this beer comes from a special spring. He showed ..... he lost ... little town in .. silver is used for money and jewelry. pair of . England called . Fill in the blanks with the required articles: Last year I stayed in ... The architect is consulting with . .. . IV.. Stratford-on-Avon. 5. dinner is . ... church on ..... 2. ... there's . Would you do me . . . city in England.. What .... We all like to eat . auditor. good food.. important invention... She bought . In order to survive.. sincerity with which the witness spoke. rare virtues these days. plays of .. black dress and .. silver in this ring is of inferior quality.. He speaks with . bread has been called the staff of life. 15.. Everyone was impressed by ..... . 2... 7. generosity and . sincerity... Eggs are 50 p.. mistake in his translation... 5. theatre to see some of . fire. . bread you baked is delicious. They asked him . great pleasure.. we must have . Supply the required articles: I.....milk which I bought yesterday should still be good.... fresh milk tastes good. 7... I wanted to go to . 8.. left . The electric light was ..
. 10I can give you . hotel and read . For breakfast I had only . . terrible headache.. I asked many people where it was. indicating its qualities: big. inventive.. That little town lies in . indefinite.. young.has stem building morphemes: -ful. lovely valley. unimportant.. before singular countable nouns. bottom of .. Fill in the blanks with the indefinite article a/an. Plaza cinema... un-. snow on the high mountain. old . corner of .is associated with the following parts of speech: a) noun/noun equivalent: a beautiful girl.. The only inflections are for the synthetic comparison short –shorter – the shortest . prewar..has no inflections for case.. Could you give me .. saw .. It was called "... 2. cup of coffee. hammer and .. before uncountable nouns or plural nouns: 1.. an heir apparent 80
. -ive.modifies a noun/ noun equivalent. THE ADJECTIVE It . but I can't do the work for you. foolish. 5. I have . pre-... gender.... policeman at .. name above . I saw .Duck".. There was . 7. bread and . They have bought . street near .. -ish.. main street.--ous. but no one knew it. but I couldn't find it.. or the indefinite pronoun some.. nails to fix the picture on the wall. 3. courageous.... careful. furniture for their new penthouse. advice... information about this university ? 6. 9. in-. door.. house in my street.. historic. street. -ic.. Dirty Duck". I walked to .. bottom of . 4... interesting.... people are fonof telling stories. He laughed and told me that he knew it all right. great. number. -less.. endless... It was just at .... . 8. They are building ... He needs . Black Swan"! V. I spoke to him and asked him if he knew ".
-est strong. Adjectives on the morphemic level 1) simple adjectives :short. earthen 2) place/country: English.b) link verbs : to be clever. clever. great disyllabic adjectives ending in :-y. cleverer. big. Adjectives on the derivational level 1) simple adjectives: black. large. the most important
Synthetical Comparison monosyllabic adjectives: big. wooden.-le happy. Romanian. the happiest clever. the strongest 2) analytically . very interesting . young 2) derived adjectives: unhappy. beautiful 3) compound adjectives: duty-bound B) According to their meaning : I. beautiful II. Qualitative or descriptive (indicate various qualities): small. dark. big.they are formed in two ways: 1) synthetically – by adding the suffixes: -er . dangerous 3) compound adjectives: snow-white II. strong. the most important. short. Italian 3) time :monthly. to grow older c) adverbs: extremely difficult. old. 2) derived adjectives: beautiful.-ow. Relative or limiting (express qualities through their relation to some other objects): 1) material: woolen. -er.is an attribute or a predicative: a silent man. The man was silent. more important. interesting. the cleverest 81
. warm. stronger. weekly Degrees of Comparison . great. Classification of adjectives A) According to their morphological structure: I.by using the words more. happier.
narrow, narrower, the narrowest simple, simpler, the simplest BUT proper, more proper, the most proper eager, more eager, the most eager c) disyllabic adjectives with stress on the last syllable complete, completer, the completest polite, politer, the politest BUT - foreign adjectives: antique, bizarre, burlesque - disyllabic adj. ending in two consonants: abrupt, content, correct, exact - adj.with the prefix aafraid,alive,alone d) trisyllabic adjectives built with a negative prefix: unhappy, ignoble, impolite, insecure Analytical Comparison all the adjectives which are not included in these groups Spelling Peculiarities - they are required by the addition of the comparison degree suffixes ; • adj. ended in –e get only –r, -st fine, finer , finest • single consonants are doubled after short stressed vowels hot, hotter, the hottest BUT it does not happen when the doubling does not take place after an unstressed vowel: tender, tenderer, the tenderest • final –y is changed into –i when preceded by a consonant: happy, happier, the happiest Irregular Degrees of Comparison • some adj. have different forms for comparative and superlative 82
good, better, the best bad/ill, worse, the worst many/much, more, the most little, less, the least • some have double forms for comparative/superlative far, farther, the farthest (it makes ref.to space) further, the furthest (it makes ref.to time) near, nearer, the nearest the next( the following) late, later, the latest( the most recent) latter, the last (nothing comes after it) old, older, the oldest elder, the eldest Use of the Comparative Degree Comparative of Superiority - it is expressed by the comparative degree followed by the conjunction than She was more frightened than hurt. BUT adjectives of Latin origin: superior, inferior, junior, senior etc. have no other forms for comparative He was three years junior than me. Comparative of Equality: -it is expressed by means of the positive degree placed between the conjunctions as …as He is as tall as Peter. Peter is not so tall as Jim. Comparative of Inferiority: - it is formed by associating the positive degree of the adjective with less; John is less handsome than his friend. • degree Emphasizing the Comparative by repeating the adjective in the comparative The days are longer and longer. 83
by using such words as :much better, far more intelligent, still worse, a great deal earlier She is much better today than she was yesterday. Superlative Degree - it can be used both attributively and predicatively - it is followed by a prepositional phrase or clause She was the tallest of the four. I remember the smallest details of her dress. Emphasizing the Superlative by means of the words very, by far, These are my very earliest impressions. by means of the words possible, imaginable Those are the best methods possible.
Position and Order of Attributive Adjectives • it precedes the noun/noun equivalent a good book • adj. denoting age, color, material, nationality come next to the noun modified He preferred the quiet little Belgian city to either of its more noisy capitals. • if a noun is modified by adjs. among which there are those denoting age, color, material, nationality, size, form, their order is the following: (1)determinative (2)various (3)age (4)size (5)form (6) color (7)nationality (8)material (9)noun a high-backed old green leather chair a beautiful large white Turkish merino shawl Exercises I. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective: I. He is (hardworking) student in the class. 2. She is looking for a 84
old man.. 7. our experiment. The weather in California is (hot) than the weather in Montana.. he is (modest) than most people. What is (late) news of him? 6. tourist stopped by the well to drink some water. you.... III. your schoolmates? 10.. 10. What are you afraid ..? 12..13. 6.. his parents. 5. 3. I. She earns much (little) money than her colleague does. imaginable.. 5. The (far) house from the village is Tom’s. 12. your success. 5. This is . Supply the right preposition after each adjective: 1. his employees. getting here in time. He is much (familiar) with modern architecture than with modern music. a lot. more interesting than watching TV.. the most serious problem facing families this winter. 4.. He was able to get (far) information at the police station.. 2. He always tries to be polite . "The Tempest" is Shakespeare's (late) play. Why do you feel inferior . 3. 15. 11. 9. We have all the equipment required .. travelling. 85
. Alice is very fond . for the comparative. In the end he will pay a . 8. higher price for it. You have found the best . the most talented student in his group. Although he is a famous man.. We had the greatest difficulty .. a good deal.. possible.. I'm proud .. Fill in the blanks with the intensifies: much.... She has never been successful .. 4..(big) car than the one she has now. Jamie is (good) cook I know. 7. more experienced than the new one. and by far. (alone/lonely/solitary) Mr Wilder is a . (afraid/frightened) The little girl gave the stranger a . He had a word with a (little) personage in the police force.. I.. 14. 8.. He told me he was very angry . The new teacher is rather impatient . Practicing sports is . If you want to get to the market.. 2. what you say to the new head of department. Choose the adjective which best completes each sentence: 1. He took a job because he no longer wanted to be dependent . better than hers. her husband. r II.. 4... She is . children. in the house... a great deal.. 3.. far. 9..... 6. 8. The . I think your interviews are . IV. but yours is (bad).. 7... look. 2. Our old secretary is .... My work is bad. anything she has done.. Her (old) brother is five years (old) than my husband. take (near) turning to the left. solution to my troubles. Richard is .. Be very careful .. She is quite different .
a day with much wind.. 13..a handmade carpet a play having success . No . 15. college. nice.. a story which breaks the heart. taking it into account. That (dark.. 4. 12. A (black.4. tall) girl is a friend of my brother's. THE NUMERAL The numeral is a part of speech that is characterized by the following features: • a lexico grammatical meaning. white) piano.. 4. a blouse with long sleeves. expensive. (asleep/sleeping) The sight of the . a tree which is a hundred years old. 14. a driver who is not taking care.The were .. He was . 5. I've bought a new set of (aluminum. fifty. 5. Change the following into compound and derived adjectives: Example: a girl with green eyes a green-eyed girl a carpet made by hand . 3. old) car. 7. 9. Chinese. seventeen.. a man who has courage. small) bag on my birthday. it indicates number.. -th. 3. 3.. When will you sell your (blue. of what you might say. quantity or order • structure. -ty. a woman with a kind heart. insects. according to this. 6. a moon red like blood. Frogs feed chiefly on .. the 86
.7 I was given a (black. leather. 8. terms which can be accepted. You will practice on an (Steinway. 10.. children moved him deeply. kitchen. multi-purpose) utensils. little) puppy was lying on my door-step. 11. thirteen. delicate) figurines. VI. Arrange the adjectives in brackets in the proper order: I. creature can do that.a successful play a student who works hard. one may distinguish some specific suffixes used for numeral forming : -teen. (alive/living/live) Several witnesses to the accident are still . a man with a red face. a man who looks good. a man with a simple mind. 2. She greatly admired those (ivory. a gown which is cut well.. a person who is giving help. 2. when his parents returned from the meeting V. 6. forty.
5 five. They attend the annual meeting. fractions and decimal fractions.11 eleven. twenty –ninety) • compound numerals (from twenty-one – ninety-nine ) • composite numerals ( one hundred twenty one) Taking into account their meaning and function.7 seven.•
tenth.e. WHOLE NUMBERS This group includes the numbers from 1 to 12 which get no suffixes: 1 one. 2 two. i. 3 three. 12 twelve The –teen numerals get the suffix to part of the above mentioned 87
. the eleventh • grammatical invariability.8 eight. • in most cases. 4 four. The numerals may be classified according to their morphological structure into: simple numerals from one – twelve • derived numerals – are formed by means of suffixes. 10 ten. the teen. 6 six. Hundreds of books are in the library their place is between adjective and the noun: The five fine days have gone These four dolls are very expensive. the numerals may be classified into: • cardinal numerals (indicate numerical quantity) ordinal numerals (indicate numerical order) The cardinal numbers contain whole numbers. no modification. 9 nine. it is an attribute The four days were exhausting. ty numerals (from thirteen –nineteen. some of them are turned into nouns and get -(e)s ending.
122 The numbers ten. million get no –s when they are part of a composite number: two thousand four hundred twenty four people but the –s suffix is added when these are transformed into nouns: Tens and tens of persons attended the conference. it corresponds to the Romanian variant 123. nil in sports language Nought by ten is nought. from twenty to ninety.roots but bring about some phonetic and spelling peculiarities: thirteen. fifteen. Cardinal numbers form the common fractions having two numbers: cardinal numbers for numerator and ordinal ones for denominator: one third= 1/3.122. 70 seventy. 60 sixty. hundred. 40 forty. 88
.452. eighteen besides these. part of them are presented here: nought /no:t/ in Arithmetic zero measuring instruments use it /ou/ telephone numbers love. 90 ninety The 0 sign is read indifferent ways. The numbers between 1000 and 2000 may be read in two different ways: 1984 nineteen eighty four one thousand nine hundred eighty four Commas are placed after each group of three numbers: 123. 80 eighty. My phone number is two five /ou/ five ten six. 50 fifty. all of the teen numerals have double stresses: one is placed on the first syllable (a main stress) and the other on the /t/ of the suffix (a secondary stress).452. duck. have less modifications from the phonetic and spelling point of view: 20 twenty. The temperature is below zero degrees. 30 thirty. Millions of flowers are in the fields. The tens.
twice. The decimal fractions contain a point after the whole number: 3. the eighth. If the whole unit is less than one. four cars. persons have in a row. the third have special roots. a point is followed and then the rest of the numbers: 0. three times. modifications of spelling appear.68 (corresponding to the Romanian 3. nought is playing the part of the whole. one may use the so called multiplicative numerals formed of cardinal numbers and the word fold: double. the thirty fourth. four fold. so they are placed in front of the nouns they determine: ten students. If one wants to know how many times an action is performed. three fold. a quarter.245. the eleventh. five toys 89
. four times The numerals function as attributes. the fifty ninth Showing the proportion in which a quantity increases. ORDINAL NUMBERS The ordinal numbers indicate the order of objects. frequentative numerals are to be used: once.68). the fifth. the second. the –th suffix is added only to the last element of the group: the twenty first. the sixth. the seventh. the tenth. -y is changed into ie because of the consonant preceding it: the twentieth. the thirtieth When the numeral is composite.. the twelfth If the tens are to be used. the ninth. while the other ones use the existing cardinal numbers: the fourth. It is formed by means of the suffix –th placed after the cardinal: the first.five sixth= 5/6 For ½ and ¼ besides one half and one fourth. we may say a half.
56. 10 th 1990 Modern writing uses cardinal numerals both for days and months. August 10th . 18. al saptelea cer) teen agers (Rom. 23. 35. 103. a fi imbracat la patru ace) the seventh heaven( Rom.264 2. Read the telephone numbers: 25-23-89. 2.576. August 10. the numerals may be: • subjects of sentences: The five told me the story. 53. 1978.0257-31-458 90
. 389. adolescenti) Exercises: 1. 0212-23-67-90-89. • adverbial modifier They came by twos at the party When reading the dates. 89.There are situations when the numerals are placed after the nouns they determine: room 200. chapter 5. Besides this function. American English places the months first and then the days: August. though the reading of the days is done as if they were ordinal numerals. one may choose between the following variants: the 10th of August 1978. 17. 1. 15. 1978 Ordinal numbers are used for reading the days and cardinal ones for years.356. 90. 12 100. 13. 10 August 1978. 0257-23-67-89. Numerals may appear in patterns such as: last but not least( Rom. 1. Read the numbers: 3.penultimul) to be dressed up to the nines (Rom. 79. 60. 23.000. 54. 10. • predicative They were ten in the group.000. • objects You can’t forget the first of October.
Read the money: &2.40.789. lesson 23. Indicative is used. or in the past. $56.05 5. Past Tense has in opposition to it Past Perfect Tense (indicating a prior action) and Future in the PAST. waits a little then leaves. Do the sums: 17+6= 100:2= 105x 3= 3. on one side. there are: Present Perfect (a prior action). and past tense. An action can be rendered in the present. level 45. lesson 10. page 40. opposite to it. part 2. chapter 34. He rings the bell. chapter 1 – the first chapter chapter 3. I spoke I had spoken(Past Perfect Tense) 91
. waited a little then left. Roni 3297. EU 25. $15. $45. room 23. lesson 25.80. room 1012 THE VERB Indicative Mood English conjugation is built on two tenses: present tense.3. on the other side. Change the numerals according to the example: ex. & 7. so Present Tense. page 321. He rang the bell. $ 5. Let’s take Present Tense as reference. 10 p.963:3= 28-8= 15x6= 784-23= 20x10= 9x7= 570+24= 3x13= 570:2= 4. Future Perfect in the Past which stand for future actions. Future and Future Perfect (express future actions) I write I have written (Present Perfect) (Present Tense) I will write (Future Tense) I will have written (Future Perfect Tense) Their auxiliary verb is in the present. and Past Tense Indicative is built.
It is known that this form is used for building the simple forms. to be + present/ past participle). would. the auxiliary used for their building is in the past. to have to + past participle. Here is the scheme of a simple conjugation.(Past Tense) I would speak (Future in the Past) I would have spoken (Future Perfect in the Past) Being reported to the past. the compound ones are build by means of the auxiliary verbs (will.present infinitive -as background of the conjugation. they use a form . of a regular verb: Active Voice to work Infinitive Present to work Perfect to have worked Participle Present working Past worked Perfect having worked Indicative Mood Present Tense Past Tense Present Perfect I work I worked I have worked he works he worked he has worked Past Perfect I had worked he had worked Future Tense Future Perfect I will work I will have worked he will work he will have worked
Future in the Past Future Perfect in the Past I would work I would have worked he would work he would have worked Present Tense Subjunctive Mood Perfect Tense 92
. The great majority of the English verbs are regular ones.
you speak. sure. An import tense of it is PRESENT TENSE which indicates that the action of the verb is done in a present moment. they speak The 3rd person singular creates some problems of writing and spelling that are to be taken into account: • -s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless consonants /z/ after voiced consonants to look .) I speak. you speak. Present tense is unmarked morphologically. They have their coffee in the dining room every morning.) we speak. (these two verbs indicate a temporary state) The table below indicates the values of the today’s currency The economists speak about increasing values of Euro. (sg. condition or existence expressed by the verb as being real. except for the 3rd person singular which get the suffix (e)s.he looks /s/ 93
. • She wants to buy a book I think you might be right. (the two verbs indicate a state that may persist for a longer time) • to describe present habitual behavior She gets up at 7 o’clock in the morning. he/she/it speaks (pl.I worked he worked Present Tense I would work he would work
I had worked he had worked Conditional Mood Perfect Tense I would have worked he would have worked Imperative Mood
work INDICATIVE Mood presents an action.
-ch get the –es which is pronounced –iz to dress – she dresses to mix he mixes to blitz – he blitzes to fizz he fizzes to push she pushes to reach he reaches • verbs ended in –y keep it if a vowel is preceding it.he tries
• verbs ended in o preceded by a consonant get an – es to do – he does to go – she goes and add only –s when preceded by a vowel to haloo – he haloos to radio – he radios In interrogative and negative. -z./j/.he taxis /z/ • verbs ended in silent –e preceded by the letters c./s/. that is TO DO which is conjugated in the present and the proper verb is in the short infinitive: I go. z.to take ./z/ to face –she faces to rouge – he rouges to pledge – he pledges to purse –he purses to freeze she freezes • verbs ended in –s. but changes it into –ie if a consonant is there to pay – he pays to play – she plays to cry – she cries to try ./dg/.she takes /s/ to read . most of the verbs need an auxiliary verb.
. pronounced /s/. s.she reads /z/ to taxi . -sh. (d)g. Do I go? I do not go. -x.
an action or state that takes place in the moment of speech. Can I speak German? I can’t speak German. When rendering a present time. Must she learn well? No. Have they a new house? They have not a new house. She cannot speak German. the Present tense expresses: a general or universal truth: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. They like going to the theatre. it exists but is not going on then: She says lots of things. usually…) She always crosses the street there. Does she speak? She does not speak. an action or state that characterizes the subject: He is a good speaker of English. Exception to this rule is for the modal verbs. They study a lot. We are not in the garden. Two and two makes four. 95
. Is she tired? Mary has left hands so she does not work very quickly. to HAVE: I can speak German. to BE. adverbs are placed by them (always. often. When is the Present tense used? Present Indicative is used for expressing both present time and past or future time depending on context. She must learn well. We are in the garden Are we in the garden. A friend in need is a friend indeed.•
She speaks. she must not learn well. Do we work? We don’t work. We usually work in the morning She often sleeps in that hotel. an action or a state that represents a habit or is repeated. They have a new house.. everyday. ever. We work.
the verb has a momentaneous character and does not express an action that is going on: She says the pupil is diligent boy. to understand. in the moment of speech but has no continuous form: I see what you mean. • it is used in subordinate clauses. to be hold are used in the present tense instead of present perfect: I forget what day it was. is used in stage directions: There is a table there and Bob goes towards it. when the main clauses indicate future actions .•
an action or a state. is called Historic Present: Meg is in the sitting room. Ben comes in. the two being simultaneous: I will go to the seaside when she is there too We will buy the house when we get enough money.(Mi s-a spus ca e foarte ocupat)
When rendering a future action: it expresses a future expected or planned action: School begins in September. Peter tells us his story.) I am told he is very busy. The exam is on 21 May. introduces a quotation in a direct/ indirect way. to hear (find out). some verbs such as : to forget. We are happy that she is here with us. She remembers the story I told her long ago. sits down. • 96
. When rendering a past action: it gives more vividness to the text. takes the newspaper and reads it.(Am uitat ce zi era. and I come in and talk to her for a while but she seems not to listen to me and I am worried.
) we worked. he worked (pl. to cut. she. put. you worked. cut. you worked. to pardon –pardoned Exception is to worship – worshipped Compound verbs. double the consonant before ed suffix: to rub. to drink.rubbed. you were. to read. spoke. the final consonant is not doubled: to seat – seated. applied to the final word: to sideslip – sideslipped to kidnap. it was The irregular verbs have very different forms for their Past tense: to write.) I worked. exception is the verb TO BE and the irregular verbs. brought Speaking about orthography. ended in –p obey the above mentioned rule. to bring. to order – ordered. to eat. to work (sg. he. read. eaten. one has to take into account some rules such as: • verbs ended in a consonant preceded by a single stressed vowel. they worked The verb TO BE has two different forms for the singular persons: to be I was. to knit-knitted to prefer –preferred to regret . drank to put.PAST TENSE Past tense. wrote. The suffix -ed is added to the short infinitive of the verb which is conjugated.kidnapped
final l is always doubled. to hang-hanged. to speak. no matter where the accent is placed to equal – equaled 97
. Indicative mood has one single form for all the persons.regretted In all the other cases.
two days/a week/ a month/ a year ago. just now. As a boy. Because of its meaning. at that time. done in a determined past moment or in a determined past period of time. We saw him ten minutes ago. the action or state the tense makes reference to. when or any adverb that indicates the time in the past: as soon as. it suffers no change: to play – played to disobey – disobeyed • silent –e is dropped in front of –ed to dance – danced to dye –dyed Past Tense Indicative expresses a past action or a state completely finished. is completely separated from the present through an interval of time.tried when a vowel is before it. when we arrived. Hardly did we arrive at home. when she rang at the door. this tense is used for narration. the other day. in a final position is turned into –i if preceded by a consonant: to cry – cried to try . I was there yesterday. They asked for my help the day before. then. The time used for expressing the action may be rendered in the following ways: • adverb of time or adjective like :yesterday.to rival – rivaled to compel – compelled Exception to the rule is: unparalleled • ic is changed into -ick to mimic – mimicked to traffic –trafficked • -y. last week/ month/year. • verb in the past: She was playing in the garden. 98
. In all the cases. the day before. I used to play football.
The first two tenses are used for expressing past events when the action expressed by the verb has a momentaneous character: We went to the theatre last week They called Peter and told him the truth. Taking into account the rules of sequence of tenses. The 3rd is used with verbs whose actions are lasting or repeated: She sat there waiting for her mother. perfectul compus si imperfectul. Where did they go? Past tense Indicative may be used for replacing: • Past Perfect Tense They thought that they discovered(= had discovered) a new fairy land.(Ne-a intrebat cum suntem). • according to the same sequence of tenses.•
the context when it expresses the speaker’s intention Did they work in the garden? Was she on duty yesterday? A new film was presented on the screen.) He asked me how we were. when the verb in the main clause is in the past: He said that the book was on the table. They used the books they found in the library.(A spus ca cartea este pe masa. Ben asked Bob to take care of his house until he was away(Ben i-a cerut lui Bob sa aiba grija de casa lui in timp ce era plecat. it stands for a present tense.(Credeau ca descoperisera o noua tara de basm) • according to the sequence of tenses rules.) Past tense Indicative is translated into Romanian by means of: perfectul simplu. Past tense Indicative may be translated by means of: 99
. it is used for expressing a future action as opposed to the past action of the main clause: I was told to wait until Mary came there( Mi s-a spus sa astempt pana va veni Maria).
• mai mult ca perfectul for rendering actions that took
place before a past action
• prezentul when the idea of present is rendered • viitorul when we speak about a future action as
opposed to a past one I said that I would go in the mountains the coming week (First I told about the coming events. later.)
. they will occur after the moment of speech.
It is used in three main situations indicating: an action finished before a present one: In the mornings.PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Present Perfect Tense is a compound tense formed of two elements – Present tense of the auxiliary verb TO HAVE and Past Participle of the verb which is conjugated. she has written. they have understood Being a compound tense. after he has finished reading the newspapers. its interrogative form is obtained by the inversion of subject and auxiliary and the negative one. he drinks cup of tea. it has cried we have walked. she has not been. the result of an action done in the past. it may go on during present unit of time and continue in the future 101
. by placing the negative form NOT between the two verb components: Have I told? Has she been? Have they worked? Have you heard? I have not told. you have cut. you have not heard Present Perfect Tense expresses a past action or state that takes place before the present unit of time but very close to it and sometimes it is translated with prezentul. no one is interested in the moment of its doing. you have spoken. I have told. begun in the past that still goes on up/ during the present moment. they have not worked. When he has watered the flowers. he likes watching them. that has effects in the present Who has broken the flower vase? What have you brought here? Why have you opened the window? I have seen a beautiful landscape? an action or state. he has worked.
from childhood I have learned English since I was ten. or from that day. this last year. the beginning of the unit of time the action of the verb takes place in. is preceded by for and followed by an adverb: They have lived here for ten years. since Monday. never stress the idea: Have you ever been to the zoo? I have never traveled abroad. of late. we have never heard about him. is expressed by a Past tense: Ben has been my friend ever since I was born. recently. these . lately. length of the action. the length of the action expressed by the verb is indicated by adverbs whose meaning is connected to the present: just. We have lived in this house since October 1997. How long have you been with us? They have graduated for two years. They have spent their vacation during these last two years in the mountains. the unit of time the action takes place in is indicated by another verb at Present Perfect tense and indicates a parallel action: He has not stopped writing since he has sat down on 102
.. the beginning of an action mentioned by the verb is expressed by adverb beginning with since: since 19. expressed by a verb.-
no indication is given about the unit time length but it is supposed that it is up to the present moment: The pop concert has begun. The adverbs ever. minutes/hours/days/ We have just arrived. She has visited all the museums of the town. From that day.. since 20th June. during the … days/weeks/ months/ years. Bob came here as a child and has been with us ever since. I haven’t seen you for ages..
it is last winter) Peter has written a novel this year. I have been eating your cakes waiting for you. ( not all the cakes are eaten. Peter has been teaching for two years. A comparison of the already described tenses is necessary to see the difference between them: Peter has written a novel. It also expresses a continuation of the action in the present moment maybe in the future. (nobody is interested when this action happened.that chair. There is another form of the Present Perfect Tense. (the action is begun. Present Perfect Continuous which can be used with durative verbs and stresses the idea of continuity or duration of an action finished in the present or near past. I have been stopping each passer by to tell the great news. not ended yet. ( nothing is left) Present Perfect Continuous may indicate repeated actions: They have been meeting each Saturday for years. She has never disappointed me since I have met her. ( he is still doing it in this very moment) They have been waiting for the exam results. (the action is begun and ended this year). Peter has been writing a novel this year. as opposed to the Present Perfect Tense that indicates an ended action in the present. there still left) I have eaten your cakes waiting for you. (the unit of time is mentioned. it still goes on) PAST PERFECT TENSE 103
. important is the result) Peter wrote a novel last winter.
you had not worked. they walked on . its interrogative form is built by placing the subject between the two verbs: Had I written? Had you worked? Had he eaten? Had she cut? Had it cried? Had we translated? Had you put? Had they understood? and the negative form consists of introducing the negative word NO between the two verb components: I had not written. they had not understood The English Past Perfect tense has an equivalent in Romanian. formed of two elements: Past tense of the auxiliary verb TO HAVE and Past Participle form of the verb which is conjugated. you had put. they had understood Being a compound tense. he had eaten. 104
. perfectul simplu. in mai mult ca perfectul and expresses a past action or state ended before another past action. I had written. rendered by Past tense Indicative. she had cut. and it is translated by imperfect: He said that he had worked there for two weeks. it had not cried we had not translated. When they had said good bye.Past Perfect tense is a compound tense of the past. he had not eaten. you had not put. it had cried we had translated. perfectul compus: I knew Peter but I had not met him since my graduation. Past Perfect tense is used in the following cases: (A) it indicates that an action begun before a certain past moment. lasts a time period up to that moment. she had not cut. it may be translated into Romanian by mai mult ca perfectul. you had worked.
(C) it is used with the adverbs just. In Indirect Speech. Past Perfect tense may be replaced by Past tense in subordinate clauses introduced by before or in subordinate clauses which show anteriority : I carried the box with the shoes she had bought/ bought me. Past Perfect tense replaces Present Perfect tense and Past tense of the Direct Speech when the main clause verb is in the past: Direct Speech He said: ”I have written the homework”. you will come. He said that she had told him the truth. She tells me she will come in time. FUTURE TENSE Future tense presents an action or a state that will take place after the moment of speech: I know he will help you.(B) it replaces Perfect Future tense in a subordinate
clause and is translated by viitorul anterior: The teacher promised he would bring the papers when he had corrected them. Nick told me that he had not cut the flowers yet. you will eat. yet I had just written the letter when she entered the room. The bus left/ had left before we arrived in the station. they will understand Being a compound tense. It is formed of the auxiliary verb will and the short Infinitive of the verb which is conjugated. “She told me the truth” Indirect Speech: He said that he had written the homework. I will go. he will work. it will play we will cut. the interrogative form is 105
. she will translate.
You're not a certified accountant . They will come here next week.It seems to me he isn't very rich. My boss plays tennis very well. She never drinks wine .I'm sure you know who sings that song. You realize how much it costs. that will be Peter! Exercises with the English Verb I Supply the suitable question tags for the following sentences: 1. by introducing the negative word NO between the two verbs: I will not go. He knows where she lives. they will not understand It is used for expressing: (D) a future action or state towards a present moment: I will work on Saturday. she will not translate. I think I'm the right person for this job. you will not eat. __ ? 4.built by placing the subject between the two verb components: Will I go? Will you come? Will she translate? Will he work? Will it play? Will we cut? Will you eat? Will they understand? and the negative one. You look horrible in these shorts. __ ? 106
. __ ? 3. __ ? 10. ____ ? 2.____? 6. you will not come. he will not work. 12. __ ? 5. He doesn't hire foreigners. __ ? 7. please stop! If any of you has eaten the cakes. __ ? 11. They usually have lunch at one o'clock. (E) probability of an action or state in the present or in the past: That will be Saint Paul’s cathedral. __ ? 9. This book belongs to you. it will not play we will not cut. 8.
He teaches English and German 2..13... __ 16.. 4...? 2.Write questions to the following statements: 1 . His mother still washes his shirts.? 4.We still have a lot of time.Inflation appears to be rising again.. How often...They say she wears a wig.? 9.? 3.. We want to settle down in Canada. 107 where possible and
. She agrees with you. __ 14. Use the Present Continuous translatre : 1.. __ ? 15....They hardly ever talk to strangers..m. He earns his living by playing the violin in the town square..You must think I'm a fool.. How. .. The porters carry heavy bags. The Browns usually have breakfast at 7 a.. .. Where. We normally spend our weekends in the mountains Where. The gardener mows the grass. __ ? 19. Who ...? III. The police never catch any thieves. Do you watch satellite television? 3... __ ? Il. He sells second-hand computers and hi-fi equipment. . They live together because she loves him.She thinks we are very rude.? 5. Why. What.? 8. __ ? 17. What.? 6. 5. __ 18.... __ ? 20.. . She visits her sister’s family at least twice a week....? 7.He has to work rather hard.. What time . This bottle contains some kind of beverage.. .
16... What.. That music sounds good to me. Why. I wonder what's wrong.? 3. 11.
IV. a... I think you remember them very . Where... The boys are bringing some wine and cookies.. 18.? THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE V . 13..? b.?b...6..? 5. Do you believe in reincarnation? 8.? b... I'm meeting the new sales manager at the 10 o’clock meeting... 17... 19. I suppose she wants a new opportunity . 20.? 4. '
well.. What.. How... I'm afraid the child lies. Why do we always hurry to work? 9.. When.. We have lunch at two o'clock. The boys are very quiet.. My husband prefers to live in the country.? 2..Make dialogues as in the following example : Can you play tennis ?
.... Which. It smells. Do you recognize that man? 7... Why do you drive so fast? 14. 12.? b. Mary is coming to see us on Sunday. " a. a. I hate this meat . The players are moving slowly today because of the heat a. He dances very well.. Our aunt bakes delicious cookies... 10. Who... 15. Write questions to the following statements: 1. I think the Vienna orchestra is playing Mozart now. a. They only shoot birds..?b.... Who. What time..
The doctor (phone) yet? 10. you / kill a turkey / last Thanksgiving . We (miss) the last tram. you /ride a bike/ 10 years old 3. How much money you (spend) so far? 9. they / speak English / they left America 8. he / design a country cottage / his first skyscraper was built 16. Denise / ski / moved to Florida 11. You ever (eat) a sushi ? 2. Where you (be)? 3. you / dive / many years VI. you / ride a horse / years 9. major Smith / fly a helicopter / he came back from Iraq 2. your American friend / shoot an elephant / he returned from Africa 15. she / bake a sponge cake / twenty years 18. His father just (beat) him again. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Tense 1. Jack / wash the dishes / he got married 19. Pete / paint a portrait / his college days 12. 1. I /drive a big lorry / I left the army 17. The concert just (begin). 109
. I suppose I can. It (not rain) here since last August . I never (speak) to him since we were in highschool. You ever (ride) a pony ? 5. his grandfather / speak Arabic / the last war 13. 11. John / take a good picture / he bought a Polaroid camera 5. your cousin / sleep in the tent / he graduated from the university 10. his wife / prepared good traditional dishes / as long as I can remember 14. How long you (know) your employer ? 6.Yes. your daughter / play the piano / five years 4. 7. The little boy is weeping. but I haven't played it for years. 7. What shall we do ? 8. you /row a boat / ages 20. 4. your husband / mend a fuse / you moved to this house 6.
15. till midnight. They only play classical music 6.12. 16. Now that you (leave) school you should find a good job. 17. We never go to school on Sundays. 3. She never (work ) an hour in her life. 4. 2. 14. She works from 5 p. People always (admire) her talent. 12. They live next door to my parents. I think she's wrong. The shirt (cost) $35. .. I (see) the same shirt everywhere. VIII. 19. The children kept asking me silly questions. He knows I work for your company. 3.. I (pass) several shops on my way home? 7. 5. I (buy) it yesterday. He never eats in the morning. m. 1 1 . She (wrap) it for me and (put) it in a bag 6. 2. Put the verb in brackets into the Simple Past Tense 1. You (read) any poetry recently? THE PAST TENSE VII Turn the following sentences into the Past Tense Simple 1.. Do they live in Romania ? 8. They (be) $25. I feel embarrassed. I (study) your plan carefully and I think it's rather unrealistic. 7. . My dog never (bite) anyone. Ralph never wakes up before 8 o' clock. 10. The shop assistant (say) it (be) reduced. Who sings that song ? 9. 5. 4. 18. I (pay) in cash. 110
. 8. Come to my office when you (finish ) your project. Why you (not bring) your girlfriend with you? 13. 13. He studies linguistics.
She sent postcards to her friends in South Africa . 13.50 12. She (leave) a large fortune to her grandson IX. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences: 1. 9.. 12. 20. Answer the following questions: 1. The cook used six eggs for the cake yesterday. 10. My brother showed me this trick. 18. 14. Mother said "No” 14. X. 5. I began my work in this bank ten years ago. I (hear) a strange noise last night 10. He (have) a big knife and a candle in his hand. We lost our way because it was dark. 13. They (build) this house 70 years ago. 16. We travelled by plane 6. When did you start to learn English? 2. When he (see) me he (start) to scream. We heard an explosion. I (light) a candle and (walk) downstairs. I liked his second novel best. 15. When I (look) outside I (see) a guy dressed in pajamas. 16.9. I found these cheap shoes in a little shop in this village 3. How much did you pay for your shoes? 111
. Sam bought these trousers on the market. 11. I went to the disco with my girlfriend Jane. 19. 18. He drove at 100 mph. 2. 7. I (take) a big knife from the kitchen and I (open) the front door. 4. They chose 25 girls for the beauty contest. 17. 15. She didn't come to the party because she was ill. Sergeant Briggs stood near the president 17. We generally slept only 5 hours a day during the holiday 8. I (wake) up and (get) out of bed. The Defense Minister entered the room at 12 o'clock. This T-shirt cost $4. 11. The first owner (die) in 1945. She taught English to foreign students.
9. How did you spend last summer? 4.. 19. 3.. The ship (approach) the harbour when the storm (begin) 2. 11. Tim (crash) into a street light because he (drive) too fast. The bomb (go) off when the politician (give) a speech. Jane . 16. Whenever I (come) to see them they always (quarrel). They (work) very hard when the auditor (enter).. Fill in the sentences with the missing parts according to the example below : I. We (fly) over the city center when the engine (stall). 5.3. 7. The tyre (blow) up when she (drive) on a crowded highway 20. 17. when the gas stove exploded.. 14.. 6. 1. He (not hear) the bell because the radio (play). She (cook ) dinner when the telephone (ring). What you (do) last night between 8 o'clock and midnight? 13. What time did you get up this morning? 5. The plane (catch) fire when it (take) off. She (sit) in the first row. 4.. The teacher (write) something on the blackboard while the children (throw) paper balls at one another. (newspaper) I was reading a newspaper when the telephone rang. He (peep) through the keyhole when the door suddenly (open). She (take) a shower when the snake (creep) into the bathroom. 8. Put the verbs into the Past Tense Simple or Past Tense Continuous: 1. 15. 12.. (dinner) 112
. Cindy (lay) the table while her husband (dry) the glasses. when the telephone rang. 10. Father (shave) and (sing) a silly song at the same time. I (see) that famous actress in the theatre last night. XII.. When I (get) home everybody (sleep). When did you last read the local newspaper ? XI. 18. She (break) down when she (hear) the news. I (think) about their proposal all night but I (not make) any decision.
. When I (get) on the train I (realize) that I (forget) my ticket .. They . when the police put him under arrest.. when the rope snapped. 10. When the police (enter) the bank the robbers already (leave) 4... . when he swallowed some toothpaste.... When we (reach) the airport.. 113
. The nurse. when the alarm went off.. 8... 5. They (bring) in a patient who (drink) some poison. we (find) that the flight (cancel). (pictures) 14. The old housekeeper . when the needle broke. (safe) 11.... He (wonder) where he (put) his glasses... (orders) XIII. (herbs) 8. The robbers . The boys . Professor Taylor .. (Mount Ben Nevis ) 9.. (teeth) 7. (sweater) 3. The mountaineer . The secretary .. We . when it started to rain. when the boss called her on the intercom. The lumbermen . Philip . when a bear attacked them. (tennis) 6.. (lecture) 13... when the students' riot began. 11. By the time the ambulance (arrive) the wounded boy (die). 3...... (letters) 10. 9. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Simple Past or the Past Perfect : 1.. You really (think) that I (do) that? 6.. She (tell) me that she only once (see) a kangaroo in her life..... Jill. when the accident happened.... They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on souvenirs in the airport. (a dog) 5.. when the war began. The reporter .while the kitten was playing with yarn.... when she injured her wrist. The sergeant while the soldiers were carrying them out. Before he (join) the army he (work) already for the CIA and the FBI.. 2... (tree) 15. (injection) 4.. 7. When I (see) you at the conference I (be) sure that we (meet) before.2. (Berlin) 12...
They (sell) two million copies of the novel before they (decide) to translate it into German as well. 3. I'm tired of hamburgers and chips. He (not understand) a word until they (bring) an interpreter. you go back to work and I (handle) it myself. 4. I have no idea how to use the new dishwasher. please. 5. If you want me to talk to the boss. When he (see) some blood on the stairs he (come) to the conclusion that the murderer (climb) onto the roof. 15. I (cook) something special ten 114
. j 18. I (have) a Martini. say so and I (talk) to him. 13. 14. She (know) about the accident because someone from the office (telephone) her before I (arrive). Don't worry.12. 19. Put the verbs in parentheses into the most suitable future for ( Infinitive. 16. . I (come) round in the evening and show you if you want . WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE XIV. 7. Jackson (not be) afraid of Banks because he (beat) him twice before. Present Continuous. No. She (keep) looking at the boy wondering where she (see) him before. Where are you taking the children. 2. or the be going to form): 1. 6. She (watch) the film with interest because she (read) the book. Sandy? We (play) baseball. He (feel) awful in the morning because he (drink) too much that night. 17. Can I offer you something to drink? Yes. They (discover) a sack of gold jewelry which the previous owners apparently (hide) in the garden. The phone's ringing. Why are you putting on your overalls? Because I (fix) the car. 20.
who (want) to buy them? I'm sure they (buy) them. 9.8. is it? 12. We (see) "La Traviata. 13. Where's uncle Sam? I think you (find) him in the garden. One dollar isn't much. We (not go) away for the weekend. This suitcase is too heavy for me to carry. please. I've got my visa and my return ticket. 15. Tom (take) me to the opera this time. Smith . Mr. I (be) right back. 11. You (go) to the cinema tonight? j No. The question is. I (leave) tomorrow. We're expecting visitors Canada.
. I must leave you for a moment." In that case I (take) two. These pineapples are fresh from Kenya.
. You (give) me a hand? 10. These plastic dolls you're making are rather nice. 14.
turn down the radio 2. take the book back to the library 6. try these shoes on t II. give up the job . paint the bathroom black 10. take somebody for a drive 8. have an interview on Monday 12.THE MODAL VERBS Can I. buy an electric typewriter 13. have lunch earlier than usual 11. have an early breakfast 14. have a tea break 6. miss one lesson 12. change the time of the meeting 2. give somebody a lift 7. take somebody on a sightseeing tour 3. have a party on Saturday 4. get something to drink 13. leave the window open 5. take the children to the beach 14. take a photograph of somebody 4. use somebody's lighter 9. borrow somebody's newspaper 10. sell the old bicycle 15. record the conversation 7. ring somebody up 3. use somebody's telephone 11. 9. Ask permission to: 1. do the washing tomorrow 15. Give or don't give permission to: 1. show the letter to the police 5. have a nap after dinner 116
. marry anyone you want 8.
stay at your place for a couple of weeks 4.May III. When are you going to return the books to the library? 5. turn down the radio a little 8. Allow someone : 2. When is he going to sell his old car? 7. When are you going to write your exercises? 2. have cornflakes for breakfast 8. have something to eat 3. take his daughter to a disco 6. miss the next lesson 9. use your computer 3. invite everyone to barbecue Must V Give answers using must/ have to / have got to: 1. park your car in front of his house 4. attend the meeting 7. Ask someone to let you : 1. read his newspaper 7. When is she going to see a doctor? 4. When are they going to give us an answer? 3. ask a personal question 5. camp on the beach 10. When are they going to study our report? 6. help him carry his luggage 9. When are you going to give up smoking? 117
. organize a party at the office 5. accompany him to the station IV. keep your book for another week 6. borrow his pen 2.
When are you going to renew your driving license? 12.8.». When are they going to take us to the manager? 20.
complaint. When are we going to send out invitations? 17. Ask questions using either when or why 1. She must change her attitude.•• .^:* 10.
. She has to pay the gas bill. They have to reconsider their decision 4. The final decision will have to -. When is she going to tell her boss she is leaving? 13. The new employee must see the boss. When are you going to wash up the dishes? 18. When are you going to make arrangements for the trip? 15. 2. He must accept their invitation to dinner. When are they going to reply to our request? 14. 12. They'll have to accept our suggestion. You must boil the water before you drink it. The books will have to be bought very soon.. 8.a 9.. 14. 3. 13. When is she going to tidy her room? 19. r i^ 11. When are they going to call a meeting? 10. He had to attend the meeting. 7. They
soon. When is he going to look through the papers? 16. 6. The tenants must leave their flat at once. 5. When are we going to invite Roger to lunch? 9. When is he going to apply for a visa? 11. When are you going to repair your car? VI.
. You have to inform -* ^ 118
police. She has to apologize to the director.
3. 7. He (drive) it too fast again. 10. You (see) a lot of interesting things. 11. I don't know where my mobile phone is. You are wearing a wonderful brooch . His car is German. they (live) there for a long time. VIIUse the form must have + Past Participle: 1. He (hear) our conversation. She looks very happy. She spent more than a fortnight in hospital. He (buy) it when he was studying in Germany. There are no cakes left. Your husband (take) it by mistake. I can lend you as much as you need. 17. I remember his face very well.15. 15. They (leave) for their holidays. She waited for John all the evening but he didn't turn up. They know London very well. 2. They (miss) their train. She needed his help so badly. The conference has to be organized by our company side. 18.. It (cost) you a fortune. They promised to be here on time. Her French is excellent. She (get) good news. They (hear) about your relatives. I've got a lot of money. You (meet) him at the students’ meeting last week? 9. The car is out of order. Really? You (win) it in a lottery. They stayed in Bucharest during the war. 4. I (forget) to wind it. didn't you? Should 119
. 16. She (be disappointed). I (leave) it at the bank. 8. This essay is written very well. I telephoned the Smiths several times but there was no reply. 6. 19. 14. 16. She (be) to France several times. She (have) an operation. 12. Someone (help) Sue to write it 5. 13. He will have to do military training. The clock has stopped. 20. The guests (eat) them all. I can't find my key. We went to Spain for our holidays. Jack is angry with us.
She (get) good news. He (hear) our conversation. 13. They (hear) about Antonescu. 120
. Give answers as in the example: Example: I only told Jane You shouldn't have told anyone 1.VII Use the form must have + Past Participle: 1. 18. 17. We went to Spain for our holidays. 14. The clock has stopped. 7. My husband (take) it by mistake. They (miss) their train. There are no cakes left. Her French is excellent. You (meet) him at the reception last Sunday. She needed his help so badly. I telephoned the Smiths several times but there was no reply. She (be disappointed). 15. They stayed in Bucharest during the war. She spent more than a month in hospital. 3. 19. She waited for John all the evening but he didn't turn up. It (cost) you a fortune. I remember his face very well. 12. He (drive) it too fast again. She (have) an operation. 8. I only paid the phone bill. I can lend you as much as you need. 4. The car is out of order. 10. didn't you? VIII. Tom is angry with us. She looks very happy. I (leave) it at the office. He (buy) it when he was studying in Germany. The children (eat) them all. 16. Really? You (win) it in a lottery. They promised to be here on time. I (forget) to wind it. 6. I don't know where my umbrella is. She (be) to France several times. they (live) there for a long time. 2. 20. ? 9. His car is German. Someone (help) Mary to write it 5. I've got a lot of money. I can't find my key. They know London very well. You (see) a lot of interesting things. They (leave) for their holidays. 11. This essay is written very well. You are wearing a wonderful necklace.
She only gave the ticket to Jack ! 7. You didn't look over what you've written! 9. You didn't clean up the mess in your room! 11. You didn't tell him about the auction! 14. You didn't take her out to visit the city! 4. You didn’t keep your word ! 10. You didn't send for help! 5.2. I only apologized to Mrs. You didn't give me a lift! 15. Give replies employing used to each time: Examples: a) Did Tom go to school on foot? 121
. She only showed it to me! 14. He only proposed to Jane. She only argued with Tim! 10. You didn't give any tip to the bellboy! 3. We only thanked your uncle! 9. as in the example: Example: You didn't read the instructions! No. You didn't look up the time of your train 8. 11. I only rang up Margaret! 6. You didn't apologize for coming late! 13. Brown ! 8. They only fired one employee! 12. You didn't write down his phone number! 6. He only invited his family ! 3. You didn't call in a plumber! 12. You didn't meet us at the railway station ! 7. I only lent the money to Pete ! 15. They only discussed it with Mary! 4. You didn't lock up the documents! Used to X. I only woke the doorman ! 13. They only dismissed Frank! IX. She only spoke to her sister! 5. You didn't attend the course this week! 2. should I have read them? 1. Express your surprise.
b) How did Tom go to school? He used to go to school on foot ' 1. What was he good at?
. Did he read many books during high school ? 10. Who took you for walks when he was little? 4. What did he have for breakfast when he was on holidays? 6. Who helped him with his homework? 8. How many lessons did he have e ach day when he was at school? 7. Did he wear a uniform when he was at school? 5. Did he like to play tennis as a boy? 3. he used to go to school on foot. Did Tom go to college? 2. What did he enjoy doing when he was a student? 9.Yes.
12. 6. 3. They have promised me a raise. Burglars broke into our summer house. 10. They don't admit children under sixteen in this club. Has the mechanic fixed the car yet? 16. 7. They will meet you at the annual meeting. She looks after the children very well. They will introduce some new subjects into the syllabus this year 13. II. They gave him a computer for his fifth birthday. 18. 2. They offered her a better position in a subsidiary of the company. They are building a new office building here. Why didn't they repair the road? 19. The terrorists blew up the railroad tracks. Everyone knows these figures very well.„ 4. They didn't inform us about the change of plans. You may not use dictionaries during this examination. A big lorry knocked him down last Monday. ^ . They are renovating our university at the moment. 11. They showed her into the new conference hall. Somebody will tell you how to get there. A bee stung my daughter this morning. 8. 14. 9. 2. He didn't introduce me to his wife. 1. 7. 20. 6. 4. 3. Change the sentences into passive ones with the underlined word as a subject of the sentence. 5. 17. People must wear ties in this club. 123
. They make a new film every year in this studio. Smoke filled the auditorium. They make these briefcases of leather.The Passive Voice I. 5. They will teach you two foreign languages in this college. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: 1. They locked the door and no one can open it now. 15.
18. 20. 4. Someone handed him a thick
file. They always laugh at this boy. If she had taken my advice she (not lie) in bed now. 19. If I had arrived five minutes earlier I (get) a free ticket. 9. If the wind hadn't stopped. 16. They have offered us excellent conditions in this resort. 17. A true patriot (not do ) it. They will send you an application form. 124
. The government has granted political autonomy to several provinces. If we had invested in that company we (make) a lot of money. The ovation wasn't too loud. 15. One of the nurses gave me an injection. 11. 10. 5.
' 14. I (come) by bus if it hadn't been so late. 13. 6. 12. If you had told us they were making a film during the show. Conditional Clauses I. .8. They asked her very personal questions at the interview. We (arrive) on time if we hadn't lost our way. 3. Someone is following us. our boat (strike) the rocks near the shore. We hoped the wind (stop) soon. He ordered the soldiers to fire at the crowd. The doctors prescribed him some tranquillizers. They showed the boy some tricks. They denied him admittance to the restaurant as he was too young. 9. They ought to pay you more for your work. we (clap) our hands much more vigorously 7. 8. Put the verbs in the parentheses in the suitable tense: 1. 2. They sent for a doctor immediately.
If you had come here three days ago you (see) the flowers in full bloom. (verb) Mary’s marks are highly satisfactory. he (live) here for 90 years. a sentence or a part of sentence 125
• • •
. 17. I (speak) much louder 14.(indefinite pronoun) a Participle or Gerund Mary told them the story in well chosen words. 13. He (not suffer) from arthritis now if he had listened to his grandmother. 20. (adj) They speak English very well. (adv) An adverb may determine: a noun or a pronoun: Only Peter can tell you the truth. He is absolutely convinced that his programme (succeed). an adjective or another adverb: We play volleyball this afternoon. If he hadn't died last year. If you had watered these trees regularly last spring they (be) 15. I (bring) you some more strawberries if I had known you liked them. 19. 16. 12. ADVERB The adverb is that part of speech that characterizes a verb. an Infinitive She wanted to begin immediately. (noun) Practically everyone knew that story. 18. The child (not burn) himself if you hadn't left the iron on the table. You (not scold) her like that. If they had invited you last Saturday. She deserved a better treatment. you (accept)? . We (ski) in Chamonix today if we had bought that package vacation. 11.10. Had I known the microphone was broken.
nowhere • adverbs of manner: badly. twice.Perhaps I will be the winner. away. below. far • derived adverbs formed of stem and affixes: along. The adverbs may be classified taking into account their form or meaning. • adverbs of cause: hence. at first. never • adverbs of place: here. sometimes. for long. behind. admittedly There are adverbs that are formed by adding an affix to the stem. there. monthly accounts. asleep. now. there. between. • adverbial locutions are groups of words that get the value of adverbs: after all. weekly. they are adjectives namely those which have a noun as stem: a daily newspaper. well. firstly. yesterday. bodily. supposedly. first. yearly but there are situations when the –ly words are not adverbs. • compound adverbs formed of two or more parts: always. Analyzing their forms. so that. The most frequently used suffix is –ly and it forms adverbs of mood and time: daily. hence. Taking into account the meaning. participle: brokenly. yesterday. behind adjectives: aloud. mostly numerals: once. that is why Adverb formation The derived adverbs are formed of different parts of speech such as: nouns: daily. across pronouns: here. at large. behind. a lonely road 126
• • • • •
. easily. the adverbs may be: • simple adverbs: late. the adverbs may be grouped into: • adverbs of time: daily. fast. fast. for that reason. a month ago.
the former being the final form of the adjective and the latter belong to the suffix: equal. no modification appears: palepalely. simple-simply but when the vowel is before it. at a timely moment Adverbs may prefixes to the stem: a) suffixes: -long -ward sidelong forward s headlon outward be built by adding suffixes and -way sideward -wise -s lengthwis needs e straightwa likewise nowaday 127
. full-fully • -y is changed into –ie no matter which is the sound preceding the –ly suffix: due-duly. sole-solely • adjectives ended in –ue lose the final vowel before the –ly suffix: dull-dully. gay-gaily • adjectives ended in –ly cannot form adverbs by adding another suffix of the same structure because of the phonic reasons and they get another word: in a friendly way. general-generally • adjectives ended in –le preceded by a consonant lose this ending before the –ly suffix: probable-probably.Orthography rules The –ly suffix is added to the words without modifying their form. true-trully • adjectives ended in double –l lose one before the suffix dull-dully. BUT the following aspects are to be taken into account: • adjectives ended in –e keep it before the suffix: complete. pure-purely • adjectives ended in –l preceded by a vowel. full-fully • -y is changed into –i no matter which is the sound preceding the –ly suffix: day-daily. double the –l.equally.completely.
the –ly form is used when 128
y totoday together
b) prefixes: -a beagain before aflame beyond
The compound adverbs may be formed of different parts of speech and the following combinations are to be taken into account: • adjective + noun: meantime. hardly last last. midway • adverb + noun: outside. one is identical with the adjective. lastly late late. beforehand • adjective + adverb: everywhere. in compound words and in the comparative and superlative degree structures. throughout • adverb + preposition: hereby. a long nose They stay long. lately The simple form is used when the concrete meaning is meant. a fast train They walk fast. therefrom • preposition + adverb: within • adverb + preposition + adverb: heretofore There are some special groups of adverbs. next door. some of them have the same form as the adjectives and nouns: Adjectives Adverbs an early train He arrives home early. perhaps. somewhere • adverb + adverb: hereabouts. oftentimes • preposition + noun: indeed. the other one is formed of an adjective by adding the –ly suffix: Adjective Adverb hard hard. Some adjectives have two adverbial forms.
the simple forms are used though their positive degree forms are ended in –ly: You run quicker than I. We walk quickest from our house to school. 6. 3. Exercises I. Answer the questions using a modal adverb: Ex. Michelle is such a slow typist! It takes her forever to type a page." 1. lately (recent). (destul de) The following –ly adverbs have different meanings from the ones that have not this suffix: directly (imediat).(echitabil) His work is fairly good. I appreciate your quick response to my query. 5. a clear ringing voice. 4. really. (very near to the door) Close my skirt but closer my skin." —> "I agree. For a fluent speaking. 2. To sit close to the door. I like him. When there are no differences of meaning between these forms.the abstract meaning is meant. It has worked in the past. He's doing very well in school. She works (very) conscientiously" b)"Your son has such good marks!" —» "I know. There are some adverbs whose meanings are so different that the two words are completely different. the –ly forms are used with a figurative meaning and are not so close to the corresponding adjectives: He always plays fair. He's an incredibly 129
. the –ly adverbs are generally used: deeply interested. I'm afraid to get into the car with my boss. new laid eggs. She's a perfectionist. The new director seems to be a responsible person. Mary is a hard worker. . dearly beloved. I think this is a good strategy.(corect) He treated Mary fairly. a)"Mary is a conscientious worker. The compound words use the simple adverb form: a quick growing plant. Ann is such a wonderful dancer! You should go and see her in her latest show. fairly (destul de). newly married. 7.
II. Cynthia is an intelligent manager. 5. 3. Over 100 million Americans ride bicycles at least (occasional). Policemen. Insert an adjective or an adverb: 1. In the rain they don't brake very (good) and (general) are not (visible) to other drivers. 2. enable (elderly) people to ride (safe). As a sport.
. She's a problem solver. This particular anchor man is a fluent English speaker. built like bicycles. biking is an (enjoyable) form of exercise. (light) vehicles can be very (dangerous). I can never keep up with him. 6. so motorcyclists have to pass a (driving) test in order to obtain a (special) motor cycle license. (Large) tricycles. A motorcycle is a (complete) different vehicle from a car. 9. like motorcycles because they can maneuver them (quick) and (easy). In the event of an accident.bad driver! 8. That's why bicyclists and motorcyclists have to drive (careful) at all times. 12. 10. (Technological) modern bicycles help riders move (fast) and (easy). Many (different) kinds of bicycles allow people of all ages to enjoy this sport. 7. (Touring) bikes can travel (long) distances over (uneven) roads. 10. Jeff is a fast runner. He often interviews English speakers on TV. too. Motorcycles are (essential) motorized bicycles. 9. 4. Tricycles allow (small) children to get around. 11. 8.
the latter is omitted only if the name of the town is well known (e. from the left of the envelope).) Parts of a Letter Any letter has some parts that are to be present no matter how long or short the letter is. The address is typed in the lower part of the envelope towards the right (half way down and one-third in. Paris. They are the following: 132
. Because good impression is extremely important in business. etc. Madrid. because the contrast white-black allows a more comfortable reading. an impression of carefulness and good taste. Envelope addressing should have some characteristics such as accuracy. Their sizes varies according to the length of the letter as well as to the number of enclosures that are to be sent. the post town is followed by the country name.g. envelopes should be of high-quality paper.
The Secretary Percy Astins & Co. The inside address is copied correctly from the letter. The most useful color is white. clearness and good appearance. The envelopes should be very tough if lots of papers are to be sent and very thin for the correspondence sent by air. Ltd 18-22 King's Avenue Richmond Surrey Ample space is given to stamps and postmarks. London.PART III COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE Addressing envelopes The envelope of a business letter should create a good impression on the receiver. not to weight too much. New York. including any "attention" or "confidential" indication.
the first letter that is sent contains: I Our reference.e. When a letter exchange begins.". 20. . All of them are arranged in a form established by the boss of the company.• Heading . But for avoiding any interpretation. References The references are groups of capital letters indicating the first letters of the names of the persons who are in charge with the writing and typing of the letters. AM/BB (i. field of activity. Example: "23 April 2008 ". there are so many different ways of writing it such as: the 3rd of May. while the British one is 3rd May 20.. It means that the responsibilities of the society are limited. Headline It should include the name of the company. The reference may contain some numbers which are the codes of a department that is in charge with the solving of a problem. address. such as -523/LO. 3 May. The American companies have the word "Incorporated" or for short "Inc.. Adams Mary/Brown Betty -the first person has written the letter while the second has typed it). The British societies have in their names the words "Limited" or "Co... Date The next element that appears on the letter is the date. POB. Ltd. The American variant looks like: May 3rd. the date is to be written keeping the following order: Day/Month/Year and this is typed in full.letter heading / letter head • Date • Reference line • inside address (addressee's address) • Salutation • Subject line • Body of the letter • Complimentary close • Signature • Enclosures Now let's take separately each part and present it with all its characteristics. codes.". AM/BB 133
. Example: Reference.
then on this one. It contains the full name of the person (no abbreviations are allowed. AM/BB It means that the receiver has its own reference (Our reference. The name is accompanied by Mr. It is a matter of custom and a polite way of addressing to a known or unknown person. as you have seen it on the visit card or on another address). town.. AM/BB. They are generally placed on the left side of the paper or in the middle but always on the same level. in that situation. there is a pair of Ireferences such as: Our reference. country." or "Utility Furniture Co.. If the letter is addressed to a partnership (e. The two couples of references indicate the two equivalents from the companies who are in charge with the solving of the problem. the name is written in the same way the person writes it. Inside address The inside address is in fact the addressee's address. It looks like: General Manager Robert Smith Deputy Director George Brown without any formula and commas. Robert Brown. if it is the case. Mrs.g... JE/SH Your reference. If you know the recipient's name (you have already mentioned it in theinside address) then you may begin your letter with: Dear Mr. "Holmes and Hatton Co. The American variant looks this: Mr. Jackson It is better than being too formal by using "Dear Sir" or "Dear Madam". Prof. Dr. and function is sometimes placed. Managing Director Salutation The salutations or greeting formulas are written under the inner addressand depend on who are the persons you are addressing to.") or if an attention line has been used. etc. institution.If you get an answer to this letter. street. the more formal salutation "Dear 134
. it occupies the first place and then you avoid Mr. Courtland or Dear Mrs. JE/SH) and the addressee's one is mentioned as your reference. Miss.
but "Mrs" or "Miss" must always be added in brackets after a woman's name. The writer's designation or department should be shown immediately beneath the name. then the salutation "Dear Sir" or "Dear Madam" or "Dear Sir/Madam" would be used. the name of the sender should be shown. note that the title "Mr" is never shown when the writer is a man. in the following examples. For Dear Sirs Yours faithfully Dear Madam Yours faithfully (formal) Dear Sir or Madam Yours faithfully (formal) Dear Mr. a company is in the market for some sort of goods and looks up the firm's addresses in a trade directory-Prospective suppliers have been recommended to it by other customers with whom you are acquainted or have heard of them from our foreign agencies or from commercial offices or from advertisements in newspapers. If your letter is addressed to the head of a department or the head of an organization whose name is not known.Sirs" is used. 135
. The expression used for the complementary close must match the salutation. X Yours sincerely Dear Jacqueline/ Dear Steven Yours sincerely Signature After leaving 4/5 blank lines for a signature. either with initial capitals or in upper case as preferred. Examples: Yours faithfully/ Yours sincerely Kitty White (Miss) Chairman Routine letters Enquiries and Replies Any commercial transaction begins with an enquiry i.e. as shown here. a desire to buy goods (so you request for information). Complementary close The last part of a letter is the complementary close which is a matter of custom and polite way of closing a letter.
Example: Dear Sir (or Madam) Will you please send me a copy of your catalogue and price list of portable disc players. The requested items may be sent under cover of a "With compliments' slip". There are enquiries that suggest that large regular orders are possible. write a letter and take the opportunity to promote your products. Suppliers receive routine requests for catalogues and price lists. specimens. a catalogue. do not mention this. catalogues etc. catalogues. a "With compliments' slip" is not possible or it is not enough. So you are put in the situation to write for information about the goods you need. Yours faithfully The reply of this letter should sounds like this: 136
. samples. In following enquiries. Please send me your illustrated catalogue and a price list. patterns.general information. There are general enquiries requesting for latest price lists. price list. together with copies of any descriptive leaflets that I could pass to prospective customers. a written reply is often not necessary and a "With compliments' slip" may be sent instead.reviews. In a routine letter of enquiry you are obliged to observe these rules: • state clearly what you really want. samples • if there is a limit to the price list at which you are prepared to buy. Enquiry Dear Sir/Madam I have a large hardware store in Southampton and am interested in the electric heaters you are now advertising in the "West Gazette ". There are printed Enquiry Forms which are filled in when you require general or specific information. In this situation. a). Unless the writer requests information not already included. otherwise the supplier will raise the quotation to the limit you mention • most suppliers state their terms of payment when replying so there is no need for you to ask for them unless you are seeking special rates • keep your enquiry brief and concise Enquiries mean potential business so they must be acknowledged promptly. . the written replies are not necessary.
we recommend quality number 5. Yours sincerely All the letters that are making enquiries specify prices.Dear Mr. Once you have done this. which is especially suitable for rough and uneven surfaces. We feel that you may be particularly interested in our model. but regret we have no patterns we can send you. It would be helpful if you could send us samples showing your range of suitable coverings and. our newest model. we will arrange for our technical representative to call you for an appointment. you are interested to see some samples of goods.) Before starring a business with a company. Replying them. you have answered every query in the enquiry letter. We encourage you to test the samples provided. by mail.. 137
. a range of samples selected for their hard-wearing qualities. so this is an excellent occasion to write your partner: We have received a number of enquiries for floor coverings suitable for use on the rough floors that seem to be a feature of the new building taking place here. if one is available. (you may give more details concerning the model or you may indicate the catalogue you are enclosing to offer the required information. terms of payment. For the purpose you mention. our price list is enclosed which also shows details of our conditions and terms of trading. if you feel it would help to discuss the matter. F heater. You make an enquiry for office equipment: We need a model suitable for sending diagrams and printed messages mostly within the UK. delivery details. In the meantime. Johnson We were pleased to receive your letter enquiring about electric heaters and are pleased to enclose a copy of our latest illustrated catalogue. We have sent to you. a patterncard of the designs in which they are supplied. We hope these will satisfy your requirements. The letter gets an answer. so it says: Dear Mrs King Thank you for your enquiry for samples and the pattern-card of our floor coverings.
. detailed description minimizes the chance of receiving unsuitable goods. Letters are concluded with the hope that buyer will be able to place further orders as a result of the satisfaction with the goods 138
.. Goods are described in details if the buyers are quite clear on the subject of their needs. What would be your earlier delivery date? Please say whether you could guarantee the shipment by... The reply letter announces you that: All the models illustrated can be supplied from the stock at competitive prices. if. Seller is requested to state the terms of payment. The receiver is also invited to go to the show room to see the way the fax machines work. You may begin your letters by telling the supplier how the name has been obtained and about the circumstances that have given raise the enquiry: Referring to your advertisement in the …of… . Size of orders may often be stressed by the customer to obtain a more favorable quotation or reductions to be made for large orders. We shall be in the position to give you substantial orders if your quotations are reasonable. London.. we would inquire whether you could supply us. details are omitted till they have a clear idea of their needs. shown on the price list inside the catalogue. Sometimes buyers require catalogues. The next problem is the quotation of the price... preference to insurance. transport. early shipment is necessary and we should welcome an immediate quotation fob London. We are indebted for your address to … who has drawn our special attention to your China. Your quotation should be c. there is a natural question.Fax machines are the object of the demand. Do the quoted prices include delivery or not? A reference to the General conditions of delivery should be attached to the enquiry. As we are in the market for chemical installations we should welcome your information.. the seller identifies the goods required: prospective buyer's interests are not likely to be prejudiced when the figures are obtained from the catalogue.
with you. direct and prompt. X. This applies to food. This is to inform you that we do a big business in toys. but if not. You could test for yourself the wonderful fabrics we are manufacturing by sending us a trial order. kindly inform us how long you would require completing a considerable order. Z. you will receive our immediate and personal attention. Replies to enquiries They are the most important letters of sale type. The next step lies. 139
. enclosures. clearly. The required information is given simply. staff. send us samples exactly representing the quality of your latest manufacture. we ask you to give us your lowest prices and best terms of your latest products. all the details are contained in the catalogues. Mr. You must have a demonstration of the upholstery system in your own theatre or see it in our show-rooms. Enquiry Dear Mr. Reply to the enquiry Dear Mr. X. It is not necessary to be detailed.supplied. Having been referred to you by our agent. You may be sure that whichever of our services you decide to use. which was sent to you earlier in the month. All such types of letters begin with expressions of thanks for the enquiry and end with the assurance of interest in the addressee's requirements or expression of pleasure at entering into business relations with you. You wish to modernize your texture with the most upto-date upholstery system. of course. That is clear because you asked for our catalogue. We look forward 10 placing our orders with you and trust that you will make every effort to satisfy our particular requirements. Such replies need to be polite. We presume that you have the toys in stock. If possible. raw material correspondence concerning consumer goods.
accuracy and clarity must be ensured by including: 1) an accurate and full description of goods required 2) catalogue numbers 3) quantities 4) prices 5) delivery requirements (place.) Orders and their fulfillment Printed order forms Most companies have official printed forms which have the following advantages: • such forms are pre numbered and the reference to them is very easy • printing headings ensure that no information will be omitted • printed on the back of some forms are general conditions under which orders are placed. Letter order Smaller companies may not use printed forms but instead place orders in the form of a letter.Quotations. Sending an order by letter.) 6) terms of payment agreed in preliminary negotiations 140
. The quotation will include the following elements: an expression of thanks for the enquiry details of prices. whether the order will be carriage paid or carriage forward etc. etc. discounts and terms of payment clear indication of what the prices cover (packing. otherwise the supplier will not be legally bound to them. date. estimates and tenders A quotation is a promise to supply goods on the stated terms. The prospective buyer is under no obligation to buy the goods for which a quotation is requested and the supplier will not risk the reputation he has by quoting for goods they cannot or do not intend to supply. Reference to these conditions must be made on the front. carriage. mode of transport.
7) buyer's obligations When a binding agreement comes into force. Please accept confirmation of the order we placed with you by phone this morning for the following: 3 "Excelda Studio" electronic typewriters each with 12 pitch daisy wheel Price: £ 490 each. X. both parties are legally bound to honor their agreement. or cancellation of the order. The arrangement is not legally binding until the supplier has accepted the offer. Routine orders They may be short and formal but must include essential details describing the goods as well as delivery and terms of payment. a replacement of goods.Legal position of the parties The English. less 40% trade discount. Confirmation of telephone order: Dear Mr. law says that the buyer's order is only an offer to buy. the buyer is required by law: • to accept the goods supplied. Damages may be claimed. carriage forward These machines are urgently required and we understand that you are arranging for 141
. If the delivered goods are faulty. Where two or more items are included in an order they should be listed separately for ease of reference. the buyer can demand either a reduction of price. provided they comply with the terms of the order • to pay for the goods as soon as possible (failure to give prompt notice of faults to the supplier will be taken as acceptance of the goods) 8) supplier's obligations. After that. The supplier is required by law: • to deliver the goods exactly as ordered at the agreed time • to guarantee the goods to be free from faults of which the buyer could not be aware at the time of purchase.
immediate delivery from stock.
. Here is a kind of tabulated order: Dear Mr. Yours sincerely Sometimes the orders may be presented in the form of tables.B. Please accept our order for the following books on our usual discount terms.
All these items are urgently required by our customer. all essential details will be shown on the form and any additional explanations are given in the covering letter. Yours sincerely. Bed 25 sheets/ 75 blue the letter)
An order should be acknowledged immediately if it 143
.No. Covering letter with order form When a covering letter is sent with an order form. so we hope you will send them immediately. of copies 40
We look forward to prompt delivery. We thank you for your quotation of 5 July and enclose our order number 237 for 4 of the items. (Head of 1 July 2000 Order no 237 Nylon Fabrics Ltd 18 Brazenose Street Manchester M608As Quantity Please supply the following items Items Catalogue no.
cannot be fulfilled straight away. If goods cannot be supplied at all, you should write explaining why you offer suitable substitutes if they are available. There is formal acknowledgement of routine orders. Dear Mr.V. Thank you for your order no 217 for bed coverings. As all items were in stock, they have been dispatched to you today by passenger train, carriage forward. We hope you will find these goods satisfactory, and that we may have the pleasure of further orders from you. Yours sincerely First orders from new customers should be acknowledged by a letter: Dear Mr. Z. We were very pleased to receive your order of 18 June for cotton prints and welcome you as one of our customers. We confirm supply of the prints at the prices stated in your letter and are arranging /or dispatch by our own delivery vehicles early next week. We feel confident that you will be completely satisfied with these goods and that you will find them of exceptional value for money. As you may not be aware of the wide range of goods we have available, we are enclosing a copy of our catalogue. We hope that our handling of your first order with us will lead to further business between us and mark the beginning of a happy working relationship. When goods cannot be delivered immediately, a letter should apologize for the delay and give an explanation. Also state when delivery may be expected, if possible, and express the hope that the customer is not inconvenienced unduly. Reason for delay: breakdown in production Dear Mr. X. We thank you for your order of 15 May for electric shavers, but regret that we cannot supply them immediately owingto afire in our factory. We are making every effort to resume production and fully expect to be able to deliver the shavers by the end of this 144
month. We apologize for the delay and trust it will not cause you serious inconvenience. Yours sincerely Other reasons for the delay may be stocks not available, transport strikes etc. There may be times when a supplier will not accept a buyer's order: • he is not satisfied with the buyer's terms and conditions • the buyer's credit is suspect • the goods are not available Greatest care should be taken when writing to reject an order so that good will and future business are not affected. Supplier refuses price reduction There are situations when a supplier cannot grant a request for a lower price, then the reasons should be given. Dear Mr.V. We have carefully considered our counter proposal of 15 August to our offer of woolen underwear, but very much regret that we cannot accept it. The prices quoted in our letter of 13 August leave us with only the smallest of margins and are in fact lower than those of our competitors for goods of similar quality. The wool used in the manufacturing of our THERMAUNE range undergoes a special patented process which prevents shrinkage and increases durability. The fact is that we are large suppliers of woolen underwear in this country and this is itself a good evidence of the good value of our products. We hope you will give further information regarding this mailer, but if you then still feel you cannot accept our offer we hope it will not prevent you from approaching us on some future occasion. We shall always be happy to consider carefully any proposal likely to lead to business between us. We can find some situations when delivery terms cannot be met, then the supplier should show a desire to help customers in difficulty. In this letter the suggestion that the customer should try another supplier who is named, is bound to be appreciated and will help to build goodwill. 145
Dear Mr. Johnson YOUR ORDER NUMBER R 2514 We were pleased to receive your order of 2 November for 6 TV sets. Since you state the firm condition of delivery before Christmas, we deeply regret that we cannot supply you on this occasion. The manufacturers of these goods are finding it impossible to meet current demand for this popular television set. We placed an order for 24 sets one month ago, but were informed that all orders were being met in strict rotation. Our own order will not be met before the end of January. I understand from our telephone conversation this morning that your customers are willing to consider other makes. In the circumstances I hope you will be able to meet your requirements from some other source. May 1 suggest that you try Television Services Ltd of Leicester. They usually carry large stocks and may be able to help you. If a previous counter remains unpaid, the utmost tact is necessary when rejecting another order. Nothing is more likely to offend a customer than the suggestion that they may not be trustworthy. The suggestions of mistrust are avoided tactfully and internal difficulties as the reason for refusing further credit are given: Dear Mr.C. We are pleased to receive your order of 15 April for a further supply of radio sets. Due to the current difficult conditions we have had to try and ensure that your main customers keep their accounts within reasonable limits. Only in this way can we met our own commitments. At present the balance of your account stands at over £800 and we hope that you will be able to reduce it before we grant credit for further supply. In the circumstances, we should be grateful if you could send us your cheque for say half the amount owed. We could then arrange to supply the goods now requested and charge them to your account. We hope to hear from you soon When a supplier receives an order which cannot be met for some reasons, any of the following options are available: • send a substitute. Careful judgment will be required since there is the risk that the customer may be annoyed to receive 146
We were pleased to receive your letter of 17 April together with your order for a number of items included in our quotation reference RS341. this rayon is much cheaper than silk and its appearance is just as attractive. we could meet it within one week We hope to hear from you soon. Z. Such substitutes should be sent "on approval" with the supplier accepting such responsibility for carriage charges both ways. In their place we can offer our new GOSSAMER brand of rayon. It is important that the suggested substitute provides an article which is at least as good as the one ordered. At the low price of only £ 2. Yours sincerely Supplier sends a substitute article: Dear Mr. We also manufacture other clothes in which you may be interested. X. We regret to say that we can no longer supply this silk. The large number of repeated orders we regularly receive from leading distributors and dress manufacturers is clear evidence of the wide spread popularity of this brand. Thank you for your letter of 12 May ordering 800 meters of 100 cm wide watered silk. hard wearing. This is a finely woven. the supplier must exercise a great deal of skill to bring out a sale. Dear Mr. Fashions constantly change and in recent years the demand for watered silk has fallen to such an extend that we have ceased to produce them. It is advisable to send a substitute if a customer is well known or if there is a clear need for urgency.20 per meter. you decide to place an order. • make a counter offer • decline the order Supplier makes a counter offer For making a counter offer. non-creasable material with a most attractive luster. All these cloths are selling well in many countries and can be supplied from stock If as we hope. All the items ordered are in stock except 147
.something different from what was ordered. The buyer is offered something that has not been asked for. and are sending a complete range of patterns by parcel post.
We. and immediately we receive them we will send you our advice of dispatch. As you state that delivery of all items is a matter of urgency we have substituted covers in a deep orange identical in design and quality with those ordered. We hope you will find them satisfactory but if not please return them at our expenses. hope you will be pleased with them. when it was sent and the means of transport used.for the 25 cushion covers in strawberry pink Stocks of these have been sold out since we quoted for them. We now await your shipping instructions. We shall be glad either to exchange them or to arrange credit. We are pleased to confirm that the 12 Olivetti KX R 193 electronic typewriters which you ordered on 15 October are now ready for dispatch. the railway or the 148
. The customer knows that the goods are on the way and can make the necessary arrangements to receive them. When placing your order you stressed the importance of prompt delivery and 1 am glad to say that by making a special effort we have been able to improve by a few days on the delivery date agreed upon. and the manufacturing units inform us that it will be another 4 weeks before they can send replacements. the buyer should be notified either by an advice note or by a letter stating what has been sent. Yours sincerely Advice of goods ready for dispatch as well as notification of goods dispatched can be easily formulated. it is the legal duty of the buyer to collect any purchases from the supplier. They are attractive and rich looking and very popular with our customers. Unless the terms of the sale include delivery. Yours sincerely Packing and dispatch When goods are dispatched. Request for forwarding instructions: Dear Mr. W. All items will be delivered by our own vehicles tomorrow.
The buyer is responsible for any loss. and on the faith of your notification of dispatch. As the goods have not reached us. the supplier should at once take up the matter with carriers. ORDER NUMBER Z 423 You wrote to us on 3 January informing us that the mohair rugs supplied to the above order were being dispatched. damage. We realize that the responsibility for damage is ours. Your letter should be restricted to a statement of the facts and a request for information. we naturally feel our customers have been let down. avoid the tendency to blame the supplier as it may not be their fault.. Will you please find out from British Rail what has happened to the consignment and let us know when we may expect delivery. it must contain no suggestion of the annoyance that is naturally felt but also it should be confirmed to the facts and ask for an immediate enquiry into the circumstances. Will you therefore please arrange to send replacements immediately and we charge them to our account. Yours sincerely When the goods do not arrive when they are promised to arrive.other carrier is considered the agent of the buyer. We expected these goods a week ago. Yours sincerely Upon receiving the foregoing letter. delay which may affect the goods after the carrier has taken over. 149
. Dear Mr J. If a letter is sent. of course. ORDER NUMBER S 524 We regret to inform you that of the four cases of mohair rugs which were dispatched on 28 January. We regret to report that a consignment of mohair rugs. We are also. addressed to Whart & Co. 25-30 Gordon Avenue. Delivery of the rugs is now a matter of urgency. The waterproof lining was badly torn and will be necessary to send seven of the rugs for cleaning before we can offer them for sale. making our own enquiries at this end.. one was delivered damaged. either by phone or by letter. promised immediately to be delivered to a number of our customers. and have already taken up the matter of compensation with the railway authorities.
Yours sincerely Payment for the goods supplied or services rendered is the final stage in a business transaction. transactions are for cash while for the wholesale and foreign trade.6
. invoices being charged to their accounts. As our customer is now urgently in need of these goods. but usually they are posted separately. Invoices and adjustments When goods are supplied on credit. These cases were collected by our carrier on 28 January for I February. LTD. In the case of the retail trade. In the latter case. Albion Works. an invoice should be checked carefully. Thomas Street Manchester M60IQA Phone 061-943-1234 INVOICE
Quantity 10 21 12 Total VAT Items Polyester shirts Cotton blouses Cotton shirts Unit price $3 $7 $8 Total $30 $147 $96 $ 276 $27. Here is an invoice: JOHN G. The buyer who is not a regular customer is supposed to pay at once while the regular ones may get credit. Please treat this matter as one of extreme urgency. we must ask you to make enquiries and let us know the cause of the delay and when delivery will be made. We hold your carrier's receipt number 2436. the supplier sends an invoice to the buyer in order: • to inform him about the amount due • to enable the buyer check the goods delivered • to enable entry in the buyer's purchases day book When received. the payment will be made later on the basis of a statement of an account sent by the supplier monthly or at any other interval of time. the credit is in practice. Invoices may be sent together with the goods. GARTSIDE & CO. has not yet reached them.Werrington. not only against the goods supplied but also for the accuracy of both prices and calculation.
They should reach you within few days. Debit and credit notes If the supplier has undercharged the buyer. These goods are available from stock and will be sent to you immediately we receive the amount due. These shirts have been packed ready for dispatch and are being sent to you.where the value of goods exported is required for These invoices are not entered in the books of accounts and are not charged to the accounts of the persons whom they are sent to. Covering letter with invoice Such a letter is not compulsory but if the invoice is sent separately it may be sent by post. by rail. a debit 151
. the letter may look like this: Our invoice number… is enclosed covering the polyester shirts ordered on 10 August.V. It is used for: . YOUR ORDER NUMBER A W25 We are pleased to enclose our invoice number B 253 for the polyester shirts ordered on 13 August. To a regular customer.10% One case back Big total 305.serving as a formal quotation serving as a request for payment in advance for goods ordered by an unknown customer or a doubtful payer . it should look like this: Dear Mr. namely $ 310. To a non regular customer. carriage paid.customs purposes covering goods sent 'on approval' or ' on consignment' . it should be short and polite.6
Pro forma invoices "For form's sake" or” pro forma invoice” is an ordinary invoice but has this label "Pro forma".60.
.8. 24 High Streethite Street Manchester M6940a Telephone 072-980-2132 STATEMENT Date Details Debit Credit Balance Account 1..8. 100. usually one month. Statement of accounts It is a demand for payment. If payment is made within 14 days you may reduce the customary cash discount of 2 '/i %.25 330.30 334.11 Credit note 3. Statements are sent without a covering letter.8. If the supplier has overcharged the buyer.8.28 427. A debit note is a supplementary invoice.. Credit notes are issued to buyers when they return either goods (as they are not suitable) or packing materials on which there is a rebate. amounts of invoices and debit notes issued are listed and amounts of any credit notes issued and payments made by the buyer are deducted.. Credit notes are printed in red to be distinguished from the others.81 Cheque no. Invoice no 312. or to acknowledge and allow credit for goods returned by the buyer..86 A covering letter should look like this: We enclose our statement of account for all the transactions during August. it needs only be short and formal. thereafter. 25. Sometimes the supplier reports the unpaid statement: 152 20.81 Debit note 6. here is a statement: George Brown & Co.00 327.note may be sent for the amount of the undercharge.53 rendered 12. $ $ $ 115..8. The closing balance shows the amount owing the date of the statement. A debit note is sent by the supplier to a buyer who has been undercharged in the original invoice. 22. It starts with the balance owing to the beginning of the period. It is a summary of the transactions between buyer and supplier during the period it covers. then a credit note is sent. If a covering letter is sent.
This is used by senders who have no bank account or giro. The opening balance brought forward is the amount left uncovered by the cheque received from you against our August statement. payment through the POST OFFICE a.We are enclosing our September statement. Giro is the term used to the postal cheque system run by post in most Western European countries and Japan. Payment is made in the currency of the country of payment at the current rate of exchange. was drawn for £ 500. Apart from cash transaction giro transfer or 153
. Upon payment of the charge for a telegram. b. The cheque received from you. we have decided to allow you to defer payment of your account to the end of August. leaving the unpaid balance of £ 60 now brought forward. We sincerely hope that in future dealings you will be able to keep to pure terms of payment. Methods of payment In settling the accounts. As you do not seem to have been clear about them. cash (coins and notes) 2. which totaled £ 560. The supplier replies: Having carefully considered your letter of 8 August.% discount for payment within 10 days. Postal orders are used for small sums of money.) POSTAL ORDERS and MONEY ORDERS (the latter for foreign payments only).27. Money orders are used for amounts up to £ 50 for the payment abroad. totaling £ 820. there are many methods of
1. we take this opportunity to remind you that they are as follows: 2 '/.57.) GIRO TRANSFER. money orders may be telegraphed. Net cash for payment within one month. We grant this request as an exceptional measure only because of the promptness with which you have settled your accounts in the past. A person sending a money order should ask the payee for a receipt since there is no evidence of payment. We should appreciate early settlement of the total amount now due. 27 only. British postal orders and money and money orders are issued and paid in many countries abroad.
) COD system. c.
.e. the buyer pays for the goods at the time they are handed over by the carrier (this includes the postal system). i. Anyone can receive or make a deposit of money whether or not they should hold a giro account.postal cheque is a means of payment. It means cash on delivery.
Non observance of the buyer's instructions for the transportation. avoid any expressions indicating anger. non-delivery or short shipments of goods or delivery of wrong or damaged goods. sarcasm. The buyers complain because of late delivery.Complaints Concerning delivery quality It may happen that one of the parties (the buyer or the seller) does not respect certain clauses of the contract so the dissatisfied party sends the other one a letter of complaint containing a demand for something which the sender of the letter has a right to claim for (damage or for a reduction in the price). packing. Warnings or cancellation the order and getting supplies from elsewhere should not be used too liberally as they will only create bad feelings and in any cases would be quite unnecessary. courtesy and reasonableness are the compulsory elements. or inadvertencies in the documents.) • a reference to former satisfactory dealings between the two parties or to the firm's high reputation in the world market • a request for a careful investigation of the matter and reasonable remedy of the mistake or a suggestion how the complaint should be adjusted satisfactorily • a warning or a threat to cancel the order or the contract if there are constant and prolonged delays or frequent errors in carrying out the order. Clarity. suspicion. A letter of complaint should contain: • a writer's regret of being obliged to make a complaint • a clear and concise account of what is wrong with the goods supplied • the data necessary to identify the commodity in question (number of contract. conciseness. Make clear what is wrong and how you 155
. Keep in mind the indispensable you attitude and see the matter from the customer's side in addition to your own. date of shipment etc. irritation. When writing complaints. or goods not up to the sample or description. storage and insurance is another source of complainment. The seller may complain because of unreasonable amounts claimed from them by the buyers and also when the latter fail to open a L/C in time or place a vessel under loading.
/ We are sure you won't disappoint us in meeting this reasonable request. quantities. Be courteous! Be concise in order to make me presentation as clear as possible! It is important to be reasonable in demands for an adjustment. Most firms want to be fair if only to maintain a good reputation and they will react favorably to a reasonable approach. you stated that the consignment would be dispatched within a week and we are therefore very surprised that the merchandise has not arrived yet.. Awaiting your call. indicate that you expect a reasonable attitude on the part of the firm. In any event we shall expect a call from you on Monday. In closing.. Unfair demands may arouse suspicion of your claims. prolong investigations and delay adjustments. Everyday delay means loss and inconvenience for us. We remain yours sincerely. sizes. Dear Mrs. Be specific in setting forth the nature of loss or inconvenience you have suffered. then you make easy the task of your partner to verify the claims and make the just adjustments. trade names or numbers of models. If the orders have been held up because you are unable to ship certain items immediately. If all these are made clear. please cancel the entire order. please phone us and we shall instruct you as to what items we can wait for and what items we may have to cancel. Be precise about the dates. If this shipment is on route. Re: Delay in Delivery In your acknowledgement of our order given to you on 19 September.B Re: Inferior Quality It is with great regret that we have to inform you that your 156
. types of containers. we shall expect you to ship it rush.X. These goods were offered for the pre holdery sales period now in full swing.want it adjusted. Use such closing formulae as: We are sure you will give this matter your prompt attention. Dear Mr. Make sure of your facts and get them down accurately. please phone us and we shall see what we can do to this end to expedite delivery to our premises. shapes.. If you do not get in touch with us before Tuesday. methods of shipment. If the order has not been shipped yet.
Please let us know what you wish to do with it Yours sincerely Contracts A contract is an agreement between two partners that will act according to the law. The written form of an agreement makes clear everything and each 157
. As we shall have to take it back. we must ask you to arrange for the dispatch of replacements at once. and we can only presume that a mistake was made and the contents of this case were for another order. We have always been able to rely on the high quality of the materials you sent us and we are all disappointed in this case because we supplied the cloth to new customers. Ref. The material seems to be too loosely woven and is inclined to put out of shape. In the meantime we are holding the a/m case at your disposal. Yours sincerely Dear Mr. wrong goods received We received the documents and took delivery of the goods on arrival of the SS "M" at P. so that you can compare the two and see the difference in texture. also one from cloth of an early consignment. we must ask you to let us know. Though the oral agreements are applied according to the Romanian laws. 10 and you shall be glad if you will check this with our order and the copy of your invoice. By separate mail we have sent you a cutting from this material. 1O Unfortunately when we opened this case we found it contained completely different articles.last delivery is not up to your usual standard. As we need the articles we ordered to complete deliveries to our own customers. The companies use these agreements for the guarantee they offer regarding all the important elements of the business. the small companies are to use the written ones. P. without delay what discount you are prepared to allow us to get over this difficulty. We attach a list of the contents of case nr. Everything appears to be correct and in good condition except in case no. We are much obliged to you for the prompt execution of this order.
Clauses necessary for complex agreements.Final form of the agreement The present agreement is the only one between X and Y. The written contract may be used for the interpretation of the way this law is applied. in certain transactions. the courts may refer to the general principles of the commercial law. has no compulsory force but the clauses included in the present agreement. either oral or written. Though we must underline a fact: not always the shortest agreement is the best. These fundamental agreements may require different modifications according to the topics debated. does not mean that the respective partner gives up to the rights he (or she) has according to any of the clauses of the present agreement • Partial invalidation If the courts declare or establish that a part (or clause) of the present agreement is repealed or may be put into practice the parts (or clauses) that were not put into debate keep their compulsory character between X and Y (each agreement should make reference to the registration number of the firm in the Register of Commerce). General clauses Standard clauses required for any type of
Any type of agreement requires the following standard clauses such as: . If the partners do not use a certain clause and the Romanian law has no special reference to it. . 158
. Romanian firms prefer short contracts no matter how complex the transactions are.Giving up the rights The fact that X or Y does not insist on an exact fulfillment and according to the present agreement must to practice any options he (or she) has. This agreement may be modified only if the modification is done in a written form and is signed by X and Y.partner has in mind his obligations and responsibilities. Any other previous declaration or agreement.
If in due time. . Such unforeseeable events are considered war. one partner offers (transfers) the rights to a third partner. natural calamities. Exceptions are the cases when the agreements have foreseen such clauses. They are presented in this chapter. • Typical clauses: Force majeure It is the force majeure clause (that includes the casual or fortuitous case). the respective event does not cease to exist. The partner that gives up is "cedent" and the one who gets is "cedar". Romanian Civil Law admits the transfer of rights but due to its "silence" we may understand that it accepts the transfer of obligation too. It does not stop the agreement. The written agreement should be offered to the ''cedent" in maximum …days since the date the "cedent" required the "cedat" 's acknowledgement In the case the "cedat" does not answer in the already 159
. notification procedure for producing it. The partner that makes reference to this event is obliged to let the other partner know about it as well as all the measures used for limiting it. the consequences of this event for putting into practice the respective agreement. strikes. The legislation of some countries knows the "unforeseeable" event. but turns it into a very expensive one. the conditions that may be called upon. The transfer should be done according to the law. made very expensive the fulfilling of one of the partners. without stopping the achieving of the agreement. and any other event that is not under the control of the partner. each partner has the right to announce the other one that the respective agreement ceases to exist without having the right to claim damages. It means that an unforeseeable event may appear in the moment when the agreement is signed.There are certain clauses that are included in the commercial agreements. either partially or totally. legal restrictions. one of the types described. It is advisable to add: the provisions of the present article are not applicable in the case when\ an event.TRANSFER OF THE AGREEMENT It is frequently used. None of the partners of the present agreement should transfer the rights and obligations of this agreement to the other partner.
we come to the situations when no written form exists. The oral communications are not taken into consideration by either of the partners if they are not confirmed by one of the already mentioned ways from the present article. . the partners of an agreement inform themselves orally. . the clauses that are still valid will continue to act. The main obligations of the present agreement are considered to be the fallowing ones: (and they are presented) . In the meaning of the present agreement. establishing modifications of the initial agreement or ways of solving controversies without writing them.(to avoid the risk of a possible abusive attitude of the debtor.given interval of time.AGREEMENT DIVIDING The Romanian jurisdiction has a principle according to which cancelling a part of a juristic fact does not bring about the nullity of the whole fact but the activity has demonstrated that cancelling certain clauses makes impossible the continuation of the respective agreement. it should be done in the form of a registered letter that is considered to be received by the addressee in x days since the sending of the post office. In the case the communications is by mail. any notification or communication addressed by a partner to the other is considered fulfilled if it is transmitted to the latter at the above mentioned address at the beginning of the agreement.NOTIFICATION CLAUSE This clause is important as. it is considered to be received by the addressee in the first -working day following the one used for sending it. in many cases. the communication is in the form of a fax or telex. exception is the case when the cancelled clause (or act) contains the main obligation. In the case. the partners may foresee cases when the cedat' s denial is considered non relevant for "cedent"). In the situation that a clause or a part of the agreement is considered null.CEASING OF AN AGREEMENT 160
. it is considered that the "cedent" agrees with the transfer of the agreement . In such cases.
one of the partners demonstrates that he has not fulfilled the obligations while the other one has already done or is ready to do it. The provisions of this article do not reject the responsibility of the partner that has brought about the ceasing of the agreement. the partner does not execute or executes the obligations. There are two variants: either the obligations of two parts are fulfilled at once or cancelling an agreement implies that the obligations of at least one partner are fulfilled step by step (gradually). The partner that requires the cancelling of the agreement will announce the partner about this fact with minimum x days in advance. winding up means the death of a partner or being under an interdiction) . The present agreement ceases to exist without the intervention of the courts. The cancelling won 't have any effect on the obligations that are already developed between partners. in the moment when any of the parts: . in a suitable way. insolvency or brings about the winding up before beginning the fulfillment of the agreement (in the case of physical persons. since the date of the non fulfillment of the obligations.The ceasing of an agreement implies the appearance of a clause that makes impossible the fulfillment of the agreement or its cancelling. It makes reference to the specific of the commercial law of offering the partners the right of real agreement clauses: The modification of the present agreement may be only 161
. the third paragraph contains a note less frequent in our law.or transfers the right and obligations after he (or she) has been announced that any situation of this kind will bring about the cancelling of the agreement in maximum x days.FINAL PROVISIONS IN the present situation.does not fulfill an obligation considered to be essential for the present agreement (see the dividing clause) or it is considered to be in the incapacity of paying. In both cases. .
two of them have been given to … _ .GENERAL STATEMENT This agreement is made on (date) between (A) located at (address) and _ _ (B). either before or after the agreement signing. the non. (G) wants (A) to keep all the information secret. located at _____ (address). (A) binds itself to 162
. Part one Part two (the name of the partners. The present agreement. . .in a written form. together with modifications and schedules.practising of the right of fulfilling accordingly or by agreement of the respective obligation by the injured partner does not mean that the latter has given up the respective right The present agreement has been drawn today. In the case when one of the partners. . represent the wishes of the partners and reject any oral agreement between them. in four copies. Having in view this. (A) signs the present agreement in order to keep confidential the received information.Confidential information The information regarding (B). having the agreement of the partners. This information should have a strict confidential character.Object of agreement (F) wants a conclusion (or settlement) with (B) and (A) wants certain information about (B) which the latter has (or possesses). This fact imposes the partner to behave accordingly so the two partners are obliged to keep secret the information under discussion. does not respect an obligation. the name and quality of the man who signs are presented in the contract) PROVISIONS REGARDING THE CONFIDENTIAL CHARACTER There is a practice to ask your partner some information concerning the business you want to have together.
administrators. means of manufacturing. it ix obliged to pay (B) a damage in value of . the canceling in advance.the information was revealed after (B) has got the written approval for receiving it or information was already known by everybody 163
. representatives. of the agreement. patents any other information concerning (B) and has importance for its position on the market. The information contains the following documents (B) will offer to (A). its aims of doing business. in a written form. accountants won't reveal the confidential information to any other partner but in the case (B) approves it in a written form. lawyer. (A). solicitors.Duration The present agreement comes into force till…exception is the case when any of the two parts informs the other. It contains the financial situation of (B).Penalties for the case of the non corresponding use of the information or of its revealing If (A) infringes any obligations foreseen in Articles 4 & 5. administrators. its products. . data concerning. lawyer. its managers. accountants.Interdiction of using the information (A).the information was already known by (A) before being got by (B) or . solicitors.Exoneration of responsibilities (A) will be exonerated of the responsibilities for revealing information about (B) if: .keep secret. . .Interdiction of discussing the information (B) will present confidential information only to the persons that are involved in the negotiation and/or presentation of its commercial reports with (A). representatives. managers. employees will use the information got from (B) only for deciding the conclusion of a commercial report with (B) and will not even use either of the information in any occasion. .(A) has got the information from a non confidential source from (B) or .
it is important to suggest an interest in the recipient by giving a personal touch. These kind of letters are used when sales campaigns are developing. A circular letter is written once. re organizations. (A) will return all the confidential information (B) has given to (A) together with all the copies. indicating the name if you know it • create the impression of personal interest by using you never our clients. 164
. It may get some more information such as names... As evidenced by signatures below. everyone.Restoring the information At the date when the present agreement has ceased to exist. then it is duplicated in order to be distributed to the customers..before or (A) was legally obliged to reveal the information . addresses and individual salutations so it gets a more personal character. at the request of (B). customers.no one has time to read long stories • make the letters as personal as they can be (address each letter to a particular person. The next rules are to be taken into consideration: • it must be brief . changes of addresses etc. We are pleased to inform you. all customers. Circulars are sent to many people.. this agreement has been signed today A B name name position position SPECIAL BUSINESS LETTERS Circular Letters Circular letters are frequently used to offer the same information to different people. Address yourself directly to someone using formulas such as: You will appreciate. when there are important developments in business such as extensions.
10 June.We hope you will visit our new department during opening week and give us the opportunity to show you that it maintains the reputation enjoyed by our other departments for giving sound value for money. Expansion of business takes place in your company. we are sure that the goods supplied will be of sound quality and reasonably priced. The content is already written but you have to introduce the name of your customer in order to give the personal touch to the letter. Opening a new business you have to let the others know about it: We are pleased to announce the opening of our new retail store at the above mentioned address on Monday 1 September. Xt To meet the growing demand for hardware and general store in this area. so write a circular. If you visit our new showroom you will see. Inform everybody about it: Owing to a large increase in the volume of our trade 165
. and a special celebration offer of 10% discount will be allowed on all purchases made by the first 50 customers. Dear Mr.You will be interested to learn... The official opening of our new department will take place on the following Monday. announce it to everybody. We hope we may look forward to your being one of them. Mrs Victoria Chadwick has been appointed Manager. Our new store will open at 8 am on Monday 1 September. and are therefore arranging a special window display during the week beginning 3 June. we have decided to extend our business by opening a new department. You are to have a new branch in another town (or country). and with her experience of the trade. If some changes take place in your business. you have to inform your customers about them.. We would like to demonstrate our new merchandise to you.. Our new department will carry an extensive range of hardware and other domestic goods at prices which compare very favorably with those charged by other suppliers.
enabling deliveries to be made promptly. Because of different reasons you are supposed to change the address of your offices. This new branch will open on I May. write a circular indicating the new address. We look forward to a continuing good business relationship with you. this new branch in your country will result in your orders and enquiries being dealt with more promptly. 166
.l The steady growth of our business has made necessary an early move to| new and larger premises. and hope these new arrangements will lead to even higher standards in the service we provide. We have been fortunate in acquiring a good site on the new industrial estate at Chorley. -we have decided to open a branch in Amman. We have much appreciated your custom in the past and confidently expect to be able to offer you improvements in service when the new factory moves into full production. possibilities of arriving there.with the Kingdom of Jordan. It also provides scope for higher methods of production which will increase output and also improve even further the quality of our goods. Although we hope we have provided you with an efficient service in thepast. and from that date all orders and enquiries should be sent to: Mr. X. with Mr. You already know that circulars are used to announce the changes that take place in the membership of a partnership.X Manager Tyler & Co Ltd 18 Hussein Avenue Amman We take the opportunity to express our thanks for your custom in the past. and from 1 March our new address will be the following: Unit 15 Chorley Industrial Stale Grange Road Chorley Lines CH 2 4W Phone 3521689 Fax 3421768 This new site is served by excellent transport facilities both by road and rail.
Harold West. to report meetings. they are a kind of letters that are carrying messages inside an organization (from an office to another one). Their target is to confirm a conversation. but also for debts contracted with old creditors in retirement. they should maintain your attitude and avoid clichés. without the addition of any partner's name. The withdrawal of West's capital will be made by contributions from the remaining partners. Retirement of a partner is announced like this: Dear X. The correct signature on such letters is that of the name of the firm. We regret to inform you that our senior partner. short sentences. and the amount of the firm's capital will therefore remain unchanged We will continue to trade under the name of West. to clarify a previous message.We shall certainly do everything possible to ensure that our present standards of service are maintained. to request an information or to supply it. For a retiring partner. they should have some paragraphs presented in a clear and well organized way.suppliers and customers. Webb & Co. Mr. and there will be no change in policy. to transmit documents. has decided to retire on 31 May due to recent extended ill-health. The memo does not give any 167
. have small words. to announce changes in a company's policy. this is particularly important since they remain liable not only for debts contracted by the firm during membership. All the other changes are to be announced to the partners you have. to congratulate someone. MEMORANDUMS Memorandums are part of the correspondence. We trust that the confidence you have shown in our company in the past will continue and that we may rely on your continued custom . Often the person who gets a memo knows everything about a situation but the position the boss has adopted towards it for that moment. If they are in a printed form.
Send it by fax to David Walsh. Having in mind these general rules. Your manager. says to you: We 've got problems with our delivery dates.and 1 know it's not easy to handle about 50. But get him to say when we 're going to get a normal service. Is our ordering clear enough? Or perhaps he should charge his express courier. Tell him what problem we have and ask him what he's going to do about it.2007\ TO: David Walsh (Warehouse Manager. You know we guarantee delivery of any vehicle part to the shop here within 48 hours of a customer placing an order . Frilford Industrial Estate. Southolt SJ4 7DB. See if there are any problems at his end that he 's sorting out or if there's anything we can do to help. I’m off to a conference today. Tell David that if he wants to discuss anything. Hanover) Date: 2. Could you find out what's going on? Write a memo under my name. Southold) SUBJECT: delayed deliveries Number of pages: I The memo has the paragraphs and has no salutation formulas.. it comes directly to the point.the customer gets 20% discount. sometimes even a week to get here. A memo has an introductory part that is to be presented: FROM: Peter Hening (Manager. Well we 've been having to offer a lot too many discounts on parts we have got from Southolt .11. We're not the only people distributing vehicle parts . distributes parts for motor vehicles from its branches through Europe. he can talk to you. write a memo on the following subject: Europart Ltd. That's one of our main selling points. of Unit 26.they often take 3 days. Peter Henig. He is usually very good . and I'll be away for a week. or he can wait until I get back 168
.there's a plenty of competition if our want to look elsewhere.000 different parts. But be tactful. You work in the Hanover branch. the Warehouse Manager at Southolt. only the capital letters of the writer's name are added. It's not too good enough.explanation.
6. Make a list of the points that are going to be present in the memo. ON THE TOP. Peter Henig is not satisfied with David's work. take into account all the points that appear in the question. If you use your answer book to make your list. you are supposed to write: FROM: (sender's name and/or position in the company) TO: (addressee's name and/or position in company) DATE: (the date the memo is written) SUBJECT: (very briefly. what the memo is about) If you are sending the memo by fax. you may put the sender's initials but NEVER a signature. Relevant material should be included in a memo. Layout. neatly cross them out and add the correction. study it into details. we may have the following memo: FROM: Peter Hening (Manager.2007 169
. Hanover) Date: 2. He wants the problem be solved but he doesn't want to hurt Peter. correctly.AT THE BOTTOM. Decide on the correct tone of the memo. Obeying all these rules. neatly cross it out the point when you have finished referring to it. Before writing it. Read the questions twice at least: get the general idea what it is about. The sender is quite angry but a tactful memo will produce a better impression than an aggressive one. you should also indicate the number of pages . a memo. do the following 1. Read your memo right through! Make sure that you have included all the problems 8. What exactly are you asked to do? WRITE A TACTFUL MEMO TO A MEMBER OF THE STAFF 2. Order the points logically in paragraphs. 3. Decide what relevant. 5. 4.So this is the text that is to be changed into a memo and sent to David. leave out all the unnecessary elements is. Write your answer 7.11. Check your work for accurate English! If you discover any errors.
finally. under my name to staff.and some of them may soon start looking elsewhere. arrival of parts. without wasting the words.1 know it is not a simple thing to stock so many parts. Here they are: 1. 170
. some other exercises are offered. all the headings required in a memo b) content and effectiveness: . I will be happy to talk things after my return.Otherwise. why Henig is writing to Walsh and not trying to call him MAIN POINT OF THE MEMO: late delivery .TO:David Walsh (Warehouse Manager.it is tactful (Walsh is not responsible for late. The problem is this: many of our orders from Southolt are arriving late .possible reasons for late deliveries are given . Your Office Manager says to you: I want you to write a Memo. PH Comments on the model: a) layout. and your warehouse usually performs very well indeed. some take a week to get here. I have received complaints from the Canteen Supervisor about the way the staff leave the canteen after lunch break Many of them do not return their trays to the canteen staff. But we need to sort this out Are there any problems at your end at present? Is your courier working normally ?Or is there anything we can do to help? Do please contact (write your own name here) if there are any points you wish to raise this week. Henig praises his normal performance) logical order of the points the opening paragraph explains. Southolt) SUBJECT: Delayed deliveries I am sending this by fax because I am off to a conference today and will not be able to call you before I go. Henig suggests a talk on his return from the conference Once the problem of Peter Henig is solved. That means we are having to give our 20% discount to a large number of customers . and cigarette ash and paper wrappings are left on the floor and tablecloths.In fact.
phrases stand out. how 171
. staff must report to the Canteen Supervisor. inform you what you have found out including little or no commentary and interpretation. Sentences must be short. simple ones. Tel! staff that must keep their canteen clean: it doesn 't take much time. The language the report is written in. avoid all the unnecessary words. Enclose graphics in boxes. If order is important. if there are any accidents in the canteen. clear in meaning.. allow a triple space above headings and above and below lists. Reports carry information to those who want it and need it. You may catch your reader's attention by using italics. there was a large burn in a tablecloth . If you put it in a binder. presents facts. If it is typed double space.). It gets to know your audience and their needs. It makes you think in terms of the purpose or function.2. leave 5 cm of margins on the left hand side.obviously caused by a cigarette . graphics. How do we lay out such a report? We must maintain one inch margin all around when typing. A report informs and analyses. use bullets (■) or dashes (-). The canteen staff are grumbling about this -1 sympathize with them. underlining capital letters. If the sequence of a list is random or arbitrary.but nobody reported it. 1 hope 1 do not have to remind them about this again. Keep all these in mind when you are planning to write a report. Use typographical elements to make words.Don't write long paragraphs (about 100 words). REPORT Writing reports is an important part of your work. Any report should tell how a project is going. Type single space but allow a double space between paragraphs. no double space is allowed between paragraphs.. By the way.Last Friday. is the language accepted by a specific group. use Arabic numbers (1. There are periodic reports which record the work over a specific period of time. they should be put vertically on the page. The subject should be readable. . giving the organization of the necessary information which you base decisions on. above and below. long quotations.
date. COTY. audience. plan and order of the presentation. appendices. coverage etc. arranged in a logical order. lists of figures. the work that had been planned. explaining the subject. table of contents.The introduction contains the general idea of the report topic in a few paragraphs. 20-24 rue Babilon. it is folded and free of charge advertising/ providing information about something. The preface is identical to the letter of transmittal and has statement about purposes.The preparatory elements: title page. it has a detailed message. Here it is an example: you work for a department store. LEAFLET It is a document that informs people about different important things. The conclusions explain what work is planned for the future. footnotes. So you are 172
. gives an overall appraisal of the progress to date. The report has an introduction that explains the period of work covered by it. its author. quotations. The reports may have supplemental elements such as: lists of references / bibliographies. uses heads. content. it assesses the progress to date.much has been completed and how much is left. Pages are numbered in small roman numbers and the title page shows the title of a report. subject. subheads. The body is the longest part of the report. acknowledgement of assistance received. the authority to do the work. letter of transmittal. scope. tables. preface. summarize the major points and state the conclusions and recommendations. The abstracts are brief. located in 67894 Paris. The table of contents presents the content of a report and the list of figures and tables present the location of graphics and tables. abstracts – identify the report. purpose scope. The final part stresses the most important ideas. It has a body which provides a detailed account of what has been accomplished and how. graphics. you are planning the summer sale which will last from 2nd till 20th July and are supposed to write a leaflet announcing all the merchandises for sale. name position and the date you submitted the report. There are no strict rules that are to be obeyed for its writing. But it should catch the reader’s attention and must contain an address and date. condensed and state the most important ideas of the report(not more than 150-200 words).
Decide the order you present the material. 20-24 rue Babylon. Take Bus no. the leaflet should attract the readers. It should be simple. but it must be dated and include the name of the person who wrote it. phone number. date of the sales and even a map can be added. it is formal and impersonal. An example may be this one: The BEST of Paris is at COTY… It is a price any can afford! Treat yourself at this summer sale. It must catch the people’s attention. six days/week. The shop address is presented. 2nd – 20th of July inclusive Our English speaking staff helps you to find what you want… a very good price 30% off brads of perfume 40% of leather bags 50% off men’s and women’s summer fashions There a re a lot of goods anybody needs. The writer may take a large place so that all the information is spread all over in order to catch the reader’s eye. open 10-7. address. no particular layout is required. The notice should apologize and suggest alternatives. 2-20 May 2008 173
. 67894 Paris (phone 0023456789). NOTICE A notice is a simple letter that offers an information about something that happens and all customers should know. It is closed for the national holiday – 14July. place. COTY. even tram/ bus numbers are to be indicated.supposed to inform the people about all the products ready for sale during this interval of time. date.6 from Place Pigale or tram no. easy to read. Here is an example: HOTEL RESTAURANT Closure.12 from Louvre. It tells you very important things.
The tone is correct. regular) • date and place of the meeting • subject of the meeting • names of the persons attending the meeting(chairperson. A minute is a record of what was done. A cold buffet lunch will be served in the bar area on these days. the date.We regret that the hotel restaurant will be closed from 2 . What you write should be written objectively and factually without your opinions being reflected. Breakfast will be served as usual in the bar area. quite formal. give them to the chairman for distribution. the members and how each voted 174
. We apologize to guests for any inconvenience caused to you. the name and the position of the person who wrote it. but dinner will not be served during this period. It contains all the necessary information. the name of the person making the motions. It is written by the secretary who is supposed to record the meeting as well as she can. secretary…) • time the meeting was open • action of the group. seconding the motions. stating exactly what motions were made and their position. Guests will find a number of restaurants close to the hotel. Max Smith Manager 20 April 2008 The notice has a clear heading at the top. It should contain the following ideas: • name of the group holding the meeting • kind of meeting(special. and impersonal. MINUTE The minute is an official record of the actions taken by a group. with the necessary apology for the inconvenience caused to the guests. Write out the minutes fully from your notes.20th of May because of repairs to the floor.
L. chairman S.• •
time of adjournment and the time of the next meeting signature of the secretary and of the chairman Here is an example:
Hilton & Hilton Minute of a regular meeting of the committee on new construction April.B.. chairman S.m.. you must convince the employer about your capacity of doing the job and you must reach the target: get an interview and then get the job. Agenda: • the meeting was opened by the chairman at 1p. • There being no other business.V.m. V. b y presenting your past records and testimonials. summarized the status of work….B.. the next regular meeting is scheduled for 20th May at 2p.. S. A.P.. you must arouse interest in your qualifications. By applying for a job.O. reported that ….m.. secretary LETTERS OF APPLICATION A letter of application is a letter that sells yourself.O.V.K. 175
. believes that…. secretary S. says that… L. 2nd 2008 Subject: review of items of work on the X Hotel Attendees: A.P.V.K. • the minutes of the previous meeting were accepted • • • •
A. V. the chairman closed the meeting at 3p.
do not omit any element. Do not suggest that you are looking for a new job because you are bored of the one you already have. First. The letter should be brief. do so. but first. just indicate the number of years and indicate the company you worked for. Your curriculum vitae must give all the details of your personal background. The tone of the letter must show keenness for the post. write an application as short as possible and state that your curriculum vitae is enclosed. education. show a proper appreciation of your abilities. If you are asked to state the salary you expect to get.Job application letter is difficult to be written as it is not always known whom are you writing to. try to offer them the most concise of what is important no matter how important that information seems to be for you. Answer the advertisement fully. qualifications. give a lot of information in as few words as possible. experience. As the employers are busy and have little time for long correspondence. read it carefully and ask yourself the following questions: • Does it look like a good business letter? • Is the opening paragraph in the position to interest the employer enough to make him read the whole letter? • Does it suggest that I am interested in that kind of work that is advertised? Send the letter only if the answer to these questions are 176
. send just copies with your application. DO NOT DUPLICATE this information in your letter. From it. Study the advertisement carefully. in a friendly tone but not familiar. Do not send original documents. Do not make exaggerated claims. If your main interest is the salary. do not state the figures you expect. Ensure that your application is well typed. neatly presented and make your application stand for the rest. you must get the interview. you can get much information about the adviser. Read the requirements for the post carefully and in the reply you must state clearly which are you able to fulfill. mention just you are earning now. but take the originals along with you to the interview. Write sincerely. The purpose of your letter is to get the job. After having written the letter. Avoid generalizing.
in fully blocked style. to Private Secretary to Managing Director I was interested to see your advertisement in today’s DAILY TELEGRAPH. In this kind of letter. so the name of it must be mentioned in the opening paragraph or in the subject heading. (the next paragraph must contain a reference to what the applicant is doing for the time being. and I would like to be considered for the job. Smith Ref.YES (for this you must put yourself in the position of the employer). These include attending and taking minutes of meetings and interviews. Here is an example: 23 Oxford Street 8 April 2008 London ER 34 Mr. Place the date at the right. Your letter is an answer to a newspaper advertisement or journal. indicating all kind of information in very brief sentences) In my present job of Private Secretary to the General Manager at a manufacturing factory. supervising junior staff. the writer’s address is placed on the top right corner of the letter. dealing with callers and correspondence in my employer’s absence. Bob Smith Personnel Manager Leyland& Bailey Nelson Works Southampton 23EF Dear Mr. These are only some pieces of advice that are to be taken into account before writing an application letter. all the details are written at the left. I have a wide range of responsibilities. as well as the 177
education. no reference to income is made as nothing was mentioned in the advertisement. qualifications and working experience. Here is a pattern: CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Christian Name: Johnson Thomas 178
. (you have to make reference to the job you are intending to get) The kind of work in which your company is engaged. The former should present all the personal details. and will confirm that I am leaving his employ reluctantly and with the sole desire to improve my present knowledge of foreign languages. you are obliged to mention the documents you are enclosing for supporting your ideas) A copy of my curriculum vitae is enclosed giving further details. My present employer will be pleased to furnish you with any further information you may require. particularly interests me. (the motivation is given. All the details are to be presented on two pages not more. and to be given the opportunity to present myself at an interview. together with copies of my testimonials. and I would welcome the opportunity that would afford me to use my language abilities.usual secretarial duties. The letter may have a paragraph that indicates some names of persons who can be contacted in order to give references for the new employer . which are not used in my present post. (the letter is ended in a very polite way) I hope to hear from you soon. It should be presented in an attractive form so that all the information can be seen at a glance. The letter is supposed to be accompanied by a curriculum vitae and testimonials.
Principal. 2000 signature engineer Bains. London Interests Published books Referees 1. e-mail Date of birth Nationality Marital status
24 Main Road Middleford Essex
Education School from…to College from…to University from…to Results obtained Degrees and/ or other post school qualifications Postgraduate qualifications Special awards Working experience September 2000 to … Hoyle.
As far as the testimonials.V.X. only copies are given. They are given by the previous employer if they are requested. the originals are retained.Address: Telephone. Redford College February 18. They should contain the following details of the employee: 179
. Dr. these are addressed TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN.
she has the necessary character. Miss X. an accurate and quick shorthand typist. (personal qualities) In my opinion. which did not in any way detract from very high standards she set for herself.B. as well as attending meetings. when she left the secretarial college in June 20… She was promoted to my Personal Secretary in…(duration of employment) Her responsibilities included the usual secretarial duties involved in such a post. (working attitude) She enjoyed good health and was a good time keeper. (Recommendation). meticulous in the layout.• Duration of employment • Post(s) held • Duties carried out • Work attitude • Personal qualities • A recommendation TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN Miss X. dedication and approach to be suitable for the position of personal secretary or to enter the teaching profession. I cannot overstress her exceptional work rate. She was an excellent secretary. sociable and quick to share in a joke. used her best endeavors at all times to perform her work consciously and expeditiously. friendly. presentation and accuracy of her work. was employed as Shorthand Typist in this company. She was very personable.B. BANKING / HOME BUSINESS Commercial banks offer four main services: • Accept customers’ deposits 180
. transcribing minutes. I can recommend her highly and may be contacted for further information. and supervising and advising junior secretaries.
There have been no changes in the membership of the Board since specimen signatures were issued to you in September. The amount overdrawn at close of business. Only the persons authorized by a company’s board of directors may sign cheques for the company. courteous letter indicating him the seriousness of an unauthorized overdraft. A certified copy of the Board’s resolution is enclosed. it is a polite. perhaps 181
. Dear Mr… At the meeting of the Board yesterday. The bank requires a copy of the board’s resolution. yesterday. Overdrafts are allowed to customer only by previous arrangement and as I noticed that your account has recently been running on a very small balance. If so. This change takes place as today’s date. it occurs to me that you may wish to come to some arrangement for overdraft facilities. allowing the opening of an account and stating the manner in which cheques are to be signed.• Pay cheques drawn on them by their customers • Grant advances to customers • Provide a payment mechanism for the transfer of funds between its customers and those of the other banks Correspondence between banks and customers is quite formal and standardized. with specimen of their signature. was… and I should be glad if you would arrange for the credits necessary to clear this balance to be paid in as soon as possible. Dear Mr. One of the signatures must be that of the Chairman or secretary and the other one that of any member of the Board. The bank manager sends a letter to a customer who has drawn too much from his account. it was decided that cheques drawn on the Company’s account must bear two signatures instead of one as formerly. On a number of occasions recently your account has been withdrawn.
I should like to discuss arrangements for overdraft facilities. Please confirm receipt of this authority to stop payment. Only the drawer of the cheque can countermand the payment and it is done by notifying the bank in writing. When the payment of a cheque is stopped because of different reasons. It is contrary to banking custom to give information to private enquirer about its customers. I am afraid it will not be possible to honor future cheques drawn against insufficient balances. As a rule. I am really in need of overdraft facilities up to about… for 6 months or so. I have paid into my account cheques totaling…. Dear Mr… I am writing to confirm our telegram of this morning to ask you to stop payment of cheque number… for the sum of… drawn payable to the… This cheque appears to have been lost in the post and the further cheque has not been drawn to replace it. When a buyer in seeking credit from a supplier gives the bank as a reference.you will call to discuss the matter. the suppliers must approach their own bank not the buyer’s bank and ask them to make the necessary enquiries. In the absence of such arrangement. Perhaps you will suggest a day and time when it would be convenient for me to call on you. the information 182
. payment is said to be countermanded. The bank replies: Dear Mr… Thank you for your letter of yesterday. I realize that this leaves only a small balance to my credit and as I am likely to be faced with fairly heavy payments in the coming months. I have recently entered into a number of very favorable contracts but they involve the early purchase of raw materials and as payments under the contracts will not be made until the work is completed.
Normally a bank will not require security from a customer to support a personal loan. The most common types of security accepted are life policies. I need the loan to purchase building materials at a cost 183
. The supplier requests information from the bank: We have received an order for… from… of 19 Drake Street. mortgages of land and guarantees. The directors are reported to be efficient and reliable and a credit of… is considered sound. shares. The firm was established in 1956 and its commitments have been met regularly. This information is supplied free from all responsibilities on our part. I now require a further loan to enable me to proceed with work under a contract with the… for building an extension to their King’s Road School. the bank may require some form of acceptable security. The security should be easy to value. When granting an advance to a personal customer. Sheffield as a reference. Interest on draft is charged on a daily basis.supplied in answer to such request is brief and formal and less personal than the obtainable through a trade reference. Would you be good enough to make enquiries and let us know whether the reputation and financial standing of the firm justify a credit of the above amount? The bank replies: As requested in your letter of… we have made enquiries as to the reputation and standing of the Sheffield firm mentioned. while interest on a personal loan is calculated on the full amount borrowed. 10 Albert Street. loan: The bank does not require security for the offered
In… you were good enough to grant me a credit of… which was repaid within the agreed period. They ask for credit and have given the Commonwealth Bank. easy for a bank to obtain a good legal title and it should be readily marketable. London.
but unfortunately.. The request may be with security: I am considering a large extension of business with several firms in Japan and as the terms of dealings will entail additional working capital. I have arranged to take into the business a partner. These I am willing to pledge as security. I should be glad if you would arrange to grant me a loan of… for a period of. I should be glad if the period of loan could be extended until …. due to a fire at my warehouse. The customer may require an extension of the loan: On …. I should be glad if you could grant me a loan of… for a period of…months. At current market prices. who. under the terms of partnership agreement. You would be able to rely upon repayment of the loan at maturity as apart from other income. I enclose a copy of my latest audited balance sheet and shall be glad to call at the bank at your convenience to discuss the matter. I will bring me evidence for supporting the above statement. months. You already hold for safe keeping on my behalf…. TRANSPORT 184
. a week ago. I have already taken steps forward to prepare for the repayment. they should provide.capital at or before time when I may call on you to discuss my request.of about… The contract price is… payable immediately upon satisfactory completion of the work on or before 30 August next. sufficient cover for the loan. will introduce…. but as my claim is unlikely to be settled before the end of the next month. I am sure you will realize that the fire has created serious problems and that repayment of the loan before settlement of my claim could be made only with the greatest difficulty. I presume. I have been faced with heavy unexpected payments. you granted me a loan of… which is due for repayment at the end of this month. Damage from the fire is thought to be about… and is fully covered by insurance.
but in other cases he will have to make enquiries: Please quote us your freight rate for cased cycles for shipment from … to…. The seller or the buyer has to know how much it will cost to have the goods delivered. and is expected to commence loading on. The agent replies the second letter: In reply to your letter of…. during the next .... and as … is our first port of call. airport or railway station.. the consignment has to be shipped by… at the latest. he knows the normal freight rates and will keep informed of changes. by air and by land. at streamer’s option.. seller makes arrangements with forwarding agents or ship owners. We would appreciate if you would complete and return the letter as soon as possible. to.months. We see no reason why your 185
. and our shipping instructions form. We will enclose our sailing card for … which loads at the …Docks. per metric tone or 10 cubic meters. and in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit.Transporting goods can be done by sea. Carriage by sea can be a complicated business since the buyer and seller are to observe a set of rules and regulations which have been made over the years. the voyage takes about …days. A lot of letter writing concerning transport is between firms in the same country. and let us know when you will be sailing to.. We are about to make up an order for a customer in… for . We will sail once a week. we are pleased to inform you that the… will be receiving cargo from.. it requires a lot of paperwork. Please inform us whether your ship will be able to meet our requirements and kindly quote us a rate for the voyage. while buyers have to contact agents or carriers in their own country when goods are to be collected from a harbor. inclusive. These letters can get replies that sound like these ones: We have received your enquiry of… and can inform you that our current freight rate for … is $. If he is doing this regularly between two ports.
on. but suggest that the cases should be delivered to the ship on the opening date.goods should not be on board by this date. The consignment is arriving at. it is like a B/L but it cannot be used to pass on the right of ownership to the goods.. . on the …. which sailed from …yesterday. Details of the rates are enclosed.. The document used for transport by air is called air way bill. We are pleased to inform you that the cycles ordered under the above number have been dispatched as arranged The cycles are packed in …cases.. the senders will write to the buyers to inform them that the merchandise is on the way... and are making arrangements for our cycles to be delivered to the Docks.. The cases are marked CVB in square. We are enclosing your shipping instructions form. If the rates are acceptable. in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit opened with them. in a box. When arrangements have been made for shipping the goods. have been handed to X Bank.. and are numbered 1-6.. together with our sight draft for $./ of…. We have noted that your…is receiving cargo for. and look forward to hearing from you again. Shipping instructions are sent to the shipping company. The consignor is required to prepare an airway bill giving particulars 186
. Airlines themselves complete the waybills on the basis of information provided by consignors. Clean. duly completed. Thank you for your letter of. on the. both in triplicate. We are sure you will be more than satisfied with the cycles. X Bank has have paid the sum. This communication is known as an advice of dispatch and the information is written instead.. of this month.. together with a commercial invoice and insurance certificate. shipped on board Bs/L2 in complete set. a form is sent together with a covering note: YOUR ORDER No…. the consignor will send an advice note to the ship owner or agent.
et al.Logman 1992 Biber. and Gower Roger – Matters . We shall have a consignment of… . It gets the following reply: Thank you for your enquiry regarding your consignment to… All our charges. The invoice value of the consignment is… and we wish to get the insurance cover for this amount plus the costs of sending the consignment. A. for a customer in. Cassell Publishers Ltd.. A. we can then prepare to receive it and deal with it promptly. Three copies of certificated commercial invoice and certificate of origin will also be necessary. We hope to receive instructions from you. Turcu.Pearson Educational Ltd. F. insurance and our commission.of the consignment. D. To enable us to prepare our airway bill we shall need the information requested in the enclosed form. including freight. airways bill fee. REFRENCES Allsop Jack – English for First Certificate . J. 1983 Bantaş. . et al.2006 In Company Elementary Macmillan Publishers Ltd.. 1999 Modele de contracte de afaceri in romana 187
. It consists of a number of copies. Clarke. S. The airline or its agents prepare the airway bills from the details supplied by the consignor on a special form provided by the airline or by the forwarding agents. Dobrescu. which we wish to send by air from… Please send us details of cost and any formalities to be observed. Your consignment should be in our hands by 10 am on the morning of departure day. 2000 Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Please phone me when you are ready to deliver the consignment to our office at the airport.. weighing about … kg. Valuables are subject to surcharge to cover extra handling costs. Air cargo is charged by weight except the bulky commodities which are charged by volume.1993 English for Advanced Students Institutul European Iaşi Bell. Alternatively we can make arrangements to collect the goods. are shown on the attached schedule.
C. R. Ed.G. Lexicologie . Comişel. 1994 Exercitii de gramatica engleza Omegapres Bucuresti Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă. Ed.
.Corespondenta de afaceri in limba engleza Editura Andreescu . 2002 Commercial. Ponta.Universitatii “Aurel Vlaicu”.Svartvik. M.Exerciţii şi teste de limba engleză Editura ştiinţifică şi enciclopedică Leviţchi..D. Monica. (2003) Advanced Language Practice. M. Powel.H. Arad. et al. P.Editura didactică şi pedagogică Bucureşti Leech.Farnoaga.Longmans Vince . I. (2000) Corespondenta comerciala in limba engleza.E.. Niculescu Freeborn.. English Grammar and vocabulary Macmillan Publishers Ltd.L. English Business letters. Alexandria Ponta. Stanciu.1983 Competenţă şi performanţă.Ed.1970 Limba Engleză Contemporană. (2007) Morphology English Language. 2003 English Communication Ed. Quirk. Financial and Accounting English Ed. .1981 Syntax Cambridge University Press Milea. Gramatica Limbii Engleze.Ed. 1999 English with Tears. ALL Miroiu.1978 A University Grammar of English . G. et al. M. English Grammar Made Difficult Editura Dacia Cluj Galateanu. Polirom Matthews. V.Servo-Sat. (1979) A Communicative Grammar of English Longman Lupulescu. M.J. G. 2006 In Company Intermediary Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Arad. A Course Book in English Grammar MacMillan 1995 Galea.H.Lucman Hulban.si engleza . R. 1993.