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EMSC5103 Assignment - Sustainable Construction

EMSC5103 Assignment - Sustainable Construction

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NAME: MOHD. NORIZAM BIN MD. SALLEH

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NAME: MOHD. NORIZAM BIN MD. SALLEH

Author will not be resposible shall any of the information given in this document is wrong.

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SEPTEMBER SEMSTER 2011 LECTURER; Prof. Sr. Dato’ Dr.

Kamarudin Mohd Nor

ASSIGNMENT SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION (EMSC513)

STUDENT;
NAME: MOHD. NORIZAM BIN MD. SALLEH MATRIC NO.: CGS 00534317 I/C NO: 670703-01-6045 COURSE: SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Table of Contents
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... ii Question 1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 1 Answer 1 ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Definition for Environmentalism and Sustainable Development ......................................................... 2 1.3 Triple Bottom Line ................................................................................................................................ 5 1.3.1 Environmental ................................................................................................................................... 7 1.3.2 Economics ........................................................................................................................................ 8 1.3.3 Social ................................................................................................................................................ 9 1.4 Sustainable Symbioses...................................................................................................................... 11 Question 2 ................................................................................................................................................... 14 Answer 2 ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 2.1 Sustainable Construction ................................................................................................................... 14 2.2 Sustainable Construction, Seven (7) Principles ................................................................................ 16 2.2.1 Reduce resource consumption (reduce/conserve); ........................................................................ 16 2.2.2 Reuse resources (reuse); ............................................................................................................... 21 2.2.3 Use recyclable resources (renew/recycle); ..................................................................................... 23 2.2.4 Protect nature (nature); ................................................................................................................... 25 2.2.4.1 Structurally Sound ................................................................................................................... 27 2.2.4.2 Green with Envy ...................................................................................................................... 28 2.2.4.3 Challenges .............................................................................................................................. 29 2.2.4.4 A Pleasant Addition ................................................................................................................. 29 2.2.5 Eliminate toxics (non-toxics environment); ..................................................................................... 30 2.2.6 Apply life-cycle costing (economics); .............................................................................................. 31 2.2.7 Focus on quality (quality) ................................................................................................................ 34 Question 3 ................................................................................................................................................... 35 Answer 3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 35 3.1 The functions of Green Building Rating Systems or GBRSs ............................................................. 35 3.2 Malaysia’s Green Building Index (GBI) .............................................................................................. 37 3.2.1 Energy Efficiency (EE) .................................................................................................................... 38 3.2.2 Indoor Environment Quality (EQ).................................................................................................... 39 3.2.3 Sustainable Site Planning & Management (SM) ............................................................................ 40 3.2.4 Materials & Resources (MR) ........................................................................................................... 40 3.2.5 Water Efficiency (WE) ..................................................................................................................... 40 3.2.6 Innovation (IN) ................................................................................................................................ 41 3.3 The Different of BCA Green Mark and Green Building Index (Malaysia) .............................................. 42 Question 4 ................................................................................................................................................... 47 Answer 4 ...................................................................................................................................................... 47 4.1 Material Specification Choice [in the life cycle approach] as Opined by Halliday. ............................ 47 4.1.1 Resource base ................................................................................................................................ 48 4.1.2 Embodied pollution. ........................................................................................................................ 50 4.1.2.1 Extraction ................................................................................................................................ 51 4.1.2.2 Processing and production...................................................................................................... 53 4.1.2.3 Waste ...................................................................................................................................... 54 4.1.2.4 Recycling ................................................................................................................................. 55 4.1.2.5 Transportation ......................................................................................................................... 55 4.1.2.6 Distribution .............................................................................................................................. 55 4.1.2.7 Packaging................................................................................................................................ 55 4.1.3 Impact in use aims .......................................................................................................................... 56 4.1.3.1 Detailing .................................................................................................................................. 56 4.1.3.2 Toxicity .................................................................................................................................... 56 4.1.3.3 Passive environmental control ................................................................................................ 57 4.1.3.4 Local issues............................................................................................................................. 58 4.1.4 In final destination ........................................................................................................................... 58 4.1.4.1 Innovation ................................................................................................................................ 59 4.1.4.2 Reduce .................................................................................................................................... 61 ii Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Table of Contents (continued)
4.1.4.3 Repair ...................................................................................................................................... 61 4.1.4.4 Reuse ...................................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.4.5 Recycle .................................................................................................................................... 63 4.1.4.6 Energy Recovery ..................................................................................................................... 64 4.2 Material Selection using Life-Cycle Assessment .................................................................................. 65 4.2.1 Cradle-to-gate: ................................................................................................................................ 66 4.2.2 Cradle-to-grave: .............................................................................................................................. 66 4.2.3 Cradle-to-cradle (open loop production): ........................................................................................ 68 Question 5 ................................................................................................................................................... 70 Answer 5 ...................................................................................................................................................... 70 5.1 Economic Benefits of Green Buildings. ................................................................................................. 70 5.1.1 Reduced operating costs ................................................................................................................ 70 5.1.2 Reduced waste ............................................................................................................................... 71 5.1.3 Reduce liability ................................................................................................................................ 71 5.1.4 Enhanced productivity and learning................................................................................................ 72 5.1.5 Social cost and the environment..................................................................................................... 73 5.2 The Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 75 5.2.1 Definition of Whole-life-cost ............................................................................................................ 75 5.2.2 Definition of Life-cycle-assessment ................................................................................................ 76 5.2.3 The Diffrent Between Whole-life-cost and Life-cycle-assessment ................................................. 78 5.3 Whole Life Cost (WLC) .......................................................................................................................... 79 5.3.1 An Example of Whole-life-cost........................................................................................................ 80 5.3.2 The Need for Whole-life-cost (WLC)............................................................................................... 80 5.3.3 SUDS Whole-life-costs ................................................................................................................... 81 5.3.4 Discounting future costs.................................................................................................................. 81 5.3.5 Data required for a Whole-life-cost Approach ................................................................................ 82 5.3.5.1 Design Life .............................................................................................................................. 82 5.3.5.2 Capital Costs ........................................................................................................................... 82 5.3.5.3 Operation & Maintenance Costs ............................................................................................. 82 5.3.5.4 Risk Costs ............................................................................................................................... 83 5.3.5.5 Risk Costs ............................................................................................................................... 83 5.3.5.6 Environmental Costs ............................................................................................................... 84 5.3.5.7 Disposal Costs ........................................................................................................................ 84 5.3.5.8 Residual Costs ........................................................................................................................ 84 5.3.5.9 Discount Rate and Discount Period ........................................................................................ 84 5.3.6 Literature Review of Costs for SUDS ............................................................................................. 85 5.3.7 SUDS Whole life costing methodology ........................................................................................... 86 5.4 Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) ................................................................................................................ 87 5.4.1 Sample of Life Cycle Assessment .................................................................................................. 90 5.4.1.1 Comparing the Data ................................................................................................................ 91 5.4.1.2 Measuring Carbon ................................................................................................................... 92 5.4.1.3 Common Approaches ............................................................................................................. 92 5.4.1.4 Carbon Footprint Composition ................................................................................................ 94 5.4.1.5 Comparing Carbon Footprints of Packaging Materials ........................................................... 95 5.4.1.6 Refillable Glass Bottles ........................................................................................................... 95 5.4.2 LCA - Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 96 References .................................................................................................................................................. 97 Attachment I – Malaysia GBI Assessment Criteria: Industrial New Construction (INC) Attachment II – BCA Green Mark for Non-Residential Buildings Version NRB/4.0 Attachment III – Sustainable Construction of Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Philip Merrill Environmental Center, Annapolis, Maryland (Moskow Keith, 2008)

iii Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

List of Figures
Figure 1: Concentric Circle diagram indicating the relationship between the three pillars of sustainability suggesting that both economy and society are constrained by environmental limits ............................3 Figure 2: Three Spheres of Sustainability, which shows the metric of economic, social and environmental inter-relation. ..........................................................................................................................................6 Figure 3: The important of Environmental, Economic and Social to World Sustainability. ........................ 11 Figure 4: Triple Bottom Line Score Card for Sustainable Symbioses. ....................................................... 12 Figure 5: Symbioses in Development Life Cycle Rocket. .......................................................................... 12 Figure 6: Sustainable Construction: Life Cycle Stages, Principles, and Resources .................................. 15 Figure 7: Wind Turbine and Solar Panels. ................................................................................................. 17 Figure 8: Wind Turbine. .............................................................................................................................. 18 Figure 9: Wind Turbine that Supply Electricity to a Building. ..................................................................... 18 Figure 10: Typical Rain Water Harvesting System. ................................................................................... 19 Figure 11: Left, Water Brake Taps and Right, Air Flush Waterless Urinals. .............................................. 19 Figure 12: Prefabricated Components Like Glass Façades and Metal Parapets are Good Alternatives to Reduce Wastages. .............................................................................................................................. 20 Figure 13: The dining room features timber columns reclaimed from ........................................................ 22 Figure 14: “Gut Rehab” - Eitel Building City Apartments, Before and After. .............................................. 23 Figure 15: Deconstruction Debris from Bricks and Concrete Were ........................................................... 24 Figure 16: Artist Illustration of Eastern Cape’s Historic Education Centre, ................................................ 26 Figure 17: New Floor/Ceiling System Using Displacement Ventilation ...................................................... 26 Figure 18: Recycled Glass Bottles ............................................................................................................. 30 Figure 19: Source of Indoor contaminants ................................................................................................. 31 Figure 20: LCC can be Ilustrated into These Components; ....................................................................... 32 Figure 21: Cumulated Life Cycle Cost Comparison of Several Bridges .................................................... 33 Figure 22: Natural ventilation concept for atria in the Lufthansa Aviation Centre/Frankfurt in Germany. .. 39 Figure 23: The Green Roof atop Chicago’s City Hall. These Lawns Look Amazingly Natural Set amid the Bright Lights of Chicago's Skyscrapers at Night time. ........................................................................ 46 Figure 24: OSAKA Central Gymnasium Green Roof 1996, Nikken Sekkei, Osaka ................................... 46 Figure 25: Steel Coil Being Produced. Steel is well known as Reusable and Recycle Materials .............. 49 Figure 26: Bench from Recycle Plastic ...................................................................................................... 49 Figure 27: Per Capita PET Beverage Bottle Wasting & Recycling, 1990 – 2006. .................................... 50 Figure 28: Plastic is being recycled into a range of useful components, such as this ‘squidgy tarmac’, but we have to be careful about embodied toxicity ................................................................................... 51 Figure 29: Strip Coal Mining ....................................................................................................................... 52 Figure 30: Logging Activities. ..................................................................................................................... 52 Figure 31: The Embodied Energy of These Fired Bricks are Poor Compares with the Bricks Fired Using Landfill Gas of Biomass Gas. .............................................................................................................. 54 Figure 32: Solar Shade in King Fahad National Library in Riad, Saudi Arabia .......................................... 57 Figure 33: Waterless Urinals ...................................................................................................................... 60 Figure 34: Prefabricated Bathroom Units .................................................................................................. 61 Figure 35: Design for Deconstruction (Reuse Purposes) – Oak floor at Glencoe. .................................... 62 Figure 36: The Gabion Walls for Kresge Foundation Headquarters Troy, Michigan Used Recycled Demolition Rubble ............................................................................................................................... 63 Figure 37: Heat from Air-conditioners Compressor are Collected to Heat Up Water Heaters. .................. 64 Figure 38: Energy Recovery System .......................................................................................................... 65 Figure 39: Door Panel/Frame Cradle-to-Gate and Cradle-to-Grave Loop. ................................................ 67 Figure 40: Aluminium Cradle-to-Cradle Loop ............................................................................................. 69 Figure 41: Panorama KLCC Condominium, Jalan Hampshire Kuala Lumpur. .......................................... 73 Figure 42 : Typical Whole Life Costs .......................................................................................................... 81 Figure 43: variation with time of the contribution of annual expenditure to whole life cost, using the 3.5 and 6 % discount rates ........................................................................................................................ 85 Figure 44: Retention Ponds Cost (Literature Review in UK). ..................................................................... 86 Figure 45: Undertaking a Whole Life Cost Appraisal for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems............... 86 Figure 46: Typical phases of a material or product’s life cycle are illustrated, along with energy inputs and waste outputs at each phase. The disposal phase can involve reuse or recycling. ........................... 89 iv Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

List of Figures (continued)
.Figure 47: Life Cycle Assessment Process – Showing How We Can Reduce the Impact to the Environment. ....................................................................................................................................... 89 Figure 48: Glass Bottles in Owens-Illinois Inc. Factory. ............................................................................. 91 Figure 49: Glass Bottle Production ............................................................................................................. 92 Figure 50: O-I Glass Bottle Life Cycle ........................................................................................................ 93 Figure 51: Carbon Footprint Breakdown .................................................................................................... 94 Figure 52: Comparing Carbon Footprints of Different Packaging Materials .............................................. 95

List of Tables
Table 1: Comparison of GBI and Green Mark Scores Ratings. ................................................................. 43 Table 2: Comparison of GBI and Green Mark Assessment Keys Criteria. ................................................ 44

v Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

COURSE CODE: EMSC5103 COURSE NAME: SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION JANUARY SEMESTER 2012 ASSIGNMENT
ANSWER ALL THE FIVE (5) QUESTIONS.

Question 1 Discuss the differences between Environmentalism and Sustainable Development. What do you understand by the concept of “triple bottom line”? [20 marks] Answer 1 1.1 Introduction The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the ‘Earth Summit’, was took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil In 1992. Was the largest ever international conference to identify the principles steps towards ‘sustainable development’ for the future. Consensus at the highest level from the heads of state gathered to consider the environment was seen as the huge challenge. By the late 1990s, the term sustainable development has ‘gained a currency well beyond the limits of global environmental organisations’ (Adams, 1990: 2) and is widely used in many political arenas and academic fields. The substantial media attention in the developed world given to the serious environmental disturbances surrounding forest fires in Indonesia, flooding in the Americas, China and Bangladesh, and typhoons in South-East Asia has brought questions of conservation and ideas of sustainability into the public vocabulary. People arround the world had noticed that sustainable development is an important rallying point for research and action and a desirable policy objective which should be striven for. Whilst the primary output of the UN Conference on Environment and Development, the huge Agenda 21 document, carries much political authority and moral force (Mather and Chapman, 1995) towards reconciling conservation and development actions into the twenty-first century, substantial debate over the
1 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

meaning and practice of sustainable development continues. Important tensions continues, for example, between the environmental concerns of rich and poor countries, between those who wish to exploit resources and those who wish to conserve them, and between the development needs of current generations and those of the future. Literally, sustainable development refers to maintaining development over time. The challenges of understanding what this idea of sustainable development may mean, and how people can work towards it, are evident in a brief analysis of the most widely cited definition of sustainable development, that of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). This Commission was formed by the United Nations in 1984. It was an independent group of 22 people drawn from member states of both the developing and developed worlds, charged with identifying longterm environmental strategies for the international community. The apparently simple definition of sustainable 1.2 Definition for Environmentalism and Sustainable Development Referring to Cambridge Dictionaries online, the definition of environmentalism, is “an interest in or the study of the environment, in order to protect it from damage by human activities” and on the other hand sustainable development is referrers as “the development that causing little or no damage to the environment and therefore able to continue for a long time”. For many environmentalists, the idea of sustainable development is an oxymoron as development seems to cause environmental degradation Environmentalism is a concept advocated by various groups of environmentalists that fight for the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution. Although Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement but the environmentalism movement always tends to focus more on the conservation of the environment rather than to understand the needs of human beings of a good relationship between economic, social and the environment. This is definitely a tough
2 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

challenge to the dominant western model of economic development and poses difficulties to development as a whole. For this reason, concepts such as a Land Ethic, Environmental Ethics, Biodiversity, Ecology and the Biophilia hypothesis figure can be predominantly important to reconcile these relations. Environmentalism and environmental movement are often represented by the colour green. Figure 1: Concentric Circle diagram indicating the relationship between the three pillars of sustainability suggesting that both economy and society are constrained by environmental limits

(Source: Wikipedia)

“Sustainable” implies forever, perpetuity, constant rebirth and renewal, and inexhaustible system. “Development” connotes change, growth, expansion, production and movement. Both words speak of time evolutionary processes and constructive adaptation. Development, to be sustainable, must somehow incorporate renewal that ensures the continuity of matter, resources, populations and cultures, sustainability, to incorporate development, must allow change and adaptation to new conditions. Together, the two ideas speak of balancing economic and social forces against the environmental imperatives of resource conservation and renewal for the future (Porter, 2001).

3 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

In 1910 Theodore Roosevelt said that “I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the material resources of our land; but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that come after us.” Sustainable development is not just a matter of effective management of the natural environment, but also includes the management of the interdependencies among four forms of capital – financial, environment, social and spiritual. (Lepani, 1998). Sustainable development means integrating the decision-making process across your organization, so that every decision is made with an eye to the greatest longterm benefits. It means eliminating the concept of waste-thinking “cradle-to cradle” rather than “cradle-to-grave,”- and building on natural processes and energy flows and cycles; recognizing the interrelationship of our actions with the natural world. (Wagner, 2008). Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity. At early as the 1970s "sustainability" was employed to describe an economy "in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems". (Stivers, 1976). ‘In principle, such an optimal (sustainable growth) policy would seek to maintain an “acceptable” rate of growth in per-capita real incomes without depleting the national capital asset stock or the natural environmental asset stock.’ (Turner, 1988:12) Sustainable development is a concept that was first mooted in the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment that highlighted for the first time the international concern on environment and development.

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

In 1987, the United Nations released the Brundtland Report, which included what is now one of the most widely recognized definitions for Sustainable development. "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." In 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro where governments and members of key sectors of society came to a consensus to implement an action agenda for sustainable development, known as Agenda 21. Ever since that event it has became a stimulus for the sustainable development global movement. 1.3 Triple Bottom Line Sustainable construction is also known as green construction. In other words, it requires designers and contractors to use building practices that will not cause longterm damage to the environment. When it comes to describing sustainability in our world, we need to be concerned about three main areas of influence. These three areas are the environmental, economic, and social aspects. Interdependent and connections between these three aspects known as triple bottom line (TBL) principles and also present as Three Spheres of Sustainability. The triple bottom line is a form of reporting that takes into account the impact a construction/development has in terms of social and environmental values along with financial returns. Whereas traditional models were all about profit, profit and more profit; triple bottom line accounting recognizes that without happy, healthy people to staff a business and the natural environment able to sustain those people and supply resources for trade; business is, well, simply unsustainable in the long run. Triple Bottom Line reporting is becoming an accepted way for construction/development to demonstrate that they have strategies for sustainable growth. The phrase was first used in 1989 by John Elkington, co-founder of a consultancy focused on sustainability.

5 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

These Three spheres are a related set of concepts that, when taken together, can form a solid ground from which major decisions and actions can be made. Examples of such decisions could include land use planning, surface water management, building design and construction, and even law making. When the concepts contained all the three spheres of sustainability are achieved and applied to real world situations, everybody wins, natural resources are preserved, the environment is protected, the economy isn't harmed, and the quality of life for our people is improved or maintained. Below is a diagram showing the three spheres and what the outcome are when they are interconnected partially and fully. Basically this figure is saying almost everything we do or plan to do have an effect on the sustainability of the human race. Figure 1 below, shows what are the three spheres individually expectations, what are their expectation when they interact with combination two all threes spheres. Figure 2: Three Spheres of Sustainability, which shows the metric of economic, social and environmental inter-relation.

(Source: Jera Sustainable Development Blog) 6 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

The descriptions of the three areas in the sustainable development triple bottom lines the interaction of community needs and desires between them are as follows; 1.3.1 Environmental It’s highlighting environmental issues like global warming and the initiatives in mitigating and adapting to the issues. Conserve, improve and develop the environment and natural resources over the long term. Resource conservation involves reducing environmental impacts, managing and recycling waste. Measures to address environmental sustainability can include increasing energy efficiency, reducing the amount of energy a structure needs in the long term, installing water-reduction measures, and using sustainable building materials. These building supplies may be recycled, renewable and non-toxic. These strategies lessen the strain on the local environment. In a truly sustainable environment, an ecosystem would maintain populations, biodiversity, and overall functionality over an extended period of time. Ideally, decisions that are made should promote equilibrium within our natural systems and seek to encourage positive growth. Unnecessary disturbances to the environment should be avoided whenever possible. If disturbance is unavoidable, it should be limited and mitigated to the maximum possible extent. When judgments are made, one part of the discussion should always be the environmental impacts of the proposed outcome or result. There are several items that are directly related to environmental sustainability. One of the concepts that are of the utmost importance is the proper management of our natural resources. In some cases we can even promote environment restoration and preservation as means to negotiate a successful solution to a problem. Shall the above can be implemented many of environmental issues such as global warming, depletion of ozone layers, green house effects, species extinction, pollution and etc can be minimised.

7 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

1.3.2 Economics It’s highlighting development policies, strategies, and practices that will enable continued economic growth while at the same time ensuring that available resources are not depleted. Promote economic growth to create wealth for all by fostering sustainable patterns of production and consumption. This implies rational use of natural resources, sound corporate governance and professional ethics. Similar to environmental sustainability, economic sustainability involves creating economic value out of whatever project or decision you are undertaking. Economic sustainability means that decisions are made in the most equitable and fiscally sound way possible while considering the other aspects of sustainability. Economic sustainability often includes energy efficiency, which saves money in the long term, as well as the use of materials that are economically feasible to install, maintain, replace, and repair. For example, using local stone in a building can make it cheaper and eliminates the expense of transporting stone from distant locations. In most cases, projects and decisions must be made with the long term benefits in mind (rather than just the short term benefits). Keep in mind that when only the economic aspects of something are considered, it may not necessarily promote the true sustainability. For many people in the business world, economic sustainability or growth their foremost focal point. Globally or even locally, this narrow-minded approach to management of a business can ultimately lead to unsatisfactory results. However, when good business practices are combined with the social and environmental aspects of sustainability, you can still have a positive result that can contribute a greater good of humanity. There are several key ideas that make up economic sustainability. For example, governments should look to promoting "smart growth" through no-nonsense land use planning and subsidies or tax breaks for green development. Strong financial support for universities, education programs, and research & development is an important part of economic sustainability as well. In addition to this, other areas such as reducing unnecessary spending and cutting red tape should also be look into.

8 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

In other words the development policies, strategies, and practices that enable to continue economic growth should be adopted in order to ensure that available resources are not depleted, affected the environment and also societal. 1.3.3 Social It’s highlighting world population growth, lifestyle, and consumption of resources, ecological foot print, and carbon foot print and water foot prints. Social sustainability is based on the concept that a decision or project promotes the betterment of society. In general, future generations should have the same or greater quality of life benefits as the current generations do. This concept also encompasses many things such as human rights, environmental law, and public involvement & participation. For companies, this includes antidiscrimination measures, combating child labour, welfare policies and protecting workers' rights. Social sustainability focuses on the people using the building. Their current and future needs influence the design, which strives to create a highly-flexible plan that allows the building to be easily re-purposed as needs change. This sustainable design can apply to a singlefamily home, as well as a multi-stories office building. A flexible design means the structure can be used longer, preventing the negative impact involved in tearing down an old building and rebuilding a new one. Failing to put emphasis on the social part of decision or action can result in the slow collapse of the spheres of sustainability (and society as well). One great example of social sustainability is the passing of the Clean Water Act in 1972 (and amendments in 1977) and the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974 in USA. Overall, these sets of laws were great pieces of legislation that set minimum water quality standards for both surface and drinking water. This had the affect of positively promoting the health and well-being of everyone in US. The clean water act also served to protect US’s water supply by making it essentially illegal to discharge pollutants in adjacent rivers, lakes, and streams. This period of time in US also saw many other improvements in their environmental laws. All of these

9 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

laws (and other factors as well) lead to the overall betterment of society for Americans. Good combination of these three Spheres will form Sustainable Development. It also shows that sustainable development can be different from environmentalism as it always tends to favour the environment over the economic or social factors while Sustainable Development shall consider all three aspects in planning on how growth and development should occur. I personally believe that ever since the initiation of Agenda 21 back in 1992, the Green Movement is evolving toward supporting the model of sustainable development and away from the anti-growth perspective. This alternative path to sustainable development is not an easy one, since it requires dialoguing among groups of people who have been confront each other for decades. For many people, the main concern in their lives is their overall well being and quality of life. Think about how this relates to the economy and the environment. In a poor economy, people experience a poor quality of life. The same also holds factual for a poor environment. In a poor environment, the impacts on quality of life are not always easily observable. However, it doesn't take a trained individual to see how things such as polluted storm water runoff, over-development of floodplains, and the poor management of our limited resources can have an effect on our everyday quality of life. The three spheres or “three bottom line” of sustainability development covers many concepts which explain how decisions and actions can have an impact on the overall sustainability of our world and how important to balance out all three aspects in order to have a “win-win” result or the equilibrium state for present and future generations.

10 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

1.4 Sustainable Symbioses Definitions of Symbioses according to Answer.com are as follows; • Biology. member. • A relationship of mutual benefit or dependence. In my understanding, Sustainable Symbioses is the dependent of three factors of the “three bottom line” which are environmental, economic and social in order for them to achieve the equilibrium state for the benefit of the mankind. These three factors are equally important but their good interaction and interdependent among them are up most important to achieve harmony and stability where environment could be maintain, human social needs can be fulfil and economic and development can still be proceeded. A close, prolonged association between two or more different

organisms of different species that may, but does not necessarily, benefit each

Figure 3: The important of Environmental, Economic and Social to World Sustainability.

(Adapted: Newlund Dean)

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 4: Triple Bottom Line Score Card for Sustainable Symbioses.

(Adapted: Newlund Dean)

Figure 5: Symbioses in Development Life Cycle Rocket.

(Source: Newlund Dean)

12 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

When Three Spheres of Sustainability interact well and interdependent with each other Sustainable Symbioses is achieved. Figure 5 above, shows how the three elements are well interconnected where with recycle, remanufacture and reuse of materials are good for environment where less emission from reproduction, less air and water pollution, zero waste, less spoil biodiversity and etc. Innovation, capital efficiency, risk management, growth enhancement and total share holder return of the economic interest still can be achieved and social factors i.e. labour issues, indigenous communities, community outreach, human rights and etc. can be resolved mannerly.

13 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Question 2 Define “Sustainable Construction”. By referring to the “Framework for Sustainable Construction” developed by Task Group 16 of the CIB [Conseil International du Batiment] in 1994), discuss the principles of the framework. [20 marks] Answer 2 2.1 Sustainable Construction An international movement that was initiated in 1993 had defined Sustainable Construction as “creating and operating a healthy built environment based on resource efficiency and ecological design” (Kilbert, 2005). It is the current state of the movements to green the built environment would be useful in establishing a context of understanding the need to develop sound basis for its future development. The creation and responsible management of a healthy built environment are trying to better integrate with its natural counterpart the resources and ecological principles. Martinez (2003) says Sustainable Construction sufficiently complete as to cover all the aspects that it should considered. He indicates that there are three main pillars on which the Sustainable Development of the Construction Industry leans are; i) The recycling and conservation of the materials and resources. ii) The improvement of the structures durability. iii) The use and advantage of by-products of other industries, those that habitually are considered residues. These three pillars are supported by a holistic approach that allows determining the interdependence character that each one of the articulated pillars has. As for example, if the durability of structures were analysed using the classical approach of reductionist type, the only benefits that will be considered are the increasing the of life utility of the work. The CIB (2000) indicates that the concept of Sustainable Construction is associated to three key verbs; to reduce, to preserve and to maintain, aspects that must be had
14 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

considering at the moment of establishing global criteria that serve as a conceptual frame for the putting in practice of the sustainable construction. Figure 6: Sustainable Construction: Life Cycle Stages, Principles, and Resources

(Source: Kibert, 2005)

Figure 6, framework for sustainable construction develop 1994 by Task Group 16 (Sustainable Construction) of the Conseil International du Batiment (CIB) for the purpose of articulating the potential contribution of the built environment to the attainment of sustainable development. The resources required for construction are land, materials, water, energy, and in the spirit of sustainability, ecological system. Ecological system is added because it is becoming more obvious that ecosystems should be integrated with buildings. Having done this will provide a wide range of services such as heating, cooling, waste processing, environmental amenity and even food.

15 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

2.2 Sustainable Construction, Seven (7) Principles Task Group 16 of the CIB (Conseil International du Batiment), an international construction research networking organization with headquarters in Rotterdam, The Netherlands in 1994 articulated Seven (7) Principles of Sustainable Construction, which would ideally inform decision making during each phase of the planning, design construction, operation, renovation, retrofit, and the end-of-life (deconstruction) fate of its materials. Sustainable Construction, Seven (7) Principles of that has been voiced by CIB in 1994 are as follows; • • • • • • • Reduce resource consumption (reduce). Reuse resources (reuse) Use recyclable resources (recycle) Protect nature (nature) Eliminate toxics (toxics) Apply life-cycle costing (economics) Focus on quality (quality)

2.2.1 Reduce resource consumption (reduce/conserve); The first principle is to minimise/reduce/conserve resource consumption in a construction. It leads us to use passive measures to provide heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting and forces us to consider high-efficiency system and durable materials that require low maintenance. Design for energy efficiency in building design, lighting, HVAC systems, etc. Use passive solar and day lighting features, select materials and design because of their durability. Reuse construction materials, assemblies, and products Include rain water harvesting, grey water systems to reuse water and maximise resource reuse (reuse). Resources consumption in construction concerns with a wide range of aspects and the present ineffectiveness practice in utilising the resources are massive challenges to sustainable performance in construction industry. Energy saving measures, extensive retrofit programs and transport requires present challenges to energy consumption.
16 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Using of renewable and recyclable materials can reduce or converse the use of mineral resources and conservation of the life support function. Water saving, challenges the water usage management system in the construction and operating sectors and even in production industries. In the other hand the construction in urban areas were challenged by the limitation of land resources. Figure 6, also shows show that plenty resources cover from the land, materials, water, energy and the waste/impact to the ecosystem are actually can be reduced or minimised.

Figure 7: Wind Turbine and Solar Panels.

(Source: Bauer M, 2010)

Energy use - various management systems have been created to in order to reduce the energy usage in new buildings. For examples to equip escalators with motion sensor, generate electrical power using solar panel or wind turbine and therefore the dependence of consuming electricity from TNB can be reduced.

17 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 8: Wind Turbine.

(Adapted: Bauer M, 2010)

Figure 9: Wind Turbine that Supply Electricity to a Building.

(Source: Heller Erica, 2008),

Water use - The conservation of drinking water and the reduction of sewage water can be contributed through water saving equipment in new buildings. The advancement of water management methods in existing buildings can lead to substantial water savings, for example, using rainwater and grey water for toilet, fish pond, garden and etc. Providing water saving guidelines for building managers, using

18 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

low flow showerheads, water brake taps, dual flush toilets, air flush waterless urinals, and others. Figure 10: Typical Rain Water Harvesting System.

(Source: All Things Rainwater)

Figure 11: Left, Water Brake Taps and Right, Air Flush Waterless Urinals.

(Source:Halliday, 2008)

Materials consumption – materials selection is very important and the choice should be based on the impacts of these materials to the environment. At the construction and deconstruction phases, various methods can also be used for reducing the impacts of materials consumption to the natural environment, as for example, materials recycling and reuse, construction-for-disassembly by using modular or
19 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

sectional elements, using the materials and components that are available locally. In the other hand the lighter self-weight of steel means the foundation can be reduced by as much as 30%, resulting in savings in the cost of the foundation.

Figure 12: Prefabricated Components Like Glass Façades and Metal Parapets are Good Alternatives to Reduce Wastages.

(Source:BCA Singapore, 2007)

Land use - Construction industry especially the developer and the authorities have a major role to play in protecting land resources. This can be done by using land efficiently, designing products for long service life, and using and maintaining the existing buildings efficiently. Other design solutions shall include combining building functions, to use underground space, and to optimize the use of the roof surface. The choice of land for construction has not only depending to the local environmental effects, but also by the social and economic impacts. In particular, efficient use of land is vital for those countries and regions where population density is high and mainly concentrated in urban areas. Developments in undeveloped and environmentally sensitive areas could very much be avoided and this can be done by redevelopment of existing developed areas i.e. Brownfields, Greyfields, Blackfields i.e., nonperforming or abandoned building/factories land

20 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

either polluted or non-polluted, rubbish tips, former mining land and etc. (Kilbert, 2005 Pg. 144) Waste generation - Construction industry is a major contributor to waste generation particularly for solid waste. It is estimated that about 13% of all solid wastes deposited in landfills world-wide comes from construction and deconstruction waste with a ratio of about 1:2. A large part of greenhouse gases comes from the energy use in building and transport activities and they contribute to the air emissions e.g. releasing of carbon monoxide and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) that causing ozone depletion. Construction activities also generate liquid wastes which if not treated and managed properly it can be harmful to the environment. Typical impacts of the wastes generated from construction activities to the environment shall include the pollution, damages the views, to the landscape and agricultural land. 2.2.2 Reuse resources (reuse); This second principle refers to the desire of reusing resources that we have extracted with minimal reprocessing. As we known, all materials cost money and all have an impact on the environment. Therefore, with Sustainable Construction, we will be able to minimize the impacts of construction, operation, and maintenance of buildings/structures to the environment. Construction materials like roof tiles, timber, glass, door panel, steel trust and others from deconstruction buildings and structures can actually be reused in other developments. Rather they spoilt the earth as debris, the reuse construction materials might help to minimise pollution that may produce as the result of fabrication new building materials. It wills also contributing in creating business to second hand construction dealers. In some countries they not only reuse some component of the building materials but they even “reuse” or rehabilitation the whole building. It does take planning, but the result can be a huge savings, as well as benefit the environment.
21 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Because concrete and masonry exteriors are long-lasting, and frequently exhibit superior detail and craftsmanship, concrete and masonry buildings even the entire building can be reused. The windows, doors, floor coverings, partition walls, mechanical systems, air-condition and plumbing can be replaced. In our countries for historical and aesthetical buildings facelift are still remain as it is but they are repaired and were make good due to some legal restriction. For non historical buildings even their facelift were changes and this norm in some developed countries.

Figure 13: The dining room features timber columns reclaimed from a harbour pier in Portland, Oregon.

(Source: Moskow Keith G., 2008)

Typically building reuse means leaving the main portion of the building main structure in place while performing what is known in the trade as a “gut rehab”. Repairing a building rather than tearing it down saves natural resources, including the raw materials, energy, and water resources that required to build new building, prevents pollution that might take place as a by-product of extraction, manufacturing, and
22 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

transportation of virgin materials; and avoids creating solid waste and construction debris which stock piled in landfills. Figure 14: “Gut Rehab” - Eitel Building City Apartments, Before and After.

(Adapted: Multifamily Executive from William Baxely, BKV Group)

2.2.3 Use recyclable resources (renew/recycle); Third principle refers to items that are in essence reduced to raw materials and used as new products. Resources that are recyclable, that have recycled content, or that are from renewable resources must be given priority over non-recyclable/nonrenewable resources. The recycling of deconstruction waste is a bit similar to reuse. They require separation and recycling reuse some of the recoverable deconstruction waste. 17,600 kg of waste are typically thrown into the landfill during the construction of a 2,000 square foot house. Technology is quickly developing for recycling of materials into reconstituted building materials. Reuse materials can be used at their current state or with some rehabilitation or modification but recycling normally requires the waste material be crushed and rebuilt or remanufacture i.e. steels, plastics, concrete, rubble and etc. Reuse and recycling of deconstruction wastes requires some additional effort and coordination. Before the deconstruction wastes can be reused or
23 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

send for recycling, they were identifying and divided into their categories and to whom they were sent. This is important in designating how to separate the waste, and making the arrangements send them to the relevant recycle centre. Some typical recyclable materials from construction are: • • • • • • Glass Cardboard and Paper Lumber and Plywood (in reusable form) Masonry, broken roof tiles, concrete and rubble. Metals/steel components Etc.

Some materials shall require bins or storage point to avoid waste mixing. Containers or storage point for recycle material must be set up on site and clearly labelled. Construction personnel must be trained in material sorting policy, and bins and collection point must be monitored periodically to prevent waste mixing as a result of crews or passersby throwing trash into the bins or crew mistakenly done it. Figure 15: Deconstruction Debris from Bricks and Concrete Were Use forRecycle Products.

(Source: BCA Singapore, 2007) 24 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

2.2.4 Protect nature (nature); Principle four means to protect the natural environment. Concern exercising environmental stewardship and restoring the nature where possible. Environmentfriendly is the building that employs such functional and technical solutions that integrates well and harmony with the environment. It also; • matches the cyclical processes of nature • does not harm health ECO buildings have existed since the historic past. They were built using such customs and know-how of generations that take into consideration such opportunities as the characteristic properties such as the building orientation, wind, sunlight, ventilation, vegetation, water surfaces, and natural sources of light. They use natural and traditional resources that known for a long time in ways based on experiences. A good air circulation and enough natural lighting for example not only might lead to energy saver but it shall provide healthy environment to the building occupants and workers. Environment conscious buildings, in differ to those traditional buildings. They

normally uses reused, recycle and less waste material, modular and prefabricated sections, require minimal maintenances, less energy and water consumptions, use renewable energy, good sunlight, ventilations and etc. The basic principles of environmentally conscious architecture are: • Location wise, functional and structural solutions need to be selected in accord with the local conditions such as topography, sun light direction, microclimate, soil composition, water surfaces, flora and fauna etc. • • • Size must be limited, including the footprint, i.e. the reduction of used green areas. Natural features must be enhanced and it is advisable to use renewable energy resources such as solar energy, wind, biomass etc. The daily use must be carefully planned and organized, otherwise the building cannot be considered ecological.

25 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Building structures, sanitary engineering systems, alternative ways of construction are to employ environment-friendly building materials and take ecological construction theories into consideration.

Environment-conscious ventilation, energy, material consumption must be observed in the functioning of the building as well. Figure 16: Artist Illustration of Eastern Cape’s Historic Education Centre, University of Fort Hare’s Green Building.

(Source: Construction Review, July 2010)

Figure 17: New Floor/Ceiling System Using Displacement Ventilation to Allow Cool Air into Classrooms.

(Source: Construction Review, July 2010) 26 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Eastern Cape’s historic education centre, University of Fort Hare’s Green Building was completed in early 2011, the first building of the project is making quite a statement visually within the landscape and functionally, as it has innovative engineering and design attributes. University representatives sought a design that would integrate the academic society (students and staff) of the campus with the surrounding community of East London, while at the same time having a design with a sustainability imperative. The new facility would serve multiple functions, a common design would maximise design flexibility for varied uses by the university’s different departments was desired. 2.2.4.1 Structurally Sound Among vital factors adopted into the design included: economical construction methods i.e. ease of pedestrian navigation, long north-facing façades, naturallyventilated spaces allowing plenty of daylight to enter and use of low-maintenance materials. All of these considerations had to conclude into a bold image for the university, while being linked into the area’s context. Situated within an existing business district, the first building within this phase comprises a double-volume basement parking area, two double storey lecture theatres and a four-storey teaching block. Designed as a single structure with two cascading sections in a downward slant from south to north, this allows each block to receive maximum exposure to sunlight. The architects and engineers of this unique structure ensured that this building was the result of both, the design and engineering ingenuity/cleverness/ creativity. The flooring of this building is an industry first—comprising a modular, precast concrete construction system—it creates the ventilated access flooring, with a completely flat soffit throughout. Using displacement ventilation, the new concept floor / ceiling system permits the cool air to enter the classrooms through special floor mounted diffusers, then being drawn up to the slot outlets along the northern facades to replace the rising warmer air. Services run through the 500mm high void between the floor and ceiling tiles. The tiles provide a heat sink and are fitted with service access points for electrical power.
27 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Allowing ease of student and staff navigation, the building has a wide pedestrian concourse linking the north and south ends of the complex with ‘double-acting’ staircases throughout, as well as a single lift located in the south wing. Each wing of the blocks, says the design architect, Al Stratford, “Is penetrated by the pedestrian concourse that starts on the street at parking level, on the south side, and spills out onto the street at the second floor, which is at grade on the north street. In this way the concourse becomes a pedestrian arcade of the city.” 2.2.4.2 Green with Envy A significant portion of the design concept centred on green building design and sustainability. In conserving energy, the new building incorporates such environmentally efficient features as harvesting rainwater and using alternative energy sources. The building’s wind-driven turbines are a significant energy source as they could ultimately supplement the electrical grid, thus reducing reliance on traditional electrical supply. Other sustainable element of the building is its rainwater collection/harvesting system. Rainwater collected were filtered and then pumped to a header tank in the roof space of the building. This water is use for flushing in the bathrooms and as well as for irrigation and be fed through gravity pressure. Using both the solar and wind energy the building is being naturally ventilated, eliminating the need for any air conditioning system. This ventilation system is solar powered through enthusiasm induced in the ventilated chimney smokescreen and also by the wind induced pressure differences generated at the aerofoil section covering the continuous apex roof slot. The north smokescreen will be ventilated utilising pre-cast, glazed, hollow ‘trombe wall’ sections forming a continuous vertical void. As the sun heats these sections, rising air within the void will pull cooler air behind it—causing displacement ventilation throughout the building. The external smokescreen (to the south walkway) is faced with a permeable mesh screen that serves to mitigate the impact of the rain and wind. Immediately inside this screen is a vertical planting screen with timber planter boxes at each floor which are irrigated with the harvested rainwater— providing the building with evaporative cooling and oxygenated air.
28 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

2.2.4.3 Challenges One of the major challenges in this project was meeting the demanding structural requirements that the architectural solution created. This often meant pushing the boundaries of the technology used. There were very few “off the shelf” solutions. To achieve this, it was necessary for the HS Consulting (the consultant) to work very closely with both the architect (Native Architects) and the precast concrete manufacturer (Wintec) to provide a structure that achieved all the stringent requirements while achieving on elegance. The structure was designed to maximise the use of precast concrete elements that allowed high quality, light and accurate element that could be produced off site. This allowed for speed and accuracy of construction on a small and congested downtown site while achieving a high quality product with little or no post erection finishes. 2.2.4.4 A Pleasant Addition This state-of-the-art extension of the campus will not only provide a pleasant learning environment, be highly flexible and will achieve the necessary levels of human comfort, but will also provide an authentic, fiscally viable alternative to the conventional design and construction approach. The newly constructed building for the university not only expands the offering and footprint of the university, but it also contributes towards reviving a section of East London that is decaying. Such investments have catalysed new developments and urban renewal within a number of cities throughout the country. The above mentioned principles and what that have been applied in University of Fort Hare’s expansions buildings in urban environments are some of the example how we can possibility protects the nature. Nature-sensitive mentality must reign. The existing buildings where necessary should be restored in an environment-friendly fashion and new buildings should they are required should be constructed with minimal impact to the environment and this of course can be achieved with cooperation from the clients. In many incidences the misunderstanding was caused by insufficient information, misunderstanding and some products that are not nature friendly are “dressed in
29 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

green” and their harmful effects on the environment and human health was not disclosed. This should be stopped and the public and the clients should be advised properly. 2.2.5 Eliminate toxics (non-toxics environment); The fifth principle meaning is to create a healthy, non-toxic environment. In a practical denotation is the elimination of toxics in the indoor and exterior built environment. In the year of 2008, 23,000 tonnes of solid waste was produced in Malaysia daily and only less than 5% of the wastes were recycled. Make it worse 19% of the waste had ends up in our drainages, rivers system and coastal areas that had caused blockage to the drainage, flash floods, floods and also affected the flora and fauna. Worst, some of them are non biodegradable like plastic and glass bottle and some even toxic like oil and deadly chemicals. Shall this situation prolonged it will further tarnishing our environmental ability to sustain life. The easy way out is to strictly follow the earlier four principles in reducing solid waste. Figure 18: Recycled Glass Bottles

(Source: Denison Joanne & Halligan Chris, 2010),)

The internal and the external buildings must also free from material and chemicals that can release toxic substances and gasses into the interior or exterior atmosphere e.g. harmful undercoat and paints, VOC carpet for flooring and urea formaldehyde
30 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

should be avoided. Additional measures are to be taken to have clean and circulate interior air with proper planning e.g. natural ventilation, good filtration and plantings. Good building HVAC systems are important to initiate good indoor air quality which will make the occupant happier, energetic and increase productivity. Poor HVAC quality and usage toxic releases building materials may cause to “sick building syndrome”, mould, fatigue and etc. that can affect the health and productivity of workers and building occupant.

Figure 19: Source of Indoor contaminants

(Source: Air Quality)

2.2.6 Apply life-cycle costing (economics); The 6 principle is about the economic side of construction which has direct consequences to the environment. Whole-life cost or Life-cycle cost (LCC) refers to the total cost of ownership over the life of an asset. It also commonly referred to as "cradle to grave" or "womb to tomb" costs. Costs considered include the financial cost which is relatively simple to calculate and also the environmental and social costs which are more difficult to quantify and assign numerical values. Life cycle costing quantifies all the costs, initial and ongoing, associated with a project or installation. Typical areas of expenditure which are included in calculating the whole31 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

life cost include, planning, design, construction and acquisition, operations, maintenance, renewal and rehabilitation, depreciation and cost of finance and replacement or disposal. The calculation of LCC relies upon the concept of the time value of money. It uses the economic evaluation method of discounted cash flow to reduce all these costs to the present value. The present day value represents the amount of money which would have to be invested today in order to meet all the future operating costs, including running costs, maintenance, replacement and production lost through downtime. These are added to the initial costs to give the total LCC. This allows a real comparison to be made of the options available and the potential long-term benefits of using of a specified product and to be assessed against other materials. Figure 20: LCC can be Ilustrated into These Components;

(Source: Life Cycle Costing & Stainless Steel)

By including the life cycle costing in the early stage of the project process and implanted this consideration in the development of project design, perhaps it will help in reducing the level of pollution produced, energy usage and frequency of maintenance during the building occupancy.
32 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 21: Cumulated Life Cycle Cost Comparison of Several Bridges

(Source: Life Cycle Costing & Stainless Steel)

Steel is an Excellent Reusable Material. Life-cycle Analyses Performed on the Environmental Impacts they are Sustainable Construction Materials.

(Source:BCA Singapore, 2007)

33 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

2.2.7 Focus on quality (quality) The 7 principle is to pursue quality in creating the built environment. It is about quality of life which can be achieved through distinction in planning, design, workmanships in producing the outcome, management and selection of materials. Sustainable construction aims for obtaining the best internal environment quality including indoor air quality, thermal, acoustic and lighting environment and the external environment e.g. landscape, views, infrastructures and etc. Both the design of the physical environment and aesthetic factors are significantly affect the quality of indoor and outdoor environment. Shall this quality are affected commonly they lead to to work-stress, “sick building syndrome” and shall the environment are badly damaged it can lead to destroy of ecology and even the whole mankind. For the conclusion all these 7 principles that expressed by CIB would be a good guidance towards achieving sustainable construction. It covers most of the spirit of moving towards sustainable design. In Malaysia we also geared towards sustainable construction and the innovative construction of Putrajaya wetlands, and the building of a new Cyberjaya intelligent garden city to achieve the broader goal of urban development and sustainability are the best example. Developers like SP Setia, Sime Darby and other property developers always on the move to develop new Eco parks concept and recently. In a latest development Malacca state government lead by its Chief Minister Datuk Seri Mohd Ali Rustam had agreed to get assistance from University Science of Malaysia (USM) in the aim to turn the state of Malacca to become a "Green Technology Urban State" by 2020.

34 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Question 3 What are the functions of Green Building Rating Systems or GBRSs? Discuss the six (6) main criteria of Malaysia’s Green Building Index or GBI and Singapore’s Green Mark. [20 marks] Answer 3 3.1 The functions of Green Building Rating Systems or GBRSs Ever since the Earth Summit in Rio, 1992 greenhouse gasses and ozone depletion became a hot topic. Since then professional tends to understand how important to develop Green Building Rating Systems (GBRSs). This was the result of the realization that buildings and the built environment contributes significantly to green house gas emissions and thus they needed to be re-designed to reduce their negative impact to the environment. The notion of buildings being “machines for living” is proven true as buildings do last a long time and over that lifetime they do play a part in adding to the destruction of the environment. Green Building Rating Systems (GBRSs) developed and practiced in the intention to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise awareness amongst developers, architects, engineers, planners, designers, contractors, government bodies, building owners, developers and the public about environmental issues. The rating tool provides opportunities for developers and professional to design and understand the impact of each design choice and solution for them to construct green, sustainable buildings that can provide energy savings, water savings, a healthier indoor environment, sustainable site planning and management and other conditions that complies with green, sustainable equation. By so doing, the final built product would perform better in its location whilst also reducing its harmful impact on the surroundings. Green rating tools by its nature and role is very dependent upon location and environment and thus climate. Typical a building were designed to meet building code requirements, whereas with Green Building Rating Systems (GBRSs) a green building design challenges designers to go beyond the codes to improve overall building performance, a healthier indoor environment, reduce resources, the adoption of recycling resources, buildings that provides energy savings, water
35 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

savings, more eco-friendly, better connectivity to public transport, greenery for their projects and minimize life-cycle environmental impact and cost. Green Building Ratings introduces ratings and certification systems which help define green buildings in the market. They give marks and points how environmentally sound a building is, providing clarity to what extent green components have been incorporated and which sustainable principles and practices have been employed. They are numbers of Green Building Rating Systems practices in the world, and each one of them has their pros and cons depending on their locality, climate and requirements. Green buildings are also be considered as high performance buildings shall they are implemented correctly especially when the design managed to strategically integrated the physical, mechanical, electrical and material systems. Operation wise a good green building should have high energy efficiency it’s system, minimise water usage, less dependence on heater or air-condition, have good natural air circulation, good vision, good sunlight, natural shade from hot sunlight, good indoor environment quality and etc. The green building ratings were designed to help professional putting their objective and to have a uniform standard in assessing the buildings throughout the marketplace for a fair comparison as what the ISO 9001 standardization do. The first Green Building Rating certification system, BREEAM (The Building Research Environmental Assessment Method) was created in 1990 in the UK by The Building Research Environmental. Later in 1998 LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) was introduced which is substantially based on the BREEAM system. In 2005, the Green Building Initiative (GBI) launched Green Globes by adopting the Canadian version of BREEAM. Other countries had established their own green building ratings like Green Star in Australia, GO Green Plus in Canada, CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency) in Japan, GBCC (Korean Green Building Certification Criteria) in South Korea, HQE (High Quality Environmental) standard in France, EEWH (Ecology Energy Saving, Waste Reduction & Health) in Taiwan), BCA GREEN MARK in Singapore, GBI (Green Building Index) in Malaysia and others.
36 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

3.2 Malaysia’s Green Building Index (GBI) GBI is developed to suite to Malaysia’s unique characteristics e.g. tropical climate, environmental and development context, cultural and social needs. PAM’s Architects have over the years been developing and working towards a more sustainable and green architecture. In 2008, the need for a localized Green Building rating tool became more evident especially in the light of increasing demand from building endusers for Green rated buildings that would not overly and adversely contribute to the destruction of the environment. This was also in-line with the objectives of many companies today where good corporate social responsibility (CSR) calls for them to only support environmentally friendly initiatives including their office premises. In August 2008, PAM Council endorsed and approved the formation of the new Sustainability Committee who was tasked primarily to develop and set-up the Green Building Index Malaysia and the accompanying Panel for certifying and accreditation of Green rated buildings. The committee was headed by PAM ex President Dr Tan Loke Mun, to develop a green building rating for Malaysia. GBI (Green Building Index) was than developed by “Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia” (PAM) and the Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia (ACEM). It is a private and profession driven initiative to lead the Malaysian property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. A target deadline of April/May 2009 was set to launch this Green rating. Comparative studies on better known green rating models such as BREEAM, LEED, GREENMARK and GREENSTAR was carried out to establish criteria (Tan Loke Mun, 23rd April 2009). Among others green buildings focuses on increasing the efficiency of resource use such as energy and water are designed to save resources, recycle materials and reducing building impact on human health and the environment during the building’s lifecycle, through minimise the emission of toxic substances, better sitting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal. They should be designed and operated to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on its surroundings, harmonise with the local climate, traditions, culture and the surrounding environment, and green buildings are able to sustain and improve the quality of human life whilst maintaining the capacity of the ecosystem at local and global levels. Green buildings
37 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

have many benefits, such as better use of building resources, significant operational savings, and increased workplace productivity. Building green sends the right message about a company or organization that it is well run, responsible, and committed to the future. There are six (6) key criteria of Malaysia GBI rating and they are as follows; 1) Energy efficiency. 2) Indoor environmental quality. 3) Sustainable site planning and management. 4) Materials and resources. 5) Water efficiency. 6) Innovation. 3.2.1 Energy Efficiency (EE) Lighting zone that provide flexible lighting controls i.e. all individual/enclosed spaces should be individually switched, to provide auto switches in conjunction to daylight strategy and provide motion sensor to complement lighting and escalator can be used towards energy efficiency. Energy consumption also can be improved by optimising building orientation such as to allow natural air circulation in reducing the usage of air-condition in summer, minimizing solar heat gain through the building envelope in reducing the usage of heater during winter, harvesting natural lighting to reduce the dependence on lighting, adopting the best practices in building services including use of renewable energy i.e. the usage of solar and wind driven energies, and ensuring proper procedures and well trained manpower to conduct the testing, enhance commissioning and sustainable maintenance. EE performance can be monitored using software and on-going post occupancy commissioning is to be carried out within the 12 month practical completion to monitor whether the efficiency is sustained. Sub-metering also can be applied to monitor energy consumption of key building services, tenancy and industrial plant areas. Sustainable maintenance is to ensure the energy related system will continue to perform as intended beyond the 12 months defect liability period.
38 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

3.2.2 Indoor Environment Quality (EQ) Partly is to achieve good indoor air quality, acoustics, visual and thermal comfort that contributing to comfort and well-being of the occupants. These will involve a good design that provides natural air circulation shall also contribute to a good environment quality within the premises, application of quality ventilation and air filtration, proper control of air temperature, monitoring and control of carbon dioxide, enough levels of day lighting, reduce discomfort of glare from natural light, the use of low volatile organic compound materials, avoid industrial chemical exposure, mould prevention, movement, humidity and providing breakout spaces in order to help occupant/workers reducing fatigue. The necessary to reduce detrimental impact on occupant/workers from internal air pollutants such as usage of low VOC paint and coating throughout the building, low VOC carpet for flooring, to use products with no urea formaldehyde i.e. composite wood products, laminating adhesives, insulation foam and draperies.

Figure 22: Natural ventilation concept for atria in the Lufthansa Aviation Centre/Frankfurt in Germany.

(Source: Bauer Michael, 2010) 39 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

3.2.3 Sustainable Site Planning & Management (SM) Selection of an appropriate site for the project within existing developed areas with well planned access to public transportation, community services, good open spaces, have a good landscaping, greenery roof, environmental pavement and the design that able to reduce the heat island effect. Should avoid and protect undeveloped and environmentally sensitive areas by redevelopment of existing sites, Brownfields, Greyfields, Blackfields i.e. rubbish tips, former mining land, un performing or abandoned building/factories land and etc. (Kilbert, 2005 Pg. 144) All proper working procedures such as environment management plan, construction management, Quality Assessment System for Building Construction Works, storm water management and reducing the pressure on existing infrastructure capacity should be implemented. Other policy such as encouragement in using green vehicles, providing enough parking bay, close to either two cargo terminal (airport, seaport, highway and railway station) 3.2.4 Materials & Resources (MR) Promote the use of environment-friendly materials sourced from sustainable sources i.e. certified timber by responsible forest management, less wastage construction material such as structural framing, modular, precast material and etc. Reuse material shall reduce the demand of virgin materials such as used timber, tampered glass, roof tiles and etc. Recycle materials i.e. recycle bricks, road curb, steel, hardcore from construction debris also help to lessen the pollution to the earth. A project should implement proper construction waste management system, collection and reuse of recyclables and construction formwork and waste. In the other hand using regional materials shall helps to support the usage of indigenous resources and reducing the environmental impact due to transportation. 3.2.5 Water Efficiency (WE) The building should have rainwater harvesting and grey water recycling system that can be use in the toilette, plants watery, cooling tower and washing. This can
40 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

reduce the dependence on potable water from Water Company (i.e. Syabas, SAJ and etc.). The usage of water-saving fittings such as water brake taps, air flush waterless urinals, low shower head and other invention may increase water efficiency. 3.2.6 Innovation (IN) These following innovations might help but shall not limited to meet GBI objectives starting with innovative planning, rehabilitation of existing buildings, innovative use of building features to passively cool the building, heat recovery system, introducing of mixed mode/low energy ventilation system, waterless urinals fitted to all male toilets, water brake taps, central waste conveyance system, central vacuum system, condensate water recovery, co-generation/tri-generation system, thermal/PCM/thermal mass storage system, use of motion sensor for light, aircondition and even escalator, solar thermal technology/solar air conditioners, wind turbine, heat recovery system, heat pipe technology, light pipes accounting, autocondenser tube cleaning system, non-chemical water treatment system for condenser or chilled water circuit, vacuum degasser, dynamic balancing control valve system, mixed mode/low energy ventilation system, advanced air filtration technology, central pneumatic waste collection system, self-cleaning facade, electro chromic glazed facade, refrigerant leakage detection and recycling facilities, use non-synthetic (natural) refrigerants and clean agents with zero ODP and negligible global, warming potential, ISO 14000 series certification and recycling of all fire system water during regular testing. During accreditation process GBI ratings points will be awarded for achieving and incorporating environment friendly features that stated in their criteria during the assessment. Under the assessment framework for new buildings, developers and design teams are encouraged to design and construct green, sustainable buildings which can promote energy savings, water savings, healthier indoor environments as well as the adoption of more extensive greenery for their projects. As for existing buildings, the building owners and operators are encouraged to meet their sustainable operations goals and to reduce adverse impacts of their buildings on the environment and occupant health over the entire building life cycle.
41 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

The assessment process involves an assessment at design stage (Design Assessment – DA) leading to the award of the provisional GBI rating. Final award is given one year after the building is first occupied (Completion and Verification Assessment – CVA) or earlier if the building has at least 50% occupancy. In order to maintain their GBI rating, buildings will need to be re-assessed in every three years. Buildings are awarded GBI Malaysia - Platinum, Gold, Silver or Certified ratings depending on the scores achieved. Buildings that achieving more points in these targeted areas shall mean they will likely be more environment-friendly than those that do not attended the issues. In Malaysia building owners, developers and consultants can make application for GBI assessment by submitting their application form and payment of the requisite fee to Greenbuildingindex Sdn. Bhd. (GBISB). A GBI Accredited Facilitator may then be chose by the applicants to provide his/her professional services. The role of this facilitator is to support and encourage the design integration required for GBI rated buildings and streamline the application and certification process. GBISB will assess the projects and upon completion of the assessment process, the Certifier’s report will be forwarded to GBI Accreditation Panel (GBIAP) to register and award the certification. In Malaysia GBI will provide an assessable demarcation to promote environment-friendly buildings. It is a benchmarking rating system that incorporates international recognised building best practices towards environmental design and better quality performance for Malaysian public. 3.3 The Different of BCA Green Mark and Green Building Index (Malaysia) Malaysia’s Green Building Index or GBI and Singapore Government’s GREEN

MARK are the only green building rating tool for the tropical zones. BCA GREEN
MARK was first launched in 2005. In April 2008, it became mandatory for all new buildings or works on existing buildings exceeding 2,000sq.m in floor area to achieve a minimum BCA GREEN MARK Certified rating in Singapore. Both GBI and BCA Green Mark is a green building rating system to evaluate a building for its environmental impact and performance. It is endorsed and supported by the National Environment Agency. It provides a comprehensive framework for
42 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

assessing the overall environmental performance of new and existing buildings to promote sustainable design, construction and operations practices in buildings. The assessment process involves a pre-assessment briefing to the project team for a better understanding and evaluation of BCA Green Mark requirements and the certification level sought. Actual assessment would then be carried out at later stage to verify the relevant reports and documentary evidences and that the building project meets the intents of the criteria and certification level. The assessment identifies the specific energy efficient and environment-friendly features and practices incorporated in the projects. Points are awarded for incorporating environment-friendly features which are better than normal practice. The total number of points obtained will provide an indication of the environmental friendliness of the building design and operation. Depending on the overall assessment and point scoring, the building will be certified to have met the BCA Green Mark Platinum, Gold Plus, Gold or Certified rating. Certified Green Mark buildings are also required to be re-assessed every three years to maintain the Green Mark status. New buildings certified will subsequently be reassessed under the existing buildings criteria. Existing buildings will be re-assessed under the existing buildings criteria. Table 1: Comparison of GBI and Green Mark Scores Ratings. GBI Point Rating 86 and above Platinum 76 to 85 Gold 66 to 75 Silver 50 to 65 Certified BCA Green Mark Rating 90 and above Green Mark Platinum 85 to < 90 Green Mark GoldPlus 75 to < 85 Green Mark Gold 50 to <75 Green Mark Certified

Table 1 shows the comparison between GBI and BCA Green Mark scores rating. Basically we can see BCA Green Mark required higher points not only in getting certified green building but also towards its rating compared to GBI.
43 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

GBI is not much differing from BCA Green Mark after all it was founded base on BCA Green Mark and as well as Australian Green Star but have been modified for Malaysian application, even GBI also not much different from LEED and BREEAM. This is understandable as LEED and BREEM are the earliest green building certification and all other certification had taken them as reference. Basically both GBI and BCA Green Mark are tailored within tropical climates. Comparing, GDI standard form with BCA Green Mark (Sample Forms of The Industrial/Non- Residential Building are attached in Attachment I and II), GDI form are more detail and covers more items compares to BCA Green Mark, this can be understandable as it established very much later and ever since then the green building has also have been through its evolution process. Table 2, shows the comparison keys assessment criteria of GBI and Green Mark. From a market based perspective, specific differences between systems are emphasized by each rating system’s management in an effort to maintain stakeholder support and maintain their hold in the competitive marketplace.

Table 2: Comparison of GBI and Green Mark Assessment Keys Criteria.
No GBI Criteria Point Allocations BCA Green Marks Criteria Point Allocations (%) 116 (61%) 17 (9%) 42 (22%) 8 (4.3%) 7 (3.7%)

1 2 3 4 5 6

Energy Efficiency. Indoor Environmental Quality. Sustainable Site Planning and Management. Materials and Resources. Water Efficiency. Innovation. Total

33 Energy Efficiency 22 Water Efficiency 18 Environmental Protection 10 Indoor Environmental Quality 10 Other Green Features and Innovation. 7 100

190 (100%)

44 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

In BCA Green Mark “Water Efficiency” is stated as its second assessment criteria where in GBI its place in forth spot. The reason for this might be because the earliest green building certifications which are LEED and BREEAM also placed “Water Efficiency” in second spot. The technical reason behind might be because BCA Green Mark’s are very much customized for the current state of Singapore where a lot of priority is given to energy and water efficiency scores as the country are lacking of natural resources and especially water. Malaysia differs markedly in these areas and thus understandably our rating priorities should be like-wise customized to suit – both to our climate and also the current state of our country’s development and existing resources. That is why despite the criteria ranking “Energy Efficiency” represents 61% for BCA Green Mark and only 33% for GBI and for “Water Efficiency” 17% for BCA Green Mark and only 10% for GBI. In the other hand as its public transport network is already in place in Singapore and thus little priority is given to this in the ratings. “Environment Protection” in BCA Green Marks are actually covers both “Sustainable site planning and management” and “Materials and resources” criteria of GBI in which are representing 22% compares to 28% (18% + 10%). Another reason for this, Singapore which are be short of resources had practice reducing in using raw materials and recycling materials are already becoming their custom and had embedded in their DNA, therefore it is not a problem. Being late not necessary bad and GBI had proven this. In GBI item four of the assessment criteria (Site Planning Management sub clause Design/SM14 Greenery & Roof) 1% mark will be considered if the roofs are made of 75% Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) materials and 50% of the roofs are vegetated. Other reasons why Singapore do not specifically mentioned “green roof” in their BCA Green Mark’s requirements maybe because the maintenance part are very expensive and in addition water is also a precious resources in Singapore and therefore without this added value it might reduce the building “water requirements” and increase the “water efficiency”.
45 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Below are some samples of vegetated roof. Figure 23: The Green Roof atop Chicago’s City Hall. These Lawns Look Amazingly Natural Set amid the Bright Lights of Chicago's Skyscrapers at Night time.

(Source: Daily Mail Online, 16th January 2012)

Figure 24: OSAKA Central Gymnasium Green Roof 1996, Nikken Sekkei, Osaka

.
(Source: Sustainable Building Design Book, 2005) 46 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Question 4 Discuss the main questions to ask of a material specification choice [in the life cycle approach] as opined by Halliday in her book “Sustainable Construction”. [20 marks] Answer 4 4.1 Material Specification Choice [in the life cycle approach] as Opined by Halliday. When we talk about material selection or “material specification choice” in sustainable development and construction it will never separate us with ecological building design. Ecological building design will emphasise the use of natural materials with a minimum of processing and transportation and an emphasis on healthy, non-toxic specification to minimise pollution. Ideally the materials should also donate to passive forms of environmental control. Many efforts have been taken in coordinating and carrying analysis and labelling on materials in the construction industry to enable the user to make their sustainable choices in selecting the materials. Many of these taken a life cycle approach techniques but more techniques will be more are helpful, and there is ongoing improvement as information evolves, but until now none are thorough. The reason behind is because of the complexity of the issues and also because the ‘sustainability’ of most materials obliges much on how they were source and handle, the way in which they are used and the care that goes into their particularizing and maintenance. Until now no analytical process completely covered by this dependent the main reason probably to do with the relationship between products and design and the opportunities for added value. Majority still argue how to use materials in their natural form and many manufacturers prefer to avoid scrutiny. These issues therefore remain within the area of compromise and judgement, a sphere familiar to designers. However it extends the region such that distance, manufacture, human rights, biodiversity and pollution might all be part of a reasonable decision. Importantly this should not be restrictive on design, but should open up new creative opportunities.
47 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Sandy Halliday in her Sustainable Construction book, had categorised the main questions to ask when conducting material selection/material specification choice are as follows; 1. What is the Resource Base? – Where is it from and how much is left? 2. What is the Embodied Pollution? – What has been done to it and by whom? – There is often an ethical component. 3. What is its Impact in Use? – What effects does it have on people and the wider environment? 4. What is its Final Destination? – What will happen to it at the end of its life? (Halliday, 2008) 4.1.1 Resource base The source of the materials must be known. Some materials turn out to be tremendously rare especially when they are known to support threatened habitats or where there are known to be uses that should take precedence. Rare construction materials should be substituted by where possible and substituted by other less rare or renewable materials. Nevertheless, there are a few solutions to substitute the rare materials and the following options can choose wherever appropriate and possible;

• •

Renewable materials should take precedence over non-renewable ones. Reused or recycled materials or components should take precedence over equivalent ‘virgin’ elements.

Sourcing of materials from areas that are particularly fragile – in respect of their aesthetic, community or ecology should be avoided.

Materials with significant reserves remaining should be used in preference to those with smaller reserves.

Materials should be used as efficiently as possible and allow for their eventual reuse or recovery – especially where using a material with minimal reserves. (Halliday, 2008)
48

Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Steel is very well known and an excellent reusable and recycle material. Independent agencies (and some steel producers) around the world have performed life-cycle analyses on the environmental impacts of using steel. Based on the results, informed designers can confidently specify steel products in their various forms for projects of all sizes, from single storey, low rise to high rise buildings.

Figure 25: Steel Coil Being Produced. Steel is well known as Reusable and Recycle Materials
(Source: Denison Joanne, 2010)

In the other hand many other metals commonly used in the construction industry have extremely limited estimated reserves. World Resource Institute estimates suggest that we may have only a further 10–12 years supply of lead and zinc. The usage of these metal should be substituted with aluminium, which would be a good substitute in most circumstances as it main source bauxite, still have 210-year of supply. In addition, recycling of aluminium is extremely well developed.

Figure 26: Bench from Recycle Plastic
(Source: Plastic Recycling)

49 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 27: Per Capita PET Beverage Bottle Wasting & Recycling, 1990 – 2006.

(Source: Container Recycling Institute, USA)

Plastic despite its capacity for reuse and recycle it also can be used as substitute to many other products. Being a by-product of petroleum distillation plastic are relatively cheap. In addition, many recycled materials are more expensive compared to ‘virgin’ equivalents and meeting appropriate building standards may require pre-planning, which should be allowed for. That might be one of the reasons why plastic recycling still relatively low only about 12.5% even in United State of America. These where legislative to enforce the usage of recycle needs to come in to encourage their usage. But bare in mine for example the use of recycled plastic components might seen good to environment but its recycling process must also not contributes to additional and avoidable pollution, therefore embodied pollution need to be look into seriously. 4.1.2 Embodied pollution. It refers to the by-products of extracting, processing, manufacturing and distribution that make up the construction and industry supply chain of the construction materials that affect the environment and human health. Embodied energy, refers on how much energy was used in the process of making the raw materials into completed products. Product with higher embodied energy will normally contributes higher environmental impact due to the emissions and green house gases associated with
50 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

the consumption of energy during manufacturing processes. All materials contain embodied energy which is a form of embodied pollution but many conventional building materials also contain additional elements as a consequence of chemical processing which are known to be toxic to human and the environment. This shall include concrete, PVC, MDF, most glue, paints, carpets and some finishes. These embodied pollutions can effect throughout the product life to the workers or building occupants during the manufacturing process, construction stage or even during occupancy through gassing or leaching and ultimate pollution through recycling or disposal.

Figure 28: Plastic is being recycled into a range of useful components, such as this ‘squidgy tarmac’, but we have to be careful about embodied toxicity
(Source: Halliday, 2008)

Other method of calculation, which divides the embodied energy with the duration of the product, is used shall give a more accurate result of its impact to the environment. For example Aluminium and Steel are two sustainable products as they are not only very lasting and lighter compared to their substitute, but their embodied energy is only 10% and 20% when they are recycle compared if extracted from their ore. 4.1.2.1 Extraction Pollution from extraction/mining/harvesting/logging of the resources should be monitored. The effects on the immediate natural habitat, the flora and fauna, landscape character, pollution of ground and surface water and reduced water table, and any particular cultural or environmental features should be minimised. In addition working sites should not harm the health and safety of the workers. The extraction activities especially if it is carried out in a massive scale should pass the
51 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Environmental Impact Assessment where should give minimal and acceptable implications to the local population in terms of noise, dust, local transport problems, disruption or nuisance generally and other type of pollutions and social interference. Figure 29: Strip Coal Mining

(Source: Wikipedia)

Figure 30: Logging Activities.

(Source: wesavethem.blogspot.com) 52 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Not all extraction processes are efficient in resource use. In some extraction processes used extremely high primary energy, whereas others use almost none at all. This amount is part of the overall ‘embodied energy’ of a specific material. Awareness on waste created as the result of extraction process has led to new manufacturing opportunities. This had lead to technology improvements in order to reduce waste and off cuts. Producing of composite material i.e. reconstituted slate and fibreboards are examples of new products from waste. This will give ambiguously environmentally advantageous but should also consider their embedded product. 4.1.2.2 Processing and production The process or processes in manufacturing a product, shall contributes to pollution. Pollution may be airborne through chimneys, waterborne – via watercourses and due to seepage from buried waste for example. The product that requires highly processed components should be substituted with product with lesser processed component especially if they can fulfil the same function. Materials from developing countries with poor credentials in terms of worker health and safety should be avoided. It is often best to look at those forms of production that are inherently least hazardous. Local manufacture and less unidentified in terms of the impacts may be contributed to great economic benefits from. Operations that demanding for intensive labours are preferred by some specifies but off course it should be considered on their merits. In the other hand recent development would propose to transfer the load of duties onto machineries despite taxing the workers. This should be welcomed but this change will take some time before it can be realized. Certain specifies rejected those materials that used some unacceptable power source however producers are not ignorant of the opportunities for savings and minds have been focussed by the increasing cost and by excise of fossil fuel energy. Aluminium production which used enormous
53 Semester January 2012

pollution.

For

example

the

recent

stone-cutting

technology

improvements, giving less pollution and turning ‘raw’ rock more efficient into useful

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

energy consumption the cheap electricity.

is normally located closer to hydropower plant to exploit

Figure 31: The Embodied Energy of These Fired Bricks are Poor Compares with the Bricks Fired Using Landfill Gas of Biomass Gas.

(Source: Halliday, 2008)

Several British brick manufacturers use combination of bio-gas and other fuel in firing their bricks. Lastly, although many of the worst practices have been prohibited in developed countries, it still being practices in some developing countries where labour costs are also cheaper and used as a contributory reason to avoid imported materials. Assessing impacts of even one material is extremely complex. It has been calculated that it takes approximately 75 times more energy to import softwood than using local air dried sources. In terms of embodied energy by volume, local timber is one of the very best options, while imported timber is one of the worst materials. The situation is compounded when countries then import energy intensive and polluting materials locally. 4.1.2.3 Waste Some manufacturing processes for example the paint production, are extremely resource ineffective and produce substantial amounts of waste whether is toxic or has little or no further value. In contrary, earth blocks manufacturing produces
54 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

almost no related waste and they can be returned to the site without damaging the environment. In some event by-products can be used in other production processes and reduce the overall waste associated. 4.1.2.4 Recycling A lot of productions processes contain the use of recycle materials (e.g. glass) or the waste from other processes (e.g. the use of gypsum from coal-fired power stations in plasterboard). A number of concerns may arise whether some of these materials are sufficient for production process. 4.1.2.5 Transportation Transport requirements between the site of extraction and the site of processing/ production for some compound will be related build up in ‘transport miles’ and the resulting embodied energy and pollution. 4.1.2.6 Distribution Transportation of products from their processing plants, to further processing plants in the case of multiple elements, to holding yards, to wholesalers or regional distribution centres, to Builders’ Merchants and finally to site can contribute in excess of 50% of the overall embodied energy of a particular product. Generally imported materials shall possess higher embodied energy. Normally regionally based plant and distribution and local sourcing possess lesser embodied energy 4.1.2.7 Packaging Substantial amount of packaging material used in the distribution of building materials should be reduced as very little of which is biodegradable or can be safely burned. Wrapping materials made of plastic might possess high embodied energy. The more of it usage the higher the waste of resources will be. However some materials need to be carefully protected in transit and others may be moisture sensitive etc. but of course there is a room for improvement in the overall materials flow. Therefore requesting information from suppliers on packaging materials and overall environmental policies might help.
55 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

4.1.3 Impact in use aims The endeavour is to minimise and eliminate the unsafe effects of materials on occupants and the environment through the life of a building. In other words a desirable indoor climate is to be designed to actively benefit the health of occupants. The four major impact elaborated by Halliday are as follows; 4.1.3.1 Detailing Timber framed windows are basically more insulating compared to metal framed windows but these advantages can turn into meaningless if the frame to wall junction is detailed wrongly. This is because timber will survive a certain range of adverse climatic conditions provided it is properly detailed. Proper detailing of appropriate timber prevents the need for treatments. Normally timber required treatment because of poor detailing that led to moisture sitting and giving rise to mould and decay. The use of inappropriate weather proofing materials e.g. plastic paints make it worked in opposition to the natural movement of wood in response to climate. As long as it does not stay wet, timber is resistant to climate. Alternatively, it is strong when used completely under water as what happen in Venice provided it stays wet. 4.1.3.2 Toxicity A lot of commonly used products contain substances which harmfully affect the health of buildings occupants. The degree and severity of the risks normally are contended and the preventative principle insufficiently rose. Some substances that are banned in other countries remain freely available in the United Kingdom. Others known to be unsafe are monitored by health and safety initiatives. Poor HVAC system normally contributes to indoor pollution. Since smoking is no more allowed in the building biggest source of pollution was from materials used in the indoor environment. Some of the product used may be health hazards. The elderly, children and the unborn are normally defenceless on those potential such toxins, are rarely considered. In reality, much of the risk to health comes from the mysterious ‘cocktail effect’ of the many chemicals present in buildings and information on health risks associated substances is insufficient.
56 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Building products that are considered harmful include: • many forms of paint and varnish, • formaldehyde in resin bonded boards, like plywood, chipboard and some foam products, • vinyl products such as flooring tiles, • most of timber treatments. (Halliday, 2008) 4.1.3.3 Passive environmental control It is to achieve good indoor air quality, acoustics, visual, moisture mass and thermal comfort that contributing to comfort and well-being of the occupants. These will involve a good design that provides natural air circulation shall also contribute to a good environment quality within the premises, application of quality ventilation and air filtration, proper control of air temperature, monitoring and control of carbon dioxide, enough levels of day lighting, reduce discomfort of glare from natural light by using building envelope, mould prevention, and humidity. Figure 32: Solar Shade in King Fahad National Library in Riad, Saudi Arabia

(Source: Bauer Michael, 2010)

For passive thermal mass control radiation from, or to, surrounding surfaces also need to look into. The designer need to choose the suitable building materials e.g.
57 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

heavyweight, lightweight or hybrid but each type has their own effect in adsorbing thermal fluctuations in buildings. Wrongly choose might resulting thermal discomfort to the occupants. It also goes to moisture mass works in a similar way but relies not on density, but on hygroscopicity. Hygroscopicity is the capacity of materials to absorb and release ambient moisture vapour. This capacity enables certain materials to regulate the relative humidity in the indoor climate, by absorbing moisture when the humidity rises and emitting it when the air becomes dry, smoothing out peaks and troughs, in much the same way as thermal mass regulates temperature. Both thermal mass and moisture mass are linked to a number of health problems and therefore proper material selections are vital to avoid them. 4.1.3.4 Local issues A lot of factors might affect the choice of building materials. It may affect by vernacular traditions of an area, what are imposed by the local authorities or there may be a desire to enhance the ‘sense of place’ and local distinctiveness by the use of local and traditional materials in order to assist a new building to be placed well with its surroundings. Certain regions maintain particular expertise or building designs, often related with a particular local material, and this can form an important part of the heritage and ongoing culture of an area. A desire to support local expertise can assist in determining the choice of materials. An ecological approach would incline to promoting of local materials while recognising limits to capacity, accessibility and the restriction on creativity and manifestation. Imitation does not encourage! 4.1.4 In final destination The construction industry is the second largest consumer of raw materials, after the food industry. The ultimate concern is how to reduce the consumption of materials. In addition majority of materials are highly treated with chemical additions that are insecure and may caused problems towards their useful life. Halliday suggested that the overall impact of materials can be reduced by the followings essential potential;
58 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

• innovation of new or traditional materials that are non-polluting at the end of their useful life; • improved detailing such that materials do not require to be treated in such a way as to be difficult to deal with at the end of their useful life; • increasing the inherent durability of buildings and components; • reducing waste through improved design and construction processes; • extending the useful life of materials by the re-use and recycling of materials and components. A systematic approach to material specification and design is very vital and in order to achieve this, the preference order is: innovate, reduce, repair, re-use, recycle and lastly, energy recovery. 4.1.4.1 Innovation When talk about innovation of new or traditional materials of course we wanted them to be non-polluting throughout their useful usage and at the end of life. The product also must be durable free maintenance and have a long lifespan. It is important to look at the inherent durability, and the quality of a material, and to detail it so as to enhance the durability as far as possible. There is good information available on detailing to enhance durability, but materials and components have got to be worth reusing and this places an emphasis on the specification of good quality materials in the first demand. Make the products more durable and environmental friendly towards its usage and end of life also can be categorised under innovation. The higher the durability the lesser the maintenance will be required and the longer the lifespan of the product and the building. ‘Maintenance free’ buildings are increasingly sought by clients concerned to minimise the running costs associated with built developments. This is not surprising given the backlog of poorly detailed and inappropriately managed buildings that resulted in a legacy of high maintenance. Building lifespan come in a different layer. The overall structure might be expected to last 100 years or more, the external wall skin 50 years, the internal partitioning 20 years, elements of the services 10 years, fit-out, decoration and equipment
59 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

cycles are often less than 5 years. Series of lifespan would ease the repair, replace, maintenance processes and re-use, and shall avoid the risk of the building being decommissioned ahead of its design life. Shall a component is known cannot be re-used or recycled in the first place, it is better to choose for organic products, that is biodegradable materials as they can naturally decay and will not affected the environment at the end of their useful life. As many coatings and preservatives transform ‘natural’ materials into toxic waste (e.g. most conventional preservative treated timber) and they are no longer harmlessly biodegradable and must be disposed of by regulated means new innovation must invented to stop this. All energy saving appliances and fittings also can be considered under innovation category e.g. introducing of mixed mode/low energy ventilation system, waterless urinals fitted to all male toilets, water brake taps, central waste conveyance system, central vacuum system, condensate water recovery, use of motion sensor for light, air-condition and even escalator, solar thermal technology/solar air conditioners, wind turbine and etc. Figure 33: Waterless Urinals

(Source: http://chieforganizer.org)

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

4.1.4.2 Reduce Reducing the amount of any resource: materials, space or elements, does not mean compromising with safety and good engineering practice. Reducing the amount of mechanical services is to challenge design/engineering aspiration as the end result still seek the meet clients need and satisfaction. Modular construction approach and using prefab segments might be useful to reduce wastage as the sections were fabricated in control environment i.e. fabricated yard. In addition the assemblies’ duration on site are shortening and can reduce the manpower cost. The selection of proper materials e.g. steel and aluminium section/structure may lead to saving on foundation by 30% because they are lighter comparing is we use the concrete structure. Figure 34: Prefabricated Bathroom Units

(Source:BCA Singapore, 2007)

4.1.4.3 Repair Our culture has grown to expectation for minimum maintenance of our habitat, buildings and gardens. In reality this cannot be achieved. Consequence of our expectation is reduced life of many components and this is wasteful. Worse the substitution of polluting materials such as PVC and timber treatments and coatings

61 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

had placed embodied pollution to the environment. Therefore sustainable construction do allow repair especially for environmentally products. 4.1.4.4 Reuse Reuse of buildings and materials is a serious resource issue. It requires attention to flexibility, the opportunities for future extension or reduction and awareness of the different layers of a building and how they wear. Design for re-use involves consideration of the material and jointing technique so as to enable re-use and replacement of components, either in part or in whole. Components have to be worth reusing to enable a market for re-used goods to develop, and easy enough to re-use to make it profitable to do so. These considerations tend to favour modular construction. A good example is the use of lime mortar which enables bricks to be re-used, whereas cement mortar is often too hard and makes such re-use extremely difficult and not cost effective. It is significantly easier to reclaim components when attention has been given to this at the design stage. Other construction materials e.g. roof tiles, timber, glass, door panel, steel trust and others that having potential to be reused should be used.

Figure 35: Design for Deconstruction (Reuse Purposes) – Oak floor at Glencoe.

(Source: Halliday, 2008) 62 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

4.1.4.5 Recycle Where the re-use of a component is not possible, recycle of the whole or parts might be possible. Glass, copper, zinc, timber and concrete rubbles are some examples of construction materials that can be recycled. Nowadays government are encouraging recycle and it is an adding criterion for green building certification. Anything can be recycled, but the ease, value and toxicity issues are important. Figure 36: The Gabion Walls for Kresge Foundation Headquarters Troy, Michigan Used Recycled Demolition Rubble

(Source: Moskow Keith, 2008)

If components are improperly coated, or laminated or connected the recycle processes will become expensive and therefore their potential for recycling will extensively reduced. As example the sandwich panel that is enamel or powder coated on both sides, with resin bonding of the metal sheeting to the insulation. This makes it almost impossible to recover those parts that could be recycled. As recycling process can add up embodied pollution and expense therefore materials selection also need to take this into account perhaps they should be avoided.

63 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

4.1.4.6 Energy Recovery Reuse part of building materials e.g. glass, roof tiles, timber and concrete debris as hardcore, helps to recover energy from wastage. Typically building reuse known as “gut rehab” helping in recovering some energy rather than tearing the whole building and saves natural resources, including the raw materials, energy, and water resources that required to build new building, prevents pollution that might take place as a by-product of extraction, manufacturing, and transportation of virgin materials; and avoids creating solid waste and construction debris which stock piled in landfills. Today energy recovery process can go beyond that and it can be done and helps to retrieve energy from waste that, without this technology, it would be lost. It is a method of increasing energy output without increasing the input. In other words it is increasing the process efficiencies. Figure 37 is showing an example how the heat from the air-condition compressor can be collected by heat recovery tank to heat up water heaters.

Figure 37: Heat from Air-conditioners Compressor are Collected to Heat Up Water Heaters.

(Source: www.j7eng.com)

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 38, shows a typical factory or manufacturer usually manages to use only 1/3 of the energy produced by burning fuel where the other 2/3 usually goes out as "waste energy". Thus the heat produce goes out with that waste. In other word normal generator have only 33% efficiency. Energy Recovery can be used to capture the so called waste energy and put it to use. The energy is used to heat water and create steam which turns generators creating electricity, or is used for other purposes. With the combination of energy recovery system only 10% of the heat is eventually lost in the process. These combination systems improve the efficiency from 33% to 90%. Besides, steam, which is created in the energy recovery and reuse process, has no environmental impact. When the steam cools down, it simply condenses back to water. Figure 38: Energy Recovery System

.
(Source: www.hotstocked.com)

4.2 Material Selection using Life-Cycle Assessment A life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

associated with all the stages of a product's life from cradle- to-gate, cradle-to-grave and cradle-to-cradle (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling). LCA’s can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; Interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound basis for informed decisions for material selections. 4.2.1 Cradle-to-gate: It is an assessment of a partial product life cycle from resource extraction ('cradle') to the factory gate (i.e., before it is transported to the consumer). The use phase and disposal phase of the product are omitted in this case. Cradle-to-gate assessments are sometimes the basis for environmental product declarations (EPD) termed business-to-business EDPs. 4.2.2 Cradle-to-grave: Cradle-to-grave is the full Life Cycle Assessment from resource extraction ('cradle') to use phase and disposal phase ('grave'). Is when a product/packaging is used and then thrown away and is put into landfill causing hazardous and environmental problems. These 'cradle to grave' products can’t be recycled due to the material that is used in them. The moment you open and use a can of solvent you are a waste producer. Conservation laboratories might only produce 10–15 gallons of waste each year and private conservators only one quart, but the improper disposal of even small quantities may cause health, safety, and legal problems. In 1980, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued regulations detailing the
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

responsibilities for hazardous waste generators, transporters, and management facilities. Among these regulations were two broad exclusions: households and small businesses that generated less than 1,000 kilograms per month of hazardous waste. A "Cradle-to-grave" assessment considers impacts at each stage of a product's life-cycle, from the time natural resources are extracted from the ground and processed through each subsequent stage of manufacturing, transportation, product use, and ultimately, disposal.

For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose (fibresed paper) insulation, then used as an energy-saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2,000 times the fossilfuel energy used in its production. After 40 years the cellulose fibres are replaced and the old fibres are disposed of, possibly incinerated. All inputs and outputs are considered for all the phases of the life cycle.

Figure 39: Door Panel/Frame Cradle-to-Gate and Cradle-to-Grave Loop.

(Adapted: designindustry2009.blogspot.com) 67 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

4.2.3 Cradle-to-cradle (open loop production): Cradle-to-cradle is a similar kind of cradle-to-grave assessment, but the end-of-life disposal step of the product is a recycle process. The spirit is to minimise the environmental impact of products by employing sustainable production, operation, and disposal practices and aims to incorporate social responsibility into product development. New identical products originate by the recycling process (e.g., asphalt pavement from discarded asphalt pavement, glass bottles from collected glass bottles), or different products (e.g., glass wool insulation from collected glass bottles). Cradle-to-cradle is a bio-mimetic approach to the design of systems. It models human industry on nature's processes in which materials are viewed as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms. This idea was established by architect William McDonough based on the idea that products and the built environment should be designed in a closed system so that when they are no longer useful, they provide fuel for new products or natural cycles and eliminating waste. This production technique is not just efficient, but effectively waste-free. In cradleto-cradle production, all material inputs and outputs are seen either as technical or biological nutrients. All the materials that are used in the cradle to cradle idea are metals, fibres, dyes. These materials fall into one of two categories: "technical" or "biological" nutrients. Technical nutrients are stringently limited to non-toxic, non-harmful materials that have no negative impact natural environment. As their reliability or quality remains they can be used in continuous cycles over and over again instead of being "down cycled" into lesser products, finally becoming waste. Biological Nutrients are organic materials that, once used, can be disposed into natural environment, decay naturally into the soil and providing food for small life forms without affecting the environment.

68 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 40: Aluminium Cradle-to-Cradle Loop

(Source: www.alcoa.com/sustainability)

69 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Question 5 What are the economic benefits of green buildings? Differentiate between “Whole-life cost [WLC]” or “Life-cycle cost [LCC] and “Life-cycle assessment [LCA]”. [20 marks] Answer 5 5.1 Economic Benefits of Green Buildings. Green or sustainable buildings help to achieve environmental, social and economic benefits for the household, neighbourhoods, communities, the nations and even to the world communities in general. Sustainable are an important step for any country towards the target of becoming a sustainable liveable global city. Sandy Halliday in her book had mentioned that direct economic benefits from sustainable building can be attributed to the recognition, on the part of clients, from real saving and by improving the financial performance of a building. The benefit also contributes by the public relation, niche market and streamlined approvals for more responsible design. Sandy Halliday added that there are five (5) economic benefits and they are as among the benefits are: • • • • • Reduced operating costs Reduced waste Reduced liability Enhanced productivity and learning Social costs and the environment

5.1.1 Reduced operating costs It is possible to reduce resources use by 30% - from regulatory requirements – within the constraints of most building budgets. Global and local studies all show that Green Homes are very cost efficient over their lifetime. Attention to basic details, simplicity, passive solutions and avoiding over sizing should be the first considerations before add on technology. Their passive design strategies reduce the need for artificial lighting and climate control, and when coupled with efficient appliances, rain water harvesting, recycle of grey water and using of renewable energy e.g. solar panel and wind turbine that can
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

further reduce the energy and water consumption of the building and shall reduce the operating cost in long run. The reduction in consumption equals a noticeable cost saving in utility bills. Green buildings minimises the need for rigorous future cost modifications and is widely acknowledged as being attractive to future owners and occupants. This will provide a competitive advantage, enhance asset value and profits and also attract and retain tenants better. Optimum design by avoiding over sizing able to reduce operating cost. 5.1.2 Reduced waste Reductions are possible with major savings in construction and demolition costs. Basically green buildings are stressing very much to reduce the usage of raw materials and to reuse whichever possible materials or to recycle them in a different forms. The usage of modular and prefab components will also helps in reducing the development cost as fabricating structure components in control environment e.g. fabrication plants surely will minimise construction wastage. Material selection e.g. using steel structure because its natural behaviour of being lighter compared to concrete shall be able to reduce the foundation cost by 30%. In addition rehabilitating a part or the existing building (Gut Rehab) can lower infrastructure and materials costs. Efficient use of land, energy and water conservation, natural landscaping and solid waste management all give financial benefits. If life-cycle cost and sustainable elements are factored in and designed into projects early on, sustainability will be feasible and not expensive to implement. 5.1.3 Reduce liability Legislation is a vital consideration as environmental bodies show increase willingness to introduce and use the law to prevent poor environmental practice. Future proofing is important as changes in regulatory requirements can have significant associated costs if they lead to major contract variation. There is also a clear intention that trends in fiscal policy and in regulatory policy will increasingly tax pollution and
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

inefficiency, and impose increasingly higher targets for environmental. Selection of systems that are long lasting and readily manageable and maintainable, and selection of building materials that are non-polluting in use and at the end of their life are becoming standard good practice elements of future proofing. Attention to the indoor environment reduces the risk of building related ill-health, with legal and productivity implications. For example avoidance the development in green fields areas and in opposite encourage the development in brown fields, grey fields and black fields shall reduce the liability of insufficient green field’s areas. Green buildings very much shall stress on reducing solid waste, lessened strain on local infrastructure such as landfills, water supply, storm water, sewers, and their related development and operational costs. Decreased transportation development and maintenance burden and increased economic performance of mass transit systems, Developed local markets for locally produced materials, Improved air and water quality, thermal, and acoustic environments, enhanced occupant comfort and health, and overall quality of life, and conserve natural resources. 5.1.4 Enhanced productivity and learning Many studies have shown improvements in workers/occupants health, productivity and initiate better ideas and performance when good healthy environment i.e. decent air quality, acoustic, daylight, personal environmental control, and a connection to plant features and good outdoor view are provided. Green buildings enjoy good reputation and their developers are valued view for goodwill toward employees and the community. This in a long run shall benefit their sales in term of increase on demand. The future of sustainable building design and construction will create greater benefits as designers deepen their understanding of the interrelation of architecture, engineering and the environment. This will also encourage innovation toward energy and water saving design and efficient appliances.

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 41: Panorama KLCC Condominium, Jalan Hampshire Kuala Lumpur.
(Vegetated roof, vegetated and facade solar shade)

(Source: Author)

5.1.5 Social cost and the environment There are costs associated with ill-health due to unsustainable buildings. For example The National Asthma Campaign statistics indicate that in the UK one in 25 adults and one in seven children has asthma which lead to 1500 deaths each year and 7 million lost work days due to asthma result in UK350million in lost productivity and cost of approximately UK60million in sickness benefit. The cost of asthma treatment to the NHS is UK850 million a year (Halliday, 2008). Green buildings are designed with all people in mind. Comfort, safety and security are also addressed to accommodate society’s changing needs. With lesser toxic
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

chemicals used in and outside the buildings, it becomes healthier. Day lighting and natural ventilation facilitates an internal environment that is thermally and visually comfortable, overall sense of well-being and vitality to the workers, building occupants, neighbourhoods and communities. Green building maximise the use of natural energy to reduce the need for energy from non-renewable sources, reducing their carbon footprint. A green building includes passive design features, such as building orientation for ventilation, insulation and solar shading, appropriate use of building materials and fixtures and fittings to help the environment. Some of these are explored below; • Reflexive cooling strategies - preclude buildings from overheating by blocking extreme solar obtains and promoting natural ventilation. • Building orientation to the North and South increases the opportunity to access the predominant, whilst reducing the building's exposure to the powerful sun, further promoting natural passive cooling strategies. • Natural day lighting contributes to bright cheerful indoor environments and reduces the need for electric generated lighting. • Green building does more than just energy saving. Through the usage of water efficient fittings and appliances fresh/potable water can be save. • Indoor-air quality can improve producing healthier places to work, especially since HVAC control strategies can include the incorporation of finish materials with low VOC content. All this added quality shall actually able to increase productivity and reduce medical bills.

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

5.2 The Definition 5.2.1 Definition of Whole-life-cost There are a lot of definitions of Whole-life-cost (WLC) which sometimes also called as Life-cycle-cost (LCC) and some of them are as follows; “The systematic consideration of all relevant costs and revenues associated with the acquisition and ownership of an asset”. (Centre for Whole Life Construction and Conservation) “Procurement and production costing technique that considers all life cycle costs. In procurement, it aims to determine the lowest cost of ownership of a fixed asset (purchase price, installation, operation, maintenance and upgrading, disposal, and other costs) during the asset's economic life. In manufacturing (as an integral part of terotechnology), it aims to estimate not only the production costs but also how much revenue a product will generate and what expenses will be incurred at each stage of the value chain during the product's estimated life cycle duration”. (http://www.businessdictionary.com) "The total cost throughout its life including planning, design, acquisition and support costs and any other costs directly attributable to owning or using the asset". (New South Wales, Treasury). “Life cycle cost is the cost of an asset, or its parts throughout its life cycle, while fulfilling the performance requirements” (ISO 15686-5) WLC looks at the life cycle from the start of design and construction, and might include: • Procurement costs – feasibility, design, construction, purchase/lease, interest, fees. • Operating costs – energy, water/sewage, waste disposal, cleaning, security and management.
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

• Recurring

costs

rent,

rates,

maintenance,

repair,

refurbishment,

replacement/renewal. • End-of-life costs – decommissioning, dismantling or disposal. • Revenue – sales of recycled materials, rental income and asset value accrued. (Halliday, 2008) In simpler word whole-life-cost or life-cycle-cost is the total cost of ownership an asset. In sustainable development, it is the assessment of all relevant costs and revenues associated with a building over an agreed period, include the financial cost which is relatively simple to calculate and also the environmental and social costs which are more difficult to quantify and assign numerical values. Typical areas of expenditure which are included in calculating the whole-life cost include, planning, design, construction and acquisition, operations, maintenance, renewal and rehabilitation, depreciation and cost of finance and replacement or disposal. 5.2.2 Definition of Life-cycle-assessment Some of definitions on “Life-cycle assessment (LCA)” are as follows; “Comprehensive ecological assessment that identifies the energy, material, and waste flows of a product, and their impact on the environment. This cradle to grave evaluation begins with the design of the product and progresses through the extraction and use of its raw materials, manufacturing or processing with associated waste stream, storage, distribution, use, and its disposal or recycling. The objective is to identify changes, at every stage of the life cycle that can lead to environmental benefits and overall cost savings. Also called life cycle impact assessment”. (http://www.businessdictionary.com) “A systematic set of procedures for compiling and examining the inputs and outputs of materials and energy and the associated environmental impacts directly attributable to the functioning of a product or service system throughout its life cycle”. (The Global Development Research Center)
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

“LCA considers the entire life cycle of a product, from raw material extraction and acquisition, through energy and material production and manufacturing, to use and end of life treatment and final disposal.” (ISO 14040: 2006 Environmental Management) “Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) involve cradle-to-grave analyses of production systems and provide comprehensive evaluations of all upstream and downstream energy inputs and multimedia environmental emissions. LCAs can be costly and time-consuming, thus limiting their use as analysis techniques in both the public and private sectors. Streamlined techniques for conducting LCAs are needed to lower the cost and time involved with LCA and to encourage a broader audience to begin using LCA”. (Research Triangle Institute - RTI) “Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used as a tool to assess the environmental impacts of a product, process or activity throughout its life cycle; from the extraction of raw materials through to processing, transport, use and disposal. In its early days it was primarily used for product comparisons, for example to compare the environmental impacts of disposable and reusable products. Today its applications include government policy, strategic planning, marketing, consumer education, process improvement and product design. It is also used as the basis of eco-labelling and consumer education programs throughout the world”. (M. Demmers and H. Lewis)

“Life Cycle Assessment or LCA can be defined as a systematic inventory and analysis of the environmental effect that is caused by a product or process starting from the extraction of raw materials, production, use, etc. up to the waste treatment. For each of these steps there will be made an inventory of the use of material and energy and the emissions to the environment. With this inventory an environmental profile will be set up, which makes it possible to identify the weak

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

points in the lifecycle of the system studied. These weak points are the focal points for improving the system from an environmental point of view”. (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) “The total discounted dollar cost of owning, operating, maintaining, and disposing of a building or a building system” over a period of time. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is an economic evaluation technique that determines the total cost of owning and operating a facility over period of time”. (NIST, Handbook 135, 1995) “Life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is also called as Life-cycle analysis (LCA) is a method to measure and evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product system or activity, by describing and assessing the energy and materials used and released to the environment over the life cycle. LCA looks at the ‘cradleto-grave’ impact of elements, materials and components, and is the basis of most product labelling”. (Halliday, 2008) In a sustainable development Life-cycle-assessment (LCA) is a mean to gauge and appraise the environmental burdens associated as a product process or movement by unfolding and measuring the materials and energy used and released to the environment over the life cycle. LCA looks at the cradle-to-grave impact elements, materials and components and is the basis of most products eco-labelling.

5.2.3 The Diffrent Between Whole-life-cost and Life-cycle-assessment The benefit of green/sustainable buildings and other sustainable developments can be mesured using Whole-life-cost to assess and measure the total cost of ownership an asset including the financial, the environmental and social costs including planning, design, construction and acquisition, operations, maintenance, renewal and rehabilitation, depreciation and cost of finance and replacement or disposal. In the other hand Life-cycle-assessment (LCA) can be used to appraise the environmental burdens associated to a product measuring the materials and
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

energy used and waste released to the environment start from extraction of raw materials, the processing, manufacturing, and fabrication of the product; the transportation or distribution of the product to the consumer, the use of the product by the consumer and the disposal or recovery of the product after its useful life. 5.3 Whole Life Cost (WLC) Whole-life-cost (WLC) is the assessment of the total cost of ownership throughout the entire life of an asset/building/structure. It also frequently referred as "cradle to grave" or "womb to tomb" costs. The total costs measured shall include the financial cost that is straighter forward but also shall take into consideration the environmental and social costs that need to quantify and consign to numerical values. The cost shall include the stages of initiation, planning, design, procurement, construction and acquisition, operations, maintenance, renewal, rehabilitation, depreciation and cost of finance and replacement or disposal. It is about identifying future costs and referring them back to present day costs using standard accounting techniques such as Present Value. It is recognised as an appropriate technique for use in valuing total costs of assets that have regular operating and/or recurrent maintenance costs, based on formalised maintenance programmes. All the costs associated with various options for a project are added together to represent a total cost. Essentially, whole life costing is a method of comparing options and their associated cost and income streams over a period of time. An alternative definition, from BS 3811 on maintenance management, stresses that it is ‘for the purpose of making decisions’. Because the decisions involve considering events in the future as diverse as inflation rates, how long the building/asset will be needed and what the weather will be like, there is a lot of uncertainty in the results. However, it does provide a method of choosing between alternatives on the basis of what we know now and what we expect the future will bring. Whole life cost procurement in construction has been strongly supported by longterm building owners and clients in recent years. Clients who own and manage buildings/assets long term want to know their cost of ownership before being
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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

committed to a particular building or design alternative. Whole life cost helps to avoid of unpleasant surprises. Various contractual procurement initiatives which shift longterm costs of running built assets from the public to the private sector (e.g. Public Private Partnerships/Design, Build, Finance, Operate arrangements etc.) are driving the adoption of whole life costing by constructors and designers. 5.3.1 An Example of Whole-life-cost In order to understand the Whole-life-cost better, the report produced by HR Wallingford on Whole-Life-Cost for Sustainable Drainage is taken as an example. The study was carried out to investigate the economic incentives, social impacts and ecological benefits of sustainable drainage systems (SUDS). All expenditure incurred by a sustainable drainage system owner/operator results from the requirement to maintain the service of drainage of the surface water runoff. Adopting a long-term approach supplement the fact that sustainable drainage assets will have a relatively long “useful” life, providing appropriate management and maintenance is financed. The guide provides a brief background to sustainable drainage, and sets out an approach for evaluating whole life costs for these systems.. 5.3.2 The Need for Whole-life-cost (WLC) Capital costs of SUDS are apparently cheaper than conventional drainage but their maintenance requirements may be essential in comparison. Therefore an understanding of long-term costs is vital to make a decision. All parties involve i.e. property management companies, local authorities or sewerage undertakers requires tools that can help them to understand the potential financial implications of taking responsibility for these systems in the long-term. WLC tools shall assist to make the comparisons between different drainage design solutions, and between a range of SUDS options. It shall covers the likely expenditure profile for the system over throughout its design life.

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

5.3.3 SUDS Whole-life-costs The costs associated to SUDS shall includes the economic and financial perspective. Economic assessment shall covers all the costs and benefits to the community affected by a proposed development, while the financial assessment is solely concerned with the tangible costs, earnings and revenues which accrue to the SUDS owner and operator. The major difficulty in an economic assessment is to appraise the benefits and risks associated with the scheme, which may not be readily measurable in cash terms. The two approaches are summarised in the figure below; Figure 42 : Typical Whole Life Costs

(Source: http://www.ciria.org.uk)

5.3.4 Discounting future costs The simplest and most regularly used discounting method available is Present Value where it can applying varying time pattern of expenditure for SUDS. Present

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Value has been defined as, “the value of a stream of benefits or costs when discounted back to the present time” It can be reflected as the sum of money that needs to be spent today to meet all future costs as they arise throughout the life cycle of a scheme or structure. The formula for calculating present value is given below:

5.3.5 Data required for a Whole-life-cost Approach 5.3.5.1 Design Life It is described as the minimum length of time that a scheme or structure is required to perform its purpose. There is some doubt over the design lives of sustainable drainage systems. However, with appropriate designs and regular maintenance, they should be lifelong as there is low risk of structural failure. 5.3.5.2 Capital Costs SUDS capital costs should incorporate (where suitable); • Planning and site investigation costs • Design and project management/site supervision costs • Clearance and land preparation work • Material costs • Construction (labour and equipment) costs • Planting and post-construction landscaping costs • Cost of land-take. 5.3.5.3 Operation & Maintenance Costs Ongoing maintenance is requires in sustainable drainage design in order to ensure short-term operation and minimise risks to long term performance.
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Proper maintenance activities are very important consideration in determining lifetime costs. 5.3.5.4 Risk Costs Operation and maintenance activities cover the followings; • Monitoring (Shall includes visual monitoring of litter build-up, water quality, sediment accumulation, plant growth, erosion damage, water levels). • Regular, planned maintenance (e.g. rodding culverts, clearing debris from manholes, grass-cutting, vegetation management, sediment removal, jetting of permeable surfaces and silt traps). • Intermittent, irregular maintenance (e.g. for major mid-life refurbishment such as geotextile replacement, vegetation replacement, soak away replacement etc). • Unplanned maintenance / rehabilitation (e.g. responding to problems e.g. blocked culverts/trash-racks, pollution incident, vegetation death etc). Irregular maintenance and rehabilitation can often be ‘managed out’ through good design and efficient regular management of the systems. 5.3.5.5 Risk Costs The residual risks in sustainable drainage schemes can be managed to a certain extent through safe designs for going beyond, regular monitoring and appropriate maintenance. Normally the costs associated with the risks are likely to be ‘public’ or ‘societal’ costs and not be borne by the SUDS owner or operator. Risks associated with flooding from conventional sewerage systems during extreme events and/or the impacts on receiving water quality from CSO spills have historically been considered by sewerage undertakers (adopting authorities), rather than the scheme developers. However, the move towards specific recognition of all relevant costs and benefits at project appraisal stage means that such considerations may be important for the future.
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5.3.5.6 Environmental Costs Among other environmental benefits gains from implementing SUDS inludes include amenity and recreation opportunities, biodiversity and ecological enhancement, aquifer and base flow augmentation, water quality improvements and net flood risk reductions. There are methods for gauging these benefits into monetary values. 5.3.5.7 Disposal Costs As a result of operation and maintenance/rehabilitation activities, there are some materials that that may require for disposal. These include; • Vegetation (including aquatic planting and grass turfing) • Granular fill • Permeable surface block work • Sediment • Geotextiles. 5.3.5.8 Residual Costs Being part of economic evaluation, the residual cost of the land used for the drainage components should be included. It is unlikely that any land close to development areas would depreciate in value within a 20 – 50 year period, and thus the net present worth of the land following the nominal operational lifetime should be accounted for. 5.3.5.9 Discount Rate and Discount Period It is the rate used to convert all future costs and benefits to ‘present values’ so that they can be compared. In this study the public sector, the discount rate is set by the Treasury and they are currently recommending a rate of 3.5 %, a recent shift from a long-term value set at 6 %. This reduction in discount rate efficiently puts a higher weight on future costs, with the aim of encouraging longer-term and towards more sustainable development. The following figure shows the variation with time of the contribution of annual expenditure to whole life cost, using the 3.5 and 6 % discount rates.
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Figure 43: variation with time of the contribution of annual expenditure to whole life cost, using the 3.5 and 6 % discount rates

(Source: http://www.ciria.org.uk)

5.3.6 Literature Review of Costs for SUDS In attempting to determine reasonable cost estimates for sustainable drainage systems in UK (that could be used for planning purposes), two approaches were followed. The first comprised a review and summary of cost estimates from literature. The second comprised a review and summary of real out-turn SUDS construction costs and costed operation and maintenance schedules, collated from industry. Unfortunately, despite extensive consultation, very few scheme costs were found to be available and therefore no thorough comparison can be made. The following figure shows an example of capital costs collated for retention ponds:

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 44: Retention Ponds Cost (Literature Review in UK).

(Source: http://www.ciria.org.uk)

5.3.7 SUDS Whole life costing methodology The PV approach is summarised in the following figure; Figure 45: Undertaking a Whole Life Cost Appraisal for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

(Source: Owens Illinois, Inc.) 86 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

5.3.8 WLC - Conclusion Flow diagram in Figure 45 shows how to derive to Whole-life-cost for a SUD system. The cost of constructing any asset/structure is inherently variable and will depend to a large extent on local conditions, and size of the development. Design criteria, together with topographic constraints, will determine flow rates and the volume of storage that is required. Taking SUDS as an example, the design and performance criteria for assets/structure should provide for health and safety, amenity and ecological benefits, in addition to hydraulic control and water quality treatment, and an economic appraisal of whole life costs will include environmental costs and benefits. Influences on capital cost shall includes hydraulic design criteria, water quality design criteria, region, land costs, soil type, materials availability, density of planting, public education, amenity /recreational facilities, inlet/outlet infrastructure design, construction programming and management and scale of development. Any asset/structure should be planned and designed for ease of maintenance, to keep ongoing costs at a minimum.

5.4 Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) Whereby for Life-cycle assessment (LCA) which also known as eco-balance, and “cradle-to-grave analysis” is a method to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recovery of the product after its useful life e.g. reuse and recycle). LCA specifies and assesses the energy involved and the resultant pollutions released over their life-cycle. There are four linked components of LCA:

Goal definition and scoping: identifying the LCA's purpose and the expected products of the study, and determining the boundaries (what is and is not included in the study) and assumptions based upon the goal definition; Life-cycle inventory: quantifying the energy and raw material inputs and environmental releases associated with each stage of production;
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Impact analysis: assessing the impacts on human health and the environment associated with energy and raw material inputs and environmental releases quantified by the inventory; Improvement analysis: evaluating opportunities to reduce energy, material inputs, or environmental impacts at each stage of the product life-cycle. (Tellus Institute)

LCA can be used to compare the environmental performance of products and services, to be able to choose the least troublesome one. The concept also can be used to optimize the environmental performance of a single product (eco-design) or to optimize the environmental performance of a company. The term “emergy” is often used as an analysis tool to determine embodied energy. The impact to the environment by usage also is part of the analysis. For a hydro electric power plant, for example, construction pollution is considered, but so is the decay in biomass on land flooded to create the dam as it no more able to absorb CO2. Among damages categories that frequent assess are global warming (greenhouse gases), acidification, smog, ozone layer depletion, eutrophication, eco-toxic and anthrop toxic pollutants, desertification, land use as well as depletion of minerals and fossil fuels. A life cycle of a product/material starts with the raw material, the necessary energy and other resources for its extraction, transporting, manufacturing, marketing, fabrication, use and disposal, as well as the waste resulting from these processes, such as solid waste, air, water effluents and noise pollutions. For example, the life cycle of an aluminium base product requires a tremendous amount of energy to mine the bauxite ore and manufacture the aluminium pieces. The process also creates industrial and mining waste, and water and air pollution. Shipping it to you consumes energy and often requires packaging (with its own life cycle). Throwing used aluminium in a landfill means it will stay there for hundreds or maybe thousands of years. But shall it can be recycled into new aluminium products we can saves 95 percent of the energy compares to make the products from ore. The "life-cycle" or "cradle-to-grave" impacts include the extraction of raw materials; the processing, manufacturing, and fabrication of the product; the transportation or
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distribution of the product to the consumer; the use of the product by the consumer; and the disposal.

Figure 46: Typical phases of a material or product’s life cycle are illustrated, along with energy inputs and waste outputs at each phase. The disposal phase can involve reuse or recycling.

(Source: George C. Ramsey, 2005)

.Figure 47: Life Cycle Assessment Process – Showing How We Can Reduce the Impact to the Environment.

(Adapted: Matsushita Graphic Communications Systems Inc.) 89 Semester January 2012

Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

In figure 46, definitely shall the material can be reused or recycle some energy could be save, some waste could be reduced and lesser greenhouse gases or CO2 equivalent will be released. Conducting the Life Cycle Assessment can assist us to identify, monitor and reduce the impact of product each fabrication process to the environment. This are showed in figure 47. 5.4.1 Sample of Life Cycle Assessment For a better understanding, Life-cycle-assessment studies on glass bottles manufacturing process carried out by Owens-Illinois Inc. where the study’s methodology have been tested and the results were validated by Advanced Market Research are referred. The study had established that glass containers have a lower carbon footprint than PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) plastic and even aluminum. O-I glass bottles are infinitely recycled and using it efforts to protect the planet. The life cycle assessment study also revealed that refillable glass bottles, which can be used an average of 30 times, have an even smaller carbon footprint. In Latin America and Western Europe, refillable bottles represent more than 60 and 35 percent of the market, respectively. The study undertook one of the first complete life cycle assessments in the packaging sector. It is global in scope and encompasses every stage of the packaging life cycle. LCA methods vary widely and the findings from this study helped to de-fine O-I sustainability program and offer unprecedented to the world. It is difficult to accurately and objectively compare the carbon footprint of different packaging materials as packaging methods are widely inconsistent. By providing a global and comparative perspective, O-I’s LCA complements the life cycle assessments recently conducted by the North American and European glass container industries. It also facilitates “apples-to-apples” comparisons with other consumer goods packaging materials. Hopefully this complete LCA methodology used by O-I would established a higher standard of clarity for conducting environmental impact assessments in the consumer goods packaging industry.

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Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. Salleh Matriculation No.: CGS 00534317 Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)

Figure 48: Glass Bottles in Owens-Illinois Inc. Factory.

(Source: Owens-Illinois Inc.)

5.4.1.1 Comparing the Data The complete or cradle-to-cradle approach carried out by O-I enable like-to-like comparisons of the carbon footprints of different products. These issues, including data from O-I’s complete carbon footprint assessments, shall be spell in detail in later. There are a number of factors that obscure the ability to compare carbon footprints with other materials in the packaging industry. Despite the variations in LCA methodologies and completeness, it also important to consider the following;

• Recycling reduce significantly the carbon footprint of a packaging material. Nevertheless some recycled materials in production and the reuse of containers over time do not contribute to energy savings. • Electrical Grid sources differ from one place to another, significantly affecting a product’s carbon footprint. • Raw Material extraction, site location and processing contribute to the level of carbon emissions and the overall footprint of a product.

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• Transportation impact of finished containers can be overstated through the use of incomplete LCAs that overlook carbon-intensive steps such as raw material withdrawal or processing. Figure 49: Glass Bottle Production

(Source: Owens-Illinois Inc.)

5.4.1.2 Measuring Carbon Many LCAs offer incomplete pictures. Though the total carbon footprint of a product is made up of emissions produced at every stage of the product life cycle, many life cycle analyses available today only reveal a portion of these processes. This had resulted inconsistency in carbon footprint composition across different products and packaging materials. Most LCAs only present carbon footprint data base of the most favourable stages of a packaging material’s life cycle. 5.4.1.3 Common Approaches Commonly LCA methodologies such as cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave, which selectively focus on a limited part of the full life cycle, were used.

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Figure 50: O-I Glass Bottle Life Cycle

(Source: Owens-Illinois Inc.)

The following are the types of life cycle exist; • Gate-to-gate This focuses only on one value-added process or step in the

supply chain. It ignores all steps before and after. • Cradle-to-gate An assessment of a product’s impact through production.

Finished goods transportation and disposal are not included. • Cradle-to-grave Covers all stages from materials extraction through

manufacture, use and disposal, but does not account for the potential impact of reuse or recycling. • Cradle-to-cradle Addresses all inputs and out-puts for each life cycle stage,

including the impact of reuse and recycling.

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The only approach that generates a complete picture of a product’s carbon footprint is cradle-to-cradle, which includes the recovery of post-consumer materials in closed loop production the methodology O-I has used in its study. 5.4.1.4 Carbon Footprint Composition Emissions were measures by stages of each stages of the life cycle. In their study, O-I had run two sets of analyses to illustrate the importance of looking at the full life cycle when comparing carbon footprint data across different packaging materials. The first analysis, illustrated by the charts below, used publicly available data to compare the composition of carbon footprints of major packaging material types by life cycle stage. The findings confirm that different materials are more carbon-intensive at different stages, reflecting the importance of like-to-like comparisons.

Figure 51: Carbon Footprint Breakdown

(Source: Owens-Illinois Inc.) 94 Semester January 2012

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5.4.1.5 Comparing Carbon Footprints of Packaging Materials The second analysis calculated the complete carbon footprint of the most commonly used carbonated beverage containers in O-I’s four global operational regions. To ensure accuracy and clarity, the analyses drew on actual manufacturing data from O-I for the glass figures and publicly available data for the other materials. The assumptions associated with each analysis are listed with the relevant charts below. Figure 52: Comparing Carbon Footprints of Different Packaging Materials

(Source: Owens-Illinois Inc.)

5.4.1.6 Refillable Glass Bottles Refillable bottles, which can be used an average of 30 times, have a greatly reduced carbon footprint. In Latin America and Western Europe, refillables represent over 60 and 35 percent of the market, respectively, at an average carbon footprint in both regions of 0.006 kg CO2e per container. However due to the small size of this footprint, it is not shown in the above figure.
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5.4.2 LCA - Conclusion Taking the LCA carried out by O-I as example, proper LCA will be able to see the fuul benefit of any product. While a life cycle assessment establishes an important quantitative benchmark, the full sustainable benefits of a product (in this study glass packaging) include additional environmental, health, social and economic dimensions that reach above and beyond what can be measured in an LCA. These include health and safety, recycling, reuse and resource efficiency. Despite LCA are able to compare the carbon foot print produced by a product with its competitors/substitutes, the assessment result may later be used to increase its environment benefit. In this study it was proven that recycling & reuse glass shall contribute significant reduction of glass packaging’s carbon footprint. The use of recycled glass or cullet in batch materials for every 1 kg of cullet used replaces 1.2 kg of virgin raw materials that would otherwise need to be extracted and every 10 percent of recycled glass or cullet used in production results in an approximate 5 percent reduction in carbon emissions and energy savings of about 3 percent. The LCA also had determined that glass is resource efficient, and can be reused in its original form more than other packaging materials. Additional initiatives currently in progress will further increase the efficiency of glass packaging, including efforts to improve recovery and recycling of glass containers help eliminate the diversion of glass to landfill, leading to a decrease in energy use and global warming potential and light weighting glass containers reduces raw material usage, emissions, energy used and overall weight.

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Best R. and Valence G. De et. al. (2002), Design and Construction: Building in Value, Butterworth Heinemann, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford. Building for the future: Sustainable construction and refurbishment on the government estate, Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, HC 324 Session 2006-2007, 20 April 2007, National Audit Office, London, Printed in the UK for the Stationery Office Limited on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Calkins Meg (2008), Materials for Sustainable Sites; A Complete Guide to the Evaluation, Selection, and Use of Sustainable Construction Materials, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Chris Wood (November 2009), Eitel Building City Apartments - Project of the Year/Adaptive th Reuse, Multifamily Executive, Retrieved on 12 February 2012, from; http://www.multifamilyexecutive.com/award-winners/eitel-building-city-apartments.aspx. Chuck Harrington (9/21/2011), Walking the (Triple Bottom) Line, Jera Sustainable Development Blog, st Retrieved on 1 February 2012, from; http://blog.jerasustainabledevelopment.com/2011/09/21/walking-the-triple-bottom-line.aspx.
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10) Custom Designed Rainwater Collection Systems, All Things Rainwater, Retrieved on 2 February 2012, from http://www.allthingsrainwater.com/.

11) Denison Joanne & Halligan Chris (2010), Building Materials and the Environment, Stephen George & Partners LLP. 12) Elliott Jennifer A. (2002), An Introduction to Sustainable Development, (2 e-Library, Routledge, London.
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13) Emma Reynolds, 16th January 2012, Gardens of Eden: The heavenly horticulture blossoming on rd roofs high above the city, The Daily Mail Online, UK, Retrieved on 3 February 2012, from; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2087094/Gardens-Eden-The-heavenly-horticultureblossoming-roofs-high-city.html 14) Green Building Design and Construction (2009), LEED Reference Guide for Green Building Design and Construction, US Green Building Council. 15) Halliday Sandy (2010), Sustainable Construction, Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, USA. 16) Heller Erica (2008), Wind and Solar Production and the Sustainable Development Code, Sustainable Community Development Code Research Monologue Series Energy and The Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute.

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Reference (continued)
17) The Complete Life Cycle Assessment, Owens-Illinois Inc., Retrieved on 8 March 2012, from; http://www.o-i.com/uploadedFiles/Content/Stacked_Content/OI_LCA_031010.pdf. 18) Jaafar, Noraini (1992) Sustainable development in perspective, definition, concepts and policy issues. In: Conference On Development On Malaysian Natural Resources, 29-30 September, th 1992, Bilik Jumaah, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved on 26 February 2012, from; http://eprints.utm.my/5188/1/NorainiJaafar1992_SustainableDevelopmentInPerspectiveDefinition. pdf. 19) Kamarudin M. Nor, Ph.D (2009), Carbon Neutral Buildings – An Overview, University Malaya. 20) Kibert C. J. (2005), Sustainable Construction: Green Building Design and Delivery, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hokoben, New Jersey. 21) Kibert C. J., Senzimir J., Guy G.B et. al. (2003), Construction Ecology-Nature as the basis of green buildings, Spon Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New York. 22) Life Cycle Assessment, The Global Development Research Center, Urban Environmental th Management, Retrieved on 26 February 2012, from; http://www.gdrc.org/uem/lca/lcadefine.html. 23) Life Cycle Costing & Stainless Steel, International Stainless Steel Forum, University of Paris, th Retrieved on 26 February 2012, from; http://www.worldstainless.org/NR/rdonlyres/2EB8EA2D1052-4D12-A82D-28B7EC65C189/6311/LifeCycleCostingStainlessSteel3.pdf. 24) Life Cycle Costing Guideline (September 2004), New South Wales, Tresury. Retrieved on 26 February 2012, from; http://www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/5099/life_cycle_costings.pdf.
25) Life Cycle Cost Analysis Handbook (1999), 1st Edition, State of Alaska - Department of Education
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& Early Development Education Support Services / Facilities, Juneau, Alaska. 26) Moskow Keith G.(2008), Sustainable Facilities: Green Design, Construction and Operations, McGraw-Hill, USA. 27) Newlund Dean and Tombazion Charlie, The New Normal From Success to Significance. rd Retrieved on 23 February 2012, from; http://www.slideshare.net/dnewlund/triple-bottom-linescorecard-and-the-journey-from-success-to-significance March 28) Plastic Recycling of Iowa Falls Inc., Retrieved on 2 http://www.plasticrecycling.us/recycled_plastic_benches_rock_island.shtml
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29) Sabnis Gajanan M. et. al (2012), Green Building with Concrete: Sustainable Design and Construction, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, USA. 30) Schmandt Jurgen, Ward C. H. et al, (2000), Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 31) Sustainable Building Design Book, The 2005 World Sustainable Building Conference in Tokyo, Student Session, 23-29 September 2005, Tokyo, Japan. 32) Sustainable Construction Materials for Buildings (2007), Building and Construction Authority (BCA), Minister for National Development, Singapore.

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Reference (continued)
33) Sustainable construction procurement: A guide to delivering environmentally responsible projects (2001), Department of Trade and Industry, CIRIA, Westminster, London. 34) Sustainable Construction: Simple ways to make it happen, bre sustainablity east (2008), Government Office for East of England. 35) Sustainable Development Initiatives in Malaysia, (2010), Malaysia Productivity Corporation th (MPC), Petaling Jaya, Retrieved on 26 February 2012, from; http://www.mpc.gov.my/mpc/images/file/Sustainable%20Development%20Initiatives%20In%20M alaysia.pdf. 36) Symbiosis in Development, Except Sustainability Consultancy, Retrieved on 20 February 2012, from; http://www.except.nl/consult/symbiosisindesign/sid_rocket_LCT_LCA.html
37) Tan Loke Mun, April 2009), The Development of GBI Malaysia, Retrieved on 3 February 2012, from; http://www.greenbuildingindex.org/Resources/GBI%20Documents/20090423%20%20The%20Development%20of%20GBI%20Malaysia.pdf. (23
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38) The Complete Life Cycle Assessment, Owens Illinois, Inc., Retrieved on

8 March 2012, from; http://www.o-i.com/uploadedFiles/Content/Stacked_Content/OI_LCA_031010.pdf

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39) University of Fort Hare Extensions, Hamish Scott Consulting, Construction Review, July 2010 Vol 21 No. 7 P. 78.

40) Whole Life Costing (2004), Centre for Whole Life Construction and Conservation, BRE, Garston, th February 2012, from; http://www.recoveryWatford, Retrieved on 26 insulation.co.uk/architects/pdfs/Whole%20Life%20Costing%20Factsheet%201.pdf 41) Whole-life cost, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, Retrieved on 26 February 2012, from; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whole-life_cost. 42) Whole Life Costing for Sustainable Drainage, Sustainable Drainage System: Promoting Good th Practice, CIRIA, Retrieved on 8 March 2012, from; http://www.ciria.org.uk/suds/pdf/whole_life_cost_summary.pdf.
th

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Attachment I – Malaysia GBI Assessment Criteria: Industrial New Construction (INC)

GBI Assessment crIterIA
IndustrIAl neW cOnstructIOn (Inc)
Version 1.0 | June 2011

www.greenbuildingindex.org | info@greenbuildingindex.org
GREENBUILDINGINDEX SDN BHD (845666-V) 4 & 6 Jalan Tangsi, 50480 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel 603 2694 4182 Fax 603 2697 4182

GREEN BUILDING INDEX ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR INDUSTRIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION (INC)

CONTENTS
PAGE 2 AckNowLEDGEmENT & copyRIGHT INTRoDUcTIoN PAGE 3 PAGE 3 PAGE 3 PAGE 4 What is the Green Building Index (GBI)? Who can use the GBI Industrial New Construction (INC) Tool? How to use the GBI Industrial New Construction (INC) Tool? pRojEcT INFoRmATIoN ASSESSmENT cRITERIA PAGE 5 PAGE 6 Summary of Final Score Summary of Contents INDIvIDUAL ITEm ScoRE PAGE 8 PAGE 10 PAGE 13 PAGE 16 PAGE 17 PAGE 18 PArT 1: Energy Efficiency (EE) PArT 2: Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ) PArT 3: Sustainable Site Planning & Management (SM) PArT 4: Materials & Resources (MR) PArT 5: Water Efficiency (WE) PArT 6: Innovation (IN)

VERSION 1.0 | JUNE 2011

1

GREENBUILDINGINDEX SDN BHD (845666-V)

GREEN BUILDING INDEX ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR INDUSTRIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION (INC)

ACkNOWLEDGEMENT & COpyRIGhT
The Green Building Index has been developed by PAM and ACEM for the purposes as mentioned above and may be subject to further updating and/or modification in future. The Green Building Index (GBI) is based upon the existing rating tools such as the Singapore Green Mark and the Australian Green Star system, amongst others which have been extensively modified for the Malaysian application. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the owners of copyright for these systems for use of their documents, information and materials in the development of the GBI. While every care has been taken by PAM and ACEM in the development of the GBI to establish and acknowledge copyright of the information and materials used, and contact the copyright owners known to PAM/ACEM, PAM and ACEM tender their apologies for any accidental copyright infringement. The GBI is a copyright of PAM and ACEM in which PAM and ACEM reserve all rights. No part of the GBI may be used, modified, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of PAM and ACEM. DisclAimers PAM and ACEM shall not be held liable for any improper or incorrect use of the GBI (inclusive of the materials and/or information contained therein) and assume no responsibility for any user’s use of it. In no event shall PAM and ACEM be liable for any damages whatsoever, whether direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary or consequential (including, but not limited to business interruption or loss of use, data or profits) regardless of cause, and on any basis of liability, whether in contract, strict liability or tort (including negligence, misrepresentation or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of the GBI or the information and materials contained therein. The information and materials in the GBI are provided “as is” and without warranties of any kind expressed or implied. PAM and ACEM do not warrant or make representations as to the accuracy and completeness of any information and/or materials contained therein. While every effort has been made to check the accuracy and completeness of the information and materials given, the users should always make their own relevant checks. Accordingly, PAM and ACEM do not accept responsibility and liability for misstatements made in it or misunderstanding from it. The GBI is no substitute for professional advice. Users are advised to consult with appropriate and accredited professional advisors for advice concerning specific matters pertaining to the GBI before adopting or using it. PAM and ACEM disclaim any responsibility for positions taken by users in their individual cases or for any misunderstandings and losses, direct or indirectly, on the part of the users. PAM and ACEM do not endorse or otherwise acknowledge the GBI rating achieved by the use of the GBI. PAM and ACEM offer a formal certification process for ratings; which service provides for independent third party review of points claimed to ensure that all credits can be demonstrated to be achieved by the provision of the necessary documentary evidence. Use of the GBI without formal certification by PAM and ACEM does not entitle the user or any other party to promote the achieved GBI rating. Notwithstanding the above, neither the GBI formalization nor any certification issued by PAM and ACEM shall be used for advertising or product/services endorsement purposes. inDemnificATion To the extent permitted by applicable law, by using the GBI, the user agrees to defend, indemnify, and hold harmless, PAM and ACEM, their officers, employees, members, representatives and agents from and against all claims and expenses of whatsoever kind and amount, arising out of the user’s use of the GBI or materials and information contained therein and not to pursue any cause of action whatsoever against PAM and ACEM under any conceivable circumstances.

VERSION 1.0 | JUNE 2011

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GREENBUILDINGINDEX SDN BHD (845666-V)

GREEN BUILDING INDEX ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR INDUSTRIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION (INC)

INTRODUCTION
wHAT IS THE GREEN BUILDING INDEX (GBI)?
The Green Building Index is an environmental rating system for buildings developed by PAM (Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia / Malaysian Institute of Architects) and ACEM (the Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia). The Green Building Index is Malaysia’s first comprehensive rating system for evaluating the environmental design and performance of Malaysian buildings based on the six (6) main criterias of Energy Efficiency, Indoor Environment Quality, Sustainable Site Planning & Management, Materials & Resources, Water Efficiency, and Innovation. The Green Building Index is fundamentally derived from existing rating tools, including the Singapore Green Mark and the Australian Green Star system, but extensively modified for relevance to the Malaysian tropical weather, environmental context, cultural and social needs. This PAM/ACEM GBI initiative aims to assist the building industry in its march towards sustainable development. The GBI environmental rating system is created to: • • • • • Define green building by establishing a common language and standard of measurement; Promote integrated, whole-building design; recognise and reward environmental leadership; Transform the built environment to reduce the environmental impact of development; and ensure new buildings remain relevant in the future and existing buildings are refurbished properly to remain relevant.

wHo cAN USE THE GBI INDUSTRIAL NEw coNSTRUcTIoN (INc) TooL?
PAM/ACEM encourage all members of Project Teams, Building owners, Developers and other interested parties (including Contractors, Government and Design and Build Contractors) to use the Green Building Index to validate environmental initiatives of the design phase of new industrial construction or base industrial building refurbishment; or construction and procurement phase of industrial buildings and their industrial process. Use of the Green Building Index is encouraged on all such projects to assess and improve their environmental attributes. Use of the Green Building Index Industrial New Construction (INC) Tool without formal certification by an independent accredited GBI Certifier does not entitle the user or any other party to promote the Green Building Index rating achieved. No fee is payable to PAM/ACEM for such use, however formal recognition of the Green Building Index rating - and the right to promote same - requires undertaking the formal certification process offered by PAM/ACEM.
All Green Building Index rating tools are reviewed annually; please forward any feedback to info@greenbuildingindex.org

How To USE THE GBI INDUSTRIAL NEw coNSTRUcTIoN (INc) TooL?
• Complete the Building Input worksheet as the building’s type and location may affect the predicted rating. • Complete the remaining worksheets by reviewing each credit in each category and entering the number of points you predict the building will achieve in the ‘No. of Points Achieved’ column. Calculators are provided for a number of the tool’s credits. • Enter any points that may be achieved but need to be confirmed in the ‘Points to be Confirmed’ column. • Enter any comments required in the ‘Comments’ column. • The predicted rating is shown in the Summary worksheet. More detail on point scores (both achieved and those to be confirmed) are shown in the Credit Summary and Graphical Summary worksheets at the end of the tool.

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pROJECT INFORMATION
NAmE oF BUILDING ADDRESS oF BUILDING

poSTcoDE STATE

AppLIcANT coNTAcT pERSoN

ARcHITEcT cIvIL ENGINEER STRUcTURAL ENGINEER mEcHANIcAL ENGINEER ELEcTRIcAL ENGINEER QUANTITy SURvEyoR LAND SURvEyoR LANDScApE coNSULTANT oTHER SpEcIALIST coNSULTANT(S)

mAIN coNTRAcToR LocAL AUTHoRITy ToTAL GRoSS FLooR AREA LAND AREA FoR LANDED pRopERTy

BUILDING AND INDUSTRIAL pRocESS DEScRIpTIoN

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DETAIL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
SUMMARy OF FINAL SCORE
pART ITEm mAXImUm poINTS ScoRE

1 2 3 4 5 6

energy efficiency indoor environmental Quality sustainable site Planning & management material & resources Water efficiency innovation ToTAL ScoRE

33 22 18 10 10 7 100

GREEN BUILDING INDEX CLASSIFICATION
poINTS GBI RATING

86 points and above 76 to 85 points 66 to 75 points 50 to 65 points

Platinum Gold Silver Certified

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DETAIL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
SUMMARy OF CONTENTS

pART

cRITERIA

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EE EE1 EE2 EE3 1 EE4 EE5 commissioning EE6 EE7 EE8 EE9 EQ Air Quality EQ1 EQ2 EQ3 EQ4 EQ5 EQ6 EQ7 2 EQ8 EQ9 EQ10 EQ11 EQ12 EQ13 EQ14 verification EQ15 EQ16

ENERGy EFFIcIENcy Minimum EE Performance Lighting Zoning Electrical Sub-metering Renewable Energy & Onsite Energy Capture/Recovery Advanced or Improved EE Performance - BEI and/or EUI Enhanced Commissioning On-going Post Occupancy Commissioning EE Verification Sustainable Maintenance INDooR ENvIRoNmENTAL QUALITy Minimum IAQ Performance Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Carbon Dioxide Monitoring and Control Indoor Air Pollutant & Industrial Chemical Exposure Mould Prevention Thermal Comfort: Design & Controllability of Systems Air Change Effectiveness Breakout Spaces Daylighting Daylight Glare Control Electric Lighting Levels High Frequency Ballasts External Views Internal Noise Levels IAQ Before & During Occupancy Post Occupancy Comfort Survey: Verification 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 22 1 3 1 8 10 4 2 2 2 33

Design & performance

verification & maintainence

occupant comfort

Lighting, visual & Acoustic comfort

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DETAIL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
SUMMARy OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
ITEm pART cRITERIA poINTS ToTAL

Sm Site planning SM1 SM2 SM3 SM4 SM5 SM6 3 SM7 SM8 Transportation SM9 SM10 SM11 SM12 Design SM13 SM14 SM15 mR MR1 MR2 MR3 MR4 MR5 MR6 Green products MR7 wE WE1 5 WE2 WE3 WE4 WE5 IN 6 IN1 IN2

SUSTAINABLE SITE pLANNING & mANAGEmENT Site Selection Brownfield Redevelopment Development Density & Community Connectivity Environment Management Noise Pollution Earthworks - Construction Activity Pollution Control QLASSIC Workers’ Site Amenities Public Transportation Access & Transportation Plan Green Vehicle Priority Parking Capacity Cargo Delivery Route and Proximity Stormwater Design – Quality & Quantity Greenery & Roof Building User Manual mATERIALS & RESoURcES Materials Reuse and Selection Recycled Content Materials Regional Materials Sustainable Timber Storage & Collection of Recyclables Construction Waste Management Refrigerants & Clean Agents wATER EFFIcIENcy Rainwater Harvesting Water Recycling Water Efficient - Irrigation/Landscaping Water Reduction Metering & Leak Detection System INNovATIoN Innovation & Environmental Design Initiatives Green Building Index Facilitator 6 1 ToTAL poINTS 7 100 2 2 10 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 10 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 18

construction management

Reused & Recycled materials

Sustainable Resources 4

waste management

water Harvesting & Recycling

Increased Efficiency

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ENERGy EFFIcIENcy (EE)
DesiGn & PerformAnce | commissioninG | VerificATion & mAinTenAnce

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DESIGN & pERFoRmANcE
EE1 mINImUm EE pERFoRmANcE
Building envelope to achieve minimum energy efficiency (EE) performance so as to reduce energy consumption, thereby reducing CO2 emission to the atmosphere. To meet the following minimum EE requirements as stipulated in MS 1525: a. Submit calculations for OTTV ≤ 50 and RTTV ≤ 25 (use of BEIT software or other GBI approved softwares is permitted) AND b. Install Energy Management Control system where Air-conditioned space ≥ 4000 m2

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EE2

LIGHTING ZoNING
Provide flexible lighting controls to optimise energy savings: All individual or enclosed spaces to be individually switched; and the size of individually switched lighting zones shall not exceed 100m² for 90% of the NLA (building and industrial plant area); with switching clearly labelled and easily accessible by occupants. Provide auto-sensor controlled lighting in conjunction with daylighting strategy for all perimeter zones and daylit areas and/or provide task lighting for at least 25% (separate from motion sensor provision) of industrial plant area. Provide motion sensors or equivalent to complement lighting zoning for at least 25% NLA of building OR provide task lighting for at least 25% (separate from auto-sensor provision) of industrial plant area.

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EE3

ELEcTRIcAL SUB-mETERING
Monitor energy consumption of key building services, tenancy and industrial plant areas: Provide sub-metering for all energy uses ≥ 100kVa; with separate sub-metering for lighting and separately for power, and for industrial processes.

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EE4

RENEwABLE ENERGy & oNSITE ENERGy cApTURE/REcovERy
Encourage use of renewable energy and/or onsite energy capture/recovery. Where 0.5% or 5 kWp whichever is the greater, of the equivalent total electricity consumption is generated by renewable energy and/or onsite energy capture/recovery, OR Where 1.0% or 10 kWp whichever is the greater, of the equivalent total electricity consumption is generated by renewable energy and/or onsite energy capture/recovery, OR Where 1.5% or 20 kWp whichever is the greater, of the equivalent total electricity consumption is generated by renewable energy and/or onsite energy capture/recovery, OR Where 2.0% or 40 kWp whichever is the greater, of the equivalent total electricity consumption is generated by renewable energy and/or onsite energy capture/recovery, OR Where 2.5% or 60 kWp whichever is the greater, of the equivalent total electricity consumption is generated by renewable energy and/or onsite energy capture/recovery.

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EE5

ADvANcED oR ImpRovED EE pERFoRmANcE - BEI AND/oR EUI
Exceed Energy Efficiency (EE) performance better than the baseline minimum to reduce energy consumption in the building and/or the industrial plant process. For the building, improve Building Energy Intensity (BEI) as defined by GBI (use of GBI approved software is permitted). For industrial plant process, use Energy Use Intensity (EUI) to compare against baseline data for similar plant process (baseline EUI shall be furnished by applicant for GBI acceptance). Use BEI or EUI if either building or industrial plant process energy use constitutes more than 75% of the total energy use. Otherwise, calculate both BEI and EUI with the lower point score applicable. BEI ≤ 180 or EUI improvement ≥ 10% BEI ≤ 150 or EUI improvement ≥ 25% BEI ≤ 140 or EUI improvement ≥ 30% BEI ≤ 130 or EUI improvement ≥ 35% BEI ≤ 120 or EUI improvement ≥ 40% BEI ≤ 110 or EUI improvement ≥ 45% BEI ≤ 100 or EUI improvement ≥ 50% BEI ≤ 90 or EUI improvement ≥ 55%

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commISSIoNING
EE6 ENHANcED commISSIoNING
Ensure the energy related systems of the building and industrial process are properly commissioned so as to realise their full potential. Appoint a GBI recognised Commissioning Specialist (CxS) to perform the commissioning for all the facility’s energy related systems in accordance with ASHRAE Commissioning Guideline or other GBI approved equivalent standard by: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Conducting at least one commissioning design review during the detail design stage and back-check the review comments during the tender documentation stage. Developing and incorporating commissioning requirements into the tender documents. Developing and implementing a commissioning plan. Verifying the installation and performance of the systems to be commissioned. Reviewing contractor submittals applicable to systems being commissioned for compliance. Developing a systems manual that provides future operating staff the information needed to understand and optimally operate the commissioned systems. Verifying that the requirements for training operating personnel, building occupants and industrial plant workers are completed.

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EE7

oN-GoING poST occUpANcy commISSIoNING
Carry out post occupancy/post process operation commissioning for all tenancy and industrial areas after fit-out/plant modification changes are completed: 1) Design engineer shall review all fit-out plans/plant modifications to ensure original design intent is not compromised and upon completion of the fit-out/plant modification works, verify and fine-tune the installations to suit. 2) Within 12 months of practical completion (or earlier if there is at least 50% occupancy/ plant operation), the CxS shall carry out a full post/re-commissioning of the energy related systems to verify that their performance is sustained in conjunction with the completed fit-outs/modifications.

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vERIFIcATIoN & mAINTENANcE
EE8 EE vERIFIcATIoN
Verify predicted energy use of key building services and industrial plant process:

1) Use Energy Management System to monitor and analyse energy consumption including reading of submeters, AND

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2) Fully commission EMS including Maximum Demand Limiting programme within 12 months of practical completion (or earlier if there is at least 50% building occupancy or plant operation).

EE9

SUSTAINABLE mAINTENANcE
Ensure the energy related systems will continue to perform as intended beyond the 12 months Defects & Liability Period:

1) At least 50% of permanent maintenance team to be on-board one (1) to three (3) months before practical completion and to fully participate (to be specified in contract conditions) in the Testing & Commissioning of all energy services, AND 2) Set up a permanent Energy Monitoring Committee (EMC) to ensure that plant energy performance is continuously monitored and improved.

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3) Provide for a designated facility maintenance office that is fully equipped with facilities (including tools and instrumentation) and inventory storage, AND 4) Provide evidence of documented plan for at least 3-year facility maintenance and preventive maintenance budget (inclusive of staffing and outsourced contracts).

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ENERGy EFFIcIENcy (EE) ToTAL

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INDooR ENvIRoNmENTAL QUALITy (EQ)
Air QuAliTY | occuPAnT comforT | liGHTinG, VisuAl & AcousTic comforT | VerificATion

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AIR QUALITy
EQ1 mINImUm IAQ pERFoRmANcE
Establish minimum indoor air quality (IAQ) performance to enhance indoor air quality in building (and industrial plant area where applicable), thus contributing to the comfort and well-being of the occupants: Meet the minimum requirements of ventilation rate in ASHRAE 62.1 or the local building code whichever is the more stringent.

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EQ2

ENvIRoNmENTAL ToBAcco SmokE (ETS) coNTRoL
Meet the minimum requirements of ventilation rate in ASHRAE 62.1 or the local building code whichever is the more stringent; OR Prohibit smoking in the building and industrial plant area except in designated smoking rooms and establish negative pressure in the smoking rooms together with provision of effective air filtration system.

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EQ3

cARBoN DIoXIDE moNIToRING AND coNTRoL
Provide response monitoring of carbon dioxide levels to ensure delivery of optimal outside air requirements: Install carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring and control system with at least one (1) CO2 sensor at all main return air points on each air-conditioned floor/zone to facilitate continuous monitoring and adjustment of outside air ventilation rates to each floor/zone, and ensure independent control of ventilation rates to maintain CO2 level ≤ 1,000ppm

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EQ4

INDooR AIR poLLUTANT & INDUSTRIAL cHEmIcAL EXpoSURE
Reduce detrimental impact on occupant/worker's health from finishes that emit internal air pollutants and exposure to industrial chemicals: 1) Use low VOC paint and coating throughout the building. Paints and Coatings to comply with requirements specified in international labelling schemes recognized by GBI, AND 2) Use low VOC carpet or flooring throughout the building. Carpets to comply with requirements specified in international labelling schemes recognized by GBI. Other types of flooring to comply with requirements under FloorScore developed by Science Certification System or equivalent, AND 3) Use low VOC adhesive and sealant or no adhesive or sealant used. Use products with no added urea formaldehyde. These include: 1) Composite wood and agrifiber products defined as: particleboard, medium density fiberboard (MDF), plywood, wheatboard, strawboard, panel substrates and door cores, AND 2) Laminating adhesives used to fabricate on-site and shop-applied composite wood and agrifiber assemblies, AND 3) Insulation foam, AND 4) Draperies. Minimise air pollutants of industrial plant process by using environmental friendly house keeping chemicals and minimise microbial contamination and NOX emission.

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EQ5

moULD pREvENTIoN
Design system(s) which reduce the risk of mould growth and its associated detrimental impact on occupant health: Demonstrate that the mechanical air-conditioned ventilation system will maintain a positive indoor air pressure relative to the exterior and can actively control indoor air humidity to be no more than 70% RH without the use of active control that will consume additional energy. Ensure that excessive moisture in building is controlled during the Design, Construction and Operation stages by the consideration and the control of the following: 1) Rainwater leakage through roof and walls 2) Infiltration of moist air 3) Diffusion of moisture through walls, roof and floors 4) Groundwater intrusion into basements and crawl spaces through walls and floors 5) Leaking or burst pipes 6) Indoor moisture sources 7) Construction moisture OR The building is fully naturally ventilated

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occUpANT comFoRT
EQ6 THERmAL comFoRT: DESIGN & coNTRoLLABILITy oF SySTEmS
Provide a high level of thermal comfort system control by individual occupant/worker or by specific groups in multi-occupant/worker spaces to promote the productivity, comfort and well-being of occupants and plant workers: Design to ASHRAE 55 in conjunction with the relevant localised parameters as listed in MS1525. 1) Provide individual comfort control for ≥ 50% of the occupants/workers to enable adjustments to suit individual task needs and preferences., AND 2) Provide comfort system controls for all shared multi-occupant/worker spaces to enable adjustments to suit group needs and preferences. Conditions for thermal comfort include the primary factors of air temperature, radiant temperature, air speed and humidity. Comfort system control for this purpose is defined as the provision of control over at least one of these primary factors in the occupants/workers’ local environment.

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EQ7

AIR cHANGE EFFEcTIvENESS
Provide effective delivery of clean air through reduced mixing with indoor pollutants in order to promote a healthy indoor environment. Demonstrate that the Air Change Effectiveness (ACE) meets the following criteria for at least 90% of the NLA (air-conditioned areas only): The ventilation systems are designed to achieve an ACE of ≥ 0.95 when measured in accordance with ASHRAE 129: Measuring air change effectiveness where ACE is to be measured in the breathing zone (nominally 1.0m from finished floor level).

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EQ8

BREAkoUT SpAcES
Provide breakout space to reduce worker's fatigue for at least 5% of employees per shift.

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LIGHTING, vISUAL & AcoUSTIc comFoRT
EQ9 DAyLIGHTING
Provide good levels of daylighting for building occupants and plant workers: Demonstrate that ≥ 30% of the NLA has a daylight factor in the range of 1.0 – 3.5% as measured at the working plane, 800mm from floor level, OR Demonstrate that ≥ 50% of the NLA has a daylight factor in the range of 1.0 – 3.5% as measured at the working plane, 800mm from floor level.

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EQ10

DAyLIGHT GLARE coNTRoL
Reduce discomfort of glare from natural light. Where blinds or screens are fitted on all glazing and atrium as a base building, incorporate provisions to meet the following criteria; 1) Eliminate glare from all direct sun penetration and keep horizontal workspace lux level below 2000; AND 2) Eliminate glare from diffuse sky radiation for occupant workspace at viewing angles of 15° to 60° from the horizontal at eye level (typically 1.2m from floor level); AND 3) Control with an automatic monitoring system (for atrium and windows with incident direct sun light only not applicable for fixed blinds/screens); AND 4) Equip with a manual override function accessible by occupants (not applicable for fixed blinds/screens)

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EQ11

ELEcTRIc LIGHTING LEvELS
Baseline building and plant lighting not to be over designed: Demonstrate that lighting design maintains a luminance level of no more than specified in MS1525 for 90% of NLA (building and industrial plant area) as measured at the working plane (800mm above the floor level).

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EQ12

HIGH FREQUENcy BALLASTS
IIncrease workplace amenity by avoiding low frequency flicker that may be associated with fluorescent lighting: Install high frequency ballasts in fluorescent luminaaires over a minimum of 90% of NLA (building and industrial plant area).

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LIGHTING, vISUAL & AcoUSTIc comFoRT (coNTINUED)
EQ13 EXTERNAL vIEwS
Reduce eyestrain for building occupants by allowing long distance views and provision of visual connection to the outdoor. Note that this requirement is applicable to the office building component of the industrial plant only. Demonstrate that ≥ 60% of the NLA has a direct line of sight through vision glazing at a height of 1.2m from floor level. Demonstrate that ≥ 75% of the NLA has a direct line of sight through vision glazing at a height of 1.2m from floor level.

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EQ14

INTERNAL NoISE LEvELS
Maintain internal noise levels at an appropriate level. Demonstrate that 90% of the NLA (office component only) do not exceed the following ambient internal noise levels: 1) Within the entire baseline building general office, space noise from the building services does not exceed 40dBAeq, OR 2) Within the baseline building office space, the sound level does not exceed 45dBAeq for open plan and not exceed 40dBAeq for closed offices.

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vERIFIcATIoN
EQ15 IAQ BEFoRE & DURING occUpANcy
Reduce indoor air quality problems resulting from the construction process in order to help sustain the comfort and well-being of occupants/workers. Develop and implement an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management Plan for the Pre-Occupancy phase as follows:

1) Perform a building/plant flush out by supplying outdoor air to provide not less than 10 airchanges/hour for at least 30 minutes operation before occupancy and continuous minimum 1 ACH during the initial 14 days occupancy of the completed building/plant, OR 2) If low VOC materials and low formaldehyde composite wood are used, then building/plant flush out can be performed by supplying outdoor air to provide not less than 10 airchanges/hour for at least 15 minutes operation or not less than 6 airchanges/hour for at least 30 minutes operation and continuous 1ACH during the initial 7 days occupancy of the completed building/plant, OR 3) Within 12 months of occupancy, conduct IAQ testing to demonstrate maximum concentrations for pollutants are not exceeded according to the Indoor Air Quality Code of Malaysia.

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During occupancy stage: Where a permanent air flushing system of at least 10 airchanges/hour operation is installed for use during occupancy stage.

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EQ16

poST occUpANcy comFoRT SURvEy: vERIFIcATIoN

Provide for the assessment of comfort of the building occupants/plant workers: A) Conduct an occupancy comfort survey of occupants/workers annually. This survey should collect anonymous responses about thermal comfort, visual comfort and acoustic comfort in a building/plant. It should include an assessment of overall satisfaction with thermal, visual and acoustic performance and identification of thermal-related, visual-related and acoustic-related problems, AND B) Develop a plan for corrective action if the survey results indicate that more than 20% of occupants/ workers are dissatisfied with the overall comfort in the building/plant. This plan should include measurement of relevant environmental variables in problem areas. The relevant environmental variables include 1) Temperature, relative humidity, air speed and mean radiant temperature, 2) Lighting level and glare problem, 3) Background noise level, 4) Odour problem, CO2 level, VOCs, and particulate concentration.

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SUSTAINABLE SITE pLANNING & mANAGEmENT (Sm)
siTe PlAnninG | consTrucTion mAnAGemenT | TrAnsPorTATion | DesiGn

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SITE pLANNING
Sm1 SITE SELEcTIoN
Do not develop building/plant, hardscape, road or parking area on a site or part of a site that meet any one of the following criteria: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Prime farmland as defined by the Structure Plan of the area or the National Physical Plan. Forest reserve or State Environmental Protection Zones that is specifically identified as habitat for any species found on the endangered lists. Within 30m of any wetlands as defined by the Structure Plan of the area OR within setback distances from wetlands prescribed in state or local regulations, as defined by local or state rule or law, whichever is more stringent. Previously undeveloped land that is within 30m of Mean High Water Spring (MHWS) sea level which supports or could support wildlife or recreational use, or statutory requirements whichever is the more stringent. Previously undeveloped land that is within 20m of lake, river, stream and tributary which support or could support wildlife or recreational use. Land which prior to acquisition for the project was public parkland, unless land of equal or greater value as parkland is provided.

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Sm2

BRowNFIELD REDEvELopmENT
Reduce pressure on undeveloped land by rehabilitating damaged sites where development is complicated by environmental contamination, thereby reducing pressure on undeveloped land. This would typically involve old rubbish tips, former mining land, old factory sites, etc.

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Sm3

DEvELopmENT DENSITy & commUNITy coNNEcTIvITy
Channel development to urban area with existing infrastructure, protect greenfield and preserve habitat and natural resources: A) DeVeloPmenT DensiTY Construct building/plant on a previously developed site AND in a community with a minimum density of 20,300m2 per hectare net (87,000 sqft per acre net); OR within approved industrial zones B) communiTY connecTiViTY Construct a new building/plant or renovate an existing building/plant on a previously developed site AND within 1km of a residential zone or neighbourhood with an average density of 25 units per hectare net (10 units per acre net) AND within 1 km of at least 10 Basic Services AND with pedestrian access between the building/plant and the services. Basic Services include, but are not limited to: 1) Bank; 2) Place of Worship; 3) Convenience/Grocery; 4) Day Care; 5) Police Station; 6) Fire Station; 7) Beauty; 8) Hardware; 9) Laundry; 10) Library; 11) Medical/Dental; 12) Senior Care Facility; 13) Park; 14) Pharmacy; 15) Post Office; 16) Restaurant; 17) School; 18) Supermarket; 19) Theatre; 20) Community Centre; 21) Fitness Centre. Proximity is determined by drawing a 1 km radius around the main building entrance on a site map and counting the services found within that radius.

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Sm4

ENvIRoNmENT mANAGEmENT
A) Conserve existing natural area and restore damaged area to provide habitat and promote biodiversity & B) Maximize Open Space by providing a high ratio of open space to development footprint to promote biodiversity. Alternatively to adopt existing standard in Industrial Environmental Management. A) conservation: On previously developed or graded site, restore or protect a minimum of 50% of the site area (excluding the building footprint) with native or adaptive vegetation. Native or adaptive plants are plants indigenous to a locality or cultivars of native plants that are adapted to the local climate and are not considered invasive species or noxious weeds. Applicable also to landscaping on rooftops and roof gardens so long as the plants meet the definition of native or adaptive vegetation; OR On greenfield sites, limit all site disturbance to within 12m beyond the building perimeter; 3m beyond surface walkway, patio, surface parking and utilities less than 300mm in diameter; 4.5m beyond primary roadway curb and main utility branch trench; and 7.5m beyond constructed area with permeable surface (such as pervious paving area, storm water detention facility and playing field) that require additional staging area in order to limit compaction in the constructed area. B) open space: Reduce by 25%, the development footprint (defined as the total area of the building footprint, hardscape, access road and parking) and/or provide vegetated open space within the project boundary to exceed the local zoning’s open space requirement for the site; OR For areas with no local zoning requirement (e.g. university campus, military bases), provide vegetated open space adjacent to the building whose area is equal to that of the building footprint; OR Where a zoning ordinance exists, but there is no requirement for open space (zero), provide vegetated open space equal to 20% of the project’s site area.

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SITE pLANNING (coNTINUED)
Sm5 NoISE poLLUTIoN
To encourage and recognise buildings/plants that minimise noise levels diffused from the building/plant outside. Credit point is awarded where the building/plant envelope is designed to reduce noise penetration by at least NR20dBA when in standard operation mode.

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coNSTRUcTIoN mANAGEmENT
Sm6 EARTHwoRkS - coNSTRUcTIoN AcTIvITy poLLUTIoN coNTRoL
Reduce pollution from construction activities by controlling soil erosion, waterway sedimentation and airborne dust generation. Create and implement an Erosion and Sedimentation Control (ESC) Plan for all construction activities associated with the project. The ESC Plan shall conform to the erosion and sedimentation requirements of the approved Earthworks Plans OR Local erosion and sedimentation control standards and codes, whichever is the more stringent. The plan shall describe the measures implemented to accomplish the following objectives: 1. 2. 3. Prevent loss of soil during construction by storm water runoff and/or wind erosion, including protecting topsoil by stockpiling for reuse. Prevent sedimentation of storm sewer or receiving stream. Prevent polluting the air with dust and particulate matter.

1

1

Sm7

QLASSIc - QUALITy ASSESSmENT SySTEm FoR BUILDING coNSTRUcTIoN woRk
Achieve quality of workmanship in construction works: Subscribe to independent method to assess and evaluate quality of workmanship of building project based on CIDB’s CIS 7: Quality Assessment System for Building Construction Work (QLASSIC). Must achieve a minimum score of 70%.

1

1

Sm8

woRkERS’ SITE AmENITIES
Reduce pollution from construction activities by controlling pollution from waste and rubbish from workers. Create and implement a Site Amenities Plan for all construction workers associated with the project: The plan shall describe the measures implemented to accomplish the following objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. Proper accommodation for construction workers at the site or at temporary rented accommodation nearby. Prevent pollution of storm sewer or receiving stream by having proper septic tank. Prevent polluting the surrounding area from open burning and proper disposal of domestic waste. Provide adequate health and hygiene facilities for workers on site.

1

1

TRANSpoRTATIoN
Sm9 pUBLIc TRANSpoRTATIoN AccESS & TRANSpoRTATIoN pLAN
Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use: Locate project within 1km of an existing, or planned and funded, commuter rail, light rail or subway station. OR Locate project within 500m of at least one bus stop. OR Transportation Plan provided to include provision of Factory Bus service, subsidies for Green Vehicles, Car Pool strategies, Van Pool, pick-up service from train station, etc.

1

1

Sm10

GREEN vEHIcLE pRIoRITy - Low EmITTING & FUEL EFFIcIENT vEHIcLES
Encourage use of green vehicles: Provide preferred parking for green vehicles for 5% of the total provided parking spaces. “Preferred parking” refers to the parking spots that are closest to the main entrance of the project (exclusive of spaces designated for handicapped or parking passes provided at a discounted price).

1

1

Sm11

pARkING cApAcITy
Discourage over-provision of car parking capacity: Size parking capacity to meet, but not to exceed the minimum local zoning requirements, AND provide preferred parking for carpools or vanpools for 5% of the total provided parking spaces.

1

1

Sm12

cARGo DELIvERy RoUTE AND pRoXImITy
Proximity to Major Cargo Transport, e.g. airport, seaport, highway, railway: Credit point is awarded where the building/plant is within 10km of at least 2 major cargo services: Major cargo services are considered to be the following (where they contain cargo facilities): • Airport; • Seaport; • Railway Station or Rail Yard; AND Are accessible to Major Freeway entrance/exit (within 5km).

1

1

Continued on next page >>

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GREENBUILDINGINDEX SDN BHD (845666-V)

GREEN BUILDING INDEX ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR INDUSTRIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION (INC)

ITEm

AREA oF ASSESSmENT

DETAIL poINTS

mAX poINTS

ScoRE

DESIGN
Sm13 SToRmwATER DESIGN – QUALITy & QUANTITy coNTRoL
Limit disruption of natural hydrology by reducing impervious cover, increasing on-site infiltration, and managing storm water runoff. Reduce or eliminate water pollution by reducing impervious cover, increasing onsite infiltration, eliminating sources of contaminants, and removing pollutants from storm water runoff: condition 1: If existing imperviousness is ≤ 50%: Implement a storm water management plan that prevents the post development peak discharge rate and quantity from exceeding the pre-development peak discharge rate and quantity in conformance to the Storm Water Management Manual for Malaysia (MASMA). condition 2: If existing imperviousness is > 50%: Implement a storm water management plan that results in a 25% decrease in the volume of storm water runoff required under MASMA. For either Condition, implement a storm water management plan that reduces impervious cover, promotes infiltration, and captures and treats the storm water runoff from 90% of the average annual rainfall using acceptable best management practices (BMPs).

1

1

Sm14

GREENERy & RooF
Reduce heat island (thermal gradient difference between developed and undeveloped areas) to minimise impact on microclimate and human and wildlife habitat: A) Hardscape & Greenery Application: Provide any combination of the following strategies for 50% of the site hardscape (including sidewalks, courtyards, plazas and parking lots): 1. 2. 3. Shade (within 5 years of occupancy); Paving materials with a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of at least 29; Open grid pavement system; 1

2
B) roof Application: 1. 2. 3. Use roofing material with a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) equal to or greater than the value in the table below for a minimum of 75% of the roof surface; OR Install a vegetated roof for at least 50% of the roof area; Install high albedo and vegetated roof surfaces that, in combination, meet the following criteria: (Area of SRI Roof / 0.75) + (Area of vegetated roof / 0.5) ≥ Total Roof Area Roof Type Slope SRI Low-Sloped Roof < 2:12 78 Steep-Sloped Roof > 2:12 29

1

Sm15

BUILDING USER mANUAL
Document Green building/plant design features and strategies for user information and guide to sustain performance during occupancy: Provide (include updating) a Building User Manual which documents passive and active features that should not be downgraded.

1

1

SUSTAINABLE SITE pLANNING & mANAGEmENT (Sm) ToTAL

18

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GREENBUILDINGINDEX SDN BHD (845666-V)

GREEN BUILDING INDEX ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR INDUSTRIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION (INC)

4
ITEm

mATERIALS & RESoURcES (mR)
reuseD & recYcleD mATeriAls | susTAinABle resources | WAsTe mAnAGemenT | Green ProDucTs

11 poINTS
AREA oF ASSESSmENT DETAIL poINTS mAX poINTS ScoRE

REUSED & REcycLED mATERIALS
mR1 mATERIALS REUSE AND SELEcTIoN
Reuse building materials and products to reduce demand for virgin materials and reduce creation of waste. This serves to reduce environmental impact associated with extraction and processing of virgin resources. Integrate building design and its buildability with selection of reused building materials, taking into account their embodied energy, durability, carbon content and life cycle costs: Where reused products/materials constitutes ≥ 2% of the project’s total material cost value, OR Where reused products/materials constitutes ≥ 5% of the project’s total material cost value

2
1 2

mR2

REcycLED coNTENT mATERIALS
Increase demand for building products that incorporate recycled content materials in their production: (Recycled content shall be defined in accordance with the International Organization of Standards Document) Where use of materials with recycled content is such that the sum of post-consumer recycled plus one-half of the pre-consumer content constitutes ≥ 10% (based on cost) of the total value of the materials in the project, OR Where use of materials with recycled content is such that the sum of post-consumer recycled plus one-half of the pre-consumer content constitutes at least 30% (based on cost) of the total value of the materials in the project.

1

2

2

SUSTAINABLE RESoURcES
mR3 REGIoNAL mATERIALS
Use building materials and products that are extracted and manufactured within the region, thereby supporting the use of indigenous resources and reducing the environmental impacts resulting from transportation: Use building materials or products that have been extracted, harvested or recovered, as well as manufactured, within 500km of the project site for ≥ 20% (based on cost) of the total material value. Mechanical, electrical and plumbing components shall not be included. Only include materials permanently installed in the project.

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1

mR4

SUSTAINABLE TImBER
Encourage environmentally responsible forest management: Where ≥ 50% of wood-based materials and products used are certified. These components include, but are not limited to, structural framing and general dimensional framing, flooring, sub-flooring, wood doors and finishes. To include wood materials permanently installed and also temporarily purchased for the project. Compliance with Forest Stewardship Council and Malaysian Timber Certification Council requirements.

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wASTE mANAGEmENT
mR5 SToRAGE & coLLEcTIoN oF REcycLABLES
Facilitate reduction of waste generated during construction and during building/plant occupancy that is hauled and disposed of in landfills: During Construction, provide dedicated area/s and storage for collection of non-hazardous materials for recycling, AND During Building/Plant Occupancy, provide permanent recycle bins and where applicable, dedicated schedule waste area complying with EQA on schedule waste requirement.

1
1

mR6

coNSTRUcTIoN wASTE mANAGEmENT
Develop and implement a construction waste management plan that, as a minimum identifies the materials to be diverted from disposal regardless of whether the materials will be sorted on site or co-mingled. Use Compactor and Baler for waste disposal. Quantify by measuring total truck loads of waste sent for disposal: Recycle and/or salvage ≥ 50% volume of non-hazardous construction debris, OR Recycle and/or salvage ≥ 75% volume of non-hazardous construction debris.

1 2

2

GREEN pRoDUcTS
mR7 REFRIGERANTS & cLEAN AGENTS
Use environmentally-friendly Refrigerants and Clean Agents exceeding Malaysia’s commitment to the Montreal & Kyoto protocols: Use zero Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) products: non-CFC and non-HCFC refrigerants AND clean agents.

1
1

mATERIALS & RESoURcES (mR) ToTAL

10

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GREEN BUILDING INDEX ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR INDUSTRIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION (INC)

5
ITEm

wATER EFFIcIENcy (wE)
WATer HArVesTinG & recYclinG | increAseD efficiencY

10 poINTS
AREA oF ASSESSmENT DETAIL poINTS mAX poINTS ScoRE

wATER HARvESTING & REcycLING
wE1 RAINwATER HARvESTING
Encourage rainwater harvesting that will lead to reduction in potable water consumption: Rainwater harvesting that leads to ≥ 15% reduction in potable water consumption, OR Rainwater harvesting that leads to ≥ 30% reduction in potable water consumption.

1 2

2

wE2

wATER REcycLING
Encourage water recycling that will lead to reduction in potable water consumption: Treat and recycle ≥ 10% wastewater leading to reduction in potable water consumption, OR Treat and recycle ≥ 30% wastewater leading to reduction in potable water consumption.

1 2

2

INcREASED EFFIcIENcy
wE3 wATER EFFIcIENT - IRRIGATIoN/LANDScApING
Encourage the design of system that does not require the use of potable water supply from the local water authority: Reduce potable water consumption for landscape irrigation by ≥ 50% (e.g. through use of native or adaptive plants to reduce or eliminate irrigation requirement), OR Not use potable water at all for landscape irrigation.

1 2

2

wE4

wATER REDUcTIoN
Encourage reduction in potable water consumption through use of efficient devices/industrial process: Reduce annual potable water consumption by ≥ 30%, OR Reduce annual potable water consumption by ≥ 50%

1 2

2

wE5

mETERING & LEAk DETEcTIoN SySTEm
Encourage the design of systems that monitors and manages water consumption: Use of sub-meters to monitor and manage major water usage for cooling towers, irrigation, kitchens, tenancy use, and industrial process use. Link all water sub-meters to EMS to facilitate early detection of water leakage.

1 1

2

wATER EFFIcIENcy (wE) ToTAL

10

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GREENBUILDINGINDEX SDN BHD (845666-V)

GREEN BUILDING INDEX ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR INDUSTRIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION (INC)

6
ITEm IN1

INNovATIoN (IN)
innoVATion & enVironmenTAl DesiGn iniTiATiVes | GBi fAciliTATor

7 poINTS
AREA oF ASSESSmENT INNovATIoN & ENvIRoNmENTAL DESIGN INITIATIvES DETAIL poINTS mAX poINTS ScoRE

Provide design team and project the opportunity to be awarded points for exceptional performance above the requirements set by GBI rating system: 1 point for each approved innovation and environmental design initiative up to a maximum of 6 points, such as: • Condensate water recovery (accounting for at least 50% of total AHUs/FCUs) for use as cooling tower make-up water, etc • Co-generation / Tri-generation system • Thermal / PCM / Thermal Mass storage system (accounting for at least 25% of total required capacity) • Solar thermal technology / Solar Air conditioners (generating at least 10% of total required capacity) • Heat recovery system (contributing to at least 10% of total required capacity) • Heat pipe technology • Light pipes accounting for at least 1% of NLA • Auto-condenser tube cleaning system (fitted to plant equipment serving at least 50% of total capacity) • Non-chemical water treatment system for condenser or chilled water circuit (eg. air and dirt separator, vacuum degasser, etc) • Dynamic balancing control valve system (for entire chilled water system) • Mixed mode / low energy ventilation system • Advanced air filtration technology (serving at least 50% of the GFA) • Waterless urinals (fitted to all male toilets) • Central vacuum system (serving at least 50% of NLA) • Central Pneumatic Waste Collection system • Self-cleaning façade • Electrochromic glazed façade • Refrigerant leakage detection and recycling facilities • Use non-synthetic (natural) Refrigerants AND Clean Agents with zero ODP and negligible Global Warming Potential • ISO 14000 series certification • Recycling of all fire system water during regular testing

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6

IN2

GREEN BUILDING INDEX FAcILITAToR

To support and encourage the integration required for Green Building Index rated buildings and to streamline the application and certification process: Engage the services of a Green Building Index Facilitator to assist in obtaining Green Building Index certification.

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INNovATIoN (IN) ToTAL

7

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Attachment II – BCA Green Mark for Non-Residential Buildings Version NRB/4.0

BCA Green Mark for New Non-Residential Buildings Version NRB/4.0

Framework - BCA Green Mark for New Non-Residential Buildings (Version NRB/4.0)
To achieve Green Mark Award

Pre-requisite Requirement
All relevant pre-requisite requirements for the specific Green Mark Rating are to be complied with

Energy Related Requirements Minimum 30 points
Elective Requirement for Energy Improvement
(Combination of the following items to meet 30 points)

Other Green Requirements
Minimum 20 points Elective Requirement from Other Areas
(Combination of the following items to meet 20 points)

Part 1 - Energy Efficiency
Air-con Non Air-con

Part 2 - Water Efficiency
2-1 Water Efficient Fittings 2-2 Water Usage and Leak Detection 2-3 Irrigation System and Landscaping 2-4 Water Consumption of Cooling Towers

General

1-1 Thermal Performance of Building Envelope - ETTV 1-2 Air-Conditioning System 1-3 Building Envelope – Design/Thermal Parameter 1-4 Natural Ventilation / Mechanical Ventilation 1-5 Daylighting 1-6 Artificial Lighting 1-7 Ventilation in Carparks 1-8 Ventilation in Common Areas 1-9 Lifts and Escalators 1-10 Energy Efficient Practices & Features 1-11 Renewable Energy

Part 3 – Environmental Protection
3-1 Sustainable Construction 3-2 Sustainable Products 3-3 Greenery Provision 3-4 Environmental Management Practice 3-5 Green Transport 3-6 Refrigerants 3-7 Stormwater Management

Part 4 - Indoor Environmental Quality
4-1 Thermal Comfort 4-2 Noise Level 4-3 Indoor Air Pollutants 4-4 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management 4-5 High Frequency Ballasts

Part 5 – Other Green Features
5-1 Green Features and Innovations

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/1 

Point Allocations - BCA Green Mark for New Non-Residential Buildings (Version NRB/4.0)
Category
(I) Energy Related Requirements Part 1 : Energy Efficiency NRB 1-1 Thermal Performance of Building Envelope - ETTV NRB 1-2 Air-Conditioning System Sub-Total (A) – NRB 1-1 to 1-2 NRB 1-3 Building Envelope – Design/Thermal Parameter
Minimum 30 points Section (A) Applicable to air-con areas

Point Allocations

12 30 42 35 20 55

NRB 1-4 Natural Ventilation / Mechanical Ventilation Sub-Total (B) – NRB 1-3 to 1-4 NRB 1-5 Daylighting NRB 1-6 Artificial Lighting NRB 1-7 Ventilation in Carparks NRB 1-8 Ventilation in Common Areas NRB 1-9 Lifts and Escalators NRB 1-10 Energy Efficient Practices & Features NRB 1-11 Renewable Energy Sub-Total (C) – NRB 1-5 to 1-11

Section (B) Applicable to non air-con areas excluding carparks and common areas

Section (C) Generally applicable to all areas

6 12 4 5 2 12 20 61 116 (Max)

Category Score for Part 1 – Energy Efficiency Prorate Subtotal (A) + Prorate Subtotal (B) + Prorate Subtotal (C) (II) Other Green Requirements Part 2 : Water Efficiency NRB 2-1 Water Efficient Fittings NRB 2-2 Water Usage and Leak Detection NRB 2-3 Irrigation System and Landscaping NRB 2-4 Water Consumption of Cooling Towers Category Score for Part 2 – Water Efficiency Part 3 : Environmental Protection
Minimum 20 points

10 2 3 2 17 10 8 8 7 4 2 3 42 1 1 2 2 2 8 7 7 Green Mark Score : 190 (Max)

NRB 3-1 Sustainable Construction NRB 3-2 Sustainable Products NRB 3-3 Greenery Provision NRB 3-4 Environmental Management Practice NRB 3-5 Green Transport NRB 3-6 Refrigerants NRB 3-7 Stormwater Management Category Score for Part 3 – Environmental Protection Part 4 : Indoor Environmental Quality NRB 4-1 Thermal Comfort NRB 4-2 Noise Level NRB 4-3 Indoor Air Pollutants NRB 4-4 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management NRB 4-5 High Frequency Ballasts Category Score for Part 4 – Indoor Environmental Quality Part 5 : Other Green Features NRB 5-1 Green Features & Innovations Category Score for Part 5 – Other Green Features

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/2 

BCA Green Mark Award Rating and Prerequisite Requirements
Green Mark Score 90 and above 85 to < 90 75 to < 85 50 to <75 Green Mark Rating Green Mark Platinum Green Mark GoldPlus Green Mark Gold Green Mark Certified

Pre-requisite Requirements for Non-Residential Building Criteria
Air-Conditioned Buildings
(1) Building envelope design with Envelope Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV) computed based on the methodology and guidelines stipulated in the Code on Envelope Thermal Performance for Buildings and this Standard. Green Mark GoldPlus – ETTV of 42 W/m2 or lower Green Mark Platinum – ETTV of 40 W/m2 or lower (2) To demonstrate the stipulated energy savings over its reference model using an energy modeling framework set out. Details and submission requirements on energy modeling can be found in Appendix E of the Certification Standard. Green Mark GoldPlus – At least 25% energy savings Green Mark Platinum – At least 30% energy savings (3) Prescribed system efficiency of air–conditioning system to be as follows: (i) For Buildings using Water Cooled Chilled-Water Plant: Peak Building Cooling Load (RT) Green Mark Rating Certified Gold Gold
Plus

Related Criteria NRB 1-1 – Thermal Performance of Building Envelope

NRB 1-2(a) – Air–Conditioning System

< 500 Efficiency 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.70
(1)

≥ 500 (kW/RT) 0.70 0.70 0.65 0.65

Platinum

(ii) For Buildings using Air Cooled Chilled-Water Plant or Unitary Air-Conditioners: Peak Building Cooling Load (RT) Green Mark Rating Certified Gold Gold
plus

< 500 Efficiency 0.90 0.90 0.85 0.78
(1)

≥ 500 (kW/RT) 0.80
Not applicable
(2)

Platinum

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/3 

Pre-requisite Requirement for Non-Residential Building Criteria
Note(1) The performance of the overall air-conditioning system for the building can either be based on the efficiency at full installed capacity (exclude standby) of the system or expected operating efficiency of the system at part-load condition during the specific building operation hours as defined below: Office Building: Monday to Friday: 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Saturday: 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. Retail Mall: Monday to Sunday: 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. Institutional: Monday to Friday: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Note(2) For building with peak building cooling load of more than 500 RT, the use of air cooled central chilled-water plant or other unitary air-conditioners are not applicable for Gold and higher ratings. In general, the system efficiency of the air cooled central chilled-water plant and other unitary air-conditioners are to be comparable with the stipulated efficiency for water cooled central chilled-water plant. Buildings that are designed with air-cooled systems and for higher Green Mark rating will be assessed on a case by case basis. Hotel and Hospital: 24-hour Industrial and Other Building Types: To be determined based on the operating hours

Related Criteria NRB 1-2(b) – Air–Conditioning System

(4) Instrumentation for monitoring the water cooled chilled-water plant efficiency is to be provided in accordance with the requirement set in the criteria. (5) Minimum score under NRB 3-1 Sustainable Construction Green Mark GoldPlus ≥ 3 points Green Mark Platinum ≥ 5 points

NRB 1-2(d) – Air–Conditioning System NRB 3-1 – Sustainable Construction

Pre-requisite Requirement for Non-Residential Building Criteria Non Air-Conditioned Buildings
(1) To be eligible for Green Mark Platinum rating, it is a requirement to use ventilation simulation modeling and analysis to identify the most effective building design and layout. The simulation results and the recommendations derived are to be implemented to ensure good natural ventilation. Details and submission requirements on ventilation simulation can be found in Appendix C of the Certification Standard. (2) Minimum score under NRB 3-1 Sustainable Construction Green Mark GoldPlus ≥ 3 points Green Mark Platinum ≥ 5 points Related Criteria NRB 1-4(a)(ii) – Natural Ventilation

NRB 3-1 – Sustainable Construction

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/4 

Non-Residential Building Criteria
Part 1 – Energy Efficiency Green Mark Points
(A) Applicable to Air-Conditioned Building Areas (with an aggregate air-conditioned areas > 500 m2)

NRB 1-1 Thermal Performance of Building Envelope – Envelope Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV) Enhance the overall thermal performance of building envelope to minimise heat gain thus reducing the overall cooling load requirement. Baseline : Maximum Permissible ETTV = 50 W/m2 Prerequisite Requirement :   Green Mark GoldPlus  – ETTV of 42 W/m2 or less  Green Mark Platinum – ETTV of 40 W/m2 or less  1.2 points for every reduction of 1 W/m2 in ETTV from the baseline Points scored = 1.2 x (50 - ETTV) where ETTV  50 W/m2 (Up to 12 points)

NRB 1-2 Air-Conditioning System Encourage the use of better energy efficient airconditioned equipment to minimise energy consumption. (a) Water-Cooled Chilled-Water Plant :     Water-Cooled Chiller Chilled-Water Pump Condenser Water Pump Cooling Tower
Peak Building Cooling Load ≥ 500 RT Prerequisite Requirements  Minimum central chilled-water plant efficiency 0.70 kW/RT < 500 RT 0.80 kW/RT

(a) Water-Cooled Chilled-Water Plant Peak building cooling load ≥ 500 RT 15 points for meeting the prescribed chilled-water plant efficiency of 0.70 kW/RT 0.25 point for every percentage improvement in the chilled-water plant efficiency over the baseline Points scored = 0.25 x (% improvement) Peak building cooling load < 500 RT 12 points for meeting the prescribed chilled-water plant efficiency of 0.80 kW/RT 0.45 point for every percentage improvement in the chilled-water plant efficiency over the baseline Points scored = 0.45 x (% improvement) (Up to 20 points)

Baseline

Prerequisite Requirements for Higher Green Mark Rating :   Green Mark GoldPlus & Platinum : Minimum central chilled  water  plant  efficiency  of  0.65  kW/RT    for  peak  building  cooling  load    ≥  500  RT  and    0.7  kW/RT  for  peak  building  cooling load  < 500 RT    (b) Air Cooled Chilled-Water Plant / Unitary AirConditioners Air Cooled Chilled-Water Plant :  Air-Cooled Chiller  Chilled-Water Pump Unitary Air-Conditioners :  Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system  Single-Spilt Unit  Multi-Spilt Unit

(b) Air Cooled Chilled-Water Plant/ Unitary AirConditioners Peak building cooling load ≥ 500 RT 12 points for meeting the prescribed airconditioning system efficiency of 0.80 kW/RT 1.3 points for every percentage improvement in the air-conditioning system efficiency over the baseline Points scored = 1.3 x (% improvement)

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/5 

Part 1 – Energy Efficiency

Green Mark Points

(A) Applicable to Air-Conditioned Building Areas (with an aggregate air-conditioned areas > 500 m2)

(b) Air Cooled Chilled-Water Plant / Unitary AirConditioners – Cont’d

Peak building cooling load < 500 RT 10 points for meeting the prescribed airconditioning system efficiency of 0.90 kW/RT 0.6 point for every percentage improvement in the air-conditioning system efficiency over the baseline Points scored = 0.6 x (% improvement)

Baseline
Prerequisite Requirements  Minimum system efficiency of air cooled chilled-water plant or unitary conditioners

Peak Building Cooling Load ≥ 500 RT < 500 RT

0.80 kW/RT

0.90 kW/RT

Prerequisite Requirements for Higher Green Mark Rating :   Green  Mark  GoldPlus  :  Minimum  system  efficiency  of  0.85kW/RT for peak building cooling load < 500 RT    Green  Mark  Platinum:  Minimum  system  efficiency  of   0.78kW/RT for peak building cooling load < 500 RT  
Note (1) : Where there is a combination of central chilled water plant with unitary conditioners, the points scored will only be based on the air-conditioning system with a larger aggregate capacity.

(Up to 20 points)

(c) Air Distribution System :  Air Handling Units (AHUs)  Fan Coil Units (FCUs)
Baseline : SS553:2009 Table 2 – Fan power limitation in airconditioning systems

(c) Air Distribution System 0.2 point for every percentage improvement in the air distribution system efficiency over the baseline Points scored = 0.2 x (% improvement) (Up to 6 points)

Allowable nameplate motor power Constant volume Variable volume 3 1.7 kW/m /s 2.4 kW/m3/s
Note (2) : For buildings using district cooling system, there is no need to compute the plant efficiency under NRB 1-2(a) and (b). The points obtained will be pro-rated based on the air distribution system efficiency under NRB 1-2(c).

(d) Prerequisite Requirements : Provision of permanent measuring instruments for monitoring of watercooled chilled-water plant efficiency. The installed instrumentation shall have the capability to calculate a resultant plant efficiency (i.e. kW/RT) within 5 % of its true value and in accordance with ASHRAE Guide 22 and AHRI 550/590. The following instrumentation and installation are also required to be complied with : (i) Location and installation of the measuring devices to meet the manufacturer’s recommendation. (ii) Data acquisition system to have a minimum resolution of 16 bit.
(iii) All data logging with capability to trend at

Applicable only to buildings with provision of water cooled chilled-water plant 1 point

1 minute sampling time interval.
Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/6 

Part 1 – Energy Efficiency

Green Mark Points

(A) Applicable to Air-Conditioned Building Areas (with an aggregate air-conditioned areas > 500 m2)

(iv) Flow meters to be provided for chilled-water and condenser water loop and shall be of ultrasonic / full bore magnetic type or equivalent.
(v) Temperature sensors with minimum accuracy of ± 0.05 °C @ 0°C to be provided for chilled

water and condenser water loop. All thermowells shall be installed in a manner which ensures that the sensors can be in direct contact with fluid flow. Provisions shall be made for each temperature measurement location to have two spare thermo-wells located at both side of the temperature sensor for verification of measurement accuracy. (e) Verification of central chilled-water plant instrumentation : Heat balance – substantiating test for water cooled chilled-water plant to be computed in accordance with AHRI 550/590. (f) Provision of variable speed controls for chiller plant equipment such as chilled-water pumps and cooling tower fans to ensure better part-load plant efficiency. (g) Sensors or similar automatic control devices are used to regulate outdoor air flow rate to maintain the concentration of carbon dioxide in accordance with Table 1 – Recommended IAQ Parameters of SS 554. Carbon dioxide acceptable range: ≤ 700 ppm above outdoor. 1 point

1 point

1 point

Exception: For buildings that are underground, NRB 1-1 may be excluded in the computation. The score under NRB 1-2 will be pro-rated accordingly.

Sub-Total (A) :

Sum of Green Mark Points obtained from NRB 1-1 to 1-2

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/7 

Part 1 – Energy Efficiency

Green Mark Points

(B) Applicable to Non Air-Conditioned Building Areas (with an aggregate non air-conditioned areas > 10 % of total floor area excluding carparks and common areas)

NRB 1-3 Building Envelope – Design / Thermal Parameters Enhance the overall thermal performance of building envelope to minimise heat gain which would improve indoor thermal comfort and encourage natural ventilation or mechanical ventilation. (a) Minimum direct west facing façade through building design orientation.
Note (3) : Orientation of façade that falls within the range of 22.5 N of W and 22.5 S of W will be defined as west facing facade. Core walls for lifts or staircases and toilets that are located within this range are exempted in computation.

Points scored = 15 – 0.3 x (% of west facing facade areas over total façade areas) (Up to 15 points) Where there is no west facing façade, the total points scored for this item will be 30 points; the NRB 1-3 b(i), b(ii) and (c) as listed below will not be applicable. Points scored = 10 - 0.1 x (% of west facing window areas over total west facing façade areas) Points scored = 0.1 x (% of west facing window areas with sunshading devices over total west facing façade areas) (Up to 10 points for NRB 1-3 b(i) & b(ii))

(b)(i) Minimum west facing window openings.

(b)(ii) Effective sunshading provision for windows on the west façade with minimum shading of 30%.

(c) Better thermal transmittance (U-value) of external west facing walls. The U-value of external west facing walls should be equal or less than 2 W/m2K.

Points scored = 0.05 x (% of the external west facing walls areas with U value of 2 W/m2K or less over total west facing facades areas) (Up to 5 points)

(d) Better thermal transmittance (U-value) of roof. Baseline: U-value for roof stated below depending on the weight range of roof structure:
Weight Group Weight range 2 (kg/m ) Maximum Thermal Transmittance 2 (W/m K) 0.8 1.1 1.5

1 point for every 0.1 W/m2K reduction from the baseline roof U-value ( Up to 5 points)

Light Medium Heavy

Under 50 50 to 230 Over 230

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/8 

Part 1 – Energy Efficiency

Green Mark Points

(B) Applicable to Non Air-Conditioned Building Areas (with an aggregate non air-conditioned areas > 10 % of total floor area excluding carparks and common areas)

NRB 1-4 Natural Ventilation / Mechanical Ventilation (a) Natural Ventilation Encourage building design that facilitates good natural ventilation. (i) Proper design of building layout that utilises prevailing wind conditions to achieve adequate cross ventilation. 1 point for every 10% of units/rooms with window openings facing north and south directions Points scored = 1 x (% of units/10) (Up to 10 points) 5 points Additional 5 points if the recommendations are implemented (Up to 10 points)

(ii) Use of ventilation simulation modeling and analysis or wind tunnel testing to identify the most effective building design and layout to achieve good natural ventilation Prerequisite Requirement :   Green Mark Platinum : Ventilation simulation modeling and  analysis  are  to  be  carried  out.  The  recommendations  and  results from simulation are to be implemented in design to  ensure good natural ventilation.  (b) Mechanical Ventilation Encourage energy efficient mechanical ventilation system design as the preferred ventilation mode to airconditioning in buildings. Baseline: SS553:2009 Table 8 – Fan power limitation in mechanical ventilation systems Allowable nameplate motor power Constant volume 1.7 kW/m /s
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0.6 point for every percentage improvement in the air distribution system efficiency. Points scored = 0.6 x (% improvement) (Up to 15 points)

Variable volume 2.4 kW/m3/s

Note (4) : Where there is a combination of naturally ventilated and mechanical ventilated spaces, the points scored will only be based on the predominant ventilation modes of normally occupied spaces. Exception : For existing buildings, NRB 1-3(a) may be excluded in computation, the total score obtained under NRB 1-3 (b), (c) and (d) will be prorated accordingly.

Sub-Total (B) :

Sum of Green Mark Points obtained from NRB 1-3 to 1-4

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/9 

Part 1 - Energy Efficiency
(C) General

Green Mark Points

NRB 1-5 Daylighting Encourage design that optimises the use of effective daylighting to reduce energy use for artificial lighting. (a) Use of daylighting and glare simulation analysis to verify the adequacy of ambient lighting levels in meeting the illuminance level and Unified Glare Rating (UGR) stated in SS 531:Part 1:2006 – Code of Practice for Lighting of Work Places. Extent of coverage: At least 75% of the units with daylighting provisions meet the minimum illuminance level and are within the acceptable glare exposure. Points scored based on the extent of perimeter daylight zones Distance from the Façade Perimeters (m) ≥ 3.0 4.0 – 5.0 > 5.0 (Up to 3 points) (b) Daylighting for the following common areas: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Toilets Staircases Corridors Lift Lobbies Atriums Carparks Extent of Coverage : At least 80 % of each applicable area 0.5 point each (Up to 3 points) Points Allocation 1 2 3

Note (5) : All daylit areas must be integrated with automatic electric lighting control system.

NRB 1-6 Artificial Lighting Encourage the use of energy efficient lighting to minimise energy consumption from lighting usage while maintaining proper lighting level. Baseline = Maximum lighting power budget stated in SS 530 0.3 point for every percentage improvement in lighting power budget Points scored = 0.3 x (% improvement) (Including tenant lighting provision) (Up to 12 points) (Excluding tenant lighting provision) (Up to 5 points) NRB 1-7 Ventilation in Carparks Encourage the use of energy efficient design and control of ventilation systems in carparks. (a) Carparks designed with natural ventilation. (b) CO sensors are used to regulate the demand for mechanical ventilation (MV).
Note (6) : Where there is a combination of different ventilation mode adopted for carpark design, the points obtained under NRB 1-7 will be prorated accordingly.

Naturally ventilated carparks – 4 points Points scored based on the mode of mechanical ventilation provided Fume extract – 2.5 points MV with or without supply - 2 points (Up to 4 points)

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/10 

Part 1 - Energy Efficiency
(C) General

Green Mark Points

NRB 1-8 Ventilation in Common Areas Encourage the use of energy efficient design and control of ventilation systems in the following common areas : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Toilets Staircases Corridors Lift lobbies Atrium Extent of Coverage : At least 90 % of each applicable area Points scored based on the mode of ventilation provided in the applicable areas Natural ventilation – 1.5 points for each area Mechanical ventilation – 0.5 point for each area (Up to 5 points) NRB 1-9 Lifts and Escalators Encourage the use of energy efficient lifts and escalators. Lifts and/or escalators with AC variable voltage and variable frequency (VVVF) motor drive and sleep mode features. NRB 1-10 Energy Efficient Practices & Features Encourage the use of energy efficient practices and features which are innovative and/or have positive environmental impact. (a) Computation of energy consumption based on design load in the form of energy efficiency index (EEI). (b) Use of vertical greenery system on east and west façade to reduce heat gain through building envelope. 1 point 1 point for high impact 0.5 point for low impact Extent of Coverage : All lifts and escalators Lifts – 1 point Escalators – 1 point

(c) Use of energy efficient features.
Examples:

3 points for every 1% energy saving over the total building energy consumption (Up to 10 points)

      

Heat recovery system Sun pipes Lifts with gearless drive Re-generative lift Light shelves Photocell sensors to maximise the use of daylighting Heat pumps etc

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/11 

Part 1 – Energy Efficiency
(C) General

Green Mark Points

NRB 1-11 Renewable Energy Encourage the application of renewable energy sources in buildings. Point scored based on the expected energy efficiency index (EEI) and % replacement of electricity by renewable energy source Expected Energy Efficiency Index (EEI)
≥ 30 kWh/m2/yr < 30 kWh/m2/yr
Every 1 % replacement of electricity (based on total electricity consumption) by renewable energy source

Include tenant’s usage 5 points 3 points (Up to 20 Points)

Exclude tenant’s usage 3 points 1.5 points

Sub-Total (C) :

Sum of Green Mark Points obtained from NRB 1-5 to 1-11

PART 1 – ENERGY EFFICIENCY CATEGORY SCORE :

Sub-Total (A) X Air-Conditioned Building Floor Area Total Floor Area + Sub-Total ( B) X Non Air-Conditioned Building Floor Area Total Floor Area + Sub-Total (C)
where Sub-Total (A) = Sum of Green Mark Points obtained under Section (A) that is NRB 1-1 to 1-2 Sub-Total (B) = Sum of Green Mark Points obtained under Section (B) that is NRB 1-3 to 1-4 Sub-Total (C) = Sum of Green Mark Points obtained under Section (C) that is NRB 1-5 to 1-11

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/12 

Part 2 – Water Efficiency NRB 2-1 Water Efficient Fittings Encourage the use of water efficient fittings covered under the Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS). (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Basin taps and mixers Flushing cistern Shower taps, mixers or showerheads Sink/Bib taps and mixers Urinals and urinal flush valve

Green Mark Points Rating based on Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS) Very Good Excellent Points scored based on the number and water efficiency rating of the fitting type used (Up to 10 points)

Weightage 8 10

NRB 2-2 Water Usage and Leak Detection Promote the use of sub-metering and leak detection system for better control and monitoring. (a) Provision of private meters to monitor the major water usage such as irrigation, cooling tower and tenants’ usage. (b) Linking all private meters to the Building Management System (BMS) for leak detection. NRB 2-3 Irrigation System and Landscaping Provision of suitable systems that utilise rainwater or recycled water and use of plants that require minimal irrigation to reduce potable water consumption. (a) Use of non potable water including rainwater for landscape irrigation. (b) Use of automatic water efficient irrigation system with rain sensor. (c) Use of drought tolerant plants that require minimal irrigation. 1 point 1 point

1 point

Extent of Coverage : At least 50% of the landscape areas are served by the system 1 point Extent of Coverage : At least 80% of the landscape areas 1 point

NRB 2-4 Water Consumption of Cooling Tower Reduce potable water use for cooling purpose. (a) Use of cooling tower water treatment system which can achieve 7 or better cycles of concentration at acceptable water quality. (b) Use of NEWater or on-site recycled water from approved sources. PART 2 – WATER EFFICIENCY CATEGORY SCORE : 1 point

1 point

Sum of Green Mark Points obtained from NRB 2-1 to 2-4

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/13 

Part 3 – Environmental Protection NRB 3-1 Sustainable Construction Encourage recycling and the adoption of building designs, construction practices and materials that are environmentally friendly and sustainable (a) Use of Sustainable and Recycled Materials (i) Green Cements with approved industrial by-product (such as Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), silica fume, fly ash) to replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by at least 10% by mass for superstructural works. (ii) Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and Washed Copper Slag (WCS) from approved sources to replace coarse and fine aggregates for concrete production of main building elements.
Note (7) : For structural building elements, the use of RCA and WCS shall be limited to maximum 10% replacement by mass of coarse/fine aggregates respectively or as approved by the relevant authorities.

Green Mark Points

1 point

Extent of Coverage : The total quantity used (in tonnage) for replacement of the coarse or fine aggregates must not be less than the minimum usage requirement that is [0.03 x Gross Floor Area (GFA in m2)] 2 points for the use of RCA to replace coarse aggregates 2 points for the use of WCS to replace fine aggregates Where the total quantity used (in tonnage) for replacement of coarse or fine aggregates is at least two times (2x) that of the minimum usage requirement. 4 points for the use of RCA 4 points for the use of WCS (Up to 5 points for NRB 3-1(a)(i) and (a)(ii))

(b) Concrete Usage Index (CUI) Encourage designs with efficient use of concrete for building components. Project CUI (m3/m2)
≤ 0.70

Points Allocation
1 point 2 points 3 points 4 points 5 points

Prerequisite Requirement:   Minimum points to be scored under this criterion:   Green Mark GoldPlus     ≥   3 points   Green Mark Platinum  ≥   5 points

≤ 0.60 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0.40 ≤ 0.35

NRB 3-2 Sustainable Products Promote use of environmentally friendly products that are certified by approved local certification body and are applicable to non-structural and architectural related building components.

Weightage based on the extent of environmental friendliness of products Good Very Good Excellent

Points scored based on the weightage and the extent of coverage & impact 1 point for high impact item 0.5 point for low impact item (Up to 8 points)

1

1.5

2

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/14 

Part 3 – Environmental Protection NRB 3-3 Greenery Provision Encourage greater use of greenery, restoration of trees to reduce heat island effect. (a) Green Plot Ratio (GnPR) is calculated by considering the 3D volume covered by plants using the prescribed Leaf Area Index (LAI). (Reference : http://floraweb.nparks.gov.sg/)

Green Mark Points

GnPR 0.5 to < 1.0 1.0 to < 1.5 1.5 to < 3.0 3.0 to < 3.5 3.5 to < 4.0 ≥ 4.0

Points Allocation 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 point 1 point

(b) Restoration of trees on site, conserving or relocating of existing trees on site. (c) Use of compost recycled from horticulture waste.

NRB 3-4 Environmental Management Practice Encourage the adoption of environmental friendly practices during construction and building operation. (a) Implement effective environmental friendly programmes including monitoring and setting targets to minimise energy use, water use and construction waste. (b) Main builder that has good track records in the adoption of sustainable, environmentally friendly and considerate practices during construction such as the Green and Gracious Builder Award. (c) Building quality assessed under the Construction Quality Assessment System (CONQUAS). (d) Developer, main builder, M & E consultant and architect that are ISO 14000 certified. (e) Project team comprises Certified Green Mark Manager (GMM), Green Mark Facilities Manager (GMFM) and Green Mark Professional (GMP). (f) Provision of building users’ guide which should include details of the environmental friendly facilities and features within the building and their functionalities in achieving the intended environmental performance during building operation. (g) Provision of facilities or recycling bins for collection and storage of different recyclable waste such as paper, glass, plastic food waste etc.        
Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/15 

1 point

1 point

1 point

0.25 point for each firm (Up to 1 point) 0.5 point for certified GMM 0.5 point for certified GMFM 1 point for certified GMP (Up to 1 point) 1 point

1 point

Part 3 – Environmental Protection NRB 3-5 Green Transport Promote environmental friendly transport options and facilities to reduce pollution from individual car use. (a) Good access to nearest MRT/LRT or bus stops. (b) Provision of covered walkway to facilitate connectivity and the use of public transport. (c) Provision of electric vehicle charging stations and priority parking lots within the development. (d) Provision of sheltered bicycle parking lots with adequate shower and changing facilities.

Green Mark Points

1 point 1 point 1 point

Extent of Coverage : Minimum 10 number of bicycle parking lots, cap at 50 where applicable Points scored based on the number of bicycle parking lots provided (with adequate shower and changing facilities) 1 point if the number provided ≥ 3% x Gross Floor Area (GFA)/10 0.5 point if the number provided ≥ 1.5% x Gross Floor Area (GFA)/10

NRB 3-6 Refrigerants Reduce the potential damage to the ozone layer and the increase in global warming through the release of ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. (a) Refrigerants with ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero or with global warming potential (GWP) of less than 100. Use of refrigerant leak detection system at critical areas of plant rooms containing chillers and other equipments with refrigerants. 1 point

(b)

1 point

NRB 3-7 Stormwater Management Encourage treatment of stormwater run-off before discharge to the public drains. Provision of infiltration features or design features as recommended in PUB’s ABC Waters Design Guidelines : Points scored based on the extent of the stormwater treatment. 3 points for treatment of run-off from more than 35% of total site area or paved area 2 points for treatment of run-off from 10% to 35% of total site area 1 point for treatment of run-off from up to 10% of total site area Sum of Green Mark Points obtained from NRB 3-1 to 3-7

     

Bioretention swales/ other bioretention systems Rain gardens Constructed wetlands Cleansing biotopes Retention ponds PART 3 – ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION CATEGORY SCORE :

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/16 

Part 4 – Indoor Environmental Quality NRB 4-1 Thermal Comfort Air-conditioning system is designed to allow for cooling load variation due to fluctuations in ambient air temperature to ensure consistent indoor conditions for thermal comfort. Indoor operative temperature between 24 °C to 26 °C Relative Humidity < 65% NRB 4-2 Noise Level Occupied spaces in buildings are designed with good ambient sound levels as recommended in SS 553 Table 8 – Recommended ambient sound level. NRB 4-3 Indoor Air Pollutants Minimise airborne contaminants, mainly from inside sources to promote a healthy indoor environment. (a) Use of low volatile organic compounds (VOC) paints certified by approved local certification body.

Green Mark Points

1 point

1 point

Extent of Coverage : At least 90% of the total internal wall areas 1 point

(b) Use of environmental friendly adhesives certified by approved local certification body.

Extent of Coverage : At least 90% of the applicable areas 1 point

NRB 4-4 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management Ensure that building ventilation systems are designed and installed to provide acceptable IAQ under normal operating conditions. (a) Provision of filtration media and differential pressure monitoring equipment in Air Handling Units (AHUs) in accordance with SS 554: Clause 4.3.4.5 and Annex E. (b) Implement effective IAQ management plan to ensure that building ventilation systems are clean and free from residuals left over from construction activities. Internal surface condition testing for ACMV systems are to be included. NRB 4-5 High Frequency Ballasts Applicable to offices, classrooms and the like Improve workplace lighting quality by avoiding low frequency flicker associated with fluorescent lighting with the use of high frequency ballasts in the fluorescent luminaries. Extent of Coverage : At least 90% of all applicable areas that are served by fluorescent luminaries 2 points 1 point

1 point

PART 4 – INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY CATEGORY SCORE :

Sum of Green Mark Points obtained from NRB 4-1 to 4-5

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/17 

Part 5 – Other Green Features NRB 5-1 Green Features and Innovations Encourage the use of other green features which are innovative and/or have positive environmental impact. Examples :

Green Mark Points

2 points for high impact item 1 point for medium impact item 0.5 point for low impact item (Up to 7 points)

     

Pneumatic waste collection system Carbon footprint of development Dual chute system Self cleaning façade system Conservation of existing building structure etc PART 5 – OTHER GREEN FEATURES CATEGORY SCORE :

Sum of Green Mark Points obtained from NRB 5-1

Green Mark Score (Non-Residential)
Green Mark Score (Non-Res) = ∑Category Score [(Part 1 – Energy Efficiency) + (Part 2 – Water Efficiency) + (Part 3 – Environmental Protection) + (Part 4 – Indoor Environmental Quality) + (Part 5 – Other Green Features)] where Category Score for Part 1 ≥ 30 points and ∑Category Score for Part 2, 3, 4 & 5 ≥ 20 points

Effective Date : 1 Dec 2010                                                                                                                                                                                            NRB/18 

Attachment III – Sustainable Construction of Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Philip Merrill Environmental Center, Annapolis, Maryland (Moskow Keith, 2008)

7

CHESAPEAKE BAY FOUNDATION, PHILIP MERRILL ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER
A N N A P O L I S , M A RY L A N D

Headquarters view across the Chesapeake Bay from the west, showing entry and rainwater cisterns.

Organized in four quadrants, two on each floor, the headquarters’ double height lobby and exhibit space functions as an interactive node for both employees and visitors alike.

CHESAPEAKE BAY FOUNDATION, PHILIP MERRILL ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER
A N N A P O L I S , M A RY L A N D

7

Completed: Owner: Architects:

November, 2000 The Chesapeake Bay Foundation SmithGroup, Inc. Greg Mella, AIA, LEED AP, Project Architect J. Harrison Architect—LEED Coordinator Greenman-Pedersen, Inc.—Civil Engineering Shemro Engineering, Inc.—Structural Engineers SmithGroup, Inc.—MEP Engineers Synthesis*—Program Manager Karene Motivans—Landscape Architects The Clark Construction Group, Inc. Prakash Patel The site is situated on 31 acres of Chesapeake Bay shoreline, located about 15 minutes southeast of Annapolis, Maryland. Previous to CBF’s purchase, the site served as a community pool and inn and was planned for significant development, creating a negative impact to the bay. Suburban—the site is within a designated Maryland’s Smart Growth zone.

Consultants:

General Contractor: Photographer: Site:

Environment:

Exterior view from the southwest—parallel strand timber beams, selected for their recycled content, originate from new growth trees, are FSC harvested, and sustainably regenerated.

Copyright © 2008 by Keith G. Moskow. Click here for terms of use.

Program:

The project consolidates a 90-person environmental staff from four dispersed buildings into a single 32,000-square-foot facility. It is designed to support and explicitly assert the principles of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation’s mission—collaboration in achieving a sustainable relationship with the Chesapeake Bay. The interior of the headquarters features open office workstations for all staff members (including the president), dispersed meeting rooms throughout, a 40-person conference center, and a dining room and kitchen (lunch is catered every day). 32,000 square feet Reduced impervious surfaces Bioretention filters to treat all stormwater runoff Xeriscaping and drought tolerant native vegetation landscaping Rainwater collection, and reuse—rainwater from the building’s roofs is collected and stored in exposed collection cisterns • Waterless toilets and urinals using the composting process to convert waste to fertilizer used on-site • Mixed-mode natural ventilation system—indoor/outdoor temperature and humidity sensors notify occupants when conditions are optimal for natural ventilation; employees manually open windows and the mechanical system turns off. • 2-kW photovoltaic array provides electricity for lighting and equipment. • Passive solar design—the building harnesses winter sun for heating, but fixed wooden louvers along the south facing porch shield the summer sun from overheating the interior. • Solar domestic hot water system • Geothermal heat pump cooling and heating system • Desiccant dehumidification system • Demand-controlled ventilation system with CO2 sensors to control the amount of outside air introduced to the building based on building occupancy • Daylighting with dimmable lighting and daylight sensors • Occupancy sensors and controls • Computerized energy management system used to control systems and monitor energy usage • • • •

Square Footage: Sustainable Features:

64

C h e s a p e a k e B ay F o u n dat i o n , P h i l i p M e r r i l l E n v i ro n m e n ta l C e n t e r

• Efficient envelope insulation—low-E-coated insulated glass filled with argon between the lites, R-25 wall insulation, and R-32 roof insulation • Parallel strand timber structural system • Structurally insulated panels (SIPs) roof and wall enclosure • High recycled content materials including galvanized steel siding and roofing, reclaimed concrete, acoustic ceiling tiles, interior fabrics, and rubber flooring • Rapidly renewable finishes include bamboo and cork • Salvaged wood exterior sun shades and exterior wood trim. • Certified wood/ACQ treated wood—all wood used on the job is certified as sustainable by the Forest Stewardship Council • Over 20 percent of the materials used in the building were manufactured within 300 miles of the building site • Carbon monoxide and VOC sensors to monitor indoor air quality Structural System: Mechanical System: Materials: • Parallel strand timber beams and posts with roof and wall enclosure using structurally insulated panels (SIPs). • Ground source (geothermal) heat pump system. • Ground-face CMU block • Galvalume steel siding and standing seam roofing • Stained cement fiber board • Salvaged wood trim • Cork, bamboo flooring, and linoleum flooring • Exposed medium-density fiberboard millwork • Sealed SIP panels left exposed create wall and ceiling finishes • Whenever possible, materials left unpainted, conserving resources and diminishing pollutants

TOP: Organized in four quadrants, two on each floor, the headquarters’ double height lobby and exhibit space functions as an interactive node for both employees and visitors alike. BOTTOM: Views of the bay from every work area, made possible by the building orientation and an open floor plan, encourages team interaction yet appropriate separation for individual and group work.
C h e s a p e a k e B a y F o u n d a t i o n , P h i l i p M e r r i l l E n v i r o n m e n t a l C e n t e r 65

PROJECT DESIGN
The Philip Merrill Environmental Center used the Leadership in Environmental and Energy Design (LEED) rating system of the U.S. Green Building Council as a guiding framework for design. The council, an organization that measures sustainability in the building industry, awarded the center its highest level of certification—Platinum. It was the first building in the world to achieve this rating. The design of the headquarters set out to lead by example, hoping the Merrill Center wouldn’t stay the only Platinum for long. The Center has become a destination: business owners, government leaders, contractors, architects, engineers, and the general public have come to the headquarters to learn how to build green. The wide embrace of sustainability within the building industry over the last five years suggests the goal of leading by example has been met. The design began with the development of a master plan that set aside all but 4.5 acres of the 31acre site under a conservation easement. This allows the majority of the site to permanently remain undeveloped. As a part of the building process, the site was restored to the representative ecosystems found within the bay’s watershed including woodlands, wetlands, and even an oyster reef. To minimize site disruptions, the building and parking lot were sited over the footprint of the former pool house. The building design connects the foundation to the bay with a strikingly simple form. It does not try to compete with a rich site, but neither does it spread out and sink down apologetically. It is composed of two shed/roof structures oriented to the south that harness views of the bay and its breezes, as well as the sun’s energy for light and heat. One
66

shed, which presents its broad face to the bay, is long and narrow. It houses the reception area, offices, and support functions. Another shed structure, which is pulled away from the south bay side, is equal in height, but has a much smaller, entirely square footprint. It serves as the conference space with an attached staff lunchroom and kitchen. The two structures sit gracefully on slender pilings that hover above the landscape. The two are connected by a large deck. Occupants can park under the building, thus minimizing the site disruptions that are typically associated with parking. By expressing the conference space as a separate structure, the consistency of the longer, primary mass is relieved, and the resulting T-shaped building creates a degree of enclosure for the deck while focusing views to the bay. The north elevation integrates three huge rainwater storage tanks into its composition. Formally these provide relief to the expanse of the long north side of the building, marking an entry, but they also function as signage, communicating to visitors the idea that this is not a conventional office building but one that uses alternative technologies. The building interior is organized into four quadrants, two on each floor, each separated by the central lobby and exhibit space. Each quadrant accommodates a different department, whose layout of open workstations is unique to that department. Closed offices were minimized to promote an open exchange of ideas. Open workstations replace closed offices, allowing every employee views of the bay, as well as enabling sustainable strategies such as daylighting and natural ventilation. Meeting rooms and other shared spaces within each department provide opportunities for private dialogues.

TOP: Detail of north entrance and rainwater cisterns.The use of rainwater results in 92 percent less potable water usage than in a standard office building. CENTER: Headquarters view across the Chesapeake Bay from the west, showing entry and rainwater cisterns. BOTTOM: Southwest view from the bay, showing the structural system.

C h e s a p e a k e B ay F o u n dat i o n , P h i l i p M e r r i l l E n v i ro n m e n ta l C e n t e r

The interior continues the theme started on the exterior of exposing many of the building’s environmental innovations. Where possible, the materials are left unfinished, and ductwork is often exposed. This minimizes the use and consumption of finish materials. Much of the time the sense of completeness is provided by choice of material and composition, rather than by conventional finish. Nonetheless, where sustainable product such as cork and engineered woods are used, they are able to achieve the same qualities of warmth and familiarity as their conventional hardwood counterpoints. On balance, the effect of the overall design of the building is to reinforce all aspects of its sustainable architecture. The clear benefits of its various systems such as daylighting and natural ventilation are object lessons to both the users and to a lesser degree to visitors. In addition, the users are encouraged to participate actively in the building’s operation to optimize its performance, and to think of it more as a dynamic system than a static backdrop.

PROJECT CONSTRUCTION
The construction of the building incorporated a cradle-to-cradle rather than cradle-to-grave philosophy. This philosophy requires consideration of all materials not only for what they are made of, but also what they can be made into at the end of their useful lives. Materials were selected for recycled content (galvanized siding made from cans, cars, and guns, for example). Likewise, materials from renewable or regenerable resources were incorporated (cork flooring comes from the bark of the cork oak tree, which can

be harvested without killing the tree and regenerates in seven to nine years). All wood was either certified by U.S. Forestry Stewardship Council as coming from sustainably harvested forests or was from renewable resources (like the main foyer’s bamboo flooring that is harvested from plants that regrow in approximately three years). Existing structures on the site were deconstructed rather than demolished, and all materials were auctioned, salvaged, or recycled. The existing foundations were chipped and used as road base. Seven loads of chipped concrete were hauled offsite to be reused. The contractor used a construction recycling plan during construction of the building to minimize contribution to landfills. All cardboard, metals, concrete, concrete masonry units (CMU), asphalt, and land-clearing debris were recycled. Erosion control measures were rigorously enforced to ensure construction sedimentation and erosion did not directly impact the bay. An air quality management plan was used during the project’s construction to minimize dust and debris from collecting inside the mechanical system and to prevent VOCs from being absorbed in porous building finishes. Construction administration was performed by the team architect already familiar with the design and project goals.The contractor had limited experience with the building systems and the green process, and the project might have benefited from increased contractor and subcontractor education. The building was commissioned in 2001 when it opened, and several small glitches in the mechanical controls were identified. For instance, the perimeter hydronic heating had not been tied into the mixedmode natural ventilation controls as the design had dictated. As a result, the finned tube radiators

C h e s a p e a k e B a y F o u n d a t i o n , P h i l i p M e r r i l l E n v i r o n m e n t a l C e n t e r 67

were turning on when the operable windows were opened. The problem was easily solved by adjusting controls sequences. Beyond formal commissioning, the center’s facility manager has fine-tuned the building systems to be as efficient as possible without sacrificing comfort.

TOP: Bioretention plan. BOTTOM: First-floor plan.

PROJECT USE
Since moving into the Merrill Center in 2000, CBF has done extensive work with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the Department of Energy National Laboratory. NREL monitored the building’s energy and water performance from November 2001 to November 2002. Annual energy usage was measured to be 39.9 kBtu/square foot/ year, inclusive of plug loads and miscellaneous loads like exterior lighting and elevators. This is 59.0 percent less than typical office buildings based on 1995 data collected by the Energy Information Administration. Through NREL’s analysis, CBF learned their plug loads were higher than what had been anticipated, so they went back to verify that all possible plug-ins, including soda machines, were on motion sensors, and that all office equipment purchased was Energy Star–rated. The center clearly leads by example, and the research done postoperation will be helpful for planning future high-performing commercial building designs. NREL’s monitoring also looked at the building’s water consumption. Total water usage for one year was 39,937 gallons, of which 33,372 gallons (83.5 percent) was provided by way of rainwater harvest-

68

TOP: Wind diagram. BOTTOM: Building section.

ing and reuse. The balance of water usage, 6,565 gallons (16.5 percent), was supplied by the on-site well. Total water usage at CBF averaged 1.25 gallons/square foot/year. According to BOCA Plumbing Code, a conventional office building uses 12.66 gallons/square foot/year. Thus, CBF uses approximately 10 percent of the water of a conventional office building. Such a significant reduction is attributed to composting toilets and rainwater harvesting and reuse at lavatories, clothes washer, and mop sinks. CBF reports that the composting toilets work better than expected. While CBF staff doesn’t think twice about them, composting toilets are a real interest for visitors. Maintenance is minimal and compost is applied to grounds around the facility. For a 30-acre site that has been restored to native ecosystems, CBF could use all of the compost it can get. While conserving water and energy, the Merrill Center would also have to be an effective and inspiring workplace for the 90-plus staff who work everyday inside. A study conducted by the Center for the Built Environment at the University of California, Berkeley, surveyed 25,000 occupants of 150 buildings to question users’ satisfaction regarding air quality, comfort, acoustics, and lighting. Of the 150 buildings rated, the Philip Merrill Environmental Center received the second highest overall satisfaction score. Mary Tod Winchester, CBF’s vice president of administration, states, “The facility is a major recruitment tool.We have a much higher level of job applicants and more applicants per job than before we moved here.”

C h e s a p e a k e B a y F o u n d a t i o n , P h i l i p M e r r i l l E n v i r o n m e n t a l C e n t e r 69

NATURAL VENTILATION

goal for the design of the Merrill Center was to BUILDING SECTION DESIGN provide passive cooling through natural ventilation for a portion of the year. While this is feasible in smaller projects or in more moderate climates, naturally ventilating an office building in the hot, humid mid-Atlantic climate can be a challenge. By gathering climate data from Thomas Point lighthouse, located just off the shore from 5 the Merrill Center, the SmithGroup estimated that the climate could support natural ventilation for approximately 4 9 percent of the year—when outdoor conditions were 1 between 68° and 77°F (20° and 25°C) and 20 to 70 per3 cent relative humidity. 2 The building was oriented to take advantage of cool spring and fall breezes coming off of the bay. Awning windows in the south facade were located low to catch breezes from the bay. High awning windows along the north elevation and in each of the dormers were located to maximize stack and cross ventilation. Window locations and sizes were dictated by research into the wind effects and flow patterns throughout the building. RunNATURAL VENTILATION ning continuously along the inside of the south facade, a 5-foot-wide slot between the first and second floors was 1 Building exposes maximum surface to breezes added to increase air circulation throughout the space. Awning windows promote airflow into the building at 1st amd 2nd floors 2 The outside temperature and humidity is constantly Inlet and outlet openings are located in opposite pressure zones 3 monitored by the building’s energy management system, 4 Openings on all sides force airflow to change direction increasing ventilated area and when it is determined that outdoor conditions are suit5 Lager outlet area than inlet area products higher velocity --- best for hot/humid climates able for natural ventilation, the dormer windows will open automatically, a green light will turn on throughout the Natural ventilation. building signaling users to open the operable windows, and the mechanical system will shut down. Operable windows engage in the operation and performance of the building. By replacing are ganged together to minimize the effort of opening the many wincostly motorized operators, this sweat equity does dramatically reduce dows that span the facade. This approach might not be appropriate for the cost of the mixed-mode natural ventilation system. This combinaevery type of client, but the staff of CBF is more than willing to actively
TOILETS

A

OFFICE

TOILETS

OFFICE

MECH

COMPOST

PARKING

15'-0"

45'-0"

5'-0"

50'-0"

10'-0"

70

C h e s a p e a k e B ay F o u n dat i o n , P h i l i p M e r r i l l E n v i ro n m e n ta l C e n t e r

NATURAL VENTILATION

tion of high-tech and low-tech solutions is found throughout the Merrill Center. With very few exceptions, the Merrill Center used strategies like natural ventilation, composting toilets, geothermal cooling, and daylighting, which have been used successfully before in smaller buildings. What is most unique about the Merrill Center is the breadth of strategies used and the combined effect to reduce resource consumption in a larger scaled design. By polling staff, CBF was able to expand the temperature range where the building could be cooled using natural ventilation, while maintaining the comfort of the building occupants. The systems in the building were interactive enough to accommodate this adjustment. Roger Chang, a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, studied the center as part of his master’s thesis and reported his findings in “Case Studies of Naturally Ventilated Commercial Buildings in the United States” (2002). Chang found this estimate to be conservative and, through the use of data loggers, discovered that natural ventilation was used for 34 percent of weekday working hours during a much larger and cooler range of outdoor temperatures. Because the monitoring systems will only trigger natural ventilation during times when humidity levels do not exceed 70 percent, there are no impacts on materials that result from excess humidity indoors. Based on detailed thermal comfort surveys, Chang learned the center’s occupants generally favored the use of natural ventilation compared with mechanical conditioning. The survey results also show that occupant thermal-comfort expectations differed between natural ventilation mode and mechanical air-conditioning, a fact that could partially explain the greater than anticipated use of natural ventilation at the center. A finding like that can expand the viability of natural ventilation in climates that were previously thought to be poor candidates for passive cooling.

Interior lobby from the ground floor—daylighting, natural ventilation, and use of low-VOC furnishings and finishes encourage a positive work environment.
C C h s a a e a a e e B B y y F o o u n d t ito o n , P P hli ilpi p MM r r irli l l E E n ivri o o n m n n a a l C C n n e r r 71 he esp pek k aa F undaa i n, hi ee e e tte l nv r nme e t tl

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