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416 Longshore ur. | Ann Arbor, Ml 4810S | 734.996.1361 p | 734.996.SS9S f | www.recycle.

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ClLy of Mlnneapolls
uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy
May 10, 2012












1PlS ÞACL ln1Ln1lCnALL? LLl1 8LAnk



Lxecut|ve Summary and key Þo|nts .................................................................................................... 1
Introduct|on & 8ackground ................................................................................................................ 3
So||d Waste and kecyc||ng Þrograms and Þo||c|es .......................................................................................... 4
MlnnesoLa Solld WasLe ManagemenL 1ax ................................................................................................................ S
Waste and kecyc||ng Infrastructure ............................................................................................................... 6
D|sposa| Cost Summary ................................................................................................................................. 7
Comparat|ve C|ty Informat|on ............................................................................................................ 8
Changes |n Co||ect|on Systems .................................................................................................................... 10
kecyc||ng Co||ect|on Cpt|ons ............................................................................................................ 10
Current Mu|t|-Sort Co||ect|on Þrogram ........................................................................................................ 11
Dua|-Sort Co||ect|on Þrogram ...................................................................................................................... 12
S|ng|e-Sort Co||ect|on Þrogram .................................................................................................................... 12
Curb Conta|ner Set Cut Cpt|ons .................................................................................................................. 12
Co||ect|on Assessment ................................................................................................................................ 1S
LocaLlon: Alley vs. Curbslde .................................................................................................................................... 1S
WldLh and Lurnlng radlus ........................................................................................................................................ 1S
PelghL 8esLrlcLlons .................................................................................................................................................. 1S
Cpt|ons ....................................................................................................................................................... 1S
Þ||ot Co||ect|on Þrogram ............................................................................................................................. 16
Iocus Group Meet|ngs ................................................................................................................................ 17
MLL1lnC ÞA81lClÞAn1S ......................................................................................................................................... 18
A11l1uuLS 1CWA8uS Þ8CC8AMS Anu CCMÞA8A8LL LxÞL8lLnCLS ................................................................... 18
8LC?CLlnC CarLs and 8lns ...................................................................................................................................... 19
8LC?CLlnC AWA8LnLSS Anu LuuCA1lCn ............................................................................................................ 19
SÞLClAL Þ8CC8AMS and Auul1lCnAL SL8vlCLS ................................................................................................... 20
CCMMLn1S ............................................................................................................................................................ 20
Co||ect|on Cpt|ons Ana|ys|s and Costs .............................................................................................. 21
kecyc||ng Incent|ve Þrograms ........................................................................................................... 23
Incent|ve System Þros and Cons .................................................................................................................. 2S
Þros .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2S
Cons .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2S
Þrocess|ng Cpt|ons .......................................................................................................................... 2S
Secondary Markets ..................................................................................................................................... 27
Markets and kevenue for Mater|a|s ............................................................................................................ 27
Genera| D|scuss|on of Dua|-Sort kecyc||ng ........................................................................................ 29
8ackground on uual-SorL ............................................................................................................................................. 29
uual-SorL Scale of CperaLlons ...................................................................................................................................... 30
uual-SorL Sequence of CperaLlon ................................................................................................................................ 30
Genera| D|scuss|on of S|ng|e-Sort kecyc||ng ...................................................................................... 31
8ackground on Slngle-SorL ........................................................................................................................................... 31
Larly Slngle-SorL Þroblems ........................................................................................................................................... 32
Challenges .................................................................................................................................................................... 32
lmproved 1echnologles ................................................................................................................................................ 33
Slngle-SorL Scale of CperaLlon ...................................................................................................................................... 34
Sequence of CperaLlon ................................................................................................................................................ 34


Add|ng Mater|a|s to the kecyc||ng Sort ............................................................................................. 36
MeLals ..................................................................................................................................................................... 36
Þoly-CoaLed llber ................................................................................................................................................... 36
ÞlasLlc lllm .............................................................................................................................................................. 36
Large 8lgld ÞlasLlcs .................................................................................................................................................. 37
Cp|m|z|ng Sort|ng Cho|ces ................................................................................................................ 38
IINDINGS AND kLCCMMLNDA1ICNS ............................................................................................... 39

Append|ces
Appendlx l: Pennepln CounLy 8esoluLlon .............................................................................................................. 42
Appendlx ll: 8evenue Þro[ecLlons .......................................................................................................................... 4S
Appendlx lll: uual SorL Þrocess llow ulagram ....................................................................................................... 46
Appendlx lv: Slngle SorL Þrocess llow ulagram ..................................................................................................... 47



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 1
LxLCU1IVL SUMMAk¥ AND kL¥ ÞCIN1S
1he SLaLe of MlnnesoLa has esLabllshed new recovery goals for Pennepln CounLy, whlch lncludes 4S° recycllng
raLe by 201S and 47° by 2020. Pennepln CounLy has esLabllshed a recycllng goal of 3S° for Lhe ClLy of
Mlnneapolls. 1he ClLy of Mlnneapolls conLracLed a sLudy and assessmenL of collecLlon opLlons and Lhe lmpacL on
Lhe value of Lhe markeLable maLerlals, Lo asslsL ln deLermlnlng lLs nexL sLeps.
1he ClLy operaLes a bl-weekly aL-Lhe-curb, mulLl-sorL collecLlon sysLem, whlch requlres resldenLs Lo place all
lLems ln separaLe paper bags ln Lhelr recycllng bln. AlLhough Lhe communlLy accepLs and supporLs recycllng, for
more Lhan 10 years Lhe clLy has seen a sLagnanL recycllng raLe, and ln some years, Lhe raLe has decllned. 1he ClLy
has a falrly good parLlclpaLlon raLe for Lhe recycllng program, yeL compared Lo oLher clLles ln Lhe reglon and Lhe
naLlon, Lhe amounL of maLerlal recycled by resldenLs ls far below Lhe reglonal and naLlonal average.
Mlnneapolls conducLed Lwo plloL programs, LesLlng Lhe effecLlveness of dual-sorL and slngle-sorL collecLlon. 8oLh
plloL programs lncorporaLed recycllng carLs and collecLlng on Lhe bl-weekly schedule. 1he resulLs from Lhese
plloL programs show a slgnlflcanL lncrease ln number of sLops LhaL can be served by a slngle rouLe and Lhe
quanLlLy of recyclables collecLed per household.
key Þo|nts from kecyc||ng Þrogram Study
1he sLudy flndlngs, summarlzed below, are based on lnformaLlon collecLed from Lhe clLy's plloL programs and
from Lhe experlences of oLher clLles, and from focus group meeLlngs held wlLh currenL Solld WasLe and 8ecycllng
cusLomers. 1he pro[ecL evaluaLed slngle-sorL and dual-sorL collecLlon for boLh weekly and blweekly collecLlon.
kecovery
1. A slngle-sorL sysLem ls pro[ecLed Lo lncrease maLerlals quanLlLy recovered by 60° and Lhe Mlnneapolls
recycllng raLe lncreases from 18.1° Lo 32° (based on case sLudles such as Ann Arbor and ÞorLland).
2. A dual-sorL sysLem ls pro[ecLed Lo lncrease maLerlals quanLlLy recovered by 36° and Lhe Mlnneapolls
recycllng raLe lncreases from 18.1° Lo 2S° (based on case sLudles such as Ann Arbor and ÞorLland).

Þrocess|ng
1. 1he ma[orlLy of local recycllng cenLers - MaLerlal 8ecovery laclllLles (M8l's) - are well equlpped Lo
handle slngle sorL collecLlon.
2. Þrellmlnary research lndlcaLes no dlfference ln markeL revenues - slngle vs. dual ln local M8l's.

Cperat|ons and Cperat|ona| Costs
1. CollecLlon Llme for slngle-sorL ls less Lhan dual-sorL and Lhere ls no need Lo come off rouLe when one
comparLmenL fllls before Lhe oLher.
2. A slngle-sorL recycllng sysLem preserves space for a posslble Lhlrd carL for comlngled yard wasLe and
organlcs.
3. A seml-auLomaLed rear load Lruck (such as currenLly used for garbage collecLlon), wlLh 2 sLaff per Lruck,
besL serves alley-based collecLlons. 1hls ls Lhe same sysLem LhaL ls currenLly used for garbage collecLlon.
4. Slngle-sorL collecLlon allows for uLlllzaLlon of a slmllar Lruck fleeL Lo currenL rear load packers, resulLlng
ln a more cosL-effecLlve fleeL Lhan addlng a compleLely new Lype of vehlcle for recycllng collecLlon.




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 2
Cap|ta| Costs
1. uual-sorL collecLlon requlres an addlLlonal Lruck cosL of $28,000 more Lhan slngle sorL Lruck due Lo spllL
body packers.
2. CarL cosL for slngle sorL (1 per unlL [$6S) ls esLlmaLed aL $6,800,000.
1ruck CosL (8 Lrucks) for a bl-weekly slngle sorL collecLlon program ls $1,976,000.
3. CarL cosL for dual sorL (2 per unlL [$S0) ls esLlmaLed aL $10,S00,000.
1ruck CosL (9 Lrucks) for a bl-weekly, dual sorL collecLlon program ls $2,47S,000.
Cvera|| Þrogram Costs
1he neL 8ecycllng CosLs are Lhe lowesL for Lhe Slngle SorL Seml AuLomaLed 8l-weekly collecLlon program by
approxlmaLely 20° below currenL neL cosL whlle achlevlng a 32° recycllng raLe. 1he uual SorL 8l-weekly
program has a neL cosL of approxlmaLely 6S° hlgher Lhen Lhe currenL mulLl-sorL program and achleves a 2S°
recovery raLe. A Len percenL lncrease ln Lhe quanLlLy of maLerlal collecLed ln Lhe slngle sorL program achleves a
3S° recycllng raLe wlLh a neL cosL LhaL ls 40° lower Lhen Lhe currenL program. A Len percenL lncrease ln Lhe
quanLlLy of maLerlal collecLed ln Lhe dual sorL program achleves a 28.S° recycllng raLe wlLh a neL cosL LhaL ls
40° hlgher Lhen Lhe currenL program.

Slngle-sorL collecLlon and processlng also allow conslderaLlon of Lransferrlng recyclables from mllL-famlly
locaLlons should Mlnneapolls be lnLeresLed ln offerlng recycllng servlces ln currenLly under-served areas. Slngle
sorL collecLlon programs are more compaLlble wlLh Lhe developmenL of a yard wasLe and organlcs collecLlon
program LhaL would requlre anoLher carL.
AlLhough dual-sorL recycllng remalns Lechnlcally vlable, when you conslder LhaL Lhe markeL Lrend ls Loward
slngle-sorL processlng and LhaL placlng recyclables all ln one conLalner, whlch ls Lhe mosL convenlenL Lo mosL
resldenLs, lL ls clear LhaL Mlnneapolls should conslder swlLchlng Lo slngle-sorL collecLlon.
lL ls furLher recommended LhaL Lhe ClLy conducL a more deLalled evaluaLlon of Lhe program and lnvesLmenL
requlremenLs assoclaLed wlLh such a converslon Lo slngle sorL collecLlon and processlng by lssulng a 8equesL for
Þroposal (8lÞ) Lo deLermlne Lhe acLual collecLlon and processlng cosLs. 1hls evaluaLlon would lnclude equlpmenL
opLlons and cosLs, processlng and markeLlng arrangemenLs, rouLe requlremenLs, and program lnvesLmenLs and
savlngs.




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 3
IN1kCDUC1ICN & 8ACkGkCUND
Many clLles and solld wasLe dlsLrlcLs LhroughouL Lhe naLlon are seLLlng new, amblLlous goals for hlgher recycllng,
wasLe recovery raLes and even LargeLlng zero wasLe as an aLLalnable goal.
1he SLaLe of MlnnesoLa has esLabllshed new recovery goals for Pennepln CounLy, whlch lncludes 4S° recycllng
raLe by 201S and 47° by 2020. Pennepln CounLy ueparLmenL of LnvlronmenLal Servlces approved a 8esoluLlon
Lo esLabllsh recycllng goals and revlse Lhe lundlng Þollcy for recycllng granLs efforLs, esLabllshlng a recycllng goal
of 3S°. 1he goals sLaLed ln Lhe Pennepln CounLy 8esoluLlon are Lo lncrease recycllng parLlclpaLlon, lncrease Lhe
amounL of maLerlal recycled and reduce Lhe cosL of servlces. 1o meeL Lhose goals, Pennepln CounLy ls
conslderlng esLabllshlng whaL maLerlals should be lncluded ln recycllng programs and requlrlng lmplemenLaLlon
of elLher dual-sorL or slngle-sorL collecLlon. A copy of Lhe 8esoluLlon ls lncluded as Appendlx #1.
Mlnneapolls' curbslde recycllng program began as a plloL, monLhly collecLlon ln 1982. Cver Lhe years, Lhe
number of lLems collecLed was lncreased ln Lhe program and Lhe frequency of collecLlon was shlfLed Lo bl-
weekly servlce. 1he collecLlon meLhod has remalned as an aL-Lhe-curb, mulLl-sorL sysLem, whlch requlres
resldenLs Lo place all lLems ln separaLe paper bags ln Lhelr recycllng bln. AlLhough Lhe communlLy accepLs and
supporLs recycllng, for more Lhan 10 years Lhe clLy has seen a sLagnanL recycllng raLe, and ln some years, Lhe
raLe has decllned.
IIGUkL 1: MINNLAÞCLIS kLC¥CLING kA1L AND nLNNLÞIN CCUN1¥ kLC¥CLING GCAL*
*2011 8ecycllng 8aLe = 18.1°

1he challenge faclng Lhe ClLy ls how Lo lncrease Lhe currenL recycllng raLe Lo meeL Lhe goals seL by Lhe SLaLe of
MlnnesoLa and supporLed by Pennepln CounLy, whlle provldlng a cosL-effecLlve program LhaL can be embraced
by lLs resldenLs and buslnesses.


10°
1S°
20°
2S°
30°
3S°
40°
200S 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Pennepln CounLy Coal (CranL 8equlremenL)
MLÞS 8ecycllng uaLa



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 4
SCLID WAS1L AND kLC¥CLING ÞkCGkAMS AND ÞCLICILS
8oLh sLaLe and local governmenL pollcles play a sLrong role ln shaplng recovery ln Lhe 1CMA. AL Lhe sLaLe level,
MlnnesoLa's WasLe ManagemenL AcL (WMA) (Mlnn. SLaL. §11SA), enacLed ln 1980, esLabllshes Lhe followlng
program goals.
An offlclal hlerarchy of wasLe managemenL meLhods:
(1) WasLe reducLlon and reuse,
(2) WasLe recycllng,
(3) ComposLlng of yard wasLe and food wasLe,
(4) 8esource recovery Lhrough mlxed munlclpal solld wasLe composLlng or lnclneraLlon,
(S) Land dlsposal whlch produces no measurable meLhane gas or whlch lnvolves Lhe reLrleval of
meLhane gas as a fuel for Lhe producLlon of energy Lo be used on-slLe or for sale, and
(6) Land dlsposal LhaL produces measurable meLhane and whlch does noL lnvolve Lhe reLrleval of
meLhane gas as a fuel for Lhe producLlon of energy Lo be used on-slLe or for sale.
• A sLaLewlde source reducLlon goal Lo be achleved by uecember 31, 2000, of a mlnlmum Len percenL per
caplLa reducLlon from Lhe 1993 MSW generaLlon (Mlnn. SLaL. § 11SA.SS).
• A S0 percenL recycllng goal for Lhe meLropollLan counLles, lncludlng credlLs for yard wasLe and source
reducLlon, whlch can add up Lo 8 percenL Lo Lhe base recycllng raLe (Mlnn. SLaL. § 11SA.SS1).

ln addlLlon, Mlnn. SLaL. §473.149 esLabllshes requlremenLs for comprehenslve solld wasLe plannlng, lncludlng
seLLlng quanLlflable ob[ecLlves for reduclng land dlsposal ln Lhe 1CMA reglon. AL Lhe local level, Lhe meLropollLan
counLles have Lhe prlmary responslblllLy for creaLlng Lhls plan and managlng Lhe lnLegraLed solld wasLe sysLem.
1he 2008 MlnnesoLa CllmaLe Change Advlsory Croup (MCCAC)'s recommendaLlons, whlch are noL sLaLuLory
requlremenLs, also gulded Lhe 1CMA's solld wasLe plannlng process. 1hese lnclude sLaLewlde goals of 60
percenL recycllng and 1S percenL organlcs recycllng by 202S Lo help reach greenhouse gas reducLlon goals seL by
Lhe leglslaLure. 1he goals esLabllshed for Lhe meLro area are shown ln 1able 1 below. Pennepln CounLy adopLed
Lhe goals esLabllshed by Lhe MÞCA ln lLs Þollcy Þlan adopLed Aprll 10, 2012 wlLh Lhe excepLlon LhaL Lhe counLy
has an organlcs recovery goal of 6 percenL by 201S and by 2020.
1ab|e 1: So||d Waste Management Goa|s
So||d Waste Management Method 2008 201S 2020 202S 2030
Source 8educLlon and 8euse (mlnlmum) 1-2° 2-4° 3-S° 4-6°
8ecycllng (mlnlmum) 41° 4S-48° 47-S1° 48-S4° S3-60°
Crganlcs 8ecovery (mlnlmum) 2° 3-6° 4-7° S-9° 7-9°
8esource 8ecovery (expecLed) 29° 32-34° 34-3S° 32-33° 29-30°
Landflll (maxlmum) 28° 20° 1S° 1S° 11°

8esldenLlal recycllng programs conslsL of curbslde collecLlon and drop-off slLes, and lnclude recycllng servlces for
boLh slngle-famlly and mulLlfamlly houslng. Curbslde recycllng programs ln Lhe 1CMA are provlded by haulers
Lhrough a conLracL wlLh a munlclpallLy or are provlded Lhrough subscrlpLlon servlce. MosL counLles provlde
some fundlng for munlclpal programs. 1he prlvaLe secLor, munlclpallLles, and Lwo counLles provlde numerous
publlc drop-off locaLlons for one or more Lypes of recyclables.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage S
MINNLSC1A SCLID WAS1L MANAGLMLN1 1Ax
1he SLaLe of MlnnesoLa also promoLes recycllng of wasLe vla a Solld WasLe ManagemenL 1ax levled on all mlxed
munlclpal solld wasLe managemenL servlces. Servlces for recycllng, yard Lrlmmlngs and oLher maLerlals
separaLed from Lhe wasLe sorL are exempL from Lhe Lax. 1hls has a neL effecL of lncreaslng cosLs of dlsposal and
decreaslng Lhe relaLlve cosLs Lo recycle, Lhereby encouraglng buslnesses and communlLles Lo recycle more. 1he
currenL Solld WasLe ManagemenL 1ax raLes are:
• 9.7S° for resldenLlal generaLors
• 17° for commerclal generaLors and self-haulers
1he ClLy of Mlnneapolls Lax ls calculaLed and Lhe Lax lncenLlve for recycllng ls shown ln 1able 2.
1ab|e 2: So||d Waste Management 1ax Lxamp|e
Samp|e 1ax: Cne res|dent|a| dwe|||ng
un|t w|th a s|ng|e |arge garbage cart per
month
Ca|cu|at|on Non-kecyc|er kecyc|er
8ase lee $24.00 x 9.7S°= $2.34 $2.34
8ecycllng CredlL $7.00 x 9.7S° = ($0.68)
CarL ulsposal lee $S.00 x 9.7S° = $0.49 $0.49
1oLal 1ax $2.83 $2.1S




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 6
WAS1L AND kLC¥CLING INIkAS1kUC1UkL
Several large lnclneraLors, landfllls, and maLerlal recovery faclllLles, as well as numerous Lransfer sLaLlons serve
Lhe 1CMA. 1hese are shown are llsLed ln 1able 3.
1ab|e 3: D|sposa| Infrastructure
Iac|||ty Locat|on Mater|a|
1ons per
Day
1|p Iee
(5]ton)
Notes
Landf|||s:
Þlne 8end SanlLary Landflll lnver Crove PelghLs, Mn C&u, MSW 792 $70.00*
Þrlmary reclplenL of
1CMA landfllled
wasLe
Sk8 8lch valley uemollLlon Landflll & 1S SouLh SalnL Þaul, Mn C&u, MSW S n/A
Llk 8lver SanlLary Landflll, lnc. Llk 8lver, Mn C&u, MSW 1S03 $78.80*
Secondary reclplenL
of 1CMA landfllled
wasLe
8urnsvllle-kraemer SanlLary Landflll 8urnsvllle, Mn C&u, MSW 1074 $69.78*
Þrlmary reclplenL of
1CMA landfllled
wasLe
uawnway uemollLlon Landflll SouLh SalnL Þaul, Mn C&u, MSW 63 n/A
Lake Llmo-WashlngLon CounLy Landflll Lake Llmo, Mn MSW nA n/A
8uby Landflll 1ownshlp Malden 8ock, Wl MSW n/A n/A
Inc|nerators:
Llk 8lver 8ul Þrocesslng laclllLy Llk 8lver, Mn MSW 1664 $69.00
8efuse-derlved fuel
processlng
n8C-8amsey/WashlngLon 8ul newporL, Mn MSW, 1lres, Wood 1192 $S0.00
ConverLs MSW lnLo
refuse-derlved fuel,
ferrous and non-
ferrous meLal
recovery
Pennepln Lnergy 8esource Company
(PL8C)
Mlnneapolls, Mn MSW 740 $47.00
Mass-burn
Lechnology wlLh
ferrous meLal
recovery
1ransfer Stat|ons:
WasLe ManagemenL 1ransfer SLaLlon SalnL Þaul, Mn
C&u, MSW, ?ard
WasLe
324 $60.00
1wln ClLles 8ecyco 1ransfer SLaLlon 8lalne, Mn
C&u, MSW, ?ard
WasLe
312 $8S.00
8lchard's 1ransfer SLaLlon Savage, Mn C&u, MSW 2SS $43.00
8ellalre 8esource 8ecovery SysLem 1S SLlllwaLer, Mn
C&u, MSW, ?ard
WasLe
134 $S0.00
WMl / norLhern Wlsconsln 1S 8lver lalls, Mn C&u, MSW 100 $SS.00
uakoLa 8esource 8ecovery, lnc. 1S /
unlLed WasLe
lnver Crove PelghLs, Mn C&u, MSW 63 $S0.00
knuLsen Servlces lnc. 1S 8osemounL, Mn MSW 63 n/A
lreeway 1ransfer SLaLlon 8urnsvllle, Mn MSW, 1lres (AuLo) 819 $4S.00
Pennepln CounLy 8ecycllng CenLer 8rooklyn Þark, Mn
C&u, MSW, ?ard
WasLe
S9S $4S.00
Cambrldge SW 1ransfer SLaLlon Cambrldge, Mn C&u, MSW, Ash 136 $49.00
Mlnneapolls SouLh Slde 1ransfer SLaLlon Mlnneapolls, Mn C&u, MSW 4 $88.92
• 1lp fees shown are sLaLed gaLe raLes.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 7
• 1ab|e 4: Þrocess|ng Infrastructure (Mater|a| kecovery Iac|||t|es)
Iac|||ty Locat|on Mater|a| L|nes 1ons per Day
Allled WasLe Mlnneapolls
8ecycllng CenLer
Mlnneapolls, Mn
Mlxed llber, Commlngled ConLalners
(rlglds), All MaLerlals-slngle sorL, Plgh Crade
llber
S00
Lureka 8ecycllng SL. Þaul, Mn Mlxed llber, Commlngled ConLalners 180
lnver Crove PelghLs/SL. Þaul
(Allled WasLe)
lnver Crove PelghLs,
Mn
All maLerlals 200
Mall of Amerlca - WasLe and
8ecycllng ueparLmenL
8loomlngLon, Mn
Commlngled ConLalners, Mlxed llber-
Manual, CCC-manual
31
Þlerce CounLy M8l LllsworLh, Wl
Class-manual, Commlngled ConLalners - no
glass, Mlxed llber
16
ÞyLhons of SL. Cloud lnc. SL. Cloud, Mn Mlxed llber, Commlngled ConLalners, CCC 8S
8ecycle Amerlca Alllance Mlnneapolls, Mn
Mlxed llber, Slngle SorL, uual SorL
conLalners, CCC
SS8

A ma[orlLy of local recycllng cenLers - MaLerlal 8ecovery laclllLles (M8l's) - have made slgnlflcanL caplLal
lnvesLmenL on slngle sorL processlng.
DISÞCSAL CCS1 SUMMAk¥
1ab|e S conLalns esLlmaLes from Lhe 1CMA's solld wasLe plan for Lhe all-lncluslve cosL per Lon for varlous meLhods of
managlng solld wasLe, Laklng lnLo accounL recycllng revenue, collecLlon cosLs, processlng cosLs, and Llp fees. Where
posslble, Llp fees and collecLlon cosLs have been dlsaggregaLed. AcLual cosLs from Lhe ClLy of Mlnneapolls as well as prlvaLe
haullng companles are used ln Lhe analysls of program cosLs.
1ab|e S: Lst|mated Costs Þer 1on for So||d Waste Management
Management Method
1ota| Cost
per ton
1|p fee Co||ect|on and other costs
8ecycllng (resldenLlal) $110 -$143 noL appllcable unable Lo separaLe Lhese cosLs
8ecycllng (commerclal, lnsLlLuLlonal, and lndusLrlal) $8S - $90 noL appllcable unable Lo separaLe Lhese cosLs
Crganlcs (lood Lo anlmals) $0 - $49 noL appllcable unable Lo separaLe Lhese cosLs
Crganlcs (SSC) $80 - $193 $40 - $4S $40 - $148
WasLe Lo Lnergy $168 - $207 $47 - $84 $119 - $123
Landflll $130 - $162 $39 - $43 $91 - $119





ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 8
CCMÞAkA1IVL CI1¥ INICkMA1ICN
1he clLles lncluded ln Lhe comparaLlve analysls LhaL have slngle sorL sysLems are Ann Arbor, kansas ClLy, and
ClnclnnaLl. keeplng glass separaLe from Lhe remalnder of Lhe recyclable maLerlals modlfles kansas ClLy's slngle
sorL collecLlon.
1ab|e 6: Comparat|ve kecyc||ng Þart|c|pat|on kates
Þrogram kecyc||ng kate*
Current MÞLS 18°
St. Þau| 30¼
Ann Arbor 37¼
Þort|and 34¼
kansas ClLy** 16°
ClnclnnaLl** 18°

CommunlLles LhaL have converLed Lo dual sorL or slngle sorL collecLlon experlence an lmmedlaLe, slgnlflcanL
lncrease ln Lhe volumes collecLed. 8esldenLs do noL have Lo provlde as much space for sorLlng and sLorlng
maLerlals ln preparaLlon for Lhelr collecLlon day, and flnd lL easler Lo carry maLerlals Lo Lhe curb ln fewer
conLalners. lurLher, Lhe rouLes can be expanded Lo serve a larger number of sLops, whlch saves ln Lruck usage,
labor and Lravel Llme on Lhe sLreeL. lL has been demonsLraLed LhroughouL Lhe counLry LhaL carL based sysLems
lncreases Lhe amounL of recyclable maLerlal LhaL can be collecLed ln a bl-weekly or weekly program.
1ab|e 7: Comparat|ve kecyc||ng Çuant|ty kates
Þrogram Area Ann Arbor St. Þau| kansas C|ty C|nc|nnat| Þort|and
8ecycllng CollecLlon
Slngle SorL
Weekly
uual SorL
Weekly
Slngle SorL
Weekly
Slngle SorL
8lweekly
Slngle SorL
Weekly
ConLalner CarL 8ln 8ln CarL CarL
Lbs./PP 726 477 302 386 6S9

1he flve comparable clLles offer a varleLy of servlce comblnaLlons Lo conslder. Lach has lLs own success sLory.
Lach has adapLed Lo lLs own program, so addlLlonal revlew would be beneflclal ln evaluaLlng whlch opLlons
would be Lhe mosL appllcable.
1ab|e 8: Comparat|ve kecyc||ng Changes
Ann Arbor Saw 1S° lncrease ln Lonnage wlLh swlLch from weekly dual sorL blns Lo slngle sorL carLs
SL. Þaul
Saw 1S° lncrease ln Lonnage wlLh swlLch from source separaLed blweekly blns Lo dual
sorL weekly blns
ClnclnnaLl
Saw parLlclpaLlon lncrease from 40° Lo 71° wlLh swlLch from weekly blns Lo blweekly
carLs
SwlLch saved clLy $900,000 per year
1onnage lncreased by over S0° ln same Llme perlod

Carts versus b|ns: CarLs have conslsLenLly shown an lncrease ln Lhe volume of recycllng collecLed. CarLs offer
greaLer capaclLy, more sLablllLy and decreased rlsk of maLerlals becomlng wlnd-sLrewn or placed ln Lrash when
Lhe bln ls full before collecLlon. 1here are concerns, as noLed ln Lhe laLer secLlon enLlLled 'Curb SeL CuL CpLlons',



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 9
abouL Lhe slze of Lhe carLs and dlfflculLy ln handllng Lo Lhe curb. Powever, wlLh conslsLenL, user-frlendly
educaLlon and lf carLs are offered ln slze opLlons, carLs yleld greaLer parLlclpaLlon and volumes.
Waste versus recyc||ng: 1he comblnaLlon of wasLe and recycllng collecLlon remalns a facLor ln recovery raLes. lf
unllmlLed wasLe dlsposal, aL a low raLe of cosL ls offered Lo a communlLy, lL ls very easy Lo puL everyLhlng lnLo a
wasLe conLalner. Successful programs focus on dlscouraglng wasLe dlsposal and encouraglng recycllng,
composLlng and source reducLlon as Lhe beLLer alLernaLlves. 1hls can be accompllshed Lhrough educaLlon and
encouraglng parLlclpaLlng ln Lhe recycllng programs and Lhrough Lhe varlable prlclng of wasLe dlsposal. Where
Lhese facLors are presenL, recycllng programs Lend Lo be much more successful ln boLh recoverlng maLerlal and
generaLlng revenue.
Irequency: Many communlLles have resorLed Lo bl-weekly recycllng collecLlon as a cosL savlngs. CommunlLles
aLLalnlng hlgh recycllng raLes ln Lhe compared clLles provlde weekly collecLlon. Weekly collecLlon provldes
resldenLs wlLh a slmpler ºeveryLhlng ouL Lo Lhe curb" model. 8l-weekly as an opLlon ln Lhe lnLeresLs of cosL
savlngs musL be balanced by provldlng adequaLe conLalners and remlnders of Lhe collecLlon schedule Lo avold
recyclables belng dlsposed ln Lhe garbage because Lhe resldenL ºran ouL of room" ln Lhe recycllng bln.
Cost: ConverLlng Lo a dual or slngle sorL collecLlon sysLem requlres some caplLal lnvesLmenL ln equlpmenL,
program modlflcaLlons and publlc educaLlon. Changes ln processlng fees wlll be dependenL upon Lhe
arrangemenL wlLh Lhe M8l and Lhe revenue sharlng arrangemenL esLabllshed wlLh Lhe ClLy. 1hese lnvesLmenL
facLors are balanced agalnsL Lhe lncrease ln recycllng resulLlng from a slmpler meLhod of seLouL and collecLlon
for Lhe communlLy, and Lhe savlngs reallzed from reduced wasLe dlsposal fees and collecLlon cosLs.




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 10
CnANGLS IN CCLLLC1ICN S¥S1LMS
Slngle-sorL recycllng - where all flber grades and recyclable conLalners are collecLed commlngled LogeLher ln one
comparLmenL on Lhe recycllng collecLlon vehlcle - has been a growlng Lrend for Lhe pasL flfLeen years. 1he
prevalence of slngle-sorL collecLlon was flrsL evaluaLed ln Lhe 2000 Survey, and has conLlnued Lo be evaluaLed ln
Lhe subsequenL surveys. As shown ln llgure 2, Lhe growLh ln slngle-sorL recycllng has sLeadlly lncreased. ln 200S,
only 29 percenL of Lhe populaLlon wlLh recycllng had access Lo a slngle-sorL program. 8y 2010, LhaL number has
lncreased Lo 64 percenL. AlLhough 8. W. 8eck has noL aLLempLed Lo correlaLe Lhe Lrend Lo slngle-sorL collecLlon
wlLh Lhe expanslon ln flber producLs collecLed ln programs, anecdoLal evldence suggesLs such a relaLlonshlp
exlsLs.
IIGUkL 2: 2007 VS. 2010 CCMÞAkISCN: ÞLkCLN1AGL CI CCMMUNI1ILS 8¥ CCLLLC1ICN ML1nCD
1


* ºComblnaLlon" means dlfferenL haulers ln some communlLles may use dlfferenL collecLlon Lechnlques for recycllng collecLlon
kLC¥CLING CCLLLC1ICN CÞ1ICNS
88S conducLed a comparaLlve analysls of flve clLles' recycllng collecLlon and processlng programs. 1he lnLenLlon
of Lhls analysls was Lo gaLher daLa from comparable clLles Lo provlde an overvlew of each one's experlence wlLh
posslble opLlons LhaL can be lncorporaLed lnLo Mlnneapolls' program. 88S Lhen evaluaLed boLh dual sorL and
slngle sorL collecLlon opLlons based on Lhe assessmenLs of oLher clLles, reporLs on collecLlon and processlng
efflclencles, Lruck vendor lnformaLlon, an evaluaLlon of Lhe consLralnLs Lo collecLlon lmposed by Lhe collecLlon of
recyclables ln alleys, and a serles of focus groups wlLh ClLy resldenLs.

1
CopyrlghL © 2012 Þaper lndusLry AssoclaLlon Councll
2
kesootce kecyclloq Moqozloe, CcLober, 2009
3
5loqle-5tteom ooJ uool-5tteom kecyclloq. compototlve lmpocts of commloqleJ kecyclobles ltocessloq, Þrepared lor Lhe



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 11
1he flve clLles, ClnclnnaLl, Ann Arbor, SL. Þaul, kansas ClLy, and ÞorLland, have all converLed Lhelr collecLlon
programs from long-Lerm, curbslde mulLl-sorL collecLlon programs Lo varlaLlons of dual-sorL or slngle sorL
collecLlon aL Lhe curb, and weekly or bl-weekly frequency.
CUkkLN1 MUL1I-SCk1 CCLLLC1ICN ÞkCGkAM
1he Mlnneapolls program ls a curbslde mulLl-sorL program. CollecLlon vehlcles used ln a mulLl-sorL sysLem are
deslgned wlLh mulLlple comparLmenLs. lf Lwo or more lLems are comblned ln a comparLmenL, Lhe mulLl-sorL ls a
varlaLlon, whlch requlres some level of sorLlng aL Lhe M8l.
CollecLlon quanLlLles are llmlLed ln mulLl-sorL programs by complex sorLlng requlremenLs for resldenLs. ln Lhe
early years of curbslde recycllng, Lhe number of comparLmenLs on a collecLlon Lruck was adequaLe for Lhe
maLerlals lncluded ln Lhe program: sLeel cans, newspaper, cardboard, alumlnum cans, glass sorLed by clear and
color, and someLlmes #1 and #2 plasLlc boLLles.

Mlnneapolls 8ecycllng CollecLlon 1ruck
As recycllng markeLs and resldenL demand for more recycllng lncreased, mulLl-sorL programs were challenged Lo
adapL and provlde addlLlonal recycllng opporLunlLles. 1he markeLplace addressed Lhese challenges wlLh flrsL
dual sorL (or dual sLream) and Lhen slngle sorL (or slngle sLream) approaches Lo recycllng collecLlon and
processlng were developed.
AnoLher llmlLaLlon Lo Lhe mulLl-sorL programs ls Lhe amounL of maLerlals LhaL are collecLed on Lhe rouLe. When
one of Lhe comparLmenLs ls full, Lhe Lruck musL reLurn Lo Lhe M8l Lo empLy Lhe load, even Lhough oLher
comparLmenLs have remalnlng capaclLy. 1hls requlres a greaLer number of Lrlps Lo and from Lhe M8l. 1he rouLe
cannoL serve Lhe full poLenLlal of sLops, whlch makes Lhe vehlcle and Lhe collecLlon rouLe lnefflclenL, and
subsequenLly lncreaslng labor and Lravel cosLs. 1o an exLenL, Lhe percenLage of maLerlals collecLed ln a
resldenLlal mlx can be pro[ecLed. 1hls could allow for a larger capaclLy comparLmenL Lo be deslgnaLed for,
perhaps, newspaper. Powever, on any glven rouLe Lhe percenLage may vary.
MulLl-sorLed programs requlre Lhe mosL cosLly labor Lo collecL Lhe maLerlals. LmpLylng Lhe conLalners/bags of
recyclable maLerlals lnLo Lhe respecLlve comparLmenLs ls a repeLlLlve moLlon, requlrlng more Llme (labor hours)
aL each sLop Lhan oLher sysLems. ln Lerms of labor cosLs, Lruck drlvers are pald aL a hlgher raLe Lhan laborers
worklng aL a M8l. 1he Llme consumed by Lhe drlver Lo collecL Lhe recyclables ls an addlLlonal cosL Lo Lhe
program.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 12
DUAL-SCk1 CCLLLC1ICN ÞkCGkAM
ln a dual-sorL sysLem, paper (flber) ls collecLed separaLely from conLalners (cans, boLLles, plasLlcs). 1rucks are
equlpped wlLh a spllL body or Lwo comparLmenLs, so LhaL flber ls placed ln one of Lhe Lwo comparLmenLs and
conLalners are placed ln Lhe second comparLmenL. 1he dual-sorL collecLlon ls a more efflclenL sysLem Lhan Lhe
mulLl-sorL collecLlon ln Lerms of Llme and cosLs. lllllng Lhe Lruck requlres Lwo repeLlLlve moLlons Lo collecL Lhe
maLerlals. 1hls saves collecLlon Llme aL Lhe curb. 1he dlsadvanLage of dual sorL collecLlon remalns, Lhough less
problemaLlc, as Lhe mulLl-sorL sysLem, when one slde of Lhe Lruck ls fllled, Lhe Lruck musL reLurn Lo Lhe M8l Lo
empLy Lhe load and reLurn Lo Lhe rouLe. SalnL Þaul, Mlnneapolls's º1wln ClLy", employs a dual-sorL recycllng
collecLlon and processlng sysLem. uaLa from SalnL Þaul ls presenLed as parL of Lhls sLudy.
SINGLL-SCk1 CCLLLC1ICN ÞkCGkAM
An lncreaslng number of communlLles have shlfLed Lo a slngle sorL collecLlon sysLem. ln a slngle sorL sysLem, all
maLerlals are collecLed and placed ln a slngle comparLmenL Lruck. Lach collecLlon vehlcle can remaln on rouLe
unLll Lhe Lruck ls compleLely full or Lhe rouLe ls compleLe. Lven ln LhaL case, dlspaLchers may send a less Lhan full
Lruck Lo anoLher rouLe Lo help compleLe collecLlon, based upon proxlmlLy and capaclLy of Lhe Lruck.
1he Lrucks can be dual-purpose, l.e., collecL recyclables and Lhen deslgnaLed Lo reLurn Lo asslsL ln wasLe or oLher
maLerlals collecLlon. 1he drlver makes a one moLlon pass aL each sLop, savlng Llme and labor cosLs. lf Lhe Lruck ls
equlpped wlLh a mechanlcal loadlng hopper or mechanlcal arm, Lhe drlver can save addlLlonal Llme ln Lhe
collecLlon process. (See phoLos below)

Seml-AuLomaLed CollecLlon 1ruck AuLomaLed 8ecycllng CollecLlon 1ruck
CUk8 CCN1AINLk SL1 CU1 CÞ1ICNS
1here are Lwo conLalner opLlons communlLles can offer resldenLs Lo seL ouL maLerlals for dual and slngle sorL
curbslde collecLlon. 1he flrsL opLlon ls Lo provlde one or more recycllng blns, l.e., plasLlc boxes of varylng slze,
Lyplcally ranglng from 13 gallon Lo 2S gallon Whlle recycllng blns can be equlpped wlLh llds, Lhe dlsadvanLage Lo
bln programs wlLh llds ls LhaL Lhe llghLwelghL lld can be damaged lf lL falls or blows lnLo Lhe sLreeL, or compleLely
dlsappear lf weaLher condlLlons are amply sLrong. ln a dual collecLlon sysLem, resldenLs elLher have Lwo blns,
one for flber and one for conLalners, or are asked Lo place all flber lnLo a paper bag Lo lsolaLe from Lhe
conLalners and place everyLhlng lnLo Lhe slngle conLalner.
1he second opLlon for curbslde seL ouLs ls a wheeled carL, equlpped wlLh an aLLached lld. Wheeled carLs have
been Lhe mosL accepLed and growlng opLlon for slngle and dual sorL collecLlon programs over Lhe pasL 10 years.
1he wheeled carL encourages resldenLs Lo recycle more maLerlals and provldes Lhe convenlence of sLorage of



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 13
maLerlals and for haullng Lo Lhe curb. 1he mosL expressed reservaLlon from resldenLs concernlng mulLl-sorL
programs, Lhe number of conLalners and Lhe dlfflculLy of movlng all of Lhem Lo Lhe curb wlLhouL splllage, ls also
one of Lhe advanLages of Lhe carL.
1here are clrcumsLances where some resldenLs are concerned LhaL Lhe carL ls Loo blg or heavy Lo move Lo Lhe
curb, especlally for Lhe elderly. CperaLlonal experlence has shown LhaL alLhough carL slze can aL flrsL be
somewhaL lnLlmldaLlng, Lhe resldenL adapLs Lo Lhe carL and lLs LransporL and sLorage opLlons. CpLlonal programs
LhaL allow for resldenLs Lo requesL a dlfferenL slze carL can also be lmplemenLed as parL of a swlLch Lo carL based
programs. uual sorL sysLems can also use carLs, elLher spllL 96-gal or Lwo 64-gal for blweekly collecLlon.

ÞhoLo: 1yplcal 8ecycllng CarLs and 8lns
CommunlLles can allay Lhese concerns by flrsL, dlsplaylng Lhe carLs ln a promlnenL locaLlon so resldenLs can
ºcheck Lhem ouL" prlor Lo Lhe onseL of a program or by offerlng an opLlonal smaller slzed carL. lL can also be
polnLed ouL LhaL communlLles seem Lo have no problem when provldlng a Lrash carL of Lhe same slze. Also refer
Lo offerlng smaller carLs for Lhe elderly
Some cleanllness lmprovemenL has been ldenLlfled wlLh Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of carLs. A larger conLalner wlLh a
cover prevenLs much of Lhe llLLer and blowlng of paper and plasLlc LhaL ls assoclaLed wlLh lldless bln conLalners.
ln addlLlon, some resldenLs have lndlcaLed LhaL sLorlng recyclables ouLslde ln a carL ls preferable Lo keeplng blns
lndoors. 1hls ls especlally helpful ln areas provldlng alley collecLlon.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 14
1ab|e 9: Cart Cpt|ons
Cr|ter|a and
Spec|f|cat|ons kehr|g Þac|f|c Cascade 1oter Ctto
Lxpert|se
21 years experlence
wlLh roll-ouL carLs,
company
founded ln 1913
22 years experlence,
17 mllllon carLs
LargesL carL
manufacLurer ln uS
LargesL carL producer
worldwlde, uS
operaLlons lnclude aL
leasL 24 clLles
Þroduct
PuskyLlLe rollouL
carLs, ln[ecLlon
moldlng
ln[ecLlon moldlng
PuÞL
Advanced
8oLaLlonally Molded
ln[ecLlon moldlng
Cart Manufactur|ng
S manufacLurlng
faclllLles ln uS
1 faclllLy ln Crand
8aplds, Ml
1 faclllLy ln nC 2 faclllLles AZ, nC
Incent|ve Þrograms -
kecyc|ebank (k8),
kewards for kecyc||ng
(k4k) and kIID tags
CerLlfled by 88,
worked on 9 88
pro[ecLs, malnLalns
88 carLs, company
uslng 8llu Lags for 3
years and has over 1
mllllon ln Lhe markeL
Worked wlLh 88 ln
Þhlladelphla and oLher
pro[ecLs
1oLer deslgned, bullL
and paLenLed Lhe
WelghL ln MoLlon
CarL LlfLer/Scale and
8llu Lechnology
noL Avallable
Assemb|y and
D|str|but|on
ln house ln house
CuLsourced dellvery
and malnLenance Lo
nexL Level
1ransporLaLlon
Servlces
noL Avallable
1yp|ca| De||very
1|meframe
76 days [ 8400
carLs/week
8 weeks [10,000
carLs/week,
S8 days [ 12,000
carLs per week
noL Avallable
Staff|ng for de||very
4 dellvery crews
made up of 6 people,
4 Lrucks
2 dellvery crews made
up of S people
noL Avallable noL Avallable
Customer support
Llve admlnlsLraLlve
supporL offer 8-Spm
Mlnlmum 1 person,
1 Lruck, clLy faclllLy
Local servlce offlce noL Avallable
Warranty 10 years 10 years 10 years 10 years
kes|n pr|c|ng prov|ded no ?es no ?es




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 1S
CCLLLC1ICN ASSLSSMLN1
LCCA1ICN: ALLL¥ VS. CUk8SIDL
PlsLorlcally, refuse and recycllng ls seL ouL and collecLed vla Lhe ClLy's exLenslve alleyway sysLem. 8esldenLs and
Lhe collecLlon Leam prefer Lhe alleyways as lL faclllLaLes an easler seL ouL and collecLlon Lhan a sLreeL slde plckup.
8ecause Lhe sLreeL ls heavlly uLlllzed for parklng, any addlLlonal space requlred for curbslde plckup would prove
challenglng and ls noL recommended.
WID1n AND 1UkNING kADIUS
LlghLy percenL of Lhe ClLy's collecLlon polnLs are locaLed ln
alleys. Any new collecLlon sysLem wlll need Lo adapL Lo Lhe
narrow characLerlsLlcs and challenges found LhroughouL
Lhe clLy.
1he average rlghL-of-way ln a Mlnneapolls alley ls 12' wlLh
1-2 ' of unpaved curb. 1here are areas where Lhls ls as
narrow as 8.S'. ln wlnLer monLhs, conslderable amounLs of
snow do accumulaLe on elLher slde of Lhe alley, effecLlvely
narrowlng Lhe wldLh even more.
8ouLes also lnclude a full range of Lrafflc flows, from º1"
and ºL" Lurns Lo dead-end alleyways LhaL requlre backlng a
vehlcle lnLo poslLlon. 1o compleLe Lhe rouLes effecLlvely and safely, 88S flnds LhaL only 96" wlde chassls should
be consldered as well as Lrucks wlLh aL mosL, a 27' Lurnlng radlus.
nLIGn1 kLS1kIC1ICNS
1he alleyways are also home Lo a neLwork of
overhead uLlllLy wlres LhaL crlsscross alleys aL 12' Lo
14' hlgh. Many carLs are also placed under garage
overhangs wlLh a slmllarly low 12' clearance. 1hls facL,
coupled oLher obsLrucLlons, has lead 88S Lo
recommend vehlcles wlLh a maxlmum rldlng helghL of
11'9". 1he helghL clearance resLrlcLlons also make
oLher collecLlon opLlons dlfflculL Lo operaLe lf noL
LoLally removlng Lhem from Lhe realm of posslblllLy.
CÞ1ICNS
Conslderlng Lhe consLralnLs of maneuverablllLy, carL
placemenL, general condlLlons and avallable Lechnology 88S suggesLs narrowlng Lhe focus Lo 20-23 cublc yards
per day (C?u) rear load packers and smaller seml auLomaLed slde loaders.
SLandard, fully auLomaLed slde load sysLems llfL carLs well above Lhe obsLrucLlon helghL and Lhen Llp Lhe
conLenLs lnLo a hopper. 1hls sysLem requlres conslderable helghL clearance, proper carL placemenL, and a wlde
enough road Lo allow Lhe llfLer arm Lo operaLe. WlLh currenL avallable Lechnology, Lhls opLlon lsn'L vlable.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 16
Seml-auLomaLed slde load sysLems requlre a worker Lo
hook a recycllng carL Lo a llfLer arm LhaL Lhen
mechanlcally dumps lnLo Lhe Lruck. 1hls sysLem ls sLlll
a feaslble opLlon, buL requlres a proper helghL
clearance LhaL ls problemaLlc ln many parLs of Lhe ClLy.
1he more LradlLlonal Lype of refuse/recycllng Lruck
seLup ls Lhe rear-loadlng packer. ln Lhls sysLem a
worker rolls carLs Lo Lhe llfLlng mechanlsm aL Lhe rear
of Lhe Lruck, and Lhe conLenLs are Lhen mechanlcally
dumped lnLo Lhe Lruck. 1hls opLlon requlres Lhe leasL
amounL of helghL and wldLh clearance Lo operaLe and
works besL of Lhe opLlons noLed, ln Lhe alley sysLem operaLlng ln Mlnneapolls.
1ab|e 10: kecyc||ng Co||ect|on Cpt|ons (8od|es)
Cr|ter|a
Crane
Chass|s
W|th
Leach 8ody
ne||
40-60 kear
Labr|e
Lxpert
2000
Labr|e
Lxpert
2000 (Dua|)
Loda|
S0]S0*
1ype 8ear loader 8ear loader Slde Loader Slde Loader Slde Loader
S|ng|e]Dua| Slngle SorL uual SorL Slngle SorL uual SorL uual SorL
Cyc|e t|me (Seconds)
(1|me per Stop)
20 1S-17 20 20
noL
Þrovlded
Capac|ty (cub|c ¥ards) 20 20-2S 22 17-24 23
Þr|ce ** $1S2,000 $180,000 $161,700 $173,700 $230,000
ne|ght C|earance 11.S'
ne|ght Above Irame
(8ody)
98" 102'' 102"

*lncludes chassls and bodles
** CosL does noL lnclude carL llfL mechanlsm or oLher body modlflcaLlons

8ased on Lhe assessmenL of Lhe consLralnLs posed by Lhe collecLlon of recyclables ln alleys, dlscusslons wlLh Lhe
ClLy of Mlnneapolls sLaff and on dlscusslon wlLh Lruck vendors lL was deLermlned LhaL rear load 20 cublc yard
capaclLy Lrucks wlLh shorL Lurn radlus was Lhe only vlable opLlon for Lhe collecLlon of recycllng maLerlals.
ÞILC1 CCLLLC1ICN ÞkCGkAM
Mlnneapolls conducLed Lwo plloL programs, LesLlng Lhe effecLlveness of dual-sorL and slngle-sorL collecLlon. 8oLh
plloL programs lncorporaLed recycllng carLs and collecLlng on Lhe bl-weekly schedule. 1he resulLs from Lhese
plloLs programs show a slgnlflcanL lncrease ln number of sLops LhaL can be served by a slngle rouLe and Lhe
quanLlLy of recyclables collecLed per household. 1hese lncreases yleld a hlgher recycllng raLe for a communlLy, a
reduced number of rouLes, fewer Lrucks requlred for collecLlon per household.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 17
1ab|e 11: Þ||ot Þerformance Metr|cs
Þrogram
Increase |n
Stops
Increase |n
We|ght
Avg.
|bs.]nn]¥r.
Slngle SorL
Plgh Þerformlng
nelghborhood 34.6° 31.0° S92
Low Þerformlng
nelghborhood 74.6° 77.0° 338
uual SorL
Average Þerformlng
nelghborhood 92.6° 28.8° 474
CurrenL MulLlple SorL for
ÞarLlclpaLlng PP 40S
CurrenL MulLlple SorL for
All uwelllng unlLs 343
SL. Þaul, Mn uual SorL
All uwelllng unlLs 477
ÞorLland, C8 - Slngle SorL 6S9

CurrenLly Lhe ClLy of Mlnneapolls uses slde load mulLl sorL Lrucks Lo collecL curbslde recycllng and ls ln Lhe
process of revlewlng opLlons for slngle and dual sorL collecLlon. 88S explored Lhe besL opLlons ln collecLlon
vehlcles, evaluaLed key feaLures, and broadly assoclaLed a prlce Lo Lhe varlous selecLlons, lncludlng auLomaLed,
seml-auLomaLed, and manual load Lrucks. 1he ClLy of Mlnneapolls collecLlon rouLes lnclude obsLacles and unlque
conslderaLlons LhaL llmlL Lhe range of vlable opLlons.
ICCUS GkCUÞ MLL1INGS
locus Croup meeLlngs were held ln Lwo quadranLs ln Lhe ClLy whlch are currenLly provlded wlLh LradlLlonal,
curb-sorL recycllng collecLlon and one meeLlng ln each of Lhe areas of Lhe clLy LhaL experlenced plloL programs of
alLernaLlve collecLlon servlces: one secLlon parLlclpaLed ln dual-sorL collecLlon, Lhen LranslLloned Lo a slngle-sorL
and one secLlon parLlclpaLed ln a slngle-sorL collecLlon. 1he meeLlngs were held ln Lhe resldenLs' nelghborhoods,
ln local Þark recreaLlon bulldlngs' meeLlng rooms.
1he Croups were ldenLlfled as: Croup A norLheasL CuadranL, MulLl-SorL Curbslde Servlce
Croup 8 SouLhwesL CuadranL, MulLl-SorL Curbslde Servlce
Seward, ÞlloL Þrogram, uual SorL Lhen Slngle SorL
Wlllard Pay & LCCC, ÞlloL Þrogram, Slngle SorL
1he locus Croup parLlclpanLs were lnvlLed Lo aLLend Lhe meeLlngs by random selecLlon of Lelephone numbers
publlshed ln Lhe clLy dlrecLory. Speclflc addresses and names of lndlvlduals were unknown. A Lelephone call
scrlpL was prepared Lo provlde a sLandard formaL Lo lnvlLe resldenLs Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe group meeLlngs.
1he groups were lnLenLlonally kepL small, whlch provlded Lhe opporLunlLy for nelghbors Lo meeL and share hls or
her aLLlLudes Lowards recycllng, recycllng hablLs and dlscuss Lhe servlce LhaL would besL meeL Lhelr expecLaLlons
and needs for recycllng.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 18
1he meeLlngs followed an agreed upon formaL. A brlef revlew ouLllned Lhe reasons Lhe ClLy ls evaluaLlng
recycllng collecLlon opLlons and Lhe poLenLlal lmpacLs of any changes, based upon oLher communlLles'
experlences. 1he posslble opLlons for lncreaslng recycllng ln Lhe clLy and collecLlon opLlons were presenLed.
key quesLlons were prepared as guldellnes Lo enable a conversaLlon sLyle for Lhe meeLlngs.
MLL1ING ÞAk1ICIÞAN1S
All parLlclpanLs have been recycllng for a number of years, some for decades. ÞarLlclpanLs were a mlx of ages
and famlly clrcumsLances, lncludlng reLlred, young famlly wlLh lnfanL, grandparenLs who provlde daycare for
grandchlldren.
Lvery person parLlclpaLed and offered lnslghLs, experlences and supporL of lmprovlng Lhe recycllng program.
Lach group also, vla lndlvldual commenLs and observaLlons, expressed Lhelr appreclaLlon for Lhe clLy's efforLs Lo
evaluaLe and lmprove servlces and was aware LhaL Lhe clLy would be evaluaLlng any servlce changes ln Lerms of
Lhe flnal cosL for servlce and equlpmenL.
1he parLlclpanLs ln all Lhe groups expressed an lnLeresL and commlLmenL Lo recycllng LhaL sLems, ln parL, from a
deslre Lo lmprove Lhe envlronmenL and an awareness of oLher susLalnablllLy and green lnlLlaLlves. 1hough
everyone dld ldenLlfy Lhemselves as recyclers, Lhere was a range of recycllng awareness and parLlclpaLlon levels.
ln Lhe area served by Lhe slngle sorL plloL program, a resldenL dld acknowledge LhaL she ls recycllng more now
LhaL Lhe program has been slmpllfled.
A11I1UDLS 1CWAkDS ÞkCGkAMS AND CCMÞAkA8LL LxÞLkILNCLS
1here was an almosL even dlvlslon of llfe-long Mlnneapolls resldenLs and Lhose who have llved ln oLher
communlLles. Powever, everyone has vlslLed relaLlves or frlends ln oLher communlLles and has hosLed guesLs ln
Lhelr homes. 1hls allowed a producLlve dlscusslon of comparlsons Lo Lhe accepLance and ablllLy Lo recycle ln
varlous programs.
ln Lhe areas LhaL have Lhe esLabllshed mulLl-sorL curbslde servlce, Lhe parLlclpanLs expressed a deslre and
supporL maklng Lhe program slmpler. 1he dlscusslon covered Lhe lssue of slmpllfylng Lhe program Lo encourage
all Lhe resldenLs Lo parLlclpaLe aL greaLer levels.
ln Lhe areas LhaL have Lhe plloL programs, Lhe parLlclpanLs preferred Lhe slngle-sorL Lo Lhe dual sorL program.
8oLh programs were preferred Lo golng back Lo Lhe mulLl-sorL sysLem. Cne resldenL ln Lhe slngle sorL plloL area
acknowledged LhaL she recycles much more now LhaL Lhe program has been made slmpler. ln boLh plloL
program areas, Lhere ls agreemenL LhaL recycllng parLlclpaLlon and volumes have lncreased.
1hose who have llved ln oLher communlLles have experlence parLlclpaLlng ln slngle-sorL collecLlon, Lhough mosL
have also vlslLed relaLlves or frlends who have an alLernaLlve Lo Lhe mulLl-sorL recycllng program. 1hose who
have experlenced slngle sorL recycllng felL lL was slmpler Lo parLlclpaLe and dld noL see any negaLlve lssues. Cne
resldenL commenLed LhaL vlslLlng relaLlves and frlends ofLen aren'L very helpful because Lhey don'L undersLand
Lhe mulLl-sorL program.
1wo of Lhe groups lncluded duplex owners, ln whlch Lhe owners occupled one of Lhe unlLs and Lhe second was
renLed. Cne of Lhe groups was Lhe mulLl-sorL servlce and Lhe oLher was ln Lhe dual-sorL Lo slngle-sorL plloL area.
1he duplex owners shared Lhelr experlences LhaL renLers are less lncllned Lo recycle and Lhelr frusLraLlons Lo
encourage parLlclpaLlon by renLers. 1hese resldenLs share Lhe perspecLlve LhaL Loo many nelghbors do noL
parLlclpaLe or supporL recycllng and have a keen deslre Lo have Lhe program lmproved Lo lncrease parLlclpaLlon
and volumes collecLed.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 19
1he duplex owner from Lhe slngle-sorL plloL area broughL her LenanL wlLh her. 1hls provlded an opporLunlLy Lo
hear dlfferenL perspecLlves, alLhough Lhe renLer's aLLendance was lndlcaLlve of Lhe commlLmenL Lo recycllng.
1he dlscusslon and suggesLlons from Lhe duplex resldenLs lncluded:
• Less commlLmenL Lo recycllng, Lhe connecLlon Lo Lhe communlLy ls noL as sLrong, renLers move and a
new renLer musL be lnformed abouL Lhe program.
• ulfflculLy of Lhe mulLl-sorL sysLem for LenanLs, mulLlple conLalners ln a smaller space, ouLdoor conLalner
sLorage space
• noL ºrequlred". Cne duplex owner has wrlLLen lnLo Lhe lease LhaL Lhe renLer musL parLlclpaLe ln Lhe
recycllng program.
ln Lerms of recycllng seLouLs, only Lwo have curbslde collecLlon. All Lhe resldenLs wlLh alley collecLlon do noL
wanL collecLlon Lo be swlLched Lo curbslde. ln some porLlons of Lhe clLy, swlLchlng Lo curbslde would pose a
hardshlp, where Lhere are sLeps Lo Lhe curb and sLreeL and llmlLed space aL Lhe curb. ln addlLlon, parked cars,
Lrafflc flow and Lhe aesLheLlcs were vlewed as resLrlcLlve Lo changlng Lhe collecLlon.
kLC¥CLING CAk1S AND 8INS
8esldenLs ln Lhe mulLl-sorL servlce areas shared Lhelr experlences and Lhe challenges of seLLlng ouL mulLlple
conLalners. Some even shared Llps wlLh each oLher Lo make seLouLs easler. A couple of Lhe resldenLs expressed
gullL abouL golng Lo Lhe grocery sLore and asklng for addlLlonal paper bags Lo use ln Lhelr recycllng program. Cne
resldenL carrles cloLh bags for grocery shopplng, yeL needs Lo obLaln paper bags Lo recycle. MosL acknowledged
LhaL lf Lhey don'L have a full bag for a parLlcular lLem, Lhey conslder wheLher Lo save and sLore Lhe bag for
anoLher week or Lhrow Lhe lLems ln Lhe garbage.
8oLh duplex resldenLs and slngle-famlly home resldenLs supporLed lncreaslng Lhe slze of recycllng conLalners.
lor Lhose ln Lhe plloL areas, Lhe recycllng carL was well recelved and vlewed as a plus for Lhe programs and one
resldenL even hoped she would noL have Lo reLurn her carL aL Lhe end of Lhe plloL program. no one felL Lhere
were space problems ln sLorlng Lhe larger carL.
ln all Lhe areas, when dlscusslng Lhe recycllng carLs, Lhere was dlscusslon and supporL for offerlng slze opLlons
for resldenLs based on household slze and recycllng generaLed. 1hls led Lo an observaLlon LhaL Lhe wasLe carL
could also be reduced as recycllng parLlclpaLlon lncreases.
kLC¥CLING AWAkLNLSS AND LDUCA1ICN
MosL of Lhe resldenLs were very aware of Lhe recycllng program, whaL ls lncluded and how Lo seL ouL maLerlals.
lf Lhere ls doubL abouL an lLem, resldenLs acknowledged Lhey Lhrow lL ln Lhe garbage.
very few seemed aware of Lhe ClLy's webslLe or have accessed Lhe lnformaLlon provlded. 1he prlmary source of
lnformaLlon for Lhe resldenLs ls Lhe malled flyer or brochure. Lvery resldenL was aware of Lhe lnformaLlon on Lhe
flyer and many lndlcaLed where Lhe brochure ls sLored or posLed ln Lhe home as a reference. Cne of Lhe
resldenLs especlally noLed Lhe quallLy of Lhe graphlcs and Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed. Several supporLed
provldlng a lamlnaLed verslon LhaL could be posLed ln Lhe home. ln Lhe plloL areas wlLh recycllng carLs, resldenLs
LhoughL a lamlnaLed verslon could be placed on Lhe carL.
1here ls general supporL for lncreased educaLlon, ouLreach and evenLs Lo lncrease awareness of recycllng ln Lhe
communlLy and Lo encourage parLlclpaLlon. Some of Lhe suggesLlons and dlscusslon lncluded hlrlng an educaLor



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 20
or coordlnaLor, provldlng programs ln Lhe schools Lo help develop llfe-long recycllng hablLs, organlzlng a Leam of
volunLeers who could make presenLaLlons ln schools or Lo groups, organlzlng Lours of recycllng faclllLles.
SÞLCIAL ÞkCGkAMS AND ADDI1ICNAL SLkVICLS
CuesLlons concernlng speclal collecLlons or recycllng programs were noL a parL of Lhe planned dlscusslon.
Powever, every group menLloned how much Lhey appreclaLe and wanL Lo see conLlnued collecLlon of bulky
lLems, recycllng of elecLronlcs and Lhe household hazardous wasLe programs. Several resldenLs were also
lnLeresLed and would llke yard wasLe or organlcs recycllng collecLlon added Lo Lhe program Lo enhance Lhe
recovery of maLerlals ln Lhe communlLy. 8esldenLs are very happy LhaL mllk carLons and oLher Lypes of carLons
were added, lL adds Lo Lhe recycllng program.
All Lhe groups dlscussed and agreed LhaL reachlng Lhe recycllng raLe goal ln Lhe clLy would mosL llkely need Lo
lnclude mulLl-famlly servlces. 1he resldenLs recognlzed LhaL provldlng or requlrlng LhaL mulLl-famlly unlLs wlLh
recycllng servlce would be a longer-range goal LhaL needs sLudy and conslderaLlon.
CCMMLN1S
Lach group qulckly became comforLable ln dlscusslng Lhe programs. lollowlng are commenLs made durlng Lhe
dlscusslons:
• Þreference for slngle sorL, weekly collecLlon, every oLher week can be confuslng.
• ConLalners equlpped wlLh llds were preferred, Lo reduce llLLer, weaLher degradlng Lhe maLerlals and
anlmals geLLlng aL Lhe recycllng.
• 1he slngle sorL sysLem ls easler Lo explaln, especlally for resldenLs who have moved from oLher
communlLles LhaL offer a slmpler sysLem. 1he slmpler you make Lhe program, Lhe more parLlclpaLlon
and amounL of recycllng wlll occur.
• Would prefer slngle sorL Lo dual sorL because would have Lo sLore addlLlonal recycllng carLs.
• need more educaLlon abouL recycllng and ways Lo be more envlronmenLally responslble ln general.
• Would llke Lo see more lLems added lf posslble (plasLlc bags, egg carLons, oLher plasLlcs, plzza boxes).
• Lnforce some sorL of penalLy for noL recycllng
• 8enLers pose speclal challenges, Lhe recycllng program has Lo be explalned and renLers have Lo be
encouraged Lo recycle.
• Clvlng some form of credlL for recycllng ls nlce, buL noL necessary. lf Lhe rebaLe for recycllng were
ellmlnaLed, lL would noL change Lhe deslre Lo recycle.
• SuggesLed lf a reward ls provlded for recycllng, lL should be based on glvlng a hlgher reward for Lhose
who recycle more.
• Þrovlde any lncenLlves LhaL help encourage recycllng, anyLhlng LhaL works.
• SupporLs whaLever lL Lakes Lo reach Lhe recycllng goal esLabllshed by Lhe CounLy.
• Love Lhe recycllng carL and don'L wanL Lo reLurn lL when Lhe plloL program ends.
• Pave seen more parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe nelghborhood, someLlmes LhoughL no one else recycled on Lhe
block when puLLlng ouL maLerlals before Lhe plloL program sLarLed.
• 8eallze LhaL recycllng saves money for Lhe clLy, Lhls should be promoLed Lo Lhe resldenLs, and explaln
Lhe payback Lo Lhe resldenLs. lf Llpplng/dlsposal cosLs are reduced, Lhe money saved ls acLually a savlngs
for resldenLs.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 21
CCLLLC1ICN CÞ1ICNS ANAL¥SIS AND CCS1S
An analysls of Lhe performance and cosLs assoclaLed wlLh Lransformlng Lhe Mlnneapolls collecLlon program from
a mulLl-sorL Lo a dual or slngle sorL sysLem was developed Lo provlde a comparaLlve assessmenL of Lhe dlfferenL
approaches. AlLhough fully auLomaLed sysLems were evaluaLed, glven Lhe consLralnLs presenLed by collecLlon ln
alleys lL was deLermlned LhaL seml auLomaLed rear load collecLlon opLlons would be presenLed ln Lhls reporL.
1hls meLhod of collecLlng recyclable maLerlal ls also conslsLenL wlLh Lhe conslderaLlon of collecLlng yard wasLes
and oLher resldenLlal and commerclal organlc wasLes Lhrough carL based collecLlon programs.
AssumpLlons were developed based on Lhe analysls of programs ln oLher clLles LhaL have dual and slngle sorL
collecLlon programs and on Lhe plloL collecLlon programs conducLed by Lhe ClLy of Mlnneapolls. 1he Lhree key
assumpLlons derlved from Lhls lnformaLlon are Lhe parLlclpaLlon raLe, Lhe number of sLops per day LhaL a
collecLlon Lruck can achleve ln a consLralned alley envlronmenL, and Lhe lncrease ln Lhe amounL of maLerlal LhaL
parLlclpanLs wlll recycle on an annual basls. CLher relaLed assumpLlons lnclude Lhe slze of Lhe carL and Lhe
capaclLy of Lhe collecLlon vehlcle.
1ab|e 12: Þrogram Assumpt|ons
Cpt|ons
Current
Mu|t|-sort
8ase||ne
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Slze of CarL (gals) 96 64 2 x 64 1x64 1x32
number of CarLs for ClLy Cnly
Pouseholds S2,S94 S2,S94 10S,188 10S,188
ÞarLlclpaLlon 8aLe 84.S° 90.0° 90.0° 90.0° 90.0°
Lbs./PP/?ear (ÞarLlclpaLlng PP) 40S 600 600 S00 S00
Lbs./PP/SLop 1S.6 23.1 11.S 19.2 9.6
SLops per uay per 1ruck
(Avg. ClLy 8ouLe) 318 676 676 609 609
1ruck CapaclLy (Cublc ?ards) 20 20 20 20 20

1he relaLlonshlp beLween parLlclpaLlon raLe and Lhe quanLlLy of maLerlal LhaL ls recycled ls a dlfflculL varlable Lo
balance. Mlnneapolls ls characLerlzed by a falrly hlgh average parLlclpaLlon raLe buL a low quanLlLy per
household. 1hls ls explalned by Lwo facLors. llrsL, Lhere are low performlng nelghborhoods ln Lerms of boLh
parLlclpaLlon and Lhe quanLlLy of maLerlal. Second, alLhough Lhere are hlgh performlng nelghborhoods Lhe
quanLlLy of maLerlal seL ouL ls very low ln comparlson Lo oLher clLles. AlLhough Lhere ls no daLa Lo sLaLlsLlcally
deLermlne whaL Lhe varlaLlons are on a nelghborhood-by-nelghborhood basls lL was evldenL ln Lhe focus groups
LhaL even hlghly moLlvaLed resldenLs dld noL recycle all Lhe maLerlal LhaL Lhe clLy accepLs, prlmarlly due Lo Lhe
dlfflculLy of separaLlng Lhe maLerlals lnLo nlne dlfferenL collecLlon sorLs.
1he frequency of collecLlon on a weekly or bl-weekly basls has a ma[or lmpacL on Lhe cosLs for Lrucks and
sLafflng. 1he currenL recycllng program operaLed by Lhe ClLy of Mlnneapolls wlLh clLy sLaff conslsL of a blweekly
plckup servlced by small Lrucks wlLh pup Lrallers. ln effecL, half Lhe households recelve servlce one week and Lhe
oLher half recelve servlce on Lhe alLernaLe week. 1hese fourLeen mulLl sorL Lrucks are each operaLed by a slngle
employee. ConverLlng Lhe collecLlon program Lo a seml auLomaLed rear load collecLlon Lruck resulLs ln a slmllar
operaLlon level as Lhe wasLe collecLlon sysLem LhaL ls also a seml auLomaLed rear load operaLlon.
1hls means LhaL Lhere would be Lwo sLaff per Lruck ln Lhls new conflguraLlon for a bl-weekly collecLlon program.
Clven Lhe nearly 200° lncrease ln Lhe number of plckups per day LhaL a seml auLomaLed Lruck can achleve over



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 22
Lhe currenL mulLl-sorL program Lhe lmpacL ls LhaL half Lhe Lrucks are requlred whlle malnLalnlng Lhe same
sLafflng level. A change Lo a weekly collecLlon program would requlre double Lhe number of Lrucks and a
doubllng of Lhe sLaff requlred Lo collecL all households on a weekly basls. 1he collecLlon Llme for slngle sorL ls
less Lhan dual sorL and Lhere ls no need Lo come off rouLe when one comparLmenL fllls before Lhe oLher.
1ab|e 13: C|ty Cn|y Co||ect|on Cperat|ng Costs
Þrogram Area
Current
Mu|t|-sort
8ase||ne
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Labor wlLh 8eneflLs $1,031,338 $1,098,333 $2,036,263 $1,232,323 $2,304,243
C&M $488,400 $293,200 $464,000 $324,600 $S19,800
LducaLlon $0 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000
CusLomer Servlce $174,S37 $174,S37 $174,S37 $174,S37 $174,S37
1ota| Annua| Cost 51,694,27S 51,666,070 52,774,800 51,831,460 53,098,S80
ÞercenLage CosL Change -1.7° 63.8° 8.1° 82.9°

1he cosLs for Lhe weekly and bl-weekly collecLlon program for dual and slngle sorL were based on Lhe currenL
labor cosL sLrucLure and Lhe cosL for purchaslng rear load seml auLomaLed Lrucks as currenLly operaLlng ln Lhe
wasLe fleeL wlLh Lhe same carL Llpplng sysLem. 1he operaLlng and malnLenance cosLs were ad[usLed based on Lhe
number of Lrucks. 1he LoLal annual cosL based on currenL ClLy of Mlnneapolls accounLlng pracLlce lllusLraLes LhaL
dual and slngle sorL bl-weekly programs can be lmplemenLed wlLh very small lmpacLs on Lhe currenL operaLlng
cosLs for Lhe ClLy.
CaplLal CosLs for Lhe collecLlon vehlcles were based on Lhe mosL recenL Lruck purchase for rear load seml
auLomaLed Lrucks wlLh dual Llppers. uual sorL collecLlon requlres slgnlflcanL Lruck caplLal purchase of dual rear
load spllL body packers ($30,000 more Lhan slngle rear load). CarL cosL for slngle sorL (1 per unlL) ls esLlmaLed aL
$6,800,000. CarL cosL for dual sorL (2 per unlL) ls esLlmaLed aL $10,S00,000. 1he LoLal cosLs for new Lrucks for a
ClLy of Mlnneapolls slngle sorL, bl-weekly collecLlon program ls $8,840,000.
1ab|e 14: Þro[ected Cap|ta| for Co||ect|on Þrogram
Cpt|ons
Current
Mu|t|-sort
8ase||ne
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Slze of CarL (gals) 96 64 2 x 64 1x64 1x32
number of CarLs 10S,226 10S,226 210,4S2 210,4S2
number of 1rucks (lncludes exLra) 16 8 1S 9 17
1oLal CarL CosL $6,839,690 $6,839,690 $10,S22,600 $9,470,340
1oLal 1ruck CosL $3,9S2,000 $1,976,000 $3,70S,000 $2,47S,000 $4,67S,000

1he pro[ecLed poLenLlal recycllng raLe and Lhe quanLlLy collecLed lncrease subsLanLlally from Lhe currenL
program ln all scenarlos for slngle and dual sorL programs. 1he bl-weekly programs can be lmplemenLed wlLh a
low cosL lmpacL lf any and can achleve much hlgher recovery raLes. A slngle sorL sysLem wlll lncrease maLerlal
quanLlLy recovered by 60° and Lhe Mlnneapolls recycllng raLe lncreases from 18° Lo 32° (based on case sLudles
such as Ann Arbor and ÞorLland). A dual sorL sysLem wlll lncrease maLerlal quanLlLy recovered by 36° and Lhe
Mlnneapolls recycllng raLe lncreases from 18° Lo 2S° (based on case sLudles such as Ann Arbor and ÞorLland).
AlLhough Lhe LoLal program cosLs for boLh Lhe slngle sorL and dual sorL bl-weekly programs are slmllar Lhe cosL
per Lon ls much lower Lhen Lhe currenL mulLl sorL bl-weekly program.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 23
1ab|e 1S: Þro[ected Co||ect|on Þrogram kecovery and Metr|cs
Cpt|ons
Current
Mu|t|-sort
8ase||ne
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
ClLy 1ons per ?ear 9,010 14,200 14,200 11,833 11,833
1oLal 1ons per ?ear 18,026 28,411 28,411 23,676 23,676
ÞercenL 8ecovery Curbslde *
(8ec/MSW) 18.1° 31.9° 31.9° 2S.2° 2S.2°
CosL/PP ClLy CollecLlon $32.21 $31.68 $S2.76 $34.82 $S8.92
CosL/PP/MonLh ClLy CollecLlon $2.68 $2.64 $4.40 $2.90 $4.91
CosL/Lon ClLy CollecLlon Cnly $188 $117 $19S $1SS $262
* A 8ecovery ÞercenLage of 3S° ls achleved wlLh 6S0 lbs./PP/?ear

1he flnal analysls lncludes Lhe lmpacL on Lhe revenue and dlsposal cosLs on Lhe overall program cosLs. 1he neL
revenue decllne for all Lhe new collecLlon scenarlos ls due Lo Lhe pro[ecLed lncrease ln processlng fees. 1hese
lncrease ln cosLs are offseL by Lhe cosL savlngs from Lhe reducLlon ln dlsposal fees pald Lo Lhe Pennepln Lnergy
8esource Company (PL8C). Appendlx ll deLalls Lhe pro[ecLed Lonnage and neL revenue.

1ab|e 16: Þro[ected Net kecyc||ng Costs
Cpt|ons
Current
Mu|t|-Sort
8ase||ne
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
ClLy CollecLlon ($1,694,27S) ($1,666,070) ($2,774,800) ($1,831,460) ($3,098,S80)
M8l CollecLlon ($1,694,S93) ($1,666,371) ($2,77S,301) ($1,831,791) ($3,099,139)
1oLal CollecLlon CosL ($3,388,868) ($3,332,441) ($S,SS0,101) ($3,663,2S1) ($6,197,719)
MaLerlal 8evenue* $1,640,937 $1,280,S04 $1,280,S04 $1,067,087 $1,067,087
Net kecyc||ng Costs |nc|ud|ng
kevenue
(51,747,931) (52,0S1,937) (54,269,S97) (52,S96,164) (5S,130,633)
value of MSW ulverLed $847,231 $1,33S,318 $1,33S,318 $1,112,76S $1,112,76S
neL ClLy 8ecycllng CosLs
(Annual CosL -MSW ulverLed
($900,701) ($716,619) ($2,934,279) ($1,483,399) ($4,017,868)
*Assumes a Þrocesslng cosL for SS/uS = $70.00 and a CurrenL Þrocesslng CosL = $24.04

1he neL 8ecycllng CosL ls Lhe lowesL for Lhe Slngle SorL Seml AuLomaLed 8l-weekly collecLlon program by
approxlmaLely 20° whlle achlevlng a 32° recycllng raLe. 1he uual SorL 8l-weekly program has a neL cosL of
approxlmaLely S6° hlgher Lhen Lhe currenL mulLl-sorL program and achleves a 2S° recovery raLe. A Len percenL
lncrease ln Lhe quanLlLy of maLerlal collecLed ln Lhe dual sorL program achleves a 28.S° recycllng raLe wlLh a neL
cosL LhaL ls 28° hlgher Lhen Lhe currenL program.
kLC¥CLING INCLN1IVL ÞkCGkAMS
We are all famlllar wlLh Lhe old adage "one mans Lrash anoLher mans Lreasure." new companles are Lrylng Lo
change LhaL. 1hey say your Lrash ls your own Lreasure, because you're golng Lo pay you for lL. 1he concepL,
called lncenLlve 8ased 8ecycllng, ls Lo lncrease recycllng raLes by provldlng a dlrecL flnanclal lncenLlve for people
Lo go Lhrough Lhe Lrouble of sorLlng Lhelr garbage. ÞarLlclpaLlng cusLomers recelve a 3S, 64, or 96-gallon
conLalner LhaL has a barcode LhaL ldenLlfles Lhelr home. As Lhe Lruck collecLs Lhe recycllng lL scans Lhe barcode



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 24
on Lhe conLalner and LranslaLes Lhe value of Lhe recycled lLems lnLo a dollar amounL - LhaL can be redeemed
Lhough shopplng coupons aL parLlclpaLlng buslnesses. 1he Lwo ma[or programs are: 8ecyclebank and kewotJs
fot kecyclloq.
ÞarLlclpanLs use an onllne lnLerface Lo choose whlch coupons sulL Lhem besL, order Lhe coupons and recelve
Lhem by mall. AlLernaLlvely parLlclpanLs can choose Lo donaLe Lhelr 8ecyclebank uollars Lo charlLy. 8ecyclebank
serves boLh resldenLlal and reLall cusLomers. Many paper, plasLlc, meLal and glass recyclables are collecLed and
Lhe company supporLs a slngle sorL recycllng sysLem LhaL allows all Lypes of recyclables Lo be deposlLed ln one
slngle conLalner. Pome collecLlon of e-wasLe ls comlng soon buL ln Lhe meanLlme cusLomers can send ln cell
phones for recycllng by prlnLlng a envelope label lncludlng sLamp dlrecLly from Lhe webslLe.
8ecyclebank Lrades Lhe acLlons a cusLomer makes LhaL have a poslLlve lmpacL on your home by savlng energy,
communlLy by recycllng and Lhe envlronmenL by conservlng naLural resources for polnLs LhaL you can use for
rewards you choose. 1hose rewards come ln a varleLy of opLlons: ÞroducLs, dlscounLs and coupons from Lhe
world's leadlng brands (Lhlnk: kashl, looLlocker, uunkln uonuLs), or by donaLlng your polnLs Lo supporL
envlronmenLal educaLlon ln schools.
8ecause 8ecyclebank offers coupons and oLher economlc lncenLlves Lo recycle, Lhe 8ecycle8ank model ls
parLlcularly aLLracLlve Lo lower-lncome communlLles. 8y rewardlng households wlLh coupons for grocerles or
servlces, 8ecycle8ank ls havlng a dlrecL poslLlve lmpacL on famlly budgeLs. 1herefore, recycllng becomes
someLhlng households parLlclpaLe ln for flnanclal asslsLance, raLher Lhan alLrulsLlc reasons. 1hls ls noL meanL Lo
suggesL LhaL Lhe only people parLlclpaLlng ln 8ecycle8ank are Lhose on Lhe lower end of Lhe lncome specLrum,
only LhaL Lhe lncenLlves lnherenL ln Lhe 8ecycle8ank model become lncreaslngly aLLracLlve Lhe lower on Lhe
specLrum a household lays.
kewotJs fot kecyclloq was founded ln laLe 2008 wlLh Lhe express lnLenL Lo provlde a beLLer recycllng afflnlLy
program opLlon for munlclpallLles and wasLe haulers. 1he 8ecycle 8ank program was closely sLudled and
evaluaLed, and 848 was deslgned Lo be unlquely dlfferenL, addresslng all of Lhe challenges we found ln Lhe
alLernaLe sysLem. 1he 848 program founders ldenLlfled mulLlple challenges ln Lhe alLernaLe sysLem, speclflcally
a lack of undersLandlng of baslc markeLlng and consumer behavlor paLLerns.
kewotJs fot kecyclloq ls a communlLy based 8ecycllng program. 848 parLners wlLh Lhe munlclpallLy, Lhe
resldenLs, Lhe communlLy and Lhe local buslnesses. kewotJs fot kecyclloq rewards frequency and loyalLy for
bulldlng recycllng as a household hablL. 1he program ls open and avallable Lo all members wlLhln Lhe
communlLy. kewotJs fot kecyclloq provldes rewards Lo every household lmmedlaLely upon sLarL-up, and
conLlnues Lo provlde smaller value rewards Lo all households regardless of recycllng acLlvlLy. 1hls meLhodology
provldes Lhe opporLunlLy Lo conLlnuously converL non-recyclers by showlng Lhem Lhe rewards of slgnlflcanLly
hlgher value LhaL wlll be avallable Lo Lhem as soon as Lhey begln recycllng.
Local 8uslness parLlclpaLlon ls a key componenL of Lhe kewotJs fot kecyclloq program. 1he 848 Þrogram
feaLures rewards LhaL come from Lhe buslnesses locaLed wlLhln each communlLy. 8esLauranLs, Þharmacles, ury-
cleaners, Cll Changes and oLher reLall producLs and servlces. 1he ma[orlLy of Lhem are locally owned and
operaLed, and employ local people.
1he revenue generaLed by Lhese buslnesses sLays home and supporLs Lhe local economy. 848 glves each
buslness an opporLunlLy Lo offer valuable savlngs Lo resldenLs free of charge. 1hese offers can drlve Lrafflc Lo
local buslness. ln addlLlon, kewotJs fot kecyclloq has mulLlple promoLlonal opLlons avallable for local buslnesses
LhaL can geL Lhem exposure ln ulrecL mall, L-newsleLLer markeLlng and even Lelevlslon.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 2S
INCLN1IVL S¥S1LM ÞkCS AND CCNS
uemographlcs are probably Lhe mosL lmporLanL facLor Lo look aL when conslderlng an lncenLlve sysLem
parLnershlp. An lncenLlve sysLem model ls parLlcularly aLLracLlve Lo lower-lncome communlLles because lL offers
coupons and oLher economlc lncenLlves Lo recycle. 8y rewardlng households wlLh coupons for grocerles or
servlces, an lncenLlve sysLem ls havlng a dlrecL poslLlve lmpacL on famlly budgeLs. 1herefore, recycllng becomes
someLhlng households parLlclpaLe ln for flnanclal asslsLance, raLher Lhan alLrulsLlc reasons. 1he followlng ls a
parLlal llsLlng of Lhe pros and cons of lncenLlve sysLems.
2

Þros
• lncenLlve-based program rewards recycllng parLlclpaLlon and bullds good recycllng hablLs
• Þubllc awareness and parLlclpaLlon ln recycllng rlses
• SubsLanLlal rlse ln maLerlal volumes
• uaLa on Lhe effecLlveness of exlsLlng and proposed wasLe collecLlon rouLes and sLraLegles ls collecLed
• CpporLunlLy Lo modernlze or upgrade Lhe wasLe collecLlon and recycllng lnfrasLrucLure
Cons
• SysLem rewards consumpLlon, noL wasLe reducLlon
• Þrogram may be a poor flL ln communlLles wlLh already hlgh recycllng parLlclpaLlon
• Success relles on Lhe parLlclpaLlon of naLlonal and local buslnesses and reLallers
• upgrade cosLs could be prohlblLlvely expenslve for communlLles and smaller haulers lf noL adequaLely
negoLlaLed wlLh Servlce Þrovlder
• Þrogram noL cosL effecLlve ln areas wlLh low-cosL dlsposal
ÞkCCLSSING CÞ1ICNS
Cholces perLalnlng Lo boLh sorLlng Lechnologles and overall processlng cholces are predomlnanLly drlven by
curbslde collecLlon sysLems. SubsLanLlal lmprovemenL ln processlng capablllLy and efflclency has been
experlenced ln Lhe pasL S-10 years. 8eyond Lhe lnlLlal use of magneLs Lo capLure ferrous meLals aL an efflclenL
raLe, and eddy currenLs Lo separaLe and capLure alumlnum from Lhe sorL, more sophlsLlcaLed equlpmenL and
reconflguraLlon of Lhe sorLlng sysLems has resulLed ln hlgher recovery raLes, greaLer LhroughpuL, and less
conLamlnaLlon Lo meeL markeL sLandards.
1he number of recyclable maLerlals has lncreased as Lhe ablllLy of secondary and manufacLurlng lndusLrles Lo
converL posL-consumer packaglng lnLo markeLable producLs has grown. SubsequenLly, Lhe markeL demand for
Lhe greaLer varleLy and volume of maLerlals has drlven M8l's Lo seek equlpmenL LhaL enable Lhem Lo efflclenLly
recover an lncreased array of posL-consumer plasLlcs and flber. 1he processes musL also be deslgned Lo lncrease
Lhe volumes or Lons per day, Lo [usLlfy Lhe lnvesLmenL ln such equlpmenL or sysLems.
M8l's and equlpmenL manufacLurers, Lo remaln compeLlLlve and derlve Lhe greaLesL value from Lhe collecLed
maLerlal, conLlnue Lo lmprove Lhe ablllLy of Lhe sorLlng meLhodology and performance sLandards. SysLems are
conflgured Lo provlde screenlng of non-recyclable maLerlals and conLamlnanLs from a parLlcular recyclable
maLerlal Lo yleld a hlgher value end-of-sorL producL. CpLlcal sorLlng Lechnologles have advanced Lo enable

2
kesootce kecyclloq Moqozloe, CcLober, 2009



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 26
efflclenL and broader range of sorLlng plasLlcs and flber carLons LhaL resulLs ln an lncreased varleLy of accepLed
maLerlals for recycllng aL a hlgher markeLable value.
8esldual raLes are an lndlcaLor of Lhe success of Lhe sorLlng sysLems and Lhe recycllng collecLlon program.
8esldual raLes ln boLh dual sorL and slngle sorL sorLlng sysLems have decllned over Lhe years, as evldenced ln Lhe
1able below. WheLher dual sorL or slngle sorL, Lhe ablllLy Lo recover everyLhlng LhaL ls recyclable or markeLable
and Lo remove wasLe LhaL cannoL be recycled ls a key facLor ln deLermlnlng Lhe Lype of recycllng program
provlded. lL ls also a key measurable ln deLermlnlng overall recycllng program success or fallure.
A sLudy
3
conducLed for Lhe MÞCA by 1lm Coodman & AssoclaLes Lo examlne Lhe lssue of slngle-sLream and dual-
sLream recycllng, focuslng speclflcally on Lhe processlng of collecLed maLerlals and Lhe markeLlng of Lhose
maLerlals Lo end-markeLs. A key flndlng of LhaL sLudy sLaLed: º1he amounL of processlng reslduals (lncludlng
mlxed, broken glass) generaLed aL Lhe slngle-sLream faclllLles servlng Lhe Mlnneapolls/SL. Þaul meLro area varles
slgnlflcanLly from approxlmaLely 2° of LhroughpuL up Lo 17° of LhroughpuL".
IIGUkL 3: MA1LkIAL kLCCVLk¥ IACILI1¥ (MkI) kLSIDUAL kA1L*

* SS - Slngle SorL, uS - uual SorL, MS - MulLl SorL
CuallLy conLrol remalns a crlLlcal elemenL ln M8l recovery. AL varlous polnLs ln Lhe recovery process, LesLlng or
checklng of Lhe commodlLy desLlned for markeLs can resulL ln lncreased value Lo Lhe commodlLy. 1he
communlLy can also play a role ln helplng Lo lncrease Lhe value of maLerlals collecLed. 1o ensure quallLy
sLandards, communlLles can requlre conLracLed M8l's Lo reporL volumes and percenLages of recovered
maLerlals by Lype, lncludlng resldue raLes, seL mlnlmum sLandards of recovery and resldue, and Lhe volume
of maLerlals sold as varlous grades ln Lhe recycllng markeLs. 1he Coodman sLudy recommended cerLlflcaLlon
process be applled Lo M8ls. M8ls should be requlred Lo reporL cerLaln operaLlonal daLa for monlLorlng
purposes. 1hls lnformaLlon should lnclude aL a mlnlmum:
• AmounLs and Lypes of recyclables dellvered Lo Lhe faclllLy,
• AmounLs and composlLlon of processlng reslduals,

3
5loqle-5tteom ooJ uool-5tteom kecyclloq. compototlve lmpocts of commloqleJ kecyclobles ltocessloq, Þrepared lor Lhe
MlnnesoLa ÞolluLlon ConLrol Agency 1lm Coodman & AssoclaLes, !anuary 20, 2006
17.0°
10.0°
7.0°
4.0° 4.0°
2.S°
0.6°
0.S°
Cld Slngle
SLream
Þrograms
1oledo
(SS)
Clnclnnau
(SS)
ÞorLland
(SS)
Ann Arbor
(SS)
nauonal
Average
(uS)
SL Þaul
(uS)
Mlnneapolls
(MS)



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 27
• AmounLs and Lypes of maLerlals processed and markeLed on an annual basls, and
• AmounLs and Lypes of maLerlals downgraded or re[ecLed by markeLs.
8esldual raLes aL Lhe M8l can also be lmproved by educaLlon. As recycllng parLlclpaLlon lncreases, lL ls lmporLanL
Lo provlde dlrecL, slmple and poslLlve educaLlon abouL whaL can be recycled. ConslsLenL, accesslble, user-frlendly
educaLlon abouL whaL can be recycled makes an lmpacL on Lhe parLlclpanLs' parLlclpaLlon Lo place Lhe maLerlals
LhaL are accepLed ln Lhe recycllng conLalner. Lven wlLh Lhe mosL efflclenL sysLem for sorLlng maLerlals, lf an lLem
LhaL ls noL lncluded ln Lhe recycllng program ls lncorrecLly placed ln a recycllng bln, lL musL be LreaLed as resldual
aL Lhe M8l.
SLCCNDAk¥ MAkkL1S
ManufacLurlng Lechnlques uslng posL-consumer maLerlals also have kepL pace wlLh Lechnology and knowledge
of Lhe maLerlals sorLs. Mllls have lmproved Lhelr equlpmenL and sysLems Lo predlcL and adapL Lo a degree of
conLamlnaLlon and Lo capLure conLamlnanLs Lo mlnlmlze damage Lo equlpmenL and malnLaln quallLy producL
sLandards.
Lnd markeLs for even more maLerlals, especlally Lhe #3-#7 plasLlcs, has provlded opporLunlLles for M8l's Lo
lncrease Lhelr llsL of accepLed maLerlals and collecLed volumes. ln facL, Lhe capablllLles of boLh dual and slngle
sorL collecLlon programs Lo easlly add maLerlals Lypes Lo Lhelr collecLlon programs has led Lo Lhe expanslon of
recycllng programs naLlonwlde. WlLhouL Lhese lnherenL flexlblllLles, Lhe successful recycllng of carLons, [ulce
boxes, LexLlles, boxboard, and exoLlc plasLlcs (#3 - #7) would noL have grown as qulckly over Lhe lasL flve Lo Len
years.
MAkkL1S AND kLVLNUL ICk MA1LkIALS
All maLerlals collecLed and ulLlmaLely processed ln a recycllng program are consldered commodlLles. 1hls means
LhaL ln splLe of markeL demand flucLuaLlons and assoclaLed prlce lncreases or decreases, Lhe LoLal collecLed
Lonnages musL yleld a proflL Lo malnLaln a healLhy, sLable recycllng program. ln revlewlng Lhe MarkeL 1rends
uaLa, Lhe markeL demand and commodlLy prlces for flber, plasLlcs, alumlnum and sLeel have remalned sLrong Lo
sLable. 1wo brlef perlods ln Lhe early 1990's and mld 2000's have seen brlef prlce Lumbles. 8uL recycled
commodlLy prlce rebounds have been qulck and over Llme have shown an almosL unlversal sLrengLhenlng. 1he
commodlLy revenues assoclaLed wlLh Lhese maLerlals have over Llme provlded Lhe flnanclal foundaLlon for mosL
recycllng programs, wheLher publlcly or prlvaLely sponsored.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 28
MIIGUkL 4: MAkkL1 1kLND DA1A

CommunlLles can choose Lo requesL M8l's Lo share ln Lhe markeL value of maLerlals LhaL are sold, as conLracLs
are prepared. 1hls ls a Lyplcal pracLlce when separaLe conLracLs are awarded for collecLlon and for processlng
and markeLlng of maLerlals. A revenue sharlng arrangemenL provldes an lncenLlve for boLh Lhe M8l Lo malnLaln
hlgh quallLy and markeL sLandards and for Lhe communlLy Lo encourage resldenLs Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe recycllng
program and educaLe resldenLs how maLerlals should be seL ouL Lo maxlmlze Lhe beneflL of Lhe program.
A markeL share arrangemenL generally lncludes an esLabllshed floor prlce, whlch guaranLees a mlnlmum prlce
per Lon pald Lo Lhe communlLy for maLerlals broughL Lo Lhe M8l. 1he floor prlce can be flxed based on Lhe
markeL value of a selecL number of lLems or Lhe LoLal mlx of recyclable maLerlals collecLed. When Lhe markeL
value of Lhe recyclable Lonnages exceeds Lhe esLabllshed floor prlce, Lhe communlLy and Lhe M8l share ln Lhe
value of Lhe sold commodlLles, based upon an esLabllshed percenLage spllL.
As an example: ClnclnnaLl has a markeL share arrangemenL wlLh Lhelr M8l, operaLed by 8umpke, whlch provldes
a floor prlce of $8S/Lon. lf Lhe revenue from sale of Lhe maLerlals exceeds $8S/Lon, S0° of Lhe revenue above
$8S/Lon ls shared wlLh Lhe clLy.




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 29
D I D- I
8ackground on Dua|-Sort
uual-sorL recycllng ls a collecLlon and processlng sysLem where mlxed boLLles and cans are collecLed ln one
comparLmenL and mlxed flber ls collecLed ln anoLher comparLmenL. lor many years and unLll recenLly, Lhls
Lechnology has been Lhe defaulL cholce for large-scale resldenLlal recycllng operaLlons ln Lhe uS.
As more programs recognlzed Lhe hlgh cosL of paylng drlvers Lo sorL maLerlal aL Lhe curb, efforLs focused on
flndlng a collecLlon meLhod LhaL dld noL requlre sorLlng aL Lhe curb. Þrograms found LhaL resldenLs responded
well Lo belng asked Lo sorL maLerlals lnLo Lwo conLalners. 1hese Lwo conLalners could be dumped lnLo Lhe
collecLlon vehlcles wlLh no curb-sorL. 8y 1990, mosL new recycllng faclllLles were belng deslgned wlLh dual-sorL
sorLlng capablllLles.
1he reduced cosL of dual-sorL curbslde collecLlon was Lraded off agalnsL Lhe lncreased cosL of cenLral sorLlng. An
lncenLlve for dolng Lhls was Lhe lncreased ablllLy Lo accepL a wlder range of recyclable maLerlals and sLlll produce
markeLable producLs from Lhe collecLed maLerlals. Many dual-sorL faclllLles were deslgned wlLh Lhe ablllLy Lo
sorL Lo more Lhan 20 producLs. A Lyplcal dual-sorL program collecLs and processes aL leasL Lhe followlng llsL of
maLerlals:
• llber sorL
o newspaper
o Cardboard
o Þaper bags (dependlng on local markeLs Lhls mlghL be baled wlLh cardboard)
o Magazlnes (dependlng on local markeLs Lhls mlghL be baled wlLh news or mlxed paper)
o !unk mall (dependlng on local markeLs Lhls mlghL be baled wlLh news or mlxed paper)
o 8oxboard (dependlng on local markeLs Lhls mlghL be baled wlLh news or mlxed paper)
• ConLalner sorL
o Clear glass
o Colored glass (Creen & 8rown) (ln many areas, glass ls no longer color sorLed aL Lhe M8l)
o SLeel cans
o Alumlnum cans
o naLural PuÞL plasLlc boLLles
o Colored PuÞL boLLles
o ÞL1 boLLles
A number of dual-sorL programs have also added Lhe followlng maLerlals:
• llber sorL
o Shredded paper (dependlng on local markeLs Lhls mlghL be baled wlLh SCÞ or mlxed paper)
o WhlLe offlce paper (SWL) (dependlng on local markeLs Lhls mlghL be baled wlLh SCÞ)
o Mlxed offlce paper (SCÞ)
• ConLalner sorL
o Colored ÞL1 boLLles (only common ln a few reglons)



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 30
o Mlxed plasLlc conLalners (small food Lubs, clamshells, Lrays, eLc.)
o Large rlgld plasLlcs (lawn furnlLure, buckeLs, large plasLlc Loys)
o CarLons (asepLlc and mllk & [ulce gable-Lop)
o !unk meLal (some resLrlcLlons on slze and maLerlal need Lo apply)
o ÞlasLlc fllm (plasLlc bags, and sLreLch & shrlnk wrap)
1he [unk meLals, plasLlc fllm and large rlgld plasLlcs are challenglng Lo handle ln a cosL effecLlve manner, so Lhese
maLerlals are ofLen dlrecLed Lo a drop-off collecLlon LhaL compllmenLs curbslde collecLlon.
Dua|-Sort Sca|e of Cperat|ons
uual-sorL sysLems have been bullL Lo operaLe ln slzes ranglng from less Lhan 2,S00 Lons per year (Lpy) Lo over
200,000 Lpy. ln smaller faclllLles, nearly all sorLlng ls done manually. Many of Lhese smaller faclllLles have only
one sorLlng llne LhaL ls used alLernaLely for conLalners and flber. Larger faclllLles LhaL requlre more LhroughpuLs
have speclallzed sorLlng llnes LhaL uLlllze sLaff more efflclenLly. Larger faclllLles also add mechanlcal separaLlon
Lechnologles such as:
• Cardboard (CCC) screen Lo separaLe large cardboard from oLher flber
• MagneL Lo remove sLeel cans from oLher boLLles and cans
• llnes 8emoval Screen or Class 8reaker Lo remove broken glass and dlrL from boLLles and cans
• uenslLy SeparaLor Lo remove glass from llghLer boLLles and cans (lf no glass breaker)
• Lddy CurrenL SeparaLor (LCS) Lo separaLe alumlnum from oLher conLalners
• CpLlcal SorL Lo sorL plasLlcs by resln Lype or Lo sorL oLher opLlcally ldenLlflable maLerlals such as carLons
Dua|-Sort Sequence of Cperat|on
A Lyplcal slngle sorL processlng faclllLy has Lwo sorL llnes and one or more balers. Lureka 8ecycllng ls an example
of a medlum-large dual-sorL processlng faclllLy. See Appendlx lll for s dlagram of a uual SorL Þrocess llow
ulagram. A uual SorL faclllLy conslsLs of Lhe followlng processlng sequences.
llber SorL Llne:
• Mlxed flber ls dumped from Lhe collecLlon vehlcle onLo Lhe Llpplng floor
• A large loader pushes maLerlals up and Lhen loads Lhem onLo an ln-floor meLerlng conveyor as
sorLlng progresses
• An lncllned conveyor carrles mlxed flber up Lo Lhe pre-sorL conveyor where sorLlng sLaff removes
Lrash and overslzed lLems
• Cleaned flber falls onLo Lhe cardboard (CCC) screen. Smaller flber passes Lhrough Lhe screen and
CCC ls conveyed off Lhe end of Lhe screen and plled on Lhe floor where a loader can laLer load
sorLed CCC onLo Lhe baler feed conveyor.
• Smaller flber ls conveyed Lo Lhe maln sorL conveyor where sLaff plcks off small CCC, Lrash and oLher
producLs. Cleaned newspaper (CnÞ) drops off Lhe end of Lhe sorL conveyor onLo a conveyor LhaL
feeds Lo a baler.

ConLalner SorL Llne:
• ConLalners are dumped from Lhe collecLlon vehlcle onLo Lhe Llpplng floor
• A large loader pushes maLerlals up and Lhen loads Lhem onLo an ln-floor meLerlng conveyor as
sorLlng progresses



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 31
• An lncllned conveyor carrles mlxed flber up Lo Lhe pre-sorL conveyor where sorLlng sLaff removes
flber producLs, Lrash, and overslzed lLems
• MaLerlal passes under an overhead self-cleanlng magneL LhaL removes sLeel (lncludes Lln plaLed)
cans and oLher ferrous meLal Lo a conveyor LhaL leads Lo a sLorage bln
• 1he resL of Lhe boLLles and cans pass over a roll-screen LhaL drops ouL small glass, dlrL, and oLher
flnes
• 1he overs are fed Lo a denslLy separaLor LhaL pulls Lhe plasLlcs, alumlnum and carLons (lf presenL)
separaLe from Lhe remalnlng glass. 1he glass conLlnues Lo a manual glass sorL llne where Lhe glass
can be manually color sorLed
• Alumlnum ls sorLed from Lhe llghL fracLlon uslng and Lddy CurrenL SeparaLor (LCS). 1he alumlnum ls
conveyed Lo a sLorage bln by a blower/ducL sysLem.
• 1he remalnlng llghL fracLlon ls conveyed Lo an elevaLed sorL llne where sLaff sorLs remalnlng plasLlcs
and carLons
D I G- I
8ackground on S|ng|e-Sort
Slngle-sorL recycllng ls a collecLlon and processlng sysLem where all boLLles and cans are comblned wlLh all flber
ln one collecLlon conLalner. 1hls Lechnology has been a slgnlflcanL parL of resldenLlal recycllng ln Lhe uS for
approxlmaLely 10 years. 1he Lechnology for slngle-sorL processlng ls sLlll evolvlng rapldly. 1he appeal of slngle-
sorL recycllng comes from several facLors:
• 8esldenLs place all recyclables ln one conLalner. 1hls ls ofLen a carL wlLh a lld LhaL can be sLored
ouLslde wlLhouL oLher cover. ln mosL communlLles Lhls makes recycllng easler for resldenLs and
provldes resldenLs wlLh more recycllng conLalner capaclLy
• MosL slngle-sorL rollouLs have resulLed ln slgnlflcanL lncreases ln recycllng collecLlon volumes. ln
many areas where 8ecycle 8ank or oLher lncenLlve programs have been lncluded, Lhe lncreases have
been dramaLlc.
• Addlng new maLerlals ls very easy for resldenLs because Lhey [usL add Lhe maLerlal Lo Lhe one
conLalner. 1here ls no confuslon ln whaL bln Lo place a new recyclable.
• CollecLlon cosLs are usually less Lhan for oLher curbslde recycllng Lechnologles. 1hls ls Lrue wheLher
Lhe drlver musL dump Lubs, dump carLs wlLh a mechanlcal carL dumper or lf Lhe drlver can slL ln Lhe
cab and dump carLs wlLh an auLomaLed roboLlc arm. 8ecause Lhere ls only one conLalner, each sLop
Lakes less Llme Lhan dumplng Lhe same conLalner Lype wlLh mulLlple conLalners. Less Llme aL a sLop
means a drlver can plck up aL more sLops ln a day.
• AuLomaLed carL dumplng usually resulLs ln slgnlflcanL reducLlon of workers compensaLlon clalms,
slnce mosL carLs can be dumped wlLhouL manual handllng.
• When uslng auLomaLed collecLlon vehlcles, ldenLlcal collecLlon vehlcles can ofLen be used for
recyclables, organlcs and Lrash. Pavlng all Lhe same vehlcle requlremenLs slmpllfles fleeL servlce and
parLs lnvenLory and allows rededlcaLlon of Lrucks wlLh [usL a change ln slgnage or palnL.
• 1he collecLlon vehlcle needs only one comparLmenL for recyclables, whlch means compacLlon ls
common and usually more sLops can be made before reLurnlng Lo empLy.
• MulLlple comparLmenL Lrucks can collecL Lrash and organlc wasLe wlLh recyclables where a slngle
provlder offers Lwo or Lhree servlces. Comblned collecLlon reduces Lruck Lrafflc on any one sLreeL
and reduces LoLal fuel consumpLlon where alLernaLe week servlce ls noL accepLable.
• CollecLed recyclables can be hauled long dlsLances cosL effecLlvely. All recyclables can be Llpped ln
one plle and loaded lnLo a slngle Lransfer Lraller. 1hls allows a slngle processlng faclllLy Lo



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 32
compeLlLlvely serve resldenLs ln large radlus (ln some cases over 200 mlles). Pub and spoke reglonal
recycllng servlce ls becomlng pracLlcal ln many underserved parLs of Lhe uS as a resulL of slmpllfled
Lransfer.
• LxcepL for color sorLed glass and plasLlc fllm, recenL large slngle-sorL faclllLles are able Lo efflclenLly
sorL recyclables and produce quallLy producLs wlLh comparable or less labor cosL Lhan ln a slmllarly
slzed dual-sorL faclllLy.
• Many recenL slngle-sorL faclllLles lncorporaLe secondary flber recovery and oLher scavenglng
Lechnologles are able Lo achleve resldue raLes approachlng LhaL of dual-sorL faclllLles
Lar|y S|ng|e-Sort Þrob|ems
Larly slngle-sorL processlng faclllLles exhlblLed some problems. 1he Lwo mosL slgnlflcanL problems are
descrlbed below:
• 1he mosL clLed problem ls hlgh resldue raLes. Plgh resldue raLes were common ln early faclllLles.
1hese hlgh raLes resulLed from a comblnaLlon of unreflned processlng Lechnologles, loss of drlver
quallLy conLrol and poor educaLlon of resldenLs. 8ecause flber and conLalners are mlxed, reclalmlng
small recyclables from reslduals ls more complex Lhan for Lhe same LargeL maLerlals ln dual- sorL
faclllLles. Shredded paper, flne glass, plasLlc fllm and caps and llds are among Lhe mosL challenglng
maLerlals Lo recover. newer faclllLles LhaL are deslgned wlLh Lhe capablllLy Lo reduce resldue and
wlLh an operaLor LhaL commlLLed low resldue can achleve low resldue raLes.
• 1he oLher common problem for early slngle-sorL faclllLles was poor producL quallLy. 1he maln
producL quallLy lssues have been wlLh glass and llds ln flber producLs and glass ln plasLlc producLs.
Also, early screens were noL able Lo separaLe newspaper from oLher paper grades very well. newer
separaLlon screens can produce producLs LhaL compeLe wlLh Lhe besL dual sorL producL quallLy.
newer screen especlally when comblned wlLh a glass breaker aL Lhe fronL end of Lhe sysLem are able
Lo produce producLs rlvallng LhaL of dual-sorL faclllLles
Cha||enges
Slngle-sorL recycllng does noL solve all problems for recyclers. A number of challenges remaln for a slngle-sorL
faclllLy operaLor.
• Slngle-sorL processlng equlpmenL ls more senslLlve Lo cerLaln maLerlals Lhan mosL dual-sorL
processlng llnes. ln parLlcular, plasLlc fllm, garden hoses, rope, cords, wlre, sLrapplng and chalns
qulckly become wrapped around screen shafLs. Allowlng Lhese maLerlals Lo reach Lhe separaLlon
screens can resulL and reduced screen efflclency, losL producLlon Llme and ln some cases, Lhe need
for cosLly repalrs.
• MosL slngle-sorL faclllLles ofLen operaLe aL a hlgher resldual raLe Lhan comparably slzed dual-sorL
faclllLles. WlLh good educaLlon of resldenLs, sufflclenL pre-sorL efforL, modern reclalm feaLures and
manual reclalm from Lhe resldual sorL, reslduals of less Lhan flve percenL are common. Lower raLes
are posslble wlLh addlLlonal plcklng sLaff and managemenL commlLLed Lo low reslduals. 1hls exLra
efforL can ln some cases lncrease operaLlng cosL.
• Slngle-sorL processlng equlpmenL ls more cosLly Lo purchase Lhan LhaL of a comparably slzed dual-
sorL faclllLy. 1hls ls especlally Lrue for smaller faclllLles where slngle-sorL equlpmenL does noL scale
well. When slgnlflcanL quanLlLles of mechanlzed sorLlng are added Lo a dual-sorL faclllLy, Lhe caplLal
cosL of Lhe dual-sorL faclllLy may approach LhaL of Lhe slngle-sorL faclllLy.
• Slngle-sorL faclllLles requlre more malnLenance and more expenslve malnLenance Lhan dual-sorL
faclllLles. More equlpmenL needs malnLenance, buL also, a hlgher level of sklll ls needed Lo perform



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 33
some of Lhe malnLenance. Pundreds of screen dlscs musL be changed every 12-24 monLhs and
Lhese Lyplcally cosL $40 each.
Improved 1echno|og|es
MosL recenL slngle-sorL processlng faclllLles lncorporaLe a number of lmproved Lechnologles LhaL lmprove
operaLlng efflclency, producL quallLy and reduce resldue as compared Lo earller faclllLles. Whlle Lhese add Lo Lhe
faclllLy caplLal cosL, an accepLable reLurn on lnvesLmenL can be demonsLraLed when Lhe feaLures are applled
approprlaLely. A parLlal llsL of lmprovemenLs follows:
• lronL end meLerlng Lo keep Lhe flow of maLerlals very close Lo Lhe opLlmum capablllLy of Lhe llne for
Lhe mlx belng fed and Lo slmpllfy llne loadlng and allow loader operaLor Lo perform oLher Lasks.
• Large presorL Lo remove Lrash, overslze maLerlals and maLerlals LhaL mlghL wrap on screen shafLs,
and Lo allow recycllng of large rlgld plasLlcs and scrap meLals
• news and Mlxed Þaper screens have been much lmproved, reduclng Lhe amounL of posL sorL
needed Lo produce markeLable producLs, and aL Lhe same Llme provldlng a cleaner sorL Lo Lhe
conLalner llne.
• Where slgnlflcanL volumes of cardboard are presenL sorL, addlng an CCC screen aL fronL end Lo
ellmlnaLe mosL manual sorLlng of CCC. 1hls makes oLher screens more effecLlve and reduces
sLafflng requlremenLs aL presorL and aL flber posL sorLs.
• Class removal aL fronL end Lo geL glass ouL of oLher producLs and Lo prolong Lhe llfe of equlpmenL.
• Class cleanup sysLems Lo lmprove glass quallLy and ln some faclllLles Lo reclalm small (shredded)
flber for recycllng
• llber reclalm from mlxed conLalner sorL Lo reduce resldue and recycle more flber
• 8oLLle and can reclalm conveyors from flber posL sorL llnes
• CpLlcal plasLlc sorLlng Lo reduce labor needs, lncrease LhroughpuL and efflclency and sorL grades
LhaL humans cannoL dlfferenLlaLe vlsually (ex: ÞLA vs. ÞL1). CpLlcal sorLlng can be used for ÞL1,
nPuÞL, colored PuÞL, ÞLA, #3-7 (or grades wlLhln), asepLlc carLons, mllk and [ulce carLons and
varlous comblnaLlons of Lhese. CpLlcal sorLers can also be used Lo color sorLs where Lhe markeLs
demand Lhls efforL (ex: green ÞL1 or llghL and dark CPuÞL). 1he quallLy of sorL and rellablllLy of Lhls
equlpmenL has lmproved dramaLlcally ln recenL years. Also, dual-sorL opLlcal sorLers perform well ln
some appllcaLlons Lo sorL Lwo producLs from Lhe sorL aL one Llme.

Whlle mosL of Lhe above Lechnologles can be applled Lo dual-sorL sysLems, mosL dual-sorL M8ls are noL
operaLlng aL a scale Lo [usLlfy Lhese soluLlons. Slngle-sorL programs are capable of collecLlng all of Lhe maLerlals
LhaL can be collecLed ln dual-sorL sysLems. 1he llsL of maLerlals ln Lhe uual-SorL dlscusslon above also applles
here.
8ecause some maLerlals wlll clog or [am Lhe mechanlcal sorLlng equlpmenL, addlLlonal efforLs may be needed aL
Lhe pre-sorL Lo remove Lhese maLerlals. Lxamples of maLerlals LhaL generally need Lo be removed aL pre-sorL
lnclude large rlgld plasLlc, [unk meLal and plasLlc fllm. 1hese maLerlals are manually sorLed from Lhe sorL aL Lhe
pre-sorL sLaLlon. 1hls can be cosLly for plasLlc fllm where a good deal of hand moLlon ls requlred Lo sorL [usL one
pound of maLerlal. Mlssed plasLlc fllm wraps on Lhe screen shafLs and musL be cuL off frequenLly. 1hese
maLerlals LhaL cannoL be easlly sorLed mechanlcally are ofLen dlrecLed Lo drop-off collecLlons LhaL Lake Lhese
maLerlals and oLher dlfflculL Lo handle recyclables.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 34
S|ng|e-Sort Sca|e of Cperat|on
PlsLorlcally Lhe LhroughpuL sweeL spoL for slngle-sorL faclllLles has been 1S Lon per hour (Lph) or 30,000 Lons per
year (Lpy) or greaLer. 1hls was based on Lhe early screens LhaL separaLed flber from conLalners performlng well
aL 1S Lons per hour. 1he screens could be run aL lower raLes, buL manual sorLlng sLaff requlremenLs dld noL
decrease much because of Lhe sorL locaLlons LhaL musL be sLaffed, maklng smaller faclllLles proporLlonaLely
more cosLly Lo operaLe. Some faclllLles were bullL ln Lhe 8 Lph slze range, uslng smaller or less advanced screen
deslgns, mosLly Lo serve lsolaLed populaLlons, large rural areas or where recycllng raLes are low. 1hese lower
LhroughpuL faclllLles could noL compeLe economlcally wlLh larger faclllLles where sufflclenL volume of recyclables
ls avallable.
8ecenL deslgns wlLh a slngle sorL llne appear Lo perform well ln Lhe 1S-3S Lph-slze ranges. AL LhroughpuLs below
3S Lph, lncreased capaclLy ls obLalned Lhrough lncrease ln slze of separaLlon equlpmenL and lncrease ln Lhe
number of separaLlon sLages raLher Lhan Lhrough parallel equlpmenL. 1he prlmary advanLage of Lhls approach ls
LhaL llLLle addlLlonal sLaff ls requlred Lo lncrease LhroughpuL. As a bonus, Lhe addlLlonal separaLlon sLages also
have Lhe poLenLlal of provldlng beLLer separaLlon quallLy and auLomaLed producLlon of addlLlonal flber grades.
MosL equlpmenL deslgners choose Lo spllL Lhe maLerlal sorL afLer Lhe CCC screen lnLo Lwo llnes when processlng
3S Lph or more raLher Lhan bulld huge componenLs Lo handle lL all as one sorL. 1hls allows for a
loadlng/meLerlng sLaLlon, a slngle large presorL and a slngle CCC screen. 1hese spllL sysLems have been
deslgned Lo operaLe aL more Lhan S0 Lons per hour. usually, conLalners are recomblned lnLo a slngle sorL for
opLlcal sorLlng.
laclllLles slzed Lo process S0,000 Lons or more per year usually [usLlfy opLlcal sorLers for ÞL1 and nPuÞL. A
number of faclllLles ln Lhls slze range are also addlng opLlcal sorL for CPuÞL, #3-7 plasLlcs and carLons. Many
larger faclllLles add more opLlcal and mechanlcal sorLlng raLher Lhan lncreaslng sLaff.
A number of faclllLles have been bullL Lo process more Lhan 200,000 Lons per year. MosL recenL large faclllLles
use opLlcal sorLers for mosL plasLlcs. A few M8ls use opLlcal sorLers Lo posL sorL mlxed flber. 1hese larger
faclllLles are usually seL up Lo recelve Lransfer Lrallers and Lo serve a large geographlcal area. ln Lhe Chlcago
area, several large M8ls compeLe, drawlng maLerlals from flve Lo seven sLaLes.
Sequence of Cperat|on
1he separaLlon Lechnologles vary somewhaL from one manufacLurer Lo anoLher, buL wlLh a few excepLlons Lhere
ls general agreemenL on Lhe process sequence. 1he Lwo areas where deslgn sequences vary slgnlflcanLly are Lhe
place and meLhod of glass removal and Lhe place and meLhod of small flber recovery. See Appendlx lv for a
dlagram of Lhe Slngle SorL Þrocess llow ulagram. 1he followlng descrlbes a Lyplcal slngle-sorL equlpmenL
sequence:
• looJloq boppet - 1hls ls usually loaded from Lhe Llpplng floor by a large wheel loader
• MeLerlng (elLher meLerlng drum from hopper or meLerlng drum over lncllned conveyor followlng hopper
wlLh opLlcal feedback conLrol)
• ÞresorL - A large horlzonLal conveyor wlLh plcklng sLaLlons for maLerlals such as Lrash, large rlgld plasLlc,
[unk meLal, any maLerlals LhaL mlghL wrap screen shafLs. lf no CCC screen follows, large CCC ls plcked
here. lf plasLlc fllm ls collecLed, overhead sucLlon Lubes may be provlded for fllm collecLlon from sorLers'
hands.
• CCC screen - Large CCC ls removed (noL needed ln faclllLles where llLLle CCC shows up ln slngle-sorL ln-
feed)
• MosL faclllLles provlde a an CCC posL-sorL sLaLlon LhaL may or may noL be sLaffed



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 3S
• Second presorL - needed where loLs of large CCC ls dellvered ln slngle-sorL maLerlals because lL ls
dlfflculL Lo see under Lhe large CCC
• Class removal - 1hls can be done under CCC screen (8PS) or under a scalplng screen followlng CCC
screen (CÞ). 1hls ls ofLen accompllshed wlLh a mulLl-sLage all-meLal roll-screen deslgned Lo break and
screen glass from oLher maLerlals. Class ls usually dlrecLed Lo a glass clean up sysLem Lo remove mosL
non-glass maLerlals before Lhe glass ls sLacked ln a bunker.
• 1he maLerlals LhaL pass Lhrough Lhe CCC screen buL noL Lhe glass breaker are fed Lo a news screen LhaL
separaLes newspaper from boLLles and cans wlLh smaller flber. 1he CnÞ goes Lo a posL sorL sLaLlon
where brown paper/CCC, conLamlnanLs and ouL-Lhrow are sorLed Lo achleve Lhe requlred markeL
speclflcaLlon.
• 1he boLLles and cans wlLh smaller flber (unders) from Lhe news screen pass Lo Lhe nexL screen whlch
separaLes mlxed paper from Lhe mlxed boLLles and cans. 1he mlxed paper goes Lo a posL sorL sLaLlon
where boLLles and cans, conLamlnanLs and newspaper LhaL was noL capLures by Lhe news screen are
manually sorLed Lo approprlaLe blns or conveyors.
• 1he small paper LhaL comes ouL wlLh Lhe boLLles and cans from Lhe mlxed paper screen ls recapLured
elLher as parL of Lhe mlxed paper screen operaLlon or as a secondary process (CÞ uses alr drum
separaLors - AuS). Small paper ls fed Lo Lhe mlxed paper posL sorL.
• 1he boLLles and cans are conveyed Lo Lhe conLalner sorL secLlon. SLeel cans are pulled off wlLh an
overhead magneL.
• CpLlcal sorLers remove ÞL1, nPuÞL and posslbly oLher maLerlals (CPuÞL, #3-7, carLons). ÞosL sorL
manual lnspecLlon sLaLlons allow sorLlng maLerlals mlssed by opLlcal sorLers. lf ÞL1C musL be kepL
separaLe from ÞL1L, Lhls ls usually accompllshed manually aL Lhe ÞL1 posL sorL sLaLlon.
• MaLerlals noL sorLed by opLlcal sorLers are manually sorLed lnLo approprlaLe blns
• lf alumlnum ls lefL on Lhe llne, an eddy currenL separaLor (LCS) capLures Lhe alumlnum. ÞosL sorL sLaLlons
can be sLaffed Lo capLure mlssed alumlnum and plck recyclables from resldue. Some faclllLles manually
sorL foll lLems such as ple Llns, buL leave cans on conveyor for LCS, elLher Lo bale Lhese maLerlals
separaLely or because some LCS unlLs do noL sorL foll well.
• Manual reslduals sorLlng of recyclables mlssed on llne. 1hls poslLlon ls bullL ln mosL new faclllLles, buL
ofLen noL sLaffed.
• All sorLed maLerlals are sLored ln bunkers and blns and fed Lo one or more balers as blns flll.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 36
DDI 1 1nL k¥LIN
A number of M8ls recycle several maLerlals LhaL Mlnneapolls does noL yeL accepL.
• MeLal recycllng could also be expanded.
• Mlnneapolls does collecL mosL flber maLerlals. uependlng on local markeLs, Mlnneapolls may be
able Lo recycle oLher poly-coaLed papers wlLh carLons or as a separaLe flber grade
• Whlle markeLs for posL consumer plasLlcs oLher Lhan #1 (ÞL1) and #2 (PuÞL) boLLles have noL yeL
maLured, Mlnneapolls could subsLanLlally lncrease plasLlc recycllng. MosL processors are havlng no
problem markeLlng Lhe plasLlcs Lhey recelve as long as Lhe maLerlal ls clean. 1he Lhree mosL
common lnpuLs are plasLlc fllm and large rlgld plasLlcs.

Lach of Lhese posslble new maLerlals ls dlscussed ln some deLall ln Lhe followlng secLlons.
ML1ALS
Many curbslde collecLlon programs lnclude [unk meLals. ln dual-sorL recycllng Lhese maLerlals are collecLed wlLh
conLalners and pulled ouL aL Lhe pre-sorL sLaLlon. ln slngle-sorL recycllng Lhe [unk meLals are pulled ouL aL Lhe
maln pre-sorL sLaLlon. 1he challenge wlLh [unk meLals ls deflnlng whaL ls and ls noL accepLed and maklng sure
resldenLs are aware of Lhe accepLable llmlLs. ln order for Lhe collecLed maLerlal, Lo have good value Lo Lhe
recycler, lL needs Lo be clear LhaL LoasLer ovens and mlcrowaves are noL accepLed because a large porLlon of
Lhem ls noL meLal. usually auLomoblle parLs are excluded, buL lLems such as poLs and pans are encouraged. L8
could add [unk meLals lf ln expandlng lLs conLalner pre-sorL a chuLes and a bunker are added for Lhls maLerlal. lf
L8 moves Lo slngle-sorL collecLlon, slmllarly, a place for Lhls maLerlal could be lncluded ln Lhe pre-sorL. AmounLs
collecLed vary wldely dependlng on resLrlcLlon on maLerlals and oLher enLlLles LhaL accepL meLals ln Lhe area.
88S 8ecommends LhaL L8 conslder recycllng [unk meLals.
ÞCL¥-CCA1LD II8Lk
Þoly-coaLed flber ls used Lo package many refrlgeraLed and frozen food producLs as well as used for
manufacLure of paper cups. Some packages are coaLed on one slde only, whlle oLhers are coaLed on boLh sldes.
Slngle coaLed packages may have prlnLlng on Lhe flber, where as on double coaLed flber, Lhe lnk ls usually on Lhe
poly. 1hese packages also conLaln varylng amounLs of weL sLrengLh resln ln Lhe flber. Accordlngly, noL all mllls
LhaL accepL carLons can accepL Lhese maLerlals. Where Lhese maLerlals can be sold wlLh Lhe carLons, Lhe volume
of poly-coaLed flber can Lyplcally be doubled over Lhe volume of carLons (asepLlc plus gable-Lop) alone. Þoly
coaLed packaglng presenLs a challenge for collecLlon and separaLlon. ln dual-sorL collecLlon, lL ls usually
collecLed wlLh conLalners. 1hls can be confuslng Lo resldenLs. ln slngle-sorL processlng, flaLLened packages may
be mechanlcally sorLed Lo mlxed paper, whlle 3-u packages wlll be sorLed Lo conLalners. CpLlcal sorLers can
readlly ldenLlfy/sorL poly-coaLed flber on Lhe conLalner llne, buL manual sorLlng would be requlred Lo pull Lhls
maLerlal from Lhe mlxed paper. 88S recommends LhaL L8 explore markeLlng opporLunlLles for Lhls maLerlal. lf a
range of poly-coaLed flber can be mlxed wlLh carLons and sold aL Lhe same prlce, 88S recommends LhaL L8
explore Lhe feaslblllLy of addlng Lhls maLerlal. ln Lhe exlsLlng sysLem, no new hardware would be needed.
ÞLAS1IC IILM
ÞlasLlc fllm can lnclude plasLlc shopplng and produce bags, lndusLrlal shrlnk-wrap, lndusLrlal sLreLch wrap and a
varleLy of oLher bags and wraps. ÞlasLlc fllms of low-denslLy polyeLhylene (LuÞL), medlum denslLy polyeLhylene
(MuÞL), hlgh-denslLy polyeLhylene and polypropylene are common. All of Lhese plasLlcs belong Lo Lhe polyolefln
famlly. MosL lndusLrlal shrlnk and sLreLch wraps are also polyolefln. MosL M8ls LhaL recelve plasLlc fllm bale lL



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 37
all LogeLher. Mlxed polyolefln ls used ln maklng plasLlc lumber and oLher producLs LhaL do noL requlre speclflc
melL and flow properLles. lf speclflc reslns can be baled separaLely, Lhe plasLlc fllm has a much hlgher value and
Lhe plasLlc be recycled lnLo hlgher end producLs.
ln areas where a large number of boaLs are shrlnk-wrapped for wlnLer sLorage, havlng a bunker deslgnaLed Lo
sLockplle Lhls maLerlal every sprlng can be proflLable. ulsLrlbuLlon cenLers LhaL resLack palleLs are ofLen a
slgnlflcanL year-round source of naLural colored shrlnk and sLreLch wrap. lf L8 can encourage haulers Lo brlng
posL-lndusLrlal clean plasLlc fllm Lo Lhe M8l, L8 can make money ballng and selllng Lhls producL. 1he prlce for
clean posL-lndusLrlal wrap varles, buL $200-300/Lon ls common ln some areas.
8esldenLlal plasLlc fllm ls prlmarlly plasLlc bags. MosL grocery shopplng bags are PuÞL and mosL produce and
bread bags are LuÞL, however, Lhere ls no sLandard. MosL manufacLurers of recycled conLenL bags need
maLerlal sorLed by resln Lype. ÞlasLlc fllm ls dlfflculL Lo sorL manually, mechanlcally or opLlcally, so maklng
shopplng bags from shopplng bags ls noL generally cosL effecLlve. 1he blggesL problem ln collecLlon ls maklng
sure LhaL bags are clean. SlgnlflcanL food conLamlnaLlon ls a problem for nearly all buyers.
lf plasLlc fllm ls collecLed curbslde, some means of consolldaLlon ls needed Lo keep bags from blowlng around
and Lo allow efflclenL sorLlng aL Lhe M8l. Cne of Lhe mosL effecLlve meLhods Lhus far observed ls known as
º8ag-Lhe-8ag". ln Lhls approach, resldenLs are lnsLrucLed Lo sLuff all bags ln one ouLer bag and Lo Lle Lhe ouLer
bag shuL when Lhe bag ls full. 1he full bag ls Lhen placed aL Lhe curb wlLh oLher recyclables.
lf collecLlng dual-sorL, resldenLs can be lnsLrucLed Lo place Lhe bag wlLh elLher conLalners or flber. llber ls
usually Lhe preferred opLlon, because bags can be sorLed Lo a bunker elLher aL pre-sorL or aL Lhe maln sorL. lf
lncluded wlLh conLalners, bags musL be plcked aL Lhe pre-sorL and Lhe llkellhood of conLamlnaLlon wlLh broken
glass ls much hlgher. lf collecLed ln a slngle-sorL program, bags musL be plcked aL Lhe pre-sorL. Cverhead
sucLlon Lubes are ofLen used Lo convey bags from mulLlple plck polnLs Lo a common bunker. 8ecause lL Lakes
from 200,000 Lo over 1,000,000 bags Lo make a bale, plcklng lndlvldual bags ls noL pracLlcal unless labor cosL ls
very low. As a percenLage of Lhe LoLal recycllng sorL, plasLlc bags are a small percenLage. ln programs
aggresslvely collecLlng plasLlc bags, Lhey can make up as much as 0.S° of Lhe recycllng sorL. 1he value of Lhls
maLerlal varles wlldly from $40-200/Lon dependlng on producL quallLy and avallable markeLs.
8ased on programs LhaL have been observed Lhus far, 88S does noL recommend LhaL L8 collecL bags curbslde.
1he challenge ls geLLlng resldenLs Lo keep bags clean and consolldaLe Lhem for efflclenL sorLlng. Whlle resldenLs
are generally eager Lo add bags Lo Lhelr recycllng, Lhls can be a cosLly addlLlon Lo Lhe bln wlLhouL ascerLalnlng
LhaL resldenLs wlll prepare Lhe bags properly.
LAkGL kIGID ÞLAS1ICS
Large 8lgld ÞlasLlc usually refers Lo a wlde varleLy of large molded ob[ecLs. Lawn furnlLure, rldlng Loys, play
sLrucLures, buckeLs, large Lubs, and a number of oLher larger molded plasLlc ob[ecLs are Lyplcally lncluded. 1he
ob[ecLs are mosLly made from PuÞL and ÞÞ. 8ecause Lhe pleces are large, hand sorLlng aL secondary processor
lnLo speclflc reslns ls even pracLlcal ln Lhe uS, Lhough much of Lhls maLerlal ls sold off shore. 1hls maLerlal ls
easlly collecLed aL drop-off sLaLlons, and ls collecLed ln many curbslde programs. When collecLed slngle-sorL Lhls
maLerlal ls pulled ouL manually aL Lhe pre-sorL. ln dual-sorL collecLlon, Lhls maLerlal ls almosL always collecLed ln
Lhe conLalner sorL.
1he prlmary problem wlLh large rlgld plasLlcs ls Lhe physlcal slze of Lhe ob[ecL. Some programs llmlL Lhe slze of
Lhe largesL plece. CLhers requlre LhaL all ob[ecLs flL ln Lhe collecLlon bln or carL. CollecLlon works besL lf Lhe
Lruck can compacL Lhe ob[ecL, Lo avold havlng Lhe comparLmenL on Lhe Lruck flll premaLurely.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 38

M8l operaLors can usually selecL how Lhe flber ln Lhe feedsLock geLs dlvlded ln Lo end producLs. Where all
sorLlng ls a manual operaLlon, Lhe operaLor can choose Lo spllL Lhe sorL lnLo as many producLs as he/she has blns
Lo sorL lnLo. ln more mechanlzed slngle-sorL sysLems, Lyplcally Lwo or Lhree flber sorLs are separaLed
mechanlcally, buL Lhe operaLor sLlll has Lhe opLlon Lo furLher sorL Lhese sorLs manually lf Lhe faclllLy was
deslgned wlLh sufflclenL space Lo do so.
1he number of producLs produced ls a cholce of Lhe operaLor, based on Lrade-offs among several facLors
lncludlng, markeLablllLy, prlce, cosL of producLlon and envlronmenLal values. lor example, whlLe offlce paper
can be exLracLed from a mlxed resldenLlal sorL as parL of CnÞ, parL of a mlxed paper grade, parL of sorLed offlce
paper (SCÞ), or sorLed whlLe ledger (SWL). Whlle SWL has Lhe hlghesL value and Lhe hlghesL poLenLlal end use,
Lhe cosL of sorLlng Lhls small fracLlon of Lhe flber may exceed Lhe resulLlng value lncrease as compared Lo leavlng
Lhe maLerlal ln CnÞ or some oLher more easlly sorLed grade. Lven as a purely envlronmenLal declslon, Lhe
hlghesL end use may noL prove Lo be Lhe besL cholce ln llfe cycle analysls (LCA).
AnoLher facLor ln selecLlng whaL producLs Lo produce ls Lhe evoluLlon of Lhe consumlng mllls. Cver Llme, mllls
have become more LoleranL of mlxed grades. ln 1980, mllls maklng new newsprlnL from CnÞ wanLed all colored
prlnLlng and glossy paper removed from Lhe mlx. 8y 198S all lnserLs dellvered wlLh Lhe papers were an
accepLable parL of Lhe grade. 8y 1990, many mllls were accepLlng [unk mall and magazlnes wlLh Lhe CnÞ. Many
mllls are now able Lo produce a beLLer newsprlnL producL wlLh Lhese oLher grades lncluded ln Lhe feedsLock Lhan
wlLhouL Lhe oLher grades presenL.
When slngle-sorL (SS) M8ls flrsL came on Lhe scene, many mllls found LhaL Lhe CnÞ was noL meeLlng Lhelr lnpuL
sLandards. Whlle recenL slngle-sorL M8ls are now able Lo produce very clean CnÞ, mllls have also adapLed Lo
work well wlLh a wlder range of feedsLock. 8ecause mosL of Lhe posL consumer CnÞ ls now comlng from SS
M8ls and because ln Lhe fuLure more and more CnÞ wlll come from SS M8ls, mllls have llLLle lncenLlve Lo
depend on CnÞ from dual-sorL (uS) faclllLles. lew mllls can afford Lo refuse CnÞ from SS M8l's and few lf any
offer a premlum prlce based on orlgln. Some mllls wlll pay a premlum based on long-Lerm conslsLenL hlgh
quallLy, regardless of Lhe M8l Lechnology.
1ourlng a number of M8ls would demonsLraLe Lo Mlnneapolls sLaff LhaL Lhe quallLy of Lhe CnÞ and Lhe quallLy
of mosL oLher producLs ls a funcLlon of Lhe resources applled Lo sorLlng raLher Lhan wheLher Lhe faclllLy ls seL up
as SS or uS. ln shorL, producL quallLy ls more dependenL on operaLor sLafflng declslons Lhan on Lechnology. 1hls
also applles Lo recyclables leavlng Lhe faclllLy as resldue or as ouL-Lhrow ln oLher producLs. 1echnology does
however play a ma[or role ln lmprovlng efflclency of sorLlng operaLlons when used wlsely.




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 39
IINDINGS AND kCCMMNDA1CNS
Cver Lhe lasL decade recycllng processlng Lechnologles have evolved rapldly and conLlnue Lo evolve. Cver LhaL
same decade, slngle-sorL collecLlon and processlng has grown from a quesLlonable experlmenL Lo Lhe prlmary
approach for large recycllng programs. 1he followlng polnLs sLress LhaL slngle-sorL now domlnaLes resldenLlal
recycllng ln Lhe uS and ls here Lo sLay.
• ln Lhe lasL flve years, few large dual-sorL M8ls have been bullL ln Lhe uS.
• MosL large M8ls bullL ln Lhe lasL few years ln Lhe uS were bullL Lo process slngle-sorL recyclables.
• MosL large dual-sorL M8ls have been converLed Lo slngle-sorL operaLlon, or have been replaced by newer
slngle-sorL M8ls near by.
• SlgnlflcanLly more Lhan half of all resldenLlal recyclables collecLed ln Lhe uS are now collecLed as slngle-sorL
• Lnd markeLs have gone from quesLlonlng Lhe consumpLlon of maLerlals from slngle-sorL M8ls Lo welcomlng
Lhose maLerlals and adapLlng Lhelr processes, when needed
• Slngle-sorL processlng equlpmenL, whlle sLlll cosLly, has become very funcLlonal and rellable
• MosL munlclpallLles see a bump ln collecLlon volumes LhaL slgnlflcanLly ouL welghs any lncreases ln reslduals
when converLlng Lo slngle-sorL

CurrenLly, Lhere are many examples of programs LhaL demonsLraLe LhaL low resldual raLes are posslble, hlgh
producL quallLy ls easlly achleved and neL recycllng raLes can be lncreased wlLh a slngle-sorL program.
uual-sorL recycllng remalns Lechnlcally vlable. When you conslder LhaL Lhe markeL Lrend Lo offer slngle-sorL
processlng and LhaL placlng recyclables all ln one conLalner ls aLLracLlve Lo mosL resldenLs, lL ls clear LhaL
Mlnneapolls needs Lo serlously conslder swlLchlng Lo slngle-sorL collecLlon.
Slngle-sorL collecLlon and processlng would also allow conslderaLlon of Lransferrlng recyclables from mllL-famlly
locaLlons should Mlnneapolls be lnLeresLed ln offerlng recycllng servlces ln currenLly under-served areas. CarL
based collecLlon programs are also conslsLenL wlLh Lhe developmenL of an organlcs collecLlon program.
1hls reporL does noL provlde deflnlLlve cosL comparlsons. uolng so wlll noL be pracLlcal unLll Mlnneapolls makes
some declslons on changes Lo Lhe currenL approach Lo Lhe collecLlon of recyclable maLerlals. llrm cosL numbers
can be developed by asklng vendors for prellmlnary proposals aL any polnL LhaL Mlnneapolls has made a declslon
on a proposed dlrecLlon Lo pursue.
1he SLaLe of MlnnesoLa and Pennepln CounLy are movlng forward wlLh a new wasLe reducLlon goal LhaL requlres
changes Lo Lhe clLy's currenL recycllng collecLlon and processlng sysLem. Many communlLles have LesLed and
succeeded wlLh converLlng Lo dual-sorL and slngle-sorL collecLlon programs and lL ls recommended LhaL Lhe ClLy
move Lo one of Lhese Lwo collecLlon sysLems wlLh slngle sorL sysLem offerlng Lhe hlghesL recovery raLe aL Lhe
lowesL cosL.
key Þo|nts from kecyc||ng Þrogram Study
1he sLudy flndlngs, summarlzed below, are based on lnformaLlon collecLed from Lhe clLy's plloL programs and
from Lhe experlences of oLher clLles, and from focus group meeLlngs held wlLh currenL Solld WasLe and 8ecycllng
cusLomers. 1he pro[ecL evaluaLed slngle-sorL and dual-sorL collecLlon for boLh weekly and blweekly collecLlon.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 40
kecovery
1. A slngle-sorL sysLem ls pro[ecLed Lo lncrease maLerlals quanLlLy recovered by 60° and Lhe Mlnneapolls
recycllng raLe lncreases from 18.1° Lo 32° (based on case sLudles such as Ann Arbor and ÞorLland).
2. A dual-sorL sysLem ls pro[ecLed Lo lncrease maLerlals quanLlLy recovered by 36° and Lhe Mlnneapolls
recycllng raLe lncreases from 18.1° Lo 2S° (based on case sLudles such as Ann Arbor and ÞorLland).

Þrocess|ng
1. 1he ma[orlLy of local recycllng cenLers - MaLerlal 8ecovery laclllLles (M8l's) - are well equlpped Lo handle
slngle sorL collecLlon.
2. Þrellmlnary research lndlcaLes no dlfference ln markeL revenues - slngle vs. dual ln local M8l's.

Cperat|ons and Cperat|ona| Costs
1. CollecLlon Llme for slngle-sorL ls less Lhan dual-sorL and Lhere ls no need Lo come off rouLe when one
comparLmenL fllls before Lhe oLher.
2. A slngle-sorL recycllng sysLem preserves space for a posslble Lhlrd carL for comlngled yard wasLe and
organlcs.
3. A seml-auLomaLed rear load Lruck (such as currenLly used for garbage collecLlon), wlLh 2 sLaff per Lruck, besL
serves alley-based collecLlons. 1hls ls Lhe same sysLem LhaL ls currenLly used for garbage collecLlon.
4. Slngle-sorL collecLlon allows for uLlllzaLlon of a slmllar Lruck fleeL Lo currenL rear load packers, resulLlng ln a
more cosL-effecLlve fleeL Lhan addlng a compleLely new Lype of vehlcle for recycllng collecLlon.

Cap|ta| Costs
1. uual-sorL collecLlon requlres an addlLlonal Lruck cosL of $28,000 more Lhan slngle sorL Lruck due Lo spllL body
packers.
2. CarL cosL for slngle sorL (1 per unlL [$6S) ls esLlmaLed aL $6,800,000.
1ruck CosL (8 Lrucks) for a bl-weekly slngle sorL collecLlon program ls $1,976,000.
3. CarL cosL for dual sorL (2 per unlL [$S0) ls esLlmaLed aL $10,S00,000.
1ruck CosL (9 Lrucks) for a bl-weekly, dual sorL collecLlon program ls $2,47S,000.




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 41
Cvera|| Þrogram Costs
1ab|e 17: Þro[ected Net kecyc||ng Costs
Cpt|ons
Current
Mu|t|-Sort
8ase||ne
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
ClLy CollecLlon ($1,694,27S) ($1,666,070) ($1,831,460)
M8l CollecLlon ($1,694,S93) ($1,666,371) ($1,831,791)
1oLal CollecLlon CosL ($3,388,868) ($3,332,441) ($3,663,2S1)
MaLerlal 8evenue $1,640,937 $1,280,S04 $1,173,796
Net kecyc||ng Costs |nc|ud|ng
kevenue
(51,747,931) (52,0S1,937) (52,489,4SS)
value of MSW ulverLed $847,231 $1,33S,318 $1,224,041
neL ClLy 8ecycllng CosLs
(Annual CosL -MSW ulverLed
($900,701) ($716,619) ($1,26S,414)
*Assumes a Þrocesslng cosL = $70.00
CurrenL Þrocesslng CosL = $24.04

1he neL 8ecycllng CosLs are Lhe lowesL for Lhe Slngle SorL Seml AuLomaLed 8l-weekly collecLlon program by
approxlmaLely 20° below currenL neL cosL whlle achlevlng a 32° recycllng raLe. 1he uual SorL 8l-weekly
program has a neL cosL of approxlmaLely 6S° hlgher Lhen Lhe currenL mulLl-sorL program and achleves a 2S°
recovery raLe. A Len percenL lncrease ln Lhe quanLlLy of maLerlal collecLed ln Lhe slngle sorL program achleves a
3S° recycllng raLe wlLh a neL cosL LhaL ls 40° lower Lhen Lhe currenL program. A Len percenL lncrease ln Lhe
quanLlLy of maLerlal collecLed ln Lhe dual sorL program achleves a 28.S° recycllng raLe wlLh a neL cosL LhaL ls
40° hlgher Lhen Lhe currenL program.
Slngle-sorL collecLlon and processlng also allow conslderaLlon of Lransferrlng recyclables from mllL-famlly
locaLlons should Mlnneapolls be lnLeresLed ln offerlng recycllng servlces ln currenLly under-served areas. Slngle
sorL collecLlon programs are more compaLlble wlLh Lhe developmenL of a yard wasLe and organlcs collecLlon
program LhaL would requlre anoLher carL.
AlLhough dual-sorL recycllng remalns Lechnlcally vlable, when you conslder LhaL Lhe markeL Lrend ls Loward
slngle-sorL processlng and LhaL placlng recyclables all ln one conLalner, whlch ls Lhe mosL convenlenL Lo mosL
resldenLs, lL ls clear LhaL Mlnneapolls should conslder swlLchlng Lo slngle-sorL collecLlon.
lL ls furLher recommended LhaL Lhe ClLy conducL a more deLalled evaluaLlon of Lhe program and lnvesLmenL
requlremenLs assoclaLed wlLh such a converslon Lo slngle sorL collecLlon and processlng by lssulng a 8equesL for
Þroposal (8lÞ) Lo deLermlne Lhe acLual collecLlon and processlng cosLs. 1hls evaluaLlon would lnclude equlpmenL
opLlons and cosLs, processlng and markeLlng arrangemenLs, rouLe requlremenLs, and program lnvesLmenLs and
savlngs. 88S and SLP are prepared Lo oversee LhaL process or Lo asslsL Mlnneapolls ln deflnlng an 8lÞ Lo presenL
Lo vendors Lo geL Lhe besL proposals.



ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 42
AÞÞLNDIx I: LNNLÞIN CCUN1¥ kLSCLU1ICN




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 43




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 44




ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 4S
AÞÞLNDIx II: kLVLNUL ÞkCLC1ICNS
1C1AL 1CNS
Mater|a|
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
S|ng|e Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
8|week|y
Dua| Sort
Sem| Auto
Week|y
Current
Mu|t|-sort
8ase||ne
CnÞ 10,192 10,192 8,493 8,493 6,466
CLASS-CL 2,791 2,791 2,32S 2,32S 1,771
CLASS-88 3,192 3,192 2,660 2,660 2,02S
CLASS- C8 2,861 2,861 2,384 2,384 1,81S
ALuM 368 368 307 307 234
S1LLL 8S9 8S9 716 716 S4S
ÞLAS1lC CCM8lnLu 2,132 2,132 1,777 1,777 1,3S3
CMC 1,932 1,932 1,610 1,610 1,226
CCC 1,490 1,490 1,241 1,241 94S
8MÞ- 8LS Mlx 2,401 2,401 2,001 2,001 1,S23
C1u 194 194 162 162 123
1C1AL 28,411 28,411 23,676 23,676 18,026

NL1 kLVLNUL
CnÞ $(1S0,328) $(1S0,328) $(12S,273) $(12S,273) $(9S,380)
CLASS-CL $(76,739) $(76,739) $(63,949) $(63,949) $(48,689)
CLASS-88 $(182,763) $(182,763) $(1S2,303) $(1S2,303) $(11S,960)
CLASS- C8 $(236,746) $(236,746) $(197,288) $(197,288) $(1S0,210)
ALuM $4S7,640 $4S7,640 $381,367 $381,367 $290,363
S1LLL $126,044 $126,044 $10S,037 $10S,037 $79,972
ÞLAS1lC CCM8lnLu $7S6,808 $7S6,808 $630,673 $630,673 $480,179
CMC $(28,490) $(28,490) $(23,742) $(23,742) $(18,076)
CCC $3,3S2 $3,3S2 $2,793 $2,793 $2,127
8MÞ- 8LS Mlx $(66,024) $(66,024) $(SS,020) $(SS,020) $(41,891)
C1u $(S,347) $(S,347) $(4,4S6) $(4,4S6) $(3,392)
1C1AL 5S97,407 5S97,407 5497,839 5497,839 5379,042





ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 46
AÞÞLNDIx III: DUAL SCk1 ÞkCCLSS ILCW DIAGkAM







ClLy of Mlnneapolls: uual SorL/Slngle SorL CollecLlon SLudy May 10, 2012
Þage 47
AÞÞLNDIx IV: SINGLL SCk1 ÞkCCLSS ILCW DIAGkAM

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