Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD
Continent Asia Europe South America Africa North America Oceania Urbanization by Continents: SN Continent 1. South America 2. Europe 3. North America DEMOGRAPHY: Density person/sq. km 108 101 21 20 14 3

Urbanization 78 74 68

S.no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Country Russia Canada United States China Brazil Australia India Argentina Kazakhstan Sudan

Top 20 Countries by Area Area (lakh sq km) S. N Country 170 11. Algeria 99 12. Dem. Rep of Congo 96 13. Mexico 95 14. Saudi Arabia 85 15. Indonesia 76 16. Libya 32 17. Iran 27 18. Mongolia 27 19. Peru 25 20. Chad Worlds Most Populous Countries Population S.N Country in million 1,306 14 Germany 1,080 15 Egypt 295 16 Ethiopia 241 17 Turkey 186 18 Iran 162 19 Thailand 144 20 France 143 21 United Kingdom 128 22 Dem. Rep of Congo 127 23 Italy 106 24 Korea, South 87 25 Ukraine 83

Area (lakh sq km) 23 23 19 19 19 17 16 15 12 12

S.N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Country China India United States Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Bangladesh Russia Nigeria Japan Mexico Philippines Vietnam

Population In Million 82 77 73 69 68 65 60 60 60 58 48 47

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Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

Contributions of Important Geographers Megalopolis concept Jean Gottman Conurbation Concept, Wrote ‘Cities in Evolution’ Patrick Geddes Polar Front Theory J. Bjerknes Anticyclone term Sir Francis Galton Equilibrium Theory of tides Issac Newton Dynamic Theory of Tides Laplace Progressive Wave Theory William Whewell Canal Theory G. B. Airy Stationary Wave Theory of Tides R. A. Harris Process of Precipitation Bergeron First used the term Ecology Tansley Father of Ecology Haeckel First used the term plate J. T Wilson Coined the term Antecedent Stream J. W. Powell Classification of clouds Luke Howard Ice crystal Theory Tor Bergeron Collision-Coalesce Theory George Simpson & Mason Glacial Control Theory of Coral reef formation Daly Subsidence Theory of Coral reef formation Darwin Stand Still Theory of Coral reef Murray Concept of grade G.K. Gilbert Law of Stream number/Length R. E. Horton Location Allocation Models P. Haggett Law of Retail Gravitation W.J. Reilly Concept of Threshold & Range B.J.L. Berry Introduced the concept of Possibilism Lucien Febvre Coined “Areal Differentiation” Hartshorne General System Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy Developed Hythergraph G. Taylor Polyconic Projection Ferdinand Hessler Globular projection S.J. Fournier Minerals & Their Largest Producers Madagascar South Africa, Australia South Africa, Canada. South Africa, Russia South Africa, Republic of Congo & Australia Canada, Australia Canada, USA, Australia, Niger, France, South Africa Canada, Russia, Australia, USA. China, USA, India, Russia China China, Brazil, Australia.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Graphite Gold Platinum Chromium Diamond Zinc Uranium Nickel Coal Steel Iron Ore

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Ghanshyam Thori 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Cement Manganese Paper Hydro Power Tungsten Asbestos Natural Gas Flax Tantalum Bauxite Lead Cadmium Antimony Uranium (Reser.) Zirconium Titanium (Rutile) Iron Copper Tin Silver Mercury Sulphur Rock Phosphate

Geography Notes China China, South Africa, Australia. Canada Canada, USA, (Norway highest %age User) China, Thailand, Korea Canada Russia, Zambia, Zimbabwe Russia, Canada, Algeria, Iran Russia Australia Australia, Guinea, Jamaica & Brazil. Australia, China, US Canada China Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada, South Africa Australia Brazil *Australia* China, Brazil, Australia Chile, United States, Canada, Armenia, Zambia, Zaire China, Indonesia, Peru, Brazil, Malaysia Mexico, Peru, Chile & Poland. Spain, China, Italy. Mexico, USA & Poland USA, Peru (Guano).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Agricultural Commodities & Their Largest Producer Milk India Coffee Brazil, Vietnam Tobacco China, turkey Pork China Rice (export) Thailand, Vietnam Rice China, India Banana India, Brazil Banana (Export) Costa Rica, Jamaica, Honduras, Columbia Maize USA, China Wheat China Cork Portugal Palm Oil Malaysia Fresh Water Fish Russia Barley Germany, Canada, Russia, France Tea (Exporter) Sri Lanka Rubber Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia Paper USA Pulp (Export) Canada Paper (Export) Canada Sugar India, Brazil, Cuba Sugar (Export) Cuba

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9. India. 41. 30. 26. Uzbekistan in that order. 34. 28. 38. Korea. Pakistan. Brazil Russia India Russia USA India Brazil India. France Indonesia. 23. 20. Philippines.A. 17. Scotland Kent Belgium 4 . 44. 4. 7. USA. India. 16. 10. China Iran. 3. 15. Japan. 45. Oil Palm Oil Palm (import) Cotton Cotton (export) Mangoes Manila Hemp (Abaca) Raw Silk Tobacco Oranges Oats Millets Rye Sorghum Pulses Sugarcane Tea Dates Olives Wine (Exporter) Wine (Producer) Coconut Grapes Potato Soyabeens Geography Notes Malaysia. 32. Egypt Spain *Algeria* Italy. 33. China. Brazil Sobriquets 1. 24. 31.Ghanshyam Thori 22. 29. France China U. Island of Cloves Land of Lilies Land of Golden Fleece Port of Five Seas Island of Pearls Hermit Kingdom Land of Golden Pagoda City of Canals Holy Land Herring Pond City of Golden Gate City of dreaming Spires Land of Canals Empire city Land of Cakes Land of Eskimos Island of Pearls Granite City Garden of England Cockpit of Europe Zanzibar Canada Australia Moscow Bahrain Korea Yangoon (Myanmar) Venice Palestine Atlantic Sand Francisco Oxford Netherlands New York Scotland Greenland Bahrain Aberdeen. 13. 8. 27. Indonesia India China. 35.S. 14. 43. 39. 2. India USA. USA India Philippines (75%) China. USA. 25. 18. 6. 42. 12. 37. 19. 5. Italy. 11. 40. 36.

22. 5. Ob. 10. Yucatan Peninsula Mexico Ozark Plateau heavily forested upland region. Gora Naradnaya Alps Mt. Denmark. 9. Highest Peaks In Various Regions/ Mountain Chain Africa Mt. 13. 12. 2. Everest Oceania Mt. between the Missouri and Arkansas rivers Sinai Peninsula In north eastern Egypt. 3. 17. Carstensz South America Mt. Vinson Asia Mt. Mitchell South West Asia (Elbruz Chain) Mt. Greenland.Ghanshyam Thori 21. 11. 5. 7. Dogger bank Shallow fishing area in north sea. Yenisey & Lena Major rivers of Russia Sarawak. 9. 27. 4. 100km off UK Grand bank Shallow fishing area off new foundland. Labuan These three states make up east Malaysia. 10. Canada Georges bank Near bay of fundy & Gulf of Maine Nordic Countries Norway. 3. 14. 8. arid region covering Argentina Paraguay & Bolivia. 4. 26. 8. City of brotherly Love City of Magnificent Distances Gateway of tears Textile Capital of Russia Manchester of Japan Emerald City The pearl of the Antilles Philadelphia Washington DC Bab-el-Mandab Ivanovo Osaka (Textile) Ireland Cuba Geography Notes 1. Kra Peninsula Malaysia Parana region Brazil –Largest producer of wheat. 2. Sabah. Kosciusko Urals Mt. Elbrus Antarctica Mt. 13. 14. Kilimanjaro North America Mt. flat. 25. 6. Elbert Appalachians Mt. Iceland. Mont Blanc Andes Mt. 7. corn cotton Matto grosso Thick jungle in west central brazil north of Bolivia. 15. Aconcagua Rockies Mt. Important Places/Regions & Their Locations Llanos Tropical Grasslands of Venezuela Campos Tropical grasslands of Brazil Iberian Peninsula Spain Katanga basin Democratic republic of Congo Canterbury Plain Largest lowland area of New Zealand Chaco / Gran Chaco Low. 12. 18. 11. 24. 6. 16. McKinley Europe Mt. 5 . Aconcagua Australia Mt. Demavand 1. 23.

Malaysia New Guinea Kalahari – Namibia. 8. 12. 13. 1. E. 4. 17.pastoral Occupy the Tien Shan & adjacent Pamirs Cowboys of the pampas of Argentina & Uruguay. Amazon basin-sub group of red Indians. Gabon. People of mixed white & Indian parentage West Siberian tribe Congo basin – Zaire.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes S. 2. 6. 3. Miscellaneous Data of Various Nations Country/ Urban Hydro Nuclear Thermal Region % Elect % % % Canada 75 60 USA 10 Britain 24 Italy 50 Norway 90 New Zealand 75 Switzerland 74 Japan 76 32 France 77 Lithuania 78 Germany 30 Australia 80 90 S. Canada & Siberia West Siberia Borneo Dutch race in S. Asia 20 Russia 60 Tribes of the World Forest % 25 1. Congo. 11. 14. 9. 11. 14. 10. 8. 12. 4. 19. 9. Africa 6 . 15. Finland – Also known as Laplanders Siberia Far Eastern Siberia Tundra region of Russia Aleutian Islands Siberia Greenland. 23. Botswana. 7. 10. 2. Uganda Central Asia. 6. Sweden. 13. 7. 18. 22. 20. Angola Nomadic Arabs in Africa & Middle-East East Africa – Kenya. Muslim by faith Norway. Kalmuks Kirghiz Gauchos Mestizos Ostyaks Pygmies Boro Semang Papuans Bushmen or San Bedouins Masai Kirghiz Saami or Lapps Yuti Chukchi Yakuts Aleut Yuit Inuit Samoyed Punan Afrikaner/Boer Inhabit the Altai mountains & nearby areas . 3. 21. 5. 16. 5.

Senegal. Inhabitants of Sumatra Cattle herders of Nigeria. America – People of mixed European & Indian blood Mixed European & black blood in South America Mixed tribe of Arabs & Berber people of Morocco Jews & Ethiopians Turkic people of eastern Europe & central Asia People of African & Native American Indian in S. 32. Algeria & Tunisia New Zealand Western Australia Russia around black & Caspian Sea Inhabitants of Hungary Croatia Belgium European Tundra N-W Africa – Dark skinned muslims Tropical Africa S. Pakistan People of mixed Indian & European blood in Latin America N. 5.9 4. 46. 33. Country China Peru USA Japan Indonesia WORLD Prod in Million tons 16.no 1. 27. Guinea or Chad Largest ethnic minority in Siberia inhabiting buryat republic. 42. 28. 3. 35.Ghanshyam Thori 24. 29.7 4. 54. 43. 43. 40. 30. 41. 44.2 92. 39. 37. 48. 36. 26. 2. 34. 55. 6. 51.4 7 . Afridis Veddas Bantus Berbers Maori Bindibu Cossacks Magyar Croats Flemish Finns Hamites Hottentots/khoi khoi Kaffris Kikuyu Masuds Mestizos Amerinds Mulatto Moors Semites Tartar Zambas Zulus Akka Oromo or Galla Uygur Kubu Fulani/Fula Buryat Aeta Ainu Yanomamo Geography Notes N. 2001 S. West Pakistan Racial stock of Sri Lanka Central & southern Africa – Swahili is Bantu derived language. 31. 50. Africa – known as martial race Kenya’s most populous ethnic group Waziristan region. Morocco. 53. 47. Mongoloid racial stock found in Philippines (indigenous) Caucasoids of Japan. 4. 45. America People of Bantu family inhabiting South Africa Democratic republic of Congo African people of hamitic origin in Ethiopia & Kenya Turkic people inhabiting N-W china & Kazakhstan. 49. Indigenous people of Brazil & Venezuela Largest Producers of Fish in the World. 38. 52.5 8 4. 25.

4.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Worst deforestation rate of primary forests.134. 4. Brazil Indonesia Russian Federation Mexico Papua New Guinea . 3.2 14. 2000-2005 in hectares 1.395. 5.3.790. 5.698. 3.089.000 .290. Magnetite (Fe304).000 Highest total forest cover as a percentage of total land cover. 4. 5.000 United States of America 303.9 Highest average annual deforestation of primary forests.7 French Guiana 91.9 12. 2. Total forest cover in hectares . 4.6 American Samoa 89. 6. Pentlandite Pyrolusite. 2.200 1.4 Seychelles 88. 4. Iron Nickel Manganese Antimony Titanium Chromium Uranium .000 . 3.200 .7 54.250.532.1. 2. 1. 2.2005 Russian Federation 808.447.4 15. 3.5 29.8 Micronesia (Federated States of) 90. 7.9 Minerals & Their Ores Haematite (Fe2O3). 6. limonite & Siderite Millerite.N Country Deforestation Rate % 1.800 . 2000-2005 S.000 China 197. Braunite. 2.000 Canada 310.466. 5. 3. Nigeria Vietnam Cambodia Sri Lanka Malawi Indonesia 55. 5.000 Brazil 477. Psilomelane Stibnite Rutile Chromite Pitchblende (UO2) 8 1. 2005 Suriname 94.

8. 13. 24.Ghanshyam Thori 8. 25. 15. 4. lead. zinc & copper (Australia) Broken Hill Silver. 19. 9. 9. 11.largest in US) El Chino copper (New Mexico) Katanga copper. 2. 17. 14. uranium. 22. 7. 18. 15. 23.MgCl2. gold. 11. 3. Carnallite (KCl. 5. 16. Cobaltite Spodumene Magnesite. Major Discontinuities within the earth Conrad Discontinuity Between outer & inner crust Mohorovicic Discontinuity Between crust & mantle Repetti Discontinuity Between outer & inner mantle Weichart-Gutenberg Discontinuity Between mantle & core Lehmann Discontinuity Between outer & inner core. Ilemnite Calamine. 12. Kieserite. cobalt. Sphalerite Cinnabar Beryl. 10. silver (DMC) Mount Isa Silver. 3. 12. 16. Monazite. K. Africa) Kalgoorlie Gold (Australia) Fushun Manchuria (Coal) Donetz Coal (Ukraine) Kuznetsk Coal (Russia) Karaganda Coal (Kazakhstan) Mesabi range Iron ore (Northern Minnesota) Pittsburg iron & steel capital of the world (Pennsylvania) Port Louis Sugar industry (Mauritius) Anshan iron & Steel (China) Lille Textiles (France) Yallourn Coal (Australia) 9 . Carnallite.) Ungava & Belle Island Iron Ore (Canada) Carajas Iron Ore (Brazil) Yampi Sound Iron Ore (Australia) Paraburdoo Iron Ore (Australia) Bilbao Iron Ore (Spain) Nikopol Largest manganese mines of world (Ukraine) Chuquicamata copper (Chile) Morenci Copper (Arizona . 20. 17. Important Mining Centers Of The World Cleveland Iron Ore (U. 5. 13. cadmium. 6. 10. Lead Thorium Zinc Mercury Beryllium Cobalt Lithium Magnesium Potassium Silver Sodium Tin Galena Thorianite. 2. 21. Lead & Zinc Witwatersrand Gold (S. 19.6H2O) Argentite Chile Saltpeter (NaNO3) Cassiterite Geography Notes 1. Dolomite. 1. chrysoberyl Smalitite. 18. tin. 14. Allanite. 4.

37. 39. 12. 46. 15. 18. 10. 40. Canada Bolivia Chile (Copper) Important Isopleths Equal magnetic declination Equal amount of sunlight. 11. Thunderstorm at the same time Same mean winter temperature Same mean summer temperature Isopleth of Anomaly Equal travel time from a common center. 32.Now almost exhausted) Iron Ore (Brazil) Tin (Nigeria) Lead-Zinc Ores (USA) Copper (United States largest mine) Important mining town of Mexico – Iron. Lead. silver. 45. 41. 9. 7. 42. 44. 4. 28. Ipoh Tula Chiatura Chilean desert Pilbara Bomi Hill Niger Montana Kra Peninsula Iron Knob Minas Gerais Jos Plateau Ozark Bingham Chihuahua Rum Jungle Krivoi Rog Sudbury Kinta Valley Weipa Gippsland Flin Flon Catavi Braden Geography Notes Tin (Kinta Valley. Malaysia) Iron ore (near Moscow) Manganese (Georgia) Caliche (Chile Saltpeter-NaNO3) Iron ore (Australia) Liberia (Iron Ore Uranium accounts for 75 per cent mineral export Copper ( USA) Tin (Narrowest point of Malaysia) Iron ore (Australia. 8.Ghanshyam Thori 26. 48. 31. 19. 13. 16. 2. Uranium (Australia) Iron Ore (Ukraine) Nickel (Canada) Tin (Malaysia) Bauxite (Australia) Lignite(Australia) Mining centre in Manitoba. 43. 3. 36. 34. 6. copper. 47. 35. 30. 38. 5. Or Contour lines Amount of Snow Isopleths of seasonal phenomena Surface to which artesian water can rise Equal frost A line representing continuous value on map Equal cloudiness Simultaneous seismic activity Or contours Equal thickness of geological strata Same wind speed Equal ratio of summer rainfall to annual rainfall 1. 33. Isogones Isohel Isobront Isocheim Isothere Isanomal Isochrones Isohypse Isonif Isophene Isopotential Isorymes Isarithm Isonephs Co-seismal lines Isohypse Isopach Isotach Isotherombrose 10 . 29. 17. 14. 49. 27.

23. 23. 21. Isochasm Isodynamic Isogen Isokeraunic Equal frequency of aurorae Equal magnetic intensity Equal birthrates Equal occurrence of thunderstorms Geography Notes 1. 29. 11. Places & Their Importance Yorkshire woollen textile Lancashire cotton textile Glasgow ship building Sheffield Cutlery & steel works Lorraine Iron ore (France) Lyon Silk Industry (France) Silesia Coal (Poland) – high grade Lodz Manchester of Poland Hamburg Ship Building (Germany) Stuttgart Automobile (Germany) Munich Instruments (Germany) Karl Marx Stadt Textile (Germany) Sambre-Meuse Coal (Belgium) Marseilles Oil Refinery Baku Capital city of Azerbaijan & chief refining center. 12. 3. 20. 17. 33. Belfast Ship building (Ireland) Types of Delta 11 . 7. 13. 2. 37. 4. 10. 6. 21. 14. 27. 32. Photo & Graphic instruments (Germany) Dusseldorf Iron & Steel (Germany) Essen Iron & Steel (Germany) Essex Engineering works (England) Kharkov Machine building & Engineering (Ukraine) Kiev Engineering (Ukraine) Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel (Russia) Nagoya Cotton & Ship building (Japan) Nizhny Tagil Iron & Steel (Russia) Venice Glass Industry Vienna Glass Industry Philadelphia Locomotives (USA) Plymouth Shipbuilding (USA) Yenang Yang Oil Drilling (Myanmar) Gorky / Nizhny Novogorod Engineering Industry. 34. 30. 22. Chicago Biggest railway junction Detroit Automobile Seattle Aircraft Cadiz Cork (Spain) Changchun Automobile & machine tools (China) Chelyabinsk Iron & Steel (Russia) Dresden Optical. 36. 25. 35. 16. 24. 18. 15. 22. 19. 8. 28. 31. 9. 5.Ghanshyam Thori 20. 26.

3. Tapti. 11. Seine. 6. 16. 15. Ob. Mars . Ebro of Spain. Mackenzie. 3. 13. Phobos 12 1. 10. 4. 4. Lawrence Type Prairie Type Altai Type Tibet Type Tundra Type Ice Cap Type S. 6. Rhine. Indus. Ganga.Ghanshyam Thori 1. 10. 5. 12. 11. Hwang Ho. 1. Major Natural Regions Equatorial Lowland Equatorial Highland Equatorial High Plateaus Tropical Eastern Margin Tropical Interiors Tropical Western Deserts Warm Temperate/Subtropical Western Margins Warm Temperate/Subtropical Eastern Margin Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Lowland Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Plateau Cool Temperate Western Margin Cool Temperate Eastern Margin Cool Temperate Interior Lowland Cool Temperate Interior Highland Cool Temperate High Plateau Polar Lowland Polar Highland Amazon Type Malay Type Ecuador Type Monsoon Type Sudan Type Sahara Type Mediterranean Type China Type Turan Type Iran Type European Type St. Rhine Tiber in Italy. 1. 3. 2. 9. Volga. 8. Mississippi Elb. 5. 16. 9. Desert Sahara Gobi Patagonian Rub‘ Al Khali Great Sandy Great Victoria Chihuahuan Takla Makan Sonoran Kalahari Kyzyl Kum Thar Simpson Mohave Nafud Desert Dasht-I-Kavir Major Deserts Location Northern Africa Mongolia/Northeastern China Argentina Southern Arabian Peninsula Northwestern Australia Southwestern Australia Mexico/Southwestern United States Northern China Mexico/Southwestern United States Southwestern Africa Uzbekistan India/Pakistan Australia Southwestern United States Arabian Peninsula Iran Planets & satellites Deimos. 2. 15. 14. Arcuate Delta Digitate or Bird-Foot Delta Estuarine Delta Cuspate or Tooth-Shaped Delta Geography Notes Nile. Amazon. Danube. 2. 8. 7. Mekong. Narmada. 17. 7. Hudson. Rhone. 12. 14. 13. 4.

5.4 % 18. Chamberlain & F. Russel Ross Gun A. Gaseous Hypothesis Nebular Hypothesis Planetesimal Hypothesis Tidal Hypothesis Meteoric Hypothesis Binary Star Hypothesis Fission Hypothesis Cepheid Hypothesis Supernova Hypothesis Interstellar Dust Hypothesis Nebular Cloud Hypothesis Protoplanet Hypothesis Hypothesis of the origin of Earth Kant Laplace T. Dione Oberon. 3. Philippine trench. 2. 9. Norfolk Canyon 4. 3. San Francisco Canyon 6. Tethys. 8. Basins of the Oceans South Antilles basin. South sandwich trench. 7. R.Ghanshyam Thori 2. Mariana Trench (near Micronesia) Puerto Rico trench. 4. 12. 3. Umbriel. 8. Indus Canyon 2.N. Hudson Canyon 2. Mississippi Canyon 7. Titania. 2. 6. Ariel Triton Charon Geography Notes 1. 4. 4. Hoyle Otto Schmidt Von Weizsacker Gerald Kuiper Percentage Area of various bodies 1. 10. 3. 8. 4. 6. 5. 3. Pacific Ocean Tokyo Canyon Bering Canyon Columbia Canyon Juan De Fucca Canyon Monterey Canyon Arguello Canyon Scripps Canyon Coronados Canyon 1. 5. Wilmington Canyon 3. 2. Banerji F. Io Titan. Oceanographer Canyon 1. Agulhas basin 13 1. 11.C. Europa. Cape basin. Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Major Trenches in the Ocean Aleutian trench. Iapetus. Callisto. 5. 6. Moulten James Jeans & Harold Jeffreys Lockyer H. 8. Atlantic Ocean .C. Peru-Chile trench. 2. Romanche trench Java trench Submarine Canyons in various oceans Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean 1. 7. 7. Ganges Canyon 3.4 % 14. Rhea. 6. Tonga trench. Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Ganymede. 4. Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Land 35. Congo Canyon 5.5 % 29.2 % 1.

mean ann. Galapagos rise 2. Reykjanes ridge (Iceland) 3. temp < 18 C (B only) k Third Letter Hot summers in which the warmest month has a mean temperature of above 22 C. Banda basin Caroline. 4. Carlsberg ridge 2. Catham rise 1. Gorda ridge ( N-E P) 7. a b c d . Austral Marshall Gilbert 9. Nazca ridge 3. Dolphin rise 9. Walvis ridge 2. Cocos ridge 12. South Tasman rise 4. Used in C & D climates Cool short summers with fewer than four months having a mean temperature above 10 C. Types of Climate Under Koppen’s Scheme 14 1. Wyville Thomson ridge 8. Used in D climate only. New Hebrides. Solomon.Ghanshyam Thori 2. Used in C & D climates Very cold winters in which the mean temperature of the coldest month is below -38 C. Guatemala basin Geography Notes Major Ridges & Rises in various Oceans Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean 1. Louisville ridge 5. Chagos-St Paul ridge 4. Used in C & D climate Warm summers in which the warmest month has a mean temperature of below 22 C. Challenger rise 10. Carneige ridge 11. mean ann. Rio Grande rise 1. Para rise 6. Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Mascarenes. Laccadive-Chagos ridge 3. 3. Kerguelen-Gausberg ridge 5. Sierra Leone rise 4. A B C D E H Koppen’s Classification Tropical Climate Steppe Climate S Dry Climate W Desert Climate Mild Humid (Mesothermal) Climate Tundra climate T Snowy forest (Microthermal) climate Ice Cap climate F Polar Climate Precipitation in all months f Undifferentiated highland climate m Monsoon type Dry season in winter w Dry season in summer s Dry hot. Temp >18 C (B only) h Dry cold. Norfolk Island ridge 13. 3. 2. New foundland rise 7. Caroline-Solomon ridge • Lomonsov ridge & Gakkel ridge is in arctic ocean. Explorer ridge 8. Sulu. Celebes. Juan de fuca ridge (N-E P) 6.

Similarly Thermal efficiency or temperature effectiveness can be computed using T/E ratio = (t – 32)/4 Where t is the mean monthly temperature in degree F.g.3 E Arid -100 to -66.5 E’ Frost < 14.7 Thermal zone based on thermal efficiency A’ Megathermal >114 B1’ – B4’ Mesothermal 57 to 114 C2’ Microthermal 42.2 to 28. A B C D E Humidity zones based on P/E index Wet 127 Humid 64-127 Sub humid 32-63 Semi arid 16-31 arid <16 A’ B’ C’ D’ E’ F’ Humidity Zones based on T/E index Tropical 127 Mesothermal 64-127 Microthermal 32-63 Taiga 16-31 Tundra 1-15 Frost 0 r s w d Third letter Rainfall adequate in all season Rainfall deficient in summer Rainfall deficient in winter Rainfall deficient in all season E. AB’r – mesothermal wet climate with adequate rainfall in all seasons.0<Warmest month< 10 C Mild humid climate with no dry season EF Perpetual frost.5 (r/T – 10) ^9/10 where r is mean monthly rainfall in inches & t is mean monthly temperature in degree F. Humidity zones based on moisture index A Perhumid >100 cm B1 – B4 Humid 20 to100 cm C2 Moist Subhumid 0 to 20 cm C1 Dry subhumid -33.7 to 57 C1’ Microthermal 28. P/E index = 11.5 to 42. Less than 0 C throughout Mild humid with a dry winter Thornthwaite Scheme 1931 Thornthwaite identified 5 humidity zones on the basis of P/E (precipitation effectiveness or efficiency) index.7 D’ Tundra 14. Thermal efficiency index is simply the potential evapotranspiration expressed in centimeters.Ghanshyam Thori Af Am Aw BS BW Cf Cw Geography Notes Tropical Rainforest Cs Mild humid climate with dry summer Tropical monsoon Df Snowy forest climate with on dry season Tropical savanna Dw Snowy forest climate with dry winter Steppe climate Ds Snowy forest climate with dry summer Desert climate ET Tundra climate.2 15 .3 to 0 cm D Semi arid -67 to -33.60D)/PE Where S represents monthly surplus of moisture & D represents monthly deficit of moisture. Thornthwaite 1948 Classification Moisture index (Im) = (100S.

Appalachians. Andes. Spanish Messeta. 8. Nilgiris.g.6 Nickel 2.1 Magnesium 2. Scottish highlands.g.4 Sodium 2. North west highlands Formed during Silurian & Devonian period. Appalachians. Mendips. Alpine Mountains 1. Vosges. Caucasus. 4. 4. alps. bohemian massif and the Sierra Nevada in the south-western USA. E. Western Ghats. 3.7 Oxygen 30 Aluminium 8 Silicon 15 Iron 5 Magnesium 13 Calcium 3. Brittany of France. E. Henry mountain. Verkhoyansk mountains Mountain Types Ruwenzori Mountain range in Central Africa.g.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 1. Vosges. Balkans. Rockies. 2. 2.1 Mountains & Geological Periods Feno-Scandian mountains. Andes. E. Pre-Cambrian Mountains Caledonian Mountains Hercynian Mountains 4. Block Mountain Fold Mountains Relict Mountains Dome Mountain Waterfall Angel Falls Yosemite Falls Mardalsfossen-South Thukela (Tugela) Falls Cuquenan Sutherland Highest Waterfalls of the World Location Venezuela United States Norway South Africa Venezuela New Zealand 16 Total drop (m) 979 739 655 614 610 580 . Aravallis Formed during Permian period.6 Iron 35 Silicon 27.8 Sulphur 1. Himalayas. Pyrenees. Himalayas . Black forest. Sierra Nevada. 6. mountains of Iberian peninsula. Alps. Aravalli. USA 1. 5. Black forest. Carpathians. 7. Composition of the Earth Earths Crust Whole Earth Oxygen 46.6 Calcium 1. Satpuras. Zagros & Elburz (Iran).1 Aluminium 1. Harz (Germany). 2. 3. Formed during tertiary period.9 Potassium 2. Aravalli. Rajmahal. Rockies. 3.

6. 5. Zambia (S).0314 Neon . 8.00011 Hydrogen . 10.Ghanshyam Thori Worlds Largest Lakes Asia North America Africa North America North America Burundi (N).934 Carbon Dioxide . 5. 3. 6. 9. 6. 4.00005 Xenon . 10. 2. 7.084 Oxygen 20. 9. 3. 2.0000087 Heterosphere Molecular Nitrogen layer Atomic Oxygen layer Helium layer Hydrogen layer 1. 8. 3. 4.0002 Krypton . Tanzania Russia (N-W) Russia (N-W) Kenya Just South of Lake Eyre in S. 3. 7. 2. 4. Caspian Sea.0018 Helium . 90-120 km 200-1100 km 11000-3500 km 3500-10000 km 5. 10. Lake Balkash Lake Titicaca Lake Nyasa Lake Ladoga Lake Onega Lake Rudolf Lake Torrens Lake Vanern Lake Urmia Lake Mobutu Other Important Lakes Kazakhstan Bolivia-Peru Malawi. Australia Sweden Iran Uganda Principal Gases in the atmosphere Nitrogen 78. 4. 6. Albedo of Some Surfaces Fresh Snow Cover 80 % Clouds 70-80% Sand 20-30 % 17 . Mozambique. DMC (W) North America Asia Asia North America Geography Notes 1. 5. 8. Lake Superior Lake Victoria Lake Huron Lake Michigan Lake Tanganyika Great Bear Lake Lake Baikal Aral Sea Great Slave Lake 1. 7. 1. 7.947 Argon . 9.0005 Methane . 2.

5. 4. Mistral Bora Blizzard Purga Bise Levanter Pampero Papagayo Haboob Friagem Buran Norther Etesian Surazo Norte Tehuantepecer Important Local Winds of the World Cold Winds Blows in Spain & France from N-W to S-E. This is a violent. 11. 9. Much like Buran. 17. 6. Channelises one image to one eye. Snow laden wind in Snow laden wind in Russian tundra. 11. Geography Notes 1. 10. Sudan Amazon Valley Eastern Russia & central Siberia Texas. 13. 12. Eidograph Enlargement & Reduction of maps Alidade A sighting device or pointer for angular measurement used in plane table survey. America Costa Rica. 16. Nicaragua. 8. 3. 2. 16. A strong cold northeasterly wind which blows in Mexico. Pampas of S. 7. Gulf of Mexico & western carribean Eastern Mediterranean. 3. 15. Mexico. 12. 14.Ghanshyam Thori 8. Abney level Measuring angles in a vertical plane Clinometer Angles in vertical plane Dumpy level Measure angles both in horizontal & vertical plane Theodolite Measure angles both in horizontal & vertical plane Spectroradiometer Measures spectral reflectance at different wavelengths. Stereoscope View photos in 3D view. Opisometer/ Meilograph Measuring length of curved lines on a map. 13. Cold wind blowing from Argentinean pampas & Patagonia. 9. Aneroid Barometer Used for measuring altitude as pressure decreases with height Sextant Used to measure angle of objects located on the field 1. 14. 13. 10. 11. 15. squally wind from north or north-east in S. An extremely cold wind in France Blows in strait of Gibraltar between Spain & Morocco. 2. Common during winter Blows along the shores of the Adriatic sea. 8. 9. 4. 12. Grass 15-30 % Dry Ground 15-20% Wet Ground 10 % Forest 5-10% Water (Solar Elevation > 60) 3-5% Water (Solar Elevation 25-30 % Various Measuring Instruments Lysimeter Evapo-Transpiration Anemometer Wind Psychrometer Humidity Planimeter Area on Maps Pantograph Enlargement & Reduction of Maps Parallax Bar Measuring elevations from topographical maps. 10. 5. 6. Hot winds 18 . Mexico. 7.

deeply weathered soil of tropical & Very High Oxisols Spodosols Low Good Ultisols Poor. 18. Affected by salinization. 3. Known as khamsin in Egypt. 8. sand-dunes etc) Fertility High Typical Location Parts of Canada. having a medium to high base saturation & have a subsoil accumulation of clay. Gibli in Libya. These are acidic. Soil Classification Soil Name Alfisol Common Characteristics Moderately weathered. 10. 19. Pampas & Steppes Amazon basin & Congo basin Coniferous areas in cool climate. 19 . 5. Local name of fohn that blows in Hungary & Poland over Tatra mountains. flood plains & deltas Mountain & other geologically young formation Swamps & bogs Great American plains. California – blowing out of Santa Ana canyon A warm & dry wind in Japan A warm & dry wind of the Andean valleys in Argentina A warm wind of central Europe. acidic. 16. 17. swamps & wetlands Dark coloured with upper horizons rich in organic matter. Soil Type with little or no horizon development. Most develop under forest Desert soils with little or no organic content but significant calcium. 11. 15. Warm & dry local winds blowing on leeward side of Rockies in USA Blowing from east & northeast towards west in Sahara Victoria province of Australia Great plains of USA Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf New Zealand From Sahara over Mediterranean. A hot dry wind blowing from interior in South Africa. 9. 14. A hot wind of Iraq and the Persian gulf Dry blows from the lee side of the mountains in Romania (much like fohn). 2. deeply weathered soils with contain clays of iron & aluminium oxide Sandy soils which develop under forests particularly in coniferous areas. Geographically associated with aridisols Infertile. Fohn Chinook Harmattan Brickfielder Black Roller Shamal Norwester Sirocco Simoom Santa Ana Yamo Zonda Tramontane Samun Karaburan Berg Shamal Austru Almwind Geography Notes Warm & dry local winds blowing on leeward side of Alps in Switzerland. Used for cultivation of sugarcane & coffee Histosols Mollisols Organic soils found in bogs. Chili in Tunisia. Temperate Aridisols Entisols Low Low to Moderate Moderate to low Inceptisols More significant horizon development than entisols but less than others. U. 13. Levech in Spain & Leste in Madiera & Morocco.S & Europe Deserts River valleys. Warm & dry dusty wind in the Arabian desert S. Mongolia. 12.Ghanshyam Thori 1. Warm wind in Iran Hot dusty wind in central Asia – Tarim basin. They are acidic & have accumulation of organic matter & iron & aluminium oxides. Found in young formations (lava. 6. 4. 7.

3. Malaya Upper Volta Burkina Faso 35. French Guinea Northern Rhodesia Zambia 46. Constantinople Dahomey Benin 27. Petersburg 29. 11. Basutoland Bechuanaland Botswana 25. 26. 4. 8. 9. 13. 14. 21. 17. 22. 6. French West Africa New Hebrides Vanuatu 49.Ghanshyam Thori subtropical areas with clay accumulation in the B horizon. 23. Manchukuo Gold Coast Ghana 36. Congo Persia Iran 30. Bohemia Euxine Black Sea 43. Cities Located on Rivers Country City Egypt Lahore Netherlands Lisbon Belgium Liverpool Turkey London Iraq Montreal 20 New Name Ankara Lesotho Djakarta Istanbul Cape Kennedy Oslo Zaire Istanbul Indonesia Surinam Nippon Malaysia Manchuria Iraq Malawi Yongon Zimbabwe Harare Saint Helena Czech Republic Turkey Tuvalu Guinea Guinea Bissau Guyana Mali Mauritania Surinam City Alexandria Amsterdam Antwerp Ankara Baghdad River Nile Amsel Scheldt Kizil Tigris River Ravi Tagus Mersey Thames Ottawa Country Pakistan Portugal England England Canada . 19. Dutch East Indies Batavia Jakarta 32. Rhodesia Paulus Meotus Volga 40. West French Africa Manchukuo Manchuria 50. Portuguese Guinea Southern Rhodesia Zimbabwe 47. 2. 25. Batavia British Honduras Belize 26. 27. Mesopotamia Stalingrad Volgograd 37. British Guinea Leopoldville Kinshasa 48. Rangoon Ister Danube 39. 28. 29. 20. 5. Ascension Albion England 42. Dutch Guiana South-West Africa Namibia 33. 18. Salisbury Raha Blue Nile 41. Cilicia Mare Internum Mediterranean Sea 44. Soil where permafrost lies within 2 m of the surface Contain ash & volcanic glass require fertilizers Good Poor Poor Geography Notes humid & tropical regions. 7. Dutch Guyana Sea of Herkend Indian Ocean 51. Seasonally dry Periglacial areas Near volcanoes Vertisols Gelisols Andisols S 1. Ellice Islands Taprobana Sri Lanka 45. Christina Leningrad St. Japan Tanganyika/Zanzibar Tanzania 34. 15. Changed Geographical Names Old Name New Name Old Name Abyssinia Ethiopia 29. Nyasaland Azrak Azov 38. Angora Aden Yemen 24. Constantinople Mesopotamia Iraq 31. 16. Cape Canaveral Formosa Taiwan 28. 24. 12. Not as intensely weathered as oxisols Clay soils which expand when wet & crack when dry. 10.

Ghanshyam Thori Bangkok Belgrade Berlin Bonn Bristol Budapest Cairo Canton Chittagong Chungking Cologne Glasgow Hull Hamburg Karachi Khartoum Menam Danube Spree Rhine Avon Danube Nile Canton Karnaphuli Yang-tse-kiang Rhine Clyde Humber Elbe Indus Nile Thailand Yugoslavia Germany Germany England Hungary Egypt China Bangladesh China Germany Scotland England Germany Pakistan Sudan Moscow Nanking New Orleans New York Paris Philadelphia Quebec Rangoon Rome Shanghai Tokyo Vienna Warsaw Washington Moskva Yang-tse-kiang Mississippi Hudson Seine Delaware St. Lawrence Irawadi Tiber Yangtze-kiang Sumida Danube Vistula Potomac Geography Notes Russia China USA USA France USA Canada Burma Italy China Japan Austria Poland USA 21 .

U.. 29. Benelux countries include Belgium. 23. 26. France is the second largest nuclear energy producer after USA 3.K. Netherlands & Luxembourg. 20. World Average of Urbanization is 43%. and the mallee of Australia. 2. through 22 . Netherlands is the most densely populated country of western Europe. 4. Santos is the major coffee port of Brazil accounting for 3/4th of the export handling. Atlanta is the busiest airport in the world. 18. India is a net importer of copper. Netherlands & Spain – 90% Urbanization 6. the caatinga of northeastern Brazil. Shifting cultivation is known as Ladang in Malaysia. Entancias in South America. Belgium. macques in Mediterranean region. 21. 19. Milpa in Africa & Central America & Taungya in Myanmar. Mocha coffee is from Yemen. quaternary sector – white collar.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes MISCELLANEOUS FACTS—I 1. 28. Caingin in Philippines. Primary sector – red collar. 30. Latifundia – Europe. Israel is the most urbanized country in the world with >90% urban population. Ranches – USA. 7. Orinoco river of Venezuela rises in the Guiana highlands & passes through llanos. followed by Chicago airport. Republic of Congo is the largest producer of industrial diamonds. Nearly three-fourths of the electric requirement needs of south American countries are met hydroelectricity. Haciendas – Latin America. which is dominated by low-growing eucalyptus. Nigeria has the highest rate of deforestation in the world & brazil looses the maximum forest area. Chena in Srilanka. Shrublands – chaparral in California. quinary services – gold collar. tertiary sector – pink collar. 5. Humah in Indonesia. secondary sector – blue collar. 24. 27. Iceland. 25. Stations – Australia. Portugal is one of the least urbanized European countries – only 30 %. 22. The only area in the world where zinc is mined without lead is the Franklin Furnace area in New Jersey State of USA.

The linear distance of a degree of latitude on an average is 69 miles. 36. and valleys. 33. Scottish highlands) & Hercynian movement (Harz mountain range in central Germany) took place during Devonian period & Permian period respectively. The period of revolution of planets increases outwards without any exception. or central plateau. South of the Great European Plain. 39.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 31.g. creating the most intricate landscapes of the continent—the Central European Uplands. Cirrocumulus clouds form ‘mackerel clouds’ & cirrostratus clouds produce ‘haloes’. Venus is also the hottest planet in the solar system perhaps due to its slow rotation causing longer exposure of a particular area to sun. Uranus is slightly bigger than Neptune. and uplift (the Meseta Central. Annual range of temperature is the difference between the mean monthly temperatures of the warmest & the coldest months. Slope of the warm front is much gentler (1:100 or less) than cold front (~1:50). In the warm front precipitation is gradual but of long duration. Pleistocene epoch is best known for emergence of humans & Great Ice age. 43. or central highlands. Alto-cumulus are called sheep clouds. Mars has two satellites & Pluto has one. 38. faulting (the Vosges and Black Forest mountains). stratocumulus & nimbostratus & these are the only ones which give precipitation. Earth is the densest of all planets & Saturn has the least density. 23 . a band of dissimilar geological structures sweeps across Europe. volcanism (the Massif Central. Stratus clouds are very close to ground surface. Nimbus or rain bearing clouds. Rain falling from nimbo-stratus but not reaching ground is called virga. Vernal equinox is on March 22 & autumnal equinox on September 23. 42. Venus takes longer time to complete one rotation on its axis than one revolution around the sun. plateaus. 40. 34. of France). The temperature at which an air parcel gets saturated at its present moisture level is called dew point. The difference is not between highest & lowest temperature. Islamabad is situated on Potwar plateau. Stratiform or layered clouds. Earth is almost twice the radius of mars & roughly equal to Venus. 35. 37. Mercury & Venus do not have any satellites. In absolute humidity the denominator is dry air while in specific humidity it is moist air. Caledonian movement (e. Low clouds less than 2 km high are stratus. Cirrus or highest clouds & Alto or medium clouds. Venus is closest planet to earth. 32. In cold front precipitation is short but in the form of heavy downpour. 41. Period of rotation is the longest for the planet Venus & shortest for Jupiter. Throughout this region the forces of folding (the Jura range). The length of longitudes outside tropics varies widely. of Spain) have interacted to create alternating mountains. Cumuliform or globular clouds. cumulus.

The extra 52 minutes are caused due to revolution of the moon around the earth in the same direction i. 49. one of the least fertile soil types are found in wet & hot climate (Tropical Forests). E. west to east. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge breaks the ocean's surface in several places. The leaching action of heavy rain and water runoff removes many of the nutrients from podzols. Tristan da Cunha. B & C & R are the soil horizons from top to bottom. From the tropics to the middle latitudes there is a decline & it increases again in polar areas due to temperature decline. The width of the continental shelf on the western coast of India is broader than 46. Faroe Island is under Denmark. off the island of Guam. Great Salt lake in Utah has a salinity of 220 %. these islands include Iceland. Saint Helena. linking the Persian Gulf on the west. Bab el Mandeb connecting the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden. the second largest. Lake Sevan (Armenia) 51. forming seven islands or groups of islands. with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea on the east. 47. From north to south. 52.Ghanshyam Thori the eastern coast as the former is coastline of submergence & latter is emergence. Emden Deep off Philippines. Two successive high tides are about 12 hours & 26 minutes apart & the time difference between the high tide & the following low tide is about 6 hrs 13 minutes. 48. Strait of Hormuz. Mariana trench. Geography Notes 44.small volcanic islands in far eastern Russia. Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rocks. Salinity is equatorial areas is lower than in the tropical areas. separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean. and Bouvet. Soils in cooler continental climates (coniferous forests) are known as Podzols. Lake Asad (Syria). Lake Biwa (Japan). Flat-topped seamounts are called guyots (pronounced “gee-o”). Gleization is the pedogenic regime of warm water-logged areas. Dead Sea has 240 %. Rich. Lateritic soils. The tidal magnitude at a given meridian will be more in the low latitudes & lesser in the higher latitudes due to the greater centrifugal force on the equator. & Lake Van in Asia Minor has 330 %. Glei soils are rich in organic material & 24 . Kuril Island . 55. water density tends to rise in the tropics. after Luzon and southernmost of the country's islands) are prominent in Pacific. The removal of soil minerals & colloids from the upper horizons is called Eluviation & deposition in lower horizons is Illuviaton. 50. 53. From the equatorial region. In 24 hours & 52 minutes every place will have two high tides & two low tides. Orkney Islands lie north of Scotland. A. They lack the leached E horizon. One fathom = 1. a soil type that is not very fertile but rich in humus due to cold climate. & kuril trench in which lies the famous Tuscarora Deep & Mindanao deep (Mindanao.84 meters. It’s lowest in polar areas. dark soils called Chernozems. Lake Laguna De Bay (Philippines). 54. O. the Azores.e. Lake Tiberias (Israel & Syria). Ascension. island of the Philippines. 45.

of roughly circular cross-section. mainly as a result of alternate freezing and thawing is called nivation. Basaltic magma is fluid & granitic is viscous. 27. term applied to cultivation of plants in nutrient solutions without use of soil. Argillaceous rock (having clayey features) – Shale. 65. 61. alluvial fans lead away to deposit large slopes of debris. A steep-sided hill. relict mountain – Scottish highlands 64. 67. These slopes level off to form low basins called playas. 63. 58. The deposition of sediment building up a sand bridge that connects the island to the mainland. Erosion of the ground beneath and at the sides of a snowbank. Volcanic rock (extrusive igneous rock) – Andesite. The period of revolution & rotation of the moon is the same i. The horizontal displacement is called heave. The inclination of a fault from the vertical is called hade & it is complimentary to dip.g. 68. Geography Notes the soil changes to blue colour due to reduction of iron minerals. 25 . a steep natural shaft which emerges at the surface is called Ponor. The shortest route between two places on the surface of the earth is along the great circles i.3 days. An area of shifting desert sand-dunes. Sedimentary rock – Ironstone. Serengeti National Park is located in northern Tanzania. A basin-shaped depression surrounded by mountains is called bolson. Hydroponics. The sand bridge is called a tombolo. Basalt. In a karstic region. Block mountain – black forest. esp. 59. 70. Salt covered playa beds are called Salinas.Ghanshyam Thori seasonal drought. Pyramid of energy can never take an inverted form. 60. The Mediterranean type of vegetation is also called Sclerophyll forest (e. 66. Plutonic rock (intrusive igneous rock) . Orogenetic forces producing mountains are horizontal & epeirogenetic forces are vertical. From the eroded angular peaks of more resistant rocks. Chaparral). called bajadas. in the Sahara is called erg. Old fold mountain – Appalachian.e.Gabbros & dolerite. Rake angle measures the slip. 62. A broad slope of alluvial material at the foot of an escarpment is called Bajada. Arenaceous rock (having sandy features) – Sandstone. Slate results from the metamorphosis of shale or clay. Paraguay is landlocked. 57. longitude. young fold mountain – rocky. Calcimorphic soil develop in areas of 56.e. Boreal forest refers to the Taiga vegetation comprising coniferous trees. the other two (biomass & number) can. Rhyolite. 69. at the base. Asuncion is the capital of Paraguay & Montevideo is the capital of Uruguay. characteristic of karst topography is called “hum”. Elephant grass is found in Savanna & Buffalo grass is typical of Steppe grasslands.

74. The primary divisions of koppen classification are based on mean monthly temperature & mean precipitation & evaporation. 26 . 73. Because North America and Africa were connected. Pulsars are sources of powerful. the Appalachians form part of the same mountain chain as the Atlas mountains in Morocco. A traveler crossing the International Date Line from west to east gains a day & from east to west loses a day. Isoclinal Fold is one in which both limbs are approximately parallel. 80. Mesozoic & Cenozoic eras. Monocline: When folding takes place in very small magnitude or at a very small angle a monocline is formed. The Phanerozoic Eon is divided into Palaeozoic. Ninety East Ridge is situated in Indian Ocean. The cryptozoic eon is divided into Hadean. Here the limbs are almost horizontal producing simple flexure. Inselbergs (bornhardts) eventually erode & degenerate into what are called Kopjes. 79. 72. Azov Sea. 84. 75. 78. Globigerina ooze is the most abundant in Atlantic Ocean. The secondary divisions are based on seasonality of rainfall. Cratons form the cores of most continents and consist of inactive geological areas more than 2 billion years old with thick crust and deep roots extending into the mantle beneath.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 71. Clastic rocks are mechanically formed. The mid Atlantic ridge comprises the Dolphin rise on the north & challenger rise to the south separated by Romanche deep. It is known as Wyville Thompson ridge between Iceland & Scotland. 82. Recumbent Fold: A fold with a nearly horizontal axial plane. Earth is the fifth largest planet & Pluto the smallest. Hornblende is igneous while hornfel is metamorphic. Quasar stands for quasi-stellar object & is a compact object that looks like a point of light but emits more energy than a hundred super giant galaxies. the Archean & the Proterozoic eras. 83. 77. pulsating radio waves in space which are rapidly rotating neutron stars. Earth’s history has two main divisions or eons: the Cryptozoic Eon & Phanerozoic Eon. Chert & flint are sedimentary rocks. Amphibolite is a metamorphic rock & is formed by metamorphosis of igneous rocks such as basalt & gabbro. connected with the Black Sea by the Strait of Kerch. Magnetic declination is the difference between true north (the axis around which the earth rotates) and magnetic north (the direction the needle of a compass will point). The ridge becomes quite extensive to the south of Greenland & Iceland & is called Telegraphic plateau. 76. inland sea. The trades are strongest in winter season. Warm Agulhas current flows in the Indian Ocean in southerly direction & Cold Falkland current in Atlantic Ocean towards north. 81. Temperate cyclones generally develop over land.

The Peru-Chile trench marks where the Nazca plate is being subducted beneath the South American plate. Mt. Sri Lanka). Vesuvian type. Pelean type. 86. Mt Etna of Sicily. Rockfalls produce a deposit called talus at the base of the cliff. 1 in the Indian Ocean. Vulcanian type. The volcanic activity and uplift of the Andes are a result of the subduction. Most of the famous volcanoes have composite cone. low relief crater that is caused by a phreatic eruption or explosion caused by groundwater contact with magma. 27 . the northernmost & Mt Vulcano the southernmost of the seven Lipari Island are all located in Italy. Caldera (Lake Toba of Sumatra is most famous example). or “flowing soil” terraces. 91. Centrifugal drainage is also known as radial drainage (e. 90. Examples of cinder or ash cones are Mt Jorullo of Mexico & Mt Izalco of San Salvador. Lopoliths are saucer shaped with concave side upwards & Phaccoliths are lens shaped deposits in anticlines & synclines. There are 26 oceanic trenches in the world: 3 in the Atlantic Ocean. Mt Hood & Mt Rainier & Mt. Mt Meru (Tanzania) & Mt Elgon (Kenya-Uganda border) are extinct volcanoes. Vesuvius are dormant volcanoes. Stromblian type. 87. Fluid basaltic lava forms pahoehoe lava flow & viscous forms blocky aa lava flow. the world's most active volcanic crater. 94. Insequent streams do not follow regional slopes. 89. Etna of Sicily is an example of parasitic cone. Kilauea. In barbed pattern the tributary flows in opposite direction to the master stream & such pattern usually develops due to river capture. Vesuvius of Naples & Mt Stromboli. Annular/Circular drainage pattern is different from centrifugal pattern. 92. located on central Hawaii Island. Sequent Streams are those which are well adjusted to the geological structures & follow the regional slope.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 85. The classification of volcanoes in order of increasing intensity of explosion is: Hawaiian type. and 22 in the Pacific Ocean. Mt. 88. 93.g. 95. Maar is a broad. Thawing of slopes in the summer may move soil downslope to produce solifluction. Laccolith is mushroom shaped causing the crust over it to form a dome.

Penck’s in endrumpf & kings in pediplain. Abrasion or Corrasion is with the help of erosional tools. Shattering is due to rain shower over heated rocks. Block disintegration is due to different material. Sheeting & cambering refers to the development of horizontal & vertical cracks due to unloading. Victoria fall on Zambezi river is a result of faulting & Yosemite falls California is due to glaciated hanging valley. Obsequent 28 Subsequent . Flaking results from differential heating of outer & inner layers of a rock. 98. 99. Granular disintegration is due to different colour. Alluvial fans have a gentler slope as compared to cones. 100. Structural benches are formed due to differential erosion of soft & hard rocks while river terraces are produced due to valley-in-valley topography by rejuvenation. Spalling is development of platy rock fragments due to unloading. Attrition refers to the wear & tear of erosional tools in themselves. 97. After flaking the wind peels off the layer & this is known as exfoliation. Miscellaneous Facts . Kings cycle basically deals with the evolution of landforms in arid & savanna regions. Yazoo Channel meets the original river at deferred junction.II 1.Ghanshyam Thori Annular Drainage pattern Consequent Resequent Geography Notes 96. Davisian cycle ends in peneplain. Sometimes neighboring cones & fans meet to form Piedmont alluvial plain or Bajada.

Blowholes formed at roof tops sometimes enlarge & cause the roof top to fall forming Geos or inlets. All these karst landforms are differentiated just on the basis of size. northeastern arm of the Red Sea. Rias (ria coast) is form when sea levels rise or plate tectonics cause coastal levels to fall. 6. separating the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas. Lappies are bare terra rosa having crevasse like pinnacle structure formed where relief is considerable. 4. This has the net effect of gradual movement of the particles along the shore. Speleothems is the term collectively used for all types of deposits in caverns. Old man of Hoy is the most famous wave cut stack located in Orkney Islands. Absteigende Entwickelung means wanning development & parallel retreat of slope continues 3. The swash moves the sediment particles up the beach at this angle. 12. Big sand bars usually parallel to the beach are called offshore or longshore bar. Longshore Drift is movement of sand parallel to the shoreline. Notch is formed as a depression at the base of a cliff due to wave attack. Hooks are curved spits & a bar connecting two land masses is a Tombolo. The process arises when waves approach the shore obliquely. while the backwash brings them away fom the beach. Monadnocks are also known as unakas & mosores. If the bars are formed such that there one end is attached to the beach & the other end is projecting into the sea. 14. Negev Desert is in Israel. Sinkholes < Swallow Holes < Dolines <Jamas < Uvala < Polje. 7.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 2. in the “along-the-shore” direction. When this happens valleys which were previously at sea level become submerged. 10. The result is often a very large estuary at the mouth of a relatively insignificant river. Boschungen is the upper steep part & haldenhang is the lower part with lesser inclination. Aufsteigende Entwickelung means a phase of waxing (accelerating) rate of landform development where the slopes of the valley sides are convex in plan. they are called spits. Dalmatian coast are found in Italy & Dalmatian area of Croatia where ranges are parallel to coast 13. Ultimately the boschungen are reduced to inselbergs. Penck cycle has three stages. Helectites of globular structure are called globulites & banded calcareous deposits are called tavernites. Ponores are vertical pipelike passages that connect caves & swallow holes. Gulf of Aqaba. Uvala results from subsidence of large roof over underground courses. 5. 29 . Dripstones growing sidewards from stalactites & stalagmites are called helectites & helegmites. Thus the intersection of boschungen & haldenhang produce a sharp knick. 8. 11. Hums are residual hills analogous to monadnocks in fully developed karst topography. 9. Gleichformige Entwickelung means uniform development of landforms. North Scotland.

22. zweikanter (2 faces) & driekanter (3 faces). Protalus rampart is the accumulation of debris formed due to rockfall from the cliff. beaded eskers are formed. it is called a bolson. 27.Ghanshyam Thori 15. similar to a pingo. 26. 21. 24. Kettles are depressions in the outwash plain. Drumlins are elongated hummocks of boulder clay (basket of egg). Demoiselles have resistant rock cap at the top. Inselbergs or Bornhardts are isolated hills rising abruptly from virtually level plain. “Shatts” in Sahara. Eskers or Osser or Oss is a stratified deposit. Areas of shifting sand-dunes is called erg. The basin is characterized by centripetal drainage which leads to formation of salty lakes called playas in N. Pedestal or Mushroom rock is also known as Gour in Sahara & pilzfelsen in Germany. Riegel marks the outcrop of a highly resistant rock layer. 17. Large kettles are clotted with numerous low mounds called hummocks. 20. Pingos are ice mounds formed due freeze thaw action in periglacial environment. Geography Notes 16. 25. America. Palsas are low permafrost mounds with cores of layered segregated ice and peat. Kames are small hills which are deposited by meltwater near or at the edge of the retreating ice sheets. When a basin is more or less rimmed by mountain (inter-montane basin). Paternoster lakes are formed at the foot of glacial stairways. A cirque lake is called tarn. 18. Talik refers to an 30 . Glacial loess of N. ‘Mamlaha’ & ‘Khabari’ in the Arabian desert. They have plucked downside. and protrudes out of a surrounding glacier. The whole slope between the mountains to the playas is called pediment. Ventifact with a single face is called einkanter. 23. It is most frequently used to refer to deposits formed in lakes on the margins of glaciers. America is called adobe & that of Europe is called limon 19. When two cirques converge cutting back it is called col. If the ice front halts at regular intervals. Zeugens have horizontal rock strata & yardangs have vertical. Roches moutonnees is a residual rock hummock whose upstream is smoothened by abrasion & downstream is roughened by plucking. Varve is the yearly deposit of sediment forming distinctive layers. Barchans are also known as transverse dunes. A nunatak is a mountain top that is not covered by land ice.

water vapour & ozone. The greatest range of temperature occurs at latitude 60 N. The major types of inversion are: radiation. 7. Green house gases include CFCs. The auroras are maximum when the sun is very active. CFCs account for 25 % of green house effect & methane for 15 %. advection. Km 99-130 km Reflects signals of low frequency radio waves only. or within a layer of discontinuous permafrost. 3. 6. Reflects medium & high frequency radio waves. D layer E layer 60-. The earth radiates back 17 units directly into space & remaining 34 units are absorbed by atmosphere. hotter the object smaller the wavelength. Disappears with sunset. Hence they are opposite of sun spot cycle.Ghanshyam Thori piles of rock on the top & clitters on the sides formed due to congelifraction 28.Heaviside layer. Reflects medium & high frequency radio waves. 6. Noctiluent clouds are found in Mesosphere. air drainage. The atmosphere than radiates back the 48 units absorbed by it. 5. Carbon dioxide leads with 55 %. 5. Climatology: Geography Notes unfrozen section of ground found above. 4. Persists day & night but not detectable as F layer reflects all the waves reflected by this layer. Nitrous oxide. frontal. According to Wein’s displacement law. 35 units (27-clouds. 31 . Heat Budget: Out of the 100 units of incoming solar radiation. below. Produced by ultraviolet photons reacting with nitrogen. Associated with very high velocity winds & created under special circumstances. subsidence. ‘Mother of pearl’ or ‘nacreous’ clouds are found in stratosphere. Out of the remaining 65 units. Sporadic E Layer E2 layer F Layer G layer 110 km 150 km 1550-380 km 400 km & above 2. Reflects VHF waves Produced by reaction of UV photons with O2. Borneo is the 3rd largest island in the world after Greenland & New Guinea. 4. 2. Division of Ionosphere (60-640 Km) 1. Interaction of UV photon with nitrogen produces free electrons here. Tors are 1. 14 units are absorbed by atmosphere & 51 units by earth surface. 2-snow. Called Kenley. 3. Advection inversion generally occurs when a warm air passes over cold water surface. Disappears with sunset. According to Stefan Boltzman law influx of radiation is proportional to the fourth power of absolute temperature of the radiating body. Inside the magnetosphere are the Van Allen radiation belts concentrated in two bands at about 3000 km & 16000 km. 6-atmosphere top) are reflected back as albedo. Disappears with night. Consists of F1 & F2 layers collectively called Appleton layer.

Four principal forms of airmasses are continental polar (cP). CaSO4. Danube. A mist becomes a fog when visibility is reduced to less than a km. Thermodynamic modification results in airmasses becoming warm represented by W or cold (K). 15. Rime refers to very small super cooled droplets which strike ground & tend to freeze immediately on impact. Oceanography: 16. The only difference between ridge & rises is that ridges are steep sided while rises are gently sloped. continental tropical (cT). maritime polar (mP). and maritime tropical (mT). 19. Jet streams are fastest during winter season. Katabatic wind blows from mountains to valley & anabatic vice versa. Thermocline is the transition layer between the mixed layer at the surface and the deep water. 14.Ghanshyam Thori 8. Lows are Aleutian & Icelandic. The two zones have their frontier at a depth of 200 meters. Dneiper. Highs are Siberian. 10. Anemometer is used for measuring the speed of wind. 17. Baroclinic zone is where distinct air mass regions exist & where Fronts separate warmer from colder air. 12. The various salts in the sea in order of decreasing quantity are NaCl. Sleet is partially melted snowflakes while hail refers to small balls of ice. 13. It is divided into neritic zone (having a depth of 200metres) & the oceanic province (separated from the neritic province by the edge of the continental shelf). Stability occurs when the dry adiabatic rate is higher than the normal lapse rate & instability occurs when normal lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Juan de Fuca Strait. The pelagic zone includes those waters further from the land. Hawaiian & Siberian. Dry adiabatic rate is 10 C per 1000m & moist adiabatic rate is 6 C per 1000m. 18. The benthic zone refers to the sea bottom itself & is divided into littoral zone & deep sea zone. MgSO4. 20. MgCl. If normal lapse rate is lower than wet adiabatic rate it leads to absolute stability & vice versa. & Dneister all fall into black sea reducing it salinity. They blow from west to east. Barotropic is region of uniform temperature distribution with lack of fronts. Beaufort scale deals with the wind speed & ranges from calm wind to hurricane. Geography Notes 9. basically the open ocean. Benthos (plants such as 32 . Water moves from areas over which there is a low pressure to areas over which there is a high pressure. The Peru-Chile trench is the longest in the world. 11. is the arm of the Pacific Ocean between Washington & Vancouver. Mechanical or dynamic modification causes it to become stable (s) or unstable (u). Airflow converges aloft in anticyclones & diverges in case of cyclones. 21. Anticyclones are larger than cyclones. Temperate cyclones are formed under baroclinic condition & tropical under barotropic condition.

23. The Southern Oscillation. The east pacific rise is known as albatross plateau extending from north of New Zealand to the Californian coast. Atlantic Ocean: The warm North Atlantic Drift (NAD) gives rise to the Irminger Current south of Iceland which travels along western and northwestern coasts of Iceland until it meets East Greenland Current. There are divided on the basis of content into calcareous ooze (lime) & siliceous ooze (silica). Mindanao current is a southward flowing boundary current along the Philippine coast. Colorado. During the northeast monsoon season the Somali Current flows southward & During the southwest monsoon the current develops into an intense northward jet 28. a more recent discovery. Another branch of NAD flows along Norway coast forming Norwegian current. El Nino causes drought conditions in India. The cold Okhotsk current flows past Sakhalin to merge with Oya Siwo current near Hokkaido Island & later mergers with the warm Kuro Siwo current producing dense fogs. Oozes are pelagic deposit in the form of liquid mud. Cromwell current also called pacific equatorial undercurrent is a submarine river & flows towards east. Australia & heavy rains in Chile. This current joins the Agulhas Current & moves to the southern tip of Africa. Indian Ocean: One branch of the south equatorial current moves southward through the Mozambique Channel to form the Mozambique Current. 27. Red clay is the most widely spread pelagic deposit & consists mainly of hydrated silicate of Aluminium & oxides of iron. Geography Notes kelp. 24. refers to an oscillation in the surface 33 . Falkland current brings the cold waters of the Antarctic sea northward up to Argentina. Pacific Ocean :Kuroshio (or Kuro Siwo) Current of Pacific is similar to the gulf stream of Atlantic.Ghanshyam Thori fishes & whales. One branch separates from Kuroshio current & enters the sea of Japan as Tsushima current. sponges) are organisms that live on the ocean floor while nektons are swimming animals such as 22. 26. Calcareous ooze is further divided into pteropod ooze & globigerina (most widespread) ooze. Neritic deposits consists of dead shells of plants & animals. The Cold Oyashio (or Oya Siwo) Current (similar to Labrador current) is also known as Kurile current & it flows through the Bering Strait in a southerly direction. La Nina is opposite of El Nino & intensifies the Humboldt Current. Southern Africa. Siliceous ooze is divided into radiolarian (formed of shells of foraminifera) & diatom ooze. The El Nino events of 1982 & 1997 were severe. The north pacific drift continues later as Aleutian current which divides into two parts – the northern branch becomes Alaska current while the southern branch becomes California cold current (similar to Canary cold current of Atlantic). 25.

Gross primary productivity less that is used in respiration is net primary productivity. Field capacity refers to 50 % water & 50 % air. 32. Swell refers to long crested waves with longer periods which have traveled out of their source areas. containing a mixture of inorganic mineral materials and organic matter. The mean productivity of the world is around 300 gm/sq. Induration refers to hardening of soil & Audification refers to the accumulation of H ions mainly in surface horizons. C & R from top to bottom. E.5 %) & Entisols (11 %) – Coverage. Hence the horizons are L. The surface horizon is usually referred to as the O layer. Surf refers to a belt of nearly continuously breaking waves. The layer of plant material on the soil surface is classified as: the L horizon (fresh litter). clays. in which most of the iron. the H horizon (well decomposed litter) 33. Below that is the A horizon. 36. A. Below E horizon is the B horizon. Lake Geneva). the F horizon (decomposing litter). 30. Epiphytes are abundant in tropical rainforest (Selva) which have little undergrowth.Ghanshyam Thori regions Geography Notes pressure (atmospheric mass) between the southeastern tropical Pacific and the Australian-Indonesian 29. H. In gravity waves (large waves) the restoring force is gravity while in capillary waves (ripples caused by winds) the restoring force is surface tension. Next is the E horizon. a layer from which clay. consisting of partially weather bedrock. Laterization (now called Ferralization) occurs in humid tropics where heavy rain & uninterrupted warmth give rise to a deeply weathered layer. 35. B. O horizon is further divided into 3 sub horizons. Alfisols (13. The chief town on the island is Papeete which is also the capital of French Polynesia. F.m/year. and aluminum oxides have been lost by a process known as leaching (when water carries materials in solution down from one soil level to another). Under that layer is the C horizon. Leaching produces increasingly acidic & mineral deficient soil. and other leached materials have accumulated. Removal of materials in this manner is known as eluviation. in the southern Pacific Ocean. the process that gives the E horizon its name. the R horizon of hard bedrock. iron. Tahiti is the largest and most important of the Society Islands. 34 . Biogeography 31.g. and last. Seiches are standing waves (e. Melanization refers to darkening of soil profile while Leuciniation refers to lightening of the colour both in A horizon. Inceptisols (16 %). it consists of loose organic matter such as fallen leaves and other biomass. Only 1 % of the sun’s energy reaching the earth is used by plants through photosynthesis. Aridisols (23 %). The influx of such materials is called illuviation. Internal waves are caused due to density differences. 34.

Freon-11 is Trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F). Sao Francisco & Madeira are all large rivers of Brazil. Yugoslavia was created by joining various regions (Serbia. Purus. Guam. Montenegro). the Republic of Palau. aluminium. 49. Czechoslovakia separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Kiribati. Micronesia includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas. 49th Parallel between USA & Canada. Bosnia and Herzegovina. the French territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies. 46. vanadium etc. Intercropping refers to the growing of more than one crop on the same field while mixed cropping refers to the growing of a variety of crops on different fields. Solonchak soils are defined by high soluble salt accumulation & formed from saline parent material under conditions of high evaporation. & nickel. Petroleum & electricity are respectively known as black. 43. Coal. and the Federated States of Micronesia. 45. 39. 48.5 lakh plant species on earth. Ferrous group includes iron. Macedonia. 47. Pedalfers are soils of humid regions and are characterized by highly leached clays due to downward movement of water. Micronesia lies to the north of Melanesia & to the North-West of Polynesia. chromite. 15 lakh species of animals & 2. Weir canal connects Lake Erie & Ontario. liquid & white gold. Stretching east and south of New Guinea are the countries of Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Melanesia’s westernmost island is New Guinea. manganese. Nauru. 38th Parallel between North & South Korea. 41. zinc. Croatia. 40. Pedocals are soils of arid regions and are characterized by calcite (CaCO3) cementation due to upward movement of water (evaporation).Ghanshyam Thori thousand plant species are found in India. Maginot line between France & Germany. tungsten. the Marshall Islands. Slovenia. or dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2). and the nation of Fiji Islands (commonly known as Fiji). Port Said lies towards the red sea side on Suez Canal. Out of which 75 thousand animal & 15 38. Non-Ferrous group has copper. 35 . 42. Oder Niesse line is the boundary between Poland & Germany. and then split again 44. lead. The largest number of sheeps & goats are both in China. Geography Notes 37. The most commonly used Freon is Freon-12. Worldwide jet stream that occurs in winter is the sub-tropical jet stream. Extreme pedalfers are called laterites.

53. 51. Hall Herault process is used in the extraction of Aluminium from its ore. Tonga. the Pitcairn Islands.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 50. Polynesia consists of American Samoa. This landform occurs in areas of tilted strata and is caused by the differential weathering and erosion of the hard capping layer and the soft underlying cliff maker. French Polynesia. Silviculture refers to growing & tending of trees as a branch of forestry. which erodes more rapidly. 36 . A mesa is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs. Connate water (also called fossil water) refers to water trapped in the interstices of rocks during their formation. Cuestas with dip slopes of 40°–45° are usually called hogback ridges. and the Wallis and Futuna Islands. South China sea is the largest sea. Analysis of Mocks 1. Apiculture refers to rearing of honey bees. Samoa (formerly Western Samoa). Cuestas or Homoclinal Ridge. Tokelau. Hawaii. Tuvalu. Easter Island. Niue. New Zealand. physical feature that has a steep cliff or escarpment on one side and a gentle dip or back slope on the other. Phenology is the study of seasonal changes upon animal & plant life. 52. the Cook Islands.

which are criss-crossed by braided streams of meltwater. 12. usually located at the foot of a slope or cliff. starts at the end of the last glaciation (Wurm). Sandar are usually wider than their length. the Holocene. and consist of soft sediments. 16. olivine. The extrusive equivalent of granite is rhyolite & gabbro is the intrusive equivalent of basalt. Rectangular inselbergs are called koppie or kopje. Talus includes angular fragments of rock below cliffs and steep slopes. In a braided stream. 5. 9. transverse) are collectively called body waves. The second period of the Quaternary. Both P waves & S waves (shear. 7. Colluvium includes slope wash. having been brought there under the influence of gravity (mass wasting). A sandur (plural sandar) is a plain formed by meltwater from glaciers. Mindel falls under middle Pleistocene. 11. where a chimney has developed behind the cliff face. heterogeneous material covering solid rock. Regolith is a layer of loose. A strike slip fault is also known as wrench fault. Tephra & pyroclastic material are the same & refer collectively to volcanic materials. Jura mountains were formed during Mesozoic period. 37 . Evidences of earliest known life have been found to archaeozoic period. The scientific study of rivers is called Potamology. Colluvium is the loose deposits of rock. It is the rock that makes up the earth's mantle. 3. Riss and Wurm (in that order from old to new). Gunz. Streams with high sediment loads that encounter a sudden reduction in flow velocity generally have a braided channel type. 10. A glacier with a negative budget is a receding glacier & that with positive budget is advancing. the main channel divides into a number of smaller. Entrenched & intrenched meanders are one & the same & it is ingrown meanders which grow on assymetric valley. and hornblende. While Surface waves include Rayleigh waves (vertical and longitudinal) & Love waves (transverse horizontal). about 10 thousand years ago.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 2. Peridotite. 15. 13. Very sudden cooling of volcanic magma results in formation of volcanic glass called obsidian. Mindel. 8. Their names derive from water courses in the North Slope of the Alps. Gloup is a blow hole. Rise of land or fall of sea level is called negative movement & is connected with rejuvenation. often above a cave. 4. igneous rock composed of pyroxene. interlocking or braided channels. 6. and spray is blasted out during high seas. Solifluction is the slow downslope flow of soil and sediment that is saturated with water 14. Researchers now recognize five glaciations in the Quaternary period: Donau. These glaciations are included in the first period of the Quaternary: the Pleistocene.

.P. Tripura West Bengal. West Bengal & Maharashtra.Ghanshyam Thori valley & Niagara fall is due to alternate bands of resistant & soft rocks. Gujarat. Geography Notes 17. 4. Orissa. A. Account for 50% tribal population of Rajasthan Bihar-Jharkhand. Billow clouds are created when different layers of wind flow at different velocities resulting in unstable turbulence between the layers. Reg is a surface covering of coarse gravel. M.. 19. Siddhartha –Ensemble-Appendix –Geo of India-page 13) 3. Jharkhand.80 Vol-1) 2. Rajasthan. Speak Kurukh Language Jharkhand. Map references. 5. Billow clouds provide a visible signal to pilots of potentially dangerous turbulence. Orissa & Maharashtra.-Chattisgarh. Orissa. West Bengal & Tripura 38 . Yosemite fall is a hanging 18. M. 6. Chattisgarh. The common name for this instability is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Koeppens & Thornthwaite classification of India (Geo Notes-Page 77. 2. Gonds Bhils Santhals Minas Oraons Mundas Tribal Groups of India Largest tribe found in M. Essential Extra Reference 1.P. A. Victoria fall is due to faulting. 3.P. Isostasy.P. GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA 1.. Karnataka. pebbles from which all sand and dust have been removed by wind and water.P. Bihar-Jharkhand & Orissa Rajasthan & MP. Livingstone fall is at the edge of a plateau. World Population Data (K.

3. Nagaland & Tripura Nagaland Nagaland Arunachal Pradesh Assam Meghalaya & Assam Meghalaya & Assam Nagaland 39 . Chattisgarh Nilgiri region. M. Jaunsar region.P. 19. 13. Chattisgarh. 18. Uttaranchal & MP Andhra Pradesh Nilgiri Hills. 25. Tamil Nadu M. Himachal Pradesh Muslims of Malabar district. & Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Nilgiri Hills Bastar District. 10.P. 14. 17.P. Dadra & Nagar Haveli Tamil Nadu 1.P. AP. 26. Sikkim & West Bengal M. Uttaranchal Lahual region. 31. 5. 12. 4. 8. 28. Classic example of polyandry. 15.P. 10. 29. MP. 30. 21. 2. 24. Khasis Mikirs Kukis Angami Ao Apatani Chutra Garos Jaintia Sema Tribes of the North East & Andaman Nicobar Meghalaya & Tripura Assam Manipur. Jharkhand & Orissa Himachal Pradesh J&K & Himachal Pradesh Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu M. 27.P. 32. M.P. Gujarat. 34. 11. 6. 35.. 9. 16. Khonds Tharu Chenchu Todas Lahaula Adivasis Badagas Baiga Bakkarwals Bhotias Bhuia Birhors Gaddis Gujjars Irula Kanikar Katkari Kharia Khasa Lahualas Moplahs Sabra Kol Kolam Kotas Murias Uralis Varlis Yurva Geography Notes Orissa is mainland. Assam. Kerala M. J&K Uttaranchal. 9. 7. Himachal Pradesh Bastar district. West Bengal. 22. Also found in Bihar. Chattisgarh Kerala Maharashtra. 23. 20. M.Ghanshyam Thori 7. 8. 33.

Abor. Mussorie range. 4. 3. 13. Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic Pre-Cambrian Major Formations & their Periods Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Upper Siwalik Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Cretaceous Deccan Traps Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Vindhyan.Ghanshyam Thori 11. Miri. 4. 6. 17. Mountain Passes Burzil pass. 16. Archean systems 1. Siwaliks Lesser Himalayas Important Ranges of the Himalayas Dafla. Niti pass & Lipu Lekh Nathu La pass. Dundwa range. Mahabharat range. Lushai Lepchas Abors Chakma Chang Gallong Jarawas Onges Shompens Sentinelese Great Andamanese Mizoram & Tripura Original Tribals of Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Tripura A Naga tribe Tribe of Arunachal Pradesh Geography Notes Andaman & Nicobar. 10. Andaman & Nicobar. 2. 5. Shipki La pass Thagla pass. 15. 2. 17. Jelep La pass Bomdila Pass. Negrito Andaman & Nicobar. Negrito Negrito 1. J&K Himachal Uttaranchal Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh . 40 1. Zozi La pass Bara Lacha pass. Dhang range. Inhabit sentinel island. 5. 2. 18. 16. 21. Jammu Hills Pir Panjal range. 20. 14. 7. Dharwar. 3. Belong to mongoloid stock like nicobarese & inhabit Great Nicobar. 9. 12. Mishmi (all in Arunachal). 12. 19. Cuddapah. 13. Andaman & Nicobar. Churia ghat hills (Nepal). 11. Negritos racial stock. 8. Nag Tibba range. Dhaula Dhar range. 14. 15.

Karewas of Kashmir (flat topped mound). Rhododendron. 7. Bijsal. Found in Peninsular India. Toddy Palm. 7. Tochi. 6. Tendu. 6. Jharkhand & Rajasthan. 5. M. Ghant. Nubra. Amaltas. 2. Jamun. Ironwood. Tamarind. Gartang.P. Maple. Stand over Cuddapah rocks. Sal. Named after cuddapah district of AP. Khokko. 4. sandstones. Ebony. Verinag Flows through Wular lake & along Indo Pak border. Ritha. River Indus Jhelum Chenab Ravi Beas Sutlej Kms 2900 400 1180 725 470 1050 Rivers: Origin & Length Origin Characteristics Mansarovar Shyok. 6. Sandal & Sheesham Khirni. Zanskar. Viboa. Bamboo. Sal. Shigar. 3. 5. 8. 4. Birch. Khair. Canes. 3. Yellow Revolution White Revolution Blue Revolution Pink Revolution Brown Revolution Grey Revolution Golden Revolution Oil Seeds Milk Fish Shrimp Masaaley Wool Horticulture S. Teak. 6. 4. Contains limestones. Important formations of this period are Rajasthan desert. 1. Chhotanagpur is main. Axlewood. Mahua. Hunza. 3. Found & named after Vindhyas. Forests & Their Species Teak. Plum Various Revolutions in Indian Economy 1. 5. Sangar. Cane. Celtis. Rohtang Pass Flows through Chamba valley. Deodar. Oak. Kabul. Pepal & Semal Sundari tree. 3. Rann of Kachchh. Tropical Evergreen Tropical Dry Evergreen Tropical Dry Deciduous Swamp Forests Himalaya Temperate Alpine 1. 2. 2. shale & slate Formed in middle carboniferous period. 2. Beas Kund Flows through Kullu valley & joins Satluj near Harike Rakas Lake Passes through Ship kila. Satinwood. 5. Palas. Cretaceous period. Chestnut. Indo Gangetic alluvium. Dras. Archean System Dharwar System Cuddapah System Vindhyan System Gondwana System Deccan Traps Tertiary Systems Quarternary Formations 1. 4. Govind Sagar lake at 41 . Champa. Rosewood. Fir. Kurram.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Major Rock Systems Primarily Gneiss & granites. Nipa Friticans (a Palm). Spruce. Neem. Formed by Chandra & Bhaga. Rose-wood. Bara-Lacha Largest Indus tributary. Epiphytes.

Wardha. Gandhisagar dam at Kota. Banjar. Shar. Betul Mewar Hills Formed by confluence of Koel & Sankh. Subarnarekha 850 1465 1400 800 1300 724 320 800 400 Penganga. Baitrani joins later S-W of Ranchi Sihawa (near Raipur) Nashik 42 . Dhansari & Kalang (left) & Subansari. Yerla. Surma is distributary of river Barak. Damodar 17. Brahmani 30. Tons. Kali & Sind (right) Joins Ganga at Sonpur near Patna Its main stream is Arun. Panchganga. Joined by Sun kosi from the west & Tamur Kosi from the east Joins Ganga near Kanauj Along Indo Nepal border it is called Kali. Joins Ghaghara. Tista 21. Girna. Banas (left). Forms Sivok Gola Pass in Darjeeling. It is the last left bank tributary of the Ganga Joins Ganga at Patna Barakar is main tributary. Dudhi. Asan. Ib. Shakkar. Kabbani. Panhara. Sabarmati 29. Seonath. Veghar. Giri. Gomti 19. Kathna & Sarayan tributaries. Mahananda 15. Verna. Hindan. Jonking 8. Burhi Dihing. Tawa. Hills (Coorg) Lakshmantirtha. Ramganga 13. Enters Ganga plain at Paonta Sahib. Joins Hugli Meets Ganga at Chapra. Ghaghara 18. Dudhgana. 9. Narmada 27. Hasdeo. Herangi. Meghna is the name of Brahmaputra after its confluence with Surma. Kamang. It splits into Bhagirathi-Hugli & Padma below Farrakha in Malda distt. Godavari 24. Wainganga. Mahanadi 23. Kosi 12. Ganga 2525 Gangotri Geography Notes Bhakra Bhagirathi meets Alaknanda at Devprayag. Tapti 28. Mand. Manas & Sankosh. Cauveri 26. Bhima Brahmagiri Amravati. Musi. Gandak 11. Sabari. Rind. Baran Betul Distt Parna. Yamuna Chambal 1300 960 Yamunotri Mhow Everest & Dhulagiri Everest & Kanchenjunga Kumaon Hills Milam Glacier Darjeeliing Hills Amarkantak 10. Son 16. Sarda (Saryu) 14. Tel. Sengar. Mahabaleshwar Koyna. Hemavati. Shimsa. Bori. Krishna 25. Brahmaputra 2900 730 600 540 1180 Mapchachungo glacier Pilibhit Distt Near Mansarovar 20. Amarkantak Burhner. Manjra & Pranhita. Idravati.Ghanshyam Thori 7. Surma 900 Chitamu lake (Tibet) 22. Receives Dibang & Lohit on left bank & then known as Brahmaputra. Lokpavani. Lucknow situated on its bank. Hiran. Akravati. Tungabhadra.

4. 2. 12. Mand-Raigarh Raniganj. 15. 1988 (revised) Indian Board for wildlife formed 1952 Wildlife Protection Act 1972 Project Tiger 1973 Operation Crocodile 1975 National Wildlife Action Plan 1983. Vishakhapatnam Hyderabad Delhi Fursatgunj (U. Giridh. Deogarh. 37. Aurangabad. karanpura. 7. Johilla. Bundi. 5. Bisrampur. lakhanpur-Ramkola South Chhattisgarh-Hasdo-Arand. Umaria Satupura Coalfields . Coal 36.) Hyderabad Ghaziabad Hessarghatta. Jharkhand Orissa M. 3. Dehradun 1. Lakhanpur. Luni 320 Arawallis Geography Notes Ends in Sahni marshes. Kanhan. 14.Chirmiri-Kaurasia. Mumbai Mumbai Ooty. 1. 2. 6. 8. Rajmahal Talcher.P. Daltonganj. Rampur Central Indian Coalfields -Singrauli. 7. Darjeeling 43 38. Sohagpur. 1952. Various Central Institutes in India Wildlife Institute of India Salim Ali centre for Ornithology & Natural History Central Sheep Breeding Farm Central Tobacco Research Institute National Ship Design & Research Centre Civil Aviation Training College National Institute of Aviation Management & Research Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Udan Academy National Remote Sensing Agency Postal Staff College of India Central Poultry Training Institute Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for fisheries Central Institute of Fisheries education Lal Bahadur shastri college of advanced maritime studies & research Hindustan Photo films Survey of India Dehradun Coimbatore Haryana Rajamundhry. Ramgarh. 6. Sendurgarh. Jawai join it. 13.P. Karnataka Bangalore. Sukri. A. Korba. 16. 3. Sarsuti. 5. 8. 9.Ghanshyam Thori 31. Bokaro. West Bengal . Hutar.P (Former) Jharia. Revised 2002-2016 Environment Protection Act 1986 Rhinoceros project 1987 Project Elephant 1992 Energy Resources of India 35. Various Policies & Programmes in India Forest Policy 1894. Jhillmili. 9. Sonhat. 10. 11.Pench. Pathkhera North Chhattisgarh . 4.

Dalli. Pendengru. Cuddapah. Maharashtra Meghalaya Assam Arunachal Pr J&K Rajasthan North-East Gujarat Mumbai High East Coast Other Mumbai Gujarat Assam Tamil Nadu Tripura Rajasthan Arunachal Pr Himachal Pr West Bengal Geography Notes Singareni. Natural 52. Mia-Pung. Gas 53. Charaswala Non Chick. Nigru. Kangra Medinipur Jaduguda (Jharkhand). 50. Kamptee. Raoghat. Langrin. Laptan pung Jwalamukhi. Naharkatiya. 46.Mehsana. Ratnagiri. Kosamba. Nawagam. Chandrapur. Tandur Chanda-Wardha. 49. 54. Kovillapal. Rawa Jaiselmer. Bander Daranggiri. Warangal. Mawlong.Ghanshyam Thori 39. Sulaipat. Tetiary coal 42. Barkol. Narwapahar under Uranium Corportation in India are the only mines worked at present Beach Sands (Kerala). Kalol. 45. Jwalamukhi Area (Punjab) Bombay high. Longoi. Borholla Ankeleshwar. Gogha Nahorkatiya & Moran Neypaltur. Virugambakam Baranura. Bailadila. 54. Kathana. 44. Quepem. 56. Bassein Jagatia. Tamil Nadu. 40. Orissa Mineral Resources of India 50. Avadi. Mangamadam. 48. Laitryngew. Galeki. Bicholim Bellary. Rudrasagar. 51. Thorium Andhra Pr. 60. Bhatin. Aridongri Sanquelim. Sanguem. Iron Ore Chhattisgarh 24 % Goa (21%) Karnataka (20%) Jharkhand (17 %) Orissa (15 %) Maharashtra Andhra Pr. 56. Kurnod. Bassein Narimanam. 55. Meghahataburu. 55. 41. 59. Anantpur district 44 . Moran. Waimong Makum. Bonai (Sundargarh). Hospet. Gua Gurumahisani. Petroleum 47. Cherpunji. Uranium 61. Kothgundam. Ponda. Aliabet island Bombay high. Hugrijan. 51. Jaipur. Bhandara Karimnagar. Nazira Namchuk-Namphuk Kalakot. 43. Mohogala. Kiriburu. Badampahar (Mayurbhanj). 57. Sandur Noamund. 58. Atharnure Barmer. Metka Palana (lignite) & Khari Digboi. Andhra Pr. Rajhra (Durg). 52. 53. Amlapur. Sanand. Satari. Lunej.

Yadapalli. 62. Rajura Manganese Bauxite Chromite Lead Zinc Gold Zawar –a. North Kanara. Copper Tamil Nadu M.P. 69.P. 63. Dhenkanal ditricts Hassan Chandrapur Purbi & Paschmi Singhbum district Khammam Zawar region (Udaipur). 88. 72. 61.Ghanshyam Thori 57. 60.P. Jabalpur. Pipli khan to Barla khan b. 75.P & Chattisgarh Rajasthan (Udaipur) Uttaranchal (Dehradun).P. Magra. 64. 89. & Maiyurbhanj Nickel Non Metallic Minerals 1. Kendujhar. Andhra Pradesh. M. 70. 65. 58. Nilgiri Sukinda. Satna. Junagarh Salem. Kyonjhar. Mochia. 84. 71. Shimoga Kendujhar. 79. Palamau Kolhapur. (Lalitpur) Kerala is largest producer. 7. Surguja district Mandla. Shahdol Jamnagar.P. 68. 77. Rajasthan Orissa (Birmitrapur in Sundergarh District-largest in India). 67. & Gondumalai Balghat (Malanjkhand) Khetri (Jhunjhunu & Alwar) Singhbum Bellary. (Jhabua). 86. Andhra Pradesh. 76. (11 %) Gujarat (8 %) Tamil Nadu (4 %) Orissa (97 %) Karnataka (2. 5. 80. Hutti gold fields (Raichur). Ranchi. Sona. It is also called soapstone/ Potstone. Rajasthan. 74. Ratnagir Bastar. Tamil Nadu 45 . Killimalai.3 %) Maharashtra (%) Jharkhand (%) Andhra Pr (%) Rajasthan (80 %) Orissa (11%) Andhra Pr (8 %) Rajasthan (99 %) Sikkim Karnataka (67 %) Jharkhand (26 %) Andhra Pr (7 %) Andhra Pr (42 %) Bihar Jharkhand32 Rajashtan (25 %) Karnataka Orissa Geography Notes Tirthmalai. 87. P (46%) Rajasthan (33%) Jharkhand (21%) Karnataka (38%) Orissa (17%) M. Sundargarh Gumla. (10 %) Maharashtra (8%) Orissa (44 %) Jharkhand (18 %) Maharashtra (13%) Chhattisgarh(11%) M. 6. Kalahandi. South koel. kanjamalai. Chattisgarh. Kachchh. Bolangir Balghat Nagpur & Bhandara Koraput. 73. M. 82. 2. Sanjai. Koraput. 59. 3. 8. U. Gulbarga Subarnarekha. Sundargarh. 78. Bilaspur. Lohardaga. 81. 85. 66. 4. Dariba. 83. Jharkhand (Kodarma-Large) & Rajasthan Rajasthan & J & K. Limestone Dolomite Phosphate Kaolin Mica Gypsum Steatite Magnesite M. Balaria Kolar. Kalahandi. Garra rivers Ramgiri Gold Fields (Anantapur district) Silver Zawar Cuttack.

15. 17. It consists of Rajastan Feeder Canal (taking off from Harike Barrage. Consists of two canals – Lal Bahadur Canal (Left) & Jawahar canal (Right). Hydro-Electric Projects Betwa Near Jhansi in U. Rihand Uttar Pradesh Krishna Andhra Pradesh. 71. 63. 16.P. Rajasthan M. Godavari Andhra Pradesh. 12. Rihand Dam Nagarjunasagar Project Tungabhadra Project Gandak Project Kosi Project Beas Project Mayurkashi Project Indira Gandhi Canal 65. Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra Rajasthan Beach Sand of Kerala Singhbum distict in Jharkhand-largest. 18. 74. 19. Used as refractory material Punjab Karnataka & Rajasthan Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Bihar. Koyna Maharashtra Cauvery Falls Karnataka 46 River Damodar . fully lined masonry canal) & Rajasthan main canal (445 Km) Involves Sardar Sarovar dam in Gujarat & Narmada sagar (or Indira Sagar) dam in M. Pyrite Graphite Diamond Beryllium Salt (NaCl) Marble Zircon Kyanite Antimony Asbestos Beryllium Sulphur Tin Bihar is sole producer Orissa. Implemented with Soviet Aid. 62. 20.P. Jharkhand Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India 56. 59. West Bengal Sutlej. 204 km long. 66. (Panna) Rajathan. 64. 13.P. Highest rock fall dam in the country. Konar Dam (Konar river) & Panchet Dam (Damodar). 14. Gandak JV between UP. 58. Narmada Valley Project Pochampad Project Tehri Dam Parambikulam Project Mata Tella Dam Kangsbati Project Rajasthan Canal Project Kadana Project Tata Hydroelectric Scheme Koyna Hydroelectic Dam Sivasamudram State West Bengal & Jharkhand. Bihar & Nepal Kosi JV of Bihar & Nepal Beas Includes Pong Dam Mayurkashi Mayurkashi is a tributary of Hugli. 72. 70. 11. 69. Mahi Gujarat Indravati Maharashtra. JV between Tamil Nadu & Kerala. Beas JV of Punjab & Rajastan. 10. 75. 21. 60. 67. Jharkhand Gujarat (60%). 73. Tungabhadra JV of Andhra Pr & Karnataka.Ghanshyam Thori 9. 61. It includes Maithon & Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar. Bhagirathi Uttaranchal. Ravi water is also used. Called Bhivpuri dam. 68. Project Damodar Valley Project Geography Notes 57.

P. JV between A. Chhattisgarh Orissa U. 101. 79. 103. 80. 105. Panchet Dam Thermal Power Projects in India 1. 87. Talcher Obra 47 . 8.P. 98. 90. 91. 43. 95. 93. 88. 7. 99. 100. 94. 5.P. 4. Maharashtra U. Biggest hydel power project in India West Bengal 106. 96. 3. 82. Kothagundam Project Dhuraran Project Satpura Power Station Korba Project Talcher Power Station Obra Power Station Bhusawal Power Station Hardauganj Power Station Singareni Coalfields Kheda district Andhra Pradesh Gujarat M.Ghanshyam Thori 76. Pykara Hydro Elec Project Mettur Project Papansam Scheme Sabargiri Hydel Project Idukki Project Sholayar Project Machkund Power Project Srisailam Power Project Balimela Hydro Project Umiam Project Salal Hydro Project Thein Dam Project Banasagar Project Jayakwadi Project Kakrapara Project Mahi Project Malprabha Project Pallivasal project Poochampad Rajghat Dam Project Sarda Sahayak Hansdev Bango Project Tawa Project Ukai Project Purna Project Rana Pratap Sagar Jawahar Sagar Dam Gandhi Sagar Dam Chibro Dool Hasti Nathpa Jhakri Pykara Cauvery Tambraparni Pampa Periyar Sholayar Machkund Krishna Sileru river Umiam Chenab Ravi Son Godavari Tapi Mahi Malprabha Mudirapujha Godavari Betwa Ghagara Hansdev Tawa Tapi Purna Chambal Chambal Chambal Tons Chenab Satluj Damodar Geography Notes Tamil Nadu (along Nilgiris) Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Kerala Kerala Kerala.P & Orissa Andhra Pradesh JV between A. 6. UP & Bihar Maharashtra Gujarat Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh M.P. 78. 2. 85. 89. 104. Himachal Pr. 84. 102. 77. 86. M. 83.P. Tawa is tributary of Narmada Gujarat Maharashtra Rajasthan (Rawatbhata) Rajasthan (Kota) Churasigarh Fort at MP-Rajasthan border Uttar Pradesh J & K. JV between Kerala & Tamil Nadu Orissa. 81. 97. 92.P & Orissa Meghalaya J&K Punjab JV between MP.

Phosphorus & Humus Not very fertile.Ghanshyam Thori 9.17 8.94 Most fertile. Phosphoric Acid. Bolton of the east Manchester of South India Granary of South India Ahmedabad Coimbatore Thanjavur Crop State Prod % 15 14 13 11 35 Rice Wheat W.13 1. Arid Soils Saline Soils 6. phosphate & calcium Rich in phosphate Poor in Nitrogen & humus Known as Usara. Bandel Power Station Chandrapura Power Station Kolaghat Power Station Bakreshwar (Birbhum) Station Soils & Their Properties 1. Highly acidic. Lime & Organic matter Deficient in Nitrogen & Humus Also classified as Chernozem. 12. Peaty & Organic 2.62 5. Rich in Potash. 3. 2. Typical of tropical region with heavy rainfall Rich in iron oxide & potash Poor in nitrogen. Potassium & Magnesium Poor in Nitrogen & Calcium Normally heavy & black in colour. Alluvial Soils 22 West Bengal Bihar West Bengal West Bengal Geography Notes 2. Sandy loam in texture. Regur/Black Soils 30 3. Laterite Soils 2. Rich in organic matter Poor in phosphate & potash Acidic with low humus content Poor in potash. phosphorus & lime Sobriquets 1. Bengal UP Andhra Pr Punjab UP Agricultural Crops of India Prod Yield Rainfall (Mil Kg/Ha cm T) 87 1900 125-200 cm Temp Deg C >23 C Soil Deep Fertile Clayey or loamy soil Light loam 74 2700 80 cm 10-25 C 48 . 11. Reh or Kallar Contain a large proportion of Sodium. 6.29 7. lime & Aluminium Poor in Nitrogen. Clay content 50% Rich in iron. 10. Phosphorus & organic content Known as omnibus group. Forest Soils 7. Rich in oxides of iron Poor in Nitrogen. Red & Yellow Soils 28 4.

Ghanshyam Thori Punjab Haryana M.P.6 226 50-75 cm 21-30 C Million Maharashtra 15 Bales Andhra Pr 11 170 Kg Haryana 10 W.3 620 40-80 cm 20-25 C 300 70 tonne 150 cm 20-25 C Deep rich loamy soil Crop Cotton Jute Commercial & Plantation Crops of India State Prod Prod Yield Rainfall Temp % (Mil Kg/Ha Cm Deg C T) Gujarat 28 11.P. Rajasthan U. Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Karnataka 20 172 11 47 20 10 33 18 16 14 15 15 11 10 44 30 7 60 13 8 25 20 17 40 31 12 22 20 15 43 14 13 10 Geography Notes Sandy Loam Clay Loam 7.P.3 1350 14 3.P.P.P.1 1850 50-75 cm 21-27 C 1. U.7 770 30-65 cm 27-32 C Black clayey soil 7.P.1 720 40-50 cm 25-30 C Light sandy Shallow black Red upland soil Well drained alluvial or red loamy soil Light soil 12. Jowar Maharashtra Karnataka M. Karnataka Rajasthan Bihar/MP Barley UP Rajasthan MP Ragi Karnataka TamilNadu U./Gujar. M.P. Rajasthan Gram M. Bajra Rajasthan UP Gujarat Maharashtra Maize U.5 720 35-50 cm 20-25 C Drained loamy soil Range of soil 2. Sugarcane U. Pulses M.P.7 1750 70-90 cm 10-18 C 2.P.P. Bengal 75 10 1960 125-200 cm 25-35 C 49 Soil Black Soil Light sandy or . Tur/Arhar Maharashtra U.

6.3 5 620 50 cm 15-25 C 1000 50 cm 14-24 C Friable loamy Acidic Soil Well drained deep friable loams or Acidic Forest soil Well drained friable forest loam Deep. Maharashtra Rajasthan Tea Assam W. Gujarat. Gujarat (28 %).Ghanshyam Thori Bihar Assam Orissa Tobacco Andhra Pr. red. 4. Soyabeen M.3 960 150-250 cm 15-28 C 0.65 Geography Notes Clayey Loams 1400 50 cm 15-38 C 9. Black Pepper Chillies Turmeric Ginger Cardamom Arecanut Spices Kerala (97 %) Andhra Pradesh (37%) Andhra Pradesh (56%) Kerala (22). Tamil Nadu Sunflower Karnataka Maharashtra Andhra Pr.6 1600 300 cm 25-35 C 1. 3. 2. 7. 3. Maharashtra. Groundnut Gujarat Andra Pr. Tamil Nadu (28 %) 1. 5. Kerala (30%) Horticultural Crops 50 . Maharashtra (23%). yellow.P. Gujarat U. Ground Nut Rapeseed & Mustard Seasum Linseed Castorseed Soyabeen Sunflower Coconut Oilseeds Andhra Pradesh.P. W.P.P. Rajasthan Karnataka (47%). 2. Andhra Pradesh (17%) Kerala (45%). black soil Loamy soils 1. 8. 5.2 1220 50-100 cm 20-30 C Well Drained Friable sandy loams Sandy loam. Maharashtra Gujarat (82%) Madhya Pradesh (75%). Bengal Tamil Nadu Coffee Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu Rubber Kerala Tamil Nadu 14 9 1 31 29 23 33 15 22 47 23 17 75 13 9 55 22 15 71 21 8 90 Million Bales 180 kg .P. Tamil Nadu Rajasthan (45%). well drained loams 0. 4. U.78 1900 150-250 cm 25-30 C 0. M. Bengal U. Meghalaya (20%) Karnataka (57%) Karnataka (41%). 6.

Kharif Crops National Parks of India 1. Wandur National Park Andaman & Nicobar 2. Andhra Pradesh. Marine National Park Gujarat 23. Lentil. 6. Pin Valley National Park Himachal Pradesh 51 . Jute. Jowar is both a Kharif & Rabi Crop. Urad. Kishtwar National Park J&K 9. Accounts for 40 percent of all fruits Maharashtra (28%). Urad. Moong. Melon. Bihar. Jowar. Desert National Park Rajasthan 20. Hazaribagh National Park Jharkhand (Rhinoceros) 6. Genus from China Andhra Pradesh. Jalgaon district alone supplies more than 80 % of Maharashtra’s Banana Kerala (31%). Palamau National Park Jharkhand 5. Bihar (13) Andhra Pradesh. Cotton. Seasum.. 9. Soyabeen. Gujarat (10%). Bajra. Shivpuri National Park M. 15. Maharashtra (18%). Jowar. Dachigam National Park J & K – Kashmir Stag (Hangul) 7. Eravikulam National Park Kerala 11. M. Bandhavgarh National Park M. Moong.g.P. Ragi. U.P. 2. Native plant of Armenia. Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan 18. Manas National Park Assam 4. Madhav National Park M. Gram.P. Mango Banana Cashew Orange Grapes Guava Apple Potato Onion Geography Notes UP (32). Rapeseed. Andhra Pradesh (14%). Grapes are imported in India. Tur. Karnataka. West Bengal (33%) Maharashtra. Namdapha National Park Arunachal Pradesh 22. 7. Native plant of Tropical America J & K. Groundnut. Cucumber. Sariska National Park Rajasthan 21. Cashew is a genus of Brazil. 13. Kaziranga National Park Assam 3.P. Largest foreign exchange earner Maharashtra. Rabi Crops Wheat. 5.P. Pench National Park M. Barley. Indravati National Park Chhattisgarh 17. Hemis National Park J&K 8. 8. Maize. Silent Valley National Park Kerala 10. 14. Andhra Pradesh Types of Crops Rice.Ghanshyam Thori 1. Peas Zaid Crops Sown during march to June. Vegetables.Birds 16. Linseed. 3.P. Tamil Nadu. Mustard. Uttaranchal U. 4. E.P. Ranthambore National Park Rajasthan 19. . Kanha National Park M.P (35%). Himachal Pr. Water Melon. 12. Maharashtra.

9. 8. Tharparkar. Brown Swiss. Park Nandadevi National Park Dudhwa National Park Govind National Park Geography Notes Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Maharashtra Maharashtra (or Sanjay Gandhi National Park) Meghalaya Meghalaya Orissa Orissa Orissa Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal U. Wildlife Sanctuaries of India Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary Tamil Nadu Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary Assam Kaimur wildlife Sanctuary Bihar (largest) Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary Karnataka Periyar Wildlife sanctuary Kerala National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary M. 13. Jamnapuri. 12. 6. Deoni (Andhra Pr. 5.). 3. Siri. 39. Nagpuri.. 11. Sahiwal. 34. Jaisalmeri.P.P. Nagori. Murrah. Pugal. Exotic breeds – Holstein.P & Rajasthan Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary Maharashtra (Ahmednagar) Gomardha Wildlife Sanctuary Chhattisgarh Harike Headworks Punjab Jaldapara Wildlife sanctuary West Bengal Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary Haryana Raganathittu Wildlife Sanctuary Karnataka Madumalai Sanctuary Tamil Nadu Pulicat Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary U. 4. 33.P (Varanasi) Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctury Karnataka Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu 1. 19. 25. 28. 29. 16. Marwari. Bikaneri. U. 14. 2. 31. Bandipur National Park Nagarhole National Park Bannerghatta National Park Tadoba National Park Boriveli National Park Balpakram National Park Nokrek National Park Nandan Kanan National Park Chandka Elephant Reserve Simlipal Tiger Reserve Corbett National Park Rajaji National Park Valley of Flower N. Nali-Ravi. Mehsana. Rathi. 26. Friesian. Cow Buffalo Sheep Goats Breeds of Cattle Gir. Kathiawari.P. 27. U. 3. 4. 7. 17. Jersey. 10. 36. 18. Jaffrabadi.Ghanshyam Thori 24. 15. 30. Bhadawari. 35. 38. Barbari High Yielding Varieties of Seed 52 . 2. Red Sindhi. 1. 32. Surti. 37. Malvi.

Sharbati Sonora. Annapurna Ganga-101. Sanjay. 3. Railways & Waterways in India 67700 Km Broad Guage 137000 Km Meter Guage 12 Lakh Km Narrow Guage 15 Lakh Km Total Railway guage 30. Cauvery. Digvijay. Padma. 5. 1. Southern Railway Chennai 3. National Waterways-2 3. North-Western Railway Jaipur 6.T) 13. 4.P. Central Railway Mumbai (V. East Central Railway Hazipur 11. 5. Deccan Hybrid CSV-1 to CSV-7 Sharda V-797.Ghanshyam Thori 1. 53 . South-Central Railway Secundarabad 14. National Waterways-3 National Waterways Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogly system Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra system The west coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam along with the Udyogmandal & Champakar canals (All in Kerala). Sonalika. Krishna. 6. Arjun. Headquarters 1. Nothern Raiway Delhi 2. 2. South Eastern Railway Kolkata 15. 7. Wheat Rice Maize Jowar Ragi Cotton Geography Notes Kalyan Sona. 4. Hybrid 4. Jaya. Roads. South-Western Railway Bangalore 16. Eastern Raiway Kolkata 4. Varalaxmi. 4. IR-8. Virnar. 5. Extended from Bijapur to Dadri in U. National Waterways-1 2. East Coast Railway Bhubaneshwar 10. 2. Lerma. 2. Hamsa. 3. North-East Frontier Railway Guwahati 9.000 Km No of Trains 33 Lakh Km No of Stations 14500 Km Electrified route 1. West Central Railway Jabalpur 12. North-Eastern Railway Gorakhpur 8. 6. WL series. Deviraj. Western Railway Mumbai (Churchgate) 5. National Highways State Highways District Roads Village Roads Border Roads Total Roads Total Waterways 46800 km 13000 km 3100 km 63200 km 13500 7100 28% 1. Indian Railways. North-Central Railway Allahabad 7. 3.5. South-East Central Railway Bilaspur India Pipelines Naharkatiya Oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati – First pipeline Barauni-Kanpur pipeline for transport of refined petroleum Haldia-Maurgram-Rajbandh pipeline Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery in Gujarat Mumbai High Koyali pipeline Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline (1750 km). 6.

Coke. Agricultural Exports 7. 9. 10. Gold & Silver 8.0 % China 5 .P via Delhi for LPG transport (1250 Km) Airways-Internatioanal Airports Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Sahar) Indira Gandhi International Airport Anna International Airport (Meenambakam) Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Airport Raja Sansi Airport Needumbassery International Airport Dabolim International Airport Lokapriya Gopinat Bardoli International Airport Rajiv Gandhi International Airport Trivandrum International Airport Nedumbassery International Airport. Fish & Fish products lead agricultural exports accounting for 3.Ghanshyam Thori 7.4 % Belgium 4. Electronic goods 9% 5. 11. 9. Readymade Garments 3. 5. Edible Oils 3% 7. 8. 4. Kandla to Luni in U. Chemicals 4. 8. Lubricants (POL) 2. Chemicals 7% 6. 6. 5.1 % Switzerland 2. Capital goods 12 % 4. 7. 2. 8. Mumbai Delhi Chennai Kolkata Ahmedabad Amritsar Bangalore Goa Guwahati Hyderabad Thiruvananthapuram Kochi India’s Foreign Trade 27 % 1. Pearls & Precious stones 9% 2. 2. Cotton Textile 5. Geography Notes 1.7 % Hongkong 3.0% UK 4. 10. Petroleum. Oil.1 % of the total value.5 % 1. 12.0 % 17 % 13 % 11 % 8% 6% 13. Machine & Transport 6. India’s major trading partners USA 11. City Agra Badrinath Cuttack Dibrugarh Ferozpur Cities located on Rivers River Yamuna Alaknanda Mahanadi Brahmaputra Sutlej 54 State UP Uttranchal Orissa Assam Punjab . 3.6 % UAE 5.1 % Germany 3. 6.9 % Japan 3.5 % 3. 7. 4.4 % Singapore 3. Gems & Jewellery 1. Coal & briquettes 2% 8. 3.

3. Jharkhand). Hirapur & Burnpur. 4. & Sawai Madhopur leads in Rajasthan India is 3rd largest player after Italy & U. Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi). Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka. Raigad & Kochi) Top manufacturing states are M. Centers are Titagarh. Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat. Rishra. Others are Amritsar. Shyamnagar. M. Jute Textile Silk Textile Woolen Textile Heavy Industry 10. 6. HINDALCO (Renukoot). HMT (Bangalore. 55 5. 4% of GDP. Indian copper complex (Ghatsila. Hyderabad.P. Haora. 9. Pinjore in Haryana. Cotton Textile Sugar Industry Aluminum Industry Copper Smelting Industries of India IISCO has 3 plants at Kulti. 3. Eri (9%). NALCO (Koraput) HCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex. 7. Its varieties are Mulberry (88%). Ajmer & Sri Nagar).). Mettur). Kalamassery in Kerala. Heavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi). TELCO in Mumbai. Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd (Karnataka). Maharashtra) Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd (Rasayani. Cement Industry 14. Ashok Leyland in Chennai. Tassar (2%). Belgaum). Muga (1%) Punjab. Maharashtra & U. Pesticides 13. Serampore. Bajaj Tempo (Pune).P account for 75% production. Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai. Hindustan Insecticides Ltd (Delhi. Andhra Pr & Raj. 8.P. Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam) Mining & allied machinery corporation (Durgapur). Ludhiana. Hirakud. BALCO (Korba). Kerala & Rasayani. Leather Industry . National Instruments Factory at Kolkata.Ghanshyam Thori Guwahati Hyderabad Jabalpur Kanpur Kota Lucknow Ludhiana Nasik Pandharpur Patna Sambalpur Srinagar Surat Tiruchirapalli Varanasi Vijaywada Brahmaputra Musi Narmada Ganga Chambal Gomti Sutlej Godavari Bhima Ganga Mahanadi Jhelum Tapti Cauvery Ganga Krishna Assam AP MP UP Rajasthan UP Punjab Maharashtra Maharashtra Bihar Orissa J&K Gujarat Tamil Nadu UP AP Geography Notes 1. Madras Aluminium Company (MALCO. Maharashtra). Chhattisgarh. budge-budge. Durgapur & Bokaro. Dhariwal is most important centre. Kharar. Taloja copper project (Raigad. Machine Tools Corp of India (Ajmer). Machine Tools 11. INDAL (Alupuram.5 Crore population employed. Jamul is largest plant of M. Iron & Steel 2.P.S. Automobiles 12. Defense vehicles are produced at Jabalpur. Bhadreshware.

Rishra. Gurgaon. U. Hardwar). 21. Indian Telephone industries (Bangalore). Punjab. 24. Ballarpur (Maharshtra). has more than 50% installed capacity. Mazagaon Dock (Mumbai). Garden-Reach Shipbuilders (Kolkata).P.P & Maharashtra are the 4 largest in order. Titagarh (Bengal) Bhadravati. Hoshangabad (M. Kakinara. Aircraft industry Important centres are HAL-Bangalore. Hyderabad. Bangalore.P are others. Shibpur. 19.Patiala Railway wheels & Axels . Glass Industry 16. Tamil Nadu Rail Coach Factory – Kapurthala. Geography Notes 20. Titagarh. Hindustan Cables Factory (Rupnarainpur.P) Liquor Industry U. Pharmaceuticals IDPL – Rhishikesh.P. Maharashtra. Dandeli (Karnataka). Chennai. Tiruchirapalli. Goa Shipyard (Vasco). 18. 5. Belur. A. Mumbai-Pune rgion Hugli Industrial Belt Industrial Regions of India Tata hydel stations at Khopali. Bharat Electronics (Bangalore). Belgurriah.Namrup (Assam).Ghanshyam Thori 15. Pune – first public sector undertaking in this industry Zinc & Lead Hindustan Zinc Ltd at Debari. Hyderabad. 22. Shamnagar. Others are Koraput (Orissa) & Nasik. Triveni. 17. 23.Yalahanka (Banalore) & Durgapur. Ship Building Hindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam). Ramchandrapuram in A. Heavy Electricals BHEL (Bhopal. Bahjoi & Naini (Both in U. Durgapur. Sodepur. Other centres are Serampur. Tamil Nadu.P. Electronics corporation of India (Hyderabad) 4.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad for bangles. Satara. Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd – Trombay. Diesel Componets Works . Bansbaria. Rajasthan (both zinc & lead) Fertilizers FCI-Sindri Industry National Fertilizers Limited – Nangal Hindustan Fertilizer Corp Ltd. Railway Chittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) – West Bengal Equipments Diesel Locomotive works – Varanasi Integral Coach Factory – Perambur. Thal Gujarat. Paper Industry Rajmundhry (Andhra Pr). Lucknow. Bengal). Bhira & koyna Solapur. Jammu. Sangli & Ahmednagar From Naihati to Budge-Budge along left bank & Tribeni to Nalpur along right bank. 56 . Bhivpuri. Ms ABL at Durgapur. Muzzafarpur Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd – Pimpri.

Agra. Salem. 3. Khera. Durgapur.Ghanshyam Thori 6. 4. Nagpur. 7. Faridabad. Veddahs. Murmis. 5. Surendranagar. Koyali. Jaintia. Dhuvaran Thermal power station. Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior Chennai with Thane Important Industrial Centers of India Ferozabad Glass Bangles Mirzapur Pottery Jaipur Gems Industry Trivandrum Wood Carving Kadi Mineral Oil Korba Aluminium Bhatinda Fertilizers Lengh Km 2369 1932 1533 1490 1428 1270 NH-1 NH-1A NH 22 NH 28 A NH 35 NH 39 NH 3 NH 4 456 460 68 61 436 1. Madurai. Ranchi. 2. Chhotanagpur Region Gurgaon Delhi Meerut Six Largest National Highways National Highway Route NH 7 Varanasi-Kanyakumari NH 6 Kolkata & Dhule via Raipur. Daltonganj. Sholgas considere true representative. Chakmas. Rajkot. 4. Garo. Irulas. Racial Profile of India 1. NH 5 Baharagora-Chennai NH 2 Delhi-Kolkata NH 8 Delhi-Mumbai NH 17 Panvel-Edapally (Karnataka) Important National Highways Delhi to Amritsar via Ambala & Jallandhar Jallandhar & Uri via Jammu. Anand. Mandya. Mettur. Khasi. Sindri. Naga & Dafla Divided into: Palaeo-Mediterranean (or Dravidians) inhabiting 57 . Negritos Proto-Australoid Mongoloids Mediterranean Only on Andamans & Nicobar Includes Tribal group of central & southern India. Jamnagar Chaibasa. Surat. Dhanbad. Lipchas. Ukai hydro project. Mysore. 6. 2. Asansol. Hazaribagh. Maleveddahs. 7. Ambala. 3. Modinagar. Srinagar & Baramula Ambala to Shipkila on Indo china border Pipra to Nepal border Barasat-Bongaigaon-Indo Bangladesh border Numaligarh-Indo Burma border. Tiruchirapalli. 9. Dalmianagar. Valsad. Mathura 8. Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Ahmedabad-Vadodara Geography Notes Pykara project supplies electricity. Uttaran gas power station.

Its geographical area is around 58 . Kerala (9. Literacy Miscellaneous Facts A. They are divided into Alpinoids. Bihar (880). Death Rate 10. The north south extent is 3214km & E-W 2933 Km. Sex Ratio (933) Top in Parameter U.4%) Kerala Tamil Nadu Arunachal Pradesh (5%) Dadra & Nagar Haveli Arunachal (~200) Haryana (861). Growth Urban population 5. W. Mizoram. Parameter 1.P. 6. U.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes southern parts of India & True Mediterranean inhabiting northern & western part of the country. J&K. U. Kerala. Characterized by broad heads. Popln Growth 4. Maharasthra. Dinarics & Armenoids Inhabit parts of north India. Punjab. Maharashtra. Arunachal Pr. Mizoram. Proportion of Urban Populn 7. Bengal & Andhra Pr.P. Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT) 9. Population Density (324 per/Sq km) 3. They are mostly represented among the upper castes in northern India esp in Punjab Demographic Profile of India 5. Sikkim Andaman & Nicobar. Population (1027 million) 2. Growth rural population 6. India is the seventh largest country in the world. Punjab & Sikkim Daman & Diu Kerala (6 per thousand) Kerala Bihar (47%). Delhi (UTs) West Bengal (904). Brachycephals Nordics/Indo-Aryans S. Himachal Pradesh Lakshadweep (UT) Bottom in Parameter Sikkim. Infant Mortality Rate 11. Average size of Villages 8. Delhi Nagaland (64%). Mizoram. Goa.P. The mainland coastline is 6100 km long & including islands it is 7516 km long. Physiography: 1. Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Dadra & Nagar haveli Nagaland Goa (50%) Kerala (~15000 people) Kerala (1058) Pondicherry Orissa Orissa Kerala (91%). Jharkhand. Arunachal Pradesh & Goa Lakshadweep (UT) Arunachal Pr (13). Bihar. Coorgis & Parsis are representative.

The Garo. The northern part of the punjab plains adjoinin the shivaliks have witnesses intense erosion throgh boulder clanned streams called “Chos”. 3. The Indus Suture Zone. Ladakh range. Karakoram range has its highest in peak K2 (or Qagir named after Chinese occupation). Beyond this range lies the Tibetan or Tethys Himalayas beyond with lies the Indus Tsangpo suture zone. ISZ (or Indus-Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone) defines the zone of collision between the Indian Plate and the Ladakh Batholith to the north. Between the Pir Panjal & the Zaskar range lies the valley of kashmir. To the south of the central or the Inner Himalayas lies the lesser or lower Himalayas or Middle Himalayas & is separated from the Greater Himalayas by a structural zone called Main Central Thrust. 10. 4. Kailash & that of Ladakh range is Mt. Khadar is known as bet in punjab & Bhangar comprises of Kankars. Annapurna. North Cachar hills. The transhimalayas include the Karakoram & the Laddakh range. Raman Peak is situated in Arabian Sea 6. The thar desert has numerous features like dhrian (shifting sand dunes). Manipur Hills. sar (saline playa lakes). Bhabhar (in Punjab or Duars in Assam) lies to the north of Terai & is a pebble studded region which causes many steams to get lost underneath which re-emerge in the Terai belt. Geography Notes 33 lakh sq km (or 328. Cho Oyu. Karakoram range. 8. Zaskar range from north to south. In the pujab plain the area between rivers is called Doab & the river bluffs are called Dhayas. 11. Jaintia & the outlying Mikir & Rengma hills are structurally parts of peninsular plateau separated from the Indian peninsula by the Malda gap. The northernmost Himalayan ranges are called central Himalayas or Himadri. Important peaks of the Zaskar range are Kamet (highest). rohi (fertile tracts formed by rivers west of Aravallis) & dhands (alkaline lakes). Makalu. Rakaposhi. Narcondam & Barren Island are volcanic islands of India. Khasi. 7. The southernmost point (Indira Point) is 6 degree 30 minutes 2. Naga hills (Saramati is highest peak). 5. Kanchenjunga. The peaks above 8000 m in the himalayas in descending order are Mt Everest. The highest peak of Kailash range is Mt. Nanga Parbat. 9. Dhaulagiri. The east coast (or Coromandel coast) also known as Utkal ghat in orisssa & Payant ghat in Andhra & Tamil Nadu has two lagoon lakes (Pulicat lake north of Chennai & Chilka lake). Most of the sandalwood of India comes from Karnataka. In between the Lower Himalayas (Middle Himalayas) & the Shivaliks lies the Main Boundary Thrust. Mansalu.72 million hectares). Mizo hills (earlier known as Lushai hills) & the Tripura hills. The eastern ghats are 59 . Nanda Devi & Gurla Mandhata. The purvanchal (NE Himalayas) are divided into Purvu-NEFA (composed of Mishmi Hills & Patkai Bum).Ghanshyam Thori north latitude.

Dhupgarh is the highest peak in entire Satpuras. The Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu are the meeting point of the Eastern Ghats. Telangana plateau Meghalaya plateau. Its highest peak is Dodabeta & it also includes Ooty hill station. The Eastern Ghats are also known as Mehendragiri in Orissa. Madhya Bharat Pathar Malwa plateau. 4. The Satpura range has three parts: Rajpipla hills in the western part. The Telangana or Andhra plateau has two parts: the Telangana & Rayalseema upland. 8. 60 . The Chotanagpur plateau composed of granites & gneisses forms Jharkhand & is drained by Damodar. Porahat & Rajmahal. Western Ghats & southern hills. 14. 7. Vindhyan Scarplands. North Central Uplands South Cental Highlands Eastern Plateau Western plateau South Deccan Meghalaya Mikir Uplands Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Aravalli Range. 16.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes broader whant the western ghats. To the further east lies Bundelkhand upland. In karnataka the ghats are known as Kanara plain. 2. It has three lava hills of the Dalma. Western ghat is divided into kathiawar. Vindhyan range. Bhorghat (between kalian & lonavala) & Palghat are the gaps in Sahyadris. 15. Thalghat (Kasara to Igatpuri). Garhjat Hills Maharashtra plateau. Cochin is connected to interior through the Palghat gap. Southwards of Nilgiri & separated from them by the Palghat gap are the Annamalail Hills. The highest peak of Anaimudi is the central point from which the three ranges radiate: Cardamom hills to the south. Narmada valley Chotanagpur Plateau. Rajasthan Uplands. 17. It consists of Kayals (lagoons & backwaters largest being Vembnad lake). Mahadeo hills (highest peak Dhupgarh near Panchmarhi) in the central part & Maikala range (highest peak Amarkantak) in the eastern reaches. Mahanadi basin. Physiographic divisions of the Peninsular Upland 1. 3. 13. Madhya Bharat pathar is made of ancient vindhyan sediments through which the Chambal river has formed badland. Satpura range Karnataka plateau. 6. konkan & Malabar coast. North of Mahanadi lies the Baghelkhand plateau which is drained by tributaries of Son river. the Anamalai to the north & the Palni to the northeast. Mikir Hills 12. South of Chattisgarh basin (also called Mahanadi basin) lies a region of rugged topography called Dandakaranya plateau. Dandakaranya. Baghelkand plateau. Garhjat hills are also called Orissa highlands & have their highest peak in Mehendragiri. Western ghats are block mountains formed by the downwarping of a part of the land into the Arabian sea & are steeper towards west. 5.

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

18. The islands & passages from north to south are Coco Channel, North, middle & south Andamans, Duncan passage, little Andamans, Ten degree Channel, Car Nicobar, & Great Nicobar. In Lakshwadeep the sequence from north to south is Amindivi Island, Nine degree channel & Minicoy. B. Drainage: 19. Satluj, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, & Indus (Sri Ram called Jubiliant Indra) from south to north. Gomati, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi & Mahananda are from west to east. Chambal, Sind, Betwa, ken & Son are in that order from west to east. 20. Sanskrit names Indus (Sindu), Jhelum (Vitasta), Ravi (Parushini), Beas (Vipasa) & Satluj (Satadru). 21. In Bangladesh Tista joins Brahmaputra on the right bank from where it is known as Jamuna. 22. Subernarekha & Brahmani both arise in the Chhotanagpur plateau & lie to the north of Mahanadi. The Baitrani is another stream of this system & its source lies in the Keonjhar plateau. 23. Bharatuzha (or Ponnani) is the longest river of Kerala. Periyar is second largest & Pamba falls into the Vembanad Lake. The penner originates in Karnataka (Kolar) & flows through Andhra Pradesh. The Vaigai rises in kerala & receives diverted waters of the Periyar & ultimately joins Palk bay. 24. The dendritic pattern is best developed in the Indo Gangetic plains. Narmada flows between vidhyas & Satupura while Tapti lies to the south of Satpura. “Dhuandhar” falls (or marble falls) near Jabalpur on Narmada is famous. Pinnate pattern is found in Narmada & Tapti valleys. Naini Tal, Bhim Tal & Khewan Tal are Lakes of Kumaon. Kolleru lake is located in east Godavari district (A.P.). Loktak lake is in Manipur. Chitrakote falls is located on river Indravati in Bastar. 25. Cauveri is the least seasonal of all the rivers of the peninsular plateau. Karewas are lacustrine deposits of Kashmir. The Cardamom hills are part of Annamalai hills. 26. Lonar lake (Crater lake) is situated in Maharashtra. It is the largest crater in basaltic rock. Adams Bridge, is a narrow ridge of sand, mostly dry, which connects Mannar Island with Pamban Island C: Climate, Vegetation & Soil 27. Jet Steams are of two types: Westerly jet streams which blow from west to east at a height of 12 km & easterly jet steams which blow from east to west at 13 km above. The tropical easterly jet exists over India during summer & disintegrates during winter. 28. Kalbaisakhi in West Bengal, Bordoichilla in Assam & Mango Showers in Peninsula. Tropical Cyclones occur in India during monsoon period. The average annual rainfall in India is 125 cm & most of it is orographic in nature. 29. Tropic of Cancer passes through Mizoram, Tripura, W. Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, M.P. Rajasthan & Gujarat. Gulf of Mannar lies on the east coast of Tamil Nadu.

61

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

30. Other classifications of the climate of India were given by Subramanyam & Sivaramakrishnaiah (discomfortable to most comfortable), Kendrew & Stamp (18 C isotherm basis), BLC Johnson. 31. Jowar & Ragi are very popular on red soils. 32. Tropical Deciduous is the most widely distributed vegetation in India. Lakshwadeep has zero percent forest area & Andamans & Nicobar Islands have 87 percent. Mizoram, Arunachal & Nagaland have more than 80 percent forest cover. J & k has around one percent. Maximum Teak & Sal come from the forests of M.P & Chhattisgarh. 33. The term social forestry was first used by National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 & involves planting trees on farms among other things. 34. Kaziranga National Park, Keoladeo National Park, Nanda Devi Biosphere reserve, Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve are identified as having outstanding universal value. 35. The biosphere reserves of India in order of their establishment from oldest to recent are Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek (Meghalaya), Great Nicobar Islands, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, Sunderbans, Simlipal (Orissa), Dibru-Saikhowa (Assam), Dehang-Debang (Arunachal), Pachmarhi, Khangchendzonga, Agasthyamalai 36. Magnetite occurs at Daltonganj in palamau district (Jharkhand). 37. Net sown area is around 46 % of total land in area. In India net sown area is 142 million hectares & total cropped area is 187 million hectares. Ludhiana has highest yields of wheat & west Godavari is most important for rice cultivation in Andhra Pr. Pearl fishing is done at Tuticorin. 38. The contributors to petroleum production are Mumbai (65 %), Gujarat (18 %), Assam (16 %) & Tamil Nadu (1.37 %). Same trend of states is there in case of gas production with a little different %ages. 39. Petroleum Refining is done at Guwahati, Barauni, Koyali, Haldia, Mathura, Digboi, Panipat, Chennai, Narimanam, Bongaigaon, Mumbai (HPCL, BPCL), Vishakhapatnam, Kochi, Numaligarh (Assam) & Tatipaka (ONGC-Andhra Pr). Tertiary coal is better than Gondwana coal. 40. Jharia coalfield (Dhanbad district, Jharkhand) alone accounts for 35 % of Indian production. 41. Only a few non-metallic minerals are significant in the mining economy. Limestone accounts alone for two-thirds of the total value under the group. 42. Nuclear power plants in India are at Tarapur, Rawatbhata, Kalpakkam, Narora (UP), Kaiga (Karnataka) & Kakarapara (Gujarat). Requirements for these reactors are fulfilled by the Nuclear Fuel complex located at Hyderabad & Heavy water plant at Vadodara. Eight heavy water plants are operational in India at Vadodara, Thal, Nangal, Tuticorin, Kota, Talcher, Hazira, Manuguro. A number of research reactors have

62

Ghanshyam Thori & Kamini.

Geography Notes

been built to carry R&D in this field which include Apsara, Cirus, Zerlina, Purnima (I, II, & III), Dhruva

43. India is fifth in wind energy after Germany, USA, Denmark & Spain. Asia’s largest wind farm is located at Lamba in Gujarat. Tamil Nadu has highest installation of wind turbines. 44. Geothermal energy – Tattapani field (Chhattisgarh), Puga Valley (J & K), Manikaran Area (H.P.) 45. The farourable sites for ocean energy are Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kachchh & estuary of Hugli. India’s first tidal power plant is at Kandla. The fist solar energy plant & solar plant both are at Bhuj. 46. Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline transports liquid gas from the South Bassein offshore field off Mumbai to Jagdishpur and Aonla, deep in the mainland in Uttar Pradesh. 47. Cropped area in a year under consideration is known as net sown area. The gross cultivated area includes the net sown area used more than once a year. Cropping intensity is given by total cropped area divided by net sown area. 48. West Bengal produces three crops of rice every year viz Aus, Aaman & Boro. Arabica coffee is grown at an altitude of around 750-1500 metres & Robusta around 300-600 metres. 49. The largest producing state for silk is Karnataka (60%), Andhra Pradesh (17%), Assam & Bihar. The fertilizer consumption is highest for Punjab (185 kg/ha), followed by Tamil Nadu & Andra Pradesh. Orissa has the lowest consumption. 50. Irrigation in India – Wells & Tubewell (56%), Canal (32%), Tank (6%) , Others (6.5%). Uttar Pradesh leads in Canal irrigation as well as Tubewell irrigation. Andhra Pradesh leads in Tank Irrigation. Tamil Nadu has developed highest proportion of its irrigation potential (95%). 51. The fish production in India during 2004-05 was around 6.4 Million Tonnes. Inland fisheries account for around 50 % of the total fish cash. Kerala leads in marine fish catch. 52. India with 18.5 crore cattle and 10 crore buffaloes ranks first in cattle and buffalo population in the world. India accounts for 15 % of world’s cattle & 57% of world’s buffalo population. 53. Mulching (ploughing in of crops), retting (fresh water treatment of Jute) & ratooning (using the same root for crop growth as in sugarcane) are some of the practices of agriculture. 54. Eutrophication is a process where water bodies receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth choking weaker species & altering species composition. 55. The scientific name of Teak (Tectona Grandis) & Sal (Shorea Robusta). Sal is used for railway sleepers & Deodar for pencils 56. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides for the conservation and wise use of wetlands

63

Dandakarnya is known for iron-ore deposits. Buckingham Canal in Andhra Pradesh & Cumberjua Canal in Goa were once very important. Rail route per unit area is highest in Punjab and least for J&K. & Durgapur (W.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 57. 62. 66. India has over two million square km of EEZ. Cochin shipyard is the largest in India & built with Japanese assistance. The New Mangalore port is used to export iron ore from Kudremukh & iron ore from Bailadila (Chhattisgarh) is exported through Vishakhapatnam port. Rourkela (Orisaa). Tuticorin. Marmagao port is situated at the entrance of the estuary of river Zuari in Goa. It has Asia’s longest rail tunnel. Mangalore. Bangalore also manufacture rail coaches & electrical multiple units. 58. Grand Anicut canal is in Thanjuvar.5 lakh post offices. Vishakhapatnam. Metro Channel (light blue box). 60. Konkan railway runs from Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka (760 Km long). Tamil Nadu.P & defense vehicles from Jabalpur. Chennai.P. Mumbai. Maharasthra is the state with highest road length followed by Tamil Nadu. Rajdani channel (yellow boxes) for letters emanating from Delhi for state capitals.P & U. M. Prasar Bharati was created by merging Door-Darshan & All India radio in 1997. Bengal) & two aluminium plants were established at Hirakud (INDAL) & Renukoot (Hinalco). Maharashtra (53) has the maximum no of minor ports (184 in all). 63. During the second five year plan. Kochi. Haldia decongests Kolkata & Ennore (25 Km north of Chennai & newest port) helps Chennai (Artificial shallow port) tackling its cargo. followed by Gujarat (40). Haldia. The east-west corridor extends from Silcher in Assam to Porbander in Gujarat. Overall share of Indian Vessels in overseas trade is 32 % only. Currency paper comed from Hoshangabad in M. 64 . During the fourth plan a steel plant was set up at Bokaro (Jharkhand). M/s Jessops. Indian postal system is the largest in the world with more than 1. Kerala has the highest density of roads & J&K has the least. Nhava Sheva. 65. 64. Goa has the highest density of surfaced roads. Most of the gold in India occurs in the form of veins in Dharwar schists. Iron & Steel plants were set up at Bhilai (Chhattisgarh). Paradip. 61. Kolkata. India imports 40 % of its copper requirement from abroad. QMS was introduced in 1975 & works on the basis of PIN numbers. The Bhilai & Bokaro steel plants were built with Russian collaboration & they are the two biggest in that order. Ennore (newest). Mormugao. The ports are Kandla. The Vishakhapatnam steel project is the first on-shore steel project built during 6th plan. Rail route per unit population is highest for Gujarat & lowest for Tripura. Jawaharlal Nehru port has been developed at Nhava Sheva off the Mumbai port. Paradip (Orissa) has the deepest harbour. Kolkata & Bharat Earth Movers Limited. 59.

22 %. 70. 65 . M. Among UTs highest SC population is in Delhi. 71. Foreign Debt is around 18% of GDP. 68. Sex ratio registered sharpest decline during 1961-71. India’s Diesel power stations are located at Naharkatiya (Assam). The sex ratio of the country is 933. 75. Cow 46%.P & Bihar & West Bengal. Barauni (Bihar).8%).P has the largest number of cattle followed by U. Punjab.P followed by West Bengal.6 % of world trade. The first Fertilizer-manufacturing unit was set up in 1906 at Ranipet near Chennai. Birth & Enumeration respectively.7 % of GDP. It is just 0. 77. Trade deficit is around 6500 crores. Goa (376 people only) has the least ST population. Haryana experienced an increase in the population growth rate during the period 1991-2001. Surat has the distinction of experiencing the highest growth rate among the 35 metropolitan cities during 1991-2001. Mizoram (95%) & Lakshadweep (93%) have the highest percentage of tribal population. India’s age composition is 0-15 years (36. Punjab has the highest proportion of scheduled caste. Proportion of main workers (>183 days employment a year) is lowest in Kerala (26%) & highest in Arunachal Pradesh (38%). There is no scheduled caste population in Nagaland & Andamans. Dhuvaran (Gujarat) & Trombay. 74. Haryana have no ST population. General Fertility ratio is the number of live births in a year per thousand of women of normal reproductive age group. 73.78% & rural 72. The infant mortality rate is expressed as the number of deaths of children below one year per thousand of live births. 76. Marginal workers (8. Exports are around 10. Maternal mortality rate refers to the number of female deaths due to maternity causes per ten thousand of live births.5%). Goats 4%).Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 67. India produces around 90 million tonnes of milk every year (Buffalo 50%.5 %).8 %). Scheduled caste – highest population in U. Percentage of Urban population in India is 27. The dependency ratio is higher in rural areas than urban. Madurai grew with the slowest pace. It is 8th largest debted country in the world. Primary.7%) & non-workers (60. Tamil Nadu has the highest urbanization among the top ten populous states. India’s imports stand at around 36000 crores & exports at 29300 crores. Madhya Pradesh has the highest tribal population followed by Maharashtra & Orissa. 72.7%) & above 60 (6. There is no doubt that more males are born than the females in case of all mammals including humans all over the world. Replacement or reproduction ratio is the number of female babies born per thousand of female population in the reproductive age group. 69. 15-59 years (56. In India the workers are: main workers (30. Rural areas have more favourable sex ratio (946) compared to 901 of urban areas. Secondary & Tertiary sex ratio refers to the sex ratio at conception.

85 . Sino Tibetan languages prevalent in North eastern states: Tibeto Himalayan (Bhutia.3 15 IV V VI 10.52 km. The 35 million cities of India support more around 38 % of the total urban population.000-9. 79.999 Less than 5000 8. Chhattisgarh & Orissa do not have million cities. Konkani.P in that order. Miri & Abor) & Naga-Myanmari (Bodo. The proportion of children of eligible age group enrolled in primary schools is lowest in Uttar Pradesh & highest in Sikkim. Dafla.34 % during 1991 . Marathi.08 2. Sindhi. 66 .2001.38 %.5%). The proportion of slums population to total population is highest in Meghalaya (41%) & lowest in Kerala (1. 84. Nepali.53 % in Bihar to 90. Environmental Imact I = PAT (population * Affluence * Harmful technology used in production).000-19. Literacy is 80 % in Urban areas & 60 % in rural areas. Lowest literacy levels are 47.85 % & Female 54.48 12. followed by 200-499 (24.8%). Maharashtra has highest slum population. 82. The maximum proportion of no of villages fall in the 500-999 category (25%). Christian (2. Dravidian group includes Tamil.000 & More 50. Telugu & Malayalam.999 61. Oriya. Bengali. 80.4%).000-49. Poverty is higher in rural areas. Average density of villages is highest in West Bengal. Male literacy is 75. Buddhist & Jain in Maharashtra 81. Jharkhand & Western Satpura. Malayalam. According to 2001 census: Hindu (80.000 20. North Indian languages including Gujrati. However the maximum population percentage is in 2000-5000 (30%) & 1000-2000 (26%).16 %. The population of the country rose by 21.3%) & less than 200 (18%). Urban Population Distribution in Different Cities & Towns I II III 100. Tamil.999 5. Arunachal (Aka. For whole India.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 78. Kannada. Gujarati. India grew at a rate of 1.3%) & Sikh (1.29 83.8%). Hindu population proportion is highest in Himachal. Bihar & U. Overall literacy of India is 65. Assamese. Christians in Kerala. Manipuri. Kashmiri & Sanskrit. Teulgu. Urdu. The scheduled languages arranged in descending order of the number of speakers is Hindi.93 % during the period 1991-2001. the average distance among villages is 2.000-99.92 % in Kerala. Kannada. Marathi. & Assamese belong to Aryan group. Kinnauri). Naga & Kuku group). 85. Among the million plus cities highest proportion of slum population is in Mumbai & least in Patna. Oriya. Muslim (13. 86. Muslim in J&K. Bengali. Austric languages are spoken by tribal groups of Meghalaya.

82 Indian Geograhphy –TMH-Surendra Singh) Pratyogita Darpan page 287. The highest Christian population is in Nagaland. Rabaris are pastoralists in Gujarat. “Ahal-al-Bagiya”. 10. Odyssey “Ges-Periodos” – Description of the earth Ekumene Geographica Almagest or Syntaxis (on astronomy) The outline of geography (consisted of Graticule for place location) Historia Naturalis De Chorographica A book of routes & realms Kitab-al-Ashkal “Kitab-Miraj-al Dhahab”. Moreover sanctuaries are species 89. Geography Notes 87. 15. Refer TMH guide for tables to be pasted Important Works of Geographers 1. Cities situated on river banks. 6. Histoire naturelle (compendium about earth & living things) 20. 13. “Rashikat-al-Hind” Amusement for Him who desires to travel around the world Roger’s Book Rihlah “Muqaddimah” – Introduction to world history Panch Siddhantika Siddhant Tatwavivek Introduction to Universal Geography Geography delineated forth in two bookes Homer Hecataeus Eratosthenes. 4. 16. 18. Illiad. Human activities are allowed in Sanctuary but not in National parks. Badrinath is situated on the banks of river Alaknanda. Essential Extra Reference • • • • • List of National highways (page 15. 12. “Tarik-ul-Hind”. 14. “Kitab-Akhbaral-Zaman” & “Kitab-al-Ausat” “Kitab-al-Hind”. 9.Ghanshyam Thori specific while National parks are habitat oriented. “Description regni Lapaniate et Siam” 67 . 8. “Kitab-al-Saydna”. “Kitab-al-Tanbhwal Ishraf”. Strabo Ptolemy Pliny Pomponius Mela Ibn Huakal Al Balkhi Al-Masudi Al-Biruni Al-Idrisi Ibn Batuta Ibn-Khaldun Varahmihira Kamlakar Cluvarius Nathaneal Carpenter Comte de Buffon Varenius Varenius 19. Geographia Generalis 21. “Al-Qanum-al-Masudi”. “Kitab-alJamakhir”. Largest number of villages is in U. 11. 88. 2. 17. 5. 3.g Firozabad glass). Million cities of India (Geography Notes) Cities in India & their industry (E.P. 7.

General Natural history & theory of Heavens 25. Morphology of the landscape 40. The pulse of Asia’.Ghanshyam Thori 22. Les Sciences Geographiques 35. A Handbook of Physical Geography. 37. ‘Traite de Geographique Physique’. Foundations of Regional Geography 31. ‘Transport geography’. Geographic perspective on Urban systems 45. Physiography 41. 44. 56. “American Universal Geography” 68 Geography Notes Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant Humboldt Carl Ritter Friedrich Ratzel Oscar Peschel Alfred Hettner Hettner Vidal Blache Jean Brunhes Elisee Reclus Camille Vallaux Albert Demangeon Ellen C. Atlas de France 57. ‘American history & its geographical conditions’. ‘Civilization & Climate’. 48. Supan (German) De Martonne Margarie & De Martonne Jedidiah Morse . Tableau de la geographie de la France 54. ‘Political Geography’ 28. Ankundingung 24. Salisbury Mackinder Mackinder Nicholas Spykman B. ‘Models in human geography’. ‘Economic Geography’ 30. 29. “Kosmos” & “Relation Historique” 26. Heartland Theory ’. Guiding principles of General Political Geography 55. Berry Ian Burton R. The geographical pivot of history 43. Semple Huntington. Rollin D. The makers of modern geography 47. Geographical introduction to history 53. Handbook of commercial geography 50. Cities in Evolution 51. Problems de Geographie Humaine 36. ‘Principles of Human Geography’. The geography of the central Andes 39. Geography: A modern synthesis 49. Essays on Methodology Europe: A Geographical. ‘Travel in the Columbian Andes’. “Geography made easy”. Americas strategy in world’s politics Geography of the peace. ‘Influences of Geographical Environment’. Isaiah Bowman Carl O’ Sauer. The quantitative revolution & theoretical geography 46. ‘Das Ausland’ (editor) & ‘Geschichte der Erdkunde’.‘ Britain & the British Seas’ & ‘Democratic Ideals & Reality’ 42. ‘Geography: Its history character & methods’ . Geographie Humaine: Essai de classification positive 33. History of Civilization of England 52.L. ‘A geography of man’ . “Critique of Pure Reason”. “Critique of Judgement” & “Anthropology from pragmatic point of view” 23. ‘Locational Analysis in Human Geography’ & ‘Frontiers of geographical teaching’. ‘Anthropogeographie’. ‘Principles de Geographie Humaine’ 32. La Terra 34. 6 maps of Europe. 38. ‘Erdkunde’. Historical & Statistical Painting 27. Dickinson Hagget & Chorley Hagget Chisholm Partrick Geddes Buckle Lucien Febvre Blache A.J.E.

8. 5. Stouffer The isolated state Von Thunen Space & Place in human geography Yi-Fu Tuan The spirit & purpose of geography S. 63. 1. Thales 69 1. 71. Homer 2. 9. 72. 2. 65. 73. 7. 10. 4. Stamp The development of social physics John Q. 75. Lucien Febvre.) Anaximander . Everywhere man contributes in inverting the physiognomy of earth Brunhes Geography is the mirror & reveals essence of human existence & striving Yi Fu Tuan Humanism is a conviction that men & women can best improve their lives Ralph by thinking & acting for themselves & especially by excercising their capacity for reason. First to draw a map of the world to scale with Greece at center. 69. Believed earth to be a circular floor surrounded by oceans on all sides. Geography Notes 12. Ellen Semple ‘Man is a geographical agent & not the least.Ghanshyam Thori 58. 68. 62. 64. Contributions of Greeks “Father of Geography” in Greek period. Water essence of all matter. Earth disc floating in water.E James The structure of scientific revolution Thomas Kuhn The economics of location August Losch Limits to growth Dennis Meadows The city in history Lewis Mumford Spatial Organization of society R. Boreas (N). Morill (A) Some aspects of Medical Geography (B) Asia L. Thales (624-548 B. Reported magnetism of a loadstone. The American Geography Nature of Geography Hartshorne Perspectives on the nature of geography Hartshorne The decision process in spatial context Julian Wolpert Regional geography of India R. 61.D. 3. often obdurate in their control Semple Routes through which people have migrated have impressed upon their Demolins. Singh The geography of Puranas S. ‘Man is the product of the earth’s surface’. Notus (S). 11. 66.’ Lucien Febvre ‘There are no necessities but everywhere possibilities’. Zephyrus (W) winds Six Geometric Theorems. 6. Ali The nature of Cities Harris & Ullman Explanations in Geography (b) Social justice & the city David Harvey All possible worlds Preston .L. Woolridge Famous quotations ‘Geography is concerned to provide accurate. orderly & rational Hartshorne description & interpretation of the variable character of earth suface’. social characteristics Supreme achievements of civilization were bounded by climate Huntington. 67. M. Introduction of ‘Gnomon’ – today called sundial. Eurus(E). Disciple of Thales. 59. 3. We should study the earth as if we were sitting in a balloon & looking Brunhes down upon it. Wrote Illiad & Odyssey. ‘Mutually coordinated & not subordinated in space’ – on Possibilism Hettner Climatic influences are persistent. Stewart Intervening Oppurtunities S. 70.C. 76. 74. 60.

Polybius 14. First to divide the world into three land masses. First great historian. Strabo (64 BC-20 AD) 2. Interested mainly in physical geography. Originated literary tradition in geography. First to announce the concept of round earth located in the centre of the universe with celestial bodies revolving around it. political & historical. Invented Astrolabe to determine latitude using pole star. He was basically a regional geographer. First to draw Bay of Bengal & Volga (Rha) on his map. Ptolemy (90-168 AD) 3. Opposed Hecataeus. Pomponius Mela 70 . He divided geography into – physical. 5. Wrote Ekumene in which he accepted two torrid zone. mathematical. Periplus of Scylax-shores of Mediterranean & Periplus of Arrian- 8. pole star). Special interest was in meteorology. Considered earth as circular plate in water. Considered earth as oblong. First to draw a meridian on the world map. Wrested with the problem of showing curved surface area on a flat surface. Hipparachus 15. Mathematical geographer & Astronomer. Pointed equator as a great circle & longitude too. Wrote a book ‘the Ocean’ & was considered an authority on oceanography. First writer in Greek prose. 10. Asia & Libya Master of deductive reasoning. First correct explanation of Nile’s flood. Interested in mathematical geography Studied with Aristotle for only 3 years. Nile mud causes delta & winds blow from colder places to warmer places. Calculation of the circumference of the earth. Earth was a sphere that remained stationery in the center while the celestial bodies moved around it (remained accepted till 17th century-Copernicus). Eratosthenes (276-194 BC) 13. Refuted the idea that equator region was uninhabitable. Designed orthographic & stereographic projections. First to divide a circle into 360 degrees. Equatorial land was considered uninhabitable. Considered India ocean to be enclosed on the south by unknown land (Terra Incognita). 7. Far ahead in map projections & map improvements.Ghanshyam Thori 4. Wrote “Ges-Periodos”. Defined grid of latitude & longitude. Accepted Plato’s concept of spherical earth & sought explanation for it (eclipse. Introduced a theory of origin of universe based on atoms in the void. Theophrastus 12. Posidonius 1. 6 books on Asia & one on Africa. Regarded Caspian sea as an inland sea. Discovered the precision of the equinoxes. Plato (428-348 BC) Aristotle (384-322 BC) 9.Europe. 6. Succeeded Eratosthenes as chief Librarian. Roman Geographers Most of the earlier scholar’s works disappeared. Democritus Pythagoras Hecataeus Herodotus Geography Notes & Anaximander founded mathematical geography. 8 books on Europe. Rotation of earth on its axis. Father of Geography & coined the term “Geography”. Laid the foundation of regional geography. Defended Homer’s work & discarded Herodotus. Master of inductive thought. two temperate & two frizid zones. Alexander 11. Interested in political geography. He improved on Aristotle by giving mathematical boundaries to these zones.

Niger-Correction of several mountain ranges Confirmed Ibn Haukal that equatorial region was habitable. Saka dwipa (Burma. “A book of routes & realms”. First climatic Atlas of the world. Covered 75000 miles – a world record. Repeated the mistake of uninhabitable equatorial zone. 71 . Compedium of geography that dealt with a theory of culture. Kitab-Miraj-al Dhahab. 5. 3. The first reference to Bhogol in Indian Literature is found in Suryasiddhanta & in the Padma Puranas a distinction has been made between Bhogol (Geography). Other dwipas were kusu dwipa (Iran. River Sita (Hwang Ho) lies on the eastern side of Meru. Al-Maqdisi Al. Ibn-Batuta 9. Said that the Caspian is not connected to the Northern Sea by channel. Plaska dwipa (Mediterranean). Emphasized & wrote on man-environment relationship. Division of world into 14 climatic regions. Sumatra. and Indonesia) & Salmali dwipa. Visited China.Geography of India in which he described significance of rounded stone. Kitab-Akhbar-alZaman & Kitab-al-Ausat. Tides caused by moons. Towards the south pole night ceases to exist. “Kitab-al-Ashkal” Monsoon description. Mountains are raised & immediately exposed to erosional process. Ceylon. 6. Ibn Haukal (943-978 AD) Al Balkhi Al-Masudi 2. The southern dwipa was named Jambu. Maldives. Kitab-al-Tanbhwal Ishraf.Biruni (973-1039 AD) Ibn Sina or Avicenna 6. Widely quoted in works of Pliny the elder. 10. Kraunca dwipa (area above black sea). Southern hemisphere was open ocean “Kitab-al-Hind”.Nature efforts to create life ending in Failure Extensive correction of erroneous ideas handed down from Ptolemy Corrects idea of enclosed Indian ocean & Caspian sea as gulf. Noted people in considerable numbers in equatorial regions. Khogol (the space science) & Jyotishastra. Arabia). The ancient Indian literature has a reference of seven dwipas or continents.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Black Sea (guidelines to ship captains). Marcus Tarantius Varro Pliny Solinus 1. 2. Food form virgin earth-Pastralism-Agriculture-Contemporary culture. Served Mongol emperor at Delhi. Position of Danube. Al Idrisi at Palermo 8. Divided the world into 7 regions based on languges. Puskara dwipa (Russia-east of Urals). Described evaporation & condensation. 5. Contribution of Arabs Traveled extensively in last 30 years. Himalayas source of perennial river Knowledge of Landforms – Mountain streams cutting down the valley in Central Asia. Wrote “Historia Naturalis” General geographical account of the world. Ibn-Khaldun Contribution of Indian Geographers 1. 7. Descried the house types & building materials in deserts. Noticed that meridians also affect climate. 4. The Meru (Pamir knot) lying in the center of the Jambu was heaven. Vietnam. 4. ‘Fossils’. Thailand.

6. Wrote Geographia Generalis. The spherical shape of the earth was visualized by the Aitareya Brahmana who stated that the sun neither sets 4.Ghanshyam Thori nor rises. Coined the term “Cosmography” & divided it Humboldt into Uranography (astronomy). Explored virgin lands of Siberia. Father & son in that order. Gave logical classification (similar origin) & physical classification (same time). Believed in empirical. comparative & inductive method. His “Kosmos” talked about universe & geographical thought since Egyptians. Divided regions of Latin America into botanical provinces. Explored Orinoco & established its connection with Amazon. concept of Continentality. The chapters of geography in Puranas have been called Bhuvankosh. geography (physical feature) & Concept of (1769-1859 AD) whole (visualized earth as inseparable whole). Lake Valenica in Venezuela was shrinking due to deforestation. established correlation between forest & rainfall. prourit (rainy season). Geography was chorological & history – chronological. Wrote introduction to universal geography. Said that generalization in the form of laws is useless in geography & regarded it as as “Idiographic”. Physical classification gives the basis for geography & history. Accompanied Captain Cook on his voyage. 2. Laid down the foundation of the Bernhard Varen dichotomy of “Systematic Vs Regional Geography. Concluded that graphite. Stressed on land (1779-1859 AD) & water hemispheres. Humboldt or Peruvian current. Carl Ritter Was a teleologist. Vasanta (spring). Immanuel Kant German. Relative (Planetary-earth relationship with other parts) & the Comparative (location.e. Identified physical geography as including not only natural features but also man.R. In his ‘Relation Historique’ he laid down the foundation of plant geography. There method of working has been often named ‘comparative method’. 72 . geography & history are methodologically distinct from other sciences. Coined the term “Permafrost” Extensive studies of Ecuadorian volcanoes. Forster & J. distinction between the rates of cooling of land & Cluvarius 3. J. Divided general or (1622-1650) systematic geography into Absolute (terrestrial). Temperature variation at same latitude with distance from sun. Map showing isotherms (invention). Gave the concept of “Unity in Diversity”. Alexander Von “Father of Modern Geography”. gneiss are of volcanic origin. Pre-Modern Period 1. Akshansa (latitudes) & Deshantara (longitude) were known. description of vertical zones of Andes. Believed in heliocentric concept of Copernicus. Exact longitude calculation for Lima. navigation) parts. Kepler & Galileo. Professor of Geography at the university of Konigsberg. German geographer of 17th century. Laid down the foundation of “Exceptionalism” in Geography i. Varenius or German. Visited G. Emphasized & wrote on regional geog. Affect of altitude. Geography Notes 3. World as perceived by inner senses is soul & by outer senses is nature. Gave (1724-1804) philosophical dimension to geography. sarad (autumn) & hemanta (severe winter). 4. Forster Volga steppe on invitation of the Russian government. 5. Advocated highest temperatures in tropics rather than equator.

Wrote ‘La Terra’. Ferdinand Von First to identify “Loess” in China. Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904 AD) French School of Thought Founder of Human Geography. ‘Anthropogeographie’ talked about the effects of different physical features on the life of people. Supported Possibilism. He also gave the stages through which human society passes. Disciple of Carl Ritter & a determinist. America. Waibel. Jean Brunhes 3. Wrote ‘Political Geography’ where he compared state to an organism & persuaded Germany to expand. Elise Reclus De Martonne . Chiefly concerned with the studies of human geography. Wrote. He divided human geography into unproductive occupation of the soil. ‘Pays’ as basic homogenous region to study as opposed to drainage basins. Gustav Brown. Defined geography as empirical science rather than deductive. 6. 4. He was an armchair geographer. Major work in physical geography. Revived the concept of geography as chorology. It earned him the title of ‘founder of political geography’. Asia & Africa covered but not Europe. Studied modes of life of Germans outside Germany. Son in law of Blache. Vidal de la Blache (1848-1918 AD) 2. Published two books on N. Contributed very much to the development of geomorphology through a study of relief types. Wrote “Erdkunde” meaning science of the earth. Application of Darwin’s concept to human species called ‘Social Darwinism’. 2. Wrote ‘Traite 73 1. 5. Alfred Hettner Disciple of Ratzel & Richthofen. He objected to chorological definition of geography. He developed the idea of ‘Terrestrial Unity’. Plants & animal conquest & destructive exploitation.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes water. It was his policy of ‘Lebensraum’ or living space that urged to expand-Organic theory of State. ‘Principles de Geographie Humaine’. 4. Oscar Peschel First professor at university of Leipzig after Ritters death. Published ‘Geography: Its history character & methods’. Karl Haushofer & Walther Christaller. 1. ‘Annals de Geographie’. Was a professor at university of Frankfurt & Berlin & founded the “Berlin Geographical Society”. Otto Schluter Hettner-Schluter controversy. Albrecht Penck First use of the term ‘geomorphology’. Wrote ‘Geographie Humaine: Essai de classification positive’. Sapper. Penck’s ideas inspired Koppen. Editor of ‘Das Ausland’ & wrote ‘Geschichte der Erdkunde’. Other German geographers were Obst. Geography as “Landshatskunde” (landscape science) became popular during his period. It was Schluter who applied the term ‘Landshaftskunde’ to describe the concept of geography. He rejected the idea of ‘Pure Geography’(Reine Geography) & said that history & geography must always remain inseparable. 3. His studies of China were published in Richthofen five volumes. Identified each continent with a different race. Founded a journal called. Coined the term “Anthropogeography” Protagonist of Determinism. Andree. German School of Thought Worked at university of Munich & Leipzig. Gave the concept of “Terrestrial Harmonies’ – Man & his environment.

Gave the concept of ‘urban conurbation. Activist of the possibilistic movement. Interested in rural settlements. Camille Vallaux Wrote ‘Les Sciences Geographiques’. 3. Morris Davis (1850-1934 AD) 3. ‘General Geography’. J. Published. Jedidiah Morse W. Jefferson. 5. 4. He added subsequent. 6. ‘primate city’ & ‘civilizing rails’. British School of Thought ‘Heartland Theory ’. A. 7. Her version of Ratzel’s Anthropogeographie was. Concept of ‘central place’. Al-Idrisi. ‘The pulse of Asia’. Her first book was. Wrote. Ancel American School of Thought Father of American Geography. He published his ideas in ‘Physiography’. Ellen Churchill Semple (1863-1932) Ellsworth Huntington 5. Aristotle. 74 . Bauling. Al Masudi. Strabo. Geography Notes de Geographique Physique’. ‘Influences of Geographical Environment’ Worked on Mediterranean region for about 20 years. He was critical of people making generalizations about climatic influences on humans.’ Assistant of Geddes at Oxford Wrote. 2. Determinist in approach. 2. Semple & Birmingham were some of his students. 8. Recognized as best teacher in the university. Wrote. His book. Disciple of Ratzel at Leipzig.Ghanshyam Thori 5. Founder of Le Play society. Earlier determinist later possibilist. 1. Wrote ‘Geographic influences on American history’. Advocate of Darwinism Professor at the Michigan State normal college in Ypsilanti for 38 years. Herbertson Chisholm Robert Mill Determinists Determinists & Possibilists Hippocrates. ‘Principles of Human Geography’ was a college textbook. obsequent & resequent to Powell’s 3 types of rivers. 6. ‘Locational Analysis in Human Geography’ & ‘Frontiers of geographical teaching’. 6. Did not deny ‘determinism’. Pioneered boundary studies – ‘Guatemala-Honduras dispute’. Other geographers were Gallois. Malford Mackinder P. Hagget & Richard Chorley Patrick Geddes J. Ibn Haukal. Salisbury Carl O Sauer 1. Isaiah Bowman Albert Parry Birmingham Rollin D. One of the founders of the ‘Association of American Geographers’ estd in 1904. ‘Handbook of commercial geography’. Jean Gottmann. Thesis on ‘The geography of central Andes’. Never accepted the concept of determinism. Protagonist of ‘Chorological Theme’. Wrote ‘City in Evolution’. ‘The morphology of the landscape’ in which he explained the concept of ‘Landschaft’. Bowman. Blanchard.‘ Britain & the British Seas’ & ‘Democratic Ideals & Reality’ They have authored ‘Models in human geography’. Huntington. 9. ‘American history & its geographical conditions’. ‘Civilization & Climate’ in which he said that man’s civilization could develop only in regions of stimulating climate. Siegfried. Published. Coined the term ‘Ontography’ to denote the organic half of geography. Mark Jefferson 4. Albert Demangeon Devoted most of the time to editing ‘Annals’. Wrote ‘Problems de Geographie Humaine”.

K. Make precise statements about locational order. It has maintained strong positive ties with the positivist tradition & is still widely accepted within the positivist orientation. Also called Empericism. Taylor Lucien Febvre. Perceptual & Behavioural from outside to inside. Darwin. BJL Berry. It excludes normative questions. beliefs). Quantitative Revolution Radicalism 2. Semple. Huntingon. Mark Jefferson Carl O’ Sauer. Durkheim. Fleure (genre de vie). behaviouralists. Marxists. David Harvey. J. Sonnenfield proposed 4 levels at which the environment should be studied viz Geographical. Motesquieu. Fall of USSR gave radicalism a blow. Use mathematical language (Cwg). Concerned with issues of social relevance like racism. No place for normative questions. Sauer. Julian Wolpert in ‘Decision process in spatial context’ – landuse in Sweden Pred devised a behavioral matrix on the basis of information availability & skill Huff developed the idea of understanding the consumer spatial behaviour. a journal of radical geography was launched at Clark university. It is an action oriented approach & led to the development of applied geography. Conceptual framework was given by downs (See fig) A conventional model of man-environment relationship was give by boulding. W. Behaviorism 4. Ritter. Cox was the first to introduce behavioral concept in political geography. Haeckel. However the term ‘Humanistic geography’ was coined by Yi Fu Tuan in 1976. Lowenthal. Peter Gould gave the concept of mental maps. Positivism 6. Blache. The important proponents were Kirk. Tuan. Buckle. Humboldt. It has been criticized by realists. 75 . Hettner. Cognition is the key. It treats man as a responder to stimuli. Isaiah Bowman. Later John Wright introduced the term ‘Geosophy’ as a part of his contention that geographical knowledge is part of mental stock of all humans. Poteus recognized existence of (a) phenomenal environment (physical objects) (b) the personal environment (perceived images of real environment) (c) the contextual environment (culture. Tuan explored 5 themes of general interest to geographers viz (a) Geographical knowledge (b) Territory & place (c) Crowding & Privacy (d) Livelihood & Economics (e) Religion. It is anti-idealism. Developed as dissatisfaction from models of spatial science. religion. Operational. 3. Lowenthal tried to study the goal motivations of a person & how he acts. Tobbler (Geometry of mind).Ghanshyam Thori (Ancient period) (Pre-Modern Period) Modern Period Possibilists Geography Notes Ibn-Khaldun. 1. Demolins Ratzel.R. In 1969. existentialists. Developed as a reaction to quantitative revolution & positivism. William Bunge. inequality etc. Haggerstand developed the idea of spatial diffusion of innovation. Lowenthal tried to study goal motivations of a person & how he acts. Woolridge claimed that historical geography must see countryside through the eyes of the farmer. Barrow. Proponents: Auguste comte . Jean Brunhes. Kirk became popular later. Wright. Pragmatism Various Paradigm Shifts & Approaches in Geography 1950’s-1960’s. Marxism provided a firm theoretical base for the radical movement. Elise Reclus. It is modified form of Positivism. Biodim. Great emphasis on locational analysis. “Antipode”. Vidal. poverty. Humanism 5.

P. M. regional imbalances. Cox. 8. 2. Mumbai. Welfare Issue like poverty. Mc Carty. 1. Marxism Developed against capitalism. Hagget. It is also known as “Chorology” or “Chorography”. Very popular these days e. 14. 11. Nunn (New/Critical realism). It is the study of biography of landscape. It is opposite to idealism. Geography Notes 9. 13. Proponents: Pierce Functionalism Used by Jean Brunhes. Ignores spatiality Post Recent movement in humanities. Analysis Environmental Perception & Behaviour (After Downs) 76 . It said that although physical environment does not determine human actions. 3. Positivists ask ‘how’ & realists . According to this. Cook Wilson (Naïve Realism). Its purpose is to build accurate Analysis generalizations. Probabilism Postulated by Spate. It is concerned with areal Differentiation variation of human & physical phenomena. Its distinguishing characteristics are: Skepticism towards the grand claims & grand theory of the modern era & their claim to intellectual superiority. Chorley. Proponent: Leonard Guelke Realism It says reality exists independent of the mind. Locational Focuses on spatial arrangement of phenomena. It is based on positivism. Other Geographical Paradigms Areal Coined by Hartshorne in his Nature of Geography. Tatanagar can be explained on the basis of the functions they perform Existentialism Emphasizes that man is responsible for making his own nature. Proponent: Gibson. It helped in the reconstruction of “regional geography”. Morril. 4. Proponent: David Harvey. Proponents: Bunge. Historicism Chronological description. It emerges to challenge & even abandon purely objective. it does make some responses more likely than others. 10. 15. it is possible to reconstruct logical sequence of thought of another person. arts & social sciences. 12. Harvey. quantitative & deterministic analysis.Ghanshyam Thori 7. Idealism It is in opposition to naturalism & materialism. slums etc are its focus Approach Proponents: David Harvey.‘why’. It Modernism developed in reaction to historicism in modern geographical thought. Main concern is social issues. T.’ System Framework for investigating the structure & function of a system. Johnston Regional The whittlesey committee on regional geography which drafted the document Synthesis on regional geography published in James & Jones (1954) defined region as ‘Any segment or portion of the earth’s surface which is homogeneous in terms of such an areal grouping. models & theories. Smith.g. D. Close to positivism but different methodology. philosophy.

Getterer divided the whole world into natural 77 . 4. The idea of German-centered Europe was given by Nauman. Kjellen was one the most famous Swedish political geographer. 3. Leyer suggested the natural boundaries for regional studies. the same year in which Darwin published his “Origin of Species”. Busching belonged to the Political Statistical School. Ritter & Humboldt both died in the year 1859. The use of natural geography rather than political boundaries for the description of regional geography is known as Reine Geography. Bauche initiated this approach. Ibn Batuta described Morocco as having best climate. Greeks are often given credit for their monopoly in speculation. Mathematical geography attracted most of the Arab geographers.Ghanshyam Thori Value System Perceptual Filters Perceptual Receptors Information Geography Notes Image Real World Decision Behaviour Conventional Model of Man-Environment Relationship (Boulding) Environment Image Behaviour Miscellaneous Facts 1. 2.

Heartland referred to Eastern Europe. The Cultural or social determinism popular among American geographers. The term ‘Compage’ was use by Whittlesey means a total region is distinguished by a community of feeling among its inhabitants as well as by all features of the physical & biotic environment. 7.J. Edward Ullman is a strong proponent of this theory. Berry who wrote ‘Approaches to regional analysis: A synthesis’.e.V. Torsten Haggerstand developed the stochastic model apart from spatial diffusion of innovation & migration studies (Sweden). It considers man as a modifier of nature. second to New Zealand & third to Hawaii. This theory considered that the key to the supremacy of the world lies in a combination of land power & sea power. 9. ‘Perspectives on the nature of Geography’ in which he stuck to his chorological concept of Geography. James Cook (England) made three Pacific Voyages: First to Tahiti. 11. Hommeyer implemented this approach & Zeune brought more sophistication in it in that he 5. 14. He said that no one place or mountain can be compared with others as they are not alike. Voluntarism is one of the latest approaches in geography which states that human mode of life depends upon his interaction with his environment. 16. Schaefer (1953) in his paper titled.Ghanshyam Thori delimited regions even on the basis of climate. “Exceptionalism in Geography” in which he criticized exceptionalists & asked geographers to adopt methodology of scientific positivism. Regional synthesis is associated with B. Magellan & Francis Drake took the journey of the whole world. Rimland referred to the rimland of Eurasia. L. Peter Kropotkin & V. 6. The result was adoption of nomothetic approach in geography. 8. Marco Polo was an Italian. same pattern of living. Geography Notes regions. 78 .D. vegetation. Areal Differentiation is also known as “Chorology” or “Chorography”. Balboa (Spanish) crossed the Isthmus of Panama & became the first European to see the Pacific. Columbus was Italian & Vasco de Gama was Portuguese. Francis Champlain established Quebec City as the first French colony in Canada. Hartshorne met this criticism by writing. Mackinder considered the eastern & western side of the Atlantic to be complimentary to each other. Genre de vie means genre of living i.L. 10. Dokuchaiev were important geographers of the Russian school of thought. Stamp carried out the land utilization survey in Great Britain. 12. Teleology is opposite to causal explanation. 13. 15. The Rimland theory was given by Nicholas Spykman. He also rejected teleological view. etc. The heartland (or Pivot Area) theory was given by Mackinder. Bartholomew Diaz. Froebel was a staunch opponent of the Comparative method. was a Portuguese navigator who discovered Cape of good hope.

Used for population density distribution. Flow line used to represent migration.Ghanshyam Thori material environment. cropping intensity etc. Dot Maps Flow Map Accuracy of Size Accuracy of Shape Accuracy of Direction Accuracy of Distance/ Scale Accuracy of Area On the basis of nature of developable surface Zenithal Projections Obtained with the help of a plain developable surface Conical Projections Obtained with the help of a conical developable surface Cylindrical Projections Obtained with the help of a cylindrical developable surface Conventional Projections Obtained without developable surface – mathematically On the basis of point of tangent Developable surface touches the globe at equator Developable surface touches the globe at poles Developable surface touches the globe anywhere between the poles & the equator. a car depicts automobile production. Geography Notes 17. ‘Where is the research frontier’. 4. Used for representing rainfall. Technique of representing quantitative data by means of varying densities of shades in single colour.g. Various Types of Maps 1. traffic etc. In it administrative area gets primary importance unlike isopleth where distribution is primary. Representing absolute numbers on map. 6. Edward Ackerman was an American geographer who encouraged his students to take up quantitative approach wrote. E. temperature & pressure data. 2. Map Projections Equal area or orthographic projection Orthomorphic or true shape projection Azimuthal or Zenithal projection Equidistant Homolographic 5. Chorochromatic Choroschematic Isopleth Choropleth Maps in which different colours are used to show distribution Maps where pictures of various phenomena or commodities are used. trade. On the basis of source of light When the source of light is at the center of the globe Source of light at the antipode to the point of contact of developable surface Source of light at infinity Azimuthal or Zenithal Projections Equatorial Case Polar Case Oblique Case Gnomonic Stereographic Orthographic 79 . Topophilia was coined by Yi-Fu Tuan to denote all the effective ties & love of a human being for his 18. Also called isarithmic maps. 3.

Conical with two It is not a perspective projection as a cone can touch a globe only standard parallels or along one standard parallel. Distances between parallels decrease away from the equator. Bonne’s Projection or In this all parallels are standard parallels as all are true to scale but Conical Equal Area for the purpose of construction.Ghanshyam Thori 1. area with great east to west but relatively smaller latitudinal distance 3. Parallels are equispaced. Application: Trans-Siberian railway. Area is true in a narrow zone on both sides of the standard parallel. Between the standard parallels the distances are conical projection represented shorter than the actual distances & outside greater. Equator cannot be shown. The source of light is supposed to be at the centre of the globe. Stereographic or Azimuthal orhomorphic Projection (polar case) 3. Scale along parallels is correct in Zenithal orthomorphic projection but along the meridians it is distorted. Conical Projections The circle along which the cone touches the globe is known as the standard parallel. Distance between parallels decrease away from the pole. Zenithal Equidistant Projection Zenithal Equal Area projection (polar case) 5. Distance between parallels of latitude increase away from the centre but the increase is less in comparison to gnomonic projection. The area therefore remains correct. Simple conical with one The standard parallel is divided to draw the lines of meridian. 2. In all the pole is represented by an arc of circle. Also known as Lamberts Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. Directions from centre are correct as in all azimuthal projections. Scale is true along central meridian by construction & other meridians by being radii of same concentric curves. Astronomical maps Non Perspective projection. The scale is correct only along the central 80 . Parallels are equispaced. Hence exaggeration away from pole is lesser. The scale away from the center increases along both parallels & meridians but the proportion of increase in case of both is almost equal & this results in maintaining correct shape (orthomorphic) Application: Navigational & political maps of high latitudes Light at infinity. Application: small areas around the poles Source light at antipode. Pole is different from centre of parallels. Both shape & size distorted away from centre. Zenithal orthographic Projection (polar case) 4. Distance along the parallels increases rapidly moving away from the centre but the exaggeration is compensated by shortening of distance along the meridians. Zenithal Gnomonic Polar case Geography Notes Plain developable surface acting as tangent at the poles when source of light. Areas away from centre are exaggerated Application: Maps between 50 & 90 degree latitude. Application: Distribution Map in high latitude. 2. The central meridian is a straight line while others are smooth curves. Application: Distribution maps. Application: boundary between USA & Canada. one standard parallel is selected Projection (usually centre). 1. The distance between parallels increases away from the poles. Entire hemisphere can be shown. Scale is true Lamberts conformal along meridians. Scale standard parallel is true only along the standard parallel the other parallels being incorrect along their length.

Orthographic projection. Equator is true to Projection scale but none of the parallels & meridians is true to scale. Both parallels & meridians are equally spaced. It maintains the accuracy of shape of areas. Scale is correct along the standard parallel but exaggerated along the rest. All the Cylindrical Equidistant meridians are straight lines & their length is equal to half that of the equator. Assumption of a number of cones. Meridians are drawn true to scale.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes meridian & along others it is exaggerated. It is based on the principle of exaggerating the scale along the meridians in the same proportion as it increases along the parallels. 4. Australia. The distance between parallels increases towards projection the poles. The exaggeration of the scale along the scale along the meridians is made good by proportional minimization of scale along the meridians. placed over the globe in such a manner that each one of these cones is tangent at a different parallel All parallels are drawn as standard parallels & representation is correct along them. Meridians are equispaced but the distance between parallels decreases away from the equator. Meridians are all straight lines. The degree of exaggeration increases from the central meridian. Polyconic Projection 5. The equator & the meridians are true to scale. It is similar to simple conical with one standard parallel but the scale along the meridians in this projection is not correct. The scale obviously increases more & more along the parallels away from equator. Application: Distribution maps because of equal area. Cylindrical Equal Area Non Perspective. the cylindrical projections are drawn for both the hemispheres. Not used for Africa. The parallels are all concentric circles but unequally spaced from each other. Conical Equal Area with one standard parallel Cylindrical Projections While both conical & Azimuthal projections can be drawn for a single hemisphere. Application: Basis of International projection (World Toposheets) Countries with large north south but small east west extent Also called Lamberts conical equal-area projection. The parallels are arcs of non-concentric circles & each of the parallels is drawn from a different centre. Not good for Asia because of large east west extent. Meridians are cylindrical orthomorphic equispaced. Application: shows European countries larger than their actual 81 . Can be used for a relatively large country like India. Simple Cylindrical or Non perspective. Mercators projection or Developed by Gerhard Kramer or Mercator. Application: Europe. North America. It is based on the principle of reduction of scale along the meridians in proportion to the exaggeration along the parallels. 3. 1. Poles lie at infinite distance from the equator & so cannot be shown. Scale along the parallels is increasingly exaggerated going away from equator Application: Narrow strip along the equator 2. It is an equal area projection but it is not orthomorphic. Application: Distribution Maps in middle latitudes (as Equal Area). All meridians except for central are smooth curves.

Making charts of sailing routes by use of great circle & loxodrome. One degree of longitude along the equator & one degree of latitude along the central meridian are the same.e. The maximum distortion of scale occurs at equator & polar areas. Parallels are not equidistant & the distance between them decreases towards the poles. Application: General purpose world maps on single sheet. Not suited much for whole world. Parallels are straight lines & meridians are elliptical in shape. It might be considered as a special case of Bonne’s projection with equator as the standard parallel. Parallels are equispaced.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes size & hence popular among British cartographers. Equator & parallels are shown as straight lines. The distance between the parallels is reduced to avoid too much exaggeration of areas towards the poles. Meridians are drawn at equal distance along the equator. Application: Showing continents extending in the equatorial regions & also in middle lat. Whole world represented better than sinusoidal projection. So from these two latitudes. Application: Distribution map. Gall’s Projection 4. Such a line is represented by a straight line on Mercator’s projection. The area of the central part is slightly lesser than real & vice versa. scale along the parallels decreases towards the equator & increases towards the poles. A loxodrome is a line of constant bearing that intersects all meridians at the same angle. 1. It is a stereographic cylindrical projection quite akin to Mercators but it is different in that it is not orthomorphic. Mollweide’s Projection or Babinets Equal surface projection 3. The scale is not true along the equator. Transverse Mercator projection is also known as Gauss Conformal Projection. It just depicts one hemisphere i. Globular Projection Conventional Projections The projection is an equal area one. The cylinder is thought to cut the sphere along the 45 degree N & S. Therefore the great circles are represented by straight line on mercators projection. Equal area projection. Sinusoidal or Mercator Samson-Flamsteed projection 2. 82 . The meridians 90 degree E or W of the central meridian form a circle. Therefore 45 N & S are true to scale. 90 E or W & not complete globe. A loxodrome is also called a rhumb line. The central meridian is a straight line while others are sine curves. The scale is true along the equator & the parallels but in case of other meridians there is an increasing exaggeration away from the central meridian.

g.) that are prepared at a scale 1:1. 4. percentage population change). In case of an overhanging cliff contour lines intersect.000 are small scale maps & with greater scale large scale maps. Higher the intensity higher the slope & vice versa.000 & 1:25. Hythergraph 83 . 7.000. The topographical maps are based on International Sheets (4 degree lat. S. triangle method (for linear feature) or using Pantograph (works on the principle of parallelogram). In case of a waterfall or vertical cliff the contour of different values might meet.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Miscellaneous Facts 1. Contours drawn on the basis of estimation are shown in the form of broken lines called form lines. Maps are more accurate than plans. Hythergraph is a type of climograph showing mean monthly wet bulb temperature & relative humidity. Cadastral maps have a scale around 1:5000.g. Developed by G. 6. NW (Muggy -temperature & humidity both high). The most accurate is photographic method. NE (scorching-low humidity & high temperature).000. 3. 2. predominant farm types) or quantitative (e. A thematic map shows the spatial distribution of one or more specific data themes for standard geographic areas. Topographical maps of India are published by the f. Maps can be enlarged or reduced using grid method. Dehradun at scales like 1:50.. Maps drawn with a scale smaller than 1:1. x 4 degree long. Most of the wall maps & atlas maps are small scale maps.000. Comparative scale has two scales with different units with their zeros aligned. Hachures are broken lines drawn in the direction of slope & they are less accurate than contours.000. 5.W (Raw-low temperature & high humidity) SE (Keen – humidity & Temperature both high). The map may be qualitative in nature (e. Taylor. Diagonal scale facilitates reading fractional distance..

& a plane surface are developable. If a portion of the ground is cut vertically along a certain straight line. 9. (Refer p-22 ensemble for diagram). Spherical surface is undevolopable while cylindrical. The bearing is the angular distance of an object from the magnetic north measured in a clockwise direction. If all the profiles of a series of profile can be traced to a single frame it is called superimposed profile. Molleweid’s projection is based on the principle that a circle drawn with the minor radius of an ellipse occupies half the area of the ellipse with the same minor radius & the major radius twice the size of the minor radius. The prismatic compass is used for measuring the bearing.g. Then using trigonometry the lengths of the two unknown sides can be determined as length of baseline & angles are known. its end are used to measure the angle to a distant point using theodolite. 12. Remote Sensing & GIS 84 . Block piling refers to piling of cubes to represent desired numbers.Ghanshyam Thori Muggy Scorching Geography Notes Temperature Raw Keen Humidity 8. 11. In projected profile. In triangulation once the base line is determined. conical. the side view of the cut forms a profile. It is constructed to represent the surface as viewed in the horizontal plane of the summit-levels from an infinite distance.The areas obstructed in a profile are known as dead ground. the superimposed profile is modified in such a way that the portion of each profile which comes below the succeeding one is omitted (or rubbed off). it is known as serial profiles. Projected profiles thus show only those features which are not obstructed by higher intervening forms. 14. Pictographs represent the data by drawing symbolic pictures (e. Aerial Photography. 13. When a number of profiles are drawn separately & arranged in a column representing a series from one end of the map to other. drawing car for automobile production). 10. Composite profiles only depict the ruggedness of the skyline. Wind rose is a diagram to show the frequency & direction of wind where frequency is proportional to radii.

Imaging spectrometer. Exposure falloff is an effect due to which a ground scene of spatially uniform reflectance does not produce spatially uniform exposure in the focal plane. Electro-optical scanner.4 – 3. Passive remote sensing sensors include photographic camera. Instead exposure is maximum at the centre & decreases towards the edges. Specular Diffuse or Lambertian 8. Wilbur Wright took the first aerial motion 2. while spectral information is obtained in case of diffuse reflections. Geography Notes 1. Cosmic rays. 6. Due to this a higher contrast film is capable of resolving smaller differences in exposure.9 microns). Gamma rays & X rays cannot be registered with remote sensing methods. infra-red & micro-wave region. 8 – 14 micron).3 to . A photographic film can record over wavelength range about twice as broad as that of human eye (. 4. Return Beam Vidicon. The specular reflections do not contain spectral information. Italy. The factors affecting the exposure measurements (extraneous effects) are divided into two types.Ghanshyam Thori pictures over Centocelli. Radiometric resolution refers to the smallest difference in exposure that can be detected on a given film analysis. 5. Radiometric resolution is inversely proportional to contrast in an image.0 micron. Most of the earth’s features are neither perfectly specular nor diffuse. Radar is an example of active remote sensing sensor. Vignetting refers to internal shadowing resulting from the lens mounts & other aperture surfaces within the camera. geometric & atmospheric. The diaphragm determines the size of the opening for exposure & shutter determines the exposure time. TIROS (Television infra-red observation satellite) from which the first satellite TV image was taken. USA. Most of the remote sensing methods work with visible. Gaspard Felix Tournachon took the first aerial photograph. The term remote sensing originated at the Willow Run laboratories of the University of Michigan. 3. A fast film requires lesser exposure time but it consists of large film grains which limit spatial resolution. 7. 85 . Relief displacement is directly proportional to the height of the object & inversely proportional to the flying height above the ground. Hence in remote sensing diffuse reflectance properties are more important. The non-blocked spectral regions are called atmospheric windows (. In most of the aerial cameras the distance between their film plane (v) & the lens is precisely equal to the focal length (f) of the camera as 1/u in the lens formula becomes almost negligible because of large distance between the lens & the object on the ground. 3 – 5 micron.

000). In case of vertical photograph all these points coincide. Oblique (> +3 tilt – in low oblique horizon does not appear & vice versa). Trimetragon (3 cameras – one vertical & other two at 60 degree from vertical). A graph of spectral reflectance of an object as a function of the wavelength is known as spectral reflectance curve. medium scale (1:50. Aerial photographs give 3D view. 12. 86 . Colorado. Convergent (low oblique photograph taken from two cameras such that they form stereopair). The scale of a photograph is given by the relationship f/H (f is focal length & H is flying height). Photogrammetry refers to the art & science of obtaining reliable measurements from photographs.000 to 1:12. Spectral Reflectance Curve 11.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 9.000). The point of intersection of the optical axis of the camera with the photo plane & the ground plane are photo principal point (p) & ground principal point (P) respectively. 10.0000 & large scale (> 1:12. GPS system consists of 24 satellites each of which revisit the same track & configuration at an interval of approximately 24 hours. The reference data is called ground truth. Master control facility is located in Colorado Springs. The point of intersection of the bisector of the angle between the camera axis & the vertical with the photoplane is called as the photo isocentre (i). Point vertically below the perspective centre (camera lens) on the ground is called the ground nadir point or plumb point (N). Aerial photographs are of following types: Vertical (less than +3 degree tilt). Aerial photographs are small scale (< 1: 50. 13. Fiducial or collimating marks are located at the corner or in the middle of the edges of a photograph so that by joining them one can’t locate the principal point. Spectral reflectance is a measure of the portion of the incident energy that is reflected.

Most commercial programs allow introversion. PAN-A 6. Kolkata. 87 . 20. 4. 7. The raster data provides a greater computational efficiency particularly in overlay analysis. It has stereo-imagery which can be used for digital terrain model (DEM) & digital elevation model. 3. APPLE was also launched in 1981. IRS-1D using Indian rocket PSLV-C1. AWiFS PAN-F. Air Survey Co of India Ltd. turbid water. Indian Air Force. Oceansat (IRS-P4). A geostationary satellite remains stationary with respect to earth (36000 km altitude). Geography Notes 14. The first GIS was built by Canada. Sensor LISS I & LISS II LISS I & LISS II LISS III. NRSA is the only agency which acquires & archives data for sale & distribution.Ghanshyam Thori observation. WiFS – wide field sensor. Parallax is the apparent change in the positions of stationary objects solely due to change in the point of 15. LISS-linear imaging self scanning device. IRS-1B launched. Vector data formats have relatively small data volumes. APPLE was India’s first geostationary satellite used for conducting communication experiments. Normally vertical aerial photography is carried out with 6080 % forward overlap & 25-40 % lateral overlap. The advantage is global coverage but disadvantage is missing of diurnal effects. Hyderabad are the only authorized organizations to carry out aerial photography. 17. 2003 2005 19. Most GISs use either a raster (grid cell) or vector (polygon) format to represent location. Management of Indian resources is under National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS). Bhaskara I & Bhaskara II in 1979 & 1981 respectively. PAN. Resourcesat-1 Cartosat-1 (IRS-P5). 18. Year 1988 1991 1995 1997 1999 Satellite Launched IRS-1A launched. A sun synchronous or polar orbit is such that the satellite passes over the same ground track at the same local time each day. WiFS OCM MSMR LISS IV. WiFS LISS III. 16. A near polar retrograde orbit with altitude between 300 & 1000 km satisfies this condition. But the spatial resolution is limited to the size of the cells comprising the raster.. The first Indian satellite Aryabhatta was launched in 1975. Carries Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) & a multi-frequency scanning microwave radiometer (MSMR) used to measure chlorophyll concentration. Indian Remote Sensing Satellites S 1. Carried into space by SLV-3 an Indian rocket IRS-1C. A coarse cell size needs less data storage space but is less accurate & vice versa. NRSA. PAN. 5. Most of the digital remote sensing data is collected in raster format. Most of the remote sensing satellites are sun synchronous. 2.

Contrast ratio is the ratio between the brightest & the darkest parts of the image. JERS (Japanese earth observation satellite). The sensors used are MSS (multispectral scanner). ERS (European remote sensing satellite).3 x 1017 4.7 x 10-5 10 . LANDSAT series have orbits between 705 km & 920 km.01 > 10 88 . Light waves are scattered by particles in the atmosphere whose sizes are similar to the wavelength of light. Ergograph shows temperature. image enhancement (alter the visual impact) & information extraction Electromagnetic Spectrum Region Gamma Rays X-Rays Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Microwave Radio Wavelength in centimeters < 10 -9 Frequency in Hz > 3 x 1019 3 x 1017 .3 x 1012 < 3 x 109 10-7 . Digital image processing consists of image restoration (removal of data errors.4.10-9 4 x 10-5 . Radarsat (Canadian remote sensing satellite) are other programmes. 25.01 . acreage of crops & their growing season. 26. 28. RBV (return beam vidicon).Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 21. 22.7. Multispectral imaging means simultaneous imaging using more than one wavelength. and ETM (Enhanced thematic mapper).3 x 1014 .3 x 1014 3 x 109 .3 x 1019 7. noise etc). rainfall.0.10-7 7 x 10-5 . 27.5 x 1014 . SPOT (France) has HRV (high resolution visible) & VMI (vegetation monitoring instrument) sensor 23.4 x 10-5 0. humidity. Geodetic surveys measure large regions of the earth’s surface & therefore take into consideration the curvature of the earth. 24. They are used for establishing lines of latitude & longitude.5 x 1014 3 x 1012 . LANDSAT-1 was launched in 1972. Theodolite uses a vernier scale for measurement.

Cambodia. Thialand.K. 13. 4. 2. Vietnam & Laos Myanmar. 3. 4. 21. . 9. Hokkaido Narrowest point on the Malay Peninsula. Indonesia. Thailand. 5. 17. Malaysia. 16. 2. 7. 8. Laos. Cape York Peninsula Kanto/Kwanto Plain Ungava Peninsula Odessa Far East Indo-China South East Asia Middle East Deepest Lake Largest manmade lake Irrawady river Mekong river Red River Salween River Macao Isle of Man (U. Korea. 5. Singapore. on China’s southeastern coast Midway between the coasts of Northern Ireland and England Capital of Heilongjiang province Java (Indonesia). Indonesia. 7. Leading port of Ukraine in North Black Sea Japan. Myanmar. in Thailand Malaysia Island lying east of Sumatra. 12. 6. 22.) Harbin Bandung Sapporo Kra Isthmus Larut Plain Bangka 1. 19. Lake Baikal Lake Volga Flows into bay of Bengal Drains into South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Gulf of Martaban. 6. Vietnam.5 billion 1 billion 2 billion 3 billion 4 billion 5 billion 6 billion 89 . Famous for Tin mining & separated from Sumatra by Bangka strait. 11. Cambodia. 15. 18. Administrative region of China. 4. Malaysia. China. 3. China & Taiwan India. 20. Canada – East of Hudson Bay & south of Baffin Island. Weipa (Bauxite) also lies in the same peninsula on the Carpen The largest area of flat land in Japan comprising Tokyo & other cities. 10. Philipinnes. South west Asia & North Eastern Egypt. 6. 3. 1.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Miscellaneous Geographical Features Northern Australia to the east of Gulf of Carpentra. 5. 14. 2. Population by Continents (in millions) Asia 3879 Africa 877 Europe 727 North America 501 South America 379 Australia 32 World Population Milestones 1650 1820 1927 1960 1974 1987 1999 1.

Muroran Birmingham Houston Windsor Westphalia Shenyang Kyoto Milan Turin Leipzig Sarnia Akron Chelyabinsk Important Industrial Centres Iron & Steel Hokaido. Oil Refinery USA Automobile Canada (on Detroit river) Iron & Steel Germany Iron & Steel China (Pittsburg of China) Handicrafts & Toys Japan Textile Italy Automobile Italy Optical Insruments Germany Oil Refinery Canada (East of Michigan) Synthetic Rubber South of Lake Erie (Ohio) Iron & Steel North of Magnitogorsk 90 . Japan Iron & Steel U. 2. Lumbabshi Wankee Kasia Rustenberg Mt. 2. 3. 4. 6. 11. 7. Famous Mining Regions Copper Zaire Coal Zimbabwe Diamond Zaire Platinum S. 2. 6. Aswan Dam Kariba Dam Kainji Dam Boyoma Dam Aksombo Dam (Volta Dam) Victoria Falls Owen Falls Stanley Falls Egypt Zambia & Zimbabwe Nigeria Congo Ghana Zambia & Zimbabwe Uganda Congo 1. 8.Ghanshyam Thori Tribes 1. 5. 8. 12. 13. 4. Tom Price Ipswich Hubei Kansu (or Gansu) Daqing Dakang Chauk 1. 11. 3. Yorubas Tauregs Karen Hmong Arawaks Geography Notes Nigeria Sahara Myanmar Known in China as Miao and in Southeast Asia as Meo. 9. 10.Africa Iron Ore Australia (Hamersley Ranges) Coal & Lignite Australia (Near Brisbane) Coal China Bauxite China Crude Oil China (Heilongjiang province) Crude Oil China Crude Oil Burma Famous Dams/Falls Nile Zambezi Niger Zaire Volta Zambezi Lake Alberta (White Nile) Zaire 1. 5. 8. Native people of the Greater Antilles. 10.K. 7. 2. 4. 3. 5. 3. 6. 9. 4. 7. 5.

Croatia. 6. 4. Bermuda. Rivers & Countries Issuing from NE of Lake Winnipeg & flowing to Hudson Bay. 3. Not formed by rift valley Border of Uganda. 3. The longest river in France Rises in Russia. N-E Siberia Nothern Siberian region Fourth largest in Europe. Falkland Island. Western Isles. Rises near Tula & flows to Sea of Azov Rises in Urals & flows into Arctic Liaoning province of China British Columbia (Canada). Orkney Islands. 7. 2. Pindhos Mountains Dinaric Alps Carpathians Balkan Mountains Rhodopi Mountains Matopo Hills Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Italy Norway Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom Islands & the Controlling Nation Bornholm. Faeroe Islands. Bosnia Herz. DRC Sudan Ethiopia border. Belarus. Ascension Island. Martinique. Saarema Aland Islands Corsica. Latvia & then into Gulf of Riga Spain Belarus & flows into Baltic Sea Nelson Kolyma Olenek Don Pechora Liao Fraser Loire Daugava Tagus Neman River 91 . 6. Canary islands Gotland Isle of Man. 5. Nagoya Multan Lake Tana Lake Alberta Lake Assal Lake Biwa Lake Zaysan Lake Tonle Sab Lake Toba Geography Notes Ship Building Japan Pottery Pakistan (E of Ganganagar) Important Lakes Ethiopia. 1. Greenland Hiiuma.. Sardinia. 4. Source of Blue Nile. Reunion. Sicily Svalbard Azores. Serbia & Montenegro Slovakia & Romania North of Rhodopi Mountains in Bulgaria Bulgaria South western Zimbabwe 1. Kerguelen (North of Antactica) Helgoland Crete. South Sandwich .Ghanshyam Thori 14. 2. Shetland Islands. 5. 15. Lowest point of Africa Japan’s Largest lake near Nagoya Kazhakstan Cambodia Sumatra (Crater) Mountain Chains Greece Slovenia. Madeira Balearic Islands.

Mexico. and Kiribati. Libya. 15. 3. Maldives. Italy & Greece. 19. Salween flows into it. Saudi Arabia. 7. 6. E. East of Adeilade. 13. Italy & Sicily Java & Sumatra Corsica Island (France) & Italian island of Sardinia (south). Geography Notes 1. Gabon. Algeria. Connecting English Channel & North Sea. 28. 14. Somalia. West of Korea. England & France. 4. Bass Strait Torres Strait Cook Strait Dardanelles Strait Davis Strait Juan de Fuca Strait Kerch Strait Mackinac Strait Magellan Strait Makassar Strait Messina Strait Sunda Strait Bonifacio Strait Dover strait Soya Strait Tsushima Strait Tsugaru Strait Kii Strait Strait of Otranto Strait of Hormuz Strait of Tiran Tsugaru Strait Johor Strait Gulf of Carpentera Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Lion Gulf of Martaban Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Tonkin Gulf of Mannar Spencer Gulf Gulf of Bo Hai Some Important Straits & Gulfs Australia & Tasmania Australia & New Guinea North Island & South Island in New Zealand Aegean Sea & Sea of Marmara North Atlantic Ocean and Baffin Bay. DR of Congo. 5. Western Sahara. 20. UAE. Sakhalin to the North & Hokkaido to the south. India. 2. Singapore & Malay Peninsula Cape York Peninsula & Arnhem Land Arm of Baltic Sea between Finland & Sweden. Sao Tome & Principe. Congo. Taiwan Equator Ecuador. China. Bangladesh. Colombia. Imaginary Lines & the countries through which they pass Tropic of Cancer Hawaii. 32. NE Canada Washington and southern Vancouver. Bahamas. 8. United States New Zealands longest river N. South of China & East of Vietnam India & Srilanka. Kenya. 26. Between Hokkaido & Honshu. Brazil. 12. 21.Ghanshyam Thori Ebro Garonne James River Waikato Merrimack Spain Spain Virginia. 25. Chad (northern most point). Oman. 17. 18. 10. 30. Egypt. Niger. Uganda. Indonesia. 29. 92 . Korea & Kyushu Hokkaido & Honshu Honshu & Shikoku Connecting the Adriatic with the Ionian Sea. 22. 11. North of Libya. United States. Tambraparni from India & Aruvi Aru from Srilanka flows into it. 16. Mauritania. Persian Gulf & Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba to the Red Sea. 31. Canada Sea of Azov & Black Sea Lake Michigan & Lake Huron South American mainland & island of Tierra del Fuego Borneo & Sulawesi. Myanmar. Mali. 23. Inlet of Mediterranean. 24. 9. 27. Arm of Mediterranean Sea in Southern France South of Myanmar.

French Polynesia. Botswana. Chile. Namibia Rivers of Africa Changed Geographical Names Aurgangabad Sambhaji Nagar Dutch East Indies Indonesia East Timor Loro Sae Quilon Kollam Saigon Ho Chi Minh City Sandwich Islands Hawaii Islands Tanjore Thanjavur Greenland Kalaallit Nanaat 93 . South Africa. Madagascar. Paraguay.Ghanshyam Thori Tropic of Capricorn Geography Notes Brazil. Mozambique. Argentina. Australia.

into Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and into Mongolia. The loftiest mountain range in USA is Sierra Nevada. India Stockholm Belgrade. 12. Britain of the South City of Eternal Springs Great White way Island of Fire Land of Marble Land of Morning Calm Land of Perpetual Greenery Never Never Land Pearl of the Orient Power Keg of Europe Quaker City Queen of the Adriatic Queen of the Arabian Sea Venice of the East Venice of the North White City White Man’s Grave World’s Loneliest Island Spice Garden of India The Sea of Mountains The Spice Island of the West George Cross Island Pillars of Hercules Garden Province of South Africa New Zealand Quito Broadway. 4. The mountain range extending from northern California to British Columbia is called Cascades. The major peninsulas of Russia starting from west to east are Kola peninsula. Yugoslavia Guinea Coast Tristan da Cunha Kerala British Columbia Grenada Malta Gibraltar Natal Miscellaneous Facts: 1. 4. USA Venice Kochi Alappuzha. Mt. 21. Rainier near Seattle is its highest point. The Cambrian mountains are located in Wales. 3. New York Iceland Italy Korea Natal Prairies of North America Hong Kong Balkans Philadelphia. 6. 20. Yamal peninsula. Giants Causeway is located on the coast of northern Ireland. 22. 11. 14. It is thought by geologists to have formed when an ancient lava flow cooled and solidified. Congo River is also known as River Zaire. 5. 3. 15. Altai Mountains extend from the headwaters of the Ob’ and Irtysh rivers in southern Siberia in Russia. 24. 17. 10. 2. 9. 23. Gyda peninsula & Taymyr peninsula. 8. 94 . Kanin peninsula. 13. 18. 16. 7.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Sorbiquets 1. 19. 2.

Indian Ocean was known to the Greeks as Erythraean sea. 8. Andesite line marks the boundary between continental shelf & continental slope.Ghanshyam Thori 5. It is the biggest island in the Persian Gulf. west. In china type of climate precipitation is around 100 cm & well distributed throughout the year. The deserts of Western Australia from North to South are Tanami Desert. 18. Sao Paulo has China type of Climate. averaging 30 cm of rain every year. Caracas. Sialkot. used to measure solar radiation 10. The route of the Bolan Pass links Quetta in Baluchistan Province with Kandahar in Afghanistan. Gujranwala & Lahore are from north to south in N. Capital of Venezuela comes under monsoon type of climate. bounded on the east by Austria. Geography Notes 6. Pakistan. It links Peshawar in Pakistan with Jalalabad in Afghanistan. Zambia is an important producer of Copper & Zimbabwe is known for gold. Qeshm is the only island of Iran & lies in the strait of Hormuz. Great Sandy desert. Baotou is in inner Mongolia. Marine west European climate experiences rainier winters than summers. Montego Bay is in Jamaica where the Sea Law Treaty was signed. San Diego city lies in the extreme southwest corner of California just above Mexico. where it connects to a route leading to the Afghan capital of Kabul. Gibson desert & Great Victoria desert. Rio de la Plata is the estuary formed from the combination of Uruguay River & the Parana River. Islamabad. 16. independent principality in central Europe. 95 . Peurto Rico Trench is the deepest in Atlantic. It is the homeland of buryats. Eyre. San Marino. Liechtenstein. an enclave in northern Italy 14. Irtish River is the 9th longest in the world & has its source in Altai Mountains Russia. Malta is an independent republic. 7. republic in southern Europe. The climate of steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters. Simpson desert lies in the central region north of L. 12. Peshawar. Las Vegas lies in Nevada state & near Mojave Desert. Khyber pass in Pakistan is located in the Hindu Kush range. 17. In New Zealand the southern island is more developed compared to the northern. 15. Wellington. Capital of New Zealand comes under West European type of climate. Buryat Republic lies north of central Monglia. and north by Switzerland. 11. The world's largest zone of steppes is found in central Russia and neighbouring republics of Central Asia 9. Adelaide has Mediterranean type of climate. and on the south. Rawalpindi. south of Sicily. Langley is a unit equal to one gram calorie per square centimeter of irradiated surface. China & is known for iron & steel complex. 13.

Russia (Sakhalin). Brazil shares its boundary with all except Chile & Ecuador. 96 . 24. Madrid (Manzarenes). Blue Nile originates from Lake Tana in Ethiopian Island & White Nile From Lake Victoria. Basra). 22. 23. Chechnya (Grozny). 26. sulphur & fluorite. Pustaz are temperate grasslands of Hungary. Mexico is the leading producer of silver. 31. Orient express runs from Paris to Istanbul. 25. Algeria & Tunisia are together called the ‘Maghreb’ which in Arabic means west. Aztecs & Mayas were flourished both in Mexico & surrounding regions. Antwerp is the chief port and second largest city of Belgium. 28. The highest active volcano in the world Mt. Spain (Seviue). Atlantic Ocean is the roughest of all oceans. Tuaregs are the tribal people of the Sahara. Oil is found in Venezuela (Lake Marcaibo). They speak a Berber language called Tamarshak. the capital of Sudan. Toubkal is the highest peak of Atlas mountains. 34. 30. The cattle kept by the Masai are the ‘zebu’ cattle. Its coastline is larger than those of Pacific & Indian Ocean put together. Trans Andean Railways connect Buenos Aires & Valpariso. Hudson Bay is the world’s largest inland sea. Dharan. Tap Line (Gulf & Arabian Peninsula to Mediterranean) & COMECOM (Urals & Volga to East Europe) are some of the important pipelines. Dublin (Liffey) & Rotterdam (Rhine. Canadian National Railway runs from Vancouver to Halifax 32. Mt. China & Japan (Mandarin) are the various varieties of oranges. Oil Palm is an important agricultural product of Nigeria. Port Said (Mediterranean) is towards North & Port Suez towards south (Red Sea). Iraq (kirkuk. Nigeria (Port Harcourt). Logan is the highest peak of Canada.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 19. 20. Kaohsiung (Southern Taiwan) is among the top five busiest sea ports of the world. Prague is situated on the bank of river Vltava. The Canadian Pacific railway runs from Saint John in New Brunswick to Vancouver on the pacific coast. Denver is the capital of Colorado. It receives more fresh water than any other ocean. Birmingham is the second largest city in Britain. White Nile & Blue Nile meet at Khartoum. Abaqaiq). Maas & Scheldt). Ojas del Salado (Argentina Chile is in the Andes). Incas were in Peru & the Andes. 27. A person born in Puerto Rico is a US citizen. 33. Arabia (Ghawar. Tangier (Tangerine). S. 21. The northwest countries of Morocco. Mosul. 29. Mt. California (Sunkist). European transcontinental railway runs from Paris to Warsaw. Big Inch (Gulf of Mexico to NE US). Polygon of Drought in Brazil is the NE region. Yadavaran is the largest is Iran’s largest on shore oilfield.

Amu Darya forms a part of the border between Afghanistan & Turkmenistan. 97 . 39. Denmark & sometimes Iceland. The highest peak of the country is Mt. Botswana is the worlds largest producer of gem quality diamonds (jewellery diamonds). Canada & India. Kurile Islands lie to the NE of Hokkaido & separate the sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific. 41. The Tigris also originates from Turkey. Mixed farming refers to sowing two or more crops in mixture in the same field. on the Mersey River. 44. Brazil & Norway. China. 53. town in Northern Norway is the northernmost town of Europe. Grand Coulee dam (USA) is on Columbia river & Cobora Basa Dam (Mozambique) is on Oragnbe river. The top 5 countries in terms of Hydro power potential are China. city in northwestern England. While the top 5 in installed capacity are USA. Le Havre is a city in Normandy. near its mouth on the Irish Sea. Sweden. Kalinangrad is a part of Russia but separated from it by Lithuania. The great channel separates the Andaman & Nicobar Island from Sumatra.Ghanshyam Thori 35. 51. Mont Blanc is situated on the French-Italian border. 50. Canada. Brazil. Murmansk is the only ice free port along the arctic ocean route to Vladivostok. Two important varieties of Eucalyptus in Australia are Jarrah & Karri. 43. 48. 38. 52. Cook. Hokkaido is connected to Honshu across Tsugaru strait by an under sea tunnel. Baltic states include Estonia. at the mouth of the Seine. Chimborazo is the highest extinct volcano & lies in Ecuador. Hoover Dam (USA) is on Colorado river. 47. Liverpool. 46. The enormous desert that covers Turkmenistan is Karakum. 36. Granite rock is metamorphosed into schist rock. Bavaria is the largest state of Germany & Munich is its capital. New Zeland generates 7 % of its energy from geysers. Hammerfest. 49. CIS. Scandinavia applies to Norway. The Euphrates originates in Turkey & flows past Syria & Iraq before meeting the Tigris. Stromboli is known as “the light house of the Mediterranean”. Multiple cropping means the planting of two or more different crops on the same acreage for harvest within the same crop year. on the English Channel. Latvia & Lithuania. The Baltic is connected with the North Sea by the Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (the Kiel or Kaiser Wilhelm Canal). Geography Notes 37. The joint waters of Tigris & Euphrates are called Shat-al-Arab. Liberia is the largest producer of coffee & rubber in Africa. 42. northern France. 40. Botswana has the highest prevalence rate of AIDs while South Africa has highest absolute number of AIDS patients followed by India. 45.

Spain. Geography Notes 54. Strato Cones (Cotopaxi). Cayuga is the longest of the finger lakes. Azores. Dormant Volcano (Vesuvius). 56. Tarim basin & Turfan basin all lie between Tien Shan range to the north & Kunlun to the south. USA. Mt. When later Ganga joins the combined river is called Padma first & Meghna further downstream. the earth’s larges earthern dam is in Pakistan. Mt. St. The top 5 wind power generating countries are Germany. The Cocos plate lies to the west of Panama in the Pacific north of Nazca plate. Rainier. 58. East Siberian sea lie in that order from west to east. Dead Sea. 59. Ivanovo (Machester of Russia) & Nizhny Novgorod (Detroit of Russia). Canary Island & Cape Verde Island is the sequence from North to South. The following features are arranged in increasing geological age East African rift. Polland is the world most polluted country. Kara Sea. Hot springs are more common than geysers & the former are not explosive in general. Laptev Sea. Ozark plateau is domed. Huila plateau lies to its south. Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky near Kazan). Lake Nyasa are all rift valley lakes but Lake Victoria is not. India & Denmark. Moscow. Etna). Mt. 62. 57. Mount St Helens (USA) and Mount Pinatubo (Philippines). Petersburg. & Vladivostok. Gulf of Aden. Rostov (Gateway to Caucasus). also called Bartlett Deep is a spreading ridge on the floor of the western Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and the Cayman Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Tanganyika. The Pantanal is the world’s largest freshwater wetland in Brazil. Takla Makan desert. Scotia plate lies to the south of South America. Kilavea. 98 . 64. Shasta are from North to South in NW USA. Bermuda. Tibetan plateau is intermontane. Novosibirsk. Pripet marshes are large wetlands along Pripet river in Belarus. A geyser erupts intermittently. Novokuznetsk. Hood. 63. Composite cone. The Finger Lakes are glacially formed lakes in upstate New York. Mt. White Sea. Atlantic 55. The Russian cities from NW to SE are St. Petersburg (largest port of Russia). 61. In Bangladesh when Tista joins Brahmaputra it is known as Jamuna. Shield Volcano (Mt. 60. Columbia plateau is volcanic in origin. 68. Tarelad Dam. Later from west to east Omsk. Cayman Trench. Caribbean plate lies east of Panama in the Carribean region. Tibet is enclosed between Kunlun to the North & Himalayas to the south. 69. 66. 67. The Bie Plateau occupies most of central Angola & the Okavango river rises here.Ghanshyam Thori Sea & Mediterranean sea. The Great Okefenokee Swamp is the largest swamp found in all of North America. Magnitogorsk. 65. Examples of composite volcanoes include Mount Fuji (Japan). Mangala dam is in Pakistan over river Jhelum. Irkutsk.

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

70. The mountain peaks in the Himalayas of Nepal going from west to east is Mt Api (W. Nepal), Mt Dhaulagiri, Mt Annapurna, Mt Manaslu (Central Nepal) & Mt Gaurishankar, Mt Everest, Mt Makalu & Mt Kanchenjunga (E. Nepal). Mt Pidurutalagala, the highest point in Sri Lanka. 71. Albania, Macedonia & Bulgaria lie to the North of Greece. Biskra depression is in Algeria. 72. Fremantle Doctor is a cooling afternoon sea breeze which occurs during summer months in coastal areas of Western Australia. The Guba wind occurs along the Papua coast (South of Papua New Guinea). 73. Forests cover 64 percent of Japan’s land area & it is one of the world’s largest importers of wood. The most densely populated province of Canada is Prince Edward Island. Klamath mountains are in California. 74. The lakes in Canada from North to south are Great Bear, Great Slave, Athabasca, Wollaston, Reindeer & Winnipeg. The cities of Canada along the St. Lawrence from North to South are Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton & Windsor. Sudbury lies to the north of Lake Huron. 75. Halifax (Nova Scotia), St. John (New Foundland) & Saint John (New Brunswick) are in Canada. The centre for steel industry in Canada is Hamilton. The city of Toronto is the largest in Canada followed by Montreal & Vancouver. 76. Basque people live along the Pyrenees in Spain. The Gap between the Pyrenees & the Central Massif is called the Belfort gap. The physical feature of France from North to south are Ardennes, Vosges, Jura & the Alps. Bohemian Forest is a highland region, rising mainly along the border between the Czech Republic and Germany, and also in Austria. 77. The southernmost of Japanese islands is Ryuku which lies to the south of Kyushu & North of Taiwan. Nagoya is the Detroit of Japan. Kitakyushu (Northern tip of Kyushu) is a conurbation of five cities. The most populous province of China is Sichuan. 78. Fushun, Shenyang (Formerly Mukden – Main industrial cluster of Manchuria) & Anshan are in that order from North to South all in Liaoning province. Lop Nor is famous for nuclear activity. Qaidam basin is to the north of Tibet plateau & to the south of Kunlun Mountains. 79. The Sea of Galilee is Israel's largest freshwater lake & lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the secondlowest lake in the world after the Dead Sea. It is to the north of Dead Sea. 80. Ahaggar Mountains, also Hoggar Mountains, plateau region, southern Algeria, in the center of the Sahara. The major basin of Africa is El Djouf, now occupied by the Niger River Basin in West Africa. Karoo is a semidesert plateau regions in southern South Africa. Adamawa Plateau region, west central Africa, is in central Cameroon, extending into southeastern Nigeria and western Central African Republic. Futa Jallon, highland region in west central Guinea. Tibesti mountainous region of the central Sahara, in northern Chad, extending into northeastern Niger and southern Libya.

99

Ghanshyam Thori Landscape of Africa

Geography Notes

Saudi Arabia

Rivers of South America

100

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Natural Landscape of South America

China Provinces 101

Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes United States Provinces Iraq 102 .

4. 3. 3. 4. 3. Silts Blue mud. 2. 4. 2. climatic climax. 2. mono climax Concept of Poly climax Lowthian Green Jeans & Sollas Clements Whittaker Scandinavia United Kingdom Canada United States S 1. 3. 4. 2. Continental Margins Shallow Sea Bathyl Region Abyssal Plain Oceanic Zones & Types of Deposits Organic Matter Sands. Green mud Ooze 103 . Various Geographical Institutes Hydrographic Biological Commission Marine Biological Association Research Institute of Marine Fisheries Coast & Geodetic Survey Geographers & Contribution 1. Zone of Ocean Continental Shelf Continental Slopes Continental Rises Deep Ocean Floor Marine Sediments Percentage of Total Marine Deposits 15 % 41 % 31 % 13 % 1.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Physical Geography 1. Tetrahedral Hypothesis Pear Shaped earth deformation Concept of succession.

tropical deciduous forests Temperate and high altitude Arctic and alpine regions Landforms Classification Oceans. 104 . Africa) Extremely flat. playa lakes Sand dunes. African) Clouds & Characteristics Mackerel Sky Mare’s Tail (As they resemble horse’s tail) Cauliflower Heads Watery Look Terms Equatorial and tropical. tropical rain forests Tropical and sub tropical. 3. vegetation free area of silt or clay in the lowest part of a closed basin Playa with saline water or kept moist by rising groundwater Closed basin containing a dry lake or playa (N. Asthenosphere lies above mesosphere. 3. fault blocks. not uniformly distributed over the entire atmosphere is ozone. deltas. terraces Cirro Cumulus Cirrus Cumulus Altostratus Megatherms Mesotherms Microtherms Heskitotherms First order Second order Third order Fourth order Fifth order Sixth order Miscellaneous Facts: 1. major valleys Volcanoes. Africa) Desert pavement of loose stones. Africa) Extensive sandy plain (N. physiographic. Alpha centauri is also known as Proxima Centauri. Isotherms are irregular but closely spaced in Northern Hemishpere. coarser and older than reg (N.Ghanshyam Thori Deposits & Percentage Area Occupied Littoral & Shallow water Deposit 9% Deep Sea (Terrigenous) deposits 15 % Pelagic Ooze & Red Clay 75 % Geography Notes 1. 2. 2. continents Mountain systems. The only gas. Africa) Vast region deeply covered with sand and topped by sand dunes (N. The eastern regions of humid subtropical areas receive rainfall throughout the year like equatorial regions. valleys Cinder cones. Ox Bow lake is a characteristic of the river in its old age. Hamada Reg Serir Debba Erg Playa Salina Chott Terms used for Deserts Bare rock or rock with a thin veneer of pebble (Arabic) Desert pavement of loose stones (N. Steam fog occurs when cold air blows over warmer waters & Advection fog occurs when moist air blows over cold surface. Provinces Mountain ranges.

17. Paul Plateau are located in the Indian ocean. Climate & biotic factors are active soil forming factors whereas time. Lower the salinity higher is the freezing point. Geography Notes 4. Continental shelf has maximum depth of 200m. 8. In most of the areas the continental shelf is formed by constructive ocean. Zaire canyon is riverine. Pteropod is found mainly only in the Atlantic ocean. Radiolarian & Diatom ooze can be found at greater depth than Pteropod & globigerina ooze because siliceous ooze are less soluble while calcareous oozes are easily soluble. Albatross Cordillera is in 5. Abyssal hills have height of 1000 m & guyots are 1100 m high. 16. 7. Red clay deposit is widely found in Pacific Ocean. 105 . 9. USDA soils & their zonal equivalents are: Vertisols (grumusols). The deepest continental shelves surround Antarctica. Canyons of Bering Sea are the largest & Oceanographer canyon is small gorge. The transition zone between two ecosystems is called ecotone. The maximum width of the continental shelf is off the arctic coast of Siberia. C horizon is not a part of mineral horizon.85 kilometers & one mile is equal to 1. Paul plateau divide the Indian ocean into almost two basins. Canyons of south California are dendritic. 12.6 kms. Amsterdam-St. Mollisols (Chernozem). 18. 13. Pebble is smaller than cobble. Entisols are also highly productive in some regions. Emperor Seamount chain is in the Pacific Ocean. 14. Salinity of ocean is a function of latitude. Paul ridge. Lakshadweep-Chagos ridge. Allelopathy is a phenomenon in which toxins produced by one species inhibit the growth of other. Continental slope has a depth of about 3600 m. 10. St. 6. Chelating agents are associated with the process of podzolization. The dominant species of an ecosystem are more prone to climatic changes. One nautical mile is equal to 1. Silt is smaller in size than sand but larger than clay. A zone in which the density of water increase with increasing depth is called Pycnocline zone. 15. Trasnfromation process of pedogenic regime includes humification & mineralization. Prince Edward Crozet ridge & Amsterdam – St.Ghanshyam Thori Pacific ocean. The evolution of mid-Atlantic ridge can be dated back to Pliocene age. Gulf of Bothnia records the lowest salinity of less than 2 %. topography & parent rock are passive. 19. Atlantic Ocean has the maximum percentage of continental shelf area followed by Pacific & Indian. Kiel Canal shortens the distance between London & Kaliningrad. The loess serves as an ideal parent material for chernozem soils. 11. Spodosols (Podzols) & Alfisols (Degraded chernozems).

Ambhibians & reptiles evolved during carboniferous period. 25. The dark lines in corona are called ‘Fraunhofer lines’. moder & mull. Surface waves or long period waves cover the longest distance of all seismic waves. 106 . The variation of wind with elevation through the friction layer is represented by an equi angular spiral known as the Ekman spiral. Siddhartha –Ensemble-Appendix –Geo of India-page 13) Isostasy. 28. Savannah). 29. 22. loesses and mountain grassland soils. Mull is a type of humus characteristic for chestnut soils & arises under grassland conditions. Primary waves can change into secondary waves under certain conditions due to refraction. especially in Brunei. Devonian period is the age of fishes. Mor is a type of humus. This humus arise under conditions of lowbiological activity in soil. 26. chernozem (steppe grasses). World Population Data (K. Map references. Saturn is known as Jewel Planet & Venus as veiled planet. Soils & the vegetation supported are: brown earths (deciduous forests). The oldest animal fossil has been found in Zambia. podzol (heath forest). 24. Moder is a transitional form of humus between mull and moder.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 20.5. also known as Kerangas forest. 27. characteristic for sod-podzolic soils. Mull is well humified organic matter. Sun Spots are cooler areas of the sun.g. Beaufort scale ranges from 0 to 12. Aestivation refers to the state of inactivity adopted by desert animals during the hottest & driest season. If climate dictates the nature of this community we describe this as a climactic climax whereas if the soil conditions limit the type of climax that develops we speak of an edaphic climax (E. which occur largely in coniferous forest soils and the moorlands soils. grumusol (savanna grasses). The types of humus in terrestrial environment are: mor. The favourable pH for the growth of cereal crops is 6. Climax (community) which is the hypothetical optimal community that would eventually develop under ideal conditions and without human interference. Tropical heath forest. For an earthquake at a particular spot the shadow zone of P-waves invariably exist between 103 & 143 degree form the earthquake focus. 21. is a type of forest found on the island of Borneo. 23. Focus is also known as hypo centre. Essential Extra Reference: • • • How to Calculate the sun’s latitude at solstice for various latitudes. Where there has been some interference that degrades the climax we say that secondary succession has occurred and if we now view this secondary community as on its way back to the climax we can refer to this as a sub-climax.

9. Orissa M. 14. 6. 6. Kudremukh Aliabet Bailadila Gurumahisani Balghat Koraput Kolihan Kodarma Karnataka Gulf of Kambhat Chattisgarh Mayubhanj. 5. 13.P (Malanjkhand) Orissa Rajasthan Jharkhand . 8. 12. 1. 5. Lakshwadeep is the smallest UT both in population & area India’s World Rank in Various Commodities I rank II rank III rank Banana Oil Seeds Coconuts Buffalo Milk Garlic Tobacco Leaves Castor Beans Cauliflower Potatoes Fresh Fruit Cashew Nuts Cotton seed Ginger Lemons & Lime Rape Seed Goat Milk Rice Sorghum Jute Wheat Lentils Cow Milk Mangoes Fresh Vegetables Tea Sugar Cane Spices Dry Onions Pulses Groundnuts in shell Seaseme Seed Pigeon Peas Famous Ores of India Iron Ore Offshore oil field Iron Ore Iron Ore Copper. 3. 3. Orissa 10. Uttar Pradesh 6. Maharashtra West Bengal 4. 11. Andamans & Nicobar is the biggest UT by area & Delhi by population. Rajasthan Maharashtra 2. Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh 5. Karnataka 9. Gujarat 8. Manganese Bauxite Copper Mica 107 1.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Geography of India Top States by Area & Population S Area Population Uttar Pradesh 1. Chattisgarh Goa is the smallest state by area & Sikkim is the smallest in Population. 7. 2. 2. 4. 10. 7. 8. Madhya Pradesh Bihar 3. 4. J & K 7.

Ghanshyam Thori 9. Lohardaga 10. Gumla 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Geography Notes

Bauxite Jharkhand Bauxite Jharkhand Various Geographical Features New Moore Deltaic Island & disputed site between Bangladesh & India Kacchativu Fishing area leased to Sri Lanka Mandav Hills Gujarat. North of Gir Hills. Rarh Plains West Bengal. Mikir & Rengma Hills Assam Dudma Falls Machkund river, Orissa. Thekkadi Sanctuary Kerala Cambarjua Canal Goa Sirhind Canal Sutlej Upper Bari Doab Canal Ravi Hampi Karnataka Keibul Lamjao Only floating national park in Manipur Loktak lake. Pulicat Lake Barred by long sandpit – Sri Harikota Island. Gohana Lake Situated near Devprayag in Garhwal Wular & Dal Lake Formed by tectonic forces of faulting. Wetlands of India Harike Punjab Ashtamudi Kerala Bhoj Madhya Pradesh Kabar Bihar Kanji Punjab Kolleru Andhra Pradesh Nalsarovar Gujarat Pichola Rajasthan Renuka Himachal Pradesh Sasthamkotta Kerala Sukhana Chandigarh Ujni Maharashtra Doabs of India Indus & Jhelum Chenab & Jhelum Beas, Ravi & Satluj Ravi & Chenab Sutlej & Beas

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sind Sagar Doab Jech/Chej Doab Bari Doab Rachna Doab Jalandhar/Bist Doab

1. 2. 3. 4.

Famous Beaches of India Gopalpur & Chandipur beach Orissa Bheemunipatnam beach Andhra Pradesh Anjuna, Calangute & Baga beach Goa Ahmedpur Mandvi Beach Gujarat

108

Ghanshyam Thori 5. Karwar, Maple beach Karnataka Agri Exports Marine Product Rice Wheat Fruits & Vegetables Tea

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Agri-Imports Vegetables Oil Pulses Cashew Nuts Fruits & Other Nuts Milk & Cream

72 % 14 % 9% 4% .6 %

18 % 12 % 7% 6% 5%

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Batura glacier Hispar glacier Skamri glacier Biafo glacier Baltora glacier Siachen glacier Sonapani glacier Gangotri glacier Milam glacier Pindari glacier Rambang glacier Khumbu glacier Zemu glacier

Glaciers Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Pirpanjal region Kumaon-Garhwal region (Uttaranchal) Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Kanchenjunga-Everst region Mt. Everest region Kanchenjunga-Everest region (Sikkim)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Forestry Research Institutions Institute of Rain & Moist Deciduous Forests Institute of wood science & Technology Tropical Forestry Research Institute Institute of Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding Temperate Forest Research Institute Centre for Forest Productivity Centre for Social Forestry & Environment CAZRI Natural Gas Based Projects Dahej Power Project Gujarat Pata Petrochemical Project U.P. Usar LPG project Maharashtra Lakwa LPG project Assam Miscellaneous Facts:

Jorhat Bangalore Jabalpur Coimbatore Shimla Ranchi Allahabad Jodhpur

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. Largest SC community is chamar. The rainiest period for Tamil Nadu is October-November & not December-January. Shola is a type of high-altitude stunted evergreen forest found in southern India mainly in Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu. India has monopoly in the production of Lac.

109

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

2. Rama's Bridge, Nala's Bridge or Adam's Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. The Pamban Bridge also called Indira Gandhi Bridge lies on the Indian end of the Palk Strait that connects Rameswaram island to mainland India. 3. Banbasa wild life sanctuary is in U.P. The largest tiger reserve in India is Nagarjuna Sagar – Sri Sailam tiger reserve. 4. Rivers of East India from North to south are Damodar, Subarnarekha, Brahmani-Baitrani & Mahanadi. 5. The rivers of Peninsular India from North to south are Krishna, Penneru, Palar, Cauvery & Vaigai. 6. The major tribes who inhabit the mountains of Kerala are Kanis, Uralis, Kadar, Kanikkar, Paniyar etc.. They are considered to be the descendants of the Negrito race. Even the Angami Nagas & the Badgis of the Rajmahal Hills in Bihar belong to the Negrito race. 7. The largest permanent migration of the Indian outside the country in the last century was associated with the sugarcane plantations. 8. Vishakhapatnam is the deepest port. Kolkata is riverine port. Kandla is tidal port. Mumbai is biggest port. Nava-Sheva (JLNP) is the busiest port. 9. Kadam project is in Andhra Pradesh & Gurusoppa project in Karnataka. 10. Bheraghat falls (Narmada), Sivasamudram falls (Cauvery) & Hundru falls (Subarnarekha) 11. Tungabhadra water dispute (A.P. & Karnataka), Krishna Water dispute (Maharashtra, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh). 12. The major fishing harbours of India are Cochin, Madras & Vishakhapatnam 13. The following steel plants are in order of decreasing capacity: Bhilai, Durgapur & Burnpur. 14. Kerala coast is an example of emergent coast. Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh; Sasthamkotta Lake in Kerala are important. 15. In 2001 census, the proportion of children population to total population was the least among jains & the sex ratio was the least among sikhs. 16. The correct sequence of ranges/hills in peninsular plateau region from north to south is Garhjat Hills, Balaghat range, Palkonda range, Cardamom hills. 17. Valmiki Tiger reserve & Kabar Lake bird sanctary are in Bihar. Ujni wetlands is in Maharashtra & Deeper Beel wetlands in Assam. Shahpur Kandi irrigation project is in Punjab & Teesta Barrage in West Bengal. Kanheri National Park (Maharashtra) & Chandaka National Park (Orissa) 18. India is divided into five seismic zones. Zone I is most secure & Zone V being most vulenerable. Aluminium plants are located near source of power & not near raw material.

110

Indian board of wildlife is headed by Prime Minister of India. Chhattisgarh.Ghanshyam Thori Narmada. Lake Wular is the largest freshwater lake of India.1 percent respectively of the total population. Assam shares its boundary with seven other Indian states. 29. Geography Notes 19. Mizoram with three states & Tripura with 2 states. UP touches 8 states. Vembanad Lake due to offshore bar formation in backwaters of Kerala. according to Census of India 2001.P touches 5 states & Chattisgarh touches 6 states. Highest point is Singapore is Timah Hill. Western ghats were uplifted in the Cenozoic period. M. Kanthi coastal plain is in West Bengal & Nadhra plain is in Eastern Ghat. Aliabet is the largest island in the estuary of the 21. India imports 40 % of its oilseeds needed. Ashtamudi Lake (Ashtamudi Kayal) is in Kollam district of Kerala state in south India. 22.P.P. Orissa coast is mainly depositional in character. The name of Pench National Park. Rajasthan. Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) comprised 16. Tso-morari is a huge mountain lake in Southeast Ladakh. Myanmar (1458 Km). 30. Total number of India states that form international border with the neighbouring countries is 17. 34. 20.2 percent and 8. Garland canal project connects the rivers of east & west India. 24. Five Indian states have common border with Bangladesh. Mount Thuiller (Great Nicobar). It does not pass through Orissa. rapeseed & mustard are the most important oil seeds produced in India. 31. Gulf of Kutchh is a coral reef area. 25. 27. Both M. The most prominent India-Bangladesh border issues are the Tin Bigha Corridor. Jharkhand. In India the international boundary shared with different countries is Bangladesh (4096 km).Gujarat. M. 33. Mount Diavolo (Little Nicobar) & Mount Ford (Rutland Island). Pakistan (3310 km). Tripura & Mizoram. was changed to "Indira Priyadarshini Pench National Park". Groundnut. 26. 35. West Bengal. Muhuri Char and New Moore ( or South Talpatty/ Purbasha island). Ashtamudi Lake is designated a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention. 23. 32. Saddle Peak (North Andaman). Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under ravines. Bajra & Jowar are the three most important millets produced in India. Tropic of Cancer passes through the following 8 states . Zojila pass is from Srinagar to Ladakh. Kolleru Lake is a large freshwater lake in India's Andhra Pradesh state. Brahmaputra River has maximum surface run off while Ganga has maximum catchment area. Loktak lake is formed due to faulting. Ragi. 28. Amarkantak plateau has radial drainage pattern. 111 .

forming the NE edge of Chhotanagpur plateu. Dandakranya overlaps Bastar plateau. Port Blair is located on South Andaman. 46. Punjab & Rajasthan are the top 3 milk producing states in India. Tidal or Littoral forests occur around the deltas.P). 38. IMD defines normal monsoon year as the rainfall between june-september is within plus/minus 10 per cent of the normal figure of 88 cm for the whole country. 112 .P. Agriculture (31%). estuaries. Biggest island on Andaman & Nicobar island is Middel Andaman. Nilgiris (Extreme west TN).Ghanshyam Thori Rajasthan ranks number one. 40. Chandor Hills lie to the west of Ajanta range in Maharasthra.P) Thag La. Annamalai hills & Cardamom hills from north to south in western ghats. Plateau (27 %) & Plain area (43 %) of total india’s area. Superimposed pattern (Damodar & Chambal). U. 43. Peaty & organic soils are found in Kottayam & Alappuzha districts of Kerala where they are called Kari. Niti & Lipu lekh (Uttaranchal) in that order form NW to SE. Hilly region (18. 42. India is divided into 35 meterological sub divisions. Moran river drains into Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar in Uttar Pradesh. Gurudogmar in Northern Sikkim is the highest lake. Varushnad Hills in the eastern ghats (all 5 in Tamil Nadu) are in that order from north to south. Shipki La (H. Domestic (21%) & Commercial (6%) 44. Highest point in the whole island is Saddle Peak on North Andaman Island. Geography Notes 36. The east coastal plain is known as Northern Circars between Mahanadi & Krishna & Carnatic between Krishna & the Cauvery rivers.P & maximum sanctuaries in Andaman & Nicobar 47.6 %). The Pangong Tso (largest in Himalayas) & Tso Moriri lakes are in J & K region. Sectoral Consumption of electricity is Industrial (35%). Sirumalai hills.P) on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé (Kerala) on the Arabian Sea. Rayalseema uplands lie to the south of Telangana plateau. Javadi Hills & Shevaroy Hills. To the south of Ajanta range lies Balaghat. Palakonda range (both in A. Narcondam island lies to the north of Barren Island. 39. Ramgarh hills lie in North Chhattisgarh & Bastar plateau in south Chhattisgarh. In terms of sheep population 37. Rectangular drainage pattern (Kosi & its tributaries). Mallamalai hills. 45. Rajmahal Hills lie in NE Jharkhand. The maximum number of National Parks is in M. 41. Mountains (11 %). Panchamalai hills. both being to the east of Andamans. Karaikal (Tamil Nadu) and Yanam (A. Pondicherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Pondicherry. To the south of Satpura range lies Mahadeo hills & Gawilgarh hills. Zoji La (J&K) Bara Lacha. Radial pattern (Amarkantak & Kathiawar region).

Mandvi) lead in the production of wind power. 50. Cuddapah (Proterozoic) & Vindhyan (Paleozoic) rocks are in that order from old to new. Porbander. In religious communities. Sex ratio in Muslims is (936) higher than that of Hindu (931). Kalipani region between India & Nepal. Naganipattnam (Tamil Nadu). 53. 113 . Bananas. Talpatty Island and Purbasha Island is disputed territory between Bangladesh and India. Mango & Citrus are the top three fruits by production. Geography Notes 48. Christians have the highest sex ratio (1009) & Sikh the least (893). Map of India for various important cities location important. onion & cabbage top in 49. Some important minor ports of India are: Okha.). West Bengal. Pakistan and Bangladesh. tomato. Just refer political & physical map given at the beginning of oxford atlas. Sir Creek between Pakistan & India. Veraval (from north to south in Gujarat). The Isobar of 1018 millibars runs through the Indo-Gangetic plains during January & it becomes 1000 millibars in July. Dharwar (Archaean). Okha. 52. 51. See Mineral Maps of India too. Potato. Kakinada & Machilipatnam (N to S in A. Quatern Island is disputed among India.P. Million Cities of India. 2001 Greater Mumbai 19 Ludhiana Kolkata 20 Kochi Delhi 21 Visakhapatnam Chennai 22 Agra Bangalore 23 Varanasi Hyderabad 24 Madurai Ahmadabad 25 Meerut Pune 26 Nashik Surat 27 Jabalpur Kanpur 28 Jamshedpur Jaipur 29 Asansol Lucknow 30 Dhanbad Nagpur 31 Faridabad Patna 32 Allahabad Indore 33 Amritsar Vadodara 34 Vijayawada Bhopal 35 Rajkot Coimbatore 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Essential Extra Reference: 1. Talasseri (Kerala). A tidal power plant is located at Durgaduani creek in Sundarbans.Ghanshyam Thori vegetable production. Tamil Nadu & Gujarat (Lamba.

Geography Notes River Basins of India 114 .Ghanshyam Thori 2. Cities situated on river banks. Cities in India & their industry (E.g Firozabad glass).

Basalt Felsic rocks Quartz. Extrusive Igneous rocks Andesite. Hercynian Orogeny Paleozoic Carboniferous 360 million Reptiles. Marble. Gabbro (intrusive basalt) Pegmatite1 & Periodotite. Schist. Ironstone. Quartzite. Coal 1. And Eclogite Facies. Named after Jura Mountains Triassic 240 million Dinosaurs Permian 290 million Seed Plants. first Apes & Monkeys. flowering plant-angiosperms first appeared. Granulite. Granite. Slate. Archean systems. Hornfel (Formed by Contact Metamorphism) Sedimentary rocks Oolite (type of limestone) Shale. Ape like man. Greenschist. Amphibolite. Feldspar Metamorphic rocks Hornfels. Amphibians. Ordovician 500 million Graptolites Cambrian 570 million Tribolites Vindhyan. and gneiss (Formed by Regional Metamorphism) Non Foliated Metamorphic Marble. Greenstone. Travertine (light-coloured concretionary limestone). Rhyolite (extrusive granite). Metamorphic rocks Original rock Metamorphic rock Limestone Marble Sandstone Quartzite Shales Schist Shales or Clay Slate Granites or conglomerates Gneiss 115 . Conglomerate. Fish (in order) Devonian 410 million Corals. Pre-Cambrian Aravallis Rocks Intrusive Igneous rocks Diorite. Sandstone. Thar desert. phyllite. Gneiss Foliated Metamorphic Slate. Caledonian Orogeny. First fish. Silurian 435 million First fish with Jaws. schist.000 Cultivated plants Cenozoic Pleistocene 1. Dharwar. Deccan Traps Mesozoic Jurassic 205 million Birds (Archaeopteryx). Evaporite. 2. Uplift of Central Himalayan Axis (First Phase) Eocene 55 million Grasses Paleocene 65 million Small Mamals Cretaceous 138 million Flowering plants increased. Indo-Gangetic plain. Quartzite.6 million Human beings. First Terrestrial Insects. Karewas of Kashmir 5 million Horses. Cuddapah. Rann of Kachchh.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Physical Geography Geological Period Holocene 10.The most common metamorphic rocks are gneiss & schist.Pegmatite has composition of granite & has very large crystals indicating very slow cooling. Upper Siwaliks Tertiary Period Pliocene Miocene 24 million Apes developed Oligocene 38 million Early horses.

Izalco (San Salvador) Composite Cones Most of famous volcanoes. Etna (Sicily) Basalt Cone Rangitoto Effusive Eruption Kilauea (most active volcanic crater. Present throughout the year Westerly Sub-Tropical Jet Located above subtropical highs between 20 & 50 N with core between 9 & 12 Km. Hawaii) Explosive Volcano Mt. Katmai (valley of ten thousand smokes) Jet Streams Located above the polar fronts between latitudes 30o & 70o N with core between 6 to 9 Km. Depth Deepest point 4280 m Mariana trench (11000 m) 3600 m Puerto Rico Trench (8600 m) 3900 m Java trench (7700 m) 1300 m Westerly Polar Jet Stream Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean Feature Continental Shelf Relief of the Ocean Basins Width % area Specific % Area 65 Km 8. and firs Hardwood/Broad Leaved (Angiospersm) Oak. Softwoods/Hardwoods Softwood/Conifers (Gymnosperms) Pines. Philippines) Nue Ardentes is a characteristic feature of Mt.5%) Deep Sea Plains 3000-6000 m 76 % Pacific (80. Cotopaxi. Found only in Northern hemisphere & confined to the Indian Ocean.Ghanshyam Thori Shale Gabro Phyllite Serpentine Geography Notes Volcanic Cones Cinder/Ash Cones Mt. Pinatubo (Central Luzon. Not continuous but found in both hemispheres. Pacific Ocean (7%) Indian Ocean (6.5 % Atlantic Ocean (12%). mahogany. and balsa. Continuous distance that winds blow over a water surface Clint Grike Fetch 116 . Paricutin (both in Mexico).) Parasite Cone Mt. maple. Pacific Ocean (6%) Indian Ocean (4%) Continental Slope 8.E Luzon Is. walnut. Eg Vesuvius. Easterly Tropical Jet Located above the Asiatic summer monsoon between the equator & the 20o N with core between 14 & 16 Km.3%) Indian (80. Mt. teak. Mt. Jorullo & Mt. larches.1%) Atlantic (55%) • The Arctic continental shelf is widest. The average slope of the continental slope is about 4o. Pelee & Mt.6 % Atlantic Ocean (13%). Depth range 100 fathoms Or 180 m 200-2000 m Physical Geography Terms Any of the masses of rock left standing between fissures (grikes) in a limestone region A fissure enlarged by rainwater dissolution between limestone clints. cedars. beech. spruces. Oceans Av. Mayon (S.

Isolated hill with steep sides and flat top. Fir. Cedar.g. Yew Teak.Arizona) Elm Redwood (or Sequoia) Arborvitae. Juniper. Sequoia. Various Protocols Ozone Layer Ozone Depleting Substances Trans boundary movement of Hazardous Wastes Global Warming Convention on climate change & biological diversity Persistent Organic Pollutants Prior Informed Consent procedure for certain hazardous material Bio Safety Mean Elevation of Continents Antarctica 1830 m Asia 910 m North America 610 m Africa 580 m South America 550 m Europe 300 m Australia 300 m Desert Climate Mid latitude broad leaf Temperate rain forest Conifers Tropical Monsoon Tropical Savannah Mediterranean Vienna Convention Montreal Protocol Basel Convention Kyoto Protocol Rio de Janeiro Stockholm Convention Rotterdam Convention Cartagena Protocol 117 . Spruce. E. Larch.Ghanshyam Thori Coulee Bolson Calving Butte Geography Notes Steep sided valley carved by water from the melting glacier Term used for Playas mainly in Mexico & SW USA. Baobab Cork. Cypress. similar to but narrower than a mesa. Pine. Sal Trees with flattened crowns. Douglas Fir. Various Mediterranean Vegetation/Shrub-Lands Chaparral California Tomillares Spain Macchia Mediterranean countries and South Africa Phrygana Balkans Brigalow shrub & Mallee Australia Caatinga Brazil Maquis Europe Matorral Chile Garrigue France Forests/Biomes & their Species Saguaro (spectacular cactus tree . Hemlock. The formation of icebergs from a glacier.

The pre Cambrian shields are composed of granites & gneisses. 4. Bentley Subglacial Trench is the deepest point in Antarctic. Slight flattening at the poles causes the length of a degree of latitude to vary from 110. In the Earth the divisions are Crust (30-100 km thick). The capacity to transmit water is permeability & not porosity. ancient landmass that consisted of the present continents of South America. 11.57 km at the equator to 111. 1900o C (700 km). The temperature at various depths is 1100o C (100 km). 10. Lower mantle (700-2900 km). Patagonian Plateau (Piedmont plateau). Great Basin of Nevada & Tarim Basin are all rimmed by mountains. 3. meridians converge reducing the distance drastically. Feldspars are the most abundant of all minerals and account for nearly half of the volume of the earth's crust. The core forms 33 % of the mass & 16 % volume. Soapstone is also known as Steatite & is a massive variety of talc. Upper mantle (100-700 km deep). . Gondwanaland.Earthquakes with negative Richter scale magnitudes occur every day.32 km but at the poles. Africa. The earth gets heavier each year because it picks up some dust from space. Longitudes unlike latitudes are not used for measuring distance because the latitudes are almost equally spaced.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Miscellaneous Facts 1. 9. Astronomers estimate that about half of all stars in the sky belong to either a binary or multiple star system. Australia. The energy released by an earthquake increases 32 fold & the ground motion increases by 10 times for each increase of one magnitude on the Richter scale. 6. Lake Victoria Basin. The Earths mantle comprises 66 % of its mass & 83% of its volume. but are so small that they are difficult to detect. and Antarctica as well as the Indian subcontinent. 2. The planet Mars has a conspicuous river valley. Shields are convex in shape. The Ethiopian plateau is volcanic in origin & is largely composed of basalt. It is estimated that a magnitude 12 118 . The percentage of land surface in the northern hemisphere is maximum between 40 & 50 degree North. At equator. meridians of longitude 1 degree apart are separated by a distance of 111. 7. The asthenosphere is made up of peridotite.70 km at the poles. 3700o C (2900 km) & 4300o C (5100 Km). Clay is porous but is impermeable. Outer Core (2900-5150 km) & inner core (5150-6400 Km) 5. South African Plateau (Continental plateau) & Bolivian plateau (Intermontane plateau). 8.

When a succession starts at a dry place it is known as Xerosere. P waves do reach the antipode & can pass through gas. The qualitative assessment of the 12. Evergreen trees shed their leaves but not simultaneously. Igneous rocks generally do not show layers. the magma cools so rapidly that crystals have no time to 119 . An aquifer is called confined when it is bounded above and below by aquicludes or unconfined when there is no aquiclude above it. 13. faulting though primarily a result of tension may also occur due to compression. Conifers are named after cone shaped fruit bearing seeds. An aquiclude is a body of relatively impermeable rock. Abaca/Manila hemp (ropes). Geography Notes earthquake would release enough energy to split the earth in half. Trees & their uses: Kapok (or Silk cotton tree – Pillows. The granitic continental curst is lighter than the basaltic oceanic crust. When the succession starts in highly unfavourable conditions & the plants themselves have to create a suitable physical environment for themselves it is called autogenic succession. An area of vegetation having uniformity of life form is called a biochore. The blue mud occupies the greatest area among the various types of mud. 14. 18. Toquilla (Hats) & Balata (Marine cables). In some cases. Folding cannot occur due to tension. Where the succession starts in an area where the physical conditions required for plant growth are already present is called allogenic succession. However. Green colour of green mud is because of mineral gluconite. 15. Submarine fans constitute a large part of the continental rises. 17. Before the climatic climax vegetation evolves there are some stages of short term equilibrium between plants & the environment called Edaphic Climax. Among Igneous rocks crystals in intrusive rocks are larger than those in extrusive rocks. 22. 19. S waves travel faster than surface waves. 23. Lithosphere is around 65-100 Km thick. Vegetation succession resulting from man’s interference is called Plagioseres. The profile of podzol soils is best developed. Basalt is one of the finest grained extrusive rocks. The concept of primordial matter was given by Kant & the concept of intruding star was given by James & Jeans. Outgassing is the process which probably accounted for the surface waters. The period of twilight (diffused light that occurs before sunrise & sunset) increases as one goes towards the poles.Ghanshyam Thori damage done by an earthquake is expressed by intensity. Mattresses). Such a succession is called secondary succession. 20. 21. 16. Basaltic magma is hotter than silicate magma. Earth is a geoid. Deep Sea regions are supposed to be more stable than tropical rainforests. in case of wet place (Hydrosere). Magnetic materials made of iron compounds lose their magnetic properties if heated beyond a certain temperature called Curie point. The succession may begin in an area where some natural disaster has caused removal of existing vegetation.

In addition to lava flows. A river erodes its convex slope more than its concave slope. A stream gradient usually forms a convex shaped slope. 25. Stock is an intrusive mass of plutonic rock with an outcrop. which are divided into periods. usually designating a series of rapids in a large river. An epoch. Marble is least affected by variations in temperature. A dendritic drainage pattern tends to develop where a whole drainage basin is made up of the same type of rock (uniform lithology). Metamorphic rocks are more compact than the original rocks & are more resistant to weathering. The term ‘coulee lake’ is associated with glaciers. 29. 32. 33. Geography Notes form. The part of the pediplain reduced in height due to erosion is called pediment. The position of thermal equator is normally at 5o N. The study of meteors helped in ascertaining the existence of ionosphere. The largest number of lakes are in the Scandinavian region. Exfoliation is more pronounced in granite. The maximum load of a river moves in suspension. Parallel drainage (Norway coast). Eons are divided into eras. 30. is often applied to waterfalls of large volume. Lithification is the process of formation of sedimentary rocks through compression & cementation. The presence of salt in the sea plays a vital role in delta formaton. Trellis drainage (Appalachian) & deranged drainage (Canadian shield). Deposits of high-grade chromite ore found along the Great Dyke (largest dyke in the world) contribute significantly to Zimbabwe's reserves of the minerals. Yardangs have been called ‘cockscombe’ by Holmes. such as obsidian. 34. The highest annual range of temperature is recorded in the 120 . The value of solar constant is 2 calories/cm2/minute. Anthracite is formed by metamorphism of bituminous coal. The deposition of silt & sand in the course of a river is called diaras. is further divided into stages. Columnar jointing. The term cataract. The largest division of geologic time is called an eon. The process of oxidation is most effective in hot & humid regions. Annular drainage pattern (Henry mountain). A lake in the course of a river is termed as a transient lake. The degree of inclination of a stream is known as its gradient. is a common feature of these shallow intrusive bodies. basalt is also found in the form of dikes and sills. Felsic rocks (more viscous) are 24. 26. The equatorial forests have one of the lowest albedo.Ghanshyam Thori light in colour & mafic rocks are usually dark. 35. 31. as exhibited by Devils Tower in Wyoming and the Giant's Causeway in Ireland. The main cause of mass movement is gravity. The warmest month in the northern hemisphere is july & the highest temperature is recorded at 20o N. the next division. and the magma hardens in an amorphous glass. 28. 27. Surface currents in the Oceans are primarily caused by wind action. The Scottish lands are very close to the stage of peneplain.

39. or slightly greater than that of the Atlantic. altostratus. 38.231 ft) below the surface.725 m (25. The average depth of the Indian Ocean is 3. Strong centrifugal force contributes to the low pressure at equator. Cold front is marked with triangular spikes & warm front by semi-circles. a line of thunderstorms may develop. The percentage cloud cover at any time in the world is around 50%. The isobars of a temperate cyclone are broad. in the Puerto Rico Trench. The EEZ extends offshore upto a distance of 200 nautical miles. Carribean sea experiences one of the strongest land & sea breeze. The standard air pressure at the sea level is 1013. 37. The southern oscillation index (SOI) is the difference in pressure between Tahiti in French Polynesia representing the pacific ocean & port Darwin in North Australia representing Indian Ocean.344 ft). Territorial waters extend up to 12 miles from shore.280 m 41. The ocean outside EEZ is called high sea which is about 60 % of total oceans.Ghanshyam Thori during night). . Tropical cyclones do not occur in South Atlantic because during the summer season (January) its temperature is always below 25o C between 10o & 20o S. It signifies good monsoon for India.810 ft). The wind blowing parallel to the isobars generally at a height of 600 m is known as geostrophic winds. The halocline is the depth at which the salinity changes rapidly. the bottom is 8. The Atlantic Ocean has an average depth of 3. Coriolis force causes the maximum deflection at the poles & decrease toward the equator where there is zero deflection. shallow & weak.800 ft). The effect of Coriolis force is proportion to the speed of the moving object. however. From 100 m to approximately 1. off the southern coast of the Indonesian island of Java. and the deepest known point is 7. Squall refers to a violent gusty wind which lasts a few minutes usually accompanied by rain or hail & then subsides.605 m (28. cirrostratus. The correct sequence of clouds in a temperate cyclone would be cirrus. The ideal conditions for the development of tropical cyclone are western margins of tropical oceans. The passage of the cold front is often accompanied by the heaviest precipitation and the strongest and gustiest winds.600 m (11. and 121 . Occasionally. At its deepest point. Saffir–Simpson Scale is used to measure hurricane intensity based on wind speed. altocumulus & nimbostratus. Geography Notes Taiga region & the highest diurnal range of temperature is found in hot deserts (hot during day & cold 36. out ahead of a cold front. it forms the boundary between the two layers. 44. 40. Stratus clouds create more problems for aeroplanes. 42. Positive SOI means higher Tahiti’s pressure than Port Darwin pressure. This line is called a squall line and it produces heavy rain and strong. 43.900 m (12. Ninety-nine percent of the water in the oceans has a salinity of between 33 and 37 g/kg (Average is 35 gm/Kg). Its average depth is 4.000 m the temperature drops rapidly to about 5° C. gusty winds.25 mb which is equivalent to 760 mm of Hg.

iron and aluminum oxides filter downward. 47. often resulting in a well-defined. Almost all known geysers are located in three countries of the world—New Zealand. 56. Herbs do not have woody stem but shrubs have woody stem. Ox bow lakes are more in the lower course than the middle course. The size of the valley increases downstream. Gibbous moon is one when 75 % of the moon is illuminated.8. Corals are found mainly in the tropical oceans (temp around 20-21o C). 51. these layers form a rock-hard crust. cementlike layer of ferricrete or plinthite meters below the Earth’s surface. Both sediment water & fresh water is injurious to them. Crescent. 52. The upper part of a soil profile. The cause of Iceland having geysers is its situation on mid Atlantic ridge. Oxygen (36%) & Carbon dioxide (15%). As weathering forms soil in the humid tropics. The number of tributaries decrease downstream & the river widens here. The proportion of gases dissolved in water is Nitrogen (46%). 50. in which the soil-forming processes (illuviation & eluviation) mainly occur is called Solum. Seamount. The arrangement of soil particles is called soil structure. and the United States. 46. The series of moon cycle is New Moon. Temperate forests have one of the least number of species (lesser than Mediterranean & Monsoon forests).6 days) at New Moon & Full Moon when moon & sun are in conjunction & opposition respectively. is an undersea volcanic mountain that is at least 1000 m tall. The south Atlantic has least coral formations. The primary source of ocean’s dissolved oxygen is its photosynthetic plants. The region of rapid change is known as the thermocline or Pycnocline. They do not live in deeper waters (more than 80 m deep). Salinity between 27-30 gm/Kg is suitable. The cohesion in soil is known as soil consistency. The largest & longest algae (Kelps) is found along the Peru coast. First Quarter. . Quartz is a dominant mineral in ocean deposits. Flat topped seamounts are called guyots. Iceland. The Telegraph plateau extends from Ireland to Labrador. A Barchan has an 122 . 48.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes below this it drops gradually about another 4° to barely above freezing. 55. The size & organization of particles in the soil in known as soil texture. El Nino is associated with coral bleaching (coral death). Prop roots are associated with mangrove forests. Gibbous. Hence they are not found near river mouth. Crescent. The northern needle leaf forest is known as boreal forest. 49. Last Quarter. The highest temperature of oceans is recorded in the West Pacific ocean north of equator. Spring tides occur twice a month (every 14. The sea water is slightly alkaline with it pH being 7. Gibbous. Full Moon. Oxygen & Nitrogen are abundant near the surface & there is more carbon dioxide in deep water. 53. When overlying sediments are eroded away. Ocean currents & waves are suitable as they bring food supply for the polyps. 54. 45.

mollusks. calcareous algae. Dixie Alley & Tornado Alley refers to the high frequency areas of tornadoes in USA. 61. Point bars develop where stream flow is locally reduced because of friction and reduced water depth.Ghanshyam Thori opposite with concave side facing the wind. Japan is the largest importer & Thailand is the largest exporter. Carlberg ridge divides the Arabian Sea into two parts. The wet adiabatic lapse rate is lower than dry adiabatic rate as condensation releases latent heat. but other organisms also add to it. Ozark Upland (between Missouri & Arkansas) in United States is full of Karst features. 59. It is a depositional feature. Hence Corals are not the only participants in coral formation. Lateritic soils are porous in structure. 58. 123 . Coniferous forests are evergreen. Bog burst is term used in Ireland for flowing of soil downslope. Hails are opaque due to trapped air bubbles. The largest fisheries group is made up of small. such as hydrozoan corals. Most of the jet steams blow parallel to latitudes & isobar as they are geostrophic. The coastal features are formed in the following order Headland. and nearly 20 percent are found in inland freshwater fisheries. pelagic (open ocean) fishes such as herring. 65. and related species 60. The 0 to 10 degree north receives more rainfall than corresponding southern latitudes due to ITCZ being more extensive in north. In northern Pacific Icebergs are rare. Longitudinal dunes (called seifs in Egypt) generally occur in areas of limited sand supply. Geography Notes asymmetrical profile concave on the leeward side & convex on the side of the wind. USA is both the second largest importer & exporter as it prefers certain varieties over others. Arch & Stack. In cirrus clouds water vapour is in solid form. Deposits of braided stream mainly consists of sand & gravel 63. A cone shaped depression is formed when water is withdrawn faster than it can be replaced. anchovy. Karst landscape is well developed in Yucatan peninsula. The temperate latitudes of southern hemisphere receive more rainfall than that of the northern hemisphere due to preponderance of Oceans in the former & deserts in the latter. In Fisheries. 62. Africa has the largest Savannah biome. sardine. Crevasses extend down in glaciers to the zone of plastic flow. Scleractinian corals are the main contributors to a reef. Cave. If a glacier has a balanced budget it remains stationary. Ice scoured plain is the subdued landscape resulting from erosion by continental glacier. Over 80 percent of the world’s fisheries are located in the coastal and ocean environment. 67. Bajada is the Spanish world for slope of alluvial material at the foot of the escarpment. and sponges. Lower pressure on open surface of water leads to higher rate of evaporation. 66. The angle of repose of dry sand controls the slope of the leeward side of the sand dune. 64. A Parabolic dune is 57.

Laccoliths have a flat base and a domed ceiling. 71. Marshall Islands. Deep batholiths can be extremely large. the Coast Range batholith of North America is 100 to 200 km wide and extends 600 km through Alaska and British Columbia.Ghanshyam Thori South Africa and the Muskox intrusion in the Northwest Territories.5 degree N/S can be of 24 hours beyond which there is a sharp increase. Over polar areas temperature inversion is normal throughout the year. Geography Notes 68. and are concordant with the neighboring rocks.5 years) followed by Japan (83.5). the capital and principal commercial center. Gibson & Simpson. Barysphere is the term used for the core of the earth. 74. Shallow focus earthquakes are usually the most damaging. Lopoliths are saucer-shaped concordant intrusions. Highest life expectancy is for Andorra (83. 75. 82. The average height of land on the earth is approximately 900 m. The average depth of all the oceans is about 3800 m. L waves & R waves in that order because of differential speeds of these waves.8 degree. For eg the longest day is of 1 month at 67. Well-known examples are the Bushveld complex in 69. St. Belize has the biggest barrier reef in the Northern Hemisphere. 80. Suvadiva. Sounds usually occur along submerged coast. The water hemisphere accounts for as much as 80 % of southern hemisphere. Tropical cyclones have a warm core. 77. Deep batholiths are often concordant. John is the capital of Newfoundland & is the headquarter of the Grand Banks fishing industry. Wave refraction is the phenomenon of waves bending so that they move nearly parallel to the shoreline. 81. The grasses of temperate grasslands are shorter but more nutritious than those of tropical grasslands. Great Sandy. The longest day at 66. The classic area from which they were first described is the Henry Mountains in the state of Utah. Canada. In Maldives the most populous atolls are Male.4 degree & 2 months at 69. Rejuvenation can take place during any stage of river development. while shallow batholiths are usually discordant. 73. 76. The principle of Catastrophism fits the vastness of the Earth’s age & the complexity of its rocks in a shortened time span (Eg. 78. biblical flood). Bermuda & Lakshwadeep are coral in origin. Canada. In Newfoundland the chief fish caught is Cod. The oldest surface rock yet discovered called Acasta Gneiss lies in Northwestern Canada. The premise that present day processes have operated throughout geological time is called uniformitarianism. they are usually small. The seismograph records first P waves followed by S waves. 70. Two second order stream meet to form a third order stream. and Tiladummati. 124 . 79. The correct sequence of deserts of Australia in descending order is Great Victoria. 72.

A sciophilous plant (called sciophyte) is shade loving. 84. Acid rain is the major problem in Norway & Sweden. 85. phyllite. below the thermocline is called hypolimnion. Slate. Isotherms on the globe are more tightly packed in winter. The lower cooler layer of water. Thermoperiodism is the rhythmic response of plants to fluctuations in temperature. Metamorphic rocks are considered generally as more resistant to erosion than sedimentary & igneous rocks. Guano forms a significant player of phosphate cycle. 90. Ecologists often call the few common species the ecological dominants & the rare species as incidentals. and regional metamorphism. subductionzone metamorphism. C. Metamorphic facies are formed according to one of three processes: contact metamorphism. Terra Rossa are formed mainly in Mediterranean region. An epipedon is a horizon that forms the sub soil portion. 95. In Karstic region the only mineral of importance is Lead. Dokuchaiev is considered the pioneer of soil genesis & soil classification. One of the reasons behind choosing 0 degree meridian at Greenwhich is that the IDL at 180 degree mostly passes through water thereby least disrupting the timezones in a country. 125 . Regional metamorphism often produces a fabric quality called foliation. In Australia where reg (desert pavement of loose stones) are widespread. The thin warm layer on the ocean surface is called Epilimnion. 92. 91. hornfels & marble are non foliated. they are called Gibber plains. schist. Rocks formed by contact metamorphism are generally nonfoliated. It is where the depth of water & height of the wave are actually the same. 89. The correct sequence of distribution of fresh water on earth from maximum to minimum is Glaciers. Ground water. Exfoliation (peeling off) is caused by the release of confining pressure. Nuciform soil structure refers to formless ped. 86. Inland Seas & Atmosphere. The point at which the sea wave breaks is called the plunge line. Commensalism is an association between two species in which one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited. Marbut’s first level of division of all middle latitude soils is into: Pedocals & Pedalfers.V. 94. The world is divided into 24 time zones each with a longitudinal extent of 15 degrees or one hour duration. and gneiss are foliated rocks. Lithosol is an azonal soil. An iron pan is a common feature of the Gley type of soil formed in the water logged areas of tundra region. 87. Quartzite. V.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 83. 96.F. Gleization is the process of formation of a gley soil by waterlogging and chemical reduction of iron. Muskegs are bogs & swamps which have leathery bushes & stunted trees in the Norhtern Coniferous biome. 93. The smalledst distinctive division of the soil of a given are to which the unique single set of properties apply is called polypedon. 88.

Deep focus earthquakes are found to be practically restricted to the circum pacific belt. 7. Seismograph was invented by Fillipo Cecchi. Their wavelength runs into hundreds of kilometers. A polished and frequently striated surface that results from friction along a fault or bedding plane is called slickensides. Tsunami in Japan means ‘Harbour waves’. Australia has 3 & China has a single time zone. USA has 7 time zones (including 2 time zones in territorial water). Between 70-90 % R. It indicates bright. 126 . Areas that are quiet & overdue for an earthquake are called seismic gaps. Water also moves from low atmospheric pressure areas to high pressure areas. The damage is not maximum at the epicenter but around it. The earth’s rotation also affects ocean currents as its rotation form west to east leads to the current being generated from east to west. 98. Popa mountains of Burma are extinct volcano. Mid oceanic ridges have shallow focus earthquakes. 5. S waves are called shear waves because they move perpendicular to the direction of material through which they travel producing shear stress in the material. As liquids & gases don’t have shear strength they cannot pass through them. The Giant geyser in Iceland. 8. This theory happens to be more valid for tropical areas. the air is moist. Intermediate focus earthquakes (70< 250 km) & deep focus earthquakes (250-700 Km). the old faithful in Yellowstone National Park of USA & the Wiamangu geyser in New Zealand are famous. 90 % of the earthquakes have a focus less than 100 km deep. Factors affecting ocean currents: As a rule water on the Ocean surface would tend to move form low salinity to high salinity area. Shallow focus earthquakes (<70 Km). If the relative humidity is less than 70 % the air is dry. Geography Notes 97. Solid carbondioxide (dry ice) & Silver Iodide smoke are used for cloud seeding. 4. The collision coalescence theory of Simpson & Mason was modified by Longmuer.Ghanshyam Thori 5 time zones. It is a place that possesses accumulated stress. 6. 2. 3. The saturation vapour pressure is lower over ice crystals as compared to that over liquid droplets (Ice Crystal theory). John Mitchell was the first to recognize that earthquake spreads in waves & destruction reduces outwards. brisk & fair weather. Russia has 11 time zones. Temperature also affects ocean currents as warm water rises & cold water sinks. Miscellaneous Facts II 1. 9.H. About 75 % of all volcanoes are on the sea floor. Horizontal movement of air is wind & vertical movement is currents. Cumulus cloud is a fair weather cloud. Canada has 99.

A tear or wrench fault is one in which the blocks of rocks slip sideways past each other. mountain building. 23. 15. The west wind drift is the greatest ocean current of the world. 10 N : b.5 + 23. On 21st June what is going to be the sun’s rays at a place along Altitude of Sun at a place = 90o – (distance in latitude of the place from the overhead sun’s place) a.Ghanshyam Thori the latitude of the sub solar point. They tend to crack rather than distort as they fold.5 S: c. Bigger wrench faults are called transcurrent faults.5 14. Sun’s declination is 11. Nappe is a French word meaning table cover. faulting. Geography Notes 10. 13. Orogenetic movements cause folding. 12.5 degrees 90 – (23.5) = 33. 80 N: 90 – (23.5) = 43 degrees 90 – (80 – 23. In general normal faults are steeper than reverse faults. A wrench fault is also called strike-slip fault. Harmonic folding occurs when the rocks have the same degree of competence & disharmonic vice versa.5 – 10) = 76. Peridotite makes up the earth’s mantle. Subsolar point is that point on the earth’s surface where the sun is directly overhead. To find the antipode in case of latitude just reverse the N/S symbol & in case of Longitude (180 – given longitude & change sign from E to W or W to E). Epeirogentic movements cause Emergence & subsidence. Competent rocks are those which are very rigid compared to the layers of rock above or below this layer. 127 .

Chimborazo River Thames Ordos desert Mt. southeastern Yemen (belongs to Yemen) City in Turkey on Mediterranean Coast Special region of Indonesia. Iron ore mine in NW Australia in Pilbara region (near Hamersley ranges) Swampy lands of river White Nile in Sudan. An extension of Lake Michingan. south of Kara Sea. located on the northwestern tip of the island of Sumatra. lowest point in western hemisphere Hottest place of Europe (Spain). Plains of western Belgium Or Ayers rock is an inselberg & a sacred place of Aboriginals Rugged plateau region on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range. occupying the southern portion of the island of Borneo Rich in oil & Gas. Small island of southwestern Iran. Located in the Safed Koh range. Located in Brahui range (which lies between Sulaiman (N) & Kirthar range (S) Area where Burma. Largest Island in Mediterranean Sea. Eastern extension of Gobi desert in China through which Hwang Ho flows. Honolulu. in the Persian Gulf (Petroleum reserves) Region of the Republic of Indonesia. Santos (main port) is very close. Russia. Goldsworthy Sudd Siciliy Flanders Uluru Blue Mountains Assorted Miscellaneous Facts Fastest growth of population Least educated country Poorest country by GDP Lowest rank in HDI Autonomous area in northwestern Siberia.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes World & Human Geography Liberia Sierra Leone Mali East Timor Yamalia Sao Paulo Green Bay Dallas Austin San Diego Houston Texas Minnesota James Bay Waikiki Beach Badwater Seville Khyber Pass Bolan Pass Golden Triangle Socotra Adana Aceh Kharg Island Kalimantan Mt. Harbor & Ship building Petroleum Hub of USA. City in southeastern Texas (4th largest city) Highest producer of oil & natural gas in USA Largest supplier of iron-ore in USA Southern extension of Hudson bay. in the 128 . Cotopaxi Mt. Capital is Banda Aceh. Is not a coastal city. 2/3rd of world’s heroin production Island. Laos & Thailand meet. City in Texas (8th largest in US) Capital of Texas City in South west corner of California (7th largest). Hawaii Death Valley. Ecuador (one of the highest active volcanoes) Ecaudor (Inactive Volcano) Makes London a port.

southwestern Washington. Regional Terms for Shifting Cultivation Shifting cultivation in Venezuela Konuko Malaysia Ladang Philippines Caingin Indonesia Humah 129 . the capital of Hawaii. Northern Boundary of Alaska (Continuation of Rockies) Southern Boundary of Alaska (Mt. A highly nutritious crop of Ethiopian Highlands Located in Honolulu. Yeilds wax. in the northeastern part of the Northern Territory Largest Lagoon in the world in South-East Brazil Highest peak of Brazil in Guiana Highlands Highest peak of Malaysia. Largest island of French Polynesia. Found in Gran Chaco. Largest atoll in the world (Marshall Island) Major atoll in Marshall Island. It yields tannin Produces latex. in the Cascade Range Largest city in Africa & capital of Egypt. Term for sandy desert in Turkmenistan. Very dry areas in Sahara where no form of life is possible. One of the principal ports in Chile. McKinley lies here) Slums in Brazil Slums in Venezuela Slums in Myanmar. A leading port of Portugal & a chief economic centre Major river of Madagascar. City in southeastern Queensland. Helens Cairo Koum Teff Pearl Harbour Kwajalein Bikni Atoll Funafuti atoll Quebracho Balata Naval Stores Chickle Carnuaba Palm Douglas Fir Sucre Yerba Mate Madeira Kjolen Mountains Brooks Range Alaska Range Favela Ranchos Kavettits Tahiti Gold Coast City Brest Bergen Anchorage Arnhem Land Lagos dos Patos Pico da Neblina Mount Kinabalu Puerto Montt Easter Islands Ogaden Oporto Betsiboka river Tanezroufts Geography Notes state of New South Wales. In Ellice Island (Tuvalu) Axe-breaker. Yields gum. Abundant in Amazon forest Trade name of turpentine & rosin. in Brazil Largest tributary of Amazon Run along the Norway Atlantic Coast. Leading timber of North America. Lie in Pacific & is the farthest South American (Chile) possession (3700 km) Arid Upland desert region in South eastern Ethiopia. Australia Active volcano.Ghanshyam Thori Mount St. Legal Capital of Bolivia Tea like beverage extensively used in South America esp. Second largest in Queensland after Brisbane One of the major fishing port of France City & Seaport in Norway City & Seaport in Southern Alaska Historical region and Aboriginal reserve in Australia. Abundant in Central American forest.

Laos. USA Connects Erie & Ontario Connect Lake Superior & Lake Huron. Supplies 20 percent of the world's high-grade manganese ore. Also called Sault Sainte Marie Canal Links Lake Huron with Ontario lake. Centre of Glass Industry in USA (Ohio) Imporant Industrial centre of Germany on Saar river. Vietnam Mining Centers Copper mining centre in Montana (USA). Iron ore region in Venezuela Copper mining region of Yugoslavia Copper mining region of Peru Copper ore area of Peru Fort Worth Hamilton Toledo Saar Coventry Limoges Leipzig Munich Arkangelsk Miscellaneous Industrial Centres Aircraft & Aerospace Industry (Texas) Canada’s Largest producer of steel. Known as ‘Birmingham of Canada’. copper & lead) Petrochemical complex in Kuwait Oil filed of Kuwait Oil filed of Saudi Arabia Oil filed of Mexico Oil filed of Iran Oil field of Russia World’s largest natural gas field in Algeria Mineral rich Island near Arnhem Land in Australia’s Northern territory. Pottery centre in France Musical & precision Instruments in Germany Optical Instruments & Lenses (Germany) Timber centre & seaport near white sea & Lake Onega in Russia Important Canals in the Great Lakes Region. Iron ore region of Brazil Mining Centre of Bolivia (Tin – major.Ghanshyam Thori Chena Milpa Taungya Masole Roka Podu Penda Deppa Ray Butte Itabira Potosi Mina-el-Ahmadi Burgan Dhahran Tampico & Tuxpam Masjid-e-Sulaiman Maikop Hassi R’Mel Groote Eylandt Cerro Bolivar Bor Cerro de Pasco Morococha Geography Notes Sri Lanka Central America & Mexico Myanmar Congo Brazil Orissa Chhattisgarh M. Wiser & Elbe Types of Languages 130 Welland Canal Soo Canal Trent Canal Rideau Canal Ludwig Canal Mittelland Canal .P. Links lake Ontario with river Ottawa Connects the Danube and Main rivers in Germany Joins Ems. First automobile manufactured here. Automobile centre of England.

Los Angeles California 3. Philadelphia Pennsylvania 6. Denver Colorado* * . Arabic. Belarus.Captial cities of respective states Some Important Land Locked Countries (Not Exhaustive) Central African Republic. Memphis Tennesse 19. Austria. Luxembourg. modified to give required meaning English. San Diego California 8. Liechtenstein. Swaziland Afghanistan. Urdu Bengali & other Indo-European language Top 25 Cities of USA 1. Kyrgyzstan. Hungary. Houston Texas 5.Ghanshyam Thori Monosyllabic Agglutinative Inflexional Geography Notes Words have various meanings depending on the position in sentence Chinese. Flexible. Japanese. Switzerland. San Jose California 12. Malawi. Detroit Michigan 11. Swahili & most of the African languages. Phoenix Arizona* 7. Kazakhstan. Thai & Tibetan Words altered by prefixes & suffixes Malay. Tajikistan. 131 Africa Asia . Laos. San Francisco California 14. situated in the eastern Pyrenees Mountains. Armenia. Milwaukee Wisconsin 20. Boston Massachusetts* 21. parliamentary principality. French. Washington Washington DC 22. Uzbekistan. Moldova. Nashville Tennesse* 23. Jacksonville Florida 15. Macedonia. southwestern Europe. El Paso Texas 24. Austin Texas* 17. Vietnamese. New York City New York 2. Indianapolis Indiana* 13. Chicago Illinois 4. Turkmenistan. Seattle Washington 25. Azerbaijan Europe Andorra. San Antonio Texas 10. Columbus Ohio* 16. South America Bolivia & Paraguay. Ethiopia. and on the south and west by Spain. bordered on the north and east by France. Dallas Texas 9. Baltimore Maryland 18. Andorra. Hindi.

Toledo. Also in Pakistan & Iran Tehuelche Collective name for the tribe of Patagonia Aka Another name for Pygmies (Congo) Pueblo Southwest USA.Ghanshyam Thori Georgia is not landlocked because it lies on the Black Sea side. Indies or Central or S. America Yoruba Nigeria & Benin Dinka Native people of Sudan Twa Original Inhabitants of Burundi Hazara Central Agfhanistan (Main). Important Breeds of Cattle Holstein Friesian Netherlands Ayrshire/Ireshire Scotland Jersey Channel Island Brown Swiss Switzerland Guernsey Channel Island Geography Notes Principal Languages of the World Language Branch Mandarin Chinese English Germanic Russian Slavic Hindi Indic Spanish Romance Arabic Semitic Bengali Indic Portuguese Romance/Latino Malay-Indonesian Austro Japanese Japanese-Korean German Germanic French Romance Tribes Tutsi Burundi & Rwanda. Cleveland. Chicago & Gary Detroit. The Great Lakes & Important Cites Around Duluth Milwaukee. Known for Adobe buildings Minhasa Indigenous people of Sulawesi (Celebes) Filipinos are originally Malay people. Buffalo Toronto. Hamilton Lake Superior Lake Michigan Lake Erie Lake Ontario 132 . Killed in masses by Hutu a rival group Hutu Rwanda & Burundi Creole A descendant of European settlers or of Black slaves. in the W.

A.S. Houston Atlanta New York Chicago France Las Vegas London Japan Seoul Geography Notes Bedouins Masai Bushman Kirghiz Lapps Tribal Shelters Khaimas Kraals Scheoms (thatched hut) Kstau Sijda (Sida) Changed Geographical Names Peltoratsk Ashkabad (Turkmenistan) Hashemite Kingdom Jordan Konigsberg Kaliningrad Lanxang Laos Andalas Sumatra Trucial States UAE Rice Wheat Maize or Corn Oats Rubber Barley Tea Grapes Soyabeans Scientific Names of Common Plants Jute Oriza Sativa Mustard Triticum Aestivum Silk Worm Zea Diploperennis Abaca (Menila Hemp) Avena Sativa Banana Hevea Brasiliensis Oil Palm Hordeum Vulgare Teak Camellia Sinensis Sal Vitis vinifera Glycine Max Important Dams Feather river Columbia river Colorado river White Nile Parana river Angara river 133 Corchorus capsularis Brassica nigra Bombyx Mori Musa Textilis Musa Sapientum Elaeis Guineesis Tectona Grandis Shorea Robusta Oroville Dam Grand Coulee Dam Hoover & Boulder Dam Rogun Dam Owen Falls Dam Itaipu Dam Bratsk Dam U. Kennedy International Airport O’ Hare International Airport Roissy – Charles de Gaulle International Airport McCarran International Airport Gatwick International Airport Haneda International Airport Kimpo International Airport Washington D.A.Ghanshyam Thori Major Airports of the World Dulles International Airport George Bush International Airport Hartsfield International Airport John F.C. U. Tajikistan Uganda Brazil/Paraguay Russia .A. U.S.S.

Anthony Falls Mississippi Snowy Mountain Scheme Snowy & Eucumbene rivers Ord River Scheme Ord river * . Canada USA New South Wales. America Cape Agulhas Southermost tip of Africa Ellesmere Island Northernmost part of Canada Pelee Island Southernmost part of Canada Key West Southermost town of USA Cape of Good Hope is erroneously regarded as the extremity of Africa.Angel Falls is located on Rio Churún (Caroni) river. Florida Sponges Chesapeake Bay Oyster Southern Europe & Mediterranean Sea Sardine & Anchovy Salt Water Fish Demersal Cod Halibut Hake Haddock Pollock Flounder Other Fishes Fresh Water Fishes Anadromous Fish Sturgeon Salmon Trout Chinook Perch Carp 134 . Australia Western Australia Extemities Cape Horn Southernmost tip of S. Republic of Congo Congo Ukraine British Columbia. Geography Notes Venezuela (Country’s major) Dem. • Catadromous fish live in fresh water but breed in Saline water • Ichthyology is the study of fish • Anchovies.Ghanshyam Thori Guri Dam Caroni river* Inga Dam Zaire/Congo river Boyoma/Stanley Falls Zaire Dnepropetrovsk Dam Dneiper Kitimat Scheme Nechako River St. Capelin & Menhaden are known as trash fish – used for non human consumption Areas & Largest fish Catch Coast of Peru Anchovies Caspian Sea Sturgeon USA’s East Coast Menhaden West Coast of Canada Salmon Key west. Types of Fishes Pelagic Sardines Herring Swordfish Anchovies Tuna Mackerel Pilchards • Pelagic Fish live near the surface of water & demersal fish near the ocean bottom • Anadromous fish live in Saline water but return in fresh water to spawn.

The transcontinental Stuart Highway of Australia runs between Adelaide and Alice Springs near Macdonnell ranges in Northern Territory. The term ‘Antilles’ applies to the whole of West Indies except the ‘Bahamas’. North America. 2. Antarctica. Between 1980-90 corals on large scale in the Great Barrier reef were destroyed by the Crown of Thorns starfish. Jamaica. Murrumbidgee. Africa.000 miles) of any country in the world. river is the longest tributary of Murray Darling. 5. Tasmania (Hobart). 7. In the eastern United States a fall line forms the border between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Continents in descending order of area are Asia. The Greater Antilles includes Cuba. South America.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Miscellaneous Facts: 1. South Australia (Adelaide). Haiti. The most populated province of Australia is New South Wales. Queensland (Brisbane). Freemantle is the outport of Perth. Allegheny Mountains is a complex of ranges and uplands of the Appalachian system. Canada has the longest coastline (~60. The mountain ranges of USA from west to East is Coast Mountains. 8. New South Wales (Sydney). 3. Uranium City is on the northern shores of Lake Athabasca. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado river is in northwest Arizona. Australian provinces & their capitals are Northern Territory (Darwin). Calgary is the largest city in the province of Alberta & is also known as the energy capital of the country. Cascade Range. The name is usually applied to the ranges west of the Blue Ridge in Pennsylvania & neighboring states. Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Tar Sands deposits are found in Alberta & Venezuela. 135 . West Australia (Perth). Europe and Australia. 6. Sierra Nevada & The Rockies. The bottled trees (related to Baobab trees) are found in NW Australia especially in the Kimberley plateau region. 4. Victoria (Melbourne).

market gardening & milk production. Zaire is the only river to cross the equator twice. Swaziland. Belgium. 20. Zelinsky in his Mobility Transition theory basically incorporated impact of migration on the Demographic transition theory. According to Malthus Preventive (or negative) checks are celibacy and abstinence. flows in a northerly direction parallel to Mediterranean in Syria & enters Turkey & finally Mediterranean. In India the population criteria for mega city is 5 million. disease etc. A Mega city according to UNO is any city with a population of over 8 millions. In ascending order the countries are Iceland. Potato is native to Andean Highlands. 16. Taranaki plains of New Zealand is famous for dairy industry. Russian Federation. The biggest city of New Zealand is 11. The evolution order of humans is Apes – Dyropithecus – Ramapithecus – Australopithecus (Pliocene age) – Hamo Habilis – Homo Erectus (Fossils of Java Man & Peking man belong to Homo Erectus – appeared during Pleistocene) – Neanderthal Man – Cro Magnon Man – Homo Sapiens. Norway & Finland. U. Horticulture includes pomology (growing of fruits). Eg. A regressive age structure is one in which birth rates are low & declining. crop farming without fallow. three field system & livestock farming. Trans Arabian Pipeline links the oil fields of Persian Gulf to Saida Lebanon. floriculture & Ornamental Horticulture (Landscape gardening). European countries in descending order of density are Netherlands.. 21.K. 17. 15. A progressive age structure is one in which both birth & death rates are high. perhaps near a zone of dispute with an unfriendly neighbour in part to confirm its determination to sustain its position in that zone. Olericulture (production of vegetable crops). Currently 50 % of the world’s fish comes from Pacific Ocean & 25 % are from North Pacific alone. The Orentes river rises in Northern Lebanon. Lesotho. 14. The Trans Amazon highway connects Rio Branco to Sao Louis Geography Notes 9. The margin between two zones of landuse is called margin of transference. It consists mainly of low uplands that from Brazilian highlands. A perforated state is one whose territory is completely surrounded by another. war. 13. 12. 136 . Positive checks included famine. 19. The Grand Canal (Da Yunhe) of China is the world’s largest canal system & connects Yangtze Kiang & Hwang Ho. crop farming – fallow & pasture. Coffee is indigenous to Ethiopia. Forward Capital: When a state relocates its capital to a sensitive area. 22.Ghanshyam Thori Auckland. Germany & Italy. Firewood & lumber production. In Brazil ‘Sertao’ refers to semi-arid regions. 18. Von Thunen model has the following zones central city. 10.

Kolkhoz (collective farms in Russia). juvenile. Entreport is a port where goods are stored & deposited for further distribution. 32. Weight loosing industry (Mineral Smelting).A is the largest producer of geothermal energy. The top countries in solar energy production are Japan. Palaeotechnic. early mature & mature was given by Griffith Taylor. 27. Weight Gaining industry (Bread Manufacturing). Megalopolis. Sovkhoz (state owned farms in Russia).E Minnesota. He also divided cities on the basis of cultural rise & fall into Eopolis. In a kibbutz. Bulk loosing industry (Cotton Textile). K=4 (Transport Principle) & K=7 (Administration). Italy was the first to produce geothermal energy.K. 29. families own separate farms but cooperate in some aspects. 137 . Iceland has highest percentage contribution of geothermal energy. 28. The Gatun lake. Kung-She (China). the kibbutz and the moshav. Kharkov is the second largest city in Ukraine & Duluth is in N. 35.Ghanshyam Thori off. Germany & India. The five stages of Rostow’s Model of Development are the Traditional Society. 34. Geography Notes 23. residents own all property collectively and contribute work in exchange for basic necessities.S. 31. The first five zones in Concentric zone. Mittelland Canal joins the three major rivers Ems. Neotechnic & Biotechnic. adolescent. Tidal energy is produced at Rance river in Northwest France & Bay of Fundy in Canada.Zone I – CBD. 30. Tyrannopolis & Necropolis (City of the dead). Metropolis. Polis. Zone III – low income houses. 25. Lardarello. Preconditions for Take 24. Weser & Elbe & continues eastwords to Berlin & into Poland. Zone V – high class housing (See Models). Bay of Fundy is a large tidal inlet separating the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Bulk Gaining Industry (glassware). Auerbach in 1913 but developed by G. Zone IV – Medium class houses. 26. The age of town scheme in the form of infantile. U. In Christallers model K=3 (Marketing Principle). Megalopolis. A dynamic explanation of urban development based on centrifugal & centripetal forces is known as Colby’s Hypothesis. The rank size rule was first noticed by F. Many of Israel’s rural Jews live in two types of cooperative communities. The Ludwig canal links a main tributary of Rhine to the Danube & allows waterborne traffic from the Black sea to reach Atlantic via the Rhine. Ejido (Communal farm in Mexico) & Volksguter (Germany) 33. Lewis Mumford classified cities on the basis of technology into Eotechnic. In a moshav. Zone II – wholesale (or Transition). Drive to Maturity & The Stage of Mass Consumption. Zipf in 1949 in his book ‘Human Behaviour & Principle of Least Effort’. Sector & Multiple Nuclei model are all same:. Panama forms the key to Panama canal system. USA. Take off. Kibbutz (cooperative farming in Israel).

The largest islands are Greenland. Hebrides or Western Isles is an archipelago of about 500 islands. western Scotland.A. in Sahara are called Foggra. The Yangtze river is the third largest in the world & is longer than Mississippi-Missouri combined. South America has the highest percentage forest area in the world. and the Dominican Republic. which occupies the western third of the island. The correct sequence of European river from North to South is Elbe. Rubber plantation is concentrated on the western coast of Malaysian peninsula. Palaeomediterraneans. Large mammals are rare in Brazil as the dense Amazon forest does not support free movement. Lake Nasser (Behind Aswan dam) in Southern Egypt & Northern Sudan is the larges artificial lake in Africa.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 36. Dordogne (France) Ebro. Loire. Yenisey-Angara. The correct chronological order of the arrival of various racial groups in India is as follows Negroids. 45. Weser (End in Germany’s Atlantic region) Rhine. 41. Congo & Ganga. The Parana river is formed by the confluence of Rio Grande and Paranaíba River. 40. 42. Ob-Irtysh & Lena are all longer than Volga. Meuse (Netherlands) Seine. Victoria. in the Atlantic Ocean. 39. Andes is the longest mountain chain in the world. Hispaniola is the second largest island in West Indies & is divided into the separate countries of Haiti. Rio de la Plata-Parana. New Hebrides is Vanuatu. Tagus & Guadiana & Guadalquivir (Spain). Niger river & Zambezi. The river by length in Africa are Nile. Brazil & China. Duero. The ‘Great Man Made River’. India. The following four lakes are arranged in descending order Superior. 46. Madagascar. 43. New Guinea. Patagonia is a cold desert. Mediterranean’s & Nordics. a salt lake located in Djibouti is the lowest point in Africa & Valdes peninsula is the lowest point in S. Baffin & Sumatra. Huron & Michigan. Jabal al Akhdar (Green Mountains) also lies in Libya. The rivers arranged in descending order of discharge volume are Amazon. Mongolia is the least densely populated country & Monaco the most. 37. Mississippi-Missouri.S. The countries in descending order of road networks are U. Volga is the longest in Europe. Asal lake. The underground channels slightly inclined used to bring water for irrigation from aquifers near the base of a mountain to neighbouring lowland areas esp. In Malaysia & Indonesia an irrigated rice field is known as ‘Sawah’. 38. America. 44. Norway has virtually no illiteracy. In Africa most of the cities are primate cities. an ambitious irrigation scheme is in Libya. Zaire (Congo). Borneo. Congo. 138 . Population per unit of cultivable land is known as physiological density. India has longer railway network than Australia & Germany.

Laki & Surtsey volcanic island are major volcanoes of Iceland. Bush fallowing is a form of shifting cultivation in West Africa where only the clearings are shifted & the settlement is permanent. California is the most populous state of USA. Suez canal (built by French engineer Ferdinand De Lesseps) utilizes three bodies of water—Lake Manzilah. The Tell or Maritime Atlas are lower slopes of the Atlas Mountains. 139 . It takes it name form the sulphur gases which escape from it. Benguela seaport lies in Angola. 50. Labrador & Newfoundland are iron mining regions of Canada. In Africa the heaviest rainfall is recorded in Cameroon. Mount Fujiyama & Mt. The people of Madagascar originated from Indonesia. 49. 57. Tea plantations in India. is located on the southeastern slope of Mauna Loa. The coastal belt of Mediterranean climate if referred to as Tell in Algeria. Texas. 58. Alberta is coal & petroleum rich in Canada. Geography Notes 47. In New Zealand sheep outnumber people by 20 is to 1. two well-known volcanoes that have been active in recent years. It is the youngest mountain in the world & was created from an eruption of lava and ash through a fissure in 1943 growing to more than 400 m in year. Mount Kelut & Tambora are one of the major volcanoes of Indonesia. Mount Taupo is one of the greatest volcanoes of New Zealand which created the Taupo crater lake (largest lake of New Zealand). A series of nearly parallel faults produced by compressional forces when the crust is horizontally shortened is referred to as Echelon fault. The Hudson river flows between the Taconic range & the Catskill Mountains (both belonging to the Appalachians). In Philippines. the most active volcanic crater in the world. 52. Paricutin Volcano is in Mexico. Orange Free State 48. are each about 80 km from Manila. Solfatara is small volcano on the outskirts of Naples. 53. Kansas is the largest producer of wheat. It is a sea level canal without locks.Ghanshyam Thori is a part of South Africa. Antarctica has the maximum mean elevation. Alaska & Gulf of Mexico are rich in petroleum deposits in USA. Africa is known as plateau continent & Australia is topographically the lowest continent. Badlands of the Dakota are famous in USA. 51. 55. The Atlas Mountains are an extension of the Alpine system of Europe. Mount Pinatubo and Taal Volcano. Lake Tims h. Kilauea. China & Sri Lanka are carried out on acidic soils. and the Bitter Lakes. The stretch between the rock of Gibraltar (Spain) & Cape Ceuta (Morocco) is called the Pillar of the Hercules. The largest active shield volcano in the world is Mt. Krakatau are dormant. Mauna Loa in Hawaii. Florida is the largest producer of orange. 56. 54.

69. About 50 % of Netherland’s landmass lies below sea level. Area wise the descending order is Indonesia. Balbina. and Switzerland. Philippines (7100). The Aral Sea is a remnant of Tethys Sea. The countries/regions with decreasing number of islands are Oceania (25000). Philadelphia. Malaysia is not the leading producer of tin in the world (China & Indonesia lead).Ghanshyam Thori Washington DC. The US NE region cities from North to South are Boston. America). Victoria falls. Pyongyang & Seoul are both coastal cities. Kuwaiti Oilfields are located at Fao. Gold is Ghana’s principal mineral resource. 66. France produces more electricity than it uses and is a major exporter of electricity to neighboring countries. Malaysia & Philippines. and Furnas. In Lebanon 90 % of the population is Urban. tantalum. largest in the country lies here). on the Amazon. mineral sands. including the United Kingdom. Africa is high compared to other continents. Japan (3000). 67. on the Paraná. The world’s top waterfalls in a descending order of discharge of volume of water are Niagara falls. South East Asian countries in descending order of population density are Philippines (290). The largest lakes of Brazil are are Sobradinho. Australia boasts the world’s largest known recoverable resources of lead. S. The Great Lakes were formed during the ice age. Copper is the leading mineral of Philippines. on the Tocantins. The major sources of revenue of Monaco is Casino (mainly in Monte Carlo). the longest canal in the former Soviet Union and one of the longest in the world.. Indonesia (132) Thailand (125) Malaysia (70) & Brunei (62). and zinc. The southwest coast of the south island in New Zealand is characterized by deep fiords (Fiordland National Park. Geography Notes 59. Italy. With a mean elevation of approximately 650 m (2. Jordan is not land locked because of Gulf of Aqaba. on the São Francisco. Burgan. Europe has longer coastline than North America Rhine is connected to Rhone & hence the Mediterranean. Wafra. The ten highest peaks of USA are in Alaska. 68. More than 90 % of Burundi’s population is rural. River Niger has two deltas—an inland delta in central Mali and a coastal delta along the Gulf of Guinea 65. 62.100 ft) above sea level. Iguazu falls (On Parana river in Argentina-Brazil border) & Kaieteur Falls (on river Potaro in Guyana. The largest single cause of the decline in the Amu Darya’s water level is the Garagum Canal. The coca cola company is based in Atlanta (Capital of Georgia). New York. silver. Iran also has one of the world's largest reserves of copper 64. France has a major tidal power plant on the Rance River in Brittany. In Turkey literacy rate is around 87 %. Indonesia (14000). 70. Baltimore & 60. 63. uranium. Australia is an exporter of wheat. 140 . Tucuruí. 61. Thailand.

Hawaii is known as crossroads of the Pacific.Ghanshyam Thori Coconuts (Tanzania). Vosges are in Germany. Panama city is the only capital city of the Central American Country having a coastal location. South Africa has 3 capitals: Cape Town (legislative capital). The number of provinces & federal territories in Canada is 10 & 3 respectively (total 13). A region of inland drainage in Africa is Lake Chad. Manitoba (Winnipeg). Countries bordering lake Victoria are Tanzania. and Bloemfontein. The capital of various provinces of Canada are Quebec (Quebec city). El Salvador is the only country on having an Atlantic Coastline. In Africa the leading states for various commodities are: Tea (Kenya). 72. 80. Ontario (Toronto). Central American Countries: Puerto Rico is the largest exporter of Chemicals. Kalahari means ‘the great thirst’ & a major part of it is in Botswana. Alberta (Edmonton). Ethiopia & Somalia. Rhine River turns north and enters the Rhine rift valley. White Nile (longer) lies to the west of Blue Nile & contains sudds (the swampy land). a flat-floored rift valley lying between the Vosges on the west and the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) on the east. Cotton (Egypt). Africa & Botswana. Pretoria (Executive/Administrative capital). mountain range. Eritrea was carved out of Ethiopia during 1990s. 81. Mahaweli Ganga is the longest river of Sri Lanka. S. Saskatchewan (Regina). fruits & wool. Belize is the only country not having a Pacific coastline. 141 . Djibouti faces the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. Jura (mountains). Niagara falls lie between Lakes Erie & Ontario. Africa & Namibia. Quebec is the largest province of Canada & Ontario is the most populous. Khartoum is located at the confluence of Blue Nile (Lake Tana) & White Nile (Lake Victoria). Trinidad is the only Carribean Island with large oil reserves. Kenya & Uganda 77. Rhode Island is the smallest state of USA. British Columbia (Victoria). 76. Ethiopia & Liberia were never colonized. Chagres Locks. Africa leads in wheat. The four most populous countries of Africa are Nigeria. is located along the border between France and Switzerland (& not Germany). Egypt. The confluence of Mississippi & Missouri is at St. 82. the judicial capital. 79. At Basel. maize. River Limpopo forms the boundary between S. Ethiopia & Zaire. California is the most populated state of USA. Guatemala the most populous in the region. Geography Notes 71. Countries comprising the horn of Africa are Djibouti. River Orange forms the boundary between S. Eritrea. ‘Big Apple’ describes the city of New York. Pedro Miguel Lock & Mira Flores lock are on the Panama Canal. Oil Palm (Nigeria). El Salvador is the smallest in area & has the highest density. 78. The cities on the edges of Panama canal are Balboa (Pacific side) & Colon (Atlantic side). Cocoa (Ghana). 75. 74. Louis. 73.

British Columbia accounts for half of Canada’s timber. Geography Notes 83. 90. Located on the northwest shore of Spencer Gulf. New York is known as a city that never sleeps. India & Sri Lanka. Turkey has virtually no desert & is quite unlike middle east. Hudson Bay is the world’s largest bay & Davis Strait is the worlds broadest strait. Colorado accounts for the largest production of Uranium in USA. producing about twofifths of the global total. The coasts of Canada are highly indented as eustatic changes in the past have led to the submergence of low lying land. Djibouti also has one of the highest 142 . 91. Shannon river is the longest in the British Isles.000 lakes. Whyalla is a city and port in southern Australia near Adeilade & is important for ship building. Queensland is the largest producer of Sugarcane & leads in cattle (40% of total) in Australia. The Anatolian plateau (Asian Turkey) is bounded by Pontine mountains to the north & Taurus mountains to the south. 89. Lake Tanganyika. which is an understatement as it has more than 15000 lakes. Maldives has a density of 1100 persons/sq km. Western Sahara is the most urbanized in Africa.Ghanshyam Thori Lakes form north to south in Middle Africa. Nitrate fertilizers are prepared form Caliche (Chile – Chile saltpeter or NaNO3) 87. Guano (mainly Peru) is a source of phosphatic fertilizer. Mackinder termed British & Japanese islands as offshore islands. The capital cities of Vienna. In Pakistan 33 % of the population is urban & Sri Lanka has 23 % urbanization. Danube crosses through the maximum countries of the world. Australia is the world’s largest producer of both gem/near-gem and industrial-grade diamonds. Budapest. English is the official language of Nigeria. Shinano river is the longest river of Japan. 94. with gas refineries and chemical industries. an arm of the Indian Ocean. Tasmania is the leading producer of apples in Australia. Belem is the biggest cocoa exporting port of Brazil. Bratislava (Slovakia) & Belgrade (Serbia & Montenegro) lie on its bank. Copenhagen (Entreport). Bangladesh. 88. Lake Malawi is the correct sequence of the 84. 86. 92. Extensive agriculture is characterized by high per capita production but poor per acre production. Lake Albert. Missouri & Tennessee share borders with the maximum number of other states in USA (each borders 8 states). Whyalla is a center of heavy industry. Honolulu (port of call) are different types of ports. 93. Minnesota is known as land of 10. Western Australia is the largest province in terms of Area . Kuwait is the most urbanized Arab State (virtually entire population is urban). Dongara in south west Australia is known for Natural gas. Iceland’s economy mainly depends on exports of fish. Lake Edward. Lake Kivu. 85. The top four most dense countries of south Asia are Maldives.

100. Muroran is an important industrial centre in Hokkaido. The correct sequence of Chinese cities in descending order of population is Shanghai. 3. 97. The Chinese cities form North to South are: Fushun. 98.Ghanshyam Thori South America. A fragmented strip of Malaysia (Sarawak) separates Brunei into two divisions. Balikpapan (Kalimantan). adjacent to the Mozambique border & is among the ten largest national parks in the world. Texas is known for the maximum number of tornadoes in USA. Beijing. The population of following Japanese cities in descending order is Osaka. and Myanmar. Another 10 million Hmong live in the southern provinces of China. 95. Canada produces the maximum hydroelectricity in the world. River Mekong is called the Danube of SE Asia. 4. Java & Bali. Ferro-nickel is one of the prominent exports of Dominican Republic. Uruguay is the most urbanized nation in 96. South Africa has 60 percent urbanization. Greenland is more sparsely populated than Mongolia. is in northeastern South Africa. Geography Notes urbanization (85%). The correct decreasing order of population concentration in various Japanese provinces is Honshu. Bogor (Java). Kruger National Park. 99. Christchurch is the main urban centre of the Canterbury plains in New Zealand. Kobe & Kyoto. Thailand. Indonesia is the largest producer of Liquefied Natural Gas in the world. such as Vietnam. 5. Hmong is a minority ethnic group that lives primarily in China and Southeast Asia. Nanjing is almost at the same latitude as Shanghai & is close to it. Anshan. Chiba is another industrial centre near Tokyo. Jakarta is the largest city of SE Asia followed by Manila. About 2 million Hmong live in Southeast Asian countries. Shenyang. Manado (Sulawesi) are some of the principal cities of Indonesia. Miscellaneous Facts II: 1. Java is the most populous island. Within China Chernozem soils are only found in Manchuria. Shanghai & Wuhan. Makassar is the largest city and chief port of Sulawesi 6. 2. Tianjin & Nanjing. Nagoya. 143 . Indonesia is the worlds largest archipelago. The Indonesian Islands in decreasing order of area is Kalimantan (Borneo Island). Kyushu. Borneo is an ancient stable crust pushed above the sea level by tectonic forces & is not subject to volcanism. Sumatra. Laos. Borneo is the least developed part of Indonesia. Irian Jaya (or Papua). Tianjin. Beijing. Hokkaido & Shikoku. Palembang (Sumatra). Brunei is a member of Commonwealth of Nations.

Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 7. Yangon & Bangkok. Mardan has the largest sugar factory in Pakistan. St. The Duero river lies in Spain & Portuagal. Sylhet is the most important teas cultivation area of Bangladesh. Prut (also Pruth or Prutul river) flows through southwestern Ukraine. Petersburg (Gulf of Finland) & Arkhangelsk (White Sea). The correct sequence of cities north to south in SE Asia is Hanoi. Bangladesh & Nepal. Bass Strait and southern Queensland. Australia is the driest & the hottest continent of the world. The various cities are Nizhny Novogorod (Central region). 12. and eastern Romania & is a major tributary of the Danube River. 15. 13. Gulf of Joseph Bonaparte lies to the west of Arnhem land in Australia. Pakistan has higher percentage of irrigated land than India. In Russia the various ports are Murmansk (Barents Sea). island of eastern Denmark is the largest and most important island of Denmark 9. also Zealand. England & Ireland 144 . 8. Magnitogorsk (Ural region). Sharks Bay lies to the west of Hammersley ranges. Ferries on Bangkok’s extensive system of canals (khlongs) serve thousands of commuters every day. Pennine chain of Mountains is in England & Pyrenees is in Spain. emptying into the Gulf of R ga. The northern Dvina flows into the White Sea. Cantabrian Mountain chain is also in Spain lying west from the Pyrenees to the Atlantic Ocean 10. western Moldova. The port of Arkhangelsk lies on its bank. The Ruwenzori mountain range in Africa is a block mountain produced by faulting. Kazan (Volga region) & Novosibirsk (Kuzbas). In the eastern part of Thailand lies the Khorat plateau which comprises of sandstone & is a region of cassava production. Vientiane. Ukraine & France are the top 3 countries in Europe by Area. Magadan (Sea of Okhotsk). 11. The western dvina called Daugava rises in Belarus & flows northwest through Latvia. The largest proportion of world electricity comes from thermal power. Russia. Sjælland. Bangkok has in the recent years faced the problem of sinking ground due to excessive withdrawal of water. In Pakistan Baluchistan lies to the west of Kirthar ranges & Sind lies to the east. Gulf of Spencer is near Adeliade & Flinders range. Significant petroleum deposits have been exploited in Barrow Island. 14.

Northern most point of India Eastern Most point of India in Arunachal Pradesh Western most point of India in Kachhch Protection of crocodiles Located in Rajasthan.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Kalakot Coalfields Indira Col Walong Town Rajheera Creek Kukrail Project Goran Ghat Char Bils/bhils Teris/Theris Bhur Geography of India Various Geographical regions/terms Located in J & K. Uplands in the Ganga Delta Marshy lands / Ox Bow lakes in Assam Coastal sand dunes in Kerala (Malabar Coast) Elevated piece of land situated along the bank of Ganga 145 .

Highest peak in Eastern Himalayas (Mishmi Hills).Ghanshyam Thori Barind Pats Chalkas Thali Konda Pensi La Dahej Saharanpur Pancham Island Osam & Barda Dapha Bum Blue Mountain Barail Range Jelep La Karbi Analong Nakki Lake Mulshi Lake Geography Notes Bhangar in deltaic region of Bengal having extensive laterite formations Lateritic plain (High level) Name for red soils in Telengana district. Hand-woven clothes Computer Floppy Disk Pig Iron Plant Roofing Tiles Diamond cutting & Polishing Paper Industry Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Karnataka 146 . Located in Sikkim Another name for Mikir Hills (Assam) Rajasthan Maharashtra Important Institutes Central Soil & Materials Research Station Central Water & Power Research Station National Institute of Hydrology Wool Research Association National Ship Design & Research Centre National Mangrove Genetic Association Forest Resource & Human Resource Development Indian Boundaries Bangladesh 4096 Km China 3917 Km Pakistan 3310 Km Nepal 1752 Km Myanmar 1458 Km Bhutan 578 Km New Delhi Pune Roorkee Thane Vishakhapatnam Orissa Chhindwara Guntur Vijaywada Rajmundhury Machilipatnam Porvorim Palem Mangalore Trichur Punaloor Important Industrial Centers of India Tobacco Pharmaceuticals & Toy Making Paper Mill Imitation Jewellery. Highest peak of Mizo hills Separates Naga hills from Manipur Hills Connects Kalimpong with Lhasa. Sandy plain Residual Hillocks on the Telengana Plateau Connects Himachal Pradesh with Kargil Centre of Chemical industry in Gujarat Famous for Paper Industry Lies near Gujarat Volcanic hills in Kathiawar.

P. Himachal Pradesh* Kangra.P.P.P Haryana M.P. Geyser/Springs Sites of India Kulu. M. Himachal Pradesh Patna J&K Uttaranchal Gujarat Bihar Rajasthan Sikkim Maharashtra Mineral sites Koh Dariba Malanjkhand (Balaghat) Aridongri Kendujhar Copper Copper Iron Ore Manganese.P U.P Rajasthan Punjab U. Manikaran Tatapani Jwalamukhi Rajgir Puga Valley Shahastradhara Uni Tapovan Naraini Foot Sachu Nimboli 147 . Chhatisgarh Orissa Geography Notes Bangalore Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Orissa U. Himachal Pradesh Shimla. Chromite Rajasthan (Alwar) M.Ghanshyam Thori Dhuravani Hubli Karimnagar Kurnool Warangal Baleshwar Modinagar Patna Rai Bareli Greater Noida Jind Pithampur Naini Bhopal Kota Ludhiana Saharanpur Panki India’s First telephone manufacturing facility Cotton Textile Silver Filigree Articles Hydrogenated Oil Woolen Carpets Automobiles Tyres & Tubes Synthetic Fiber Aluminium Foils Passenger Car Telephone Tannery Automobile (Scooter) Compressors & Pumps Heavy Electric Machinery Precision Instruments Bicycle parts Sugar Industry Automobile Important Agricultural Districts Nagpur Orange Jalgaon Banana Nasik Onion Bijapur & Dhule Grapes Kolar Silk Alleppey Cotton Rayapuram Synthetic Fibre. Bihar U.

Sex Ratio Chattisgarh has highest Highest Decadal Growth Jharkhand Miscellaneous Facts: 1. Jharkhand & Uttaranchal. 6. 5. 3. Most of the peninsular rivers have reached their base level of erosion.Ghanshyam Thori Lota Pahar Kolihan Jamar Kotra Kalol Naomundi Ghatsila Chalk Hills Nagaur Agnigundala Babaduan Hills Copper Copper Rock Phosphate Oil Iron Ore Copper Magnesite Gypsum Copper Iron Ore Geography Notes Rajasthan (South of Khetri) Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat Jharkhand Bihar Salem Rajasthan Karnataka Newly Created States: Area Chhattisgarh. Slates. Dolomites etc. Tectonic earthquakes cause maximum damage. Purana (covers Cuddapah & Vindhyan systems – Late Pre Cambrian). Population Jharkhand. The Karakoram range & the Laddakh plateau lie to the north of Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone & originally formed a part of the Eurasian plate. Chhattisgarh & Uttaranchal Population density Jharkhand. 2. Uttaranchal & Chhattisgarh. Vindhyan mountains exhibit the oldest glaciation. 4. Ajodhya hills lie in West Bengal. Dharwar system has the most important mineralized rocks of India which are the earliest formed sedimentary rocks found today in metamorphic forms. The major syntaxial bends of Himalayas are near Pamir (where the Karakoram meets Hindukush) & in Arunachal Pradesh where there is a sharp change from East-west to Southerly trend. The north-western Himalayas are more prone to earthquakes than the eastern Himalayas. The correct chronological scale of the Indian time scale is Archaean (Dharwar – Early Precambrian). The recent rocks are Aryan rocks. The major rocks of the Dharwar system include Schist. Quartzite. Dravidian (400-600 million years ago) & Aryan (400 million till date). The Great Boundary Fault lies along the Aravallis 148 . Bhabar (8-16 km wide) extends from Indus to Teesta & is not suitable for cultivation.P. The peninsular plateau cover around 70 % of the India’s land area. Quartzite & cement grade limestone is obtained from the Cuddapah System. Awadh plains lie to the east of Rohilkhand plains in U.

J & K & Tamil Nadu belongs to Tertiary Era. Purvanchal hills have trellis drainage pattern.P & U.P. The western part of Thar has longitudinal dunes & eastern part is characterized by Barkhans.2%). Assam. The highest area under maize is in the state of M. Storage capacity is highest for Ganga. In protected forests local people are allowed to collect timber. Geography Notes 7. Cattle density if highest in Manipur. 10. Rock Cover is the most important factor of soil formation. Indus (9. The following states are arranged in descending order of area: Assam. 149 . Uttaranchal & Himachal Pradesh. Saryu (Kali). In India the top river basins are Ganga (26. 14. Jhelum & Beas are not antecedent but Satluj.P & Punjab are top two in milk production. About one percent of India’s forest is ‘Private Forest’.Ghanshyam Thori Himalayas.P. The Ganga Cauveri link is likely to connect Thanjavur to Patna. 9. 11. River Son. Kosi. Reserved forests (54 % of total) are under direct supervision of government. 16. The Sambhar. Red soils are suitable for Tapioca & cashewnuts. Gangetic soil can be described as azonal. Parts of the Indian deserts also resulted due to the recession. Godavari (9. Highest yield of wheat is found in Punjab. Shivsamudram is the oldest hydro electricity project. Chambal & Banas are fine examples of superimposed drainage. Didwana lakes are the proof of the recession of the Arabian Sea. 12.5%). Jharkhand. Assam 8. Kerala. Black soils are suitable for citrus & leguminous crops. Krishna. Ganga river has the maximum flow in August & September. The submarine canyons along the Indian coasts are found only in a small portion in Kutch coastal region. Gujarat has the longest coastline in India followed by Andhra Pradesh. Lakshadweep has the smallest area among UTs. 17. The south-west monsoons of India represent equatorial westerlies.P are the top two states in number of cattle & U. The 25 cm Isohyet form the limit of Thar desert.8%). 18. Nagaland.Jharkhand. Brahmaputra leads in terms of annual water yield & rate of flow. Fallow land in India is about 10 %. Punjab Himalayas & Kumaon Himalayas. Damodar. 13. Degana. The Ghaggar is the most important river of inland drainage. Rajasthan. The length of the regional division of the Himalayas in descending order is: Nepal Himalayas. Meghalaya. West Bengal Orissa & M. M. The States with highest coal reserves . Teesta & Manas River are antecedent. 15. Brahmaputra & Mahanadi. Mizoram is the least irrigated states of India. Jhelum has the maximum flow in May & June. It rises in the lower slopes of the Himalayas & forms boundary between Haryana & Punjab & is lost in dry sand near Hanumangarh. Coal in Arunachal Pradesh. Ghagara.

Rihand is a tributary of Son & Banas is the tributary of Chambal.Ghanshyam Thori leading producer of inland fish. Geography Notes 19. Gujarat. Salher & Kalsubai are two important peaks located in the western ghats 33.P (6). Sal. 30. Tamil Nadu. Assam has boundary with 7 states including West Bengal but not with Sikkim. Andaman & Nicobar and Andhra Pradesh. The following states/UTs are arranged in the descending order of mangrove forests – West Bengal. Mangrove forests are also found in the Krishna Delta. Kalpakkam. Nand Prayag is the confluence of Alaknanda & Mandakni. 32.P & Tamil Nadu (3 each). West Bengal is the 20. Maharashtra & Gujarat (4 each). 23. Teak. The total number of river basins in India is 113 (14 major. The Kayathar & Muphandal wind farms are located in Tamil Nadu. 29. Rajmahal hills are block mountains & Dalma is volcanic in origin. Penda in Chhattisgarh & Deppa in M. Of the panchnad rivers Beas river basin is completely in India. 34. Gujarat and West Bengal. The Rourkela plant was built with German collaboration. The Deccan Traps have been formed by both the fissure eruption (western side) & central eruption (eastern side). Mundas are the most underdeveloped tribe of India. Open forest & Mangrove.P with 130 m thickness is the thickest coal seam of India. 22. The Bhagirathi originates from Gaumukh glacier & Alaknanda from Satopanth glacier. Conifers are found in Himalayas at the altitude of 1500 m to 3500 m. Vishnu Prayag is the confluence of Alaknanda & Dhauli Ganga. India is the largest producer of sponge iron in the world. The extension of Aravallis to the city of Ambala forms the river divide between Ganga & Indus. 25. 31. Bauxite is associated with Lateritic soil. 24. The period 1971-81 recorded the highest growth rate of population. Shifting cultivation is known as Podu in Orissa. The States with descending order of metropolitan cities are U. The Vindhyan range acts as a water divide between the Ganga system & the river system of South India. 28. Sandalwood & Sheesham are related to tropical moist deciduous forest. Laterite soils are the most preferable for Dryland farming. Uttar Pradesh & Tamil Nadu. M. Agricultural density is highest in West Bengal followed by Kerala & U.P. 27. BARC centers are at Trombay. The states in order of electricity installed capacity are Maharashtra. All INSATs were launched from Kourou French Guyana. Jhingurda (Singrauli-Shahdol) in M. 150 . Andhra Pradesh. Centre for Wind Power & Energy is located in Chennai. 21. 44 medium & 55 minor). The widest continental shelf of India is off Mumbai & narrowest off the Godawari Delta. The correct sequence of forest cover of India is Dense forest. Indore & Thiruvananthapuram. 26.P. In fish production the top 4 states are Kerala.

40. 41. Dynamic Concept (Flohn) and Southern Oscillation Theory (Walker). Meghalaya. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Kerala & Tamil Nadu. The theories of monsoon generation are thermal concept (Hadley). About 55 % of the country is vulnerable to earthquakes. East of Maikal range is the Baghelkhand Plateau made of limestones & sandstones on the west & granite on the east.P will be the main beneficiary in terms of electricity. Karakoram range has the maximum glaciers. Nepal touches the following 5 states . Vizhingam in Kerala produces wave energy. Vishakhapatnam is a landlocked harbour & the ships are protected by the Roass hill in the North & Dolphin’s Nose to the south. 48. In Assam Brahmaputra has a highly braided course. Geography Notes 35. U. Bhutan touches 4 Sates of Sikkim. The tertiary rocks are mostly found in the Himalayas.Ghanshyam Thori Laterite soil is found on highland plateau. ghont. West Bengal. 47. Hyundai Motors.P. ber etc. India imports cashew nut from the countries of East Africa. 42. The processing industries of Cashew Kernels is concentrated in Quilon. Muppandal in Tamil Nadu – Wind Energy. Namcha Barwa is 7750 metres high & Gurla Mandhata 7728 metres. 45. Pine Forest (1500-1750 m) & Wet Temperate Forest (200-1000 m). Alang is the leading ship breaking centre of India of the three centres of Alang. Lac is the secretion of tiny insect called the lac insect which lives on the sap of trees like Kusan. 44. West Bengal and Sikkim. 37. In the Peninsula they occur in the coastal areas of Gujarat. Large part of Deccan plateau is poor in minerals because the Lava has buried the mineral bearing old rocks baring very few exposures of mineral bearing rocks. Bihar.Uttaranchal. Gujarat will benefit most from the water allocated in Sardar Sarovar Project & M. Ashok Leyland are all in Chennai. 151 . The types of Montane forests according to decreasing height are: Alpine (3000-4000 m). 25 % of the rainfall is received during winter season. Black soil is found in the Deccan Plateau region. khair. 43. Moist Temperate Forest (2000-3000 m). Red soil is found in the periphery of the plateau & 36. Hindustan Motors. palas. Marble is quarried along the western region of Sambhar Lake & Sandstone in Kaimur range. Chilka Lake & Keoladeo National Park are protected under the Ramsar convention. Purna falls is on Tons river. The Reliance Petroleum Refinery at Jamnagar refines imported petroleum. The imported raw cashew nut is processed & exported to other countries. The western slopes of Sahyadris are more steeper than eastern slopes as the western part is highly faulted 38. Tripura & Mizoram. 46. 39. Bangladesh touches 5 states of West Bengal Assam. Sachna & Mumbai.

Dhupgarh (Satpuras). The utilization of Ground water potential is very high in Punjab area. The shortest National Highway 47A connects Wellingdon Island & Cochin Bypass. 53. 54. Siachen glacier is in Nubra valley. Mulangiri (Baba Budan Hills). Carlsberg ridge. The largest portion of India’s wasteland occurs in degraded pastures & grazing land. West Bengal. 52. Cardamom is the leading cash crop of southern Sikkim & is mainly exported. 56. Vijaywada & Rajkot. Amarnath cave is situated near Kalahoi glacier. Mascarene basin & Prince Edward Crozet ridge. .The coalfields arranged from west to east are Bokaro. The longest beach of India is in Chennai. Daman & Diu & Lakshadweep. The Mandovi Zuari Creek in Goa is an important embayment in the coastline. 60. Banas & its tributaries have carved the Mewar upland into a rolling peneplain.Faridabad. 62. The States arranged in descending order of cropping intensity are Punjab. Grount Nut is the principal crop of Rayalsema region. 61. Jharia & Raniganj. Betla (Bihar). Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Mahendragiri (Garhjat Hills). Moderate in Tamil Nadu region & low in NE region. The following Urban agglomerations are arranged in descending order of their population & are the last 5 among the 35 million cities . 59. Chandigarh. Cyclonic activity in India is a characteristic of the pre & post monsoon periods. The name of forest & corresponding state is: Manas (Assam). Parasnath Hill is situated in Haraibagh plateau. Laddakh. Amritsar. Western Ghats have two different types of vegetation on its two slopes. The Kaimur hills belong to the Vindhyan range. The following territories are arranged in descending order of their population size: Delhi. The largest number of Muslim population in India is in Uttar Pradesh. Haryana. The centrally sponsored Command Area Development (CAD) programme was launched in the year 197374. Pondcherry. High in Maharashtra region. Worlds highest observatory is in Hanle. 55. Uttar Pradesh is the chief producer of vegetables & tanned hides. Andaman & Nicobar. 57. The following features of the Indian Ocean are arranged from North to South Socotra-Chagos Ridge. 58. Forest conservation Act was passed in 1980. Allahabad. 152 . Gorakhnath peak (Girnar Hills). 51. Gorumara (West Bengal) & Madumalai (Tamil Nadu). The true dense cover in India is about 12 % of the total land area. Geography Notes 50. Dense forests have a tree canopy cover of more than 40 %.Ghanshyam Thori 49. Uttar Pradesh & Mizoram.

In 2004 a new biosphere reserve was inaugurated in Arunachal Pradesh. Manas wildlife park are among India’s world heritage site. Midnapore canal is on Kosi river. Gulf of Kutch (Platform). The term ‘Bhabhar’ implies piedmont plain & it is extensive in the west & narrow in the east. The plants & their power source are Bokaro Steel plant (Jharia). 75. Gujarat is the leading producer of ‘Beedi Tobacco’ in India. The expression of earliest volcanic activity is found in India in Dalma hill of Bihar. 73. Groundnut is the leading oilseed in India. Chhattisgarh is the only tine producing state in India. Raniganj is the oldest coalfield in India. 69. 71. 65. Corbett National park (earlier Hailey national park) was the first national park of India & Vedanthagal bird sanctuary is the first bird sanctuary of India. India’s production of gold has been declining. 64. It was so named by S. Atari is the last Indian railway station before crossing into Pakistan on the Amritsar Lahore line. The peninsular India has not undergone marine submergence since Archean times.P Chatterjee. Bhilai Steel plant (Korba). Sunderbans. Wular lake is tectonic. 68. but at present it is almost a fresh water lake. In Karnataka plateau the hilly region is known as Malnad & the rolling plain as Maidan. Kolleru lake was formed when marine transgression had taken place forming a lagoon. Indian Iron & Steel Co. Longest navigable waterway is in Uttar Pradesh. Nandadevi. 76.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 63. Lakshwadeep (Atoll). The cultural gap theory given by Ogburn states that material aspects (money etc) change faster with time than the non material aspect (like social values) therefore it results in cultural gap. Rakas lake is glacial & Didwana lake is Aeolian. Vindhyas form watershed between the Ganga System & peninsular river system. Hoggenakkal falls is on Kaveri river as soon as it enters Tamil Nadu. 67. Shillong plateau is also known as ‘Meghalaya’ meaning ‘abode of clouds’. Kaziranga National Park. Soil erosion in India occurs in almost all the states but it is most serious along the coast of Kerala. 72. (DVC power supply) & Visveswaraya Iron & Steel Co (Shravati power project). Simplipal & Manas are the three biosphere reserves which are also tiger reserves. 66. Leh lies between Ladakh & Zaskar. Cardamom hills is a branch of Annamalai hills. Palk Bay (Fringing reef) are the types of reef in India. 74. The Aravalli Mountains were one of the oldest geosynclines in the world. 70. The Gangetic plain has been created by both exogenic & endogenic forces. Wattle a tanning material used in leather industry is grown in Nilgiri & Palni Hills & from here major supplies are done for the entire country. 153 .

9 %. Jain population has registered growth rate of population @ 26 % (highest among all religions) in 1991-2001 compared to 4. Lakshwadeep has the minimum population & maximum literacy rate (87. The sex ratio of India in 1991 was 927 which has improved to 933. Among UTs sex ratio is highest for Pondicherry (1001). For the first time since independence there is a decline in the absolute number of illiterates during a decade. U. The urbanization is highest in Goa (49. Chhattisgarh (990). 85. 2001. Tamil Nadu (43. During 1901-2001 the population of India has increased by about 4 times. The total number of districts in India in 2001 were 593 & total number of towns is 5161. Tamil Nadu (986).3 % of world‘s area & 16 % of total population.P). 84. The sex ratio on a worldwide scale is 986. Parsi population has shown signs of decline. 1921 is taken as the year of demographic divide & 1931 as urbanization divide. The sex ratio of various religious communities/ other communities is Scheduled tribe (978). The correct decreasing order in terms of sex ratio is Kerala (1058).6 % during 1981-1991. The density of India in 1991 was 267 which has increased to 324 per/km2 during 2001 adding 57 persons per square km. Jains have the highest literacy rate (overall. The census 2001 has provided for the first time report on religious data. The life expectation at birth in India is 61 years. In terms of absolute number of people living in Urban areas Maharashtra leads followed by UP. 80. Jains (940). 79. The least urbanized state in India is Himachal Pradesh (9%) Bihar (10%) & Sikkim (11%). male as well as female) followed by Christians in all the three categories.5) among UTs. Sikhs have recorded the lowest decadal growth rate of 16. Tamil Nadu has the maximum number of towns in India. Mizoram (49. 154 . 87. The sex ratio of India in 1901 was 972 & the density in 1901 was just 77 persons/km2. Scheduled Caste (936). Total number of urban agglomeration in India is 384 (maximum in M. 78.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 77. 82. The census moment was 00:00 hours of 1st March. The district having least population density is Lahul & Spiti (2 person/Km2) & the highest density is in NE Delhi (29400) 81. 83.7).4). The over concentration of urban population in the big urban centers of India is called population implosion. India has 2. Pondicherry has the maximum sex ration (1001) 88.8) & Maharashtra (42.5). The census is conducted under the Census Act 1948. 86. As per the census a person is deemed as literate if he/she can read & write in any language with understanding.P has the maximum number of illiterates in absolute number followed by Bihar. Sikhs (893). Muslims have the highest proportion of children population among their total population.

Concept of Base Level Powell 155 . Lee Concept of Urban Village H. T Renner Density-size rule R. Carr Saunders) Economic Theory of Population Leibenstein Least Cost Theory Weber Locational Interdependence Palender Sub-Optimal Location Smith Economic Rent Ricardo Agricultural regions Whitlessey Natural Regions Herbertson Five Stages model of Development W.A.W. Jains have the minimum gap in literacy levels of male & female in India.L. Best Demographic Index B. Thomson & Frank W. The Mediterraneans are considered to be the bearers of earliest form of Hinduism in India. Stouffer Theory of Intervening Obstacles E. Heinrich Lambert Sea Floor Spreading Harry Hess Geosynclinal Theory of Mountain Building Kober Optimum Population Theory Sidgwick (Later Dalton.S. Muslims have the lowest literacy levels.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 89.H. Rostov Growth Pole Francois Perroux Atmospheric Circulation Model Palmen Convection Current Hypothesis Arthur Holmes Theory of Intervening Opportunities S. Notestein Mobility Transition Model Zelinsky Cylindrical Equal Area Projection J.J.S. Bulk of the population among lower caste is also comprised by the Mediterraneans in Northern India. Berry Population Potential G Tornqvist Centrality Index Preston Origin of rift valley Bullard Morphometric Analysis Strahler Panplane concept Crickmay Primarumpf concept Penck Panfan concept Lawson. Hans Concept of Urban Continuum R. Geographical Thought Geographers & their Contribution Neo Determinism Griffith Taylor Demographic Transition Model W.J. Robbins.E. 90. Pahl Concept of Rural Urban Fringe Pryor Geosophy concept (subjective conceptions) John Wright Geopacifics Concept Griffith Taylor Geopolitics Concept K Haushofer Geonomics Concept G. Heinrich Lambert Polar Zenithal Equal Area Projection J.

Suess Simonson R. Kirk. Haggerstand. SIMA. NIFE classification Identified four basic pedogenic regimes Concept of City Region Concept of ‘Garden City’ Social Physics Human Welfare concept Spatial Organization Friedmann Sauer Whittlesey Lynch & Gould Halley J. David Harvey. Dickinson Ebenezer Howard Stewart David Harvey Smith Geography Notes Behaviouralism Humanism Universalism Particularism Idealism Realism Pragmatism Positivism Marxism Philosophies & Geographers Huff. Weaver Pratt Pugh & Thomas T. Bunge Albrecht Penck E Raisz & J Henry A H Robinson E.E. Cox.Ghanshyam Thori Core-Periphery Model Cultural Hearth Concept of Sequent Occupance Mental Map Differential Heating concept of Monsoon Crop Combinations Theory Line of Compensation Etchplain Gravity Model Plastic Space Compage Density & Fecundity Theory Cultural Realms of the World Concept of Regional Synthesis Regional Science Concept Regional System Concept Uniformitarianism Mountain Root Theory Cumulative Causation Theory Maximum Revenue Theory Concept of Natural Boundary G Scale (Scale of Natural Values) Incubator Hypothesis Time Space Convergence Theory City of Need & City of Death (Concepts) Treppen Concept Tangent of Average Slope Use of Dots SIAL. Stewart Pip Feror Whittlesey Saddler Broek & Webb Berry Isard Tuan Hutton Airy Gunnar Myrdal A Losch Layer Hagget & Chorley Hoover & Vernon D Janelle W. Gibson Pierce Auguste Comte. BJL Berry. Q.C. Lowenthal. Tuan Talcot Parsons Hoselitz Leonard Guelke John Scott. William Bunge David Harvey 156 . Peter Gould. Tobbler John wright.

Stoddart E. Ackerman E. Water & Places History of Plants General Treatise Exposition of the World System The World & its People Prologue to Population Geography Jyotisiddhanta The Economics of Location The Earth & its resources Statistical Analysis in Geography Land of Britain – Its use & Misuse Editor of Antipode Methods of Regional Analysis On Geography & its History Post Modern Geographies The Major Natural Regions of the World Comparative Method Cosmographic Universalis Nouvelle Geographic Universelle Realm of Nature Territorial Production Complex Ill Million Jewahirat Description of the Earth The History of Geography Geography as Human Ecology Theoretical Geography Radical Geography Rural Settlement & Landuse Systematic Geography Geography as fundamental research discipline Where is the Research Frontier Approaches to Regional Analysis: A Synthesis Geographic Influences on American History Principles of Geology 157 Aristotle Ptolemy Ptolemy Hippocrates Theophrastus Strabo Laplace H.M Smith & David Harvey Peet O. J.Ghanshyam Thori Welfare Approach Radicalism Probabilism D. Chisolhm W. M Davis E.J.King Stamp R.J Fleure (British) W. L Berry Albert Parry Birmingham Charles Lyell (1830) . Peet Isard D. A Ackerman B.J. Losch Finch. Soja A.H. Herbertson Carl Ritter Sebastian Munster Elisee Reclus H Robert Mill Kellossvosky Marco Polo Al Biruni Al Battani J N L Baker H H Barrows William Bunge R. Zelinsky Aryabhatta A. Peet M. A. Spate Geography Notes Works of Geographers Meterologica Guide to Geography Quadriparitum (effect of position of celestial bodies on Humans) On Airs.K. Trewartha & Shearer L.

Ackerman Man can never get entirely rid himself of the hold his environment has on him L Febvre Human environment relationship is dynamic rather than static Semple Human geography is the study of changing relationship between unresting man & the Semple unstable earth Present is the Key to the past James Hutton I traveled. the cultural landscape the result Geography is the study of things associated in areas. I described Ratzel Cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. more courageous. mutually interacting. distance & time Geography comes through the soles of one’s shoes Grieve 158 . Who gets what. Blache characterizng particular segments on the earth surface. less suspicious & less Montesquiue cunning than those in the warm climate The environment in essentially neutral Edward Ullman Environment taken by itself is a meaningless phrase. I sketched. Culture is Sauer the agent.E. history & repeated in many places Plato Our senses can tell us fire is hot but not why it is hot Aristotle Geography is the science which deals with the art of map making Ptolemy The best economic programme for a country to follow is determined by nature & it is Stop & Go geographers duty to interpret this programme Determinism As body is made of soul. the physical globe is made for mankind Carl Ritter We must ask the earth itself for its laws Carl Ritter Geography is the mirror of man.H. Spate not exist The main obstacle between Hindus & Muslims is the Varna system Al-Biruni Geography is the Study of partial distribution & space relations on the earth’s surface E. without man environment does O.K.Ghanshyam Thori City Region & Regionalism Economic Geography of Britain Isaiah Bowman The spatial organization of Society Silent Spring R. the natural area the medium. A. Dickinson Smith The Pioneer Fringe Morill Carson Geography Notes Famous Saying/Quotation/Thought Earthquakes & Volcanoes are caused by winds Aristotle Soil Erosion & Land destruction are parts of culture. where & how Welfare Geography Nature to be commanded must be obeyed (Neo determinism) Fracis Bacon Regional geographers may be trying to put boundaries that do not exist around areas Kimble that do not matter It is the links in the landscape rather than the breaks that impress the scientific mind Kimble Defined geography as ‘Discovery of predictive patterns’ during quantitative revolution Bunge Dimension of society are analogous to the physical dimensions & include numbers of Social Physics people. to know the world is to know yourself Yi Fu Tuan Give me the map of a country & I pledge myself to tell you what the man of the Ratzel country will be & what part that country will play in history People of cold climate are physically stron.

Ptolemy also developed the polyconic projection. Anaximander used the term ‘latitude’ & longitude’ for the first time. The main contribution of Al Idrisi was in the field of Cartography & that of Ibn Khaldun in Human Geography. 5. Varenius ‘General Geography’ was ‘Systematic Geography’ & ‘Special Geography’ was ‘Regional’. The term latitude & longitude were first used by Ptolemy.Ghanshyam Thori Classical Geographical Concepts Lebensrauam Ort Lichkeiten Zusammenhang (Harmonius unity among diverse phenomena on earth) Principle of Activity & Principle of Interaction Concept of World Island Space time concept Geography Notes Ratzel Richthofen Humboldt Jean Brunhes Mackinder Kant Ancient Names Arabian Sea/Indian Ocean Scythia Po Sinus Arabicus Iceland Taprabone Ireland Rha Sea of Azov Tanais Dneiper Euxine Caspian Sea Elephantine Cataract Arabian Sea Sea of Kendrej Malacca Sea Coniaci Mesopotamia (Iraq) Mother of Euxine Hindukush Mountains Zaradrus Karakoram Acesipes Siwalik Hydratoes Tibetan Plateau Hyphasis Aravalli Chyrse Tanganyika Arabicus Sinus Aromata * . The T-O map was developed during the dark ages (Christian parts – 200 to 700 AD) & was oriented towards east. Ptolemy considered the Indian ocean as an inland sea. Eratosthenes is considered father of geodesy. Elisee Reclus was an anarchist geographer. The main contribution of Romans was in the field of Historical & regional geography. The Greek cartography is said to have attained its culmination (reach zenith) at the hands of Ptolemy. Hippocrates was the founder of medical geography (also father of medicine).Name in Italics are Puranic Names Erythrean Sea Istre Ivernia Irene Palus Maeotis Boresthenes Hyrcanian Sea of Larvey Sea of Shelhat Arbela Nishad Krishnagiri Menkagiri Kimpurusa Arbud Rhapton Ukraine Red Sea Sri Lanka Volga Don Black Sea Aswan Gulf of Thailand Cape Comorin Sea of Azov Sutlej Chenab Ravi Beas Malay Peninsula Red Sea Somali Coast Miscellaneous Facts 1. 4. 159 . 3. 2.

Griffith Taylor applied the concept of ‘Zones & Strata’ for the evolution of races of mankind. The “principle of interaction” was introduced by Brunhes. 9.M Davis concept was down wasting & Penck’s Concept was back wasting. Aristotle founded his own school in Athens 160 . its volume. Kant Freed Geography from its tight bonds with theology. Ritter was the first professor of Geography. South West (Nairitya) & South East (Agneyay). Indra (East). 7. The Prime Meridian of the classical Indian geographers used to be drawn through the city of Ujjain. 14. velocity & gradient. North East (Isana). Herodotus is often called the father of ethnography.K. Hartshorne rejected environmental determinism as it separates nature from man & is thus disruptive of fundamental unity of the field. 10. Strabo is considered the father of Chorology ie ‘regional geography’. Aristotle was a teleologist. Thales was the first Greek scholar to be concerned about the measurement & location of things on the surface of the earth. Archimedes deducted that the surface of the sea must be convex. Archytas measured the total length of the land & sea. Varuna (West). He believed that all the races of man had a common origin. Kuber (North) & Brahma (Zenith). Thales was associated with Ionian School of Philosophy. Thales applied the principles of geometry to measuring land area. 16. He gave the concept of grade. Lanka & Mt. Meru (North Pole). 13. 17. Hipparachus prepared catalogue of star. 15. relief & climate were all the work of god. 8. Humboldt attempted to formulate general or abstract laws. The first detailed map of India was prepared by Ptolemy. Herodotus was associated with Pythagorean School of philosophy. Bhaskaracharya was the ancient Indian scholar who divided earth into 360 degrees. Brihaspati (Jupiter). W. 11. Oscal Peschel was the originator of the dualism between Physical & Human Geography.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 6. The first Indian university to establish geography department was Madras University. Strabo attempted to explain that slope. The quantitative models recognize men as passive agents. In fact he is considered the father of teleologist concept as he believed that everything was changing according to a pre-existing plan. The ancient Puranic directions were North West (Vayavya). Plato conceived the world as having been created in perfection but now in the process of decline from perfection. 12. The Vedic planets are Buddha (Mercury). G. Gilbert was the first to establish the relationship between load of a river. Mangala (Mars) & Shukra (Venus). Ruling deity & directions were: Yama (South).

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

which he named Lyceum. Aristotle added ‘ether’ to the list of four basic substances (earth, water, fire & air) comprising all materials on the earth. He considered equatorial regions as uninhabitable. 18. Eratosthenes accepted an invitation from the king of Egypt to become the royal tutor & was also named as ‘Alpha fellow’ at the museum in Alexandria. 19. Pytheas was the first Greek to tell about ocean tides & showed that tides were related to the phases of the moon. Eudoxus, a contemporary of Plato developed the theory of zones of climate based on increasing slopes (Klima) away from the sun on a spherical surface. 20. Homer was considered by Strabo as the founder of all geographical knowledge but Strabo considered Herodotus as a ‘fable monger’ & ‘fiction retailer’. Herodotus described about the “dumb commerce” practiced by Carthagians with primitive tribes in western Africa. 21. As a result of the voyage of Ibn Haukal to the south of equator the wrong notion about the inhabitability of the torrid zone came to an end. 22. Al-Masudi said that there is no place on the earth that is always covered with water, nor one that is always land but a constant revolution takes place. Al Masudi also said that the power of the earth vary in their influence on man on account of three causes viz water, natural vegetation & topography. Al Masudi correlated the colour of ocean water & its salinity 23. Al-Biruni referred to the “Mountain of Moon” situated near the equator which was the source of Nile river & was of the opinion that floods in the Nile occurred because of the heavy rains in the upper reaches of the Nile. 24. Pferre d’Ally wrote ‘Imagine Mundi’ which influenced Columbus to search a route to Asia moving westward from the Canary Islands. 25. Varenious in his treatise on regional geography outlined its contents under three sections: Celestial properties, terrestrial properties & human properties. 26. Kant recognized the importance of commercial geography, theological geography, moral geography & mathematical geography & saw them heavily influenced by underlying physical geography. Kant believed that physical geography is the first part of knowledge of the earth. 27. Ritter emphasized that he was teaching a ‘new scientific geography’ in contrast to the traditional lifeless summary of facts about countries. ‘Erdkunde’ means earth science. 28. The term ‘anthropogeographic’ was coined by Ratzel & was used by him for the Organic theory of society & state. 29. Sauer established a research group at Berkeley School that focused on the historical – ecological study of cultural landscapes.

161

Ghanshyam Thori ‘Heartland’ in his famous book ‘Demographic ideals & reality’.

Geography Notes

30. Chisolhm is considered father of economic geography. Mackinder renamed his ‘Pivot Area’ as

31. Humanism emphasizes the importance of participant observation, iconography, place & hermeneutics. The humanistic geography aims at ‘Verstehn’ which means understanding of man in his environment. 32. Behavioural geography did not bring about a revolution away from quantitative geography, it became an attachment to it. Behavioural geography also adopted positivist approach. Preds work represents an attempt to incorporate probability into the locational analysis. 33. White had presented the PhD thesis on ‘Human response to floods’. Taylor on the basis of climatic cycles evolved a theory known as the ‘Migration zone theory of race evolution’ where he assumed that climate has been a cause of human migrations. 34. O’ Riordian has given forms of environmentalism. ‘Ecocentrism’ & ‘Technocentrism’ are the two major forms of Environmentalism according to him. 35. The basic dictum of existentialism is ‘Man makes Himself’. To the existentialist for every landscape or existential geography someone can be held accountable. 36. To the idealist the explanation of an action is complete when the agent’s goal & theoretical understanding of his situation have been discovered. 37. The American School represents the major tradition of Cultural Geography in the 20th century. 38. Patanjali described the crop regions on the basis of climate & soil. The area drained by Saptasindhu contained all the rivers of Punjab along with Saraswati & Present Gagghar.

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Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Techniques of Geographical Analysis
Hydrometer Atmometer Campbell Strokes Recorder Cielometer Octas Reversing Thermometer Sundial Wind Vane Optical Square Cynometer Analemma Tachometer Tacheometer Odometer Rotameter Auxanometer Udometer Wentworth Scale Saffir Simpson scale Fujita Scale Various Measuring Instruments Relative density of a liquid/ Measurement of water flow in currents Rate of Evaporation Sunshine Height of Clouds Amount of Cloud cover Temperature of Ocean Depth Duration of Sunshine Wind Direction only (not windspeed). For short off-sets from chainline to any object close by Blueness of Sky Scale drawn on the globe to show daily declination of the sun indicates rotational (angular) speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) Measurement of horizontal & vertical position of a point Measuring distance traveled by a vehicle Measuring length (esp stream lines on map)/ rate of fluid flow Measuring growth in plants A rain guage Classify particles ranging from boulders to colloids Measuring Hurricane Intensity Measures Relative severity & damage of Tornado

Miscellaneous Facts: 1. Cadastral map can be best reduced by Pantograph & wall maps are generally reduced with the help of Camera Lucida. A map with diagrammatic statistical information is known as Cartogram. One yard is equal to 3 feet. 1760 yards make a mile. 2. Gall’s Projection is most suitable for general purpose world map. In Mercator projection the scale along the Meridians & Parallel is the same & hence it maintains accuracy of shape. 3. Sinusoidal (Sansom Flamsteed) projection is suitable for Africa. For drawing map of small countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka, France, Portugal the Simple conical projection with one standard parallel is most suitable. Galls projection is rectangular in shape & is most suitable for General purpose map of the world. 163

164 . Halley prepared the first weather map of the world. 11. 9. In Azimuthal projection the direction of one point with respect to the other point is the same as it is on the globe. Longitudinal profile would suit to show a waterfall. The Gnomonic Projection is a great circle projection. Pole is represented by an arc in conical projections. The Ria coast contours are shown below the sea level. 14. Mercator projection is also referred to as Cylindrical Orthomorphic projection. General purpose map of India (Bonnes) & USA (Lambert’s Zenithal Equal Area) Distribution map of world (Cylindrical Equal Area) 8. The counters showing vertical cliff come very close to meet each other but do not intersect each other. 12. Perspective projection is also known as geometrical projection. Aerial photographs of India are supplied by Survey of India. In Mercators projection.000. Conical map projections were the first map projections developed by ancient Greeks. In all cylindrical projections. which are glued on the outside of a sphere. March to April & September to October is the best period for aerial photography. In the year 1884 the meridian that passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich in London was established as the global starting point for measuring longitudes. Cardinal points refer to the four main directions on a compass.Ghanshyam Thori scale & give more or less highly generalized information. In all cylindrical projections latitudinal scale is correct only along the equator. Transverse Mercator’s projection is also known as Gauss conformal projection & it never shows pole. Geography Notes 4. LANDSAT orbit allows the imaging of the location about every two & a half weeks. 13. Europe (Polyconic projection) Asia (Zenithal Equidistant). 6. a straight line drawn is a line of constant bearing (Loxodrome) but it does not give the shortest distance. The stereographic projection is suitable for navigational chart. The earliest known globe is said to have been constructed by a Greek scholar Crates about 150 BC. The scale of degree sheets published by the Survey of India is 1:250. Still it is popular among navigators as they project the great circles into smaller loxodromes & then navigate through Mercators projection. The Indian topographical maps have the scale 1’’ = 1 mile. meridians are equispaced. 10. Gnomonic projection is used for air routes in the higher latitudes. 15. 7. Most globes are formed from a series of roughly triangular maps called gores. Topographical maps are prepared on a smaller scale than a map of Delhi. The chorographical maps are drawn on a very small 5. 16. Hypsometer measures the proportion of area of the surface at different elevation above or below the sea level.

The wet bulb & dry bulb thermometer is used to measure Humidity. 19. On a topographical map built up areas like village site.Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 17. Heart shaped map (Peter Apian). The direction of the hachures is the same as that in which water would flow ie the direction of slope. horizontal equivalent is generally not constant. roads are shown by brown colour. At international date line west side of the line is always one day ahead of the east side. 165 . Hachures cut contours obliquely. Ancient period maps: Circular showing Europa north of Asia surrounded by Oceanus on all sides (Hecataeus). Quick bird is the highest resolution satellite of the world. Hill Shading is a modern substitute for hachures. It involves shading the slopes which are usually shadowed form the sun. Stereoscopic projection & Mollweids projection. 20. 25. 27. For a map. The IRS satellite has a polar. China with a longitudinal extent of 50 degrees has only one time zone corresponding to the eastern part of the country. Rectangular having cylindrical projection (Eratosthenes) & Conical shape projection (Ptolemy). Forests (Dark Green) & Built up area (Brown). 31. The various colours used in making maps are Cultivated area (yellow). 22. Bonnes projection. 28. Daylight Saving. producing an additional period of daylight in the evening. It returns to its original orbit after 22 days. 26. 21. 30. Equal area projections are Cylindrical equal area. The balloon borne instrument used to measure different atmospheric elements & sending information to the ground is called Radio Sounde. 18. however the vertical equivalent is constant. The true north is called geographic north. 23. Africa cannot be shown suitably on Bonnes projection. system of setting clocks 1 or 2 hours ahead so that both sunrise and sunset occur at a later hour. Grasslands (light green). The world is divided into 136 million sheets. towns. SPOT was the first satellite to offer a stereoscopic cover. 29. The satellite takes about 103 minutes for completing one orbit.K Manocha for map]. 24. sun synchronous orbit. The reduced bearing equivalent of whole circle bearing 225o is S 45o W. world in two hemispheres (Mercator) – [Refer last 3-4 pages of S. The million sheets are further divided into 16 parts – A to P. Sinusoidal projection. Daylight saving was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin.

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