Chapter 1 Summary (Introduction to Semiconductors

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According to the classical Bohr model, the atom is viewed as having a planetary-type structure with electrons orbiting at various distances around the central nucleus. The nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons. The protons have a positive charge and the neutrons are uncharged. The number of protons is the atomic number of the atom. Electrons have a negative charge and orbit around the nucleus at distances that depend on their energy level. An atom has discrete bands of energy called shells in which the electrons orbit. Atomic structure allows a certain maximum number of electrons in each shell. These shells are designated 1, 2, 3, and so on. In their natural state, all atoms are neutral because they have an equal number of protons and electrons. The outermost shell or band of an atom is called the valence band, and electrons that orbit in this band are called valence electrons. These electrons have the highest energy of all those in the atom. If a valence electron acquires enough energy from an outside source such as heat, it can jump out of the valence band and break away from its atom. Insulating materials have very few free electrons and do not conduct current at all under normal circumstances. Semiconductive materials fall in between conductors and insulators in their ability to conduct current. Materials that are conductors have a large number of free electrons and conduct current very well. Semiconductor atoms have four valence electrons. Silicon is the most widely used semiconductive material. Semiconductor atoms bond together in a symmetrical pattern to form a solid material called a crystal. The bonds that hold a crystal together are called covalent bonds. Within the crystal structure, the valence electrons that manage to escape from their parent atom are called conduction electrons or free electrons. They have more energy than the electrons in the valence band and are free to drift throughout the material. When an electron breaks away to become free, it leaves a hole in the valence band creating what is called an electron-hole pair. These electron-hole pairs are thermally produced because the electron has acquired enough energy from external heat to break away from its atom. A free electron will eventually lose energy and fall back into a hole. This is called recombination. But, electron-hole pairs are continuously being thermally generated so there are always free electrons in the material. When a voltage is applied across the semiconductor, the thermally produced free electrons move in a net direction and form the current. This is one type of current in an intrinsic (pure) semiconductor. Another type of current is the hole current. This occurs as valence electrons move from hole to hole creating, in effect, a movement of holes in the opposite direction. An n-type semiconductive material is created by adding impurity atoms that have five valence electrons. These impurities are pentavalent atoms. A p-type semiconductor is created by adding impurity atoms with only three valence electrons. These impurities are trivalent atoms. The process of adding pentavalent or trivalent impurities to a semiconductor is called doping. The majority carriers in an n-type semiconductor are free electrons acquired by the doping process, and the minority carriers are holes produced by thermally generated electron-hole pairs. The majority carriers in a p-type semiconductor are holes acquired by the doping

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process, and the minority carriers are free electrons produced by thermally generated electron-hole pairs. A pn junction is formed when part of a material is doped n-type and part of it is doped p-type. A depletion region forms starting at the junction that is devoid of any majority carriers. The depletion region is formed by ionization. The barrier potential is typically 0.7 V for a silicon diode and 0.3 V for germanium. There is current through a diode only when it is forward-biased. Ideally, there is no current when there is no bias nor when there is reverse bias. Actually, there is a very small current in reverse bias due to the thermally generated minority carriers, but this can usually be neglected. Avalanche occurs in a reverse-biased diode if the bias voltage equals or exceeds the breakdown voltage. A diode conducts current when forward-biased and blocks current when reversed-biased. Reverse breakdown voltage for a diode is typically greater than 50 V. An ideal diode presents an open when reversed-biased and a short when forward-biased. The V-I characteristic curve shows the diode current as a function of voltage across the diode. The resistance of a forward-biased diode is called the dynamic or ac resistance. Reverse current increases rapidly at the reverse breakdown voltage. Reverse breakdown should be avoided in most diodes. The ideal model represents the diode as a closed switch in forward bias and as an open switch in reverse bias. The practical model represents the diode as a switch in series with the barrier potential. The complete model includes the dynamic forward resistance in series with the practical model in forward bias and the reverse resistance in parallel with the open switch in reverse bias. Many DMMs provide a diode test function. DMMs display the diode drop when the diode is operating properly in forward bias. Most DMMs indicate “OL” when the diode is open.

Chapter 2 Summary (Diode Applications)
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The single diode in a half-wave rectifier is forward-biased and conducts for 180º of the input cycle. The output frequency of a half-wave rectifier equals the input frequency. PIV (peak inverse voltage) is the maximum voltage appearing across the diode in reverse bias. Each diode in a full-wave rectifier is forward-biased and conducts for 180º of the input cycle. The output frequency of a full-wave rectifier is twice the input frequency. The two basic types of full-wave rectifier are center-tapped and bridge. The peak output voltage of a center-tapped full-wave rectifier is approximately one-half of the total peak secondary voltage less one diode drop. The PIV for each diode in a center-tapped full-wave rectifier is twice the peak output voltage plus one diode drop. The peak output voltage of a bridge rectifier equals the total peak secondary voltage less two diode drops.

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The PIV for each diode in a bridge rectifier is approximately half that required for an equivalent center-tapped configuration and is equal to the peak output voltage plus one diode drop. A capacitor-input filter provides a dc output approximately equal to the peak of its rectified input voltage. Ripple voltage is caused by the charging and discharging of the filter capacitor. The smaller the ripple voltage, the better the filter. Regulation of output voltage over a range of input voltages is called input or line regulation. Regulation of output voltage over a range of load currents is called load regulation. Diode limiters cut off voltage above or below specified levels. Limiters are also called clippers. Diode clampers add a dc level to an ac voltage. A dc power supply typically consists of an input transformer, a diode rectifier, a filter, and a regulator. Voltage multipliers are used in high-voltage, low-current applications such as for electron beam acceleration in CRTs and for particle accelerators. A voltage multiplier uses a series of capacitor/diode stages. Input voltage can be doubled, tripled, or quadrupled. A data sheet provides key information about the parameters and characteristics of an electronic device. A diode should always be operated below the absolute maximum ratings specified on the data sheet. Troubleshooting is the application of logical thought combined with a thorough knowledge of the circuit or system to identify and correct a malfunction. Troubleshooting is a three-phase process of analysis, planning, and measurement. Fault analysis is the isolation of a fault to a particular circuit or portion of a circuit.

Chapter 3 Summary (Special-Purpose Diodes)
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The zener diode operates in reverse breakdown. There are two breakdown mechanisms in a zener diode: avalanche breakdown and zener breakdown. When VZ < 5 V, zener breakdown is predominant. When VZ > 5 V, avalanche breakdown is predominant. A zener diode maintains a nearly constant voltage across its terminals over a specified range of zener currents. Zener diodes are used as voltage references, regulators, and limiters. Zener diodes are available in many voltage ratings ranging from 1.8 V to 200 V. A varactor diode acts as a variable capacitor under reverse-bias conditions. The capacitance of a varactor varies inversely with reverse-bias voltage. The current regulator diode keeps its forward current at a constant specified value. The Schottky diode has a metal-to-semiconductor junction. It is used in fast-switching applications. The tunnel diode is used in oscillator circuits. An LED emits light when forward-biased.

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High-intensity LEDs are used in large-screen displays, traffic lights, automotive lighting, and home lighting. An organic LED (OLED) uses two or three layers of organic material to produce light. LEDs are available for either infrared or visible light. The photodiode exhibits an increase in reverse current with light intensity. The pin diode has a p region, an n region, and an intrinsic (i) region and displays a variable resistance characteristic when forward-biased and a constant capacitance when reversebiased. A laser diode is similar to an LED except that it emits coherent (single wavelength) light when the forward current exceeds a threshold value.

Chapter 4 Summary (Bipolar Junction Transistors)
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The BJT (bipolar junction transistor) is constructed with three regions: base, collector, and emitter. The BJT has two pn junctions, the base-emitter junction and the base-collector junction. Current in a BJT consists of both free electrons and holes, thus the term bipolar. The base region is very thin and lightly doped compared to the collector and emitter regions. The two types of bipolar junction transistor are the npn and the pnp. To operate as an amplifier, the base-emitter junction must be forward-biased and the basecollector junction must be reverse-biased. This is called forward-reverse bias. The three currents in the transistor are the base current (IB), emitter current (IE), and collector current (IC). IB is very small compared to IC and IE. The dc current gain of a transistor is the ratio of IC to IB and is designated DC. Values typically range from less than 20 to several hundred. DC is usually referred to as hFE on transistor data sheets. The ratio of IC to IB is called DC. Values typically range from 0.95 to 0.99. When a transistor is forward-reverse biased, the voltage gain depends on the internal emitter resistance and the external collector resistance. Voltage gain is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage. Internal transistor resistances are represented by a lower-case r. A transistor can be operated as an electronic switch in cutoff and saturation. In cutoff, both pn junctions are reverse-biased and there is essentially no collector current. The transistor ideally behaves like an open switch between collector and emitter. In saturation, both pn junctions are forward-biased and the collector current is maximum. The transistor ideally behaves like a closed switch between collector and emitter. There is a variation in DC over temperature and also from one transistor to another of the same type. In a phototransistor, base current is produced by incident light. A phototransistor can be either a two-lead or a three-lead device. A photodarlington consists of a phototransistor driving a conventional transistor to produce a high current gain. An optocoupler consists of an LED and a photodiode or phototransistor. Optocouplers are used to electrically isolate circuits.

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There are many types of transistor packages using plastic, metal, or ceramic. Two base package types are through-hole and surface mount. It is best to check a transistor in-circuit before removing it. Common faults are open junctions, low DC, excessive leakage currents, and external opens and shorts on the circuit board.

Chapter 5 Summary (Transistor Bias Circuits)
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The purpose of biasing a circuit is to establish a proper stable dc operating point (Q-point). The Q-point of a circuit is defined by specific values for IC and VCE. These values are called the coordinates of the Q-point. A dc load line passes through the Q-point on a transistor's collector curves intersecting the vertical axis at approximately IC(sat) and the horizontal axis at VCE(off). The linear (active) operating region of a transistor lies along the load line below saturation and above cutoff. The dc input resistance at the base of a BJT is approximately DCRE. Loading effects are neglected for a stiff voltage divider. Voltage-divider bias provides good Q-point stability with a single-polarity supply voltage. It is the most common bias circuit. The base bias circuit arrangement has poor stability because its Q-point varies widely with DC. Emitter bias generally provides good Q-point stability but requires both positive and negative supply voltages. Emitter feedback bias combines base bias with the addition of an emitter resistor. Collector-feedback bias provides good stability using negative feedback from collector to base.

Chapter 6 Summary (BJT Amplifiers)
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A small-signal amplifier uses only a small portion of its load line under signal conditions. r parameters are easily identifiable and applicable with a transistor's circuit operation. The ac load line differs from the dc load line because the effective ac collector resistance is less than the dc collector resistance. h parameters are important to technicians and technologists because manufacturers' data sheets specify transistors using h parameters. A common-emitter amplifier has good voltage, current, and power gains, but a relatively low input resistance. Swamping is a method of stabilizing the voltage gain. A common-collector amplifier has high input resistance and good current gain, but its voltage gain is approximately 1. A darlington pair provides beta multiplication for increased input resistance. A common collector amplifier is known as an emitter follower. The common-base amplifier has a good voltage gain, but it has a very low input resistance and its current gain is approximately 1.

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Common-emitter, common-collector, and common-base amplifier configurations are summarized in Table 6-4. The total gain of a multistage amplifier is the product of the individual gains (sum of dB gains). Single-stage amplifiers can be connected in sequence with various coupling methods to form multistage amplifiers.

Chapter 7 Summary (Power Amplifiers)
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A class A power amplifier operates entirely in the linear region of the transistor's characteristic curves. The transistor conducts during the full 360º of the input cycle. The Q-point must be centered on the load line for maximum class A output signal swing. The maximum efficiency of a class A power amplifier is 25 percent. A class B amplifier operates in the linear region for half of the input cycle (180º), and it is in cutoff for the other half. The Q-point is at cutoff for class B operation. Class B amplifiers are normally operated in a push-pull configuration in order to produce an output that is a replica of the input. The maximum efficiency of a class B amplifier is 79 percent. A class AB amplifier is biased slightly above cutoff and operates in the linear region for slightly more than 180º of the input cycle. Class AB eliminates crossover distortion found in pure class B. A class C amplifier operates in the linear region for only a small part of the input cycle. The class C amplifier is biased below cutoff. Class C amplifiers are normally operated as tuned amplifiers to produce a sinusoidal output. The maximum efficiency of a class C amplifier is higher than that of either class A or class B amplifiers. Under conditions of low power dissipation and high output power, the efficiency can approach 100 percent.

Chapter 8 Summary (Field-Effect Transistors (FETs))
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Field-effect transistors are unipolar devices (one-charge carrier). The three FET terminals are source, drain, and gate. The JFET operates with a reverse-biased pn junction (gate-to-source). The high input resistance of a JFET is due to the reverse-biased gate-source junction. Reverse bias of a JFET produces a depletion region within the channel, thus increasing channel resistance. For an n-channel JFET, VGS can vary from zero negatively to cutoff, VGS(off). For a p-channel JFET, VGS can vary from zero positively to VGS(off). IDSS is the constant drain current when VGS = 0. This is true for both JFETs and D-MOSFETs. A FET is called a square-law device because of the relationship of ID to the square of a term containing VGS. Unlike JFETs and D-MOSFETs, the E-MOSFET cannot operate with VGS = 0 V. Midpoint bias for a JFET is ID = IDSS/2, obtained by setting VGS VGS(off)/3.4. The Q-point in a JFET with voltage-divider bias is more stable than in a self-biased JFET. A JFET used as a variable resistor is biased in the ohmic region.

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To bias in the ohmic region ID must be much smaller than IDSS. The gate voltage controls RDS in the ohmic region. When a JFET is biased at the origin (VDS = 0, ID = 0), the ac channel resistance is controlled by the gate voltage. MOSFETs differ from JFETs in that the gate of a MOSFET is insulated from the channel by an SiO2 layer, whereas the gate and channel in a JFET are separated by a pn junction. A depletion MOSFET (D-MOSFET) can operate with a zero, positive, or negative gate-tosource voltage. The D-MOSFET has a physical channel between the drain and source. For an n-channel D-MOSFET, negative values of VGS produce the depletion mode and positive values produce the enhancement mode. The enhancement MOSFET (E-MOSFET) has no physical channel. A channel is induced in an E-MOSFET by the application of a VGS greater than the threshold value, VGS(th). An E-MOSFET has no IDSS parameter. It is extremely small, if specified (ideally 0). An n-channel E-MOSFET has a positive VGS(th). A p-channel E-MOSFET has a negative VGS(th). The transfer characteristic curve for a D-MOSFET intersects the vertical ID axis. The transfer characteristic curve for an E-MOSFET does not intersect the vertical ID axis. All MOS devices are subject to damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD). Midpoint bias for a D-MOSFET is ID = IDSS obtained by setting VGS = 0. The gate of a zero-biased D-MOSFET is at 0 V due to a large resistor to ground. An E-MOSFET must have a VGS greater than the threshold value. An open gate is hard to detect in a zero-biased D-MOSFET because the gate is normally at 0 V; however, erratic behavior may occur. An open gate is easy to detect in an E-MOSFET because the gate is normally at a voltage other than 0 V.

Chapter 9 Summary (FET Amplifiers and Switching Circuits)
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The transconductance, gm, of a FET relates the output current, Id, to the input voltage, Vgs. The voltage gain of a common-source amplifier is determined largely by the transconductance, gm, and the drain resistance, Rd. The internal drain-to-source resistance, r′ds, of a FET influences (reduces) the gain if it is not sufficiently greater than Rd so that it can be neglected. An unbypassed resistance between source and ground (RS) reduces the voltage gain of a FET amplifier. A load resistance connected to the drain of a common-source amplifier reduces the voltage gain. There is a 180º phase inversion between gate and drain voltages. The input resistance at the gate of a FET is extremely high. The voltage gain of a common-drain amplifier (source-follower) is always slightly less than 1. There is no phase inversion between gate and source in a source-follower. The input resistance of a common-gate amplifier is the reciprocal of gm. The class D amplifier is a nonlinear amplifier because the transistors operate as switches. The class D uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to represent the input signal.

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A low-pass filter converts the PWM signal back to the original input signal. The efficiency of a class D amplifier approaches 100%. An analog switch passes or blocks an analog signal when turned on or off by a digital control input. A sampling circuit is an analog switch that is turned on for short time intervals to allow a sufficient number of discrete input signal values to appear on the output so that the input signal can be accurately represented by those discrete values. An analog multiplexer consists of two or more analog switches that connect sampled portions of their analog input signals to a single output in a time sequence. Switched capacitors are used to emulate resistance in programmable IC analog arrays. Complementary MOS (CMOS) is used in low-power digital switching circuits. CMOS uses an n-channel MOSFET and a p-channel MOSFET connected in series. The inverter, NAND gate, and NOR gate are examples of digital logic circuits.

Chapter 10 Summary (Amplifier Frequency Response)
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The coupling and bypass capacitors of an amplifier affect the low-frequency response. The internal transistor capacitances affect the high-frequency response. The decibel is a logarithmic unit of measurement for power gain and voltage gain. A decrease in voltage gain to 70.7% of midrange value is a reduction of 3 dB. A halving of the voltage gain corresponds to a reduction of 6 dB. The dBm is a unit for measuring power levels referenced to 1 mW. Critical frequencies are values of frequency at which the RC circuits reduce the voltage gain to 70.7% of its midrange value. Each RC circuit causes the gain to drop at a rate of 20 dB/decade. For the low-frequency RC circuits, the highest critical frequency is the dominant critical frequency. For the high-frequency RC circuits, the lowest critical frequency is the dominant critical frequency. A decade of frequency change is a ten-times change (increase or decrease). An octave of frequency change is a two-times change (increase or decrease). The bandwidth of an amplifier is the range of frequencies between the lower critical frequency and the upper critical frequency. The gain-bandwidth product is a transistor parameter that is constant and equal to the unitygain frequency. The dominant critical frequencies of a multistage amplifier establish the bandwidth. Two measurement methods are frequency/amplitude and frequency response and step.

Chapter 11 Summary (Thyristors)
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Thyristors are devices constructed with four semiconductor layers (pnpn). Thyristors include 4-layer diodes, SCRs, diacs, triacs, SCSs, and PUTs. The 4-layer diode is a thyristor that conducts when the voltage across its terminals exceeds the breakover potential. The silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) can be triggered on by a pulse at the gate and turned off by reducing the anode current below the specified holding value.

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Light acts as the trigger source in light-activated SCRs (LASCRs). The diac can conduct current in either direction and is turned on when a breakover voltage is exceeded. It turns off when the current drops below the holding value. The triac, like the diac, is a bidirectional device. It can be turned on by a pulse at the gate and conducts in a direction depending on the voltage polarity across the two anode terminals. The silicon-controlled switch (SCS) has two gate terminals and can be turned on by a pulse at the cathode gate and turned off by a pulse at the anode gate. The intrinsic standoff ratio of a unijunction transistor (UJT) determines the voltage at which the device will trigger on. The programmable unijunction transistor (PUT) can be externally programmed to turn on at a desired anode-to-gate voltage level.

Chapter 12 Summary (Operational Amplifier)
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The basic op-amp has three terminals not including power and ground: inverting (-) input, noninverting (+) input, and output. A differential amplifier forms the input stage of an op-amp. Most op-amps require both a positive and a negative dc supply voltage. The ideal op-amp has infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, infinite open-loop voltage gain, infinite bandwidth, and infinite CMRR. A practical op-amp has very high input impedance, very low output impedance, very high open-loop voltage gain, and a wide bandwidth. Two types of op-amp input operation are the differential mode and the common mode. Common-mode occurs when equal in-phase voltages are applied to both input terminals. The common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) is a measure of an op-amp's ability to reject common-mode inputs. Input offset voltage produces an output error voltage (with no input voltage). Slew rate is the rate in volts per microsecond at which the output voltage of an op-amp can change in response to a step input. Input bias current also produces an output error voltage (with no input voltage). Input offset current is the difference between the two bias currents. Negative feedback occurs when a portion of the output voltage is connected back to the inverting input such that it subtracts from the input voltage, thus reducing the voltage gain but increasing the stability and bandwidth. There are three basic op-amp configurations: inverting, noninverting, and voltage-follower. The three basic op-amp configurations employ negative feedback. Open-loop voltage gain is the gain of an op-amp with no external feedback connections. Closed-loop voltage gain is the gain of an op-amp with external feedback. A noninverting amplifier configuration has a higher input impedance and a lower output impedance than the op-amp itself (without feedback). An inverting amplifier configuration has an input impedance approximately equal to the input resistor Ri and an output impedance approximately equal to the output impedance of the opamp itself. The voltage-follower has the highest input impedance and the lowest output impedance of the three amplifier configurations.

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All practical op-amps have small input bias currents and input offset voltages that produce small output error voltages. The input bias current effect can be compensated for with external resistors. The input offset voltage can be compensated for with an external potentiometer between the two offset null pins provided on the IC op-amp package and as recommended by the manufacturer. The closed-loop voltage gain is always less than the open-loop voltage gain. The midrange gain of an op-amp extends down to dc. The gain of an op-amp decreases as frequency increases above the critical frequency. The bandwidth of an op-amp equals the upper critical frequency. The open loop response curve of a compensated op-amp rolls off at –20 dB/decade above fc. The internal RC lag circuits that are inherently part of the amplifier stages cause the gain to roll off as frequency goes up. The internal RC lag circuits also cause a phase shift between input and output signals. Negative feedback lowers the gain and increases the bandwidth. The product of gain and bandwidth is constant for a given op-amp. The gain-bandwidth product equals the frequency at which unity voltage gain occurs.

Chapter 13 Summary (Basic OP-AMP Circuits)
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In an op-amp comparator, when the input voltage exceeds a specified reference voltage, the output changes state. Hysteresis gives an op-amp noise immunity. A comparator switches to one state when the input reaches the upper trigger point (UTP) and back to the other state when the input drops below the lower trigger point (LTP). The difference between the UTP and the LTP is the hysteresis voltage. Bounding limits the output amplitude of a comparator. The output voltage of a summing amplifier is proportional to the sum of the input voltages. An averaging amplifier is a summing amplifier with a closed-loop gain equal to the reciprocal of the number of inputs. In a scaling adder, a different weight can be assigned to each input, thus making the input contribute more or contribute less to the output. Integration is a mathematical process for determining the area under a curve. Integration of a step produces a ramp with a slope proportional to the amplitude. Differentiation is a mathematical process for determining the rate of change of a function. Differentiation of a ramp produces a step with an amplitude proportional to the slope.

Chapter 14 Summary (Special Purpose OP-AMP Circuits)
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A basic instrumentation amplifier is formed by three op-amps and seven resistors, including the gain-setting resistor RG. An instrumentation amplifier has high input impedance, high CMRR, low output offset, and low output impedance. The voltage gain of a basic instrumentation amplifier is set by a single external resistor. An instrumentation amplifier is useful in applications where small signals are embedded in large common-mode noise.

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A basic isolation amplifier has three electrically isolated parts: input, output, and power. Most isolation amplifiers use transformer coupling for isolation. Isolation amplifiers are used to interface sensitive equipment with high-voltage environments and to provide protection from electrical shock in certain medical applications. The operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is a voltage-to-current amplifier. The output current of an OTA is the input voltage times the transconductance. In an OTA, transconductance varies with bias current; therefore, the gain of an OTA can be varied with a bias voltage or a variable resistor. The operation of log and antilog amplifiers is based on the nonlinear (logarithmic) characteristics of a pn junction. A log amplifier has a pn junction in the feedback loop, and an antilog amplifier has a pn junction in series with the input. A constant-current source delivers the same load current regardless of load resistance (within limits). In a peak detector, an op-amp is used as a comparator to charge a capacitor through a diode to the peak value of the input voltage. It is useful in measuring peak voltage surges.

Chapter 15 Summary (Active Filters)
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The bandwidth in a low-pass filter equals the critical frequency because the response extends to 0 Hz. The bandwidth in a high-pass filter extends above the critical frequency and is limited only by the inherent frequency limitation of the active circuit. A band-pass filter passes all frequencies within a band between a lower and an upper critical frequency and rejects all others outside this band. The bandwidth of a band-pass filter is the difference between the upper critical frequency and the lower critical frequency. A band-stop filter rejects all frequencies within a specified band and passes all those outside this band. Filters with the Butterworth response characteristic have a very flat response in the passband, exhibit a roll-off of –20 dB/decade/pole, and are used when all the frequencies in the passband must have the same gain. Filters with the Chebyshev characteristic have ripples or overshoot in the passband and exhibit a faster roll-off per pole than filters with the Butterworth characteristic. Filters with the Bessel characteristic are used for filtering pulse waveforms. Their linear phase characteristic results in minimal waveshape distortion. The roll-off rate per pole is slower than for the Butterworth. In filter terminology, a single RC circuit is called a pole. Each pole in a Butterworth filter causes the output to roll off at a rate of –20 dB/decade. The quality factor Q of a band-pass filter determines the filter's selectivity. The higher the Q, the narrower the bandwidth and the better the selectivity. The damping factor determines the filter response characteristic (Butterworth, Chebyshev, or Bessel). Single-pole low-pass filters have a –20 dB/decade roll-off. The Sallen-Key low-pass filter has two poles (second order) and has a –40 dB/decade roll-off. Each additional filter in a cascaded arrangement adds –20 dB to the roll-off rate.

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Single-pole high-pass filters have a –20 dB/decade roll-off. The Sallen-Key high-pass filter has two poles (second order) and has a –40 dB/decade rolloff. Each additional filter in a cascaded arrangement adds –20 dB to the roll-off rate. The response of an active high-pass filter is limited by the internal op-amp roll-off. Band-pass filters pass a specified band of frequencies. A band-pass filter can be achieved by cascading a low-pass and a high-pass filter. The multiple-feedback band-pass filter uses two feedback paths to achieve its response characteristic. The state-variable band-pass filter uses a summing amplifier and two integrators. The biquad filter consists of an integrator followed by an inverting amplifier and a second integrator. Band-stop filters reject a specified band of frequencies. Multiple-feedback and state-variable are common types of band-stop filters. Filter response can be measured using discrete point measurement or swept frequency measurement.

Chapter 16 Summary (Oscillators)
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Sinusoidal feedback oscillators operate with positive feedback. Relaxation oscillators use an RC timing circuit. The two conditions for positive feedback are the phase shift around the feedback loop must be 0º and the voltage gain around the feedback loop must equal 1. For initial start-up, the voltage gain around the feedback loop must be greater than 1. Sinusoidal RC oscillators include the Wien-bridge, phase-shift, and twin-T. Sinusoidal LC oscillators include the Colpitts, Clapp, Hartley, Armstrong, and crystalcontrolled. The feedback signal in a Colpitts oscillator is derived from a capacitive voltage divider in the LC circuit. The Clapp oscillator is a variation of the Colpitts with a capacitor added in series with the inductor. The feedback signal in a Hartley oscillator is derived from an inductive voltage divider in the LC circuit. The feedback signal in an Armstrong oscillator is derived by transformer coupling. Crystal oscillators are the most stable type. A relaxation oscillator uses an RC timing circuit and a device that changes states to generate a periodic waveform. The frequency in a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) can be varied with a dc control voltage. The 555 timer is an integrated circuit that can be used as an oscillator, in addition to many other applications.

Chapter 17 Summary (Voltage Regulators)
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Voltage regulators keep a constant dc output voltage when the input or load varies within limits. Line regulation is the percentage change in the output voltage for a given change in the input voltage of a regulator. Load regulation is the percentage change in output voltage for a given change in load current. A basic voltage regulator consists of a reference voltage source, an error detector, a sampling element, and a control device. Protection circuitry is also found in most regulators. Two basic categories of voltage regulators are linear and switching. Two basic types of linear regulators are series and shunt. In a series linear regulator, the control element is a transistor in series with the load. In a shunt linear regulator, the control element is a transistor in parallel with the load. Three configurations for switching regulators are step-down, step-up, and inverting. Switching regulators are more efficient than linear regulators and are particularly useful in low-voltage, high-current applications. Three-terminal linear IC regulators are available for either fixed output or variable output voltages of positive or negative polarities. An external pass transistor increases the current capability of a regulator. The 7800 series are three-terminal IC regulators with fixed positive output voltage. The 7900 series are three-terminal IC regulators with fixed negative output voltage. The LM317 is a three-terminal IC regulator with a positive variable output voltage. The LM337 is a three-terminal IC regulator with a negative variable output voltage. The 78S40 is a switching voltage regulator.

Chapter 18 Summary (Communications Basic Concepts)
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In amplitude modulation (AM), the amplitude of a higher-frequency carrier signal is varied by a lower-frequency modulating signal (usually an audio signal). A basic superheterodyne AM receiver consists of an RF amplifier (not always), a mixer, a local oscillator, an IF (intermediate frequency) amplifier, an AM detector, and audio and power amplifiers. The IF in a standard AM receiver is 455 kHz. The AGC (automatic gain control) in a receiver tends to keep the signal strength constant within the receiver to compensate for variations in the received signal. In frequency modulation (FM), the frequency of a carrier signal is varied by a modulating signal. A superheterodyne FM receiver is basically the same as an AM receiver except that it requires a limiter to keep the IF amplitude constant, a different kind of detector or discriminator, and a de-emphasis network. The IF is 10.7 MHz. A four-quadrant linear multiplier can handle any combination of voltage polarities on its inputs. The output of a linear multiplier is the product of the two inputs and a scale factor. Amplitude modulation is basically a multiplication process. The multiplication of sinusoidal signals produces sum and difference frequencies.

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The output spectrum of a balanced modulator includes upper-side and lower-side frequencies, but no carrier frequency. The output spectrum of a standard amplitude modulator includes upper-side and lower-side frequencies and the carrier frequency. A linear multiplier is used as the mixer in receiver systems. A mixer converts the RF signal down to the IF signal. The radio frequency varies over the AM or FM band. The intermediate frequency is constant. One type of AM demodulator consists of a multiplier followed by a low-pass filter. The audio and power amplifiers boost the output of the detector or discriminator and drive the speaker. A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) produces an output frequency that can be varied by a control voltage. Its operation is based on a variable reactance. A VCO is a basic frequency modulator when the modulating signal is applied to the control voltage input. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is a feedback circuit consisting of a phase detector, a low-pass filter, a VCO, and sometimes an amplifier. The purpose of a PLL is to lock onto and track incoming frequencies. A linear multiplier can be used as a phase detector. A modem is a modulator/demodulator. Fiber optics provides a light path from a light-emitting device to a light-activated device. The three basic parts of a fiber-optic cable are the core, the cladding, and the jacket. Light rays must bounce off the core boundary at an angle (angle of incidence) greater than the critical angle in order to be reflected. Light rays that strike the core boundary at an angle less than the critical angle are refracted into the cladding, resulting in attenuation of light. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. Three types of fiber-optic cable are multimode step index, single-mode step index, and multimode graded index.

Edited And Done By: Panganiban, Oliver Bermas Reviewee – PERCDC Espana,Sampaloc Manila “ You can’t achieve if don’t believe you can make happen” ”AHOO AHOO Go Iskul Bukolz!!”

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