The Centrifugal Pump

GRUNDFOS
RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY
The Centrifugal Pump
5
All rights reserved.
Mechanical, electronic, photographic or other reproduction or copying from this book or parts
of it are according to the present Danish copyright law not allowed without written permission
from or agreement with GRUNDFOS Management A/S.
GRUNDFOS Management A/S cannot be held responsible for the correctness of the information
given in the book. Usage of information is at your own responsibility.
6
Preface
In the Department of Structural and Fluid Mechanics
we are happy to present the frst English edition of the
book: ’The Centrifugal Pump’. We have written the book
because we want to share our knowledge of pump hy-
draulics, pump design and the basic pump terms which
we use in our daily work.
’The Centrifugal Pump’ is primarily meant as an inter-
nal book and is aimed at technicians who work with
development and construction of pump components.
Furthermore, the book aims at our future colleagues,
students at universities and engineering colleges, who
can use the book as a reference and source of inspira-
tion in their studies. Our intention has been to write
an introductory book that gives an overview of the hy-
draulic components in the pump and at the same time
enables technicians to see how changes in construc-
tion and operation infuence the pump performance.
In chapter 1, we introduce the principle of the centrifu-
gal pump as well as its hydraulic components, and we
list the diferent types of pumps produced by Grundfos.
Chapter 2 describes how to read and understand the
pump performance based on the curves for head, pow-
er, efciency and NPSH.
In chapter 3 you can read about how to adjust the
pump’s performance when it is in operation in a system.
The theoretical basis for energy conversion in a centrifu-
gal pump is introduced in chapter 4, and we go through
how afnity rules are used for scaling the performance
of pump impellers. In chapter 5, we describe the difer-
ent types of losses which occur in the pump, and how
the losses afect fow, head and power consumption. In
the book’s last chapter, chapter 6, we go trough the test
types which Grundfos continuously carries out on both
assembled pumps and pump components to ensure
that the pump has the desired performance.
The entire department has been involved in the devel-
opment of the book. Through a longer period of time we
have discussed the idea, the contents and the structure
and collected source material. The framework of the
Danish book was made after some intensive working
days at ‘Himmelbjerget’. The result of the department’s
engagement and efort through several years is the book
which you are holding.
We hope that you will fnd ‘The Centrifugal Pump’ use-
ful, and that you will use it as a book of reference in you
daily work.
Enjoy!
Christian Brix Jacobsen
Department Head, Structural and Fluid Mechanics, R&T
7
Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps ...............11
1.1 Principle of centrifugal pumps .......................................12
1.2 The pump’s hydraulic components ............................13
1.2.1 Inlet fange and inlet ............................................14
1.2.2 Impeller .......................................................................... 15
1.2.3 Coupling and drive ................................................. 17
1.2.4 Impeller seal ...............................................................18
1.2.5 Cavities and axial bearing ............................... 19
1.2.6 Volute casing, difuser and
outlet fange ...............................................................21
1.2.7 Return channel and outer sleeve .................23
1.3 Pump types and systems ................................................... 24
1.3.1 The UP pump .............................................................25
1.3.2 The TP pump ..............................................................25
1.3.3 The NB pump .............................................................25
1.3.4 The MQ pump ...........................................................25
1.3.5 The SP pump ............................................................. 26
1.3.6 The CR pump ............................................................. 26
1.3.7 The MTA pump ........................................................ 26
1.3.8 The SE pump...............................................................27
1.3.9 The SEG pump ...........................................................27
1.4 Summary .............................................................................................27
Chapter 2. Performance curves ............................................29
2.1 Standard curves ...................................................................... 30
2.2 Pressure ..........................................................................................32
2.3 Absolute and relative pressure ......................................33
2.4 Head ............................................................................................ 34
2.5 Diferential pressure across the pump ....................35
2.5.1 Total pressure diference .................................35
2.5.2 Static pressure diference .................................35
2.5.3 Dynamic pressure diference ..........................35
2.5.4 Geodetic pressure diference ........................ 36
2.6 Energy equation for an ideal fow ................................37
2.7 Power .............................................................................................. 38
2.7.1 Speed .............................................................................. 38
2.8 Hydraulic power ...................................................................... 38
2.9 Efciency ....................................................................................... 39
2.10 NPSH, Net Positive Suction Head ................................ 40
2.11 Axial thrust.................................................................................. 44
2.12 Radial thrust ............................................................................... 44
2.13 Summary .......................................................................................45
Chapter 3. Pumps operating in systems ........................... 47
3.1 Single pump in a system.................................................... 49
3.2 Pumps operated in parallel .............................................. 50
3.3 Pumps operated in series ................................................... 51
3.4 Regulation of pumps ............................................................. 51
3.4.1 Throttle regulation ................................................52
3.4.2 Regulation with bypass valve ........................52
3.4.3 Start/stop regulation ...........................................53
3.4.4 Regulation of speed ..............................................53
3.5 Annual energy consumption ......................................... 56
3.6 Energy efciency index (EEI)............................................. 57
3.7 Summary ...................................................................................... 58
Chapter 4. Pump theory ......................................................... 59
4.1 Velocity triangles ....................................................................60
4.1.1 Inlet ................................................................................. 62
4.1.2 Outlet ............................................................................. 63
4.2 Euler’s pump equation ........................................................ 64
4.3 Blade shape and pump curve ......................................... 66
8
4.4 Usage of Euler’s pump equation .................................... 67
4.5 Afnity rules ............................................................................... 68
4.5.1 Derivation of afnity rules .............................. 70
4.6 Pre-rotation .................................................................................72
4.7 Slip ......................................................................................................73
4.8 The pump’s specifc speed .................................................74
4.9 Summary ....................................................................................... 75
Chapter 5. Pump losses ............................................................ 77
5.1 Loss types ......................................................................................78
5.2 Mechanical losses ................................................................... 80
5.2.1 Bearing loss and shaft seal loss ................... 80
5.3 Hydraulic losses ....................................................................... 80
5.3.1 Flow friction................................................................81
5.3.2 Mixing loss at
cross-section expansion ............................ 86
5.3.3 Mixing loss at
cross-section reduction ......................................87
5.3.4 Recirculation loss ................................................... 89
5.3.5 Incidence loss ...........................................................90
5.3.6 Disc friction ................................................................ 91
5.3.7 Leakage ......................................................................... 92
5.4 Loss distribution as function of
specifc speed ............................................................................ 95
5.5 Summary ...................................................................................... 95
Chapter 6. Pumps tests ................................................ 97
6.1 Test types ..................................................................................... 98
6.2 Measuring pump performance .....................................99
6.2.1 Flow ............................................................................... 100
6.2.2 Pressure ....................................................... 100
6.2.3 Temperature ........................................................... 101

6.2.4 Calculation of head ............................................ 102
6.2.5 General calculation of head ....................103
6.2.6 Power consumption ........................................... 104
6.2.7 Rotational speed .................................................. 104
6.3 Measurement of the pump’s NPSH ......................... 105
6.3.1 NPSH
3%
test by lowering the
inlet pressure .............................................. 106
6.3.2 NPSH
3%
test by increasing the fow .......... 107
6.3.3 Test beds .................................................................... 107
6.3.4 Water quality .......................................................... 108
6.3.5 Vapour pressure and density....................... 108
6.3.6 Reference plane .................................................... 108
6.3.7 Barometric pressure .......................................... 109
6.3.8 Calculation of NPSH
A
and determination
of NPSH
3%
................................................................... 109
6.4 Measurement of force ...................................................... 109
6.4.1 Measuring system ............................................... 110
6.4.2 Execution of force measurement .............. 111
6.5 Uncertainty in measurement of performance .. 111
6.5.1 Standard demands for uncertainties ...... 111
6.5.2 Overall uncertainty ..............................................112
6.5.3 Test bed uncertainty ..........................................112
6.6 Summary .....................................................................................112
Appendix ...................................................................................... 113
A. Units ........................................................................................................114
B. Control of test results .................................................................. 117
Bibliography ...........................................................................................122
Standards...................................................................................................123
Index ........................................................................................................... 124
Substance values for water .......................................................... 131
List of Symbols .......................................................................................132

9
10
Chapter 1
Introduction to
centrifugal pumps
1.1 Principle of the centrifugal pump
1.2 Hydraulic components
1.3 Pump types and systems
1.4 Summary
Outlet Impeller Inlet
12 12
Outlet Impeller Inlet
Direction of rotation
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
In this chapter, we introduce the components in the centrifugal pump and
a range of the pump types produced by Grundfos. This chapter provides the
reader with a basic understanding of the principles of the centrifugal pump
and pump terminology.
The centrifugal pump is the most used pump type in the world. The principle
is simple, well-described and thoroughly tested, and the pump is robust, ef-
fective and relatively inexpensive to produce. There is a wide range of vari-
ations based on the principle of the centrifugal pump and consisting of the
same basic hydraulic parts. The majority of pumps produced by Grundfos
are centrifugal pumps.
1.1 Principle of the centrifugal pump
An increase in the fuid pressure from the pump inlet to its outlet is cre-
ated when the pump is in operation. This pressure diference drives the fuid
through the system or plant.
The centrifugal pump creates an increase in pressure by transferring me-
chanical energy from the motor to the fuid through the rotating impeller.
The fuid fows from the inlet to the impeller centre and out along its blades.
The centrifugal force hereby increases the fuid velocity and consequently
also the kinetic energy is transformed to pressure. Figure 1.1 shows an ex-
ample of the fuid path through the centrifugal pump.
Figure 1.1: Fluid path through
the centrifugal pump.
Impeller
blade
13 13
1.2 Hydraulic components
The principles of the hydraulic components are common for most centrifu-
gal pumps. The hydraulic components are the parts in contact with the fuid.
Figure 1.2 shows the hydraulic components in a single-stage inline pump.
The subsequent sections describe the components from the inlet fange to
the outlet fange.
Figure 1.2: Hydraulic
components. Motor
Difuser
Outlet fange
Cavity above impeller
Cavity below impeller
Impeller seal
Inlet fange
Volute
Inlet
Shaft
Coupling
Pump housing Impeller
Shaft seal
Impeller Inlet
14 14
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
1.2.1 Inlet fange and inlet
The pump is connected to the piping system through its
inlet and outlet fanges. The design of the fanges depends
on the pump application. Some pump types have no inlet
fange because the inlet is not mounted on a pipe but sub-
merged directly in the fuid.
The inlet guides the fuid to the impeller eye. The design of
the inlet depends on the pump type. The four most com-
mon types of inlets are inline, endsuction, doublesuction
and inlet for submersible pumps, see fgure 1.3.
Inline pumps are constructed to be mounted on a straight
pipe – hence the name inline. The inlet section leads the
fuid into the impeller eye.
Endsuction pumps have a very short and straight inlet sec-
tion because the impeller eye is placed in continuation of
the inlet fange.

The impeller in doublesuction pumps has two impeller eyes.
The inlet splits in two and leads the fuid from the inlet
fange to both impeller eyes. This design minimises the axial
force, see section 1.2.5.
In submersible pumps, the motor is often placed below the
hydraulic parts with the inlet placed in the mid section of
the pump, see fgure 1.3. The design prevents hydraulic los-
ses related to leading the fuid along the motor. In addition,
the motor is cooled due to submersion in the fuid.
Figure 1.3: Inlet for inline, endsuction, doublesuction and submersible pump.
Inline pump Endsuction pump Doublesuction pump Submersible pump
Impeller Inlet Impeller Inlet
Impeller Inlet
15 15
Figure 1.4: Velocity distribution in inlet.
Hub plate Hub
Trailing edge
Shroud plate
Leading edge
Impeller channel
(blue area)
Impeller blade
The impeller’s direction of
rotation
 Tangential direction
 Radial direction
 Axial direction
The impeller’s direction of rotation
Figure 1.5: The impeller components, defnitions of directions and fow relatively to the impeller.
The design of the inlet aims at creating a uniform velocity profle into the
impeller since this leads to the best performance. Figure 1.4 shows an example of
the velocity distribution at diferent cross-sections in the inlet.
1.2.2 Impeller
The blades of the rotating impeller transfer energy to the fuid there by
increasing pressure and velocity. The fuid is sucked into the impeller at the
impeller eye and fows through the impeller channels formed by the blades
between the shroud and hub, see fgure 1.5.
The design of the impeller depends on the requirements for pressure, fow
and application. The impeller is the primary component determining the
pump performance. Pumps variants are often created only by modifying
the impeller.
16 16
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
The impeller’s ability to increase pressure and create fow depends mainly
on whether the fuid runs radially or axially through the impeller,
see fgure 1.6.
In a radial impeller, there is a signifcant diference between the inlet
diameter and the outlet diameter and also between the outlet diameter
and the outlet width, which is the channel height at the impeller exit. In
this construction, the centrifugal forces result in high pressure and low
fow. Relatively low pressure and high fow are, on the contrary, found in an
axial impeller with a no change in radial direction and large outlet width.
Semiaxial impellers are used when a trade-of between pressure rise and fow
is required.
The impeller has a number of impeller blades. The number mainly depends
on the desired performance and noise constraints as well as the amount and
size of solid particles in the fuid. Impellers with 5-10 channels has proven to
give the best efciency and is used for fuid without solid particles. One, two
or three channel impellers are used for fuids with particles such as waste-
water. The leading edge of such impellers is designed to minimise the risk
of particles blocking the impeller. One, two and three channel impellers can
handle particles of a certain size passing through the impeller. Figure 1.7
shows a one channel pump.
Impellers without a shroud are called open impellers. Open impellers are
used where it is necessary to clean the impeller and where there is risk of
blocking. A vortex pump with an open impeller is used in waste water ap-
plication. In this type of pump, the impeller creates a fow resembling the
vortex in a tornado, see fgure 1.8. The vortex pump has a low efciency
compared to pumps with a shroud and impeller seal.
After the basic shape of the impeller has been decided, the design of the
impeller is a question of fnding a compromise between friction loss and loss
as a concequence of non uniform velocity profles. Generally, uniform velocity
profles can be achieved by extending the impeller blades but this results in
increased wall friction.
Figure 1.6: Radial, semiaxial and
axial impeller.
Figure 1.8: Vortex pump.
Radial impeller Semiaxial impeller Axial impeller
Figure 1.7: One channel pump.
17 17
1.2.3 Coupling and drive
The impeller is usually driven by an electric motor. The coupling between motor
and hydraulics is a weak point because it is difcult to seal a rotating shaft. In
connection with the coupling, distinction is made between two types of pumps:
Dry-runner pumps and canned rotor type pump. The advantage of the dry-runner
pump compared to the canned rotor type pump is the use of standardized motors.
The disadvantage is the sealing between the motor and impeller.
In the dry runner pump the motor and the fuid are separated either by a shaft
seal, a separation with long shaft or a magnetic coupling.
In a pump with a shaft seal, the fuid and the motor are separated by seal rings, see
fgure 1.9. Mechanical shaft seals are maintenance-free and have a smaller leakage
than stufng boxes with compressed packing material. The lifetime of mechanical
shaft seals depends on liquid, pressure and temperature.
If motor and fuid are separated by a long shaft, then the two parts will not get
in contact then the shaft seal can be left out, see fgure 1.10. This solution has
limited mounting options because the motor must be placed higher than the
hydraulic parts and the fuid surface in the system. Furthermore the solution
results in a lower efciency because of the leak fow through the clearance be-
tween the shaft and the pump housing and because of the friction between the
fuid and the shaft.
Figure 1.9: Dry-runner with shaft seal.
Motor Shaft seal
Figure 1.10: Dry-runner with long shaft.
Exterior magnets on
the motor shaft
Inner magnets on
the impeller shaft
Rotor can
Motor cup
Motor
Motor shaft
Motor cup
Rotor can
Impeller shaft
Inner magnets
Exterior magnets
Figure 1.11: Dry-runner with magnet drive.
Motor
Long shaft
Hydraulics
Water level
18 18
Inlet Outlet Leak fow Gap
In pumps with a magnetic drive, the motor and the fuid are separated by
a non-magnetizable rotor can which eliminates the problem of sealing a
rotating shaft. On this type of pump, the impeller shaft has a line of fxed
magnets called the inner magnets. The motor shaft ends in a cup where the
outer magnets are mounted on the inside of the cup, see fgure 1.11. The
rotor can is fxed in the pump housing between the impeller shaft and the
cup. The impeller shaft and the motor shaft rotate, and the two parts are
connected through the magnets. The main advantage of this design is that
the pump is hermitically sealed but the coupling is expensive to produce.
This type of sealing is therefore only used when it is required that the pump
is hermetically sealed.
In pumps with a rotor can, the rotor and impeller are separated from the
motor stator. As shown in fgure 1.12, the rotor is surrounded by the fuid
which lubricates the bearings and cools the motor. The fuid around the ro-
tor results in friction between rotor and rotor can which reduces the pump
efciency.
1.2.4 Impeller seal
A leak fow will occur in the gap between the rotating impeller and stationary
pump housing when the pump is operating. The rate of leak fow depends
mainly on the design of the gap and the impeller pressure rise. The leak fow
returns to the impeller eye through the gap, see fgure 1.13. Thus, the impel-
ler has to pump both the leak fow and the fuid through the pump from the
inlet fange to the outlet fange. To minimise leak fow, an impeller seal is
mounted.
The impeller seal comes in various designs and material combinations. The
seal is typically turned directly in the pump housing or made as retroftted
rings. Impeller seals can also be made with foating seal rings. Furthermore,
there are a range of sealings with rubber rings in particular well-suited for
handling fuids with abrasive particles such as sand.
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
Figure 1.12: Canned rotor type pump.
Impeller seal
Figure 1.13: Leak fow through the gap.
Fluid
Rotor
Stator
Rotor can
Outlet
Impeller
Inlet
Bearings
19 19
Primary fow
Achieving an optimal balance between leakage and friction is an essential
goal when designing an impeller seal. A small gap limits the leak fow but
increases the friction and risk of drag and noise. A small gap also increases
requirements to machining precision and assembling resulting in higher
production costs. To achieve optimal balance between leakage and friction,
the pump type and size must be taken into consideration.
1.2.5 Cavities and axial bearing
The volume of the cavities depends on the design of the impeller and the
pump housing, and they afect the fow around the impeller and the pump’s
ability to handle sand and air.
The impeller rotation creates two types of fows in the cavities: Primary
fows and secondary fows. Primary fows are vorticies rotating with the
impeller in the cavities above and below the impeller, see fgure 1.14.
Secondary fows are substantially weaker than the primary fows.
Primary and secondary fows infuence the pressure distribution on the
outside of the impeller hub and shroud afecting the axial thrust. The axial
thrust is the sum of all forces in the axial direction arising due to the pres-
sure condition in the pump. The main force contribution comes from the
rise in pressure caused by the impeller. The impeller eye is afected by the
inlet pressure while the outer surfaces of the hub and shroud are afected
by the outlet pressure, see fgure 1.15. The end of the shaft is exposed to the
atmospheric pressure while the other end is afected by the system pres-
sure. The pressure is increasing from the center of the shaft and outwards.

Figure 1.14: Primary and secondary fows
in the cavities.
Cavity above impeller Cavity below impeller
Secondary fow
20 20
The axial bearing absorbs the entire axial thrust and is therefore exposed to
the forces afecting the impeller.
The impeller must be axially balanced if it is not possible to absorb the entire
axial thrust in the axial bearing. There are several possibilities of reducing
the thrust on the shaft and thereby balance the axial bearing. All axial
balancing methods result in hydraulic losses.
One approach to balance the axial forces is to make small holes in the hub
plate, see fgure 1.16. The leak fow through the holes infuences the fow
in the cavities above the impeller and thereby reduces the axial force but it
results in leakage.
Another approach to reduce the axial thrust is to combine balancing holes
with an impeller seal on the hub plate, see fgure 1.17. This reduces the pres-
sure in the cavity between the shaft and the impeller seal and a better bal-
ance can be achieved. The impeller seal causes extra friction but smaller
leak fow through the balancing holes compared to the solution without the
impeller seal.
A third method of balancing the axial forces is to mount blades on the back
of the impeller, see fgure 1.18. Like the two previous solutions, this method
changes the velocities in the fow at the hub plate whereby the pressure
distribution is changed proportionally. However, the additional blades use
power without contributing to the pump performance. The construction
will therefore reduce the efciency.
Atmospheric pressure Outlet pressure
Figure 1.16: Axial thrust reduction using
balancing holes.
Figure 1.17: Axial thrust reduction using impel-
ler seal and balancing holes.
Figure 1.15: Pressure forces which cause
axial thrust.
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
Axial thrust
Outlet pressure
Inlet pressure
Axial balancing hole Impeller seal
Axial balancing hole
21 21
Large cross-section:
Low velocity, high static
pressure, low dynamic
pressure
Small cross-section:
High velocity, low static
pressure, high dynamic pressure
A fourth method to balance the axial thrust is to mount fns on the pump
housing in the cavity below the impeller, see fgure 1.19. In this case, the pri-
mary fow velocity in the cavity below the impeller is reduced whereby the
pressure increases on the shroud. This type of axial balancing increases disc
friction and leak loss because of the higher pressure.
1.2.6 Volute casing, difuser and outlet fange
The volute casing collects the fuid from the impeller and leads into the
outlet fange. The volute casing converts the dynamic pressure rise in the
impeller to static pressure. The velocity is gradually reduced when the cross-
sectional area of the fuid fow is increased. This transformation is called
velocity difusion. An example of difusion is when the fuid velocity in a pipe
is reduced because of the transition from a small cross-sectional area to a
large cross-sectional area, see fgure 1.20. Static pressure, dynamic pressure
and difusion are elaborated in sections 2.2, 2.3 and 5.3.2.
Figure 1.18: Axial thrust reduction through
blades on the back of the hub plate.
Figure 1.19: Axial thrust reduction using fns
in the pump housing.
Difusion
Blades
Fins
Figure 1.20: Change of fuid velocity
in a pipe caused by change
in the cross-section area.
22 22
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
The volute casing consists of three main components:
Ring difusor, volute and outlet difusor, see fgure 1.21.
An energy conversion between velocity and pressure oc-
curs in each of the three components.
The primary ring difusor function is to guide the fuid
from the impeller to the volute. The cross-section area in
the ring difussor is increased because of the increase in
diameter from the impeller to the volute. Blades can be
placed in the ring difusor to increase the difusion.
The primary task of the volute is to collect the fuid from
the ring difusor and lead it to the difusor. To have the
same pressure along the volute, the cross-section area in
the volute must be increased along the periphery from
the tongue towards the throat. The throat is the place
on the outside of the tongue where the smallest cross-
section area in the outlet difusor is found. The fow con-
ditions in the volute can only be optimal at the design
point. At other fows, radial forces occur on the impeller
because of circumferential pressure variation in the vo-
lute. Radial forces must, like the axial forces, be absorbed
in the bearing, see fgure 1.21.
The outlet difusor connects the throat with the out-
let fange. The difusor increases the static pressure by
a gradual increase of the cross-section area from the
throat to the outlet fange.
The volute casing is designed to convert dynamic pres-
sure to static pressure is achieved while the pressure
losses are minimised. The highest efciency is obtained
by fnding the right balance between changes in velocity
and wall friction. Focus is on the following parameters
when designing the volute casing: The volute diameter,
the cross-section geometry of the volute, design of the
tongue, the throat area and the radial positioning as well
as length, width and curvature of the difusor.

Figure 1.21:
The components of the
volute casing.
Tongue
Volute
Ring difusor
Outlet difusor
Throat
Outlet fange
Radial force vector
Radial force vector
23 23
1.2.7 Return channel and outer sleeve
To increase the pressure rise over the pump, more impellers can be connect-
ed in series. The return channel leads the fuid from one impeller to the next,
see fgure 1.22. An impeller and a return channel are either called a stage or
a chamber. The chambers in a multistage pump are altogether called the
chamber stack.
Besides leading the fuid from one impeller to the next, the return channel
has the same basic function as volute casing: To convert dynamic pressure
to static pressure. The return channel reduces unwanted rotation in the fuid
because such a rotation afects the performance of the subsequent impeller.
The rotation is controlled by guide vanes in the return channel.
In multistage inline pumps the fuid is lead from the top of the chamber
stack to the outlet in the channel formed by the outer part of the chamber
stack and the outer sleeve, see fgure 1.22.
When designing a return channel, the same design considerations of impel-
ler and volute casing apply. Contrary to volute casing, a return channel does
not create radial forces on the impeller because it is axis-symmetric.
Figure 1.22: Hydraulic components in an
inline multistage pump.
Guide vane
Impeller blade
Return channel
Impeller
Annular
outlet
Outer
sleeve
Chamber
Chamber
stack
24 24
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
1.3 Pump types and systems
This section describes a selection of the centrifugal pumps produced by
Grundfos. The pumps are divided in fve overall groups: Circulation pumps,
pumps for pressure boosting and fuid transport, water supply pumps, in-
dustrial pumps and wastewater pumps. Many of the pump types can be
used in diferent applications.
Circulation pumps are primarily used for circulation of water in closed sys-
tems e.g. heating, cooling and airconditioning systems as well as domestic
hot water systems. The water in a domestic hot water system constantly
circulates in the pipes. This prevents a long wait for hot water when the tap
is opened.
Pumps for pressure boosting are used for increasing the pressure of cold wa-
ter and as condensate pumps for steam boilers. The pumps are usually de-
signed to handle fuids with small particles such as sand.
Water supply pumps can be installed in two ways: They can either be sub-
merged in a well or they can be placed on the ground surface. The conditions
in the water supply system make heavy demands on robustness towards
ochre, lime and sand.
Industrial pumps can, as the name indicates, be used everywhere in the in-
dustry and this in a very broad section of systems which handle many dif-
ferent homogeneous and inhomogeneous fuids. Strict environmental and
safety requirements are enforced on pumps which must handle corrosive,
toxic or explosive fuids, e.g. that the pump is hermetically closed and cor-
rosion resistant.
Wastewater pumps are used for pumping contaminated water in sewage
plants and industrial systems. The pumps are constructed making it possible
to pump fuids with a high content of solid particles.
25 25
1.3.1. The UP pump
Circulation pumps are used for heating, circulation of cold water, ventila-
tion and aircondition systems in houses, ofce buildings, hotels, etc. Some
of the pumps are installed in heating systems at the end user. Others are
sold to OEM customers (Original Equipment Manufacturer) that integrate
the pumps into gas furnace systems. It is an inline pump with a canned ro-
tor which only has static sealings. The pump is designed to minimise pipe-
transferred noise. Grundfos produces UP pumps with and without automat-
ic regulation of the pump. With the automatic regulation of the pump, it is
possible to adjust the pressure and fow to the actual need and thereby save
energy.
1.3.2 The TP pump
The TP pump is used for circulation of hot or cold water mainly in heating,
cooling and airconditioning systems. It is an inline pump and contrary to the
smaller UP pump, the TP pump uses a standard motor and shaft seal.
1.3.3 The NB pump
The NB pump is for transportation of fuid in district heating plants, heat
supply, cooling and air conditioning systems, washdown systems and other
industrial systems. The pump is an endsuction pump, and it is found in many
variants with diferent types of shaft seals, impellers and housings which
can be combined depending on fuid type, temperature and pressure.
1.3.4 The MQ pump
The MQ pump is a complete miniature water supply unit. It is used for
water supply and transportation of fuid in private homes, holiday
houses, agriculture, and gardens. The pump control ensures that it starts
and stops automatically when the tap is opened. The control protects
the pump if errors occur or if it runs dry. The built-in pressure expansion
tank reduces the number of starts if there are leaks in the pipe system.
The MQ pump is self-priming, then it can clear a suction pipe from air
and thereby suck from a level which is lower than the one where
the pump is placed.
Figure 1.23: UP pumps.
Figure 1.24: TP pump.
Figure 1.25: NB pump.
Figure 1.26: MQ pump.
Outlet
Hydraulic
Motor
Inlet
Inlet
Outlet
Inlet
Outlet
Outlet
Inlet
Chamber stack
Inlet
Motor
Outlet
Figure 1.28: CR-pump.
26 26
1.3.5 The SP pump
The SP pump is a multi-stage submersible pump which is used for raw wa-
ter supply, ground water lowering and pressure boosting. The SP pump can
also be used for pumping corrosive fuids such as sea water. The motor is
mounted under the chamber stack, and the inlet to the pump is placed be-
tween motor and chamber stack. The pump diameter is designed to the size
of a standard borehole. The SP pump is equipped with an integrated non-
return valve to prevent that the pumped fuid fows back when the pump is
stopped. The non-return valve also helps prevent water hammer.
1.3.6 The CR pump
The CR pump is used in washers, cooling and air conditioning systems,
water treatment systems, fre extinction systems, boiler feed systems and
other industrial systems. The CR pump is a vertical inline multistage pump.
This pump type is also able to pump corrosive fuids because the hydraulic
parts are made of stainless steel or titanium.
1.3.7 The MTA pump
The MTA pump is used on the non-fltered side of the machining process
to pump coolant and lubricant containing cuttings, fbers and abrasive
particles. The MTA pump is a dry-runner pump with a long shaft and no
shaft seal. The pump is designed to be mounted vertically in a tank.
The installation length, the part of the pump which is submerged
in the tank, is adjusted to the tank depth so that it is possible to
drain the tank of coolant and lubricant.
Figure 1.29: MTA pump.
Outlet
Outlet channel
Inlet
Pump housing
Mounting fange
1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
Outlet
Chamber stack
Inlet
Motor
Figure 1.27: SP pump.
Non-return valve
Shaft
Inlet
Outlet
Motor
27 27
1.3.8 The SE pump
The SE pump is used for pumping wastewater, water containing sludge and
solids. The pump is unique in the wastewater market because it can be in-
stalled submerged in a waste water pit as well as installed dry in a pipe sys-
tem. The series of SE pumps contains both vortex pumps and single-channel
pumps. The single-channel pumps are characterised by a large free passage,
and the pump specifcation states the maximum diameter for solids passing
through the pump.
1.3.9 The SEG pump
The SEG pump is in particular suitable for pumping waste water from toi-
lets. The SEG pump has a cutting system which cuts perishable solids into
smaller pieces which then can be lead through a tube with a relative small
diameter. Pumps with cutting systems are also called grinder pumps.
1.4 Summary
In this chapter, we have covered the principle of the centrifugal pump and
its hydraulic components. We have discussed some of the overall aspects
connected to design of the single components. Included in the chapter is
also a short description of some of the Grundfos pumps.
Figure 1.30: SE pump.
Figure 1.31: SEG pumps.
Outlet
Inlet
Motor
28 28
H
[m]
η
[%]
50
40
70
Efficiency
Head
60
50
40
20
10
2
12
4
6
8
10
0
30
30
20
10
0
10
0 0
2
4
6
8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q [m
3
/h]
P
2

[kW]

NPSH
(m)
Power
NPSH
Chapter 2
Performance
curves
2.1 Standard curves
2.2 Pressure
2.3 Absolute and relative pressure
2.4 Head
2.5 Diferential pressure across the
pump - description of diferential
pressure
2.6 Energy equation for an ideal
fow
2.7 Power
2.8 Hydraulic power
2.9 Efciency
2.10 NPSH,
Net Positive Suction Head
2.11 Axial thrust
2.12 Radial thrust
2.13 Summary
H [m]
50
40
70
Head
60
50
40
20
10
2
4
6
8
10
0
30
30
20
10
0
10
0 0
2
4
6
8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q [m
3
/h]
P [kW]
2
NPSH [m]
η [%]
Efficiency
Power
NPSH
30 30
2. Performance curves
2. Performance curves
The pump performance is normally described by a set of curves. This chapter
explains how these curves are interpretated and the basis for the curves.
2.1 Standard curves
Performance curves are used by the customer to select pump matching his
requirements for a given application.
The data sheet contains information about the head (H) at diferent fows
(Q), see fgure 2.1. The requirements for head and fow determine the overall
dimensions of the pump.

Fígure 2.1: Typical performance curves for a
centrifugal pump. Head (H), power
consumption (P), efciency (η) and NPSH are
shown as function of the fow.
31 31
In addition to head, the power consumption (P) is also to be found in the data
sheet. The power consumption is used for dimensioning of the installations
which must supply the pump with energy. The power consumption is like
the head shown as a function of the fow.
Information about the pump efciency (η) and NPSH can also be found in
the data sheet. NPSH is an abbreviation for ’Net Positive Suction Head’. The
NPSH curve shows the need for inlet head, and which requirements the
specifc system have to fullfll to avoid cavitation. The efciency curve is
used for choosing the most efcient pump in the specifed operating range.
Figure 2.1 shows an example of performance curves in a data sheet.
During design of a new pump, the desired performance curves are a vital
part of the design specifcations. Similar curves for axial and radial thrust are
used for dimensioning the bearing system.
The performance curves describe the performance for the complete pump
unit, see fgure 2.2. An adequate standard motor can be mounted on the
pump if a pump without motor is chosen. Performance curves can be
recalculated with the motor in question when it is chosen.
For pumps sold both with and without a motor, only curves for the hydraulic
components are shown, i.e. without motor and controller. For integrated
products, the pump curves for the complete product are shown.
Motor Controller
Coupling
Hydraulics
Figure 2.2.: The performance curves are
stated for the pump itself or for the
complete unit consisting of pump, motor
and electronics.
p
stat
p
tot
p
dyn
p
tot
p
stat
p
stat
p
tot
Q
p
d d
32 32
2. Performance curves
2.2 Pressure
Pressure (p) is an expression of force per unit area and is split into static and
dynamic pressure. The sum of the two pressures is the total pressure:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
where
p
tot
= Total pressure [Pa]
p
stat
= Static pressure [Pa]
p
dyn
= Dynamic pressure [Pa]
Static pressure is measured with a pressure gauge, and the measurement of
static pressure must always be done in static fuid or through a pressure tap
mounted perpendicular to the fow direction, see fgure 2.3.
Total pressure can be measured through a pressure tap with the opening
facing the fow direction, see fgure 2.3. The dynamic pressure can be found
measuring the pressure diference between total pressure and static pressure.
Such a combined pressure measurement can be performed using a pitot tube.
Dynamic pressure is a function of the fuid velocity. The dynamic pressure can
be calculated with the following formula,where the velocity (V) is measured
and the fuid density (ρ) is know:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
where
V = Velocity [m/s]
ρ = Density [kg/m
3
]
Dynamic pressure can be transformed to static pressure and vice versa. Flow
through a pipe where the pipe diameter is increased converts dynamic pressure
to static pressure, see fgure 2.4. The fow through a pipe is called a pipe fow, and
the part of the pipe where the diameter is increasing is called a difusor.
Figure 2.4: Example of conversion of
dynamic pressure to static pressure in
a difusor.
Figure 2.3: This is how static pressure p
stat
,
total pressure p
tot
and dynamic pressure
p
dyn
are measured.
33 33
2.3 Absolute and relative pressure
Pressure is defned in two diferent ways: absolute pressure or relative
pressure. Absolute pressure refers to the absolute zero, and absolute
pressure can thus only be a positive number. Relative pressure refers to the
pressure of the surroundings. A positive relative pressure means that the
pressure is above the barometric pressure, and a negative relative pressure
means that the pressure is below the barometric pressure.
The absolute and relative defnition is also known from temperature
measurement where the absolute temperature is measured in Kelvin [K] and
the relative temperature is measured in Celsius [°C]. The temperature measured
in Kelvin is always positive and refers to the absolute zero. In contrast, the
temperature in Celsius refers to water’s freezing point at 273.15K and can
therefore be negative.
The barometric pressure is measured as absolute pressure. The barometric
pressure is afected by the weather and altitude. The conversion from relative
pressure to absolute pressure is done by adding the current barometric pressure
to the measured relative pressure:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
In practise, static pressure is measured by means of three diferent types of
pressure gauges:
• Anabsolutepressuregauge,suchasabarometer,measurespressure
relative to absolute zero.
• Anstandardpressuregaugemeasuresthepressurerelativetothe
atmospherich pressure. This type of pressure gauge is the most
commonly used.
• Adiferentialpressuregaugemeasuresthepressurediference
between the two pressure taps independent of the barometric pressure.
H [m]
10
8
12
6
4
2
0
0 1.0 1.5 2.0 Q [m
3
/h]
Water at 20
o
C
1
0
.
2

m

1 bar
998.2 kg /m
3
1 bar = 10.2 m
H [m]
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q [m
3
/h]
34 34
2.4 Head
The diferent performance curves are introduced on the following pages.
A QH curve or pump curve shows the head (H) as a function of the fow (Q). The
fow (Q) is the rate of fuid going through the pump. The fow is generally stated
in cubic metre per hour [m
3
/h] but at insertion into formulas cubic metre per
second [m
3
/s] is used. Figure 2.5 shows a typical QH curve.
The QH curve for a given pump can be determined using the setup shown in
fgure 2.6.
The pump is started and runs with constant speed. Q equals 0 and H reaches
its highest value when the valve is completely closed. The valve is gradually
opened and as Q increases H decreases. H is the height of the fuid column in the
open pipe after the pump. The QH curve is a series of coherent values of Q and H
represented by the curve shown in fgure 2.5.
In most cases the diferential pressure across the pump Dp
tot
is measured and
the head H is calculated by the following formula:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
The QH curve will ideally be exactly the same if the test in fgure 2.6 is made with
a fuid having a density diferent from water. Hence, a QH curve is independent
of the pumped fuid. It can be explained based on the theory in chapter 4 where it
is proven that Q and H depend on the geometry and speed but not on the density
of the pumped fuid.
The pressure increase across a pump can also be measured in meter water column
[mWC]. Meter water column is a pressure unit which must not be confused with
the head in [m]. As seen in the table of physical properties of water, the change
in density is signifcant at higher temperatures. Thus, conversion from pressure
to head is essential.
2. Performance curves
Figure 2.5: A typical QH curve for a centrifugal
pump; a small fow gives a high head and a
large fow gives a low head.
Figure 2.6: The QH curve can be determined
in an installation with an open pibe after
the pump. H is exactly the height of the fuid
column in the open pipe. measured from
inlet level.
35 35
2.5 Diferential pressure across the pump - description of diferential pressure
2.5.1 Total pressure diference
The total pressure diference across the pump is calculated on the basis of
three contributions:

| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
where
Δp
tot
= Total pressure diference across the pump [Pa]
Δp
stat
= Static pressure diference across the pump [Pa]
Δp
dyn
= Dynamic pressure diference across the pump [Pa]
Δp
geo
= Geodetic pressure diference between the pressure sensors [Pa]
2.5.2 Static pressure diference
The static pressure diference can be measured directly with a diferential
pressure sensor, or a pressure sensor can be placed at the inlet and outlet
of the pump. In this case, the static pressure diference can be found by the
following expression:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
2.5.3 Dynamic pressure diference
The dynamic pressure diference between the inlet and outlet of the pump
is found by the following formula:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
36 36
2. Performance curves
In practise, the dynamic pressure and the fow velocity before and after the
pump are not measured during test of pumps. Instead, the dynamic pressure
diference can be calculated if the fow and pipe diameter of the inlet and
outlet of the pump are known:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
The formula shows that the dynamic pressure diference is zero if the pipe
diameters are identical before and after the pump.
2.5.4 Geodetic pressure diference
The geodetic pressure diference between inlet and outlet can be measured
in the following way:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
where
Δz is the diference in vertical position between the gauge connected to the
outlet pipe and the gauge connected to the inlet pipe.
The geodetic pressure diference is only relevant if Δz is not zero. Hence,
the position of the measuring taps on the pipe is of no importance for the
calculation of the geodetic pressure diference.
The geodetic pressure diference is zero when a diferential pressure gauge
is used for measuring the static pressure diference.
37 37
2.6 Energy equation for an ideal fow
The energy equation for an ideal fow describes that the sum of pressure
energy, velocity energy and potential energy is constant. Named after
the Swiss physicist Daniel Bernoulli, the equation is known as Bernoulli’s
equation:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
Bernoulli’s equation is valid if the following conditions are met:
1. Stationary fow – no changes over time
2. Incompressible fow – true for most liquids
3. Loss-free fow – ignores friction loss
4. Work-free fow – no supply of mechanical energy
Formula (2.10) applies along a stream line or the trajectory of a fuid particle.
For example, the fow through a difusor can be described by formula (2.10),
but not the fow through an impeller since mechancial energy is added.
In most applications, not all the conditions for the energy equation are met. In
spite of this, the equation can be used for making a rough calculation.

P1
P2
Q [m
3
/h]
P [W]
38 38
2. Performance curves
2.7 Power
The power curves show the energy transfer rate as a function of fow, see
fgure 2.7. The power is given in Watt [W]. Distinction is made between
three kinds of power, see fgure 2.8:
• Suppliedpowerfromexternalelectricitysourcetothemotorand
controller (P
1
)
• Shaftpowertransferredfromthemotortotheshaft(P
2
)
• Hydraulicpowertransferredfromtheimpellertothefuid(P
hyd
)
The power consumption depends on the fuid density. The power curves
are generally based on a standard fuid with a density of 1000 kg/m
3
which
corresponds to water at 4°C. Hence, power measured on fuids with another
density must be converted.
In the data sheet, P
1
is normally stated for integrated products, while P
2
is
typically stated for pumps sold with a standard motor.
2.7.1 Speed
Flow, head and power consumption vary with the pump speed, see section 3.4.4.
Pump curves can only be compared if they are stated with the same speed. The
curves can be converted to the same speed by the formulas in section 3.4.4.
2.8 Hydraulic power
The hydraulic power P
hyd
is the power transferred from the pump to the
fuid. As seen from the following formula, the hydraulic power is calculated
based on fow, head and density:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
An independent curve for the hydraulic power is usually not shown in data
sheets but is part of the calculation of the pump efciency.
Figure 2.8: Power transfer in a pump unit.
Figure 2.7: P
1
and P
2
power curves.
P
1
P
2
P
hyd
η
[%]
η
hyd
η
tot
Q[m
3
/h]
39 39
2.9 Efciency
The total efciency (η
tot
) is the ratio between hydraulic power and supplied
power. Figure 2.9 shows the efciency curves for the pump (η
hyd
) and for a
complete pump unit with motor and controller (η
tot
).
The hydraulic efciency refers to P
2
, whereas the total efciency refers to P
1
:



| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
The efciency is always below 100% since the supplied power is always
larger than the hydraulic power due to losses in controller, motor and pump
components. The total efciency for the entire pump unit (controller, motor
and hydraulics) is the product of the individual efciencies:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
where
η
control
= Controller efciency [
.
100%]
η
motor
= Motor efciency [
.
100%]
The fow where the pump has the highest efciency is called the optimum
point or the best efciency point (Q
BEP
).
Figure 2.9: Efciency curves for the pump

hyd
) and complete pump unit with motor
and controller (η
tot
).
NPSH [m]
Q[m
3
/h]
40 40
2. Performance curves
2.10 NPSH, Net Positive Suction Head
NPSH is a term describing conditions related to cavitation, which is
undesired and harmful.
Cavitation is the creation of vapour bubbles in areas where the pressure
locally drops to the fuid vapour pressure. The extent of cavitation depends
on how low the pressure is in the pump. Cavitation generally lowers the
head and causes noise and vibration.
Cavitation frst occurs at the point in the pump where the pressure is
lowest, which is most often at the blade edge at the impeller inlet, see
fgure 2.10.
The NPSH value is absolute and always positive. NPSH is stated in meter [m]
like the head, see fgure 2.11. Hence, it is not necessary to take the density of
diferent fuids into account because NPSH is stated in meters [m].
Distinction is made between two diferent NPSH values: NPSH
R
and NPSH
A
.
NPSH
A
stands for NPSH Available and is an expression of how close the fuid
in the suction pipe is to vapourisation. NPSH
A
is defned as:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
where
p
vapour
= The vapour pressure of the fuid at the present temperature [Pa].
The vapour pressure is found in the table ”Physical properties of
water” in the back of the book.
p
abs,tot,in
= The absolute pressure at the inlet fange [Pa].
Figure 2.10: Cavitation.
Figure 2.11: NPSH curve.
41 41
NPSH
R
stands for NPSH Required and is an expression of the lowest NPSH
value required for acceptable operating conditions. The absolute pressure
p
abs,tot,in
can be calculated from a given value of NPSH
R
and the fuid vapour
pressure by inserting NPSH
R
in the formula (2.16) instead of NPSH
A
.
To determine if a pump can safely be installed in the system, NPSH
A
and
NPSH
R
should be found for the largest fow and temperature within the
operating range.
A minimum safety margin of 0.5 m is recommended. Depending on the
application, a higher safety level may be required. For example, noise
sensitive applications or in high energy pumps like boiler feed pumps,
European Association of Pump Manufacturers indicate a safety factor S
A
of
1.2-2.0 times the NPSH
3%
.
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
The risk of cavitation in systems can be reduced or prevented by:
• Loweringthepumpcomparedtothewaterlevel-opensystems.
• Increasingthesystempressure-closedsystems.
• Shorteningthesuctionlinetoreducethefrictionloss.
• Increasingthesuctionline’scross-sectionareatoreducethefuid
velocity and thereby reduce friction.
• Avoidingpressuredropscomingfrombendsandotherobstaclesin
the suction line.
• Loweringfuidtemperaturetoreducevapourpressure.
The two following examples show how NPSH is calculated.
H<0
∆p
loss, suction pipe
p
bar
Reference plane
42 42
2. Performance curves
Figure 2.12: Sketch of a system where
water is pumped from a well.
Example 2.1 Pump drawing from a well
A pump must draw water from a reservoir where the water level is 3 meters
below the pump. To calculate the NPSH
A
value, it is necessary to know the
friction loss in the inlet pipe, the water temperature and the barometric
pressure, see fgure 2.12.
Water temperature = 40°C
Barometric pressure = 101.3 kPa
Pressure loss in the suction line at the present fow = 3.5 kPa.
At a water temperature of 40°C, the vapour pressure is 7.37 kPa and ρ is
992.2kg/m
3
. The values are found in the table ”Physical properties of water”
in the back of the book.
For this system, the NPSH
A
expression in formula (2.16) can be written as:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
H
geo
is the water level’s vertical position in relation to the pump. H
geo
can
either be above or below the pump and is stated in meter [m]. The water
level in this system is placed below the pump. Thus, H
geo
is negative, H
geo
=
-3m.
The system NPSH
A
value is:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
The pump chosen for the system in question must have a NPSH
R
value lower
than 6.3 m minus the safety margin of 0.5 m. Hence, the pump must have a
NPSH
R
value lower than 6.3-0.5 = 5.8 m at the present fow.
H
geo
>0
p
stat, in
Reference plane
System
43 43
Example 2.2 Pump in a closed system
In a closed system, there is no free water surface to refer to. This example
shows how the pressure sensor’s placement above the reference plane can
be used to fnd the absolute pressure in the suction line, see fgure 2.13.
The relative static pressure on the suction side is measured to be p
stat,in
=
-27.9 kPa
2
. Hence, there is negative pressure in the system at the pressure
gauge. The pressure gauge is placed above the pump. The diference in
height between the pressure gauge and the impeller eye H
geo
is therefore a
positive value of +3m. The velocity in the tube where the measurement of
pressure is made results in a dynamic pressure contribution of 500 Pa.
Barometric pressure = 101 kPa
Pipe loss between measurement point (p
stat,in
) and pump is calculated to
H
loss,pipe
= 1m.
System temperature = 80°C
Vapour pressure p
vapour
= 47.4 kPa and density is ρ = 973 kg/m
3
, values are
found in the table ”Physical properties of water”.
For this system, formula 2.16 expresses the NPSH
A
as follows:

| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
Inserting the values gives:
| | Pa p p p
dyn
(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.6)
(2.7)
stat tot
+ =
| | Pa V
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
2
dyn
⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | Pa p p p p
geo dyn stat tot
∆ + ∆ + ∆
p ∆
p ∆
∆ =
| | Pa p p
stat, in stat, out stat
− =
| | Pa V V
2
in
2
out dyn
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ρ ρ
(2.8)
2
1
| | Pa
D
1
D
1
4
Q
p
4
in
4
out
2
dyn
|
|
.
|


\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
π
ρ Δ
(2.9) | | Pa g z p
geo
⋅ ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ρ
(2.10)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.11)
(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(
¸
(

¸

= ⋅ + +
2
2 2
s
m
Constant z g
2
V p
ρ
| | Pa p p p
bar rel abs
+ =
| | m
g
p
H
tot

=
ρ
Δ
| | W Q p Q g H P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
| | ⋅ 100 %
=
2
hyd
hyd
P
P
η
=
1
hyd
tot
P
P
η
| | W P
2
P
1
P
hyd
> >
(2.15)
(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)
(2.18)
(2.19)
⋅ ⋅ =
hyd motor control tot
η η η η
( )
| | m
g
p p
NPSH
vapour abs,tot,in
A


=
ρ
| | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
NPSH
R A
0.5 + >
NPSH
A
> | | m NPSH = NPSH
3%
or
R
S
A
.
| | m
g
p H g p
NPSH
p
vapour suction pipe , loss geo bar
A

∆ − − + ⋅ ⋅
=
ρ
ρ
9.81m
2 3 A
Pa 7375 3500 Pa
m 3
s m 992.2kg
101300 Pa
NPSH − − −
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 992.2kg ⋅
=
9.81m
2 3 A
47400 Pa
1m 3m
s m 973 kg
-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa
NPSH − − +
⋅ 9.81m
2 3
s m 973 kg ⋅
=
6.3m NPSH
A
=
4.7m NPSH
A
=
| | m
g
p
H H
g
p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, pipe geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

+ +
=
ρ ρ
|
( )
0.5
.
ρ
.
V1
2
Despite the negative system pressure, a NPSH
A
value of more than 4m is
available at the present fow.
Figure 2.13: Sketch of a closed system.
400
500
300
200
100
0 10 30 20 70 40 50 60
Force [N]
Q [m
3
/h]
80
100
60
40
20
0 10 30 20 70 Q[m
3
/h] 40 50 60
Force [N]
44 44
2.11 Axial thrust
Axial thrust is the sum of forces acting on the shaft in axial direction,
see fgure 2.14. Axial thrust is mainly caused by forces from the pressure
diference between the impeller’s hub plate and shroud plate, see section
1.2.5.
The size and direction of the axial thrust can be used to specify the size of
the bearings and the design of the motor. Pumps with up-thrust require
locked bearings. In addition to the axial thrust, consideration must be taken
to forces from the system pressure acting on the shaft. Figure 2.15 shows an
example of an axial thrust curve.
The axial thrust is related to the head and therefore it scales with the speed
ratio squared, see sections 3.4.4 and 4.5.
2.12 Radial thrust
Radial thrust is the sum of forces acting on the shaft in radial direction
as shown in fgure 2.16. Hydraulic radial thrust is a result of the pressure
diference in a volute casing. Size and direction vary with the fow. The
forces are minimum in the design point, see fgure 2.17. To size the bearings
correctly, it is important to know the size of the radial thrust.
Figure 2.15: Example of a axial thrust curve
for a TP65-410 pump.
Figure 2.14: Axial thrust
work in the bearing’s
direction.
Figure 2.17: Example of a radial thrust curve
for a TP65-410 pump.
Figure 2.16: Radial thrust
work perpendicular on
the bearing.
2. Performance curves
45 45
2.13 Summary
Chapter 2 explains the terms used to describe a pump’s performance
and shows curves for head, power, efciency, NPSH and thrust impacts.
Furthermore, the two terms head and NPSH are clarifed with calculation
examples.
Chapter 3
Pumps operating in systems
3.1 Single pump in a system
3.2 Pumps operated in parallel
3.3 Pumps operating in series
3.4 Regulation of pumps
3.5 Annual energy consumption
3.6 Energy efciency index (EEI)
3.7 Summary
H
loss, pipe friction

Buffer tank
Tank on roof
H
operation
Q
operation
48 48
3. Pumps operating in systems
3. Pumps operating in systems
This chapter explains how pumps operate in a system and how they can be
regulated. The chapter also explains the energy index for small circulation
pumps.
A pump is always connected to a system where it must circulate or lift
fuid. The energy added to the fuid by the pump is partly lost as friction in
the pipe system or used to increase the head.
Implementing a pump into a system results in a common operating point.
If several pumps are combined in the same application, the pump curve for
the system can be found by adding up the pumps’ curves either serial or
parallel. Regulated pumps adjust to the system by changing the rotational
speed. The regulation of speed is especially used in heating systems where
the need for heat depends on the ambient temperature, and in water sup-
ply systems where the demand for water varies with the consumer opening
and closing the tap.
49 49
Figure 3.1: Example of a closed system. Figure 3.3: Example of an open system
with positive geodetic lift.
Figure 3.4: The system characteris-
tics of an open system resembles a
parabola passing through (0,H
z
).
3.1 Single pump in a system
A system characteristic is described by a parabola due to
an increase in friction loss related to the fow squared. The
system characteristic is described by a steep parabola if
the resistance in the system is high. The parabola fattens
when the resistance decreases. Changing the settings of
the valves in the system changes the characteristics.
The operating point is found where the curve of the
pump and the system characteristic intersect.
In closed systems, see fgure 3.1, there is no head when
the system is not operationg. In this case the system char-
acteristic goes through (Q,H) = (0,0) as shown in fgure
3.2.
In systems where water is to be moved from one level to
another, see fgure 3.3, there is a constant pressure difer-
ence between the two reservoirs, corresponding to the
height diference. This causes an additional head which
the pump must overcome. In this case the system charac-
teristics goes through (0,H
z
) instead of (0,0), see fgure 3.4.
Figure 3.2: The system characteris-
tics of a closed system resembles a
parabola starting at point (0.0).
H
operation
H
Q Q
operation
H
loss,friktion
H
max H
max
H
operation
H
z
H
Q Q
operation
H
loss,friktion
Heat Exchanger
Boiler Valve
Q
operation
H
operation
Buffer tank
Elevated tank
H
z
Q
operation
H
operation
50 50
3. Pumps operating in systems
3.2 Pumps operated in parallel
In systems with large variations in fow and a request for constant pressure,
two or more pumps can be connected in parallel. This is often seen in larger
supply systems or larger circulation systems such as central heating systems
or district heating installations.
Parallel-connected pumps are also used when regulation is required or if an
auxiliary pump or standby pump is needed. When operating the pumps, it
is possible to regulate between one or more pumps at the same time. A non-
return valve is therefore always mounted on the discharge line to prevent
backfow through the pump not operating.
Parallel-connected pumps can also be double pumps, where the pump
casings are casted in the same unit, and where the non-return valves are
build-in as one or more valves to prevent backfow through the pumps. The
characteristics of a parallel-connected system is found by adding the single
characteristics for each pump horisontally, see fgure 3.5.
Pumps connected in parallel are e.g. used in pressure booster sys-
tems, for water supply and for water supply in larger buildings.
Major operational advantages can be achieved in a pressure booster system
by connecting two or more pumps in parallel instead of installing one big
pump. The total pump output is usually only necessarry in a limited period.
A single large pump will in this case typically operate at lower efciency.
By letting a number of smaller pumps take care of the operation, the system
can be controlled to minimize the number of pumps operating and these
pumps will operate at the best efciency point. To operate at the most
optimal point, one of the parallel-connected pumps must have variable
speed control.
Figure 3.5: Parallel-connected pumps.
Q
operation, b
Q
operation, a
Q
system
H
operation, a
H
operation, b
Q
H
H
max
H
operation, a
= H
operation, b
Q
operation, a
= Q
operation, b
Q
operation, a
+ Q
operation, b
= Q
system
Q
max
51 51
3.3 Pumps operated in series
Centrifugal pumps are rarely connected in serial, but a multi-stage pump
can be considered as a serial connection of single-stage pumps. However,
single stages in multistage pumps can not be uncoupled.
If one of the pumps in a serial connection is not operating, it causes a consider-
able resistance to the system. To avoid this, a bypass with a non-return valve
could be build-in, see fgure 3.6. The head at a given fow for a serial-connected
pump is found by adding the single heads vertically, as shown in fgure 3.6.
3.4 Regulation of pumps
It is not always possible to fnd a pump that matches the requested perform-
ance exactly. A number of methods makes it possible to regulate the pump
performance and thereby achieve the requested performance. The most
common methods are:
1. Throttle regulation, also known as expansion regulation
2. Bypass regulation through a bypass valve
3. Start/stop regulation
4. Regulation of speed
There are also a number of other regulation methods e.g. control of pre-
swirl rotation, adjustment of blades, trimming the impeller and cavitation
control which are not introduced further in this book.
Figure 3.6: Pumps connected in series.
Q
max
Q
operation,a
= Q
operation,b
H
max,a
H
operation, a
H
Q
H
operation, b
Q
operation, a
= Q
operation, b
H
operation,a
H
operation,b
H
max,total
H
operation,tot
= H
operation,a
+H
operation,b
52 52
3. Pumps operating in systems
3.4.1 Throttle regulation
Installing a throttle valve in serial with the pump it can
change the system characteristic, see fgure 3.7. The resist-
ance in the entire system can be regulated by changing the
valve settings and thereby adjusting the fow as needed.
A lower power consumption can sometimes be achieved
by installing a throttle valve. However, it depends on the
power curve and thus the specifc speed of the pump.
Regulation by means of a throttle valve is best suited for
pumps with a relatve high pressure compared to fow (low-
n
q
pumps described in section 4.6), see fgure 3.8.
Figure 3.9: The bypass valve
leads a part of the fow
back to the suction line
and thereby reduces
the fow into the system.
Figure 3.10: The system characteristic is changed through bypass
regulation. To the left the consequence of a low-n
q
pump is
shown and to the right the concequences of a high n
q
pump is
shown. The operating point is moved from a to b in both cases.
3.4.2 Regulation with bypass valve
A bypass valve is a regulation valve installed
parallel to the pump, see fgure 3.9. The bypass valve
guide part of the fow back to the suction line and con-
cequently reduces the head. With a bypass valve, the
pump delivers a specifc fow even though the system is
completely cut of. Like the throttle valve, it is possible
to reduce the power consumption in some case. Bypasss
regulation is an advantage for pumps with low head
compared to fow (high n
q
pumps), see fgure 3.10.
From an overall perspective neither regulation with
throttle valve nor bypass valve are an energy efcient so-
lution and should be avoided.
Figure 3.8: The system characteristic is changed through throttle
regulation. The curves to the left show throttling of a low n
q

pump and the curves to the right show throttling of a high n
q

pump. The operating point is moved from a to b in both cases.
Figure 3.7: Principle
sketch of a throttle
regulation.
System
Valve H
H
loss,system
H
loss, throttling
H
Q
H
Q
Q
P
a
a
b
b
η
a
b
b
a
a
b
P
a
P
b
a
b
Q
Q
P
P
a
P
b
η
Q
H
Q
H
Q
Q
P
b
b
a
a
a
η
b
b
a
b
a
b
a
Q
Q
P
P
1
P
b P
2
P
a
η
Q
System
flow
System
flow
Bypass
flow
Bypass
flow
H
Q
Q
bypass
Q-Q
bypass
Bypass valve
System
H
loss,system

53 53
3.4.3 Start/stop regulation
In systems with varying pump requirements, it can be an advantage to use
a number of smaller parallel-connected pumps instead of one larger pump.
The pumps can then be started and stopped depending on the load and a
better adjustment to the requirements can be achieved.
3.4.4 Speed control
When the pump speed is regulated, the QH, power and NPSH curves are
changed. The conversion in speed is made by means of the afnity equa-
tions. These are futher described in section 4.5:
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
(3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
(2,19)
⋅ =
n
n
Q Q
A
B
A B
n
n
H H
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
n
n
P P
A
B
A B
3








⋅ =
n
n
NPSH NPSH
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
P P P P P
L,avg 25% 50% 75% 100%
0.44 0.35 0.15 0.06 ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
[ ] − =
Ref
L,avg
P
P
EEI
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
(3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
(2,19)
⋅ =
n
n
Q Q
A
B
A B
n
n
H H
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
n
n
P P
A
B
A B
3








⋅ =
n
n
NPSH NPSH
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
P P P P P
L,avg 25% 50% 75% 100%
0.44 0.35 0.15 0.06 ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
[ ] − =
Ref
L,avg
P
P
EEI
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
(3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
(2,19)
⋅ =
n
n
Q Q
A
B
A B
n
n
H H
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
n
n
P P
A
B
A B
3








⋅ =
n
n
NPSH NPSH
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
P P P P P
L,avg 25% 50% 75% 100%
0.44 0.35 0.15 0.06 ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
[ ] − =
Ref
L,avg
P
P
EEI
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
(3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
(2,19)
⋅ =
n
n
Q Q
A
B
A B
n
n
H H
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
n
n
P P
A
B
A B
3








⋅ =
n
n
NPSH NPSH
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
P P P P P
L,avg 25% 50% 75% 100%
0.44 0.35 0.15 0.06 ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
[ ] − =
Ref
L,avg
P
P
EEI
Index A in the equations describes the initial values, and index B describes the
modifed values.
The equations provide coherent points on an afnity parabola in the QH
graph. The afnity parabola is shown in fgure 3.11.
Diferent regulation curves can be created based on the relation between
the pump curve and the speed. The most common regulation methods are
proportional-pressure control and constant-pressure control.
Figure 3.11: Afnity parabola in the QH graph.
H
Q
n = 100%
Coherent
points
Affinity
parabola
n = 80%
n = 50%
54 54
Proportional-pressure control
Proportional-pressure control strives to keep the pump head proportional
to the fow. This is done by changing the speed in relation to the current
fow. Regulation can be performed up to a maximum speed, from that point
the curve will follow this speed. The proportional curve is an approximative
system characteristic as described in section 3.1 where the needed fow and
head can be delivered at varying needs.
Proportional pressure regulation is used in closed systems such as heating
systems. The diferential pressure, e.g. above radiator valves, is kept almost
constant despite changes in the heat consumption. The result is a low en-
ergy consumption by the pump and a small risk of noise from valves.
Figure 3.12 shows diferent proportional-pressure regulation curves.
Constant-pressure control
A constant diferential pressure, independent of fow, can be kept by
means of constant-pressure control. In the QH diagram the pump curve for
constant-pressure control is a horisontal line, see fgure 3.13. Constant-pres-
sure control is an advantage in many water supply systems where changes
in the consumption at a tapping point must not afect the pressure at other
tapping points in the system.
3. Pumps operating in systems
55 55
Figure 3.13: Example of constant-pressure control. Figure 3.12: Example of proportional-pressure control.
Q
H
Q
H
Q
Q
Q
P
2
Q
P
2
η
Q
η
n
Q
n
56 56
3. Pumps operating in systems
3.5. Annual energy consumption
Like energy labelling of refrigerators and freezers, a corresponding labelling
for pumps exists. This energy label applies for small circulation pumps and
makes it easy for consumers to choose a pump which minimises the power
consumption. The power consumption of a single pump is small but because
the worldwide number of installed pumps is very large, the accumulated en-
ergy consumption is big. The lowest energy consumption is achieved with
speed regulation of pumps.
The energy label is based on a number of tests showing the annual runtime
and fow of a typical circulation pump. The tests result in a load profle defned
by a nominal operating point (Q
100%
) and a corresponding distribution of the
operating time.
The nominal operating point is the point on the pump curve where the product
of Q and H is the highest. The same fow point also refers to P
100%
, see fgure
3.14. Figure 3.15 shows the time distribution for each fow point.
The representative power consumption is found by reading the power
consumption at the diferent operating points and multiplying this with
the time expressed in percent.
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
(3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
(2,19)
⋅ =
n
n
Q Q
A
B
A B
n
n
H H
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
n
n
P P
A
B
A B
3








⋅ =
n
n
NPSH NPSH
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
P P P P P
L,avg 25% 50% 75% 100%
0.44 0.35 0.15 0.06 ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
[ ] − =
Ref
L,avg
P
P
EEI
H
max
Flow % Time %
H
Q
Q
25%
Q
50%
Q
75%
Q
100%
Q
100%
Q
75%
Q
50%
Q
25%
H
Q
100
75
50
25
6
15
35
44
Figure 3.15: Load profle.
Figure 3.14: Load curve.
H
max
P
100%
P
1
H
Q
Q Q
100%
max { Q
.
H } ~ P
hyd,max
P
hyd,max
Q
25%
Q
50%
Q
75%
Q
100%
P
100%
P
75%
P
50%
P
25%
H
Q
57 57
3.6 Energy efciency index (EEI)
In 2003 a study of a major part of the circulation pumps on the market was
conducted. The purpose was to create a frame of reference for a representa-
tive power consumption for a specifc pump. The result is the curve shown
in fgure 3.16. Based on the study the magnitude of a representative power
consumption of an average pump at a given P
hyd,max
can be read from the
curve.
The energy index is defned as the relation between the representative
power (P
L,avg
) for the pump and the reference curve. The energy index can
be interpreted as an expression of how much energy a specifc pump uses
compared to average pumps on the market in 2003.
(3.1)
(3.2)
(3.3)
(3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
(2,19)
⋅ =
n
n
Q Q
A
B
A B
n
n
H H
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
n
n
P P
A
B
A B
3








⋅ =
n
n
NPSH NPSH
A
B
A B
2








⋅ =
P P P P P
L,avg 25% 50% 75% 100%
0.44 0.35 0.15 0.06 ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =
[ ] − =
Ref
L,avg
P
P
EEI
If the pump index is no more than 0.40, it can be labelled energy class A. If the
pump has an index between 0.40 and 0.60, it is labelled energy class B. The
scale continues to class G, see fgure 3.17.
Speed regulated pumps minimize the energy consumption by adjusting the
pump to the required performance. For calculation of the energy index, a ref-
erence control curve corresponding to a system characteristic for a heating
system is used, see fgure 3.18. The pump performance is regulated through
the speed and it intersects the reference control curve instead of following
the maximum curve at full speed. The result is a lower power consumption
in the regulated fow points and thereby a better energy index.
Figure 3.16: Reference power as function
of P
hyd,max
.
Figure 3.17: Energy classes.
Figure 3.18: Reference control curve.
H
max
Q
100%
, H
100%
n
25%
n
50%
n
75%
H
H
100%
2
Q
0%
,
Q
25%
Q
50%
Q
75%
Q
100%
Q
100%
Q
75%
Q
50%
Q
25%
Q
n
100%
Q
0
1 10
Hydraulic power [W]
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

p
o
w
e
r

[
W
]
100 1000 10000
1000
2000
4000
3000
A EEI 0.40
Klasse
G 1.40 < EEI
F 1.20 < EEI 1.40
E 1.00 < EEI 1.20
D 0.80 < EEI 1.00
C 0.60 < EEI 0.80
B 0.40 < EEI 0.60
58 58
3.7 Summary
In chapter 3 we have studied the correlation between pump and system
from a single circulation pump to water supply systems with several parallel
coupled multi-stage pumps.
We have described the most common regulation methods from an energy
efcient view point and introduced the energy index term.
3. Pumps operating in systems
r
1
r
2
1
2
α
1
α
2
U
1
U
2
C
1m
C
2m
C
2u
C
2
W
1
W
2
β
1
β
2
Chapter 4
Pump theory
4.1 Velocity triangles
4.2 Euler’s pump equation
4.3 Blade form and pump curve
4.4 Usage of Euler’s pump equation
4.5 Afnity rules
4.6 Inlet rotation
4.7 Slip
4.8 Specifc speed of a pump
4.9 Summary
60 60
4. Pump theory
4. Pump theory
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the theoretical foundation of en-
ergy conversion in a centrifugal pump. Despite advanced calculation meth-
ods which have seen the light of day in the last couple of years, there is still
much to be learned by evaluating the pump’s performance based on funda-
mental and simple models.
When the pump operates, energy is added to the shaft in the form of me-
chanical energy. In the impeller it is converted to internal (static pressure)
and kinetic energy (velocity). The process is described through Euler’s pump
equation which is covered in this chapter. By means of velocity triangles for
the fow in the impeller in- and outlet, the pump equation can be interpreted
and a theoretical loss-free head and power consumption can be calculated.
Velocity triangles can also be used for prediction of the pump’s performance
in connection with changes of e.g. speed, impeller diameter and width.
4.1 Velocity triangles
For fuid fowing through an impeller it is possible to determine the absolute
velocity (C) as the sum of the relative velocity (W) with respect to the im-
peller, i.e. the tangential velocity of the impeller (U). These velocity vectors
are added through vector addition, forming velocity triangles at the in- and
outlet of the impeller. The relative and absolute velocity are the same in the
stationary part of the pump.
The fow in the impeller can be described by means of velocity triangles,
which state the direction and magnitude of the fow. The fow is three-di-
mensional and in order to describe it completely, it is necessary to make two
plane illustrations. The frst one is the meridional plane which is an axial
cut through the pump’s centre axis, where the blade edge is mapped into
the plane, as shown in fgure 4.1. Here index 1 represents the inlet and index
2 represents the outlet. As the tangential velocity is perpendicular to this
plane, only absolute velocities are present in the fgure. The plane shown in
fgure 4.1 contains the meridional velocity, C
m
, which runs along the channel
and is the vector sum of the axial velocity, C
a
, and the radial velocity, C
r
.
Figure 4.1: Meridional cut.
C
r
C
m
C
a
1
2
r
1
r
2
α
1
α
2
U
1
U
2
C
1m
C
2m
C
2U
C
2
W
1
W
2
β
1
β
2
ω
W
2
W
1
W
1
C
1
C
1U
C
2
C
2U
C
2m
C
1m
C
1m
U
2
U
1
U
1
β
1
α
1
β
2
α
2
W
2
W
1
W
1
C
1
C
1U
C
2
C
2U
C
2m
C
1m
C
1m
U
2
U
1
U
1
β
1
α
1
β
2
α
2
61 61
The second plane is defned by the meridional velocity and the tangential
velocity.
An example of velocity triangles is shown in fgure 4.2. Here U describes the
impeller’s tangential velocity while the absolute velocity C is the fuid’s velocity
compared to the surroundings. The relative velocity W is the fuid velocity com-
pared to the rotating impeller. The angles α and β describe the fuid’s relative
and absolute fow angles respectively compared to the tangential direction.
Velocity triangles can be illustrated in two diferent ways and both ways are
shown in fgure 4.2a and b. As seen from the fgure the same vectors are re-
peated. Figure 4.2a shows the vectors compared to the blade, whereas fgure
4.2b shows the vectors forming a triangle.
By drawing the velocity triangles at inlet and outlet, the performance curves
of the pump can be calculated by means of Euler’s pump equation which
will be described in section 4.2.
1
2
Figure 4.2a: Velocity triangles
positioned at the impeller inlet
and outlet.
2
1
Figure 4.2b: Velocity triangles
W
2
W
1
W
1
C
1
C
1U
C
2
C
2U
C
2m
C
1m
C
1m
U
2
U
1
U
1
β
1
α
1
β
2
α
2
62 62
4. Pump theory
4.1.1 Inlet
Usually it is assumed that the fow at the impeller inlet is non-rotational.
This means that α
1
=90°. The triangle is drawn as shown in fgure 4.2 position
1, and C
1m
is calculated from the fow and the ring area in the inlet.
The ring area can be calculated in diferent ways depending on impeller type
(radial impeller or semi-axial impeller), see fgure 4.3. For a radial impeller
this is:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

where
r
1
= The radial position of the impeller’s inlet edge [m]
b
1
= The blade’s height at the inlet [m]
and for a semi-axial impeller this is: (4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

The entire fow must pass through this ring area. C
1m
is then calculated
from:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

The tangential velocity U
1
equals the product of radius and angular frequency:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

where
ω = Angular frequency [s
-1
]
n = Rotational speed [min
-1
]
When the velocity triangle has been drawn, see fgure 4.4, based on α
1
, C
1m

and U
1
, the relative fow angle β
1
can be calculated. Without inlet rotation
(C
1
= C
1m
) this becomes:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

Figure 4.3: Radial impeller at the top,
semi-axial impeller at the bottom.
Blade
Blade
Figure 4.4: Velocity triangle at inlet.
b
2
b
1
r
1
r
2
b
1
b
2
r
1, hub
r
2, hub
r
1, shroud
r
2, shroud
W
2
W
1
W
1
C
1
C
1U
C
2
C
2U
C
2m
C
1m
C
1m
U
2
U
1
U
1
β
1
α
1
β
2
α
2
63 63
4.1.2 Outlet
As with the inlet, the velocity triangle at the outlet is drawn as shown in
fgure 4.2 position 2. For a radial impeller, outlet area is calculated as:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

and for a semi axial impeller it is:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

C
2m
is calculated in the same way as for the inlet:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

The tangential velocity U is calculated from the following:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

In the beginning of the design phase, β
2
is assumed to have the same value
as the blade angle. The relative velocity can then be calculated from:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

and C
2U
as:

(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

Hereby the velocity triangle at the outlet has been determined and can now
be drawn, see fgure 4.5.
Figure 4.5: Velocity triangle at outlet.
U
2
= r
2
ω
U
1
= r
1
ω
r
1
ω
r
2
64 64
4. Pump theory
4.2 Euler’s pump equation
Euler’s pump equation is the most important equation in connection with
pump design. The equation can be derived in many diferent ways. The met-
hod described here includes a control volume which limits the impeller, the
moment of momentum equation which describes fow forces and velocity
triangles at inlet and outlet.
A control volume is an imaginary limited volume which is used for setting
up equilibrium equations. The equilibrium equation can be set up for tor-
ques, energy and other fow quantities which are of interest. The moment
of momentum equation is one such equilibrium equation, linking mass fow
and velocities with impeller diameter. A control volume between 1 and 2, as
shown in fgure 4.6, is often used for an impeller.
The balance which we are interested in is a torque balance. The torque (T)
from the drive shaft corresponds to the torque originating from the fuid’s
fow through the impeller with mass fow m=rQ:

(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

By multiplying the torque by the angular velocity, an expression for the
shaft power (P
2
) is found. At the same time, radius multiplied by the
angular velocity equals the tangential velocity, r
2
w = U
2
. This results in:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

According to the energy equation, the hydraulic power added to the fuid
can be written as the increase in pressure Δp
tot
across the impeller multi-
plied by the fow Q:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

Figure 4.6: Control volume for an impeller.
1
2
2
1
65 65
The head is defned as:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

and the expression for hydraulic power can therefore be transcribed to:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

If the fow is assumed to be loss free, then the hydraulic and mechanical
power can be equated:
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

This is the equation known as Euler’s equation, and it expresses the impel-
ler’s head at tangential and absolute velocities in inlet and outlet.
If the cosine relations are applied to the velocity triangles, Euler’s pump
equation can be written as the sum of the three contributions:
• Staticheadasconsequenceofthecentrifugalforce
• Staticheadasconsequenceofthevelocitychangethroughtheimpeller
• Dynamichead
(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
(4.12)
1 1 1
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
, 1 , 1
1
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub








+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π
1
1
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
1 1 1
60
2 r
n
r U
1
1
tan
U
C
m
=
1
β
2 2 2
2 b r A ⋅ ⋅ = π
2
, 2 , 2
2
2
2 b
r r
A
shroud hub









+
⋅ ⋅ = π
2
2
A
Q
C
impeller
m
=
ω π ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2 2 2
60
2 r
n
r U
2
β sin
2
2
m
C
W =
=
2
β tan
2
2
m
C
U −
2U
C
) (
1 1 2 2 U U
C r C r m T ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ =
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
U U
U U
U U
U U
2
C U C U Q
C U C U m
C r C r m
C r C r m
T P

. . . .
=

. . .
=

. . . . .
=

. . . .
=
=
ρ
ω ω
ω
ω
Q p P
tot hyd
⋅ ∆ =
g
p
H
tot


=
ρ
g H m g H Q P
hyd
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ρ
g
C U C U
H
C U C U m g H m
P P
U U
U U
2 hyd
) (
) (
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
⋅ − ⋅
=
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
=
Static head as consequence
of the centrifugal force
Static head as consequence
of the velocity change
through the impeller
Dynamic head
g
C C
g
W W
g
U U
H


+


+


=
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] m
2
[ ] Nm
[ ] m
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] W
[ ] m
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]
m
s
[ ]

If there is no fow through the impeller and it is assumed that there is no
inlet rotation, then the head is only determined by the tangential velocity
based on (4.17) where C
2U
= U
2
:
(4.19)
g
U
H =
2
2
0
[ ] m
β
2
< 90
o
β2
β1
β2
β1
β2
β1

2
>9 0
o
β
2
= 90
o
β
2
< 90
o
β2
β1
β2
β1
β2
β1

2
>9 0
o
β
2
= 90
o
β
2
< 90
o
β2
β1
β2
β1
β2
β1

2
>9 0
o
β
2
= 90
o
H
Q
H
fo
r b2
>
9
0
°
F
o
rw
a
rd
-sw
e
p
t b
la
d
e
s
H for b
2
= 90°
H
fo
r b
2
<
9
0
° B
ackw
ard
-sw
ep
t b
lad
es
66 66
When designing a pump, it is often assumed that there is no inlet rotation
meaning that C
1U
equeals zero.
4.3 Blade shape and pump curve
If it is assumed that there is no inlet rotation (C
1U
=0), a combination of Eul-
er’s pump equation (4.17) and equation (4.6), (4.8) and (4.11) show that the
head varies linearly with the fow, and that the slope depends on the outlet
angle β
2
:
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
Figure 4.7 and 4.8 illustrate the connection between the theoretical pump
curve and the blade shape indicated at β
2
.
Real pump curves are, however, curved due to diferent losses, slip, inlet
rotation, etc., This is further discussed in chapter 5.
Figure 4.7: Blade shapes depending on outlet angle
Figure 4.8: Theoretical pump curves calcu-
lated based on formula (4.21).
4. Pump theory
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
W
2
C
2
C
2m
U
g
1
H ⋅ ⋅ =
2
C
2U
β
2
α
2
67 67
4.4 Usage of Euler’s pump equation
There is a close connection between the impeller geometry, Euler’s pump
equation and the velocity triangles which can be used to predict the impact
of changing the impeller geometry on the head.
The individual part of Euler’s pump equation can be identifed in the outlet
velocity triangle, see fgure 4.9.
This can be used for making qualitative estimates of the efect of changing
impeller geometry or rotational speed.
Figure 4.9: Euler’s pump equation and the
matching vectors on velocity triangle
U
A
W
B
U
B
C
B
W
A
C
A
C
m,B
C
U,B
C
m,A
C
U,A
W
2,B
U
C
2,B
W
2
C
2
C
2m,B
C
2U,B
C
2m
C
2U
U
W C
C
m
C
U
β
2
β
2
H
Q
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
68 68
In the following, the efect of reducing the outlet width b
2
on the velocity
triangles is discussed. From e.g. (4.6) and (4.8), the velocity C
2m
can be seen
to be inversely proportional to b
2
. The size of C
2m
therefore increases when b
2

decreases. U
2
in equation (4.9) is seen to be independent of b
2
and remains
constant. The blade angle β
2
does not change when changing b
2
.
The velocity triangle can be plotted in the new situation, as shown in fgure
4.10. The fgure shows that the velocities C
2U
and C
2
will decrease and that
W
2
will increase. The head will then decrease according to equation (4.21).
The power which is proportional to the fow multiplied by the head will
decrease correspondingly. The head at zero fow, see formula (4.20), is
proportional to U
2
2
and is therefore not changed in this case. Figure 4.11
shows a sketch of the pump curves before and after the change.
Similar analysis can be made when the blade form is changed, see section
4.3, and by scaling of both speed and geometry, see section 4.5.
4.5 Afnity rules
By means of the so-called afnity rules, the consequences of certain changes
in the pump geometry and speed can be predicted with much precision.
The rules are all derived under the condition that the velocity triangles are
geometrically similar before and after the change. In the formulas below,
derived in section 4.5.1, index
A
refers to the original geometry and index
B
to
the scaled geometry.
Figure 4.10: Velocity triangle at changed
outlet width b
2
.
Figure 4.11: Change of head curve as
consequence of changed b
2
.
4. Pump theory
0,5
1,5
1
2,5
2
3
P
2
[kW]
H [m] η [%]
10
30
20
50
40
60
70
80
4
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
8
12
16
20
ø260 mm
ø247 mm
ø234 mm
ø221 mm
Q (m
3
/h)
69 69
Figure 4.12 shows an example of the changed head and power curves for a
pump where the impeller diameter is machined to diferent radii in order to
match diferent motor sizes at the same speed. The curves are shown based
on formula (4.26).
Figure 4.12: Examples of curves for
machined impellers at the same speed but
diferent radii.
70 70
4.5.1 Derivation of the afnity rules
The afnity method is very precise when adjusting the speed up and down
and when using geometrical scaling in all directions (3D scaling). The afni-
ty rules can also be used when wanting to change outlet width and outlet
diameter (2D scaling).
When the velocity triangles are similar, then the relation between the
corresponding sides in the velocity triangles is the same before and after
a change of all components, see fgure 4.13. The velocities hereby relate to
each other as:
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
The tangential velocity is expressed by the speed n and the impeller’s outer
diameter D
2
. The expression above for the relation between components
before and after the change of the impeller diameter can be inserted:
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
Figure 4.13: Velocity triangle
at scaled pump.
4. Pump theory
U
A
W
B
U
B
C
B
W
A
C
A
C
m,B
C
U,B
C
m,A
C
U,A
W
2,B
U
C
2,B
W
2
C
2
C
2m,B
C
2U,B
C
2m
C
2U
U
W C
C
m
C
U
β
2
β
2
71 71
Neglecting inlet rotation, the changes in fow, head and power consumption
can be expressed as follows:
Flow:
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
Head:
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
Power consumption :
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
C
1
C
1
- C
1U
+ C
1U
U
1
C
1
W
1
W
1
W
1
No inlet rotation
Counter rotation
Co-rotation
C
1m
W
1
U
1
C
1
C
1
C
1
C
1U
C
1U
W
1
W
1
b
1
a
1
a
1
a
1 b
1
b
1
72 72
4.6 Inlet rotation
Inlet rotation means that the fuid is rotating before it enters the impeller.
The fuid can rotate in two ways: either the same way as the impeller
(co-rotation) or against the impeller (counter-rotation). Inlet rotation occurs
as a consequence of a number of diferent factors, and a diferentation
between desired and undesired inlet rotation is made. In some cases inlet
rotation can be used for correction of head and power consumption.
In multi-stage pumps the fuid still rotates when it fows out of the
guide vanes in the previous stage. The impeller itself can create an inlet
rotation because the fuid transfers the impeller’s rotation back into the inlet
through viscous efects. In practise, you can try to avoid that the impeller
itself creates inlet rotation by placing blades in the inlet. Figure 4.14 shows
how inlet rotation afects the velocity triangle in the pump inlet.
According to Euler’s pump equation, inlet rotation corresponds to C
1U
being
diferent from zero, see fgure 4.14. A change of C
1U
and then also a change
in inlet rotation results in a change in head and hydraulic power. Co-rotation
results in smaller head and counter-rotation results in a larger head. It is
important to notice that this is not a loss mechanism.
Figure 4.14: Inlet velocity triangle at constant
fow and diferent inlet rotation situations.
4. Pump theory

β
2 β'
2
ω
W'
2
W'
2
W
2
W
2
U
2
C
2
C
2
C'
2
C'
2
U
2
C
2m
β' 2
β2
β
2 β'
2
ω
W'
2
W'
2
W
2
W
2
U
2
C
2
C
2
C'
2
C'
2
U
2
C
2m
β'
2
β
2
73 73
4.7 Slip
In the derivation of Euler’s pump equation it is assumed that the fow fol-
lows the blade. In reality this is, however, not the case because the fow
angle usually is smaller than the blade angle. This condition is called slip.
Nevertheless, there is close connection between the fow angle and blade
angle. An impeller has an endless number of blades which are extremely
thin, then the fow lines will have the same shape as the blades. When the
fow angle and blade angle are identical, then the fow is blade congruent,
see fgure 4.15.
The fow will not follow the shape of the blades completely in a real impel-
ler with a limited number of blades with fnite thickness. The tangential
velocity out of the impeller as well as the head is reduced due to this.
When designing impellers, you have to include the diference between fow
angle and blade angle. This is done by including empirical slip factors in the
calculation of the velocity triangles, see fgure 4.16. Empirical slip factors
are not further discussed in this book.
It is important to emphasize that slip is not a loss mechanism but just an
expression of the fow not following the blade.
Figure 4.15:
Blade congruent fow line: Dashed line.
Actualfowline:Solidline.
Figure 4.16: Velocity triangles where ‘ indi-
cates the velocity with slip.
Pressure side
Suctionside
74 74
4. Pump theory
4.8 Specifc speed of a pump
As described in chapter 1, pumps are classifed in many diferent ways for
examplebyusageorfangesize.Seenfromafuidmechanicalpointofview,
this is, however, not very practical because it makes it almost impossible to
compare pumps which are designed and used diferently.
A model number, the specifc speed (n
q
), is therefore used to classify pumps.
Specifc speed is given in diferent units. In Europe the following form is
commonly used:
n
n
n
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
v m F ⋅ =

2
v A v m I ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = ∆ ρ

F I = ∆
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
Q
g b D
U
g
U
H ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− =
2 2 2
2
2
2
) tan( π β
Scaling of
rotational speed
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2
Geometric
scaling
b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
u,A m,A
C
A
B
A B
C U
= =
(4.24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
(4.27)
(4.28)
2,A
D n U ⋅
=
2,A A A
2
2,A 2,A A 2,A 2,A 2,A 2,A
2 2 2
n b
2,B B
n b
D
2,B
D
D n b D C
C
b D Q
B
Q
C b D C A Q
2m,A
2m,B
2m 2m
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ =
π
2,B B 2,B 2,B
D n b D ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2,B 2,B
b D ⋅ ⋅ π
π
2 2
2,A 2,A 2,A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2,A

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|


\
|
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=

=
⋅ ⋅
=

=
n D D n D n C U g C U H
H
g
C U
H
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
B
A
2,B
n D
B
A
2,B 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ D n D n
B B
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ g C U
U,B
U,A
3 4
2,A 2,A A 2 2,A 2 2,A
2 2

|
|
.
|


\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ⋅ =

⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
n
B
n
b
2,B
b
D
2,B
D
H Q C U Q
Q
C U Q P
C U Q P
U,A
2 2,B
⋅ C U
U,B
A A
H Q
B B
U,A A
P
B
A A
B
U
ρ
2 2,B
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ C U Q
U,B B
ρ
ρ
4
3
2
1
H
Q
n n
q
⋅ = (4.29)
(4.20)
g
U
H =
2 2U
| |
⋅ C
m
| | N
| | N
| | N
| | m
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
A
u,B
d
d
d
m,B
C C U
B
A A
2,B
D n U ⋅
B B
Where
n
d
= rotational speed in the design point [min
-1
]
Q
d
= Flow at the design point [m
3
/s]
H
d
= Head at the design point [m]
The expression for n
q
can be derived from equation (4.22) and (4.23) as the
speed which yields a head of 1 m at a fow of 1 m
3
/s.
The impeller and the shape of the pump curves can be predicted based on the
specifc speed, see fgur 4.17.
Pumps with low specifc speed, so-called low n
q
pumps, have a radial out-
let with large outlet diameter compared to inlet diameter. The head curves
are relatively fat, and the power curve has a positive slope in the entire fow
area.
On the contrary, pumps with high specifc speed, so-called high n
q
pumps,
have an increasingly axial outlet, with small outlet diameter compared to the
width. Head curves are typically descending and have a tendency to create
saddle points. Performance curves decreases when fow increases. Diferent
pump sizes and pump types have diferent maximum efciency.
Performance curves Impeller shape
n
q
15
30
50
90
110
Outlet velocity
triangle
P
d
H
100
45
Q/Q
d
130 100 0
P
d
H
100
60
Q/Q
d
140 100 0
P
d
H
Q/Q
d
155 100 0
H
110 P
100 P
d
Q/Q
d
165 100 0
%
%
%
P
d
P
d
P
H
H
130 P
100 P
d
100
100
80
70
100
55
H
d
Q/Q
d
170 100 0
%
H
H
d
% H
H
d
d
2
/d
1
= 3.5 - 2.0
d
2
/d
1
= 2.0 - 1.5
d
2
/d
1
= 1.5 - 1.3
d
2
/d
1
= 1.2 - 1.1
d
1
= d
2
d
2
C
2
C
2U
C
2
C
2U
C
2
C
2U
C
2
C
2
C
2
C
2U
C
2U
C
2U
U
2
W
2
U
2
W
2
W
2
W
2
W
2
W
2
U
2
U
2
U
2
U
2

d
2
d
2
d
2
d
2
d
1
d
1
d
1
d
1
d
1
100 P
80 P
d
%
% H
H
d
% H
H
d
100 P
70 P
d
%
100 P
65 P
d
%
75 75
4.9 Summary
In this chapter we have described the basic physical conditions which are the
basis of any pump design. Euler’s pump equation has been desribed, and we
have shown examples of how the pump equation can be used to predict a
pump’s performance. Furthermore, we have derived the afnity equations
and shown how the afnity rules can be used for scaling pump performance.
Finally, we have introduced the concept of specifc speed and shown how
diferent pumps can be diferentiated on the basis of this.
Figure 4.17: Impeller shape, outlet velocity
triangle and performance curve as function
of specifc speed n
q
.
Chapter 5
Pump losses
5.1 Loss types
5.2 Mechanical losses
5.3 Hydraulic losses
5.4 Loss distribution as function of specifc speed
5.5 Summary
Figure 5.1: Reduction of theoretical Euler
head due to losses.
Q
H
P
Q
Recirculation losses
Leakage
Euler head
Flow friction
Incidence
Pump curve
Q
H
P
Q
Figure 5.2: Increase in power consumption
due to losses.
Mechanical losses
Disk friction
Shaft power P
2
Hydraulic power P
hyd
Hydraulic losses
Loss
Smaller
flow (Q)
Lower head (H)
Higher power
consumption (P
2
)
Mechanical
losses
Bearing
Shaft seal
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Flow friction Hydraulic
losses
Mixing
Recirculation
Incidence
Disk friction
Leakage
78 78
5. Pump losses
As described in chapter 4, Euler’s pump equation provides a simple, loss-
free description of the impeller performance. In reality, because of a number
of mechanical and hydraulic losses in impeller and pump casing, the pump
performance is lower than predicted by the Euler pump equation. The losses
cause smaller head than the theoretical and higher power consumption, see
fgures 5.1 and 5.2. The result is a reduction in efciency. In this chapter we
describe the diferent types of losses and introduce some simple models for
calculating the magnitude of the losses. The models can also be used for
analysis of the test results, see appendix B.
5.1 Loss types
Distinction is made between two primary types of losses: mechanical losses
and hydraulic losses which can be divided into a number of subgroups. Table
5.1 shows how the diferent types of loss afect fow (Q), head (H) and power
consumption (P
2
).
Pump performance curves can be predicted by means of theoretical or em-
pirical calculation models for each single type of loss. Accordance with the
actual performance curves depends on the models’ degree of detail and to
what extent they describe the actual pump type.
5. Pump losses
Chart 5. 1: Losses in pumps and their infuence on the pump curves.
79 79

Figure 5.3 shows the components in the pump which cause mechanical and
hydraulic losses. It involves bearings, shaft seal, front and rear cavity seal, in-
let, impeller and volute casing or return channel. Throughout the rest of the
chapter this fgure is used for illustrating where each type of loss occurs.
Figure 5.3: Loss causing
components.
Volute
Difuser
Inner impeller surface
Outer impeller surface
Front cavity seal
Inlet
Bearings and shaft seal
80 80
5. Pump losses
5.2 Mechanical losses
The pump coupling or drive consists of bearings, shaft seals, gear, depending
on pump type. These components all cause mechanical friction loss. The
following deals with losses in the bearings and shaft seals.
5.2.1 Bearing loss and shaft seal loss
Bearing and shaft seal losses - also called parasitic losses - are caused by
friction. They are often modelled as a constant which is added to the power
consumption. The size of the losses can, however, vary with pressure and
rotational speed.
The following model estimates the increased power demand due to losses
in bearings and shaft seal:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
P
loss, mechanical
= Increased power demand because of mechanical loss [W]
P
loss, bearing
= Power lost in bearings [W]
P
loss, shaft seal
= Power lost in shaft seal [W]
5.3 Hydraulic losses
Hydraulic losses arise on the fuid path through the pump. The losses occur
because of friction or because the fuid must change direction and velocity
on its path through the pump. This is due to cross-section changes and the
passage through the rotating impeller. The following sections describe the
individual hydraulic losses depending on how they arise.
H
loss,friktion
V
81 81
5.3.1 Flow friction
Flow friction occurs where the fuid is in contact with the rotating impel-
ler surfaces and the interior surfaces in the pump casing. The fow friction
causes a pressure loss which reduces the head. The magnitude of the friction
loss depends on the roughness of the surface and the fuid velocity relative
to the surface.
Model
Flow friction occurs in all the hydraulic components which the fuid fows
through. The fow friction is typically calculated individually like a pipe fric-
tion loss, this means as a pressure loss coefcient multiplied with the dy-
namic head into the component:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
ζ = Dimensionless loss coefcient [-]
H
dyn, in
= Dynamic head into the component [m]
V = Flow velocity into the component [m/s]
The friction loss thus grows quadratically with the fow velocity, see fgure 5.4.
Loss coefcients can be found e.g. in (MacDonald, 1997). Single components
such as inlet and outer sleeve which are not directly afected by the impeller
can typically be modelled with a constant loss coefcient. Impeller, volute
housing and return channel will on the contrary typically have a variable loss
coefcient. When the fow friction in the impeller is calculated, the relative
velocity must be used in equation (5.2).
Figure 5.4: Friction loss as function of
the fow velocity.
82 82
5. Pump losses
Friction loss in pipes
Pipe friction is the loss of energy which occurs in a pipe with fowing fuid. At
the wall, the fuid velocity is zero whereas it attains a maximum value at the
pipe center. Due to these velocity diferences across the pipe, see fgure 5.5,
the fuid molecules rub against each other. This transforms kinetic energy to
heat energy which can be considered as lost.
To maintain a fow in the pipe, an amount of energy corresponding to the
energy which is lost must constantly be added. Energy is supplied by static
pressure diference from inlet to outlet. It is said that it is the pressure difer-
ence which drives the fuid through the pipe.
The loss in the pipe depends on the fuid velocity, the hydraulic diameter
of the pipe, lenght and inner surface roughness. The head loss is calculated
as:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
H
loss, pipe
= Head loss [m]
f = Friction coefcient [-]
L = Pipe length [m]
V = Average velocity in the pipe [m/s]
D
h
= Hydraulic diameter [m]
The hydraulic diameter is the ratio of the cross-sectional area to the wetted
circumference. The hydraulic diameter is suitable for calculating the friction
for cross-sections of arbitrary form.
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
A = The cross-section area of the pipe [m
2
]
O = The wetted circumference of the pipe [m]
V
Figure 5.5: Velocity profle in pipe.
83 83
Equation (5.4) applies in general for all cross-sectional shapes. In cases where
the pipe has a circular cross-section, the hydraulic diameter is equal to the
pipe diameter. The circular pipe is the cross-section type which has the
smallest possible interior surface compared to the cross-section area and
therefore the smallest fow resistance.
The friction coefcient is not constant but depends on whether the fow is
laminar or turbulent. This is described by the Reynold’s number, Re:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
n = Kinematic viscosity of the fuid [m
2
/s]

The Reynold’s number is a dimensionless number which expresses the re-
lation between inertia and friction forces in the fuid, and it is therefore a
number that describes how turbulent the fow is. The following guidelines
apply for fows in pipes:
Re < 2300 : Laminar fow
2300 < Re < 500 : Transition zone
Re > 5000 : Turbulent fow.
Laminar fow only occurs at relatively low velocities and describes a calm,
well-ordered fow without eddies. The friction coefcient for laminar fow is
independent of the surface roughness and is only a function of the Reynold’s
number. The following applies for pipes with circular cross-section:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
84 84
5. Pump losses
Figure 5.6: Moody chart:
Friction coefcient for laminar (circular
cross-section) and turbulent fow (arbitrary
cross-section). The red line refers to the
values in example 5.1.
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
0.008
0.009
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.04
64
Re
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0. 1
Reynolds number ( Re=V · D
h
/ν )

F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t


(

f

)


R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e


r
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s

(

k
/
D
h

)
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.0008
0.0006
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
0.00001
0.000005 0.000001
S
m
o
o
t
h
p
i
p
e
L
a
m
i
n
a
r

T
r
a
n
s
i
t
i
o
n

z
o
n
e
Turbulent

Turbulent fow is an unstable fow with strong mixing. Due to eddy motion
most pipe fows are in practise turbulent. The friction coefcient for turbu-
lent fow depends on the Reynold’s number and the pipe roughness.
Figure 5.6 shows a Moody chart which shows the friction coefcient f as
function of Reynold’s number and surface roughness for laminar and tur-
bulent fows.
85 85
Example 5.1: Calculation of pipe loss
Calculate the pipe loss in a 2 meter pipe with the diameter d=32 mm and a
fow of Q=10 m
3
/h. The pipe is made of galvanized steel with a roughness of
0.15 mm, and the fuid is water at 20°C.
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
From the Moody chart, the friction coefcent (f) is 0.031 when Re =
110500 and the relative roughness k/D
h
=0.0047. By inserting the values in
the equation (5.3), the pipe loss can be calculated to:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
Table 5.2 shows the roughness for diferent materials. The friction increases
in old pipes because of corrosion and sediments.
PVC
Pipe in aluminium, copper og brass
Steel pipe
Welded steel pipe, new
Welded steel pipe with deposition
Galvanised steel pipe, new
Galvanised steel pipe with deposition
0.01-0.05
0-0.003
0.01-0.05
0.03-0.15
0.15-0.30
0.1-0.2
0.5-1.0

Materials Roughness k [mm]
Table 5.2: Roughness for diferent
surfaces (Pumpeståbi, 2000).
A
2
A
2
A
1
A1
A
2
A
1
V
1
V
2
86 86
5. Pump losses
5.3.2 Mixing loss at cross-section expansion
Velocity energy is transformed to static pressure energy at cross-section ex-
pansions in the pump, see the energy equation in formula (2.10). The conver-
sion is associated with a mixing loss.
The reason is that velocity diferences occur when the cross-section ex-
pands, see fgure 5.7. The fgure shows a difuser with a sudden expansion
beacuse all water particles no longer move at the same speed, friction occurs
between the molecules in the fuid which results in a diskharge head loss.
Even though the velocity profle after the cross-section expansion gradually
is evened out, see fgure 5.7, a part of the velocity energy is turned into heat
energy instead of static pressure energy.
Mixing loss occurs at diferent places in the pump: At the outlet of the im-
peller where the fuid fows into the volute casing or return channel as well
as in the difuser.
When designing the hydraulic components, it is important to create small
and smooth cross-section expansions as possible.
Model
The loss at a cross-section expansion is a function of the dynamic head into
the component.

(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
V
1
= Fluid velocity into the component [m/s]
The pressure loss coefcient ζ depends on the area relation between the com-
ponent’s inlet and outlet as well as how evenly the area expansion happens.
Figure 5.7: Mixing loss at cross-section
expansion shown for a sudden expansion.
V
1
A
1
V
0
A
0
V
2
A
2
87 87
For a sudden expansion, as shown in fgure 5.7, the following expression is used:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
A
1
= Cross-section area at inlet [m
2
]
A
2
= Cross-section area at outlet [m
2
]
The model gives a good estimate of the head loss at large expansion ratios
(A
1
/A
2
close to zero). In this case the loss coefcient is ζ = 1 in equation (5.9)
which means that almost the entire dynamic head into the component is
lost in a sharp-edged difuser.
For small expansion ratios as well as for other difuser geometries with
smooth area expansions, the loss coefcient ζ is found by table lookup
(MacDonalds) or by measurements.
5.3.3 Mixing loss at cross-section contraction

Head loss at cross-section contraction occurs as a consequence of eddies being
created in the fow when it comes close to the geometry edges, see fgure 5.8.
It is said that the fow ’separates’. The reason for this is that the fow because
of the local pressure gradients no longer adheres in parallel to the surface but
instead will follow curved streamlines. This means that the efective cross-
section area which the fow experiences is reduced. It is said that a contraction
is made. The contraction with the area A
0
is marked on fgure 5.8. The contraction
accelerates the fow and it must therefore subsequently decelerate again to
fll the cross-section. A mixing loss occurs in this process. Head loss as a
consequence of cross-section contraction occurs typically at inlet to a pipe
and at the impeller eye. The magnitude of the loss can be considerably reduced
by rounding the inlet edges and thereby suppress separation. If the inlet is
adequately rounded of, the loss is insignifcant. Losses related to cross-section
contraction is typically of minor importance.
Figure 5.8: Loss at cross-section contraction.
Contraction
AR = A
2
/A
1
AR = A
1
/A
2
Area ratio
H
loss,expansion
= ζ
.
H
dyn,1
H
loss,contraction
= ζ
.
H
dyn,2
Pressure loss coefficient ζ
1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
A
1
A
2
A
1
A
2
88 88
5. Pump losses
Model
Based on experience, it is assumed that the acceleration of the fuid from V
1

to V
0
is loss-free, whereas the subsequent mixing loss depends on the area
ratio now compared to the contraction A
0
as well as the dynamic head in the
contraction:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
V
0
= Fluid velocity in contraction [m/s]
A
0
/A
2
= Area ratio [-]
The disadvantage of this model is that it assumes knowledge of A
0
which is
not directly measureable. The following alternative formulation is therefore
often used:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
H
dyn,2
= Dynamic head out of the component [m]
V
2
= Fluid velocity out of the component [m/s]
Figure 5.9 compares loss coefcients at sudden cross-section expansions
and –contractions as function of the area ratio A
1
/A
2
between the inlet and
outlet. As shown, the loss coefcient, and thereby also the head loss, is in
general smaller at contractions than in expansions. This applies in particular
at large area ratios.
The head loss coefcient for geometries with smooth area changes can be
found by table lookup. As mentioned earlier, the pressure loss in a cross-sec-
tion contraction can be reduced to almost zero by rounding of the edges.
Figure 5.9: Head loss coefcents at sudden
cross-section contractions and expansions.
89 89

5.3.4 Recirculation loss

Recirculation zones in the hydraulic components typically occur at part
load when the fow is below the design fow. Figure 5.10 shows an example
of recirculation in the impeller. The recirculation zones reduce the efec-
tive cross-section area which the fow experiences. High velocity gradients
occurs in the fow between the main fow which has high velocity and
the eddies which have a velocity close to zero. The result is a considerable
mixing loss.
Recirculation zones can occur in inlet, impeller, return channel or volute
casing. The extent of the zones depends on geometry and operating point.
When designing hydraulic components, it is important to minimise the size
of the recirculation zones in the primary operating points.
Model
There are no simple models to describe if recirculation zones occur and if so to
which extent. Only by means of advanced laser based velocity measurements
or time consuming computer simulations, it is possible to map the recirculation
zones in details. Recirculation is therefore generally only identifed indirectly
through a performance measurement which shows lower head and/or higher
power consumption at partial load than predicted.
When designing pumps, the starting point is usually the nominal operating
point. Normally reciculation does not occur here and the pump performance
can therefore be predicted fairly precisely. In cases where the fow is below
the nominal operating point, one often has to use rule of thumb to predict the
pump curves.
Figure 5.10: Example of recirculation in
impeller.
Recirculation zones
W
1
,k
a
n
a
l
W
1
β
1
β´
1
90 90
5. Pump losses

5.3.5 Incidence loss

Incidence loss occurs when there is a diference between the fow angle and
blade angle at the impeller or guide vane leading edges. This is typically the
case at part load or when prerotation exists.
A recirculation zone occurs on one side of the blade when there is diference
between the fow angle and the blade angle, see fgure 5.11. The recirculation
zone causes a fow contraction after the blade leading edge. The fow must
once again decelerate after the contraction to fll the entire blade channel
and mixing loss occurs.
At of-design fow, incidence losses also occur at the volute tongue. The de-
signer must therefore make sure that fow angles and blade angles match
each other so the incidence loss is minimised. Rounding blade edges and vo-
lute casing tongue can reduce the incidence loss.
Model
The magnitude of the incidence loss depends on the diference between rela-
tive velocities before and after the blade leading edge and is calculated using
the following model (Pfeiderer og Petermann, 1990, p 224):
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
ϕ = Emperical value which is set to 0.5-0.7 depending on the size of the recir-
culation zone after the blade leading edge.
w
s
= diference between relative velocities before and after the blade edge
using vector calculation, see fgure 5.12.
Figure 5.12: Nomenclature for incidence loss
model.
Figure 5.11: Incidence loss at inlet to impeller
or guide vanes.
Q
design
Q
H
loss, incidence
k
2
e
91 91
Incidence loss is alternatively modelled as a parabola with minimum at the
best efciency point. The incidence loss increases quadratically with the dif-
ference between the design fow and the actual fow, see fgure 5.13.
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
Q
design
= Design fow [m
3
/s]
k
1
= Constant [s
2
/m
5
]
k
2
= Constant [m]
5.3.6 Disk friction
Disk friction is the increased power consumption which occurs on the shroud
and hub of the impeller because it rotates in a fuid-flled pump casing. The
fuid in the cavity between impeller and pump casing starts to rotate and
creates a primary vortex, see section 1.2.5. The rotation velocity equals the
impeller’s at the surface of the impeller, while it is zero at the surface of
the pump casing. The average velocity of the primary vortex is therefore as-
sumed to be equal to one half of the rotational velocity.
The centrifugal force creates a secondary vortex movement because of the
diference in rotation velocity between the fuid at the surfaces of the impel-
ler and the fuid at the pump casing, see fgure 5.14. The secondary vortex in-
creases the disk friction because it transfers energy from the impeller surface
to the surface of the pump casing.
The size of the disk friction depends primarily on the speed, the impeller di-
ameter as well as the dimensions of the pump housing in particular the dis-
tance between impeller and pump casing. The impeller and pump housing
surface roughness has, furthermore, a decisive importance for the size of the
disk friction. The disk friction is also increased if there are rises or dents on
the outer surface of the impeller e.g. balancing blocks or balancing holes.
Figure 5.13: Incidence loss as function of
the fow.
Figure 5.14: Disk friction on impeller.
Secondary
vortex
92 92
5. Pump losses
Model
Pfeiderer and Petermann (1990, p. 322) use the following model to deter-
mine the increased power consumption caused by disk friction:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
D
2
= Impeller diameter [m]
e = Axial distance to wall at the periphery of the impeller [m], see fgure
5.14
U
2
= Peripheral velocity [m/s]
n = Kinematic viscosity [m
2
/s], n =10
-6
[m
2
/s] for water at 20°C.
k = Emperical value
m = Exponent equals 1/6 for smooth surfaces and between 1/7 to 1/9
for rough surfaces
If changes are made to the design of the impeller, calculated disk friction
P
loss,disk,A
can be scaled to estimate the disk friction P
loss,disk,B
at another impel-
ler diameter or speed:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
The scaling equation can only be used for relative small design changes.
5.3.7 Leakage

Leakage loss occurs because of smaller circulation through gaps between
the rotating and fxed parts of the pump. Leakage loss results in a loss in ef-
fciency because the fow in the impeller is increased compared to the fow
through the entire pump:
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,2
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,3
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,4
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,2
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,3
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,4
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,2
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,3
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,4
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,2
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,3
Q
leakage,1
Q
leakage,4
93 93

(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
Q
impeller
= Flow through impeller [m
3
/s], Q

= Flow through pump [m
3
/s] , Q
leakage
= Leakage fow [m
3
/s]
Leakage occurs many diferent places in the pump and depends on the pump
type. Figure 5.15 shows where leakage typically occurs. The pressure difer-
ences in the pump which drives the leakage fow as shown in fgure 5.16.
The leakage between the impeller and the casing at impeller eye and
through axial relief are typically of the same size. The leakage fow between
guidevane and shaft in multi-stage pumps are less important because both
pressure diference and gap area are smaller.
To minimise the leakage fow, it is important to make the gaps as small as
possible. When the pressure diference across the gap is large, it is in par-
ticular important that the gaps are small.
Model
The leakage can be calculated by combining two diferent expressions for
the diference in head across the gap: The head diference generated by
the impeller, equation (5.17) and the head loss for the fow through the gap
equation (5.18). Both expressions are necessary to calculate the leak fow.
In the following an example of the leakage between impeller eye and pump
housing is shown. First the diference in head across the gap generated by
the impeller is calculated. The head diference across the gap depends on
the static head above the impeller and of the fow behaviour in the cavity
between impeller and pump casing:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
Leakage between impeller eye and
pump casing.
Leakage above blades in an open
impeller

Leakage between guidevanes and shaft in a
multi-stage pump
Leakage as a result of balancing holes

Figure 5.15: Types of leakage
L
s
D
spalte
D
2
94 94
5. Pump losses
where
ω
f
= Rotational velocity of the fuid in the cavity between impeller
and pump casing [rad/s]
D
gap
= Inner diameter of the gap [m]
H
stat, impeller
= Impeller static head rise [m]
The head diference across the gap can also be calculated as the head loss of
the fow through the gap, see fgure 5.17. The head loss is the sum of the fol-
lowing three types of losses: Loss due to sudden contraction when the fuid
runs into the gap, friction loss between fuid and wall, and mixing loss due
to sudden expansion of the outlet of the gap.
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
where
f = Friction coefcient [-]
L = Gap length [m]
s = Gap width [m]
V = Fluid velocity in gap [m/s]
A
gap
= Cross-section area of gap [m
2
]
The friction coefcient can be set to 0.025 or alternatively be found more
precisely in a Moody chart, see fgure 5.6.
By isolating the velocity V in the equation (5.18) and inserting H
stat,gap
from
equation (5.17), the leakage can be calculated:
(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)
(5.7)
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
(5.14)
(5.15)
constant P P P
loss, shaft seal loss, bearing loss, mechanical
= + =
g 2
V
H H
2
dyn, in loss, friktion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2 D
LV
f H
h
2
loss, pipe
=
O
A 4
D
h
=
ν
=
h
VD
Re
Re
64
f
laminar
=
0.0047
32mm
0.15mm
k/D Relative roughness:
110500
s m 10 1
0.032m 3.45m s VD
Re Reynolds number:
s m 3.45
m 0.032
4
s m (10/3600)
A
Q
V Mean velocity:
h
2 6
h
2 2
3
= =
=


=
ν
=
=
π
= =

s m
s m
g D
LV
f H
h
loss, pipe
1.2 m
9.81 2 0.032m
) 3.45 ( 2m
0.031
2
Pipe loss:
2
2
2
=
⋅ ⋅

= =
g 2
V
H H
2
1
dyn,1 loss, expansion
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
2
2
1
A
A
1
(
¸
(

¸

− = ζ
g 2
V
A
A
1 H
2
0
2
2
0
loss, contraction

(
¸
(

¸

− =
g 2
V
H H
2
2
dyn,2 loss, contraction
⋅ ζ = ⋅ ζ =
g 2
w w
g 2
w
H
2
1, kanal 1
2
s
loss, incidence


ϕ =

ϕ =
2
2
design 1 loss, incidence
k ) Q Q ( k H + − ⋅ =
m
2 2
6
4
2 2
3
2 loss, disk
D U
10 2
10 3 . 7 k
) e 5 D ( D U kρ P
|
|
.
|


\
| ⋅ ν
⋅ =
+ =

( ) ( )
( )
( )
B
5
2
3
A
5
2
3
B
loss, disk
A
loss, disk
D n
D n
P P =
(5.16)
(5.17)
(5.18)
(5.19)
leakage impeller
Q Q Q + =
( )
g 8
D D
H H
2
gap
2
2
2
stat, impeller stat, gap

ω − =
g 2
V
1.0
g 2
V
s
L
f
g 2
V
0.5 H
2 2 2
stat, gap
+ + =
gap leakage
stat, gap
VA Q
1.5
s
L
f
2gH
V
=
+
=
Figure 5.17: Pressure diference across the
gap through the friction loss consideration.
Figure 5.16: The leakage is drived by the
pressure diference across the impeller.
Low pressure High pressure
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
65
60
55
10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
n
q
[min
-1
]
η [%]
� � � � � ���
� � �
� � �� ���� � � ��� �
� � �� �
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
65
60
55
10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
n
q
[min
-1
]
η [%]
� � � � � ���
� � �
� � �� ���� � � ��� �
� � �� �
95 95
5.4 Loss distribution as function of specifc speed
The ratio between the described mechanical and hydraulic losses depends
on the specifc speed n
q
, which describes the shape of the impeller, see sec-
tion 4.6. Figure 5.18 shows how the losses are distributed at the design point
(Ludwig et al., 2002).
Flow friction and mixing loss are signifcant for all specifc speeds and are the
dominant loss type for higher specifc speeds (semi-axial and axial impellers).
For pumps with low n
q
(radial impellers) leakage and disk friction on the hub
and shroud of the impeller will in general result in considerable losses.
At of-design operation, incidence and recirculation losses will occur.
5.5 Summary
In this chapter we have described the individual mechanical and hydraulic
loss types which can occur in a pump and how these losses afect fow, head
and power consumption. For each loss type we have made a simple physical
description as well as shown in which hydraulic components the loss typi-
cally occurs. Furthermore, we have introduced some simple models which
can be used for estimating the magnitude of the losses. At the end of the
chapter we have shown how the losses are distributed depending on the
specifc speeds.
Figure 5.18: Loss distribution in a centrifugal
pump as function of specifc speed n
q

(Ludwig et al., 2002).
Mechanical loss
Leakage loss
Disk friction
Flow friction and mixing losses
Hydraulic efciency
Chapter 6
Pump tests
6.1 Test types
6.2 Measuring pump performance
6.3 Measurement of the pump’s NPSH
6.4 Measurement of force
6.5 Uncertainty in measurement of performance
6.6 Summary
S'
1
H'
1
H
1
H
2
H
z'
1
H'
2
z
2
S
1
S
2
S'
2
z
1
z'
2
z'
M1
z'
M2
p
M1
p
M2
p'
1
r
.
g
U'
1
2

2
.
g
U
1
2
2
.
g
p
1
r
.
g
U'
2
2

2
.
g
U
2
2

2
.
g
p
2
r
.
g
p'
2
r
.
g
H
loss,friction,1
H
loss,friction,2
98 98
6. Pump tests
6. Pump tests
This chapter describes the types of tests Grundfos continuosly performs on
pumps and their hydraulic components. The tests are made on prototypes in
development projects and for maintenance and fnal inspection of produced
pumps.
6.1 Test types
For characterisation of a pump or one of its hydraulic parts, fow, head, pow-
er consumption, NPSH and force impact are measured. When testing a com-
plete pump, i.e. motor and hydraulic parts together, the motor characteristic
must be available to be able to compute the performance of the hydraulic
part of the pump. For comparison of tests, it is important that the tests are
done identically. Even small diferences in mounting of the pump in the test
bench can result in signifcant diferences in the measured values and there
is a risk of drawing wrong conclusions from the test comparison.
Flow, head, power consumption, NPSH and forces are all integral perform-
ance parameters. For validation of computer models and failure fnding,
detailed fow feld measurements are needed. Here the velocities and pres-
sures are measured in a number of discrete points inside the pump using
e.g. LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry)
for velocity, see fgure 6.1 and for pressure, pitot tubes and pressures trans-
ducers that can measure fast fuctuations.
The following describes how to measure the integral performance param-
eters, i.e. fow, head, power consumption, NSPH and forces. For characteri-
sation of motors see the Motor compendium (Motor Engineering, R&T). For
fow feld measurements consult the specialist literature, e.g. (Albrecht,
2002).
Figure 6.1: Velocity feld in impeller measured
with PIV.
H
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
4
8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Q
Q
P
2
99 99
6.2 Measuring pump performance
Pump performance is usually described by curves of measured head and
power consumption versus measured fow, see fgure 6.2. From these meas-
ured curves, an efciency curve can be calculated. The measured pump per-
formance is used in development projects for verifcation of computer mod-
els and to show that the pump meets the specifcation.
During production, the performance curves are measured to be sure they
correspond to the catalogue curves within standard tolerances.
Flow, head and power consumption are measured during operation in a test
bench that can imitate the system characteristics the pump can be exposed
to. By varying the fow resistance in the test bench, a number of correspond-
ing values of fow, diferential pressure, power consumption and rotational
speed can be measured to create the performance curves. Power consump-
tion can be measured indirectly if a motor characteristic that contains cor-
responding values for rotational speed, electrical power, and shaft power is
available. Pump performance depends on rotational speed and therefore it
must be measured.
During development, the test is done in a number of operating points from
shut-of, i.e. no fow to maximum fow and in reversal from maximum fow
to shut-of. To resolve the performance curves adequately, 10 - 15 operating
points are usually enough.
Maintenance tests and fnal inspection tests are made as in house inspec-
tion tests or as certifcate tests to provide the customer with documentation
of the pump performance. Here 2 - 5 predefned operating points are usally
sufcient. The fow is set and the corresponding head, electrical power con-
sumption and possibly rotational speed are measured. The electrical power
consumption is measured because the complete product performance is
wanted.
Figure 6.2: Measured head and power curve
as function of the fow.
4 x D 2 x D
Valve
Pipe contraction
Pipe expansion
Pipe bend
2 x D 2 x D
100 100
Grundfos builds test benches according to in-house standards where
GS241A0540 is the most signifcant. The test itself is in accordance with the
international standard ISO 9906.
6.2.1 Flow
To measure the fow, Grundfos uses magnetic inductive fowmeters. These
are integrated in the test bench according to the in-house standard. Other
fow measuring techniques based on orifce, vortex meters, and turbine
wheels exist.
6.2.2 Pressure
Grundfos states pump performance in head and not pressure since head is in-
dependent of the pumped fuid, see section 2.4. Head is calculated from total
pressure measured up and down stream of the pump and density of the fuid.
The total pressure is the sum of the static and dynamic pressure. The static
pressure is measured with a pressure transducer, and the dynamic pressure
is calculated from pipe diameters at the pressure outlets and fow. If the
pressure transducers up and down stream of the pump are not located at
the same height above ground, the geodetic pressure enters the expression
for total pressure.
To achieve a good pressure measurement, the velocity profle must be uni-
form and non-rotating. The pump, pipe bends and valves afect the fow
causing a nonuniform and rotating velocity profle in the pipe. The pressure
taps must therefore be placed at a minimum distance to pump, pipe bends
and other components in the pipe system, see fgure 6.3.
The pressure taps before the pump must be placed two pipe diameters up-
stream the pump, and at least four pipe diameters downstream pipe bends
and valves, see fgure 6.3. The pressure tap after the pump must be placed
two pipe diameters after the pump, and at least two pipe diameters before
any fow disturbances such as bends and valves.
Figure 6.3: Pressure measurement outlet
before and after the pump. Pipe diameter, D,
is the pipe’s internal diameter.
6. Pump tests
+
101 101
The pressure taps are designed so that the velocity in the pipe afects the
static pressure measurement the least possible. To balance a possible bias in
the velocity profle, each pressure tab has four measuring holes so that the
measured pressure will be an average, see fgure 6.4.
The measuring holes are drilled perpendicular in the pipe wall making them
perpendicular to the fow. The measuring holes are small and have sharp
edges to minimise the creation of vorticies in and around the holes, see
fgure 6.5.
It is important that the pressure taps and the connection to the pressure
transducer are completely vented before the pressure measurement is
made. Air in the tube between the pressure tap and transducer causes er-
rors in the pressure measurement.
The pressure transducer measures the pressure at the end of the pressure
tube. The measurements are corrected for diference in height Δz between
the center of the pressure tap and the transducer to know the pressure at
the pressure tap itself, see fgure 6.4. Corrections for diference in height are
also made between the pressure taps on the pump’s inlet and outlet side.
If the pump is mounted in a well with free surface, the diference in height
between fuid surface and the pressure tap on the pump’s outlet side must
be corrected, see section 6.2.4.
6.2.3 Temperature
The temperature of the fuid must be known to determine its density. The
density is used for conversion between pressure and head and is found by
table look up, see the chart ”Physical properties of water” at the back of the
book.
Figure 6.5: Draft of pressure tap.
Figure 6.4: Pressure taps which average over
four measuring holes.
Pressure gauge
Venting
Dz
H
1
H
'
2
H
2
H
loss,friction,1
H
loss,friction, 2
H
S
'
1
H
'
1
S
1
S
2
S
'
2
102 102
Figure 6.6: Draft of pump test on
a piping.
6.2.4 Calculation of head
The head can be calculated when fow, pressure, fuid
type, temperature and geometric sizes such as pipe
diameter, distances and heights are known. The total
head from fange to fange is defned by the following
equation:
(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.3)
(6.4)
(6.5)
1 2
H H H − =
( ) ( )
1 2
' '
loss, friction,2 loss, friction,1
H H H H H − − + =
Dynamic pressure Static pressure
Geodetic pressure
g
U U
g
p p
z z H


+


+ − =
2
2
1
2
2 1 2
1 2
ρ
(
¸
(

¸



+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+

(
¸
(

¸

+

+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+ =
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
'
'
'
'
2
'
'
'
'
loss, friction,1 M
M
loss, friction, 2 M
M
H
g
U
z
g
p
z
H
g
U
z
g
p
z H
ρ
ρ
g
p
H z
g
V p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, friction, geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

⋅ ⋅ + +
=
ρ ρ
ρ
2
1
5 . 0
Figure 6.6 shows where the measurements are made.
The pressure outlets and the matching heads are marked
with a ( ’ ). The pressure outlets are thus found in the po-
sitions S’
1
and S’
2
and the expression for the total head
is therefore:

(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.3)
(6.4)
(6.5)
1 2
H H H − =
( ) ( )
1 2
' '
loss, friction,2 loss, friction,1
H H H H H − − + =
Dynamic pressure Static pressure
Geodetic pressure
g
U U
g
p p
z z H


+


+ − =
2
2
1
2
2 1 2
1 2
ρ
(
¸
(

¸



+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+

(
¸
(

¸

+

+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+ =
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
'
'
'
'
2
'
'
'
'
loss, friction,1 M
M
loss, friction, 2 M
M
H
g
U
z
g
p
z
H
g
U
z
g
p
z H
ρ
ρ
g
p
H z
g
V p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, friction, geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

⋅ ⋅ + +
=
ρ ρ
ρ
2
1
5 . 0
where H
loss,friction,1
and H
loss,friction,2
are the pipe friction loss-
es between pressure outlet and pump fanges.
The size of the friction loss depends on the fow velocity,
the pipe diameter, the distance from the pump fange to
the pressure outlet and the pipe’s surface roughness. Cal-
culation of pipe friction loss is described in section 5.3.1.
If the pipe friction loss between the pressure outlets and
the fanges is smaller than 0.5% of the pump head, it is
normally not necesarry to take this into consideration in
the calculations. See ISO 9906 section 8.2.4 for further
explanation.
6. Pump tests
103 103
S'
1
H'
1
H1 H2
H
z'
1
H'2
z
2
S
1
S
2
S'
2
S'
1
S
1
S
2
S'
2
z
1
z'
2
z'
1
z'
M1
z'
M2
z
2
z
1
z'
2
z'
M1
z'
M2
pM1
pM2
Total head
Static head
p'
1
r.g
U'
1
2

2.g
U
1
2
2.g
p
1
r.g
U'
2
2

2.g
U
2
2

2.g
p
2
r.g
p'
2
r.g
H
loss,friction,1
H
loss,friction,2
Figure 6.8: General draft of a
pump test.
6.2.5 General calculation of head
In practise a pump test is not always made on a hori-
zontal pipe, see fgure 6.7. This results in a diference in
height between the centers of the pump in- and outlet,
z’
1
and z’
2
, and the centers of the inlet and outlet fanges,
z
1
and z
2
respectively. The manometer can, furthermore,
be placed with a diference in height compared to the
pipe centre. These diferences in height must be taken
into consideration in the calculation of head.
Because the manometer only measures the static pres-
sure, the dynamic pressure must also be taken into ac-
count. The dynamic pressure depends on the pipe diam-
eter and can be diferent on each side of the pump.
Figure 6.8 illustrates the basic version of a pump test in
a pipe. The total head which is defned by the pressures
p
1
and p
2
and the velocities U
1
and U
2
in the inlet and
outlet fanges S
1
and S
2
can be calculated by means of
the following equation:
(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.3)
(6.4)
(6.5)
1 2
H H H − =
( ) ( )
1 2
' '
loss, friction,2 loss, friction,1
H H H H H − − + =
Dynamic pressure Static pressure
Geodetic pressure
g
U U
g
p p
z z H


+


+ − =
2
2
1
2
2 1 2
1 2
ρ
(
¸
(

¸



+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+

(
¸
(

¸

+

+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+ =
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
'
'
'
'
2
'
'
'
'
loss, friction,1 M
M
loss, friction, 2 M
M
H
g
U
z
g
p
z
H
g
U
z
g
p
z H
ρ
ρ
g
p
H z
g
V p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, friction, geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

⋅ ⋅ + +
=
ρ ρ
ρ
2
1
5 . 0
Using the measured sizes in S’
1
and S’
2
, the general
expression for the total head is:
(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.3)
(6.4)
(6.5)
1 2
H H H − =
( ) ( )
1 2
' '
loss, friction,2 loss, friction,1
H H H H H − − + =
Dynamic pressure Static pressure
Geodetic pressure
g
U U
g
p p
z z H


+


+ − =
2
2
1
2
2 1 2
1 2
ρ
(
¸
(

¸



+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+

(
¸
(

¸

+

+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+ =
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
'
'
'
'
2
'
'
'
'
loss, friction,1 M
M
loss, friction, 2 M
M
H
g
U
z
g
p
z
H
g
U
z
g
p
z H
ρ
ρ
g
p
H z
g
V p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, friction, geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

⋅ ⋅ + +
=
ρ ρ
ρ
2
1
5 . 0
Figure 6.7: Pump test where the pipes
are at an angle compared to horizontal.
S'
1
H'
1
H1 H2
H
z'
1
H'2
z
2
S
1
S
2
S'
2
S'
1
S
1
S
2
S'
2
z
1
z'
2
z'
1
z'
M1
z'
M2
z
2
z
1
z'
2
z'
M1
z'
M2
pM1
pM2
Total head
Static head
p'
1
r.g
U'
1
2

2.g
U
1
2
2.g
p
1
r.g
U'
2
2

2.g
U
2
2

2.g
p
2
r.g
p'
2
r.g
H
loss,friction,1
H
loss,friction,2
104 104
6. Pump tests
6.2.6 Power consumption
Distinction is made between measurement of the shaft power P
2
and added
electric power P
1
. The shaft power can best be determined as the product of
measured angular velocity w and the torque on the shaft which is measured
by means of a torque measuring device. The shaft power can alternatively
be measured on the basis of P
1
. However, this implies that the motor char-
acteristic is known. In this case, it is important to be aware that the motor
characteristic changes over time because of bearing wear and due to chang-
es in temperature and voltage.
The power consumption depends on the fuid density. The measured power
consumption is therefore usually corrected so that it applies to a standard
fuid with a density of 1000 kg/m
3
which corresponds to water at 4°C. Head
and fow are independent of the density of the pumped fuid.
6.2.7 Rotational speed
The rotational speed is typically measured by using an optic counter or mag-
netically with a coil around the motor. The rotational speed can alternative-
ly be measured by means of the motor characteristic and measured P
1
. This
method is, however, more uncertain because it is indirect and because the
motor characteristic, as mentioned above, changes over time.
The pump performance is often given for a constant rotational speed. By
means of afnity equations, described in section 4.5, the performance can
be converted to another speed. The fow, head and power consumption are
hereby changed but the efciency is not changed considerably if the scaling
of the speed is smaller than ± 20 %.
105 105
6.3 Measurement of the pump’s NPSH
The NPSH test measures the lowest absolute pressure at the inlet before
cavitation occurs for a given fow and a specifc fuid with vapour pressure
p
vapour
, see section 2.10 and formula (2.16).
A typical sign of incipient cavitation is a higher noise level than usual. If the
cavitation increases, it afects the pump head and fow which both typically
decrease. Increased cavitation can also be seen as a drop in fow at constant
head. Erosion damage can occur on the hydraulic part at cavitation.
The following pages introduce the NPSH
3%
test which gives information
about cavitation’s infuence on the pump’s hydraulic performance. The test
gives no information about the pump’s noise and erosion damage caused
by cavitation.
In practise it is thus not an actual ascertainment of cavitation but a chosen
(3%) reduction of the pump’s head which is used for determination of NPSH
R

- hence the name NPSH
3%
.
To perform a NPSH
3%
test a reference QH curve where the inlet pressure is
sufcient enough to avoid cavitation has to be measured frst. The 3% curve
is drawn on the basis of the reference curve where the head is 3% lower.
Grundfos uses two procedures to perform an NPSH
3%
test. One is to gradual-
ly lower the inlet pressure and keep the fow constant. The other is to gradu-
ally increase the fow while the inlet pressure is kept constant.

H

Q
Referencekurve
3% kurve
Målt løftehøjde
106 106
6.3.1 NPSH
3%
test by lowering the inlet pressure
When the NPSH
3%
curve is fat, this type of NPSH
3%
test is the best suited.
The NPSH
3%
test is made by keeping the fow fxed while the inlet pressure
p
stat,in
and thereby NPSH
A
is gradually lowered until the head is reduced with
more than 3%. The resulting NPSH
A
value for the last measuring point before
the head drops below the 3% curve then states a value for NPSH
3%
at the
given fow.
The NPSH
3%
curve is made by repeating the measurement for a number of
diferent fows. Figure 6.9 shows the measuring data for an NPSH
3%
test
where the inlet pressure is gradually lowered and the fow is kept fxed. It is
these NPSH values which are stated as the pump’s NPSH curve.
Procedure for an NPSH
3%
test where the inlet pressure is gradually lowered:
1. A QH test is made and used as reference curve
2. The 3% curve is calculated so that the head is 3% lower than the
reference curve.
3. Selection of 5-10 fow points
4. The test stand is set for the seleted fow point starting with the
largest fow
5. The valve which regulates the counter-pressure is kept fxed
6. The inlet pressure is gradually lowered and fow, head
and inlet pressure are measured
7. The measurements continue until the head drops below the 3% curve
8. Point 4 to 7 is repeated for each fow point Figure 6.9: NPSH
A
measurement by lowering
the inlet pressure.
Reference curve
3% curve
Measured head
6. Pump tests
H
Q
Referencekurve
3% kurve
Målt løftehøjde
107 107
6.3.2 NPSH
3%
test by increasing the fow
For NPSH
3%
test where the NPSH
3%
curve is steep, this procedure is prefer-
able. This type of NPSH
3%
test is also well suited for cases where it is difcult
to change the inlet pressure e.g. an open test stand.

The NPSH
3%
test is made by keeping a constant inlet pressure, constant wa-
ter level or constant setting of the regulation valve before the pump. Then
the fow can be increased from shutof until the head can be measured be-
low the 3% curve, see fgure 6.10. The NPSH
3%
curve is made by repeating the
measurements for diferent inlet pressures.
Procedure for NPSH
3%
test where the fow is gradually increased
1. A QH test is made and used as reference curve
2. The 3% curve is calculated so that the head is 3% lower than the
reference curve.
3. Selection of 5-10 inlet pressures
4. The test stand is set for the wanted inlet pressure
5. The fow is increased from the shutof and fow, head and inlet
pressure are measured
6. The measurements continue until the head is below the 3% curve
7. Point 4-6 is repeated for each fow point
6.3.3 Test beds
When a closed test bed is used for testing pumps in practise, then the in-
let pressure can be regulated by adjusting the system pressure. The system
pressure is lowered by pumping water out of the circuit. The system pres-
sure can, furthermore, be reduced with a throttle valve or a vacuum pump,
see fgure 6.11.
Figure 6.10: NSPH
A
measurement by
increasing fow.
Figure 6.11: Draft of closed
test bed for NPSH measurement.
Reference curve
3% curve
Measured head
Pressure
control
pump
Bafe plate
Heating/
cooling coil
Vacuum pump
Shower
Flow valve
Flow meter
Test pump
Throttle valve
108 108
In an open test bed, see fgure 6.12, it is possible to adjust the inlet pressure
in two ways: Either the water level in the well can be changed, or a valve can
be inserted before the pump. The fow can be controlled by changing the
pump’s counter-pressure by means of a valve mounted after the pump.
6.3.4 Water quality
If there is dissolved air in the water, this afects the pump performance which
can be mistaken for cavitation. Therefore you must make sure that the air con-
tent in the water is below an acceptable level before the NPSH test is made. In
practise this can be done by extracting air out of the water for several hours.
The process is called degasifcation.
In a closed test bed the water can be degased by lowering the pressure in
the tank and shower the water hard down towards a plate, see fgure 6.11,
forcing the air bubbles out of the fuid. When a certain air volume is gath-
ered in the tank, a part of the air is removed with a vacuum pump and the
procedure is repeated at an even lower system pressure.
6.3.5 Vapour pressure and density
The vapour pressure and the density for water depend on the temperature
and can be found by table look-up in ”Physical properties of water” in the
back of the book. The fuid temperature is therefore measured during the
execution of an NPSH test.
6.3.6 Reference plane
NPSH is an absolute size which is defned relative to a reference plane. In
this case reference is made to the center of the circle on the impeller shroud
which goes through the front edge of the blades, see fgure 6.13.
Figure 6.12: Drafts of open test beds for
NPSH measurement.
Figure 6.13: Reference planes at
NPSH measurement.
Adjustable water level
Pump
for fow valve
and fow meter
Throttle valve
6. Pump tests
Reference plan
H
Q












Referencekurve
3% kurve
Målt løftehøjde
NPSH
3%
NPSH
A
109 109
6.3.7 Barometric pressure
In practise the inlet pressure is measured as a relative pressure in relation to
the surroundings. It is therefore necesarry to know the barometric pressure
at the place and time where the test is made.
6.3.8 Calculation of NPSH
A
and determination of NPSH
3%

NPSH
A
can be calculated by means of the following formula:

(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.3)
(6.4)
(6.5)
1 2
H H H − =
( ) ( )
1 2
' '
loss, friction,2 loss, friction,1
H H H H H − − + =
Dynamic pressure Static pressure
Geodetic pressure
g
U U
g
p p
z z H


+


+ − =
2
2
1
2
2 1 2
1 2
ρ
(
¸
(

¸



+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+

(
¸
(

¸

+

+
|
|
.
|


\
|
+

+ =
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
'
'
'
'
2
'
'
'
'
loss, friction,1 M
M
loss, friction, 2 M
M
H
g
U
z
g
p
z
H
g
U
z
g
p
z H
ρ
ρ
g
p
H z
g
V p p
NPSH
vapour
loss, friction, geo
bar stat,in
A

− − +

⋅ ⋅ + +
=
ρ ρ
ρ
2
1
5 . 0
p
stat,in
= The measured relative inlet pressure
p
bar
= Barometric pressure
V
1
= Inlet velocity
z
geo
= The pressure sensor’s height above the pump
H
loss,friction
= The pipe loss between pressure measurement and pump
p
vapour
= Vapour pressure (table look-up)
ρ = Density (table look-up)
The NPSH
3%
value can be found by looking at how the head develops during
the test, see fgure 6.14. An NPSH
3%
value is determined by the NPSH
A
value
which is calculated from the closest data point above the 3% curve.
6.4 Measurement of force
Measurement of axial and radial forces on the impeller is the only reliable
way to get information about the forces’ sizes. This is because these forces
are very difcult to calculate precisely since this requires a full three-dimen-
sional numerical simulation of the fow.
Figure 6.14: Determination of NPSH
3%
.
Reference curve
3% curve
Measured head
NPSH
3%
NPSH
A
110 110
6.4.1 Measuring system
The force measurement is made by absorbing the forces on the rotating system
(impeller and shaft) through a measuring system.
The axial force can e.g. be measured by moving the axial bearing outside the mo-
tor and mount it on a dynamometer, see fgure 6.15. The axial forces occuring
during operation are absorbed in the bearing and can thereby be measured with a
dynamometer.
Axial and radial forces can also be measured by mounting the shaft in a magnetic
bearing where it is fxed with magnetic forces. The shaft is fxed magnetical both in
the axial and radial direction. The mounting force is measured, and the magnetic
bearing provides information about both radial and axial forces, see fgure 6.16.
Radial and axial force measurements with magnetic bearing are very fast, and
both the static and the dynamic forces can therefore be measured.
By measurement in the magnetic bearing, the pump hydraulic is mounted directly
on the magnetic bearing. It is important that the fxing fange geometry is a pre-
cise refection in the pump geometry because small changes in the fow condi-
tions in the cavities can cause considerable diferences in the forces afecting on
the impeller.
Figure 6.15: Axial force measurement
through dynamometer on the bearing.
Figure 6.16: Radial and axial force meas-
urement with magnetic bearing.
6. Pump tests
Support
bearing
Axial sensor
Radial magnetic bearing
Radial sensor
Axial magnetic bearing
Radial sensor
Radial sensor
Radial magnetic bearing
Axial sensor
Support bearing
Dynamometer
Axial bearing
111 111
6.4.2 Execution of force measurement
During force measurement the pump is mounted in a test bed, and the test
is made in the exact same way as a QH test. The force measurements are
made simultaneously with a QH test.
At the one end, the shaft is afected by the pressure in the pump, and in the
other end it is afected by the pressure outside the pump. Therefore the sys-
tem pressure has infuence on the size of the axial force.
If comparison between the diferent axial force measurement is wanted, it
is necesarry to convert the system pressure in the axial force measurements
to the same pressure. The force afecting the shaft end is calculated by mul-
tiplying the area of the shaft end with the pressure in the pump.
6.5 Uncertainty in measurement of performance
At any measurement there is an uncertainty. When testing a pump in a test bed,
the uncertainty is a combination of contributions from the measuring equip-
ment, variations in the test bed and variations in the pump during the test.
6.5.1 Standard demands for uncertainties
Uncertainties on measuring equipment are in practise handled by specify-
ing a set of measuring equipment which meet the demands in the standard
for hydrualic performance test, ISO09906.
ISO09906 also states an allowed uncertainty for the complete measuring
system. The complete measuring system includes the test beds’ pipe circuit,
measuring equipment and data collection. The uncertainty for the com-
plete measuring system is larger than the sum of uncertainties on the single
measuring instrument because the complete uncertainty also contains vari-
ations in the pump during test which are not corrected for.
Variations occuring during test which the measurements can be correct-
ed for are the fuid’s characteristic and the pump speed. The correction is
112 112
to convert the measuring results to a constant fuid temperature and a
constant speed.
To ensure a measuring result which is representative for the pump, the
test bed takes up more measurements and calculates an average value.
ISO09906 has an instruction of how the test makes a representative aver-
age value seen from a stability criteria. The stability criteria is a simplifed
way to work with statistical normal distribution.
6.5.2 Overall uncertainty
The repetition precision on a test bed is in general better than the collected
precision. During development where very small diferences in performance
are interesting, it is therefore a great advantage to make all tests on the
same test bed.
There can be signifcant diference in the measuring results between several
test beds. The diferences correspond to the overall uncertainty.
6.5.3 Measurement of the test bed’s uncertainty
Grundfos has developed a method to estimate a test beds’ overall uncer-
tainty. The method gives a value for the standard deviation on the QH curve
and a value for the standard deviation on the performance measurement.
The method is the same as the one used for geometric measuring instru-
ments, e.g. slide gauge.
The method is outlined in the Grundfos standard GS 241A0540: Test bench-
es and test equipment.
6.6 Summary
In this chapter we have introduced the hydraulic tests carried out on com-
plete pumps and their hydraulic components. We have described which
sizes to measure and which problems can occur in connection with planning
and execution of a test. Furthermore, we have described data treatment,
e.g. head and NPSH value.
H
Q












Appendix
Appendix A. Units
Appendix B. Check of test results

A. Units
114
A. Units
Some of the SI system’s units
Additional units
Unit for Name Unit Definition
Angle radian rad One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a
circle by an arc of circumference that is equal in length
to the radius of the circle..
Derived units
Unit for Name Unit Definition
Force Newton N
2
s / m kg N ⋅ =
Pressure Pascal Pa ) s m /( kg m / N Pa
2 2
⋅ = =
Energy, work Joule J s W m N J ⋅ = ⋅ =
Power Watt W s / m N s / J W ⋅ = = =
Impulse
Torque
s / m kg⋅
m N⋅
s m/ Kg
2 3

Basic units
Unit for Name Unit
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second S
Temperature Kelvin K
Basic units
15.852
m
3
/s m
3
/h l/s
1 3600 1000
0.277778
1
0.063
gpm (US)
15852
4.4
1
0.277778
.
10
-3
1
10
-3
0.000063
3.6
0.2271
s min h (hour)
1 16.6667
.
10
-3
0.277778
.
10
-3
16.6667
.
10
-3
1
60 1
3600 60
m in (inches) ft (feet)
1 39.37

0.0254 1
3.28
0.0833
kg/s kg/h
1 3600
0.277778
.
10
-3
1
kg/s kg/h
1 3600
0.277778
.
10
-3
1
1.097
ft/s
3.28
0.9119
1 0.3048
115
Conversion of units
Length
Time
Flow, volume fow
Mass fow Speed
RPM = revolution per minute s
-1
rad/s
1 16.67
.
10
-3
0.105
6.28
1
60 1
9.55 0.1592
K
o
C
1 t(
o
C) = T - 273.15K

T(Kelvin) = 273.15
o
C + t 1
kPa bar mVs
1 0.01 0.102
10.197
1
100 1
9.807 98.07
.
10
-3
J kWh
1 0.277778
.
10
-6

3.6
.
10
6
1
m
2
/s cSt
1 10
6

10
-6
1
Pa
.
s cP
1 10
3

10
-3
1
116
Rotational speed
Temperature
A. Units
Pressure
Work, energy
Kinematic viscosity Dynamic viscosity
Possible cause What to examine How to find the error
Power consumption is too high
and/or the head is too low
Decide whether it is the power
consumption or the head which
deviates
Use one of the three schemes
below, scheme 1 -3
117
B. Check of test results
When unexpected test results occur, it can be difcult to fnd out why. Is the
tested pump in reality not the one we thought? Is the test bed not measur-
ing correctly? Is the test which we compare with not reliable? Have some
units been swaped during the data treatment?
Typical examples which deviate from what is expected is presented on the
following pages. Furthermore, some recommendations of where it is ap-
propriate to start looking for reasons for the deviating test results are pre-
sented.
The test shows that the efciency is below the catalogue curve.
B. Check of test results
Possible cause What to examine How to find the error
The catalogue curve does not
reflect the 0-series testen.
Compare 0-series test with
catalog curve
If the catalogue curve and
0-series test do not correspond,
it can not be expected that the
pump performs according to
the catalogue curve.
The impeller diameter or outlet
width is bigger than on the
0-series
Make a scaling of the test where
the impeller diameter D2 is
reduced until the power matches
most of the curve. If the head
also matches the curve, then the
diameter on the produced pump
is probably too big. Repeat the
same procedure with the impeller
outlet width b2. Scaling of D2
and b2 is discussed in chapter 4.5
Make sure that the right impeller
is tested.
Measure the impeller’s outlet on
the 0-series pump.
Adjust impeller diameter and
outlet width in the production
Mechanical drag is found Remove the mechanical drag
The motor efficiency is lower
than specified.
Separate motor and pump. Test
them separately. The pump can
be in a test bench with torque
meter or with a calibrated motor.
If the pump’s power consumption
is ok, the motor is the problem.
Find cause for motor error.


Listen to the pump. If it is noisy,
turn off the pump and rotate by
hand to identify any friction.
Look at the difference of the
two power curves. Is it constant,
there is probably drag.
118
Table 1: The test shows that the power consumption for a produced pump lies
above the catalogue value but the head is the same as the catalogue curve.
B. Check of test results
Possible cause What to examine How to find the error
Curves have been made at
different speeds.
Find the speed for the catalogue
curve and the test.
Convert to the same speed and
compare again.
The catalogue curve does not
reflect the 0-series test.
Compare the 0-series test with
the catalogue curve.
If the catalogue curve and 0-series
test do not correspond, it can not
be expected that the pump
performs according to catalogue
curve.
The impeller’s outlet diameter or
outlet width is smaller than on
the 0-series test.
Measure the impeller outlet on
the 0-series pump. Adjust impeller
diameter and outlet width in
the production.


5,71429
11,4286
17,1429
22,8571
28,5714
34,2857
P1[kW]
0
0
16.6667
33.3333
50
66.6667
83.3333
100
H[m]
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Q [m³/h]
Curve 1
Impellere D2/D1: 99/100=0.99Curve 1
Impellere D2/D1: 100/99=1.01010101010101 Curve 1
Curve 1
Impellere D2/D1: 99/100=0.99Kurve 1
Impellere D2/D1: 100/99=1.01010101010101 Curve 1
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Q [m³/h]
Make a scaling of the test where
the impeller diameter D
2
is
increased until the power matches
over most of the curve. If the
head also matches over most of
the curve, then the diameter on
the produced pump is probably
too small. Repeat the same
procedure with the impeller’s
outlet width b
2
. Scaling of D
2

and b
2
is discussed in chapter 4.5
119
Table 2: The test shows that the power consumption and head lies below
the catalogue curve.

Possible cause What to examine How to find the error
The catalogue curve does not
reflect the 0-series test.
Compare O-series test with
catalogue curve.
If the catalogue curve and 0-series
test do not correspond, it can not
be expected that the pump performs
according to the catalogue curve.
Increased hydraulic friction Compare the QH curves at the same
speed. Is the difference developing
as a parabola with the flow, there
could be an increased friction loss.
Examine surface roughness and
inlet conditions.
Remove irregularities in the
surface. Reduce surface roughness.
Remove elements which block
the inlet.
Calculation of the head is not
done correctly.
Examine the information about pipe
diameter and the location of the
pressure transducers. Examine
whether the correct density has been
used for calculation of the head.
Repeat the calculation of the head.
Error in the differential pressure
measurement.
Read the test bed’s calibration report.
Examine whether the pressure
outlets and the connections to the
pressure transducers have been bleed.
Examine that the pressure transducers
can measure in the pressure range
in question.
If it has been more than a year
since the pump has been
calibrated, it must be calibrated
now. Use the right pressure
transducers.
Cavitation Examine whether there is
sufficient pressure at the pump’s
inlet. See section 2.10 and 6.3)
Increase the system pressure.

120
Table 3: The power consumption is as the catalogue curve but the head is too low.
B. Check of test results
Possible cause What to examine How to find the error
Increased leak loss. Compare QH curves and power
curves. If the curve is a horizontal
displacement which decreases
when the head (the pressure
difference above the gap) falls,
there could be an increased leak l
oss. Leak loss is described in section
5.3.7. Measure the sealing diameter
on the rotating and fixed part.
Compare the results with the
specifications on the drawing.
Examine the pump for other
types of leak loss.
Replace the impeller seal.
Close all unwanted circuits.
0-series
Pump with leakage
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
H [m]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Q[m
^3
/h]
0-series
Pump with leakage
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
500
H [m]
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Q[m
^3
/h]

121
Table 3 (continued)
Bibliography
122
European Association of Pump Manufacturers (1999), ”NPSH for rotordy-
namic pumps: a reference guide”, 1st edition.
R. Fox and A. McDonald (1998), ”Introduction to Fluid Mechanics”.
5. edition, John Wiley & Sons.
J. Gulich (2004), ”Kreiselpumpen. Handbuch für Entwicklung, Anlagenplanung
und Betrieb”. 2nd edition, Springer Verlag.
C. Pfeiderer and H. Petermann (1990), ”Strömungsmachinen”.
6. edition, Springer Verlag, Berlin.
A. Stepanof (1957), ”Centrifugal and axial fow pumps: theory, design and
application”. 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons.
H. Albrecht and others (2002), ”Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measure-
ment Techniques”. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
H. Hansen and others (1997), ”Danvak. Varme- og klimateknik. Grundbog”.
2nd edition.
Pumpeståbi (2000). 3rd edition, Ingeniøren A/S.
Motor compendium. Department of Motor Engineering, R&T, Grundfos.
G. Ludwig, S. Meschkat and B. Stofel (2002). ”Design Factors Afecting
Pump Efciency”, 3rd International Conference on Energy Efciency in Motor
Driven Systems, Treviso, Italy, September 18-20.
123
ISO 9906 Rotodynamic pumps – Hydraulic performance acceptance test-
Grades 1 and 2. The standard deals with hydraulic tests and contains
instructions of data treatment and making of test equipment.
ISO2548 has been replaced by ISO9906
ISO3555 has been replaced by ISO9906
ISO 5198 Pumps – Centrifugal-, mixed fow – and axial pumps – Hydraulic
function test – Precision class
GS 241A0540 Test benches and test equipment. Grundfos standards for
contruction and rebuilding of test benches and data loggers.
Standards
Index
A
Absolute fow angle ............................................................................ 61
Absolute pressure ..................................................................................33
Absolute pressure sensor .................................................................33
Absolute temperature ........................................................................33
Absolute velocity ..................................................................................60
Afnity ......................................................................................................... 70
Afnity equations .......................................................... 53, 104
Afnity laws ............................................................................... 68
Air content ............................................................................................... 108
Angular frequency ............................................................................... 62
Angular velocity ............................................................................ 64, 104
Annual energy consumption ....................................................... 56
Area relation ............................................................................................ 86
Auxiliary pump ...................................................................................... 50
Axial bearing ............................................................................................ 20
Axial forces ........................................................................................44, 110
Axial impeller ........................................................................................... 16
Axial thrust ..........................................................................................19, 20
Axial thrust reduction ........................................................................ 20
Axial velocity ............................................................................................60
B
Balancing holes ..................................................................................... 20
Barometric pressure ...................................................................33, 109
Bearing losses ......................................................................................... 80
Bernoulli’s equation .............................................................................37
Best point ................................................................................................... 39
Blade angle ..........................................................................................73, 90
Blade shape ............................................................................................... 66
Bypass regulation ..................................................................52
C
Cavitation ......................................................................................... 40, 105
Cavity ............................................................................................................. 19
Centrifugal force ....................................................................................12
Centrifugal pump principle ............................................................12
Chamber .......................................................................................................23
Circulation pumps ......................................................................... 24, 25
Closed system ......................................................................................... 49
Constant-pressure control ..............................................................54
Contraction ................................................................................................87
Control .......................................................................................................... 39
Control volume ...................................................................................... 64
Corrosion .................................................................................................... 85
Cross section contraction .................................................................87
Cross section expansion ................................................................... 86
Cross section shape ............................................................................. 83
Cutting system ........................................................................................27
D
Data sheet ................................................................................................. 30
Degasifcation ...................................................................................... 108
Density ....................................................................................................... 108
Detail measurements ....................................................................... 98
Diferential pressure .................................................................... 34, 35
Diferential pressure sensor ..........................................................33
Difusor .................................................................................................. 21, 86
Disc friction ............................................................................................... 91
Double pump ........................................................................................... 50
Double suction pump .........................................................................14
Down thrust ............................................................................................. 44
Dryrunner pump ..................................................................................... 17
Dynamic pressure ..................................................................................32
Dynamic pressure diference ........................................................35
E
Eddies .............................................................................................................87
124
Efciency ..................................................................................................... 39
Electrical motor ....................................................................................... 17
Electrical power .................................................................................... 104
End-suction pump .................................................................................14
Energy class ................................................................................................ 57
Energy efciency index (EEI) ........................................................... 57
Energy equation ......................................................................................37
Energy labeling ....................................................................................... 56
Equilibrium equations ....................................................................... 64
Euler’s turbomachinery equation ........................................64, 65
F
Final inspection test ...........................................................................99
Flow angle .................................................................................... 61, 73, 90
Flow forces ................................................................................................ 64
Flow friction ..............................................................................................81
Flow meters ........................................................................................... 100
Fluid column ............................................................................................. 34
Force measurements .......................................................... 110
Friction .......................................................................................................... 19
Friction coefcient ............................................................................... 82
Friction loss .........................................................................................49, 81
G
Geodetic pressure diference ................................................. 35, 36
Grinder pump ..........................................................................................27
Guide vanes ..............................................................................................23
H
Head .......................................................................................31, 34, 100, 102
Head loss calculation .......................................................... 85
High specifc speed pumps .............................................................74
Hydraulic diameter .............................................................................. 82
Hydraulic losses ...............................................................................78, 80
Hydraulic power .................................................................................... 38
I
Ideal fow ....................................................................................................37
Impact losses ............................................................................................90
Impeller ......................................................................................................... 15
Impeller blades ..................................................................................15, 16
Impeller outlet heigth........................................................................ 70
Impeller shape ......................................................................................... 75
Industrial pumps .................................................................................. 24
Inlet ........................................................................................................... 14, 62
Inlet fange..................................................................................................14
Inline-pump ...............................................................................................14
L
Laminar fow ............................................................................................ 83
Leakage ........................................................................................................ 92
Leakage loss ........................................................................................19, 92
Load profle .................................................................................................54
Loss distribution .................................................................................... 95
Loss types.....................................................................................................78
Low specifc speed pumps ...............................................................74

M
Magnetic bearing ................................................................................ 110
Magnetic drive .........................................................................................18
Maintenance test ..................................................................................99
Measuring holes .................................................................................. 101
Mechanical losses ..................................................................................78
Meridional cut .........................................................................................60
Meridional velocity ..............................................................................60
meterWaterColumn ............................................................................ 34
Mixing losses ........................................................................................... 86
Momentum equation ........................................................................ 64
125
Index
Moody chart ............................................................................................. 84
Motor .............................................................................................................. 17
Motor characteristics ......................................................................... 98
N
Non-return valve .................................................................................... 51
NPSH ...................................................................................... 31, 40, 105, 109
NPSH
3%
-test ............................................................................... 105
NPSH
A
(Available) .................................................................... 40
NPSH
R
(Required) .....................................................................41
O
Open impeller .......................................................................................... 16
Open system ............................................................................................. 49
Operating point ............................................................................... 48, 49
Optical counter ..................................................................................... 104
Outlet ............................................................................................................ 63
Outlet diameter ..................................................................................... 70
Outlet difusor ..........................................................................................22
Outlet fange .............................................................................................14
P
Parasitic losses ........................................................................................ 80
Pipe diameter........................................................................................... 36
Pipe friction ............................................................................................... 82
Pipe friction losses .............................................................................. 102
Potential energy......................................................................................37
Power consumption .................................................................... 31, 104
Power curves ............................................................................................ 38
Prerotation.......................................................................................... 62, 72
Pressure ........................................................................................................32
Pressure loss coefcient .............................................................81, 88
Pressure measurement ..................................................................... 98
Pressure sensor ........................................................................................33
Pressure taps ................................................................ 100, 102
Pressure transducer ................................................................. 100, 101
Primary eddy ............................................................................................ 91
Primary fow ............................................................................................. 19
Proportional-pressure control .......................................................54
Pump curve.................................................................................................31
Pump efciency ...................................................................................... 39
Pump losses .............................................................................................. 79
Pump performance .............................................................................. 30
Pumps for pressure boosting ........................................................ 24
Pumps in parallel ................................................................................... 50
Pumps in series ........................................................................................ 51
Pumps in series ...................................................................... 51
Q
QH-curve ..................................................................................................... 34
R
Radial forces .............................................................................. 22, 44, 110
Radial impeller ........................................................................................ 16
Radial velocity .........................................................................................60
Recirculation losses ............................................................................. 89
Recirculation zones .............................................................................. 89
Reference curve .................................................................................... 105
Reference plane............................................................................. 36, 108
Regulering af omdrejningstal .................................................51, 53
Regulation of pumps ........................................................................... 51
Relative fow angle .............................................................................. 61
Relative pressure ....................................................................................33
Relative speed .........................................................................................60
Relative velocity .....................................................................................60
Representative power consumption ....................................... 56
126
Return channel ........................................................................................23
Reynolds’ number ................................................................................. 83
Ring area ..................................................................................................... 62
Ring difusor ..............................................................................................22
Rotational speed.................................................................................... 91
Rotor can ......................................................................................................18
Roughness ......................................................................................81, 82, 85
S
Seal ..................................................................................................................18
Secondary eddy ...................................................................................... 91
Secondary fow ....................................................................................... 19
Self-priming ...............................................................................................25
Semi axial impeller .............................................................................. 16
Separation ...................................................................................................87
Sewage pumps ....................................................................................... 24
Shaft bearing lossses ......................................................................... 80
Shaft power............................................................................................. 104
Shaft seal ..................................................................................................... 17
Shaft seal loss .......................................................................................... 80
Single channel pumpe ................................................................ 16, 27
Slip factor .....................................................................................................73
Specifc number .............................................................................. 74, 95
Speed control ......................................................................................51, 53
Stage ..............................................................................................................23
Standard fuid .......................................................................................... 38
Standby pump ......................................................................................... 50
Start/stop regulation ...................................................................51, 53
Static pressure..........................................................................................32
Static pressure diference ................................................................35
Submersible pump ................................................................................14
Suction pipe .............................................................................................. 40
Surface roughness ................................................................................ 91
System characteristics ....................................................................... 49
System pressure ................................................................................... 107
T
Tangential velocity...............................................................................60
Temperature ........................................................................................... 101
Test bed uncertainty ..........................................................................112
Test results ............................................................................................... 117
Test types.................................................................................................... 98
Test uncertainty .................................................................................... 111
Throat .............................................................................................................22
Throttle regulation .........................................................................51, 52
Throttle valve ............................................................................................52
Tongue ...........................................................................................................22
Torque ........................................................................................................... 64
Torque balance ....................................................................................... 64
Torque meter ......................................................................................... 104
Total efciency ........................................................................................ 39
Total pressure ...........................................................................................32
Total pressure diference ..................................................................35
Transition zone ....................................................................................... 83
Turbulent fow ..................................................................................83, 84
U
Up-thrust .................................................................................................... 44
V
Vapour bubbles ...................................................................................... 40
Vapour pressure ............................................................................ 40, 108
Velocity difusion ...................................................................................21
Velocity measurements.................................................................... 98
Velocity profle ...................................................................................... 100
127
Index
Velocity triangles ............................................................................ 60, 75
Volute .............................................................................................................22
Volute casing ............................................................................................21
Vortex pump ............................................................................................ 16
W
Water quality ......................................................................................... 108
Water supply pumps .......................................................................... 24
Wetrunner pump ................................................................................... 17
128
Symbol Defnition Unit
POWER
P Power [W]
P
1
Power added from the electricity
supply network [W]
P
2
Power added from motor [W]
P
hyd
Hydraulic power transferred to
the fuid [W]
P
loss,{loss type}
Power loss in {loss type} [W]
SPEED
e Angular frequency [1/s]
f Frequency [Hz]
n Speed [1/min]
VELOCITIES
V The fuid velocity [m/s]
U The impeller tangential velocity [m/s]
C The fuid absolute velocity [m/s]
W The fuid relative velocity [m/s]
SPECIFIC NUMBERS
Re Reynold’s number [-]
n
q
Specifc speed
FLUID CHARACTERISTICS
µ The fuid density [kg/m
3
]
v Kinematic viscosity of the fuid [m
2
/s]
MISCELLANEOUS
f Coefcient of friction [-]
g Gravitational acceleration [m/s
2
]
, Dimensionless pressure loss coefcient [-]
General indices
Index Defnition Examples
1, in At inlet, into the component A
1
, C
in

2, out At outlet, out of the component A
2
, C
out

m Meridional direction C
m

r Radial direction W
r

U Tangential direction C
1U

a Axial direction C
a

stat Static p
stat

dyn Dynamic p
dyn
, H
dyn,in

geo Geodetic p
geo

tot Total p
tot

abs Absolute p
stat,abs
, p
tot,abs,in

rel Relative p
stat,rel

Operation Operation point Q
operation

List of Symbols
Symbol Defnition Unit
FLOW
Q Flow, volume fow [m
3
/s]
Q
design
Design fow [m
3
/s]
Q
impeller
Flow through the impeller [m
3
/s]
Q
leak
Leak fow [m
3
/s]
m Mass fow [kg/s]
HEAD
H Head [m]
H
loss,{loss type}
Head loss in {loss type} [m]
NPSH Net Positive Suction Head [m]
NPSH
A
NPSH Available
(Net Positive Suction Head available
in system) [m]
NPSH
R
, NPSH
3%
NPSH Required
(The pump’s net positive suction
head system demands) [m]
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONS
A Cross-section area [m
2
]
b Blade height [m]
| Blade angle [
o
]
|’ Flow angle [
o
]
s Gap width [m]
D, d Diameter [m]
D
h
Hydraulic diameter [m]
k Roughness [m]
L Length (gap length, length of pipe) [m]
O Perimeter [m]
r Radius [m]
z Height [m]
Az Diference in height [m]
PRESSURE
p Pressure [Pa]
∆p Diferential pressure [Pa]
p
steam
The fuid vapour pressure [Pa]
p
bar
Barometric pressure [Pa]
p
beho
Positive or negative pressure
compared to p
bar
if the fuid is in a
closed container. [Pa]
P
loss,{loss type}
Pressure loss in {loss type} [Pa]
EFFICIENCIES
q
hyd
Hydraulic efciency [-]
q
control
Control efciency [-]
q
motor
Motor efcency [-]
q
tot
Total efciency for control,
motor and hydraulics [-]
Physical properties for water
Pictograms
Pump Valve Stop valve Pressure gauge
T p
vapour
µ v
[°C] [10
5
Pa] [kg/m
3
] [10
-6
m
2
/s]
0 0.00611 1000.0 1.792
4 0.00813 1000.0 1.568
10 0.01227 999.7 1.307
20 0.02337 998.2 1.004
25 0.03166 997.1 0.893
30 0.04241 995.7 0.801
40 0.07375 992.3 0.658
50 0.12335 988.1 0.554
60 0.19920 983.2 0.475
70 0.31162 977.8 0.413
80 0.47360 971.7 0.365
90 0.70109 965.2 0.326
100 1.01325 958.2 0.294
110 1.43266 950.8 0.268
120 1.98543 943.0 0.246
130 2.70132 934.7 0.228
140 3.61379 926.0 0.212
150 4.75997 916.9 0.199
160 6.18065 907.4 0.188
Heat exchanger
n
n
n
n
P P
Q Q
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
3
2

b D
b D
P P
b D
b D
Q
D
D
H H
¦
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ =
|
.
|

\
|


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|
.
|

\
|
⋅ =
4
4
2
2
2
A
B
A B
B
B
P
A
n
B
A
n
B
A
B
A
A
B A
A
Q
B
A B
A A
B B
A A
B B
Afnity rules
Scaling of
rotational speed
Geometric
scaling
Being responsible is our foundation
Thinking ahead makes it possible
Innovation is the essence
www.grundfos.com

The Centrifugal Pump

5

All rights reserved. Mechanical, electronic, photographic or other reproduction or copying from this book or parts of it are according to the present Danish copyright law not allowed without written permission from or agreement with GRUNDFOS Management A/S. GRUNDFOS Management A/S cannot be held responsible for the correctness of the information given in the book. Usage of information is at your own responsibility.

6

efficiency and NPSH. and we go through how affinity rules are used for scaling the performance of pump impellers. Through a longer period of time we have discussed the idea. The theoretical basis for energy conversion in a centrifugal pump is introduced in chapter 4. the contents and the structure and collected source material. In the book’s last chapter. students at universities and engineering colleges. who can use the book as a reference and source of inspiration in their studies. and we list the different types of pumps produced by Grundfos. Chapter 2 describes how to read and understand the pump performance based on the curves for head. Enjoy! Christian Brix Jacobsen Department Head. we go trough the test types which Grundfos continuously carries out on both assembled pumps and pump components to ensure that the pump has the desired performance. The framework of the Danish book was made after some intensive working days at ‘Himmelbjerget’. The entire department has been involved in the development of the book. ’The Centrifugal Pump’ is primarily meant as an internal book and is aimed at technicians who work with development and construction of pump components. the book aims at our future colleagues. pump design and the basic pump terms which we use in our daily work. We hope that you will find ‘The Centrifugal Pump’ useful. Structural and Fluid Mechanics. The result of the department’s engagement and effort through several years is the book which you are holding. chapter 6. In chapter 3 you can read about how to adjust the pump’s performance when it is in operation in a system. In chapter 5. We have written the book because we want to share our knowledge of pump hydraulics. Furthermore. and how the losses affect flow. we describe the different types of losses which occur in the pump.Preface In the Department of Structural and Fluid Mechanics we are happy to present the first English edition of the book: ’The Centrifugal Pump’. and that you will use it as a book of reference in you daily work. Our intention has been to write an introductory book that gives an overview of the hydraulic components in the pump and at the same time enables technicians to see how changes in construction and operation influence the pump performance. R&T 7 . we introduce the principle of the centrifugal pump as well as its hydraulic components. In chapter 1. head and power consumption. power.

......1 3.....6 3............................5...................................3 Coupling and drive....25 1..................................27 Chapter 2..3.................................................15 1.....................7 Return channel and outer sleeve .....53 Annual energy consumption .............2..7 Chapter 4........................21 1..................27 1....................32 Absolute and relative pressure ...............35 2...........................66 4. Pumps operating in systems .......... 26 1...................................... 19 1................................................................37 Power ....................... 62 4.......9 2..45 Chapter 3........................3........................4 Geodetic pressure difference ...................................4 2..................35 2.....17 1........................ 30 Pressure .23 1........1 Throttle regulation .............................5.................................................................Contents Chapter 1..........................................4........................................7 The MTA pump ................................................................25 1.............1. 36 Energy equation for an ideal flow.7 2...........................6 The CR pump ......1 The UP pump ................................................. 44 Summary ................................................................1 1.......29 2......4.... 47 3.....................3 3......................2 3... 63 Euler’s pump equation.......4.............................................2............................... 34 Differential pressure across the pump .................... 56 Energy efficiency index (EEI)..............................35 2.....52 3.........3 Start/stop regulation ..................................................5...................................... 58 3..........................8 2....................................2............................2 Principle of centrifugal pumps ...13 2..............2..5......14 1....6 2......................................................5 3........................................ 38 2......1...................................................................18 1......12 The pump’s hydraulic components . 64 Blade shape and pump curve ............. Net Positive Suction Head ............ 59 4...........1 Speed ...................9 The SEG pump ..............................................................................................................60 4................................................................................ 38 Hydraulic power .................................................40 Axial thrust........................4 Summary .3 Pump types and systems.................................11 2.......3 The NB pump ........................................4..... 39 NPSH....................................... diffuser and outlet flange.............................. Pump theory ....52 3........... Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps ..........2 4.....................................................6 Volute casing.................4 Regulation of speed ..................................5 Cavities and axial bearing .............3..4 The MQ pump .......2.....................................25 1............................................33 Head ........8 The SE pump............................2 Outlet ..............35 2.2.............. 26 1.7........2 Impeller...........51 Regulation of pumps ............11 1........2 The TP pump .....3...2 Static pressure difference .........................................................53 3...............3..........................10 2.....2......................25 1............1 Total pressure difference ...57 Summary ............................................................. 44 Radial thrust .......................................12 2............1 2..............................13 1.....................4 Impeller seal ...................3 2.............................4 Single pump in a system.......3.............................1 Inlet ...................................................3 8 ..............3........................................... 50 Pumps operated in series ................. 26 1.27 1....................... 38 Efficiency .............2 2.. 24 1.........1 Inlet flange and inlet .............. 49 Pumps operated in parallel..........................................................5 The SP pump .........3..................3 Dynamic pressure difference..................................51 3................................................3......5 Standard curves ................2 Regulation with bypass valve .1 Velocity triangles ......................... Performance curves ....................................................................

3.....5 6................................................................................................................................................................ 110 6........................3. Units ..........99 6..............132 Chapter 6.... 111 6.....................3 Chapter 5.7 Barometric pressure ..........................................3...........................................2.................. Pump losses .......................................................................................................81 5.................................................1 5...3........ 104 Measurement of the pump’s NPSH ...................................................................1 6....................................2. 92 Loss distribution as function of specific speed ....................................... 95 Summary .....6 4........2 5...112 5.....................2. 108 6.....................................................................................................5 Incidence loss ... 95 6..........................90 5....... 91 5..........................109 6............3 Mixing loss at cross-section reduction ........80 Hydraulic losses ..........3..............1 NPSH3% test by lowering the inlet pressure...4 Water quality..............3..... 113 A....... 111 6...........................100 6........ 108 6........ 100 6.................. 117 Bibliography .........5...................2...............................6 Power consumption................122 Standards....... Pumps tests ................3...............................1 Standard demands for uncertainties.... 77 5....... 101 9 .................................5..109 6.......................................................................109 Measurement of force .................................80 5........4................................6 Disc friction ..............................................123 Index .... 106 6......4 4...........................................4......................................................................6 Reference plane .............................................4 5....................8 4......................................................... Control of test results......................3 Temperature ......................4...................7 Rotational speed .............3 Test bed uncertainty .................75 6..........5............................. 68 4....131 List of Symbols ......................1 Flow friction...........................................................................80 5..............................6 6.....................................2 Execution of force measurement ......................................87 5................2 Test types ......2.........112 Summary .....1 Derivation of affinity rules ............................................5 4..........................89 5........................................ 124 Substance values for water ...........112 6......................................................................................................................................................................3..2 Overall uncertainty.....................................3................................4 Recirculation loss ...73 The pump’s specific speed............................................... 104 6......................................... 103 6..............98 Measuring pump performance................3...................4 Calculation of head ...........................2 Mixing loss at cross-section expansion ....................7 4........ 86 5.................8 Calculation of NPSHA and determination of NPSH3% ...........................3.............3 Test beds ............2.........1 Flow ....7 Leakage ................................1 Measuring system.... 102 6.........................3.78 Mechanical losses........2........ 97 6....... 111 Uncertainty in measurement of performance ..........................5 General calculation of head .................................... 105 6..........5..........2 NPSH3% test by increasing the flow.......................... 107 6...........5 Appendix .... 108 6..... 107 6...........................3... 70 Pre-rotation ................2..............................................................................9 Usage of Euler’s pump equation ...........................................5 Vapour pressure and density.........72 Slip....................................................................................................................................114 B.........................................................................................................3 Loss types .......................1 Bearing loss and shaft seal loss .....3......74 Summary ........ 67 Affinity rules ..3........4 6.......2 Pressure ...

10 .

2 Hydraulic components 1.4 Summary .3 Pump types and systems 1.1 Principle of the centrifugal pump 1.Chapter 1 Introduction to centrifugal pumps 1.

and the pump is robust. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps In this chapter. Figure 1. 12 12 . Direction of rotation Outlet Impeller Impeller blade Inlet Figure 1. The centrifugal pump is the most used pump type in the world.1. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps 1.1: Fluid path through the centrifugal pump. This chapter provides the reader with a basic understanding of the principles of the centrifugal pump and pump terminology. The centrifugal pump creates an increase in pressure by transferring mechanical energy from the motor to the fluid through the rotating impeller.1 shows an example of the fluid path through the centrifugal pump. The majority of pumps produced by Grundfos are centrifugal pumps.1 Principle of the centrifugal pump An increase in the fluid pressure from the pump inlet to its outlet is created when the pump is in operation. we introduce the components in the centrifugal pump and a range of the pump types produced by Grundfos. There is a wide range of variations based on the principle of the centrifugal pump and consisting of the same basic hydraulic parts. well-described and thoroughly tested. The fluid flows from the inlet to the impeller centre and out along its blades. The centrifugal force hereby increases the fluid velocity and consequently also the kinetic energy is transformed to pressure. The principle is simple. This pressure difference drives the fluid through the system or plant. effective and relatively inexpensive to produce. Outlet Impeller Inlet 1.

Coupling Shaft Shaft seal Cavity above impeller Cavity below impeller Volute Diffuser Outlet flange Inlet flange Pump housing Impeller Impeller seal Inlet 13 13 .1. The subsequent sections describe the components from the inlet flange to the outlet flange.2 Hydraulic components The principles of the hydraulic components are common for most centrifugal pumps. Motor Figure 1.2 shows the hydraulic components in a single-stage inline pump.2: Hydraulic components. Figure 1. The hydraulic components are the parts in contact with the fluid.

the motor is often placed below the hydraulic parts with the inlet placed in the mid section of the pump. Impeller Inlet Impeller Inlet Impeller Inlet Impeller Inlet Inline pump Endsuction pump Doublesuction pump Submersible pump Figure 1. the motor is cooled due to submersion in the fluid. In submersible pumps.1 Inlet flange and inlet The pump is connected to the piping system through its inlet and outlet flanges. The four most common types of inlets are inline. doublesuction and submersible pump. The inlet splits in two and leads the fluid from the inlet flange to both impeller eyes. endsuction. The design of the inlet depends on the pump type. The impeller in doublesuction pumps has two impeller eyes.2. see figure 1. This design minimises the axial force. The inlet section leads the fluid into the impeller eye.2. The design prevents hydraulic losses related to leading the fluid along the motor. see figure 1. doublesuction and inlet for submersible pumps. In addition.3.1. The design of the flanges depends on the pump application. 14 14 . Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps 1. Endsuction pumps have a very short and straight inlet section because the impeller eye is placed in continuation of the inlet flange.3: Inlet for inline. The inlet guides the fluid to the impeller eye. endsuction.3. see section 1. Inline pumps are constructed to be mounted on a straight pipe – hence the name inline. Some pump types have no inlet flange because the inlet is not mounted on a pipe but submerged directly in the fluid.5.

1. 15 15 . see figure 1.5. The fluid is sucked into the impeller at the impeller eye and flows through the impeller channels formed by the blades between the shroud and hub. flow and application.2 Impeller The blades of the rotating impeller transfer energy to the fluid there by increasing pressure and velocity. The impeller is the primary component determining the pump performance.5: The impeller components. Figure 1. Pumps variants are often created only by modifying the impeller.4 shows an example of the velocity distribution at different cross-sections in the inlet.The design of the inlet aims at creating a uniform velocity profile into the impeller since this leads to the best performance. Figure 1.  Axial direction Hub plate Hub Impeller channel (blue area) The impeller’s direction of rotation  Radial direction  Tangential direction The impeller’s direction of rotation Trailing edge Leading edge Shroud plate Impeller blade Figure 1.2.4: Velocity distribution in inlet. The design of the impeller depends on the requirements for pressure. definitions of directions and flow relatively to the impeller.

Impellers with 5-10 channels has proven to give the best efficiency and is used for fluid without solid particles. One. The number mainly depends on the desired performance and noise constraints as well as the amount and size of solid particles in the fluid. Relatively low pressure and high flow are. In a radial impeller. 16 . 16 Radial impeller Semiaxial impeller Axial impeller Figure 1. which is the channel height at the impeller exit. A vortex pump with an open impeller is used in waste water application. there is a significant difference between the inlet diameter and the outlet diameter and also between the outlet diameter and the outlet width.6: Radial. After the basic shape of the impeller has been decided. One. In this type of pump. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps The impeller’s ability to increase pressure and create flow depends mainly on whether the fluid runs radially or axially through the impeller. The leading edge of such impellers is designed to minimise the risk of particles blocking the impeller. Figure 1. on the contrary. Semiaxial impellers are used when a trade-off between pressure rise and flow is required. the design of the impeller is a question of finding a compromise between friction loss and loss as a concequence of non uniform velocity profiles.7: One channel pump.6. see figure 1. uniform velocity profiles can be achieved by extending the impeller blades but this results in increased wall friction. the centrifugal forces result in high pressure and low flow. two or three channel impellers are used for fluids with particles such as wastewater.8. Impellers without a shroud are called open impellers. Figure 1.7 shows a one channel pump. two and three channel impellers can handle particles of a certain size passing through the impeller. In this construction. semiaxial and axial impeller. see figure 1.8: Vortex pump. The vortex pump has a low efficiency compared to pumps with a shroud and impeller seal. the impeller creates a flow resembling the vortex in a tornado. Open impellers are used where it is necessary to clean the impeller and where there is risk of blocking. The impeller has a number of impeller blades. found in an axial impeller with a no change in radial direction and large outlet width. Figure 1.1. Generally.

see figure 1.10: Dry-runner with long shaft.9. pressure and temperature. distinction is made between two types of pumps: Dry-runner pumps and canned rotor type pump. Mechanical shaft seals are maintenance-free and have a smaller leakage than stuffing boxes with compressed packing material. The advantage of the dry-runner pump compared to the canned rotor type pump is the use of standardized motors. then the two parts will not get in contact then the shaft seal can be left out. see figure 1. Motor Long shaft Water level Inner magnets on the impeller shaft Motor shaft Hydraulics Rotor can Motor cup Exterior magnets Inner magnets Figure 1. The coupling between motor and hydraulics is a weak point because it is difficult to seal a rotating shaft. Exterior magnets on the motor shaft Motor Motor Shaft seal Figure 1.1. a separation with long shaft or a magnetic coupling. In the dry runner pump the motor and the fluid are separated either by a shaft seal. 17 17 . The lifetime of mechanical shaft seals depends on liquid. the fluid and the motor are separated by seal rings.9: Dry-runner with shaft seal. Furthermore the solution results in a lower efficiency because of the leak flow through the clearance between the shaft and the pump housing and because of the friction between the fluid and the shaft.2.11: Dry-runner with magnet drive. In connection with the coupling. This solution has limited mounting options because the motor must be placed higher than the hydraulic parts and the fluid surface in the system.3 Coupling and drive The impeller is usually driven by an electric motor.10. If motor and fluid are separated by a long shaft. In a pump with a shaft seal. The disadvantage is the sealing between the motor and impeller. Motor cup Rotor can Impeller shaft Figure 1.

The fluid around the rotor results in friction between rotor and rotor can which reduces the pump efficiency. On this type of pump.12: Canned rotor type pump.13: Leak flow through the gap.12. see figure 1. The impeller seal comes in various designs and material combinations. Thus. the rotor and impeller are separated from the motor stator. there are a range of sealings with rubber rings in particular well-suited for handling fluids with abrasive particles such as sand. and the two parts are connected through the magnets. the impeller shaft has a line of fixed magnets called the inner magnets. As shown in figure 1. 1. The seal is typically turned directly in the pump housing or made as retrofitted rings. In pumps with a rotor can.1. Fluid Rotor can Rotor Stator Outlet Impeller Inlet Bearings Figure 1. The leak flow returns to the impeller eye through the gap.2.11. Outlet Inlet Leak flow Gap Impeller seal Figure 1.4 Impeller seal A leak flow will occur in the gap between the rotating impeller and stationary pump housing when the pump is operating. The impeller shaft and the motor shaft rotate. Impeller seals can also be made with floating seal rings.13. To minimise leak flow. Furthermore. an impeller seal is mounted. The rate of leak flow depends mainly on the design of the gap and the impeller pressure rise. see figure 1. The motor shaft ends in a cup where the outer magnets are mounted on the inside of the cup. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps In pumps with a magnetic drive. the rotor is surrounded by the fluid which lubricates the bearings and cools the motor. 18 18 . the impeller has to pump both the leak flow and the fluid through the pump from the inlet flange to the outlet flange. the motor and the fluid are separated by a non-magnetizable rotor can which eliminates the problem of sealing a rotating shaft. The main advantage of this design is that the pump is hermitically sealed but the coupling is expensive to produce. This type of sealing is therefore only used when it is required that the pump is hermetically sealed. The rotor can is fixed in the pump housing between the impeller shaft and the cup.

The main force contribution comes from the rise in pressure caused by the impeller. The axial thrust is the sum of all forces in the axial direction arising due to the pressure condition in the pump. and they affect the flow around the impeller and the pump’s ability to handle sand and air. Primary flows are vorticies rotating with the impeller in the cavities above and below the impeller. The pressure is increasing from the center of the shaft and outwards. The impeller rotation creates two types of flows in the cavities: Primary flows and secondary flows.15.14: Primary and secondary flows in the cavities. The end of the shaft is exposed to the atmospheric pressure while the other end is affected by the system pressure.Achieving an optimal balance between leakage and friction is an essential goal when designing an impeller seal. 1. see figure 1. A small gap also increases requirements to machining precision and assembling resulting in higher production costs. To achieve optimal balance between leakage and friction. Secondary flows are substantially weaker than the primary flows. A small gap limits the leak flow but increases the friction and risk of drag and noise. Cavity above impeller Cavity below impeller Primary flow Secondary flow Figure 1.2.5 Cavities and axial bearing The volume of the cavities depends on the design of the impeller and the pump housing. Primary and secondary flows influence the pressure distribution on the outside of the impeller hub and shroud affecting the axial thrust. the pump type and size must be taken into consideration. 19 19 .14. The impeller eye is affected by the inlet pressure while the outer surfaces of the hub and shroud are affected by the outlet pressure. see figure 1.

A third method of balancing the axial forces is to mount blades on the back of the impeller. One approach to balance the axial forces is to make small holes in the hub plate. see figure 1. Another approach to reduce the axial thrust is to combine balancing holes with an impeller seal on the hub plate. Axial thrust Inlet pressure Figure 1. Axial balancing hole Figure 1.17.16: Axial thrust reduction using balancing holes. All axial balancing methods result in hydraulic losses. Impeller seal Axial balancing hole Figure 1. The leak flow through the holes influences the flow in the cavities above the impeller and thereby reduces the axial force but it results in leakage. this method changes the velocities in the flow at the hub plate whereby the pressure distribution is changed proportionally.1. the additional blades use power without contributing to the pump performance. This reduces the pressure in the cavity between the shaft and the impeller seal and a better balance can be achieved. The construction will therefore reduce the efficiency. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps The axial bearing absorbs the entire axial thrust and is therefore exposed to the forces affecting the impeller. see figure 1. Like the two previous solutions. There are several possibilities of reducing the thrust on the shaft and thereby balance the axial bearing.17: Axial thrust reduction using impeller seal and balancing holes. Outlet pressure Atmospheric pressure Outlet pressure The impeller must be axially balanced if it is not possible to absorb the entire axial thrust in the axial bearing. see figure 1. 20 20 . The impeller seal causes extra friction but smaller leak flow through the balancing holes compared to the solution without the impeller seal.15: Pressure forces which cause axial thrust.16. However.18.

Static pressure.20: Change of fluid velocity in a pipe caused by change in the cross-section area.3 and 5. Blades Figure 1.6 Volute casing.3. The volute casing converts the dynamic pressure rise in the impeller to static pressure.2.18: Axial thrust reduction through blades on the back of the hub plate. low dynamic pressure 21 21 . The velocity is gradually reduced when the crosssectional area of the fluid flow is increased. Fins Figure 1. diffuser and outlet flange The volute casing collects the fluid from the impeller and leads into the outlet flange. 1. In this case.A fourth method to balance the axial thrust is to mount fins on the pump housing in the cavity below the impeller. high dynamic pressure Large cross-section: Low velocity. dynamic pressure and diffusion are elaborated in sections 2. Diffusion Small cross-section: High velocity. 2. high static pressure. This type of axial balancing increases disc friction and leak loss because of the higher pressure. see figure 1.20.19: Axial thrust reduction using fins in the pump housing. see figure 1. low static pressure. An example of diffusion is when the fluid velocity in a pipe is reduced because of the transition from a small cross-sectional area to a large cross-sectional area. This transformation is called velocity diffusion.19. Figure 1.2.2. the primary flow velocity in the cavity below the impeller is reduced whereby the pressure increases on the shroud.

The primary task of the volute is to collect the fluid from the ring diffusor and lead it to the diffusor.1. The highest efficiency is obtained by finding the right balance between changes in velocity and wall friction. Blades can be placed in the ring diffusor to increase the diffusion. see figure 1. The primary ring diffusor function is to guide the fluid from the impeller to the volute. see figure 1. Focus is on the following parameters when designing the volute casing: The volute diameter.21: The components of the volute casing. be absorbed in the bearing. Radial forces must.21. volute and outlet diffusor. like the axial forces. 22 22 . The diffusor increases the static pressure by a gradual increase of the cross-section area from the throat to the outlet flange. An energy conversion between velocity and pressure occurs in each of the three components. At other flows. The throat is the place on the outside of the tongue where the smallest crosssection area in the outlet diffusor is found. the throat area and the radial positioning as well as length. The volute casing is designed to convert dynamic pressure to static pressure is achieved while the pressure losses are minimised. design of the tongue. width and curvature of the diffusor. The outlet diffusor connects the throat with the outlet flange. the cross-section geometry of the volute. The flow conditions in the volute can only be optimal at the design point. radial forces occur on the impeller because of circumferential pressure variation in the volute. the cross-section area in the volute must be increased along the periphery from the tongue towards the throat. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps The volute casing consists of three main components: Ring diffusor.21. To have the same pressure along the volute. The cross-section area in the ring diffussor is increased because of the increase in diameter from the impeller to the volute. Radial force vector Outlet flange Outlet diffusor Ring diffusor Throat Tongue Volute Radial force vector Figure 1.

the return channel has the same basic function as volute casing: To convert dynamic pressure to static pressure. Besides leading the fluid from one impeller to the next. Contrary to volute casing. more impellers can be connected in series. 23 23 .22. the same design considerations of impeller and volute casing apply. see figure 1. The return channel leads the fluid from one impeller to the next.7 Return channel and outer sleeve To increase the pressure rise over the pump. In multistage inline pumps the fluid is lead from the top of the chamber stack to the outlet in the channel formed by the outer part of the chamber stack and the outer sleeve. The chambers in a multistage pump are altogether called the chamber stack. Impeller Guide vane Impeller blade Return channel Outer sleeve Annular outlet Chamber stack Chamber Figure 1. When designing a return channel. The rotation is controlled by guide vanes in the return channel.22: Hydraulic components in an inline multistage pump. see figure 1. a return channel does not create radial forces on the impeller because it is axis-symmetric. The return channel reduces unwanted rotation in the fluid because such a rotation affects the performance of the subsequent impeller.1.22. An impeller and a return channel are either called a stage or a chamber.2.

3 Pump types and systems This section describes a selection of the centrifugal pumps produced by Grundfos. cooling and airconditioning systems as well as domestic hot water systems. Circulation pumps are primarily used for circulation of water in closed systems e. The water in a domestic hot water system constantly circulates in the pipes. heating. The pumps are usually designed to handle fluids with small particles such as sand. e. toxic or explosive fluids. This prevents a long wait for hot water when the tap is opened. water supply pumps. be used everywhere in the industry and this in a very broad section of systems which handle many different homogeneous and inhomogeneous fluids. The pumps are divided in five overall groups: Circulation pumps.g. The conditions in the water supply system make heavy demands on robustness towards ochre. Strict environmental and safety requirements are enforced on pumps which must handle corrosive. 24 24 . Many of the pump types can be used in different applications. that the pump is hermetically closed and corrosion resistant. Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps 1. as the name indicates. Pumps for pressure boosting are used for increasing the pressure of cold water and as condensate pumps for steam boilers. Wastewater pumps are used for pumping contaminated water in sewage plants and industrial systems.1. Water supply pumps can be installed in two ways: They can either be submerged in a well or they can be placed on the ground surface. pumps for pressure boosting and fluid transport. lime and sand. The pumps are constructed making it possible to pump fluids with a high content of solid particles.g. Industrial pumps can. industrial pumps and wastewater pumps.

heat supply. and it is found in many variants with different types of shaft seals. Inlet Outlet Figure 1. office buildings.1. Grundfos produces UP pumps with and without automatic regulation of the pump. washdown systems and other industrial systems. Outlet Inlet Figure 1.24: TP pump. cooling and airconditioning systems. 1. ventilation and aircondition systems in houses. and gardens. Outlet Inlet Figure 1. It is used for water supply and transportation of fluid in private homes.25: NB pump.3.4 The MQ pump The MQ pump is a complete miniature water supply unit.23: UP pumps. The pump is designed to minimise pipetransferred noise.2 The TP pump The TP pump is used for circulation of hot or cold water mainly in heating. 1. Others are sold to OEM customers (Original Equipment Manufacturer) that integrate the pumps into gas furnace systems. hotels. 1. temperature and pressure. The pump control ensures that it starts and stops automatically when the tap is opened.3 The NB pump The NB pump is for transportation of fluid in district heating plants. With the automatic regulation of the pump. the TP pump uses a standard motor and shaft seal. 25 25 . holiday houses. The MQ pump is self-priming.26: MQ pump. circulation of cold water. The UP pump Circulation pumps are used for heating. it is possible to adjust the pressure and flow to the actual need and thereby save energy. cooling and air conditioning systems. etc. Outlet Hydraulic Motor Inlet Figure 1. The built-in pressure expansion tank reduces the number of starts if there are leaks in the pipe system.3. agriculture. The pump is an endsuction pump. The control protects the pump if errors occur or if it runs dry. It is an inline pump with a canned rotor which only has static sealings.3. impellers and housings which can be combined depending on fluid type. then it can clear a suction pipe from air and thereby suck from a level which is lower than the one where the pump is placed. Some of the pumps are installed in heating systems at the end user.3.1. It is an inline pump and contrary to the smaller UP pump.

Outlet Non-return valve Chamber stack Inlet Motor Motor Chamber stack 1. The SP pump is equipped with an integrated nonreturn valve to prevent that the pumped fluid flows back when the pump is stopped. fire extinction systems.27: SP pump. This pump type is also able to pump corrosive fluids because the hydraulic parts are made of stainless steel or titanium. is adjusted to the tank depth so that it is possible to drain the tank of coolant and lubricant. Figure 1. The SP pump can also be used for pumping corrosive fluids such as sea water. The pump diameter is designed to the size of a standard borehole. Outlet Mounting flange Outlet channel Shaft Pump housing Figure 1. The motor is mounted under the chamber stack. water treatment systems.3. and the inlet to the pump is placed between motor and chamber stack.7 The MTA pump The MTA pump is used on the non-filtered side of the machining process to pump coolant and lubricant containing cuttings. cooling and air conditioning systems. The non-return valve also helps prevent water hammer. the part of the pump which is submerged in the tank. The CR pump is a vertical inline multistage pump.28: CR-pump. Inlet 26 26 . Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps 1.3. Inlet Outlet Figure 1. The pump is designed to be mounted vertically in a tank.6 The CR pump The CR pump is used in washers. ground water lowering and pressure boosting. boiler feed systems and other industrial systems.3. The installation length.5 The SP pump The SP pump is a multi-stage submersible pump which is used for raw water supply. fibers and abrasive particles. The MTA pump is a dry-runner pump with a long shaft and no shaft seal.29: MTA pump. 1.1.

Motor Outlet Inlet Figure 1. 1.30: SE pump.31: SEG pumps.1. 27 27 .9 The SEG pump The SEG pump is in particular suitable for pumping waste water from toilets. The pump is unique in the wastewater market because it can be installed submerged in a waste water pit as well as installed dry in a pipe system. Included in the chapter is also a short description of some of the Grundfos pumps. The SEG pump has a cutting system which cuts perishable solids into smaller pieces which then can be lead through a tube with a relative small diameter. The single-channel pumps are characterised by a large free passage.8 The SE pump The SE pump is used for pumping wastewater.4 Summary In this chapter. Pumps with cutting systems are also called grinder pumps.3. The series of SE pumps contains both vortex pumps and single-channel pumps. water containing sludge and solids. and the pump specification states the maximum diameter for solids passing through the pump. we have covered the principle of the centrifugal pump and its hydraulic components. Motor Inlet Outlet Figure 1. 1. We have discussed some of the overall aspects connected to design of the single components.3.

28 28 .

7 Power H [m] 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 P2 2. Net Positive Suction Head 2.3 Absolute and relative pressure 2.Chapter 2 Performance curves 2.13 Summary 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q [m3/h] η [%] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 NPSH (m) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 [kW] 10 8 6 4 2 0 Power NPSH .12 Radial thrust 2.10 NPSH.4 Head 2.5 Differential pressure across the pump .description of differential pressure 2.8 Hydraulic power 2.1 Standard curves 2.11 Axial thrust Efficiency 2.6 Energy equation for an ideal flow 2.9 EfficiencyHead 2.2 Pressure 2.

This chapter explains how these curves are interpretated and the basis for the curves. see figure 2. efficiency (η) and NPSH are shown as function of the flow. Performance curves 2. power consumption (P). The data sheet contains information about the head (H) at different flows (Q). The requirements for head and flow determine the overall dimensions of the pump. H [m] Head 50 40 η [%] 70 30 20 Efficiency 60 50 40 30 10 0 0 P2 [kW] 10 8 6 4 2 0 NPSH Power 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q [m /h] 3 20 10 0 NPSH [m] 10 8 6 4 2 0 Fígure 2. 30 30 . 2. Head (H). Performance curves The pump performance is normally described by a set of curves.1 Standard curves Performance curves are used by the customer to select pump matching his requirements for a given application.1.1: Typical performance curves for a centrifugal pump.2.

Coupling Motor Controller For pumps sold both with and without a motor. motor and electronics. The efficiency curve is used for choosing the most efficient pump in the specified operating range. For integrated products. the desired performance curves are a vital part of the design specifications. The NPSH curve shows the need for inlet head. Performance curves can be recalculated with the motor in question when it is chosen. only curves for the hydraulic components are shown.2. 31 31 .: The performance curves are stated for the pump itself or for the complete unit consisting of pump. the power consumption (P) is also to be found in the data sheet. Similar curves for axial and radial thrust are used for dimensioning the bearing system. The power consumption is like the head shown as a function of the flow. i.In addition to head. The performance curves describe the performance for the complete pump unit. Hydraulics Figure 2. see figure 2. Figure 2. The power consumption is used for dimensioning of the installations which must supply the pump with energy. and which requirements the specific system have to fullfill to avoid cavitation.2. NPSH is an abbreviation for ’Net Positive Suction Head’.1 shows an example of performance curves in a data sheet. During design of a new pump. without motor and controller. An adequate standard motor can be mounted on the pump if a pump without motor is chosen. Information about the pump efficiency (η) and NPSH can also be found in the data sheet. the pump curves for the complete product are shown.e.

7) ∆ perpendicular to − 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ direction. The sum of the two pressures is the total pressure: p tot = pstat + pdyn [Pa] (2.8) 4  π   Dout 2 2 D in 4     4 Figure 2.9) ∆p geo = ∆ ⋅ ρ g [Pa] and the fluid density (ρ) is know: pstat pstat ptot pstat ptot pdyn Q ptot Figure 2. see figure 2.3.2) [Pa] (2.4: Example of conversion of dynamic pressure to static pressure in a diffusor. (2. η tot = 32 Phyd P1 [⋅ 100 % ] (2. The flow through a pipe is called a pipe flow. Performance curves 2. The dynamic pressure can be found 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅  see ⋅  1 − 1  [Pa]    p = (2. The dynamic pressure can p tot = with pdyn [ ] Pa be calculated pstat z+the ⋅following formula.8) 4 measuringdyn pressuredifferenceDout the 2 π   between total pressure and static pressure.11) Pa = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] through hydpipe where the pipe diameter is increased converts dynamic pressure 2 to static pressure.2.5) ∆pstat = p measured in a pressure gauge.3: This is how static pressure pstat . 2 2 Total pressure can be measured through a pressure tap with the opening 2  facing the flow direction.3.10) (2.4.1) measured (2.2) p (2.7) ∆ pressure ρ ⋅ V be − in Dynamic pdyn = 2 ⋅ can out transformed to static pressure and vice versa. in [Pa] (2. Dynamic pressure is a function of the fluid velocity.12) η hyd = pipe [ ⋅ ⋅100 % ⋅   the part of the= 1 ⋅where the]diameter − increasing is called a diffusor.5) where ∆abs = = rel p+ pbar ∆pdyn + ∆pgeo [Pa] pp tot p ∆ stat + [Pa] (2.6) ρ = Density [kg/m3] out p tot (2.3) V = Velocity [m/s] ∆pstat = pstat. and Phyd  Q   1 (2.6) Static pressure is stat.13) 32 . and the measurement of (2. total pressure ptot and dynamic pressure pdyn are measured. − pstat.1) where ptot = Total = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V 2 [Pa] pdyn pressure [Pa] 2 pstat = Static pressure [Pa] pdyn = Dynamic∆pstat + ∆pdyn + ∆pgeo ∆p tot = pressure [Pa] (2.where the velocity (V) is (2.2 Pressure Pressure (p) is an expression of force per unit area and is split into static and dynamic pressure.Q  figure 2. out − pstat. Flow 2 (2.with [Pa] static pressure must always be done in static fluid or through a pressure tap mountedpdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vout 2 the flowVin2 [Pa] see figure 2.4) [m] H= g ρ⋅1 2 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V 2 [Pa] (2. D in 4     4 Such a combined pressure measurement can be performed using a pitot tube. is 1  [Pa]  pdyn P ρ  (2. p V2 + pdyn = 1 + ρ ⋅⋅ V 2= Constant ⋅ g z [Pa] ρ 22 m 2   s2    d d (2.

(2. The 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅  Q  ⋅  1 − 1  [Pa] temperature measured  4 pdyn = (2.1) 2.15) ( p abs. The conversion from relative pressure to absolute pressure is done bym 2   adding the current barometric pressure p V2 + (2.16) 33 .13) η tot = between the two pressure taps independent of the barometric pressure.3) p tot In practise. static pressure is measured by means of three different types of (2. A positive relative pressure means that the ∆ is above the − pstat. measures pressure (2. in [ pressure. Phyd • A differential pressure gauge measures the pressure difference [⋅ 100 % ] (2.5) pressure of the surroundings.3 Absolute and relative pressure Pressuredyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V 2 two ]different ways: absolute pressure (2. This type of pressure gauge is the most P2 commonly used. tot • An standard pressure gauge measures the pressure relative to the Phyd (2.tot.11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p ⋅ Q [W] relative to absolute zero.7) ∆pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vout 2 − 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vin2 [Pa] 2 2 The absolute and relative definition is also known from temperature measurement where the absolute temperature is measured in Kelvin [K] and 2   the relative temperature is measured in Celsius [°C]. and a negative relative pressure (2. The (2.p tot = pstat + pdyn [Pa] (2. Absolute pressure refers to the absolute zero.4) [m] H= ρ⋅ g pressure gauges: • An absolute pressure gauge.in − pvapour ) ρ ⋅g 33 (2.2)relative or p is defined in [Pa 2 pressure. out barometricPa] means that the pressure is below the barometric pressure.10) to the measured+ g ⋅ z =pressure:  s 2  relative Constant ρ 2   pabs = prel + pbar [Pa] (2. and absolute pressurep tot = ∆pstat + be dynpositive number. In contrast. such as a barometer.14) η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd NPSH A = [ ⋅ 100 % ] [m] (2.8) π 2 positive andrefers to in 4  absolute zero.9) pressure is affected by the weather and altitude.12) [⋅ 100 % ] η hyd = atmospherich pressure. Relative pressure refers to the ∆ can thus only ∆p a + ∆pgeo [Pa] (2.6) pressurepstat = pstat. The barometric ∆z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g is[Pa] barometric ∆p geo = pressure measured as absolute pressure.15K and can therefore be negative. the in Kelvin is always D D the  4   out temperature in Celsius refers to water’s freezing point at 273. P1 P1 > P2 > Phyd [W] (2.

4 Headp tot = ∆pstat + ∆pdyn + ∆pgeo [Pa] (2. Thus. It⋅can be explained based on the theory in chapter 4 where it P2 is proven that Q and H depend on the geometry and speed but not on the density of the pumpedPfluid.5 shows a typical QH curve. a QH curve is independent Phyd (2.16) [m] NPSH A = ρ ⋅g 2. H [m] 12 10 10.1) 2.P1 > P2water column is a pressure unit which must not be confused with Meter > Phyd [W ] the head in [m].4) Water at 20oC 998.17a) 34 . in [Pa] (2. out − pstat.17) (2. H is exactly the height of the fluid column in the open pipe. hyd [⋅ 100 % ] (2. The flow is generally stated 3 in cubic metre per hour [m /h] but at insertion into formulas cubic metre per second [m3/s] is used. Figure 2. Performance curves pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V 2 [Pa] 2 (2.in − pvapour ) (2.0 Figure 2.3) the head abs is calculated by Pa] following formula: 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q [m3/h] Figure 2.6: The QH curve can be determined in an installation with an open pibe after the pump. 34 NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% + 0. Hence. The valve is gradually opened∆p as= ∆z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g H[Pa] and Q increases decreases. As seen in theη the η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ table[of physical properties of water. The QH curve is a series of coherent values of Q and H represented by2the curve shown in figure 2.13) η tot = P1 The pressure increase across a pump can also be measured in meter water column (2.0 1.12) [ 100 % ] η hyd = of the pumped fluid. conversion from pressure to head is essential.8)  π   be4 The QH curve for 2 given pump canDout determined using the setup shown in a D in 4     4 figure 2.tot. m 2  p V + + g ⋅ z = Constant  2  (2. ( p abs.5: A typical QH curve for a centrifugal pump.p tot = pstat + pdyn [Pa] (2. SA [m] [m] or (2.2) H [m] ∆ 2.9) geo open pipe after the pump.6) A QH curve or pump curve shows the head (H) as a function of the flow (Q).2 kg /m3 1 bar = 10. H is the height of the fluid column in the (2.5 Q [m3/h] p tot H= ρ⋅ g [m] (2.10) ρ 2 s  In most cases the differential pressure across the pump Dptot is measured and p H = prel + pbar [the (2. Q equals 0 and H reaches its highest value when the valve is completely closed.2 m 1 bar (2. The pump is started and runs with constant speed. measured from inlet level.5. a small flow gives a high head and a large flow gives a low head.(2.5 NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% .5) The different performance curves are introduced on the following pages.6. The 2 2 1 1 (2. 2   1 ⋅ ρ ⋅  Q  ⋅  1 − 1  [Pa]   pdyn = (2. ∆pstat = pstat.15) change ⋅ 100 % ] hyd in density is significant at higher temperatures.14) [mWC].11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] The QH curve will ideally be exactly the same if the test in figure 2.7) flow (Q)∆pdyn = 2 ⋅ of⋅fluid going ρ ⋅ Vin the] is the rate ρ Vout − 2 ⋅ through [Pa pump.2 m 8 6 4 2 0 0 1.6 is made with a fluid having a density different from water.

10) (2.5.   [Pa] (2. out − pformula:1 (2.2 Static pressure difference  D 4 − D 4  [Pa]  π  2 in   out  4 The static pressure difference can be measured directly with a differential pressure sensor.5) where ∆pstat = pstat.5.8) 2.9) ∆totgeo = ∆ ⋅ ∆pstat = pstat.2) pdyn =211⋅ ρ ⋅ V 2 2 [Pa] ρ  1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V 2 s [Pa] 2 ⋅ ρ⋅V (2.3) (2.3) [Pa] ∆abs = = rel stat bar [Pa (2.1) pp expression: ⋅ g [dyn ] (2.1 Total pressure difference The total pressure difference across the pump is calculated on the basis of three contributions: 2 (2.7) dyn out in 2 2 Δpdyn = Dynamic pressure difference across the pump [Pa] Δpgeo = Geodetic pressure difference between the pressure sensors [Pa] 2   (2.⋅ or ⋅aV 2 [Pa] sensor can be placed at the inlet and outlet (2.6) =p 1  1 ρ ⋅  stat.7) ∆pdyn = out − in 2 2 2.5) (2.14) (2.2) pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V [Pa] 2 ∆p tot = ∆pstat + ∆pdyn + ∆pgeo [Pa] (2.9) (2.5 Differential pressure across the pump . In this case.3 Dynamicp ∆p+ p + ∆p ] + ∆p pressure difference pp tot (2.description of differential pressure (2.15) 35 . in [Pa] (2. out − pstat.8) (2.13) (2.9) 35 P1abs = 2prel Phyd bar [WPa] [] p > P > +p ∆p geo = ∆z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g [Pa] η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] (2.6) Δptot = Total pressure difference across the pump [Pa] Δpstat = ∆p =pressure difference V 2 [Pa] pump [Pa] Static 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V 2 − 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ across the (2.7) ∆pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vout − ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vin (2.2) pdyn = 1 ρ pressure 2 of the pump.2.6) m  p V2 + + g ⋅ z = Constant  2  (2.10) (2.1) p tot = pstat + pdyn [ ] Pa 2. out − pstat.5.12) (2. the static pressure difference can be found by the following tot= = ∆p+ p + ∆pPa]+ ∆pgeo [Pa] ∆p pstat zstatρdyn [Pa (2.1) p tot = pstat + pdyn QPa]  1 1  1 ⋅ρ⋅ [  ⋅  pdyn = (2.11) Phyd = H2⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = 2 p tot ⋅ Q [W] ∆ 2 Phyd   η hyd = = ∆z ⋅ [ ⋅ 100 % ] ]  1 1 ∆p geo P1 ρ ⋅gQ [Pa   ⋅ − pdyn = 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ 4  π   Dout 2 D in 4  4  2 2 m  p V Phyd ⋅ = %] η tot+ = + g [ ⋅z100Constant  2  ρ 2 P1 s      [Pa] (2.4) Hpdyn = 2 ⋅ [m] π  ⋅  4 − = 4  D D in  ρ⋅ g  2 4 1  out2 [Pa] (2.5) dyn geo The dynamic pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the pump 2  is found pstat p followingQ  in [Pa] ∆by thetot stat.8) (2. in [Pa] 2 (2.

tot.12) η1hyd =2 > Phyd ⋅ 100 ] ] is used for measuring the static pressure difference.4) H = V tot [m] + ρ ⋅ g g ⋅ z = Constant  2  + (2.17a) (2. Hence. P2 (2. out − pstat.17) (2. the dynamic pressure and the flow velocity before and after the ∆pstat (2.pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ 2 [Pa] 2.7) ∆pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vout − ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vin2 [Pa] 2 2 The formula shows that the dynamic pressure difference is zero if the pipe diameters are identical before and after the pump. 2  Q   1 1  (2.15) (2.5)  Q  ∆pstat = pstat. out − during test ] pumps.16) 36 .6) pump are not = pstat. SA ( p abs.9) 2 p 2 m 2  p (2.8)  difference out 2 π  D 4 D in 4  2.11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] pabs = p the gauge connected to the inlet pipe. PerformanceVcurves 2 ∆tot p ∆ stat + [dyn pp tot= = statp+ pdyn∆pPa]+ ∆pgeo (2.14) P1 > P2 > Phyd [W ] 36 NPSH Aη > NPSH motorNPSH3% [ ⋅+100 % ]m] or 0.4 Geodetic pressure 4     m 2  p V2 The geodetic pressure difference between inlet and outlet can be measured + + g ⋅ z = Constant  2  (2. (2.7) ∆pdyn pumpρ ⋅ Vout 2 − 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vin2 [Pa] =21 ⋅ are known: outlet of the 2 2 ∆p tot = ∆pstat + ∆pdyn + ∆pgeo [Pa] (2.2) [Pa] (2.13) η tot = P1 ( p abs. the dynamic pressure measured pstat.5 [ η tot = control ⋅ η R = ⋅ η hyd [m] NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% .15) η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] Phyd [⋅ 100 % ] (2. in [Pa of difference can1be ρ ⋅ V 2 [Pa]if the flow and pipe diameter of the(2.10) where ρ 2 s   Δz is the difference ⋅in vertical position between the gauge connected to the (2.4) H= the position ρ ⋅ g measuring taps on the pipe is of no importance for the of the calculation = Phyd geodetic pressure difference. Instead.in − pvapour ) [m] NPSH = (2.tot.in − pvapour ) (2.6)  ⋅  1 − 1  [Pa]  pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅  (2.11) Phyd H ⋅ g ⋅[ρ 100 % ] p tot ⋅ Q [W] P1 The geodetic pressure difference is zero when a differential pressure gauge P (2. P2 [m] (2.3) outlet pipe andrel + pbar [Pa] Phyd (2.9) ∆p geo = ∆z ⋅⋅ ρ ⋅ ⋅g [Pa]   ⋅  [Pa] − pdyn = 1 ρ (2. (2.5.16) [m] NPSH A = ρ ⋅g (2.14) P > P hyd [ [W % (2.2) and inlet pdyn = ⋅ calculated (2. in [Pa] (2.13) η tot of the ⋅ ⋅ Q = ∆ (2.8) 4 4   π   Dout 2 D in   2 4 1  (2.1) In practise.12) [⋅ 100 % ] η hyd = p tot The geodetic pressure difference is only relevant if Δz is not zero.5) (2.3) (2.10) ρ 2 in the following way: s  p p = p ∆ + pbar [Pa] ∆abs = rel z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g [Pa] geo (2.

η tot = P1 flow through an impeller since mechancial energy is added.5 NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% . velocity energy and potential energy is constant.81m s 2 992. not all the conditions for the energy equation are met.81m s 2 37 37 NPSH A = 6.3) Bernoulli’s equation is valid if the following conditions are met: p tot (2.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.15) calculation. Incompressible flowp true forW] liquids (2.9) ∆p geo = ∆ equation: z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g [Pa] p V2 + + g ⋅ z = Constant ρ 2 pabs = prel + pbar m 2   s2    (2. η tot of control ⋅ η equation [ ⋅ be used NPSH A = ( p abs.4) [m] H= ρ⋅ g 1.6 Energy   4 The energy equation for an ideal flow describes that the sum of pressure energy.2kg m3 ⋅ 9. Phyd the flow For example. [ ⋅ 100 % ]through a diffusor can be described(2.10) applies along a stream line or the trajectory of a fluid particle.∆pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vout 2 − 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Vin2 2 2 2 [Pa] (2.7)  Q   1 1   ⋅   [Pa] − pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅  (2.17a) NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% + 0. In spite= ηthis.in − pvapour ) ρ ⋅g [m] [m] [m] or (2.14) P > P2 > Phyd [W ] In1most applications.10) [Pa] (2.81m s 2 992.18) NPSH A = 3500 Pa 7375 Pa 101300 Pa − 3m − − 992.11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆ –tot ⋅ Q [ most 3. suction pipe ) − pvapour [m] ρ ⋅g (2. Work-free flow – no supply of mechanical energy (2.3m . the equation is known as Bernoulli’s (2. Stationary flow – no changes over time 2. but not the (2.10).8) 4  π   Dout 2 equation for an ideal flow  D in 4  2. Named after the Swiss physicist Daniel Bernoulli. the motor ⋅ η hyd can 100 % ] for making a rough (2. Loss-free flow – ignores friction loss Phyd 4.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.16) (2.13) by formula (2.12) [⋅ 100 % ] η hyd = P2 Formula (2. SA NPSH A = (pbar + ρ ⋅ g ⋅ Hgeo − ∆ p loss .17) (2.tot.

7) ∆pdyn based Vout − 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ in2 [Pa] corresponds to2 water at 4°C.7 Power The power curves show the ] (2.4. As seenp from the following formula.4) H flow. Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] (2. 2   1 ⋅ ρ ⋅  Q  ⋅  1 − 1  [Pa]  4  pdyn = In the data sheet. typically stated for pumps 2.9) ∆p geo = ∆z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g [Pa] Pump curves can only be compared if they are stated with the same speed.2.8) P2 is while 2 π   Dout D in      4sold with a standard motor.5) • Hydraulic power transferred from the impeller to the fluid (Phyd) P [W] P1 P2 Q [m3/h] Figure 2.12) [⋅ 100 the η hyd = P2 of the calculation of the pump efficiency. (2. The power is given in Watt [W].2 Hence. power measured on fluids with another density must be converted.7: P1 and P2 power curves.4. see Pa figure 2. ∆pstat = pstat.11) Phyd An independent curve for % ] hydraulic power is usually not shown in data (2. in [Pa] (2.8: • Supplied power from external electricity source to the motor and (2.14) η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] (2. P1 isnormally stated for4integrated products. m 2  p V2 + + g ⋅ z = Constant  2  (2. see figure 2.1 Speed Flow. sheets but is part η tot = Phyd P1 [⋅ 100 % ] [W] (2. The curves can be converted to the same speed by the formulas in section 3. head and power consumption vary with the pump speed. Performance curves 2.8: Power transfer in a pump unit. The power curves are generally= 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅on a2 standardVfluid with a density of 1000 kg/m3 which (2. (2.3) rel The hydraulic power Phyd is the power transferred from the pump to the fluid. the hydraulic power is calculated (2. tot based on = ρ ⋅ g [m] density: head and Figure 2.15) 38 . Distinction is made between three kinds of power.4.7. see section 3.4.6) The power consumption depends on the fluid density.1) p tot = pstat + pdyn [ energy transfer rate as a function of flow.13) P1 > P2 > Phyd 38 (2.10) ρ 2 s  P1 P2 Phyd 2.8 Hydraulic p + p pabs = power bar [Pa] (2.7. out − pstat.2) pdyn = 1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V 2 [Pa] 2 1) controller (P • Shaft power transferred from the motor to the shaft (P2) ∆p tot = ∆pstat + ∆pdyn + ∆pgeo [Pa] (2.

10) η[%] 2.14) (2.in − pvapour ) larger than = P= ( p abs.in + pbar + 0. 100 % ]m] (2.81m s 2 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9. pipe− vapour [m] = stat.81m s 2 992. H= complete pump unit with ρ⋅ g m 2  p V2 + + g ⋅ z = Constant  2  (2.13) (2.3) (2.in bar (2.in power duem] losses in controller..9 shows the efficiency curves for the pump (ηhyd(2.16) [ NPSH A = efficiency [ .2kg m3 ⋅ 9.17a) [ SA NPSH Aη > NPSH motorNPSH3% [ ⋅.15) Q[m3/h] Figure 2.10) (2.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.5 .7m A pvapour p + p + 0.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.3) (2.9: Efficiency curves for the pump (ηhyd) and complete pump unit with motor and controller (ηtot).14) P1 > P > Phyd [ = NPSH + 0.tot.18) ρ ⋅g 2 pvapour pstat. The total ρ ⋅ g efficiency for the entire pump unit (controller. A NPSH A = NPSH A A NPSH A NPSH A NPSH A A (pbar + ρ ⋅ g ⋅ Hgeo − ∆ p loss . suction pipe ) − pvapour [m] (2. suction pipe ) − pvapour [m] (2.3m NPSH A = efficiency point (QBEP).81m s 2 47400 Pa -27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa = + 3m − 1m − 3 2 3 2 = 6.17a) The flow where the pumpNPSH highest [m] efficiency is called the NPSH A > NPSH R = has the .5 3m − or 3500 Pa (2.4) [m] motor and controller (ηtot). pipe ρ ⋅ gPa g ρ ⋅Pa 3500 7375 Pa 101300 = − 3m − − 992.81m s 2 992. V12 1 (2.13) (2. SA 3% point or the best6.9 Efficiency pabs = prel + pbar [Pa] (2.∆p geo = ∆z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g [Pa] geo 2   1 ⋅ρ⋅ Q  ⋅  1 − 1  p = 2 2 p dynV 2 2  π   D 4 m 2  4 + + g ⋅ z  Constant out  2 D in = 4  2  ρ 2 s  (2.5 .tot. The efficiency is always below 100% since the supplied power is always hyd abs. pipe− NPSH A = stat.3) abs rel bar The total efficiency (ηtot) is the ratio between hydraulic power and supplied power.16) η tot the NPSH A hydraulic % ]vapour [ to (2. ∆p geo =2.81m s 2 992. ρ . motor and pump [⋅ 100 (2.tot.17) − NPSH A > − [m] R = NPSH3% A 3 2 3 2 3 2 992.81m s 2 39 39 NPSH A = 4.81m optimum s 2 992.3m 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9. V12 [m] + H geo − H loss. Q s [W] The hydraulic2efficiency refers totot 2 ⋅ whereas the total efficiency refers to P1: P   ρ hyd ηhyd ηtot Phyd [Pa] pabs = phyd + p 100 η hyd = rel [ ⋅bar % ] hyd P2 2 p tot [m] H= P hyd g ρ ⋅hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] η tot = tot P1 1 Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] P1 > P2 > Phyd [W ] hyd 1 2 Phyd = η hyd = η control [ ⋅η motor% ] hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] η tot ⋅ 100 ⋅ η hyd tot control motor P 2 (2.18) ( pbar vapour geo abs.in bar geo loss.in − A (2.9)     [Pa] (2.19) . 100%]] A ρ ⋅ gm ηcontrol = Controller ρ ⋅g ηmotor = Motor efficiency [ .11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot .2kg m3 ⋅ 9.5 [m] or NPSH A2 > NPSH R W ] 3% A R 3% (2.2kg m3 ⋅ 9. motor and hydraulics) is the product of the individual efficiencies: (2. 100%] 7375 Pa NPSH A = NPSH 101300 Pa + 0.81m s 2 (2.8) (2.9) for a Figure ∆z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g [Pa] ) and p tot tot (2.12) (2.19) + H geo − H loss. ρ .12) (2.15) η tot = A control ⋅ η R = ⋅ η hyd3% R A Hgeo − loss suction pipe where NPSH = (pbar + ρ ⋅ g ⋅pvapour )∆ p loss .16) A P1 components.17) (2.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.11) (2.4) (2.

3) Cavitation first occurs at the point in the pump where the pressure is p tot (2.17) NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% + 0.2kg m ⋅ 9. V12 +H −H − pvapour [m] (2.] head.14) P1 > P > NPSH W ] NPSHA stands2 for Phyd [Available and is an expression of how close the fluid in the suction pipe is to vapourisation. ρ . Phyd [⋅ 100 % ] (2.81m s 2 NPSH A = 6.17a) [m] NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% .81m s 992.13) η tot = Distinction is made between two different NPSH values: NPSHR and NPSHA. Q[m3/h] where (2. pabs = prel + pbar [Pa] (2.11.10. NPSHA is defined as: (2.tot.3m 40 NPSH = pstat. (2. suction pipe ) − pvapour NPSH Aabsolute pressure at the inlet flange [Pa].10: Cavitation.in + pbar + 0. which is undesired and harmful.in − pvapour ) ρ ⋅g [m] (2.19) 40 . P 1 Figure 2.4) [m] H= lowest.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.in = The = bar ρ ⋅g NPSH A = 3500 Pa 7375 Pa 101300 Pa − 3m − − 3 2 3 2 992.2kg m ⋅ 9. Cavitation generally lowers the head and causes noise and vibration.10) locally drops 2 ρ s  on how low the pressure is in the pump. SA The vapour pressure is found in the table ”Physical properties of water” in the back of the book. NPSH [m] (2.11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] The NPSH value is absolute and always positive. which⋅ g most often at the blade edge at the impeller inlet.81m s 992. it is not necessary to take the density of like theη hyd = see figure 2.9) ∆p geo = ∆z ⋅ ρ ⋅ Cavitation is the creation of vapourm 2  bubbles in areas where the pressure p V2 + to the fluid vapour pressure.5 [m] or pvapour = The vapour pressure of the fluid at the present temperature [Pa]. NPSH is stated in meter [m] Phyd (2. The extent of cavitation depends + g ⋅ z = Constant  2  (2.5 .12) [⋅ 100 % Hence. P2 different fluids into account because NPSH is stated in meters [m]. Net Positive Suction Head NPSH is a term describing conditions related to cavitation. (2.10 NPSH.2 2 2  Q  2.15) η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] NPSH A = ( p abs.18) pabs.11: NPSH curve.16) Figure 2.g [Pa] (2. Performance ⋅curves   ⋅  p = 1 ⋅ρ  dyn 2 π   4 1 1 D 4 − D 4 in  out     [Pa] (2.8) 2.tot. see ρ is figure 2. [m] (2. (p + ρ ⋅ g ⋅ Hgeo − ∆ p loss .

7m 41 41 . 1.19) + H geo − H loss.16) instead of NPSHA.tot.14) P1 > P > Phyd [W ] A minimum 2 safety margin of 0.in can be calculated from a given value of NPSHR and the fluid vapour Phyd pressure by inserting NPSHR in the formula (2.10) pabs = prel + pbar [Pa] (2.5 NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% . NPSH A = 6.17a) ⋅ g ⋅ Hgeo can loss suction pipe ) − prevented (p The risk of cavitation+ ρsystems− ∆ pbe .3m • Avoiding pressure drops coming from bends and other obstacles in the suction line.11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆ operating conditions. (2.vapour [m] (2.13) should be [ ⋅ 100 % within the tot P1 operating range.17) (2.5 m is recommended.16) [m] NPSH A = NPSH . reduced or pvapour [m] by: NPSH A = bar in (2. V12 • Lowering fluid temperature to reduce vapour pressure.in − pvapour ) (2.81m s 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9.3) p tot (2.81m s 2 • Increasing the suction line’s cross-section area to reduce the fluid velocity and thereby reduce friction. Pa NPSH A = − 3m − − 992.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.2-2. • Increasing the system pressure - closed systems.4) [m] H= ρ ⋅for NPSH Required and is an expression of the lowest NPSH NPSHR stands g value required for acceptable p ⋅ Q [W] (2.18) ρ ⋅g • Lowering the pump compared to the water level - open systems. For example. pipe− NPSH A = stat. a control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] required. ρ . Depending on the application.in bar ρ ⋅g ρ ⋅g The two following examples show how NPSH is calculated.5 .81m s 2 992.0 times the 3% ⋅ g ρ NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% + 0. 3500 7375 Pa 101300 Pa • Shortening the suction line to reduce the friction loss. noise (2. 47400 Pa -27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa NPSH A = + 3m − 1m − 3 2 973 kg m ⋅ 9.81m s 2 992. SA [m] [m] or (2.2kg m3 ⋅ 9. p p + p + 0. European Association of Pump Manufacturers indicate a safety factor SA of ( p abs.81m s 2 NPSH A = 4. The absolute pressure tot pabs.12) [⋅ 100 % ] η hyd = P2 To determine if a pump can safely be installed in the system.15) η tot = η higher safety level may be sensitive applications or in high energy pumps like boiler feed pumps.2kg m3 ⋅ 9. NPSHA and NPSHR η = Phyd found for ]the largest flow and temperature(2. (2.tot.ρ + 2 + g ⋅ z = Constant  s2    (2.

81m s 2 NPSH A = 6.7m The pump chosen for the system in question must have a NPSHR value lower pvapour pstat. The water either be above or below the pump and (2.81m [m] − or − 992.5 kPa.81m s 992.17a) .3m -3m.18) NPSH A = bar p ( p abs. the water temperature and the(2.3-0. (2. Sin formula (2. suction pipe H<0 pbar Figure 2. Hence.11) (2.12) P2 A pump must draw water from a reservoir where the water level is 3 meters below the pump. At a water temperature of pvapour ) the vapour pressure is 7.13) barometric tot = in the inlet ρ⋅ g P1 pressure. pipe− ρ ⋅g ρ ⋅g 3500 Pa 7375 Pa 101300 Pa NPSH A = − 3m − − 3 2 3 2 992.pabs = prel + pbar p tot [Pa] (2. V12 [ pump(2. Hgeo is negative.in + pis:⋅+ 0. (p + ρ ⋅ g ⋅ Hgeo − ∆ p loss . pipe− must ρ ⋅g ρ ⋅g NPSHR value lower than 6.81m s 2 > NPSH = NPSH m ⋅ 0.18) NPSH A = bar 2 pvapour p value ρ g bar The system NPSHAstat.3=m minus the safety margin geo − H loss.5 = 5.17) NPSH A > NPSH = NPSH3% + 0. The valuesρ ⋅ g found in the table ”Physical properties of water” P1 in the back of the book.tot.81m s 2 geo992.3) (2.4) H= %] frictionηloss [m] [ ⋅ 100pipe.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.1 Pump drawing from a well   Example Phyd [⋅ η hyd pabs = prel +=pbar [Pa]100 % ] (2.81m s 2 42 NPSH A = 4.12.17) NPSH A NPSH A =R992.2kg/m3. suction pipe ) − pvapour [m] (2.81m s 2 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9.5 s 2 is stated in meter [m]. NPSH R = expression A (2.19) NPSH A = geo loss. Thus.in − 40°C.14) Phyd = H ⋅ > P ρ > Q = ∆[W ] ⋅ Q [W] P1 g ⋅ 2 ⋅ Phyd p tot Water temperature = 40°C P (2. them] NPSH A than 6. ρ .15) ηhyd ⋅η ⋅ η hyd Barometric = [η control%= 101.3) [Pa ∆ geo = ∆z ⋅ ρ ⋅ g [mcurves H= 2.in + pbar + 0. ρ .tot. (p + ρ ⋅ g ⋅ Hgeo − ∆ p loss . NPSH A this > NPSH R = is placed SA level inNPSHsystemNPSH3% below [m] pump.81m s m3 ⋅ 9. V1 + H − H [m] (2.10) (2.14) P1 > P2 > Phyd [W ] R (2. (2.13) η tot = 992. NPSH A = 42 47400 Pa -27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa + 3m − 1m − 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9.12: Sketch of a system where water is pumped from a well.2kg-27900 Pa + 101000 Pa992.5 [m] or (2. ( p abs.81m + 500 Pa NPSH A = + 3m − 1m − 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9.11)  stot  2 ρ 2 2.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.16) [m] NPSH Phyd A = [⋅ 100 % ] are (2.17a) [m] For thisNPSH A >the NPSHANPSH3% .2kg m ⋅ 9.5 .2kg 3% 3+ 9.9) (2. To calculate the NPSHA value.81m s 2 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9.3 kPa [ ⋅ 100 % ] (2.15) η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] Reference plane ∆ploss.16) can be written as: system.19) have a + H of 0. it is necessary to know the Phyd p tot (2.37 kPa and ρ is (2. Hgeo = the A = 6. H can 7375 Pa 101300 Pa Hgeo is the water level’s vertical position 3mrelation to the Pa in − (2.in − vapour ) (2.5 m. suction pipe ) − pvapour [m] (2.8 m at the present flow. see figure 2.5 .4) 2 m p V P = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p 2 ⋅ Q [W] hyd g ⋅ z = Constant + + (2.16) [m] ρ ⋅ g NPSH A = ρ ⋅g 3500 pump.2kg 47400 Pa s 2 m ⋅ 9.pPerformance ]] ρ⋅ g (2.7m .3m NPSH A = 4.12) ⋅ 100 η hyd = tot pressure ] motor 2 PressurePloss in the suction line at the present flow = 3.

5 [m] or pressure is made results in a dynamic pressure contribution of 500 Pa. pipe− NPSH A = ρ ⋅g ρ ⋅g Inserting the values gives: 47400 Pa -27900 Pa + 101000 Pa + 500 Pa NPSH A = + 3m − 1m − 47400 m -27900 Pa + 101000m3 + 9.81m s 2 992.11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] Phyd (2.4 kPa and density is ρ = 973 3kg/m3. height between the (2.2 [ ⋅ 100 % ] P2 Phyd System (2.19) + H geo − H loss.81m s 992.5 . see figure 2. ρ ⋅. The velocity in the tube where the measurement of ⋅g positive value of (2. V12 [m] (2. NPSHpressure gauge is placed above the pump. 3 NPSH in − 3m of − 3 2 992.13: Sketch of a closed system. pipe− NPSH A = stat.19) + H geo − H loss.14) P1 > P2 > Phyd [W ] Hgeo>0 (2.11) Phyd = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ Q = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] (2.in + pbar + 0.2kg m ⋅ 9.13) η tot = pstat.14) P1 > P2 the absolute (2. suction pipe ) − pvapour [m] (2.2kg m ⋅ 9. in shows how the100 % ] sensor’s placement above the reference plane can P1 be used to find > Phyd [W ] pressure in the suction line.81m s 2 NPSH A = 4. This example there % ] Phyd P1 [⋅ pressure (2.17a) NPSH ANPSH >RNPSH R = NPSH .81m s 992.81m s 2 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9.16) [m] A ( p abs. suction pipe)) andvapour [mis calculated to ] (2.in − pvapour ) gauge.3m pvapour p + p + 0.17) (2.15) η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] Reference plane -27.tot (2.5 [m SA A 3% (2.13.81m s 2 NPSH = 6.12) η hyd = 2. (2.81m s 2 NPSH A = + 3m − 1m − 973 kg m3 ⋅ 9.tot.12) [⋅ 100 % ] η hyd = P P2 Examplehyd Pump in a closed system (2.pipe = 1m.81m s 2 973 kg Pa ⋅ 500 Pa 973 kg Pa 3 ⋅ 9.in (p ρ ⋅g Hloss.16 expresses the NPSHA as follows: NPSH A = 6.4) [m] H= ρ⋅ g (2.7m NPSH A = 4.in −pressure gauge and the impeller eye H is therefore a pvapour ) ρ ⋅g Figure 2.16) [m] NPSH A = geo ρ+3m.2kg m 992.in bar pvapour ρ ⋅ g pstat.18) NPSH A = stat.4) [m] H= p tot ρ ⋅ g (2. + ρ ⋅ g ⋅ Hgeo − ∆ p loss .81m s 992.9 kPa2.g 12 ρ V [m] (2. ρ .2kg m3 ⋅ 9. Hence. values are pressure − 3m − − 3 2 2 3500 Pa 7375 Pa 101300 Pa ⋅ 9.7m Despite the negative system pressure. formula 2.2kg m3 ⋅ 9.13) η tot = In a closed system. 43 43 .2kg m ⋅ 9.5 . The difference in The = (2.3m A For this system.81m s 2 found A =the table ”Physical properties− water”. there is negative pressure in the system at the pressure ( p abs. [m] or ] > NPSH = NPSH3% + 0. (2. a NPSHA value of more than 4m is available at the present flow.18) NPSH A = bar ρ⋅ System temperature = 80°C g 3500 Pa 7375 Pa 101300 Pa VapourNPSH A = pvapour = 47.17) NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% + 0. [ ⋅ 100 is no free water surface to refer to. Barometric pressure = 101 kPa SA (p measurement point (p − p pump Pipe loss betweenbar + ρ ⋅ g ⋅ Hgeo − ∆ p loss .tot.in = (2.15) η tot = η control ⋅ η motor ⋅ η hyd [ ⋅ 100 % ] The relative static pressure on the suction side is measured to be pstat.17a) [m] NPSH A > NPSH R = NPSH3% .

17: Example of a radial thrust curve for a TP65-410 pump.2.14: Axial thrust work in the bearing’s direction. Hydraulic radial thrust is a result of the pressure difference in a volute casing. Pumps with up-thrust require locked bearings.12 Radial thrust Radial thrust is the sum of forces acting on the shaft in radial direction as shown in figure 2.4 and 4. Figure 2.5. see sections 3. The axial thrust is related to the head and therefore it scales with the speed ratio squared. Performance curves 2. In addition to the axial thrust.14. 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q [m3/h] Figure 2. Size and direction vary with the flow. The forces are minimum in the design point. see figure 2.5.17.2.15 shows an example of an axial thrust curve. The size and direction of the axial thrust can be used to specify the size of the bearings and the design of the motor.16: Radial thrust work perpendicular on the bearing. Force [N] 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q [m3/h] Figure 2.16. Figure 2. Axial thrust is mainly caused by forces from the pressure difference between the impeller’s hub plate and shroud plate. To size the bearings correctly. see section 1.4. it is important to know the size of the radial thrust. consideration must be taken to forces from the system pressure acting on the shaft.15: Example of a axial thrust curve for a TP65-410 pump. 44 44 . 2.11 Axial thrust Axial thrust is the sum of forces acting on the shaft in axial direction. Force [N] Figure 2. see figure 2.

power. efficiency. NPSH and thrust impacts. the two terms head and NPSH are clarified with calculation examples. 45 45 .13 Summary Chapter 2 explains the terms used to describe a pump’s performance and shows curves for head.2. Furthermore.

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6 Energy efficiency index (EEI) 3.Chapter 3 Pumps operating in systems Tank on roof 3.7 Summary � Buffer tank Hloss.4 Regulation of pumps 3. pipe friction Hoperation Qoperation .2 Pumps operated in parallel 3.1 Single pump in a system 3.5 Annual energy consumption 3.3 Pumps operating in series 3.

The energy added to the fluid by the pump is partly lost as friction in the pipe system or used to increase the head. The chapter also explains the energy index for small circulation pumps. Regulated pumps adjust to the system by changing the rotational speed. 48 48 . If several pumps are combined in the same application. A pump is always connected to a system where it must circulate or lift fluid. Implementing a pump into a system results in a common operating point.3. and in water supply systems where the demand for water varies with the consumer opening and closing the tap. the pump curve for the system can be found by adding up the pumps’ curves either serial or parallel. Pumps operating in systems This chapter explains how pumps operate in a system and how they can be regulated. The regulation of speed is especially used in heating systems where the need for heat depends on the ambient temperature. Pumps operating in systems 3.

Hmax Figure 3.Hz).3: Example of an open system with positive geodetic lift. there is no head when the system is not operationg.0).2.0) as shown in figure 3. This causes an additional head which the pump must overcome. In systems where water is to be moved from one level to another.H) = (0.1.2: The system characteristics of a closed system resembles a parabola starting at point (0. see figure 3. Figure 3. The system characteristic is described by a steep parabola if the resistance in the system is high. see figure 3. Changing the settings of the valves in the system changes the characteristics.4: The system characteristics of an open system resembles a parabola passing through (0. The operating point is found where the curve of the pump and the system characteristic intersect. In this case the system characteristics goes through (0. In closed systems.1 Single pump in a system A system characteristic is described by a parabola due to an increase in friction loss related to the flow squared. The parabola flattens when the resistance decreases.friktion Hloss. corresponding to the height difference.0). there is a constant pressure difference between the two reservoirs.4. H H Hmax Figure 3.3. Hoperation Hoperation Hloss. In this case the system characteristic goes through (Q.3.friktion Hz Qoperation Q Qoperation Q 49 49 . see figure 3.1: Example of a closed system. Elevated tank Boiler Hoperation Qoperation Valve Hz Buffer tank Hoperation Qoperation Heat Exchanger Figure 3.Hz) instead of (0.

Pumps connected in parallel are e. a + Qoperation. The total pump output is usually only necessarry in a limited period. used in pressure booster systems. A single large pump will in this case typically operate at lower efficiency. By letting a number of smaller pumps take care of the operation. b = Qsystem Qmax Q Hoperation.2 Pumps operated in parallel In systems with large variations in flow and a request for constant pressure. Major operational advantages can be achieved in a pressure booster system by connecting two or more pumps in parallel instead of installing one big pump. 50 50 . and where the non-return valves are build-in as one or more valves to prevent backflow through the pumps. b Hoperation. b Qoperation. a= Hoperation. b Qoperation. the system can be controlled to minimize the number of pumps operating and these pumps will operate at the best efficiency point. see figure 3. Parallel-connected pumps can also be double pumps. A nonreturn valve is therefore always mounted on the discharge line to prevent backflow through the pump not operating. a = Qoperation.g. The characteristics of a parallel-connected system is found by adding the single characteristics for each pump horisontally. where the pump casings are casted in the same unit.3. Parallel-connected pumps are also used when regulation is required or if an auxiliary pump or standby pump is needed. When operating the pumps. Pumps operating in systems 3. one of the parallel-connected pumps must have variable speed control. a Qsystem Qoperation. a Qoperation.5. for water supply and for water supply in larger buildings. To operate at the most optimal point. it is possible to regulate between one or more pumps at the same time. two or more pumps can be connected in parallel. This is often seen in larger supply systems or larger circulation systems such as central heating systems or district heating installations. b Figure 3.5: Parallel-connected pumps. H Hmax Hoperation.

4 Regulation of pumps It is not always possible to find a pump that matches the requested performance exactly. There are also a number of other regulation methods e.a Figure 3.a Hoperation.a+Hoperation. a= Qoperation. 3. To avoid this. trimming the impeller and cavitation control which are not introduced further in this book. However. control of preswirl rotation. also known as expansion regulation Bypass regulation through a bypass valve Start/stop regulation Regulation of speed Hoperation.tot= Hoperation.3 Pumps operated in series Centrifugal pumps are rarely connected in serial. A number of methods makes it possible to regulate the pump performance and thereby achieve the requested performance. 2. single stages in multistage pumps can not be uncoupled. H Hmax.b Qoperation. The head at a given flow for a serial-connected pump is found by adding the single heads vertically.total Hoperation.b Qmax Q 3. 4. b Hmax.6: Pumps connected in series.g.6. a bypass with a non-return valve could be build-in. a Qoperation.3. see figure 3. If one of the pumps in a serial connection is not operating. 51 51 .6.b Hoperation. b Hoperation. as shown in figure 3. but a multi-stage pump can be considered as a serial connection of single-stage pumps. Throttle regulation. adjustment of blades.a= Qoperation. The most common methods are: 1. it causes a considerable resistance to the system.

Figure 3. 3.7.1 Throttle regulation Installing a throttle valve in serial with the pump it can change the system characteristic. throttling Hloss. From an overall perspective neither regulation with throttle valve nor bypass valve are an energy efficient solution and should be avoided.system System Figure 3. see figure 3.6). H Valve Hloss.10: The system characteristic is changed through bypass regulation. The resistance in the entire system can be regulated by changing the valve settings and thereby adjusting the flow as needed. System flow Bypass flow b Bypass valve Q bypass Q-Qbypass Q H Hloss.9. Regulation by means of a throttle valve is best suited for pumps with a relatve high pressure compared to flow (lownq pumps described in section 4.3. 52 52 . it depends on the power curve and thus the specific speed of the pump.9: The bypass valve leads a part of the flow back to the suction line and thereby reduces the flow into the system. see figure 3. see figure 3. To the left the consequence of a low-nq pump is shown and to the right the concequences of a high nq pump is shown.8. Like the throttle valve. see figure 3. the pump delivers a specific flow even though the system is completely cut off. The bypass valve guide part of the flow back to the suction line and concequently reduces the head.10. Figure 3. The operating point is moved from a to b in both cases. However. Pumps operating in systems 3. The operating point is moved from a to b in both cases.system System H b H a b a H a H System Bypass flow flow a b Q P b Pa Pb Q η b a η b a Pb P a a P b a Q P a Pb Q Pa b Q P a P1 P 2 Q η a b η a b b Q Q Q Q Q Q Figure 3. With a bypass valve. it is possible to reduce the power consumption in some case. A lower power consumption can sometimes be achieved by installing a throttle valve. The curves to the left show throttling of a low nq pump and the curves to the right show throttling of a high nq pump.2 Regulation with bypass valve A bypass valve is a regulation valve installed parallel to the pump.7: Principle sketch of a throttle regulation.4. Bypasss regulation is an advantage for pumps with low head compared to flow (high nq pumps).8: The system characteristic is changed through throttle regulation.4.

06 ⋅ P100% + 0.35 ⋅ P + 0. The conversion in speed is made by means of the affinity equations.avg provide coherent points on an affinity parabola in the QH EEI = PL.1) (3.5: nB QB = Q A ⋅ nB (3. power and NPSH curves are changed.avg = 0.3) PB = PA ⋅  n B  B A  A  A  nB    (3.avg = 0.35 ⋅ P + 0. and index B describes the Index A in the equations describes PL.11.1) B A A nB A A QB = Q A ⋅ (3.4) NPSH B = NPSH A ⋅  A  n   A  the initial values.4. 3. The affinity parabola is shown in figure 3. 100% 75% 50% 25% PL.5) modifiedL.15 ⋅ P75% + 0. The most common regulation methods are proportional-pressure control and constant-pressure control.2)   HB = H A ⋅  nB  (3.4) NPSH B = NPSH A ⋅  n B  B A  A  n A   B   (3.3) PB = PA ⋅  n B 3   (3.15 ⋅ P75% + 0.44 ⋅ P25% (3.35 ⋅ P + 0.06 ⋅ P100% + 0. The pumps can then be started and stopped depending on the load and a better adjustment to the requirements can be achieved.avg = 0.6) graph.2) B A  A   nB   A   HB = H A ⋅  A  (3. H n = 100% Coherent points n = 80% Affinity parabola n = 50% Q Figure 3.4 Speed control When the pump speed is regulated. the QH.2) HB = H A ⋅  nB 2 (3. These are futher described in section 4.5) (3.6) [−] EEI = P (3.2)  n 3 3  nA  3  B (3.44 ⋅ P25% (3. Ref PL. it can be an advantage to use a number of smaller parallel-connected pumps instead of one larger pump.4.3) PB = PA ⋅  A  n  2  A 2 n B  2 (3.3 Start/stop regulation In systems with varying pump requirements.6) PRef Different regulation curves can be created based on the relation between the pump curve and the speed. 53 53 .5) 100% 50% 50% PL.3.06 ⋅ P + 0.5) 50% PL.44 ⋅ P25% values.avg (3.11: Affinity parabola in the QH graph.avg [−] (3.avg The equations L.4) (3.15 ⋅ P75% + 0.4) NPSH B = NPSH A ⋅  n B  2   (3.1) nA 2 2  nB 2 (3.avg Ref PRef [−] EEI = (3.6) (3.1) QB = Q A ⋅ nB (3.3) (3.

Constant-pressure control is an advantage in many water supply systems where changes in the consumption at a tapping point must not affect the pressure at other tapping points in the system.13. Figure 3. e. The proportional curve is an approximative system characteristic as described in section 3. Constant-pressure control A constant differential pressure. Proportional pressure regulation is used in closed systems such as heating systems. independent of flow. 54 54 . Regulation can be performed up to a maximum speed. This is done by changing the speed in relation to the current flow. can be kept by means of constant-pressure control. The result is a low energy consumption by the pump and a small risk of noise from valves. above radiator valves.12 shows different proportional-pressure regulation curves. from that point the curve will follow this speed.g.3. see figure 3. The differential pressure. Pumps operating in systems Proportional-pressure control Proportional-pressure control strives to keep the pump head proportional to the flow. In the QH diagram the pump curve for constant-pressure control is a horisontal line.1 where the needed flow and head can be delivered at varying needs. is kept almost constant despite changes in the heat consumption.

12: Example of proportional-pressure control. Figure 3.13: Example of constant-pressure control.H H Q Q P2 P2 Q Q η η Q Q n n Q Q Figure 3. 55 55 .

06 ⋅ P100% + 0.avg PRef Flow % Time % 6 15 35 44 (3.15 showsthe time distribution for each flow point. This energy label applies for small circulation pumps and makes it easy for consumers to choose a pump which minimises the power consumption.1) by a nominal operating point (Q100% ) and a corresponding distribution of the nA operating time. P25% Q25% Q50% Q75% Q100% Q H Q100% Q75% Q50% Q25% 56 56 .15 ⋅ P75% + 0.2) The nominal operating point is the point on the pump curve where the product n   A of Q and H is the highest. the accumulated energy consumption is big. see figure 3 3.5.5) H H max 100 75 EEI = [−] (3.3. Figure 3. The lowest energy consumption is achieved with speed regulation of pumps.35 ⋅ P + 0.  nB (3.15: Load profile. The energy label is based on a number of tests showing the annual runtime and flow of a typical circulation pump. a corresponding labelling for pumps exists.4) NPSH B = NPSH A ⋅   n the time expressed in percent.6) H P100% P75% 50 25 Figure P50% 3.max n  HB = H A ⋅  B  (3.   A 2 Figure 3. H } ~ P hyd.avg = 0.44 ⋅ P25% 50% PL. The tests result in a load profile defined n QB = Q A ⋅ B (3. The power consumption of a single pump is small but because the worldwide number of installed pumps is very large. Q100% Q PL. The same flow point also refers to P100%. Annual energy consumption Like energy labelling of refrigerators and freezers.max Q P1 P100% Phyd.14.3) PB = PA ⋅   n   A The representative power consumption is found by reading the power 2 consumption at the different operating points and multiplying this with n B (3. H H max max { Q . Pumps operating in systems 3.14: Load curve.

80 1.6 Energy efficiency index (EEI) 2 In 2003 a study of a major part of the circulation pumps on the market was n  ⋅ B HB = H A purpose was to create a frame of reference for a representa(3. H100% n100% n50% Q 0% .4) NPSH B = NPSH A ⋅  B  n  The energy index is definedA as the relation between the representative   power (PL. H100% 2 n25% Q Figure 3.00 1.avg = 0.17. see figure 3. The energy index can be interpreted as an expression of how much energy a specific pump uses PL.16. The scale continues to class G.40. Based Bon the study the magnitude of a representative power n  (3. a reference control curve corresponding to a system characteristic for a heating system is used.20 < EEI G 1. The  n   A tive power consumption for a specific pump.18: Reference control curve.60.5) 50% compared to average pumps on75% market in 2003.avg) for the pump and the reference curve. 25% the QB = Q A ⋅ EEI = PL.40 If the pump index is no more than 0.max can be read from the  A curve.40 < EEI C 0.3) PB = PA ⋅   n  consumption of an average pump at a given Phyd.40 0. Q100% Q75% Q50% Q25% 57 57 .nB (3.1) nA 3. it can be labelled energy class A.44 ⋅ P (3.35 ⋅ P + 0. 2 n  (3. Speed regulated pumps minimize the energy consumption by adjusting the pump to the required performance.max.6) Klasse A EEI B 0.60 < EEI D 0.60 0. it is labelled energy class B. see figure 3.16: Reference power as function of Phyd. The result is the curve shown 3 in figure 3.15 ⋅ P + 0. The pump performance is regulated through the speed and it intersects the reference control curve instead of following the maximum curve at full speed. [−] (3.40 < EEI 0.80 < EEI E 1. For calculation of the energy index.20 1.17: Energy classes. H Hmax n75% Q100% . If the pump has an index between 0.2) conducted.06 ⋅ P100% + 0.18.00 < EEI F 1.40 and 0.avg PRef 4000 Reference power [W] 3000 2000 1000 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 Hydraulic power [W] Figure 3. The result is a lower power consumption in the regulated flow points and thereby a better energy index. Figure 3.

Pumps operating in systems 3. We have described the most common regulation methods from an energy efficient view point and introduced the energy index term.3. 58 58 .7 Summary In chapter 3 we have studied the correlation between pump and system from a single circulation pump to water supply systems with several parallel coupled multi-stage pumps.

Chapter 4 Pump theory 4.1 Velocity triangles 4.5 Affinity rules 4.3 Blade form and pump curve 4.2 Euler’s pump equation 4.4 Usage of Euler’s pump equation 4.6 Inlet rotation 4.7 Slip 4.9 Summary C1m β1 U2 C2u α2 β2 W1 C2 C2m W2 2 α1 U1 1 r1 r2 .8 Specific speed of a pump 4.

The relative and absolute velocity are the same in the stationary part of the pump. forming velocity triangles at the in. Pump theory The purpose of this chapter is to describe the theoretical foundation of energy conversion in a centrifugal pump. As the tangential velocity is perpendicular to this plane.g. The plane shown in figure 4. Despite advanced calculation methods which have seen the light of day in the last couple of years.1. Pump theory 4.1 Velocity triangles For fluid flowing through an impeller it is possible to determine the absolute velocity (C) as the sum of the relative velocity (W) with respect to the impeller. where the blade edge is mapped into the plane. By means of velocity triangles for the flow in the impeller in.and outlet. Ca. 4. energy is added to the shaft in the form of mechanical energy. These velocity vectors are added through vector addition. The process is described through Euler’s pump equation which is covered in this chapter.4.and outlet of the impeller. When the pump operates. which state the direction and magnitude of the flow. The flow is three-dimensional and in order to describe it completely. i. The flow in the impeller can be described by means of velocity triangles. only absolute velocities are present in the figure. 60 . 60 2 Cr 1 Cm Ca Figure 4. it is necessary to make two plane illustrations. as shown in figure 4. impeller diameter and width. and the radial velocity.e. Velocity triangles can also be used for prediction of the pump’s performance in connection with changes of e. the pump equation can be interpreted and a theoretical loss-free head and power consumption can be calculated.1: Meridional cut.1 contains the meridional velocity. speed. In the impeller it is converted to internal (static pressure) and kinetic energy (velocity). which runs along the channel and is the vector sum of the axial velocity. Cm. Here index 1 represents the inlet and index 2 represents the outlet. The first one is the meridional plane which is an axial cut through the pump’s centre axis. the tangential velocity of the impeller (U). there is still much to be learned by evaluating the pump’s performance based on fundamental and simple models. Cr.

W1 W1 U1 U1 C1 C1m C1 C1m C1U C1U 61 61 . the performance curves of the pump can be calculated by means of Euler’s pump equation which will be described in section 4. The relative velocity W is the fluid velocity compared to the rotating impeller. Here U describes the impeller’s tangential velocity while the absolute velocity C is the fluid’s velocity compared to the surroundings.2a: Velocity triangles positioned at the impeller inlet and outlet. As seen from the figure the same vectors are repeated.2b: Velocity triangles U1 The second plane is defined by the meridional velocity and the tangential velocity.2. Figure 4.2.2a shows the vectors compared to the blade. Velocity triangles can be illustrated in two different ways and both ways are shown in figure 4. C2 U2 C2U α2 β2 2 C2m W2 W2 2 C2 C2m C2m C2 C2U C2U α2 U2 U2 W2 β2 β2 α2 C1m W1 α1 U1 ω β1 1 1 W1 Wβ 1 1 r1 r2 U1 β1 α1 C1m C1m α1 Figure 4. By drawing the velocity triangles at inlet and outlet.Figure 4.2a and b. The angles α and β describe the fluid’s relative and absolute flow angles respectively compared to the tangential direction. whereas figure 4. An example of velocity triangles is shown in figure 4.2b shows the vectors forming a triangle.

and C1m is calculated from the flow and the ring area in the inlet. hub r . 2   ⋅ b1 (4.]2 ⋅ ω ⋅ [ 2 ] [m2] 2 (4. A 22 =m= π m .Nm]1Um2] T ⋅  ω (4.8) Cm= C 2 W2==m =2 r m ⋅ nm ] ] [ (4.8) C 2 = 2 ⋅ r1tan 2 r U1this πimpeller n[βs 2 ⋅ 60 (4.3) calculated 2 C 1 m 2 π πr⋅  b [m ] A 1 = ⋅ ⋅ A⋅ 1 (4. W =2 ⋅ 2 m ⋅  2 .4: Velocity triangle at inlet.3) m  When the been s 1 1m A r 1 + r2 .8) C =2 (4. The ring area can be calculated in different ways depending on impeller type (radial impeller or semi-axial impeller).7)  b. C1m is then(4.3) U1 = 2 ⋅ A r1 r = equals [ s The tangential velocity U1 s ⋅ product of radius and angular(4. shroud   1 (4.1) m where U = 2 ⋅ πC⋅1r r r shroud  hub += r (4.5) tan= 2 =π ⋅ m ⋅2 .1. shroud β2 b1 C2 C2m Blade r2. see figure 4.7)  A 2 = 1 π ⋅ r ⋅ r [m] ] ⋅ b +  (4. Pump theory 4.A 2 = 2 Qπ −r C.2) [m ] A1 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅  -1   n = Rotational speed [min2 ] C2 m   m ]2 + W = 2 π impellerb.9) s 2 β 2 (4.2) [m2] A1 == π impeller =m ] ω  ⋅ s 1 2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅  60 [ 1 b  C 1m (4.11) C2U= = ⋅ rT ω2mm W m U W 2P=2 π 22 − ⋅⋅ b60[m ] [ s ] (4.4) (4.  ⋅ b1 (4.1)  ⋅ b1 (4.3) s 2  A r2 .1 Inlet Usually it is assumed that the flow at the impeller inlet is non-rotational. semi-axial impeller at the bottom. U1 = 2 ⋅Qπ r1 (4.9) 2 m s (4.6) A2 = Q ⋅ r2 ⋅ r2 [ s r (4.3) 2 A1 bimpeller this is: (4.5) [m tan =2 ⋅⋅ πm2⋅1⋅rC2U − s1 =Cr2U⋅)ω [Nm] U (4. shroud r1.4) [m ] [ (4.10) (4.7) = relative nm 2 ⋅ ω bs (4.6) ω = Angular2frequency [s 2r1 .β2 . shroud [m ] . W1 C1 62 . through this ring area. hub[+sr1]shroud  flowUmust pass.10) (4. The triangle is drawn as shown in figure 4. C1U ) C r mr . hub α2 U2 r1. ω (r2 C2U − r1 .C(2m . C (4. For a radial impeller this is: A1 = 2 π ⋅ r1 ⋅ b1 [m2] (4.2) [m2] A1 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅  60  A1 = 2 π ⋅ r1  b1 [m2] ⋅ (4.1) where  r1 .12) (4.12) (4.11) C2U = U 2  U (4.5) tan 2 ⋅= ⋅r11 60 = r ] 1 s U 1⋅ b 2 A1 = 2 π ⋅ r1 1 n [m ] (4.flow= r [m ⋅ [ 2 ] be 2] the 2 ⋅⋅ π ⋅⋅  ⋅2 2hub angle ] 1 can [m calculated.2) [m2] 1 1   1 from: 2  (4.8) C 2 ⋅ β⋅  Q 2 s] [2 = A 2 C 1m velocity triangle]has  2 drawn.5) tan β1 = impellern [ m ] [ 21 ] ω them ] C 1 m = ⋅ π U ⋅ (4.13) (4. hubC2U Figure 4.10) [+ (4.4) s .s2]C 2U)− ω⋅.4) (C1 = C1m)2 m = ⋅becomes: = ]1 ⋅ ω  [ s ] A 2 60 Q T 2 2 β1 C (impeller [ r ⋅ 1 (4.7) C   ⋅ b2 [m2] A 2 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅1 m  Q  (4.9) s A1 U sin β22 60 n [m ] ⋅ ⋅ U2 (4.3.1) and forA semi-axial [m ] a = 2π ⋅ r ⋅ 1 1 1 b2 Blade r2 62 U1 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ r1⋅ r1nhub +rr1⋅.2) [m2] r1 = TheA1 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅  radial position of the impeller’s inlet edge [m]   2   [m] b1 = The blade’s height at the inlet Q m C 1 m = impeller [ s ] (4. shroud   ⋅ b1 (4.5) tan β1 = m 1 r The entire = Q impeller1 .6) A2 = 2 Cπm⋅2r2 C2 [ [=2 r2 ⋅ ω (4.6) A2 = 2 π ⋅ r2  b2 [m2] ⋅ ⋅ r1nhub +rr1⋅. Without inlet rotation β m (4. shroud [m ] = 1 ω (4. This means that α1=90°. shroud  m and U1.2Cshroud  r 2 C [) (4.4. see figure 4.11) C = = sin(β−⋅ 2U − r1 ⋅ 1U[m [ 1 ] U r2 C b1 r1 b2 W2 r2.1) 2 C1m   [ ] (4.9) s (4. W1 β1 α1 C1m U1 Figure 4.6) A2 = = C 2 n s ] ⋅ U2 m β1 ππ⋅Ar2m⋅⋅ b2 [ [m1] ω (4.2 position 1. based on α .4. shroud  b A2 U21 12hub  . hub[m2 .7)  ⋅ b [m2] A222 ==sinπimpeller 2 [mm (4.4) frequency: 1 60 Q impeller m 2 (4. = m .60 [ -12 . hub + r1 .]shroud  (4. hub + r2 .10) ] 2 s sin β2 tan .3: Radial impeller at the top.

(sr .tan−. − .C 2U)− ω[Nm]1U ) T = = = 2Q ⋅ 2Q [W ] U ⋅ ⋅ (4. − .3)  2 A  1 Q⋅Cr ⋅ rb [m2] m.1)  b1 figure 4.ω .2) [m2] A1 = 2 π ⋅impeller [m ] C 1m = ⋅ π ⋅  1 [ s ] (4.10) [βr 2 T (4.[ρω r .5) tan=2 ππ⋅impeller11. 12. 1.5.3)   1 2 A1   r1 . hub + 2 shroud   ⋅m b 2 (4.2) [m2] A = 2 Qπ ⋅  ⋅ m C 1 = 2 π impeller [ r2 ] (4. hub + r1 . 1 1U1U H = m ω . . r1 .6) A2 = 2sin ⋅ r2 ⋅ rb2n [m2] π β2 r shroud ⋅ U2 = 2 Qπ ⋅ r2 ⋅2 .8) C2 m =  s 1 60 s 2  A 2 r2n + r2 .9) A 12 C 12m 60 [ (4.2) [m2] A1 = 2  1 CAm r  1 .6) r 2 2 n s ] shroud  b2 (4.= m2⋅ H 1⋅ . .2 Outlet QC m As with the inlet.9) s 2 W2 = (4. C ⋅ U . ω [⋅ s ] (4. outlet HerebyT = m= (r2m .2) [m2] A1 position12. ( U2 .14) Phyd hyd = p⋅tot .[m].6) A1 = 2 ⋅⋅⋅axial2n =m.g .11) value same C2 m=2 Cπm⋅ 22 ⋅the s ] 2 ⋅ ω U2U = U A (4.13) P2 = βmtan βr . C1U ) . ( U2[W]1U − U1 .4) [ ][ A = 2 ⋅⋅πC  b C2m is calculated⋅rr1⋅⋅the m 21] ω  ⋅as2 for m ] inlet: (4. U2 C2U − U C ) (4. shroud  m . hub + r2 .15) (4. C1U ) H = = m . r2 ⋅ ω [ s ] 2 (4.11) C2U = sin2A 2 r2 . shroud  (4.⋅.4) ] 2⋅ 1 =2  60 [m  s A1 ⋅ 1 (4. C = Q tan U2 .11) C2U = sin2 T ω [W] s U (4.15) U (4.[m].7) U12 = 2 Qπ ⋅1 m =r⋅ (4. ( ⋅ 22 .( .g 1U[W] (4.12) (4.10) (4.12) W= = = (r2−⋅ C2U2 m s1 ] 1U[ ] (4.2 .15) (ω = ⋅ (4.2triangle 2at− r1[Nm]) has been determined and can now the velocity U − (rr2⋅. (U .12) .8) C = 2 C πU 1 rb.16) Phyd ρ ⋅ g m . . r[W]2U − ω1. C2 m 1 1U 2 m2] 2U W 2 = = m .3) U1 m = ⋅π ⋅⋅rr1⋅bn = s1] ω [m1 (4.C2U − U1. C1U ) (4.8) C2 m 2 = ⋅U2r [ s = 2  s U2 = 1 (4.4) 1 (4.⋅ρm]. shroud  ⋅  ⋅ b1 (4.12) 2 m] [ (4. shroud [ s ] A 2 Q 1 ⋅⋅ (4.15) Phyd =ρ =p2 ⋅ Q − [W] ⋅g H= ⋅ m ⋅ H ⋅ g = mg (U2 ⋅ C2U − U1 ⋅ C1U ) W2 β2 C2 C2m C2U α2 U2 Figure 4. r .9) 2 [ (4.13) (4.14) Phyd2m= p tot CρU.3) (4.5) tan== π ⋅ r1 . C ) ) (4. ] T 2U = ⋅ .3) 1 (4.7) A2 m 2 ⋅π ⋅ ⋅rm 2 [ r (4.2) [m2] (4.β .5) tan β2π π ⋅in ⋅60 same ⋅way [m ] the (4. ω . C β = (r m. 2U = ⋅ (4. C − r .1) m (4. 1U ) Hhyd2= =figure(4. (r2 C22U − r1 C1U ) U ∆ptot m . = (4. C2U − ω . [ 2 ⋅ U1 m β1 ⋅= π A⋅ r1n = r1 ]. ⋅  (4. C ) (4.C1UU) the C1U ω . C1U ω− T 2 m⋅ (4. (ω 2 C .2) [m2] A β 2 Q⋅ r  .10) ⋅ β  [s] U2 = sinimpeller⋅ 2 m m ] 2 m s (4.17) = H P =ρ∆ gP2 ⋅ Q U2 .14) (4.8) C = impeller m design phase. (4.5: Velocity triangle at outlet.16) P P = ptot Q . hub[m2 .6) A2 = = = πr⋅  r60 [+ 2] C 1m 1 ⋅ U21 b2 [ s ] (4. C ) = 2 ⋅ .17) Hhyd hyd ∆UP2⋅ C2[m]U1 ⋅ C1U ) = ( tot U (4.13) P ∆ T . C ⋅ ⋅C . U 2 and C2UC P= sin β− ⋅ C2U2 [C2U 2−m ]1 C11U) as: = m ω m 2W] [ U1 U (4. hub m11 . outlet area is calculated as: 2π ⋅U⋅  b [ a ] ⋅ r ⋅ 60 A1 (4.C60(rr ⋅.13) = ⋅ r U2 P2 2 =π ⋅T 2⋅ ⋅ω = r2 ⋅ ω [ s (4.m2 C2Um 1 . r1 .14) P P = p p m⋅ QU2([2C2] 2− − r1 C11UU)) ∆ ∆= T ω r[WC U U1 C (4. C2U (4.7) A2 = 2 π πU21⋅⋅ b2 [m1] it   bs 1 2 ⋅ 2 r] (4.5) tan== ⋅= impeller = s ⋅ A 1  b2 U12 =β2QπU1⋅ n[m ]1 ] ω  ⋅ [m ] [m ] (4.14) P = ∆p p Q ρ ω 2WC − U CC ) ∆ Q [ ] be drawn. r (4.1. hub +21 . hub 2 (4.12) . The 21 1U 2 2U n [W] m] (4. (4.9) (4.g 1U[W] Q ∆= ⋅ H . hub +=2 . Form radial impeller.1) m  1 (4. shroud  1 r]  (4. (ω.9) s W2==m ⋅⋅ 22r ⋅rC 60 s ⋅ C ) s [Nm] (4.mthehub[+sr1]shroud  m at the outlet is drawn as shown in C 1 = 2 impeller velocity triangle 1 (4. C − ω .C2 m (r2 C2Um r1 C1U ) = m. ( U2 .7) A22m== π πm⋅⋅2r⋅ ⋅ 2 [m=2]2 ⋅ ω ⋅ [m ] [m2] U2 2 ⋅⋅ 2⋅A  (4.Nm ) 2m= ( r TC.11) U 2 2m 2U ω r . C2U − U1 .4) (4.16) Q Q .= m− H ⋅ rg. 2U ω1.C ) − r [Nm]) .⋅ρρ( ⋅ g .11) C2 m = U 2A [ ] − 60 s T 2U mQ(r2 ⋅ C2U − r1 ⋅ C1U ) s [Nm] = ⋅ 2 tan β (4. hub + r1 .r ⋅ C ) s [ .5) tan= 1 = π ⋅  r [ r2 (4.1) A1 = 2 π πr⋅  b1 [m2] ⋅ ⋅ 1  2   2 A = 2 Q r1  b1 . [ (4.2 = 2 11 1 2   m C rm⋅ n = r2 ⋅ ω U1 =β2⋅π ⋅⋅r11 b [mr] (4.rr2.=]2U ⋅ U C ) hyd = m .63  r1 . ω[. ω W] (4.1) A1 1 4.8) C = 2 (4. C1U ) (4.⋅ρρ( ⋅ gWCm− H 1⋅ . shroud    ⋅b (4. In the beginning−of C2nm= r [m ] [m ]β2 is assumed to have the(4.3)  ⋅ b1 (4.r1C1U1)U ρ ( .11) C2U = = 2 − ( U2 C2U − s ] C1U ) [ U1 U m .10) [ (4.13) = Hhyd2= =tottot . r .6) A2 = = ⋅ impellerb2n [m2 r ω s ] (4. C[W] = Q ⋅ Q . see tottot ⋅ .8) C2 m (4. (. shroud  ⋅ b ⋅r (4. C1U − ω .7)  ⋅ b2 [m ] A 2 = 2 C2 m ⋅ tan β2 ⋅π 2 W 2= 2 Qπ ⋅ r C nm= r ⋅ ω [m ] (4.1 2 = m ( U2 C2U − U1 .4) and forU12semiπ impellerimpellerω is:[ 2 ] [m ] a1 m== ⋅ ⋅r1 C  60 [ s (4.5) tan β1 Q impeller m r ] = +  (4. hub + r1 .13) P ρ ⋅ g m⋅ ω T 1 1U . W1 63 .12) as the blade sin(β2 tan− relative velocity can then be calculated from: angle.6) A = 2 π impeller . .10) [ 2   60 s ] m (4. shroud  [ s ] U β−  2 2 (4. C2U − U1 .( . U .10) . hub + r2 2 2 2 C1 (4. C1U ) m ⋅ H ⋅ g = m ⋅ (U2 ⋅ C U − U1 ⋅ C1U ) (4.4) (4.9) C2 m m . r2 . (.7)  ⋅ b2 [m ] m A 2 == C2impeller 60 U]is calculated from the following: 2 ⋅ π ⋅  [m  C2 m W2 = The tangential velocity s 2 m (4.

. ω .[C ] − U .4) [s] Q impeller 60 m 4.13) P = m⋅ ω .9) 60 ω r1 1 U1 = r1ω r2 2 U2 = r2ω 2 1 64 T = m ⋅ (r2 ⋅ C2U − r1 ⋅ C1U )m [Nm] (4.17) Phyd = P2 g Figure 4. shroud   ⋅ b1 (4.17) Phyd = P2 (4. an expression for the [W] (4. This results in: tan β2 .6) flow  A2 = 2 π ⋅ r2 ⋅ b2 [ is of momentum equation m ] mass n m π ⋅ r2 ⋅ = diameter.. The equilibrium equation can be set up for torQ U1 r m r  (4.12) C (4.6) A1 m 2 π ⋅Cr2 ⋅ b2 [m2] A1 moment2of momentum equation which describes flow forces and velocity [ ] (4. hubsflow quantitiesm2] (4. r2 C2U − ω .3)  r1 . ⋅ ω  [ s (4. C1U ) ∆ U can be written as the increase in pressure Δptot across the impeller multi= Q .1) U1 = 2 ⋅π ⋅⋅rr1⋅⋅ 1 = r1 ⋅ ω (4. shroud  Euler’s tan= 2= π Am 1 .2 Euler’s pump equation ] [+sr C 1m = (4. radius multiplied by the T = 2m ⋅(P2 ⋅ isC − r1 ⋅ C )m [Nm] (4.8) fluid’s from the drive A C the (4.7) ⋅b m] A 2 ⋅  2 C   W 2 = 2 m  nm ] (4. ρ .14) U Phyd2= = p tot ⋅ .QU2 [W2] − U1 . the hydraulic power added (4. . U2 = 2 ⋅with impellerr2 ⋅ ω [ s ] A control volume between(4.10) [ tannβ2 ] m sin U2 = 2 ⋅ πβ⋅2 r2 ⋅ s = r2 ⋅ ω [ s ] (4. as and velocitiesQ impeller 60m 1 and r (4.12) U (4. ( U2 .QU2 [W2] − U1 . shroud  ques.1UAt the same time.9) 2. ( C − r1 C = 2 2U 1 1U ∆ptot m . C1U ) ∆ = Q . m] + 1 shroud U1 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ r1⋅r2 .C (4. = m . C2[ − r1 . shroud   ⋅ b1 (4.4) (4.3) s (4..ris [ + ] used 2 shown in2m== ⋅ πA 2 2 . ( ω . C1U ) = [m] H= According to the energy equation.C1U )) m .2) [m2] A1 = 2 ⋅ π A1 ⋅   2  bn [m2]  m A1 = 2 π 1 (4.6.5) tan β1 = up equilibrium equations.⋅ The1equation⋅can be[m ] U1 = 2 π ⋅ r1 ⋅ = r1 ω (4.12) . often (4.15) fluid to the ρ⋅g m ( . hub 1 . hub[ the most⋅ important equation in connection with pump ⋅ C 1 1  b1 (4.ωU .9) torque (T) Q impeller m [s] C2 m = shaft corresponds to the torque originating from(4.C 2U− U . hub + r1 . the here includes C == (4. ( ω . r2 .14) Phyd = = p tot ⋅ . Pump = C 1 m theory [+sr (4. C2U − ω . (the tangential) velocity. C ) T ( 21 1U T = m= (r2 ⋅ C2U −2r1 ⋅ CU U ) 1 [Nm] ⋅ (4. hub= r2 . The(4.14) Phyd = ∆p tot ⋅ Q [W] (4. r2 .1) Q impeller m] 4.5)   1 2 U n  derived in many different ways. . (r2.7)  ⋅ b2 [ which are of interest. shroud  for2 an[impeller.8) C2 figure 4.13) P ⋅ shaft power = (r2)TC2ωfound. ρ. C2U − ω . The moment A22m= 2 ⋅ πA 2 ⋅ other  22one such equilibrium equation.11) C2U = U m 2 2 mm [m ] flow throughC22 −impeller with mass flow m=rQ: the s W2 = (4. The metpump design.5) tan β1 = 1 m U1 n triangles at inlet and outlet.15) ρ⋅g (4.15) ρ (U ⋅ C − U ⋅ C ) ⋅g 2 2U 1 1U H= (4. C2U − r1 . r1 . ( .7)  ⋅ b2 [m2] A 2 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅  60   2 2 A2 volume2  an imaginary limited volume which is used (4. r1 .2) [m2] A1 β equation is ] ⋅ (4. C1U U m 2m U s ] angular velocity − .8) C = impeller [ + ]2 . C2U − U . r1 . ( ω .3) r 1 .16) Pthe∆p ⋅ Q: Q tot [m] H= (4. C1U ) W (4.10) tan[βs ] 2 sin the By multiplying β2 torque by the angular velocity.[C ] T ( (4.11) C2U = C22 − 2 mm [s] Um W2 = (4. 64 . hubs 2 .13) P2 = m⋅. linking(4. r2w = U2. r1 . ω . energy and  2 .6)setting  A control = 2 π ⋅Cr1 m⋅ b2 [m ] is for [ ] (4.16) Phyd =⋅ p ⋅⋅ g = m ⋅⋅ (U= ⋅m ⋅ H ⋅ g ⋅ C W)] Q H⋅ρ g C −U [ m∆ Htot [m] 2 2U 1 1U H= (4.6: Control volume for an impeller.10) [ m ⋅π U2 = sin β⋅2 r2 we s = r2 ⋅ ω [ s The balance2which ⋅ 60are interested]in is a torque balance.C1U ) = Q . C1U ) W (4. ( U C − U C ) = m 2 2U 1 1U = m .4) s 60 hod describedQ impeller [m ] a control volume which limits the impeller. ρω U r2.2) [m2] A1 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅    2 2  A1 = 2 π ⋅ r1  b1 [m ] ⋅ (4. C ) plied by hyd =flowH ⋅ ρ ⋅ g = m ⋅ H 1⋅ g 1U[W] (4.11) C2U = = 2 equals r2 .

[m] (g =C ⋅−H ⋅.17) where C2U = U2: H0 = 2 U2 g [m] (4.[ sC ) r (4.19) 65 65 .2(. U U U1 C sin βm . rfree. r1 . Q ( U[W] ⋅ .16) Pexpression ρ g = m ⋅ H ⋅ g [W] ⋅H (4. ( U(U2C C2U U U1 ⋅ C) U ) m g 2 2U 1 1U (4.17) Phyd = P2 ω . C1U ) C T ( .]C2U − U1 .C1U T = m= (r2m⋅ 2ω n (rr[WC2U) − r1[Nm]) ⋅ ⋅ C ω− 2⋅ C (4.13) P2 ∆p T ⋅ ω [W] = H = = =tot H ⋅. C2U − U1 . C − U . r[ . and it expresses the impel2 2 2 2 Static head as consequence Static head2as consequence U 2 − U1 − velocities C 2Dynamic head outlet. r = C12U⋅− ω . ρ .14) P = ⋅ Q and the hyd =ρQgtot ⋅for⋅ hydraulic power can therefore be transcribed to: (4.9) 60 2 . H = =tot Q ρm] 2 C2U − U1 C1U ) (4. C1U m m ⋅ =assumed.14) Phyd =⋅ ∆pU2 = Q 1⋅ ([W] C2U − U1− W12U ) W12 ⋅ C 2 C2 − C1 [m] (4. C1U ) W 2 = = Q ρ . CC ) [ (4. .16) Phyd hyd = ⋅ 2 ⋅. (4. ] ⋅ r U2 P2 2 =π ⋅m .16) (4. ( U2 . m r C [ ⋅ ⋅ (4. ] ω r . g ) W] (4. )) g .12) m (4. ( U gC m ⋅U . ⋅ − − .⋅C )[W] H m −2U ⋅2C −) 1 1U U U ⋅C power can be (equated: 1 1U H ⋅ H Q. ( U . ([ s .13) P2 = 2 m m. 2 2U 1 1U . C11UU)) .17) Phyd = P2⋅ C2U − U1 ⋅ C1U ) (U 2 H= 2 2 m H ⋅ tot2 ⋅− mg U2 ⋅ g U2 (4.ρ ⋅ . (r2 C2U − r1 . C1U ) (4.12) ∆ptot Hhyd = ∆p ⋅ [m] [W] (4. C1U ) = m = m . 2C2C2− − r1 .15) = + ] mg of the velocity change ofρ ⋅ centrifugal force the g 2 ⋅ g 2⋅g 2⋅g This is the equation known asthrough the impeller Euler’s equation. 2U 1 1U . C ) [U U m 2 1 1U tan β2 2U (4.15) (4.ωωm2W]2U − ω . C (4.18) H = + + 2 U 2⋅g 2⋅g (U2 ⋅2C⋅2g − U1 ⋅ C1U ) 2 2 = H ∆p U − U 2 W head W22 − C 2 − C1 head [ 1 (4. as: .. then the head is only determined by the tangential velocity based on (4.14) Phyd = = p tot ⋅ C(2ω r2 ]2U mω1 r1 1U1U ) ∆ m Q m 2W 2 U The head is defined.17) Phydthe centrifugal force 2 m ⋅ H ⋅ g = m ⋅ (U2 ⋅ C2U − U1 ⋅ C1U ) • Static head as consequence of the centrifugal force (U ⋅ C − U1 ⋅ C1U ) • Static head as consequence of the velocity change through the impeller H = 2 2U g • Dynamic head H = 2 2 U 2 − U1 2⋅g through the impeller + W12 − W22 2⋅g + 2 2 C2 − C1 2⋅g [m] (4.11) C2U = = 2 − ( U C − s ] . ω .10) U2 = 2 ω r .18) H = Statictot 2as consequence+ Static 1 as consequence 2Dynamic head[m] (4. ∆∆ [ . C2C − ω .18) Static head as consequence of the centrifugal force Static head as consequence of the velocity change through the impeller Dynamic head If there is no flow through the impeller and it is assumed that there is no inlet rotation. .15) ρ g T = m ⋅⋅ (r2 ⋅ C2U − r1 ⋅ C1U ) [Nm] (4. C 1 m == ⋅2g =2U.17) mechanical = P = Q H ρ ⋅ .⋅U ω . . (ω U ⋅ U If the flow isH ⋅P = m ⋅ (to2 be2U − U11 ⋅ C1Uthen the hydraulic and(4.18) H Phyd = Q ⋅ H ⋅ ρ ⋅ g = m ⋅through the impeller H ⋅ g [W] 2⋅g 2 g 2 triangles.13) = = T2 ( 1 . Q . ( U.⋅ . − C1 ler’s head= of the centrifugal force +absoluteWchange + in2inlet andm] (4. Euler’s pump If the cosine relations are applied ⋅to the velocity⋅ g Static head as the three Dynamic head Static head as consequence equation can be written as the sum of consequence contributions: of the velocity change of = P (4. = loss g (4.15) Phyd ρQg m ρ ⋅ r . r2 . .14) Phyd = p p tot .16) at tangential and of W1velocity 2 the [ (4.

This is further discussed in chapter 5.23) β1 U U2 − ⋅Q H= g π ⋅ D2 ⋅ b2 ⋅ g ⋅ tan( β2 ) �2 >90 o �2 >90 o 2 >90 o � [m] (4.B ⋅ Q UB Q A ⋅B  DB2 B   B= =  D ⋅b  UA nA ⋅ DA 2 A  2. (4.A (4.20) ⋅ [N] F = m ⋅v 4.23)  D 2 ⋅b   n  2. QA ⋅  B   curve and the  D 4nb ⋅  PB = PA ⋅  B4 AB    D ⋅b   2  A n   Scaling of   Real pump curves⋅ are. etc. a combination of Eul2 (4.22) Figure 4.21). it is often assumed that there is no inlet rotation meaning that C1U equeals zero.3 Blade shape and pump curve ⋅ ∆ I = m ⋅ v = ρ ⋅ A ⋅ v 2 [N] ∆I = F 2 2 (4. and that the slope depends on the outlet ∆ I linearly with the 2 [N] 3  (4.A Cu. H = U 2 ⋅ C 2U g [m] (4.7 and 4. curved due to different losses.22) angle β2: PB = PA ⋅  nB   n   A  (4.21) (4.23) ∆I = F [N]   U2 U 2 (4.20) H = 2 2U [m on (4.7: Blade shapes depending ] outlet angle g  nB   QB = QA ⋅     nA   ⋅ If it is assumed ⋅that there is no inlet rotation (C1U =0).24) = = A    UA C m.23) (4. 66 66 .22) β2 β1 β2 β1 β2 β2 β1 β1 β2 β1 β2 [N] β β2 1 β2 β1 β2 β1 (4.Ahowever.21) − ⋅ Q [m] H = 2 DB2 ⋅bB   ⋅ Q B = Q A g  2π ⋅ D2 b2 ⋅ g ⋅ tan( β2 ) ⋅   DA ⋅ bA   2   D   Geometric HB= HA ⋅  B   Figure 4.22) n   Q B = blade shape indicated at β2. nA   rotational speed 3 n   P PA C  UBB =C m.25) β2 = 90o β2 = 90o2 = 90o β H 0° es >9 blad r b2 ept H fo -sw d war For H for b2 = 90° H fo rb Back 2 war < 90 ° d-sw ept b lade s Q Figure 4.6).8) and (4.8: Theoretical pump curves calculated based on formula (4.. slip. inlet HB = HA  B   rotation.17) rotational speed  A ⋅ head varies = m ⋅ v = ρ ⋅A ⋅ v flow.B⋅  nBu.11) show that the equation (4.B  (4.4.8 A   scalingconnection between the theoretical pump  Dillustrate the (4. Pump theory When designing a pump.21) ] F = m v n [N Scaling of   er’s pumpHB = HA ⋅ nB   and equation (4.A   D   Geometric HB= HA ⋅  B   (4.21) β2 < 90o o β2 < 90β2 < 90o U ⋅C (4.

67 67 . Euler’s pump equation and the velocity triangles which can be used to predict the impact of changing the impeller geometry on the head. W2 β2 C2m C2 α2 Figure 4.9: Euler’s pump equation and the matching vectors on velocity triangle H= 1 ⋅ U2 ⋅ C2U g This can be used for making qualitative estimates of the effect of changing impeller geometry or rotational speed. see figure 4.4 Usage of Euler’s pump equation There is a close connection between the impeller geometry.4.9. The individual part of Euler’s pump equation can be identified in the outlet velocity triangle.

The size of C2m therefore increases when b2 decreases.B Cm. see section U 2 ⋅ C 2U 4.4.B CU.g. Figure 4.B Cu. The figure shows that the velocities C2U and CUwill decrease and that H = 2 2 2U [m] W2 will increase.B C2.9) is seen to be independent of b2 and remains constant. U 2 (4. as shown in figure ⋅C 4. (4.11: Change of head curve as consequence of changed b2. 3 U g π ⋅ D2 ⋅ b2 ⋅ g ⋅ tan( β2 )  nB   PB = PA ⋅     nA    (4. (4. and by scaling of both speed and geometry.B C2U The velocity triangle can be plotted in the new situation.23)  D 2 ⋅b   Q B = Q A ⋅  B2 B    D ⋅b  A A 2   DB   Geometric HB= HA ⋅     DA   scaling  D 4 ⋅b   PB = PA ⋅  B4 B    D ⋅b    A A UB [m] (4. (4.22)  nA   geometrically [N ] similar before and after the change.A Cu.B W2 β2 C2m C2 C2m.3.23) ∆I = F [N] Similar analysis can be made when the blade form is changed.23)  D 2 ⋅b   Q B = Q A ⋅  B2 B    D ⋅b  A A 2   DB   Geometric (4. see section 4.21) ⋅ Q [m] H = geometry.B C2U. the effect of reducing the outlet width b2 on the velocity triangles is discussed. U2 in equation (4. Pump theory In the following.22) (4.B = = UA C m. ⋅see formula (4.20) H = [m] U2 ⋅Q H= 2 − g g π ⋅ D2 ⋅ b2 ⋅ g ⋅ tan( β2 ) 4. The head at zero Fflow.21).⋅ v 2 [N ] after ⋅the = ρ ⋅ A Figure 4. 2 (4.A CA 68 UB C m.6) and (4.22) n   QB = QA ⋅  B    nA   2  n   Scaling of HB = HA ⋅  B   nA  rotational speed   3  nB   PB = PA ⋅      nA   (4.10. the consequences of certain changes in the pump geometry and speed can be predicted with much precision.20) H (4.A (4. Cm Q CU CB WB WA β2 UA Cm. The head will then decrease according to equation (4.24) 68 .21) W Figure 4.21) (4.5. From e.10: Velocity triangle at changed outlet width b2.1.5. the velocity C2m can be seen to be inversely proportional to b2. is [N] =m v 2 proportional to U2 and is therefore not changed in this case. In the formulas below.A CU. U W2.11 shows a sketch of the pump curves before and∆ I = m ⋅ vchange.23) ∆I = F  n   Scaling of derived in section 4.22) n   ⋅ ∆ I = m v derived 2 [N the Q B the ⋅  B   triangles are The rules are⋅ all= ρ ⋅ A ⋅ vunder ] condition that= Q Avelocity(4. g The power which is proportional to the flow multiplied by the head will ⋅ decrease correspondingly. The blade angle β2 does not change when changing b2.20). index A refers to the original geometry HB = HA ⋅  B  and index B to 2 nA   rotational speed U2 the scaledU 2 − (4.8).21) [N] F =m v By means of⋅ the so-called affinity rules.5 Affinity rules ⋅ (4.

5 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Q (m 3/h) η [%] Figure 4.5 1 0.12 shows an example of the changed head and power curves for a pump where the impeller diameter is machined to different radii in order to match different motor sizes at the same speed. H [m] ø260 mm ø247 mm 20 ø234 mm ø221 mm 16 80 70 12 60 50 8 40 30 4 20 10 4 P2 [kW] 3 2.26).12: Examples of curves for machined impellers at the same speed but different radii. The curves are shown based on formula (4. 69 69 .5 2 1.Figure 4.

B ⋅ b2.A2.24) diameterUA 2.A nA  n Cm.A  D2.B 4 Cu. then the relation between the   DB b   Q B = PA A⋅⋅sides inthe velocity triangles is the same before and after PB Q  B42 B    D ⋅b corresponding  A  A A  a change of all components.A g ⋅ U C D Q H   D  b  P B = = B⋅ = ⋅ =   ⋅  P QA ⋅ ρ ⋅ U2.A A  DA ⋅ bA   UB nB ⋅ D2. 70 .A C2m.A⋅ nA ⋅BD2.A ⋅ C2U.A ⋅ C 2U.5.B  b2.A ⋅ C2U.B ⋅ C2U.A nA   Q = A 2 ⋅ C2m= π ⋅ D2 ⋅ b2 ⋅ C2m 2 (4.21) ⋅ Q [m] H == Q A− nA   g  π ⋅ 2 b2 ⋅ g ⋅ tan( β2 ) D ⋅ 2  n   Scaling of W C2 = HA ⋅  HBtheoryB   2 4.A⋅β A ⋅ D2.A nA  A   Figure 4. Pump nA   rotational speed C2m C2m.B Cu.23) When the velocity4 ⋅triangles are similar.A C2m.24)  D ⋅b == ⋅  B PBU PA C  =4 C B    m.A W C C UB UA = nB ⋅ D2.B  nB  C ⋅ W A  ⋅  A = = = = HA U2.A u.B C π ⋅D2.B nB  ⋅ = ⋅ = = ⋅ Q A π ⋅ D2.B (4.B B nB⋅ D2.A ⋅ g U2.B ⋅ b2.BU2.B  D2.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.A Q A U2.A⋅ b2.B ⋅ b2.A ⋅ C2U.B ⋅ C2U.B nB H B = 2.23) ⋅ 2 B  HB = H D ⋅b   A and when= Q ⋅ geometrical scaling speeddirections (3D scaling).A B D2.26) 70 U Q π ⋅ D⋅ C⋅ b2.25) U Q = A 2 ⋅ C2m= π ⋅ D2 ⋅ b2 ⋅ C2m 2 CU (4.B  (4.B π ⋅D2.28) P = Q ⋅ ρ ⋅ U 2 ⋅ C2 U 2 2 HB U2.A Q A HA  D2.B 2U. see figure 4.B2.A (4.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.B C2U U A    4.A π ⋅D2. The affiniusing B nA B   rotational in all 2  QB A  ⋅  DA used ty rules can alsobe nb3  when wanting to change outlet width and outlet  A PB =scaling).A ⋅ 2m.B U2 Q B U2 ⋅ (4. The expression above for the relation between components D C m.B D2.A⋅ nA⋅ D2.26) Q B π ⋅ D2.B ⋅nA⋅2U.B nB⋅ D2.22)β 2  nB   PBB = Q A⋅    Q PA n  C2U.13: Velocity triangle at scaled pump.A UB UA CU.B  nB   ⋅ 4  = = = = 3 HA QB2.27) g (4.B C2m.A⋅ b2.B  C    2 U2.A m.BWnB ⋅ D2.B  b2.  Geometric PA D 2  ⋅ B diameter (2D   nA   HB= HA ⋅  B     DA   scaling 2 (4.1 Derivation ofthe affinity rules 2  Scaling of The affinity methodnisvery precise when adjusting the speed up and down  (4.A π ⋅D2.B  nA2. The velocities hereby relate to 2   D   Geometric HB= HA each other as: ⋅  B    DA   scaling UB C m.A (4.13.A H= (4.B D2.A  b2.A change of the impeller diameter can be inserted: before andA after theCu.B ⋅ g U2.B  D2.B ⋅ C2U.B ⋅⋅ C2U.B nA ⋅ D2.B ⋅ g U2.A nA   2 2 HB U2.A ⋅⋅C22.25) = The tangential velocity is expressed by the speed n and the impeller’s outer U nA ⋅ D2.B ⋅ C2U.B 3  (4.B B = = m U C m.A ⋅ C2U.B nB  U ⋅ ρ UU.A ⋅ b2.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.A 2.27) g ⋅b  Q A π ⋅ D2.AQC2U.A nA⋅ D2.A  D2.A D2.A⋅ nA⋅ D2.A  b2.B CU.A 2.ACB b2.2.A 2.B = =  ⋅ = ⋅ (4.

A Cu.B C2m.B ⋅ C2U.A ⋅ C2U.28)n   U P QA ⋅ ρ ⋅ U2.B 2 nB 2 = U2.A = C m.A  b2.B ⋅ b2.A 2.B A D C m.B = C m.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.B ⋅ C2U.A A 2.B 2 B B HB== U2.AC2C2U.B ⋅ C2U.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.A nA⋅ D2.27) 2 2 HB U2.A Neglecting inlet rotation.B ⋅ b2.A ⋅ C2U.B ⋅ C2U.B nB 3 B     P = QB ⋅ ρ ⋅ U2.B C2m.A = Q A ⋅ U2.A C ⋅ C UA nA ⋅ D2.A  b2.A ⋅ U2U.A g 2U.A ⋅ nA   D  b (4.B nB   A Q A =A 2⋅⋅D2.A  nA(4.B nB⋅ D2.24) UB nB ⋅ D2.B ⋅ nB    B P = Q⋅ ρ U ⋅ ⋅   PA= Q A ⋅ ρ⋅⋅U22.B ⋅ g = U2.B nB  B  (4.A ⋅ b2.A nA⋅ D2.B  b2.B D2.B = UB = nB ⋅ D2.27) C H = 2.A nA   U2.A π ⋅D2.B  b2.A H = U ⋅g (4.A 2.29)  = nd ⋅ d3 2 = ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ nq =   ⋅ P Q ⋅ Qd 4 nA = ndA⋅ ρHU2.24) (4.A (4.B = Q B ⋅ HB =  D2.A  2.A⋅ nA⋅ D2.B π ⋅D2.B  Cu.A  2.B Q B HB  D2.A ⋅ C2U.B C C (4.B ⋅ b2.B π ⋅D2.B Q B HB  D2.27) U2.A  D2.A⋅ b2.A Q A U2.A  b2.B  ⋅ nA(4.B Q B U2.A ⋅⋅ C 2U.B  D2.29) 71 71 .A ⋅2g U2.A 2m.A ⋅ C2U.B Q B U2.A ⋅ C2U.A⋅ nA ⋅ D2.A ⋅ C2U.B ⋅ b2.26) = π C2m b π C ⋅ b2 Cπ   nA QA 2.A⋅ g = U ⋅ C = n ⋅ D ⋅ n ⋅ D = D  ⋅ n      H 2.A ⋅ C2U.A  2.A   B  g D   n  HA U2.A  ⋅ b2.B ⋅ b2.B ⋅ C2U.A  A  A 4 3 ⋅ 12 P QB ⋅ ρQU12.B ⋅ C2U.B = Q B ⋅ U2.28) H= ⋅ ρ ⋅ C2 ⋅ C U    (4.B 4 b2.A 2.A 2.B D2.A Q A U2.29) q d3 Hd 4 nq = nd ⋅ Qd Hd 1 2 3 4 (4.B = nA⋅ D2. the changes in flow.B  nB   ⋅  = = = = P A QU2.B ⋅ nA ⋅ D2.B  b2.B = D2.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.B  b2.A ⋅= 2m⋅D2.B ⋅ g U2.A = Q A ⋅ HA =  D2.B 2U.A ⋅⋅D2 2m.A D2.A  U.24) (4.A A 2.A ⋅ C2U.B ⋅ C2U. head and power consumption UB nB ⋅ D2.A 2.B ⋅ g U2.A ⋅ C 2U.A ⋅ C2U.B u.A⋅ nA ⋅ D2.B (4.B Cu.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.AD2.B  D2.A ⋅ C2U.25) UA = nAm.28)  P = Q ⋅ ρ ⋅U Power consumption 2: ⋅ C2U 4 3 P QB ⋅ ρ ⋅ U2.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.A ⋅ (4.B nB  ⋅ = ⋅ = = ⋅ Head: Q A π ⋅ D2.A C2m.B ⋅ b2.A ⋅= 2.B C2m.A Q A HA  D2.A nA  (4.26) 2 Q B π ⋅ D2.A Q A HA  2.B 2 b2.26) Q = A 2 ⋅ C2m= π ⋅ D2 ⋅ b2 ⋅ C2m (4.A  2 Q B π ⋅ D2.B π ⋅D2.B ⋅ C2U.B nB⋅ D2.25) = m.B (4.B nB = π ⋅D ⋅ b ⋅ n ⋅ D =  D  ⋅ b ⋅ n Q =π D b ⋅ C   ⋅ ⋅ Q B π ⋅ D2.B ⋅ C2U.B  D2.A⋅ nA⋅ D2.A ⋅ g U2.B ⋅ C2U.A =  D2.A (4.A ⋅ bA  Cu.A   A    2 2 HB U2.A Flow: Q = A 2 ⋅ C2m= π ⋅ D2 ⋅ b2 ⋅ C2m (4.A⋅ b2.UB U = UB = A UA C m.25) can be expressed as follows: = UA nA ⋅ D2.A  2.A u.

you can try to avoid that the impeller itself creates inlet rotation by placing blades in the inlet. inlet rotation corresponds to C1U being different from zero.6 Inlet rotation Inlet rotation means that the fluid is rotating before it enters the impeller.14 shows how inlet rotation affects the velocity triangle in the pump inlet. It is important to notice that this is not a loss mechanism. The fluid can rotate in two ways: either the same way as the impeller (co-rotation) or against the impeller (counter-rotation). In some cases inlet rotation can be used for correction of head and power consumption. see figure 4. Pump theory 4.U1 4. 72 72 . According to Euler’s pump equation. Co-rotation results in smaller head and counter-rotation results in a larger head. The impeller itself can create an inlet rotation because the fluid transfers the impeller’s rotation back into the inlet through viscous effects. In practise.14: Inlet velocity triangle at constant flow and different inlet rotation situations.14. In multi-stage pumps the fluid still rotates when it flows out of the guide vanes in the previous stage. W1 W1 W1 C1 C1 C1 b1 b1 b1 a1 a1 a1 U1 C1U C1U No inlet rotation Counter rotation Co-rotation Figure 4. and a differentation between desired and undesired inlet rotation is made. A change of C1U and then also a change in inlet rotation results in a change in head and hydraulic power. Figure 4. Inlet rotation occurs as a consequence of a number of different factors.

The flow will not follow the shape of the blades completely in a real impeller with a limited number of blades with finite thickness.4. Empirical slip factors are not further discussed in this book. It is important to emphasize that slip is not a loss mechanism but just an expression of the flow not following the blade. then the flow lines will have the same shape as the blades. In reality this is. there is close connection between the flow angle and blade angle. This is done by including empirical slip factors in the calculation of the velocity triangles. you have to include the difference between flow angle and blade angle.15. This condition is called slip. see figure 4. When the flow angle and blade angle are identical.16: Velocity triangles where ‘ indicates the velocity with slip. Suction side C2 � Pressure side C'2 U2 Figure 4. Actual flow line: Solid line.16. C2 U2 ω C'2 C2m W2 β'2 β2 W'2 W2 β'2 β2 W'2 C2 C'2 U2 Figure 4. 73 73 . however. not the case because the flow angle usually is smaller than the blade angle. see figure 4.7 Slip In the derivation of Euler’s pump equation it is assumed that the flow follows the blade. Nevertheless. When designing impellers. An impeller has an endless number of blades which are extremely thin. The tangential velocity out of the impeller as well as the head is reduced due to this. then the flow is blade congruent.15: ω Blade congruent flow line: Dashed line.

Q A π ⋅ D2.29) Where nd = rotational speed in the design point [min-1] Qd = Flow at the design point [m3/s] Hd = Head at the design point [m] The expression for nq can be derived from equation (4.22) and (4.A π ⋅D2.B  nB   different   ⋅  ways for = As described in chapter⋅ g = U ⋅ Care = n ⋅ D ⋅ ninD = D  n HA U2. The head curves are relatively flat.A classified A ⋅ many 2.A   A  A 2.B ⋅ nB ⋅ D2.A ⋅ C 2U. Pumps with low specific speed.A Q A units.A  D2. 74 74 . Pump theory H= U2.B ⋅ C2U. however. with small outlet diameter compared to the width.A⋅ nA⋅ D2. so-called low nq pumps. The impeller and the shape of the pump curves can be predicted based on the specific speed.17.28) A model number.B 2U.A nA 4.B speed U2.A  b2.A nA  2.B pumps.A⋅ b2.A 2. this is.⋅ is 2therefore used  D2.A  example by usage or flange size. Head curves are typically descending and have a tendency to create saddle points.B  b2. Performance curves decreases when flow increases.A ⋅ b2.B C2U.B Q B HB to classify nB  B   = = ⋅ Specific speed is ρ ⋅ U ⋅ in different U ⋅ C In = Q ⋅ H =  D  b form is following ⋅   P QA ⋅ given C2U.A Europe the  2.B). have an increasingly axial outlet.A ⋅ C2U. have a radial outlet with large outlet diameter compared to inlet diameter.ρ ⋅ U2. On the contrary.A 2 A A A commonly used: 4 3 nq = nd ⋅ Qd Hd 1 2 3 4 (4.A C2m.A  2. pumps which 2U (4.27) 2 2 4.A 2. Seen from a fluid mechanical point of view. P QB ⋅ the specific Q B (nq C U.A 1. pumps with high specific speed.B ⋅ g U2. see figur 4.A 2.B nB⋅ D2. so-called high nq pumps. pumps 2U. U. not very practical because it makes it almost impossible to compare P = Q ⋅ ρ ⋅ U2 ⋅ Care designed and used differently.B D2. Different pump sizes and pump types have different maximum efficiency.A g (4. and the power curve has a positive slope in the entire flow area.23) as the speed which yields a head of 1 m at a flow of 1 m3/s.8 Specific speed ⋅of a pump ⋅ C HB U2.

Furthermore. Euler’s pump equation has been desribed.1 d2 90 W2 U2 C2 C2U 100 60 0 H 100 P % 70 Pd 100 140 Q/Qd W2 C2 U2 C2U C2 U2 C2U H % Hd 100 45 0 H 110 W2 d1 Pd 100 P % 65 Pd d1 = d2 100 130 Q/Qd 4.2.2 .Impeller shape d2 nq Outlet velocity triangle Performance curves H % Hd P Pd 130 P 100 Pd Figure 4. and we have shown examples of how the pump equation can be used to predict a pump’s performance.0 d2 W2 U2 C2 C2U 100 80 0 H % Hd 100 Pd H 170 Q/Qd 110 P % 100 Pd 30 d1 d2/d1 = 2.5 .17: Impeller shape.1.5 .0 . Finally. we have derived the affinity equations and shown how the affinity rules can be used for scaling pump performance. outlet velocity triangle and performance curve as function of specific speed nq. % 15 d1 d2/d1 = 3.5 d2 W2 U2 C2 C2U 100 70 0 H % Hd 100 55 0 100 Pd H 100 Pd 165 Q/Qd 100 P % 80 Pd 50 d1 d2/d1 = 1.1.1. we have introduced the concept of specific speed and shown how different pumps can be differentiated on the basis of this.9 Summary In this chapter we have described the basic physical conditions which are the basis of any pump design. 75 75 .3 d2 W2 U2 C2 C2U H 155 Q/Qd H % Hd d1 d2/d1 = 1.

.

Chapter 5 Pump losses 5.3 Hydraulic losses 5.1 Loss types 5.4 Loss distribution as function of specific speed 5.2 Mechanical losses 5.5 Summary .

Euler’s pump equation provides a simple. Chart 5.1 and 5. see appendix B.1: Reduction of theoretical Euler head due to losses. Loss Mechanical losses Hydraulic losses Bearing Shaft seal Flow friction Mixing Recirculation Incidence Disk friction Leakage X X X X X Q Shaft power P2 Mechanical losses Disk friction Hydraulic losses Hydraulic power Phyd P P Smaller flow (Q) Lower head (H) Higher power consumption (P2) X X Q X Q Figure 5. Accordance with the actual performance curves depends on the models’ degree of detail and to what extent they describe the actual pump type. 5. 1: Losses in pumps and their influence on the pump curves.2: Increase in power consumption due to losses. see figures 5.2.1 Loss types Distinction is made between two primary types of losses: mechanical losses and hydraulic losses which can be divided into a number of subgroups. H Euler head Recirculation losses Leakage Flow friction Incidence Pump curve H Q Figure 5. Pump performance curves can be predicted by means of theoretical or empirical calculation models for each single type of loss. lossfree description of the impeller performance.1 shows how the different types of loss affect flow (Q). The result is a reduction in efficiency. Pump losses 5. head (H) and power consumption (P2). Table 5. Pump losses As described in chapter 4. The losses cause smaller head than the theoretical and higher power consumption. In reality. The models can also be used for analysis of the test results. because of a number of mechanical and hydraulic losses in impeller and pump casing. the pump performance is lower than predicted by the Euler pump equation. 78 78 .5. In this chapter we describe the different types of losses and introduce some simple models for calculating the magnitude of the losses.

It involves bearings. impeller and volute casing or return channel.Figure 5.3: Loss causing components. inlet. shaft seal. front and rear cavity seal. Throughout the rest of the chapter this figure is used for illustrating where each type of loss occurs. Volute Diffuser Inner impeller surface Outer impeller surface Front cavity seal Inlet Bearings and shaft seal Figure 5.3 shows the components in the pump which cause mechanical and hydraulic losses. 79 79 .

Pump losses 5.032 2 m2 4 Reynolds number: Re = 80 3. gear. Q (10/3600) m3 s Mean velocity: V = = = 3.also called parasitic losses .15mm = 0. This is due to cross-section changes and the (5.2) [W] loss 2g Ploss. vary with pressure and rotational speed. mechanical friktion Increased in = ζ ⋅demand because of mechanical (5. = = ζ ⋅ H dyn.3) loss. however.3 Hydraulic O losses VD Hydraulic lossesharise on the fluid path through the pump.5) Re = ν because of friction or because the fluid must change direction and velocity 64 on its path through the pump.45 m s π A 0. bearing = Power lost in bearings [W] LV 2 Ploss. mechanical = Ploss. The size of the losses can. power Ploss. shaft seal = constant (5.4) Dh = 4 A 5. The following deals with losses in the bearings and shaft seals.032m VD h = 110500 = ν 1 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s 0. shaft seals.1) where V2 H loss. 5.2.2 Mechanical losses The pump coupling or drive consists of bearings. depending on pump type. These components all cause mechanical friction loss.0047 80 Relative roughness: k/D = . They are often modelled as a constant which is added to the power consumption.45m s ⋅ 0. The following sections describe the individual hydraulic losses depending on how they arise.are caused by friction. The losses occur (5.1 Bearing loss and shaft seal loss Bearing and shaft seal losses . Dh 2 g (5.6) flaminar = Re passage through the rotating impeller. bearing + Ploss. The following model estimates the increased power demand due to losses in bearings and shaft seal: Ploss. shaftH = Power lost in shaft seal [W] seal pipe = f (5.5.

in V V2 2g (5. Model Flow friction occurs in all the hydraulic components which the fluid flows through. The flow friction is typically calculated individually like a pipe friction loss. Re Loss coefficients can be found e. Relative roughness: k/Dh = 81 0.45 m s π A 2 2 can typically be modelled with a 4 0.4) D= =Dynamic head into the component [m] h O = Flow velocity into the component [m/s] VD h (5. bearing + Ploss.4: Friction loss as function of the flow velocity.032m = 110500relative Reynolds number: Re = = ν 1 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s velocity must be used in equation (5. Single components Q (10/3600) m3 s such asMeanand outerV = inlet velocity: sleeve = which are not directly affected by the impeller = 3.45 m s) 2 81 LV 2 . shaft seal = constant namic head into the component: H loss. in (MacDonald. the VD coefficient.15mm = 0. this means as a pressure loss coefficient multiplied with the dy(5. friktion = ζ ⋅ H dyn. volute constant loss housing and return channel will on the contrary typically have a variable loss 3. When the flow frictionhin the impeller0.3) Dh 2 g = Dimensionless loss coefficient [-] 4A (5. see figure 5.5.g. in = ζ ⋅ where ζ Hdyn.0047 32mm 2m ⋅ ( 3.45m s ⋅ is calculated.5) Re = ν 64 (5. 1997).6) flaminar = The friction loss thus grows quadratically with the flow velocity.2).2) LV 2 H loss. pipe = f (5. The magnitude of the friction loss depends on the roughness of the surface and the fluid velocity relative to the surface. Hloss. mechanical = Ploss.1 Flow friction Flow friction occurs where the fluid is in contact with the rotating impeller surfaces and the interior surfaces in the pump casing. Impeller.friktion V Figure 5.032 m coefficient.1) Ploss.3. The flow friction causes a pressure loss which reduces the head.4.

pipe = (5.45 m s) 2 LV 2 = 0.4) Dh = 4 A O Hloss.1) Ploss. mechanical = Ploss. bearing + Ploss.5. pipe = Head loss [m] f = = VD h (5. H loss. mechanical = Ploss.5: Velocity profile in pipe.032 2 m2 LV 2 4 for cross-sectionsfof arbitrary form. This transforms kinetic energy to heat energy which can be considered as lost. the hydraulic diameter of the pipe.2 m Pipe loss: H loss.3) Dh 2 g 3.2) The hydraulic diameterdyn.45 m s π circumference.5.0047 (5. friktion = ζ ⋅ H is inQ = ζ ⋅ of (5.5) Re Friction coefficient [-] L = Pipeν length [m] 64 V (5.032m VD h = 110500 Reynolds number: Re = = 4A ν (5. Energy is supplied by static pressure difference from inlet to outlet.45 m s π 2 2 2 A 0.1) P= Average velocity in thePpipe [m/s]= constant (5.5) Re = h ν 32mm A = The cross-section area of the pipe [m2] 64 O = Thef wetted circumference of the pipe [m] (5.031 = 1. the ratio2g the cross-sectional area to the wetted (10/3600) m3 s Mean velocity: V = = = 3. It is said that it is the pressure difference which drives the fluid through the pipe. bearing + loss. shaft seal = constant The loss in the pipe depends on the fluid velocity. The hydraulic diameter is suitable for calculating the friction A 0.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9. pipe = f LV 2 Dh 2 g (5. pipe = f 2 D h 2g 0. friktion = ζ ⋅ H dyn. The head loss is calculated V2 H loss.45m s ⋅ 0. shaft seal Re Dh = Hydraulic diameter [m] V2 H loss. To maintain a flow in the pipe.7) Mean velocity: V = 82 H Q (10/3600) m3 s = = 3.6) laminar = Re 2m ⋅ ( 3. At the wall. (5.3) where (5. the fluid molecules rub against each other. an amount of energy corresponding to the energy which is lost must constantly be added.8) 82 . Pump losses Friction loss in pipes Pipe friction is the loss of energy which occurs in a pipe with flowing fluid. the fluid velocity is zero whereas it attains a maximum value at the pipe center.4) Dh = 1 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s O VD h where Relative roughness: k/D = 0. H loss. lenght and inner surface roughness.2) 2g as: V Figure 5.15mm = 0. in = ζ ⋅ (5.6) flaminar = loss.032 m V1 = ζ⋅H = ζ4 ⋅ (5. Due to these velocity differences across the pipe.81 m s (5. see figure 5.

shaft seal = constant 0.032m 3. Re: (5. mechanical = Ploss.0047 Re < 2300 Laminar flow V 32mm = < 500 : = ζ ⋅ H2300 < Re ζ ⋅ H dyn. in Transition zone (5.3) Dh 2 g at relatively low velocities2and describes a calm.10) H loss. LV 2 H loss.2 m Pipe loss: H loss.032 2 m2 4 lation between inertia and friction forces in the fluid.45m s ⋅ The following guidelines VD h = 110500 Reynolds number: Re = = ν apply for flows in pipes: 1 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s (5. pipe = f (5. contraction = 1 − 0  ⋅ 0 3 2g Q V = A 2  (10/3600) m s = 3. bearing + Ploss. surface compared to the cross-section area and (5. bearing + Ploss. shaft seal = constant pipe diameter.032 2 m2 4V 22 H loss.2) loss. contraction = ζ ⋅ H dyn. Laminar flow only occurs well-ordered4 A without eddies.1 = ζ ⋅ 1 2g number.Equation (5.45 m s) 2 = 1.7) 83 83 .9) (5. 2 2m ⋅ ( 3.12) (5.032m ⋅ ⋅ 9.032m VD h = 110500 Reynolds number: Re = = 2 ν 1 − w 1. The friction coefficient for laminar flow is flow (5. This is described by the Reynold’s number. friktion 2g Re > 5000 : Turbulent flow.45m s ⋅ 0. expansion = ζ ⋅ H dyn. mechanical = Ploss. kanal⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s 1 w ws2 =ϕ H loss.031 LV 2 2 D h 2g H loss. In cases where (5.5) Re = following applies for pipes with circular cross-section: 2 ν  A1  ζ = 1 − 64 (5.81 m s (5. pipe = f 0. The circular pipe is 2the cross-section type which has the smallest loss.2 = ζ ⋅ (5.0.4) applies in general for all cross-sectional shapes.2) 2g therefore the smallest flow resistance. pipe = f LV = 0.45 m s π The Reynold’s number is aA dimensionless number which expresses the re0.6) flaminar = A2   Re  2  A  V2 (5.6) flaminar = Re where n = Kinematic viscosity of the fluid [m2/s] Q (10/3600) m3 s Mean velocity: V = = = 3. the hydraulic diameter is equal to the the pipe loss. and it is therefore a number that describes how turbulent the flow is. The VD h (5.4) Dh = O V2 independent of the surface roughness and is only a function of the Reynold’s (5.8) H loss. friktion = interior in = ζ ⋅ V H possible ζ ⋅ H dyn.3) Dh 2 g The friction coefficient is not constant but depends on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. incidence = ϕ (5.5) Re = ν 64 (5.1) P has a circular cross-section.11) 2g 3.45 m s Mean velocity: = π A 0.1) Ploss.15mm Relative roughness:: k/Dh = 2 = 0.4) Dh = 4 A O VD h (5.

Figure 5.015 Friction coefficient (f) h Tran sitio n zo ne 84 .004 0.0004 e 0.1.08 Lam inar 64 Re 0.001 0.000005 7 0.008 10 3 0.03 0.009 0.04 0.06 0.0001 Turbulent 0.0002 0.6 shows a Moody chart which shows the friction coefficient f as function of Reynold’s number and surface roughness for laminar and turbulent flows.0008 0.006 0. 0. The red line refers to the values in example 5.07 0.5.025 0.02 Sm oo 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.008 0.6: Moody chart: Friction coefficient for laminar (circular cross-section) and turbulent flow (arbitrary cross-section).02 0.04 0.1 0. Pump losses Turbulent flow is an unstable flow with strong mixing. Figure 5.00001 10 4 Reynolds number ( Re=V · Dh /ν ) 10 5 10 6 10 10 8 84 Relative roughness ( k/D ) 0.05 0.09 0.0006 0. The friction coefficient for turbulent flow depends on the Reynold’s number and the pipe roughness.01 0. Due to eddy motion most pipe flows are in practise turbulent.00005 0.000001 0.015 th pip 0.002 0.

03-0. The pipe is made of galvanized steel with a roughness of (5. mechanical = with deposition Welded steel pipe Ploss.031 when Re = From loss: H loss. friktion = ζ ⋅ H dyn.Table 5. the pipe loss can be calculated to: V 12 2 2m ⋅ ( 3.6) (5. the 0. contraction = 1 − 0  ⋅ 0 2 2g  A A 2  ζ = 1 − 1  (5. mechanical = Ploss.5) (5.4) flaminar = h = D Re the 0. 2000).05 Table 5. bearing + Ploss. andO fluid is water at 20°C.15-0.003 0.1) LV 2 H loss.10) H loss.8) H loss. VD h (5.032 2 m2 Re 4 H loss.0047 Relative roughness: k/Dh = k/D =0.9) A2   V 12 (5.1 2= ζ ⋅ 2 2g  A  V (5.8) H loss. By inserting the values in 110500 and the relative roughness 32mm h the equation (5.1) 0-0.2 shows the roughness for different materials.032m VD h = 110500 Reynolds number: Re = = ν 1 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 2 s 2 2m ⋅ ( 3. pipe ζ 2 g 2 D h 2g 0.45m s ⋅ 0.032 2 m2 4 0.4) Dh = O LV 2 VD h Example 5.45 m s) 2 (5.2: Roughness for different surfaces (Pumpeståbi.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9.3). in = ζ ⋅ 85 3. shaft seal = constant 0.30 (5. new 0.2) 2g Welded steel pipe.0047.3) Re = H loss. friktion = ζ ⋅ H dyn.0047 32mm 3. bearing + Ploss.5) Re = ν Q (10/3600) m3 s Mean velocity: V = = 3. expansion = ζ ⋅ H dyn. shaft seal = constant Pipe in aluminium.032m= 0.81 m s 2  A  ζ = 1 − 1  (5. new 0. (5.15mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9. copper og brass Steel pipe Roughness k [mm] 0.01-0.15 Ploss.0 (5. pipe =chart.031 0. pipe = f D 2 g h Calculate the pipe loss in a 2 meter pipe with the diameter d=32 mm and a ν 64 m flow of Q=104 A3/h. pipe = f (5.5-1.01-0. Materials PVC Ploss.9) Reynolds number: Re = (5.7) 85 .1-0.2 Dh steel 2 V Galvanised steel pipe with deposition 0.032m VD h 3 = 110500 Q = ν = (10/3600) −6 ms s= 3.2 m Pipe loss: Hloss.45 m s 1 ⋅ 10 m 2 Mean velocity: V = π A 0.2) 4H loss.45 m s) (5.1 = = f⋅ LV = 0.7) = 1.15mm Relative roughness: k/Dh = = 0.1: Calculation of pipe loss (5.031 = 1.3) Galvanised 2 g pipe.6) flaminar = 0. The friction increases in old pipes because of corrosion and sediments.81 m s 2 D h 2g 0.2 m Pipe the Moody f LV = friction coefficent (f) is 0. in = ζ ⋅ 2g A (5. expansion = ζ ⋅ H dyn.05 V2 (5.45 m s 64 A = π (5.15 mm.45m s ⋅ 0.

contraction = ζ ⋅ H dyn.11) 86 ws2 w 1 − w 1.0047 and smooth cross-section expansions as possible.1) V2 5.7: Mixing loss at cross-section expansion shown for a sudden expansion. mechanical = Ploss.81 m s 2 head into 0.7) H loss. see figure 5. The figure shows a diffuser with a sudden expansion (5.032m the dynamic the component. Dh 2 g (5.15mm Relative roughness: k/Dh = = 0.3) sion is associated with a mixing loss.032m channel as well 3. pipe = f LV = 0. The converLV 2 H loss.031 D h 2g The loss at a cross-section expansion is a function of⋅ 2 ⋅ 9. (5.7. friktion = ζ ⋅ H dyn.10). m3 s (10/3600) Mean velocity: V = = = 3. it is important to create small 0. friction occurs ν 64 between the molecules in the fluid which results in a diskharge head loss.45m s ⋅ or return VD h = 110500 Reynolds number: Re = = as in the diffuser. expansion = ζ ⋅ H dyn.032 2 m2 4 Mixing loss occurs at different places in the pump: At the outlet of the impeller where the fluid flows into the volute casing0.45 m s π A 0.5) Re = beacuse all water particles no longer move at the same speed.2) 2g Velocity energy is transformed to static pressure energy at cross-section expansions in the pump. pipe = f (5.10) H loss.5. shaft seal = constant (5. ν 1 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s A2 A1 V1 V2 A2 A1 A1 A2 When designing the hydraulic components.8)  A  where ζ = 1 − 1  A  V1 = Fluid velocity 2into the component [m/s]  2 (5.2 m Pipe loss: H loss.1 = ζ ⋅ 2 V 12 2g (5. kanal .7. how H loss. in = ζ ⋅ (5. bearing + Ploss. 32mm 2 Model 2m ⋅ ( 3.9) 2  A depends The pressure loss coefficient 0  ⋅ V0 on the area relation between the com(5. (5.2 Mixing loss at cross-section expansion H loss. see figure 5. Figure 5.4) Dh = 4 A The reason is that velocity differences occur when the cross-section exO VD h pands.45 m s) 2 = 1. a part of the velocity energy is turned into heat Q energy instead of static pressure energy.3. Pump losses Ploss. see the energy equation in formula (2.2 = ζ ⋅ 86 V 22 2g 2 (5.6) flaminar = Even though theRe velocity profile after the cross-section expansion gradually is evened out. contraction = 1 − ζ   A2  ponent’s inlet and outlet as well as2 g evenly the area expansion happens.

11) contraction = ζ ⋅ estimate The model 2g (A1/A2 close to zero). The reason for this is that the flow because 2 2 2 ( D − Dgap ) H stat.17) surface but 8g instead will follow curved streamlines.031 = 1. kanal ws2 which means that almost the entire dynamic head into the component is H loss. gap V= consequence of L + 1.15) loss. the following expression is used: H shown in 1 For a sudden expansion.81 m s (5.7.8) H loss. in the = Q + Q leakage (5. Losses related to cross-section contraction is typically of minor importance.5 cross-section contraction occurs typically at inlet to a pipe fs and at the impeller eye. Head loss as a 2gH stat.8: Loss at cross-section contraction. The contraction with the area A0 is marked on figure 5. gap = H stat.7) V2 (5.0 V contraction 2g s 2g 2g is made.45 m s) 2 LV 2 = 0. A mixing loss occurs in this process.13) For small expansion1 ratiosQ design )2 +as2 for other diffuser geometries with H loss. Ploss. the loss is insignificant. incidence = ϕ =ϕ (5. (n3D5 )B 2 Head loss at cross-section contraction occurs as a consequence of eddies being created Q impeller flow when it comes close to the geometry edges. In this case the loss coefficient is ζ = 1 in equation (5.3 Mixingdisk )A = ( P disk )B (Ploss.8.5the flowfexperiences is reduced. loss at cross-section contraction (5. impeller − no 2 of the local pressure gradientsω longer adheres in parallel to the(5. 87 87 .18) area which V + L V + 1.9) 2 w 1 − w 1. The magnitude of the loss can be considerably reduced Q leakage = VA gap by rounding the inlet edges and thereby suppress separation. Contraction A1 A0 V1 V0 A2 V2 Figure 5.9) 2 where  A  V2 (5. It is said that a(5. see figure 5.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9. incidence = k ⋅ (Q − as well k smooth area expansions. 2g  A  ζ = 1 − 1  A2   2 (5.gives a goodH dyn.14) (n3D5 )A 2 5. This means that the effective cross2 2 2 section Hstat. contraction = 1 − 0  ⋅ 2 0 A1= Cross-section areaat inlet [m ]2 g A2  A2= Cross-section area at outlet [m2] V2 H loss.2 = ζ ⋅ of2 the head loss at large expansion ratios (5. disk = kρ U 3 D2 ( D2 + 5e ) 2 k = 7.12) 2 ⋅g 2⋅g lost in a sharp-edged diffuser. expansion = ζ ⋅as dyn.8.Pipe loss: H loss. gap = 0. pipe = f 2m ⋅ ( 3. (5. the loss coefficient ζ is found by table lookup (MacDonalds) or by measurements. If the inlet is adequately rounded off.3 ⋅ 10 −4  2ν ⋅ 10 6    U D    2 2  m (5. The contraction accelerates the flow and it must therefore subsequently decelerate again to (5.10) H loss.3.19) fill the cross-section.1 = ζ ⋅ figure 5.16) It is said that the flow ’separates’.2 m 2 D h 2g 0.

11) (5.5 V + f L V + 1.3 ⋅ 10 the2  2 V U+ D2LV 2 + 1.3 ⋅ 10   U D   2 where  22 2  w − w w 1 1.2 = ζ ⋅ ⋅ V 1 (5. Pump losses pipe = A LV π = 0.8 1. contraction = 1 − D h 2 g ⋅ 0. Hdyn.12) (5.2 m Pipe loss: H loss. − 4  2loss coefficient.16) a cross-secs+ 2 2 tion contraction can be reduced to almost)zero by rounding off the edges.2 = Dynamic head out of the component [m] 2 ⋅ g (n D2 )A 2 ⋅ g (P velocity ( P disk )B (5.0047 loss-free.2 0.2 0 0 AR = A2 /A1 0.15) V2 = Fluidloss.5  2 f  (5.45 m 2 5.1 = ζ ⋅ that the acceleration of the fluid from V1 2g 0. kanal  A1  w s 2 ζ = 1 − H loss. Thefollowing alternative formulation is therefore  (5. function+ 5e )2 stat.7) (5.13) H loss.17) H stat.81 m s (5. disk )A = ( P disk )B (5.5Q leakage + found by impeller flookup.6 0.11) m 6 2g − 4  2ν ⋅ 10  (5.6 0. Hdyn.0 expansions.1 = ζ 2 g [m/s] loss.032m VD h = 110500 Model Reynolds number: Re = ν =2 1 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s V1 (5. As mentioned earlier. incidence = ϕ s = ϕ3 5 (5.7) V 22 2 =ζ H H loss. As shown.8) H experience.0 0. disk = kρ U D2 ( D2 + 5eV 2 ) H loss.9)   A2   contraction: 2 2m ⋅ ( 3. gap = 0. contraction = ζ ⋅ H dyn.expansion = ζ . the pressure loss in (5.45m ss) 2 f = 1. This applies in particular generalHstat.81 m s 3. is in   (5. pipe =Af0  LV V0 2 0. 2 D h 2 g 0.9 compares loss coefficients at sudden cross-section expansions P = kρ U 3 D2 ( D2 2 ( D2 −D2 ) gap 2 (5.10)  2g  A2  where V0 A0/A2 (5.4 0. disk = H stat.9: Head loss coefficents at sudden cross-section contractions and expansions. expansion = ζit⋅ is dyn. incidence = =1 1Q − Q  ⋅ )V0+ k 2 k ⋅ ( − A 0 design 2 (5.0 V 2g s 2g 2g (5.14) k = 7.18) 88 2gH stat.10) loss.031  2 H loss.4 0. disk )A = out of the component [m/s] loss.19) 2 )B The head loss coefficient for geometries with smooth area changes can be 2gH stat. contraction often used: 2g  A2  Ploss. H assumed Based onloss. gap = H stat.8) H= Fluid velocity indyn.14) k = 7.031 2 2m⋅ 3. (n3D5(5. gap (5.8 0.contraction = ζ .0 Area ratio Hloss.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9.15mmmixing loss depends on the area to V0 is Relative roughness: the subsequent = 0. contraction= ζ ⋅⋅ H dyn.13) H loss.45 m s) 2 2 = = 1. kanal H loss.Relative roughness: k/Dh = 32mm = 0.12) Hdyn. whereas k/D = 2 h 32mm ratio now= 1 − A1  to the contraction A0 as well as the dynamic head in the ζ compared (5.18) 2g s 2g 2g at large area ratios. 8g 2 2 2 Hstat. gap V= Q table =L Q 1.19) 88 .45m s ⋅ 0.032 m 4 0.2 Hloss.0047 Q (10/3600) m3 s Mean velocity: V = = 2 = ( 3.17) Hloss. incidence = ϕ =ϕ (5. 3 5 (n D2 )A (Ploss.16) Q impeller = Q + Q leakage Figure 5.2 = ζ ⋅ 2 (5. impeller − ω 2 2 Q leakage VA gap 3 2 Pressure loss coefficient ζ A1 A2 A1 AR = A1 /A2 A2 1. ( D −Dgap (5. incidence = k 1 ⋅ (Q − Q design ) + k 2 (5.15) loss. (n3D5 )B 2 2 (5.1 Figure 5.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9.2 m Pipe loss: H loss.9) A  2 ⋅g 2⋅g  The disadvantage2of this model is that it assumes knowledge of A0 which is 2 2 not directly measureable. expansion contractiong 2 = Area ratio 2 [-] 2 w 1 − w 1. gap = at contractions than in V smaller 0. gap and –contractions as impeller − ωof the8area ratio A1/A2 between the inlet and m g 6 ν ⋅ 10  outlet. and thereby also the head loss.

5.3.4 Recirculation loss Recirculation zones in the hydraulic components typically occur at part load when the flow is below the design flow. Figure 5.10 shows an example of recirculation in the impeller. The recirculation zones reduce the effective cross-section area which the flow experiences. High velocity gradients occurs in the flow between the main flow which has high velocity and the eddies which have a velocity close to zero. The result is a considerable mixing loss. Recirculation zones can occur in inlet, impeller, return channel or volute casing. The extent of the zones depends on geometry and operating point. When designing hydraulic components, it is important to minimise the size of the recirculation zones in the primary operating points. Model There are no simple models to describe if recirculation zones occur and if so to which extent. Only by means of advanced laser based velocity measurements or time consuming computer simulations, it is possible to map the recirculation zones in details. Recirculation is therefore generally only identified indirectly through a performance measurement which shows lower head and/or higher power consumption at partial load than predicted. When designing pumps, the starting point is usually the nominal operating point. Normally reciculation does not occur here and the pump performance can therefore be predicted fairly precisely. In cases where the flow is below the nominal operating point, one often has to use rule of thumb to predict the pump curves.

Recirculation zones

Figure 5.10: Example of recirculation in impeller.

89

89

Dh 2 g Dh = 4 A O 5. Pump losses VD h Re = ν 64 flaminar = Re
(5.4) (5.5) (5.6)

Q (10/3600) m3 s Mean velocity: = 3.45 m s 5.3.5 Incidence loss V = A = π 0.032 2 m2 4 Incidence loss occurs when there is a difference between the flow angle and blade angle at the impeller or guide vane leading 0.032mThis is typically the 3.45m s ⋅ edges. VD h = 110500 case at Reynolds number: Re = ν =exists. ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s part load or when prerotation 1 0.15mm blade when there is difference A recirculation zone occurs on one side of the= 0.0047 Relative roughness: k/Dh = 32mm between the flow angle and the blade angle, see figure 5.11. The recirculation zone causes a flow contraction after the blade leading edge.2 The flow must 2 2m ⋅ ( 3.45 m s) once again deceleratepipe = f the contraction to fill the entire blade channel = 1.2 m Pipe loss: H loss, after LV = 0.031 2 D h 2g 0.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9.81 m s and mixing loss occurs.
At off-design flow, incidence losses V 12 occur at the volute tongue. The dealso (5.8) H loss, expansion = ζ ⋅ H dyn,1 = ζ ⋅ signer must therefore make sure that flow angles and blade angles match 2g each other so the incidence loss is minimised. Rounding blade edges and vo2  A  1− 1  ζ = tongue can reduce the incidence loss. lute casing  (5.9) A2  

(5.7) or guide vanes.

Figure 5.11: Incidence loss at inlet to impeller

 A  V2 Model (5.10) H loss, contraction = 1 − 0  ⋅ 0 The magnitude of the  A 2  loss g incidence 2 depends on the difference between relative velocities before and after the blade leading edge and is calculated using 2 the following model (Pfleiderer=og ⋅ V 2 H loss, contraction = ζ ⋅ H dyn,2 ζ Petermann, 1990, p 224): (5.11) 2g
W1

2

w 1 − w 1, kanal w2 H loss, incidence = ϕ s = ϕ 2 ⋅g 2⋅g
2

2

,ka na

(5.12)
β1

l

β´ 1
W
1

where H loss, incidence = k 1 ⋅ (Q − Q design ) + k 2 (5.13) ϕ = Emperical value which is set to 0.5-0.7 depending on the size of the recirculation zone afterD ( D + 5eleading edge. Ploss, disk = kρ U 3 the blade ) 2 2 2 ws= difference between relative velocities before and after the blade edge m 6 − 4  2ν ⋅ 10  using vector calculation,  figure 5.12. see (5.14) k = 7.3 ⋅ 10   U D   2 2 

Figure 5.12: Nomenclature for incidence loss model.

(Ploss, disk )A = ( P disk )B loss,
90

(n3D5 )A 2 (n3D5 )B 2

(5.15) (5.16)

Q impeller = Q + Q leakage

90

 A  V2 H loss, contraction = 1 − 0  ⋅ 0 2g  A2 

2

(5.10)

V 22 (5.11) 2g Incidence loss is alternatively modelled as a parabola with minimum at the 2 w −w w2 best efficiency point. Thes incidence1loss 1, kanal increases quadratically with the dif=ϕ H loss, incidence = ϕ (5.12) 2 ⋅g ference between the design flow and 2 ⋅ g actual flow, see figure 5.13. the H loss, contraction = ζ ⋅ H dyn,2 = ζ ⋅ H loss, incidence = k 1 ⋅ (Q − Q design )2 + k 2
where Qdesign k1 k2
(5.13)

Hloss, incidence

P= Design kρ U 3[m23/s]2 + 5e ) loss, disk = flow 2 D ( D m  2ν ⋅ 5] = Constant [s2/m10 6   k = 7.3 ⋅ 10 − 4   = Constant [m]U2 D2    (Ploss, disk )A = ( P disk )B loss, (n3D5 )A 2 (n3D5 )B 2

k2 Qdesign Q

(5.14)

Figure 5.13: Incidence loss as function of the flow.

(5.15)

(5.16) Q = Q + Q leakage 5.3.6 Diskimpeller friction 2 2 ( D −Dgap ) Disk frictiongap the increased power consumption which occurs on(5.17)shroud the H stat, is = H stat, impeller − ω 2 2 8g and hub of the impeller because it rotates in a fluid-filled pump casing. The 2 fluid in the cavity between L V 2 impeller and 2pump casing starts to rotate and Hstat, gap = 0.5 V + f + 1.0 V (5.18) 2 g see 2g s section 1.2.5. The rotation velocity equals the 2g creates a primary vortex, impeller’s at the surface of the impeller, while it is zero at the surface of the pump casing. The average velocity of the primary vortex is therefore as(5.19) 2gH stat, gap V be sumed to = equal to one half of the rotational velocity. f L + 1.5 s

e Secondary vortex

The centrifugal=forcegap Q leakage VA creates a secondary vortex movement because of the difference in rotation velocity between the fluid at the surfaces of the impeller and the fluid at the pump casing, see figure 5.14. The secondary vortex increases the disk friction because it transfers energy from the impeller surface to the surface of the pump casing. The size of the disk friction depends primarily on the speed, the impeller diameter as well as the dimensions of the pump housing in particular the distance between impeller and pump casing. The impeller and pump housing surface roughness has, furthermore, a decisive importance for the size of the disk friction. The disk friction is also increased if there are rises or dents on the outer surface of the impeller e.g. balancing blocks or balancing holes.

Figure 5.14: Disk friction on impeller.

91

91

0.15mm Relative roughness: k/Dh = 2 = 0.0047 V 232mm H loss, contraction = ζ ⋅ H dyn,2 = ζ ⋅ 2g 5. Pump losses

(5.11) (5.7)

Model Pfleiderer and Petermann−(1990, )2 + k use the following model to deter322) (5.13) H loss, incidence = k 1 ⋅ (Q Q design p.V 2 2 mine theloss, expansion =power consumption caused by disk friction: (5.8) H increased ζ ⋅ H dyn,1 = ζ ⋅ 1 2g 2 2 Ploss, disk = kρ U 3 D2 ( D2 + 5e )  A  m ζ = 1 − 1  6 (5.9) A2− 4  2ν ⋅ 10   (5.14) k = 73 ⋅ 10   .  U D 2  2 2  A  V2 (5.10) H loss, contraction = 1 − 0  3 ⋅ 5 0 where n 2  ) A 2 ( D2 )Ag (Ploss, disk diameter [m] 3 5 (5.15) D2 = Impeller )A = ( P disk B loss, (n D2 )B 2 e = Axial distance to wall at the V 2 periphery of the impeller [m], see figure = ζ ⋅ H dyn,2 = ζ ⋅ H (5.11) (5.16) =Q 5.14 Qloss, contraction + Q leakage 2g impeller U2 = Peripheral velocity [m/s] 2 ( D2 −D2 ) 2 2 (5.17) H stat, gap = H stat, impeller − ω w 1 − wgap w2 -6 1, kanal n = Kinematic viscositys [m2/s], n =10g [m2/s] for water at 20°C.(5.12) 8 H loss, incidence = ϕ =ϕ 2⋅g k = Emperical value 2 ⋅ g V 2 1/6 ffor V 2 + 1.0surfaces and between 1/7(5.18) L smooth V 2 Hstat, gap = 0.5 m = Exponent equals + to 1/9 s 2g (5.13) H loss, incidence = k2 g(Q − Q design )2 + k 2 2 g 1⋅ for rough surfaces

2 2 2 2m ⋅ ( 3.45 m s ) = 1.2 m Pipe loss: H loss, pipe s= f LV w 1= 0.031 w 2 D 2 g − w 1, kanal 2 = ϕh H loss, incidence = ϕ 0.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9.81 m s (5.12) 2 ⋅g 2⋅g

Ploss, disk made 2 the 2 + 5e ) 2gH kρ U If changes are = stat, gaptoD2 ( Ddesign of the impeller, calculated disk friction V= m L + 4  to estimate the disk friction P Ploss,disk,A can be fscaled 2ν ⋅ 10 6  at another impel− 1.5 loss,disk,B s   (5.14) k = 7.3 ⋅ 10   ler diameter or speed: U2 D2   Q leakage = VA gap (n3D5 )A 2 (Ploss, disk )A = ( P disk )B (5.15) loss, (n3D5 )B 2
3

(5.19)

The scaling equation can only be used for relative small design changes. (5.16) Q =Q +Q
impeller leakage

H stat, gap = H stat, impeller − ω 2

( D2 −D2 ) 2 gap
8g

(5.17)

2 2 2 Hstat, gap = 0.5 V + f L V + 1.0 V (5.18) 2g s 2g 2g 5.3.7 Leakage Leakage loss occurs because of smaller circulation through gaps between (5.19) 2gH stat, gap V= the rotating and fixed parts of the pump. Leakage loss results in a loss in eff L + 1.5 ficiency becausesthe flow in the impeller is increased compared to the flow through the entire pump: Q leakage = VA gap

92

92

gap = H stat.9) through A2   guidevane and shaft in multi-stage pumps are less important because both 2  V2 Qleakage. contraction =pressure = ζ ⋅ 2 it is 2g ticular important that the gaps are small.0 V 2g s 2g 2g (5.4 Qleakage. The leakage flow between = 1 − 1 (5. 2ν ⋅ 10 6  (5.1 = ζ ⋅ s 2g Q leakage = VA 2 gap The leakage between the impeller and the casing at impeller eye and  A  ζaxial reliefare typically of the same size. Figure 5.1 Leakage between impeller eye and pump casing. First the difference in head across the gap generated by (n head difference across the gap depends on the impeller is calculated.45 m s) 2 (5. the static head above the impellerB and of the flow behaviour in the cavity (n3D5 ) 2 Qleakage.0 V Hstat.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9.1 H stat.17) Leakage as a result of balancing holes 2 2 2 Hstat.031 pipe 2 D h 2g 0. The3D5 )Qleakage. disk )A = ( P disk )B (5. Q = Flow through pump [m3/s] .18) LV 2 2g = 1. Qleakage. kanal w2 H loss. Qleakage 2 2 2 = Leakage flow [m3/s] + f L V 2+ 1.0047 where Relative=roughness: − ωh = 8 g 32mm Qimpeller = Flow through impeller [m3/s]. gap = 0. gap (5.15mm = 0.5 V + f L V + 1.12) Qleakage. gap H stat.81 m s Leakage occurs many different places in the pump and depends on the pump (5.17) H stat. g = f s 2g = 0.45m s ⋅ 0.15) loss. expansion + 1.032m VD h = 110500 Reynolds number: Re = = ν 1 ⋅ 10 −6 m 2 s (5.15) loss.2 m Pipe loss: H loss.19) 93 . 2 w 1 − w 1. disk = kρ U 3 D2 ( D2 + 5e ) necessary to calculate the leak flow.3 ⋅ 10 − 4   U D  (10/3600) m3 s   2 Q = Mean velocity: V = 2  = 3.5 V 2m ⋅ ( 3. (5.2 Leakage above blades in an open impeller Qleakage. The pressure differ2gH shows V= 2 ences in the pump which drives the V 1 leakage flow as shown in figure 5.13) H loss.3 Qleakage. impeller − ω 2 ( D2 −D2 ) 2 gap 8g (5. it is important to make the gaps as small as V2 H When the ζ ⋅ H dyn.5 ⋅ H dyn. 3 5 (n D2 )B 3. gap where leakage typically occurs. incidence = ϕ s = ϕ (5.1 (5.1 pressure difference = 1 − A 0area are smaller. gap = 0. disk )A = ( P disk )B (5.19) type.8) H loss. P (5. (5.3 Leakage between guidevanes and shaft in a multi-stage pump Qleakage. equation (5.18).2 2 A (Ploss. contraction and gap  ⋅ 0  A2  2g  To minimise the leakage flow.2 Model 2 ⋅g 2⋅g The leakage can be calculated by combining two different expressions for (5.15: Types of leakage ( D2 −D2 ) 2 gap (5.032 2 m2 (n D24A ) (Ploss.11) in parpossible.14) k = 7.17) and the head loss for the flow through the gap equationloss.1 between impeller and pump casing: Qleakage. Both expressions are 2  2ν ⋅ 10 6  (5.1 Qleakage.14) k = 7.16. fL =ζ (5. incidence head across the2 gap: The head difference generated by + k2 the difference in = k 1 ⋅ (Q − Q design ) Qleakage.3 ⋅ 10 − 4  In the following an example of the leakage between impeller eye and pump  U D    2 2  housing is shown.16) Q impeller = Q + Q leakage m (5. impeller k/D 2 0.10) H loss.15 stat.7) Qleakage.2 difference across the gap is large.45 m s A 3 5π 0.16) Q impeller = Q + Q leakage Figure 5.18) 93 2gH stat. loss.1 the impeller.

kanal0.81 m s w H loss.2 2g 2m ⋅ ( 3.16) Q impeller = Q + Q leakage The friction coefficient can be set to 0. the leakage cangbe calculated: L V= 2gH stat. − ω 2 ( D2 −5.032m ⋅ 2 ⋅ 9.8) (5. impeller = Impeller static  ⋅ 2 g  A2  (n3D5 )A 2 (Ploss. (5.13) Low pressure High pressure Figure 5. contraction = ζ ⋅ H dyn.45 m s) 2 = 1.0 V (5. g 2 H loss. ) (5.12) 5.031 2 D h 2g 2 2 w 1 − w 1.4gap [-] −  V=   L = Gapk = 7. incidence =friction = ϕ 2 ( D2 −Dgap ) H the gap.14) (5.9) A  2  and2pump casing [rad/s]  m 6  2ν ⋅ 10  2 Dgap of V 2 (5. gap = H stat.5 V + f L V + 1. ϕ (5. disk (=3D5 )Bcan n ζ⋅ 2 H loss. disk = kρ U 2 D2 ( D2 + 5e ) f = Friction coefficient2ν ⋅ 10 6 m (5. incidence 1 H − Q design 2 k 2 g (5. contraction = 1 − D2 head rise [m]   Hstat.19) s Q leakage = VA gap Dspalte D2 94 94 . disk )A =inP disk )B ( loss.17. gap = H stat.13) (5.19) 2gH stat. 2 2 2 By isolating the velocity V in the equation (5.16: The leakage is drived by the pressure difference across the impeller. gap = 0.3 Inner4diameter  the0gap [m] 7 ⋅ 10 −   A 0   U2 (5.7) where 2  A1  ωfl ζloss.17: Pressure difference across the gap through the friction loss consideration.18) and inserting Hstat. impeller − ω 2 ⋅g 2⋅g to sudden expansion of the outlet of8the gap. expansion==kζ⋅ ⋅(Q dyn.2 m Pipe loss: H loss.5 s (5. pipe = f LV = 0.14) k = = .15) (5. gap f L + 1.025 or alternatively be found more 2 D2 precisely stat.6.3 ⋅[m] 1.5 1 + f L V + 1. disk )A = ( Pacross the gapV 2 also be calculated as the head loss of )B (5.1 = ζ )⋅2 + 1 H loss. and mixing loss due 2 runs intoloss. losses (5.11) 2 2 5. see figure g The head loss is the sum of the fol(5. Pump incidence = ϕ 2 ⋅sg = ϕ 2⋅g (5.16) lowing Q impeller = Q of Q leakage Loss due to sudden contraction when the fluid three types + losses: 2 w 1 − w kanal w s 2 loss between21. gap = 0.5 U D  length 10+  L fs  2 2  s = Gap width [m] ( 3 5 Q leakage = gap V = Fluid velocity VAgap [m/s]n D2 )A (Ploss.gap from Hstat.2 (5. 5 (n3[m Agap = Cross-section area of gap D2 )2B] V2 H loss.18) 2g s2 2g equation (5.10) H loss. the flow through the gap. disk Rotational velocity of the fluid in the cavity between impeller ==1 −= kρ U 3 D2 ( D2 + 5e ) P (5.18) (5.17) H in a Moody impeller see figure gap 8g Figure 5.0 2g s 2g 2g 3 where Ploss.12) (5.chart.fluid and wall. incidence = kV 2 (Q − Q design )2 + k 2 V 2 ⋅ Hstat.17).17) H stat.15) The head difference loss.

which describes the shape of the impeller. Flow friction and mixing loss are significant for all specific speeds and are the dominant loss type for higher specific speeds (semi-axial and axial impellers). For each loss type we �have made a simple physical � � �� ���� � � ��� � description as well as shown in which hydraulic��components the loss typi�� � cally occurs.. Furthermore.18 shows how the losses are distributed at the design point (Ludwig et al.5. see section 4. we have introduced some simple models which can be used for estimating the magnitude of the losses. For pumps with low nq (radial impellers) leakage and disk friction on the hub and shroud of the impeller will in general result in considerable losses. Figure 5. incidence and recirculation losses will occur.. At off-design operation.18: Loss distribution in a centrifugal pump as function of specific speed nq (Ludwig et al.4 Loss distribution as function of specific speed The ratio between the described mechanical and hydraulic losses depends on the specific speed nq. 2002).6.5 Summary In this chapter we have described the individual mechanical and hydraulic loss types which can occur in a pump and how these losses affect flow. 2002). η [%] 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 nq [min -1] Mechanical loss Leakage loss Disk friction Flow friction and mixing losses Hydraulic efficiency Figure 5. 95 95 . 5. At the end of the chapter we have shown how the losses are distributed depending on the specific speeds. head � � � � � ��� �� and power consumption.

.

friction.g H'1 z'1 z1 z2 pM1 z'M1 p1 r.g S'1 S1 S2 S'2 .2 Measuring pump performance 6.g p'1 r.1 U12 2.3 Measurement of the pump’s NPSH 6.Chapter 6 Pump tests 6.g p2 r.4 Measurement of force 6.6 Summary U'12 2.g z'M2 p'2 r.1 Test types 6.2 pM2 U'22 2.5 Uncertainty in measurement of performance 6.g Hloss.g H U22 2.g H1 H2 H'2 z'2 Hloss.friction.

For characterisation of motors see the Motor compendium (Motor Engineering.6.1 and for pressure. i. NPSH and force impact are measured.g.e. motor and hydraulic parts together. power consumption. the motor characteristic must be available to be able to compute the performance of the hydraulic part of the pump. Pump tests This chapter describes the types of tests Grundfos continuosly performs on pumps and their hydraulic components. i.e. pitot tubes and pressures transducers that can measure fast fluctuations. For validation of computer models and failure finding. Flow. head. see figure 6. head. flow. Pump tests 6. head. e. 98 98 . 6.g. For comparison of tests. power consumption. NPSH and forces are all integral performance parameters. LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) for velocity. The following describes how to measure the integral performance parameters. flow. Even small differences in mounting of the pump in the test bench can result in significant differences in the measured values and there is a risk of drawing wrong conclusions from the test comparison. 2002).1: Velocity field in impeller measured with PIV. detailed flow field measurements are needed. Here the velocities and pressures are measured in a number of discrete points inside the pump using e. R&T).1 Test types For characterisation of a pump or one of its hydraulic parts. The tests are made on prototypes in development projects and for maintenance and final inspection of produced pumps. power consumption. For flow field measurements consult the specialist literature. When testing a complete pump. NSPH and forces. Figure 6. it is important that the tests are done identically. (Albrecht.

Pump performance depends on rotational speed and therefore it must be measured.5 predefined operating points are usally sufficient. see figure 6.2: Measured head and power curve as function of the flow.2 Measuring pump performance Pump performance is usually described by curves of measured head and power consumption versus measured flow. electrical power consumption and possibly rotational speed are measured. electrical power. the test is done in a number of operating points from shut-off.6. head and power consumption are measured during operation in a test bench that can imitate the system characteristics the pump can be exposed to. To resolve the performance curves adequately. By varying the flow resistance in the test bench. 10 . i. During production. differential pressure. H 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Q P2 8 4 0 Q Figure 6. an efficiency curve can be calculated. Power consumption can be measured indirectly if a motor characteristic that contains corresponding values for rotational speed. power consumption and rotational speed can be measured to create the performance curves. During development. Flow. and shaft power is available. no flow to maximum flow and in reversal from maximum flow to shut-off. 99 99 . a number of corresponding values of flow.15 operating points are usually enough. From these measured curves. The electrical power consumption is measured because the complete product performance is wanted. Maintenance tests and final inspection tests are made as in house inspection tests or as certificate tests to provide the customer with documentation of the pump performance.2. The measured pump performance is used in development projects for verification of computer models and to show that the pump meets the specification. The flow is set and the corresponding head.e. Here 2 . the performance curves are measured to be sure they correspond to the catalogue curves within standard tolerances.

If the pressure transducers up and down stream of the pump are not located at the same height above ground. the geodetic pressure enters the expression for total pressure. and turbine wheels exist. Other flow measuring techniques based on orifice.2. and at least four pipe diameters downstream pipe bends and valves. see figure 6. The test itself is in accordance with the international standard ISO 9906.6. see figure 6. The total pressure is the sum of the static and dynamic pressure. and the dynamic pressure is calculated from pipe diameters at the pressure outlets and flow.4.1 Flow To measure the flow. The pressure taps before the pump must be placed two pipe diameters upstream the pump.3. The pump. Valve Pipe contraction Pipe expansion Pipe bend 4 x D 2 x D 2 x D 2 x D Figure 6. 6. pipe bends and valves affect the flow causing a nonuniform and rotating velocity profile in the pipe. The pressure tap after the pump must be placed two pipe diameters after the pump. To achieve a good pressure measurement. The static pressure is measured with a pressure transducer. is the pipe’s internal diameter.3. Head is calculated from total pressure measured up and down stream of the pump and density of the fluid. Pump tests Grundfos builds test benches according to in-house standards where GS241A0540 is the most significant. D. 6.2 Pressure Grundfos states pump performance in head and not pressure since head is independent of the pumped fluid. the velocity profile must be uniform and non-rotating. vortex meters. The pressure taps must therefore be placed at a minimum distance to pump. 100 100 . pipe bends and other components in the pipe system.2.3: Pressure measurement outlet before and after the pump. see section 2. These are integrated in the test bench according to the in-house standard. Grundfos uses magnetic inductive flowmeters. Pipe diameter. and at least two pipe diameters before any flow disturbances such as bends and valves.

4. 101 101 .5: Draft of pressure tap. If the pump is mounted in a well with free surface.4.2. Figure 6.2. The measuring holes are drilled perpendicular in the pipe wall making them perpendicular to the flow. 6.3 Temperature The temperature of the fluid must be known to determine its density.The pressure taps are designed so that the velocity in the pipe affects the static pressure measurement the least possible. The measuring holes are small and have sharp edges to minimise the creation of vorticies in and around the holes. see figure 6. the difference in height between fluid surface and the pressure tap on the pump’s outlet side must be corrected. Corrections for difference in height are also made between the pressure taps on the pump’s inlet and outlet side. Pressure gauge Venting Dz + Figure 6. see figure 6. see figure 6. each pressure tab has four measuring holes so that the measured pressure will be an average. The pressure transducer measures the pressure at the end of the pressure tube.4. see the chart ”Physical properties of water” at the back of the book. Air in the tube between the pressure tap and transducer causes errors in the pressure measurement. It is important that the pressure taps and the connection to the pressure transducer are completely vented before the pressure measurement is made. see section 6.5. To balance a possible bias in the velocity profile. The measurements are corrected for difference in height Δz between the center of the pressure tap and the transducer to know the pressure at the pressure tap itself. The density is used for conversion between pressure and head and is found by table look up.4: Pressure taps which average over four measuring holes.

3.1) is therefore:H 2 − H 1 Static pressure Dynamic pressure H = ( H2 + H loss. The total head from flange to flange is defined by the following equation: where Hloss. See ISO 9906 section 8. Pump tests Figure 6.1 ) ' (6.1) (6.2. it is normally not necesarry to take this into consideration in the calculations. H = H2 − H1 (6.1 H1 ' S1 S1 S2 ' S2 6.2 ) − ( H '1 − Hloss. friction.2 ) − ( H '1 − Hloss.1 ) ' Figure 6.6: Draft of pump test on a piping. H loss. friction.2. If the pipe friction loss between the pressure outlets and the flanges is smaller than 0. The − z + p2outlets are thus found in the po’ = z pressure − p1 + U 2 − U1 (6.3) 2 1 2⋅g sitions S’1GeodeticS’2 and the g and pressure ρ ⋅ expression for the total head H = (6.6 shows where the measurements are made. friction.5% of the pump head. friction.2) 2   p' 2 p − p UU 2 − U1   '2 z ' − 1 z  H = z22+ zρM+ + 2 'M 2 1+ + 2 2 + H loss.2) H = ( H2 + H loss. the pipe diameter. the distance from the pump flange to the pressure outlet and the pipe’s surface roughness.2 are the pipe friction losses between pressure outlet and pump flanges. friction.4 for further explanation. 2 −(6. The size of the friction loss depends on the flow velocity.3)  ⋅ g ρ ⋅ g 2 ⋅ g2 ⋅ g     Geodetic pressure Static pressure Dynamic pressure 102  ' z 1    p'  U '2 + M1 + z'M1  + 1 − H loss. The pressure outlets and the matching heads are marked 2 2 with a (H ).1 (6.4)  ρ⋅g  2⋅g    102 . friction.friction. pressure.4 Calculation of head The head can be calculated when flow.friction. Calculation of pipe friction loss is described in section 5. 2 ' H2 H2 H H' 1 H loss. distances and heights are known. fluid type.6.friction. temperature and geometric sizes such as pipe diameter.1 and Hloss.friction.1.

4)  '    2⋅g        p'  U12 ' '  M1 z 1 + ρ ⋅ g + z'M1  + 2 ⋅ g − H loss. The dynamic pressure depends on the pipe diamz1 eter and can be different on each2side of the pump.5 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V12 + z geo− H loss.4)      NPSH A = NPSH A = pva pstat. friction.2 zontal pipe. rg z' M1 p ' 1 .5 General calculation of head In practise a pump test is not always made on a horiH loss.1 ) ' p − p1 1 2 − U1 H = z 2 − z1 + 2 + ρ⋅ g 2⋅g Geodetic pressure 6.2) (6. − ρ⋅g ρ⋅ 103 pva pstat.2friction. z' M2 H loss. rg 2 H = z 2 − z1 + Geodetic pressure Static pressure 2 1 2 p − p Dynamic U1 U 2 − pressure + 2 ρ⋅ g 2⋅g Dynamic pressure Static pressure H' 1 z' 2 Because the manometer only measures the static pressure. furthermore.8: General draft of a pump test. be rg 2. in. H' . friction. g p 1 . rg H1 H2 p 2 . 2 − z    '  ρ Mg    2⋅g ⋅  z 1 + ρ ⋅1g + z'M1 + 1 − H loss. friction. g 2 2 pM2 z' M2 2 U' 2 2.3) H = (H 2 − H loss. rg p ' 2 .1) (6.in + pbar + 0 .1 (6. The total head which is defined by the pressures p1 and p2 and the velocities U1 and U2 in the inlet and outlet flanges S1 and S2 can be calculated by means of the following equation: Using the measured sizes in S’1 and S’2.1 (6. friction.5 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V12 103 + z geo− H loss. Figure 6.pM1 These differences in height must be taken p ' 1 z' p in 1 H2 1 M1 into consideration H the calculation of head.8 illustrates1 the basic S2 version of a pump test in a pipe. g height between the centers of the pump M2 and outlet.S' 1 S1 S2 S' 2 Figure 6.U'2 2 2. 2 − z'    2⋅g ρ⋅g       p'M 2   U22 ' H =  2 +  p' + z 'M 2  + U '2 + H loss.2 ) − ( H 'U− Hloss. This results in a difference in H U 22 p 2.1 U 12 2. Total head z' M2 2 1 Static head U' 2. g H loss.3) (6. g otal head z’1 and z’2 .friction. the general expression  the 'total head is: '2 for  p   U H =  2 +  M 2 + z 'M 2  + 2 + H loss.1 z11 and z2 respectively.2. rg pipe centre.1 ) H = H2' + H 1 2 H = ( H2 + H loss.2 ) − ( H '1 − Hloss.friction. the dynamic pressure must also be taken into acz' 1 count. friction. friction. z S' S S' 1 2 Figure 6. g .7: Pump test where the pipes are at an angle compared to horizontal. 2 tatic head U' p ' 2 2 1 2. friction.7. placed withUa difference in height compared to the g p 2 . g H loss. rg H' 1 z' 1 pM1 z' M1 H' 2 z' 2 z' 2 z' 1 z1 z2 z1 S' 1 S1 S2 S' 2 H = H2 − H1 S' 1 z2 S1 S2 S' 2 (6.1) (6. The manometer can.2) (6.friction. friction.2 H U 2.friction. − ρ⋅g ρ⋅ .in + pbar + 0 . friction. rg . see figure 6. and the centers of the inlet and outlet flanges.

changes over time. The measured power consumption is therefore usually corrected so that it applies to a standard fluid with a density of 1000 kg/m3 which corresponds to water at 4°C.5. The pump performance is often given for a constant rotational speed. The rotational speed can alternatively be measured by means of the motor characteristic and measured P1. By means of affinity equations. 104 104 . The shaft power can alternatively be measured on the basis of P1. head and power consumption are hereby changed but the efficiency is not changed considerably if the scaling of the speed is smaller than ± 20 %.6 Power consumption Distinction is made between measurement of the shaft power P2 and added electric power P1. The shaft power can best be determined as the product of measured angular velocity w and the torque on the shaft which is measured by means of a torque measuring device. described in section 4. Pump tests 6. Head and flow are independent of the density of the pumped fluid. 6. as mentioned above. However. The power consumption depends on the fluid density.7 Rotational speed The rotational speed is typically measured by using an optic counter or magnetically with a coil around the motor. more uncertain because it is indirect and because the motor characteristic. the performance can be converted to another speed.2.2. In this case. it is important to be aware that the motor characteristic changes over time because of bearing wear and due to changes in temperature and voltage. This method is. however. this implies that the motor characteristic is known. The flow.6.

105 105 . Erosion damage can occur on the hydraulic part at cavitation. One is to gradually lower the inlet pressure and keep the flow constant.16). it affects the pump head and flow which both typically decrease. To perform a NPSH3% test a reference QH curve where the inlet pressure is sufficient enough to avoid cavitation has to be measured first. The following pages introduce the NPSH3% test which gives information about cavitation’s influence on the pump’s hydraulic performance.6. If the cavitation increases.hence the name NPSH3%.10 and formula (2. The 3% curve is drawn on the basis of the reference curve where the head is 3% lower. In practise it is thus not an actual ascertainment of cavitation but a chosen (3%) reduction of the pump’s head which is used for determination of NPSHR . see section 2. Increased cavitation can also be seen as a drop in flow at constant head. A typical sign of incipient cavitation is a higher noise level than usual. Grundfos uses two procedures to perform an NPSH3% test. The other is to gradually increase the flow while the inlet pressure is kept constant.3 Measurement of the pump’s NPSH The NPSH test measures the lowest absolute pressure at the inlet before cavitation occurs for a given flow and a specific fluid with vapour pressure pvapour . The test gives no information about the pump’s noise and erosion damage caused by cavitation.

The inlet pressure is gradually lowered and flow.9: NPSHA measurement by lowering the inlet pressure. The resulting NPSHA value for the last measuring point before the head drops below the 3% curve then states a value for NPSH3% at the given flow. Point 4 to 7 is repeated for each flow point H Q Figure 6. The test stand is set for the seleted flow point starting with the largest flow 5. this type of NPSH3% test is the best suited. Procedure for an NPSH3% test where the inlet pressure is gradually lowered: 1. Figure 6. Referencekurve 3% kurve Reference curve Målt løftehøjde 3% curve Measured head 106 106 . Selection of 5-10 flow points 4.9 shows the measuring data for an NPSH3% test where the inlet pressure is gradually lowered and the flow is kept fixed. Pump tests 6. The 3% curve is calculated so that the head is 3% lower than the reference curve. It is these NPSH values which are stated as the pump’s NPSH curve.3.in and thereby NPSHA is gradually lowered until the head is reduced with more than 3%. The valve which regulates the counter-pressure is kept fixed 6. 3. head and inlet pressure are measured 7. The NPSH3% test is made by keeping the flow fixed while the inlet pressure pstat. A QH test is made and used as reference curve 2. The NPSH3% curve is made by repeating the measurement for a number of different flows.1 NPSH3% test by lowering the inlet pressure When the NPSH3% curve is flat.6. The measurements continue until the head drops below the 3% curve 8.

g. The system pressure can.2 NPSH3% test by increasing the flow For NPSH3% test where the NPSH3% curve is steep.10. The NPSH3% test is made by keeping a constant inlet pressure. then the inlet pressure can be regulated by adjusting the system pressure. The flow is increased from the shutoff and flow.6. A QH test is made and used as reference curve 2. This type of NPSH3% test is also well suited for cases where it is difficult to change the inlet pressure e. The 3% curve is calculated so that the head is 3% lower than the reference curve. constant water level or constant setting of the regulation valve before the pump. The NPSH3% curve is made by repeating the measurements for different inlet pressures. The system pressure is lowered by pumping water out of the circuit. Selection of 5-10 inlet pressures 4.10: NSPHA measurement by increasing flow.3. Referencekurve 3% kurve Reference curve Målt løftehøjde 3% curve Measured head Vacuum pump Shower Flow valve 6. Then the flow can be increased from shutoff until the head can be measured below the 3% curve. see figure 6. Procedure for NPSH3% test where the flow is gradually increased 1. 107 107 . furthermore. be reduced with a throttle valve or a vacuum pump. an open test stand. 3. see figure 6. this procedure is preferable. The test stand is set for the wanted inlet pressure 5. The measurements continue until the head is below the 3% curve 7.11: Draft of closed test bed for NPSH measurement. Flow meter Baffle plate Heating/ cooling coil Test pump Throttle valve Pressure control pump Figure 6.3. head and inlet pressure are measured 6.11.3 Test beds When a closed test bed is used for testing pumps in practise. Point 4-6 is repeated for each flow point H Q Figure 6.

6. Pump tests
In an open test bed, see figure 6.12, it is possible to adjust the inlet pressure in two ways: Either the water level in the well can be changed, or a valve can be inserted before the pump. The flow can be controlled by changing the pump’s counter-pressure by means of a valve mounted after the pump. 6.3.4 Water quality If there is dissolved air in the water, this affects the pump performance which can be mistaken for cavitation. Therefore you must make sure that the air content in the water is below an acceptable level before the NPSH test is made. In practise this can be done by extracting air out of the water for several hours. The process is called degasification. In a closed test bed the water can be degased by lowering the pressure in the tank and shower the water hard down towards a plate, see figure 6.11, forcing the air bubbles out of the fluid. When a certain air volume is gathered in the tank, a part of the air is removed with a vacuum pump and the procedure is repeated at an even lower system pressure. 6.3.5 Vapour pressure and density The vapour pressure and the density for water depend on the temperature and can be found by table look-up in ”Physical properties of water” in the back of the book. The fluid temperature is therefore measured during the execution of an NPSH test. 6.3.6 Reference plane NPSH is an absolute size which is defined relative to a reference plane. In this case reference is made to the center of the circle on the impeller shroud which goes through the front edge of the blades, see figure 6.13.
Adjustable water level Pump for flow valve and flow meter

Throttle valve

Figure 6.12: Drafts of open test beds for NPSH measurement.

Reference plan

Figure 6.13: Reference planes at NPSH measurement.

108

108

  p'   U '2 H =  2 +  M 2 + z 'M 2  + 2 + H loss, friction, 2 − z'    2⋅g ρ⋅g    

− H loss, friction,1 (6.4) ' pressure  6.3.7 Barometric  ρ ⋅ g + z'M1  + z 1 + 2⋅g   inlet pressure  measured as a relative pressure in relation to  In practise the is the surroundings. It is therefore necesarry to know the barometric pressure at the place and time where the test is made.
6.3.8 Calculation of NPSHA and determination of NPSH3% NPSHA can be calculated by means of the following formula:
H
• •

 p'M1

U12 '

NPSH A =

pvapour pstat,in + pbar + 0 .5 ⋅ ρ ⋅ V12 + z geo− H loss, friction, − (6.5) ρ⋅g ρ⋅g

pstat,in = The measured relative inlet pressure pbar = Barometric pressure V1 = Inlet velocity zgeo = The pressure sensor’s height above the pump Hloss,friction = The pipe loss between pressure measurement and pump pvapour = Vapour pressure (table look-up) ρ = Density (table look-up) The NPSH3% value can be found by looking at how the head develops during the test, see figure 6.14. An NPSH3% value is determined by the NPSHA value which is calculated from the closest data point above the 3% curve. 6.4 Measurement of force Measurement of axial and radial forces on the impeller is the only reliable way to get information about the forces’ sizes. This is because these forces are very difficult to calculate precisely since this requires a full three-dimensional numerical simulation of the flow.

• • •

Figure 6.14: Determination of NPSH3%. Referencekurve 3% kurve Reference curve Målt løftehøjde 3% curve NPSH 3% Measured head NPSH A
NPSH3% NPSHA

Q

109

109

6. Pump tests
6.4.1 Measuring system The force measurement is made by absorbing the forces on the rotating system (impeller and shaft) through a measuring system. The axial force can e.g. be measured by moving the axial bearing outside the motor and mount it on a dynamometer, see figure 6.15. The axial forces occuring during operation are absorbed in the bearing and can thereby be measured with a dynamometer. Axial and radial forces can also be measured by mounting the shaft in a magnetic bearing where it is fixed with magnetic forces. The shaft is fixed magnetical both in the axial and radial direction. The mounting force is measured, and the magnetic bearing provides information about both radial and axial forces, see figure 6.16. Radial and axial force measurements with magnetic bearing are very fast, and both the static and the dynamic forces can therefore be measured. By measurement in the magnetic bearing, the pump hydraulic is mounted directly on the magnetic bearing. It is important that the fixing flange geometry is a precise reflection in the pump geometry because small changes in the flow conditions in the cavities can cause considerable differences in the forces affecting on the impeller.
Axial sensor Radial magnetic bearing Support bearing Radial sensor Radial sensor Axial magnetic bearing Radial magnetic bearing Radial sensor Axial sensor Support bearing

Dynamometer Axial bearing

Figure 6.15: Axial force measurement through dynamometer on the bearing.

Figure 6.16: Radial and axial force measurement with magnetic bearing.

110

110

variations in the test bed and variations in the pump during the test. At the one end. The force affecting the shaft end is calculated by multiplying the area of the shaft end with the pressure in the pump.4. When testing a pump in a test bed.1 Standard demands for uncertainties Uncertainties on measuring equipment are in practise handled by specifying a set of measuring equipment which meet the demands in the standard for hydrualic performance test. and in the other end it is affected by the pressure outside the pump. The complete measuring system includes the test beds’ pipe circuit. Therefore the system pressure has influence on the size of the axial force. and the test is made in the exact same way as a QH test. The uncertainty for the complete measuring system is larger than the sum of uncertainties on the single measuring instrument because the complete uncertainty also contains variations in the pump during test which are not corrected for.5. measuring equipment and data collection. ISO09906 also states an allowed uncertainty for the complete measuring system. it is necesarry to convert the system pressure in the axial force measurements to the same pressure. If comparison between the different axial force measurement is wanted. The correction is 111 111 . ISO09906. the shaft is affected by the pressure in the pump.5 Uncertainty in measurement of performance At any measurement there is an uncertainty. 6.2 Execution of force measurement During force measurement the pump is mounted in a test bed. 6. Variations occuring during test which the measurements can be corrected for are the fluid’s characteristic and the pump speed. the uncertainty is a combination of contributions from the measuring equipment.6. The force measurements are made simultaneously with a QH test.

we have described data treatment. 6.5. 6. The method is outlined in the Grundfos standard GS 241A0540: Test benches and test equipment. slide gauge.g.3 Measurement of the test bed’s uncertainty Grundfos has developed a method to estimate a test beds’ overall uncertainty. There can be significant difference in the measuring results between several test beds. The method gives a value for the standard deviation on the QH curve and a value for the standard deviation on the performance measurement. During development where very small differences in performance are interesting. e. ISO09906 has an instruction of how the test makes a representative average value seen from a stability criteria.2 Overall uncertainty The repetition precision on a test bed is in general better than the collected precision. the test bed takes up more measurements and calculates an average value. 6. The method is the same as the one used for geometric measuring instruments. head and NPSH value.g. Furthermore.to convert the measuring results to a constant fluid temperature and a constant speed. We have described which sizes to measure and which problems can occur in connection with planning and execution of a test. 112 112 .5. To ensure a measuring result which is representative for the pump. The differences correspond to the overall uncertainty.6 Summary In this chapter we have introduced the hydraulic tests carried out on complete pumps and their hydraulic components. The stability criteria is a simplified way to work with statistical normal distribution. it is therefore a great advantage to make all tests on the same test bed. e.

Units Appendix B. Check of test results H � � � � � � � � � � � � Q .Appendix Appendix A.

. Units Some of the SI system’s units Basic units Basic units Unit for Length Mass Time Temperature Name meter Unit m kilogram kg second Kelvin S K Additional units Unit for Angle Name radian Unit rad Definition One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of circumference that is equal in length to the radius of the circle.A. Units A. Derived units Unit for Force Pressure Energy. work Power Impulse Torque Name Newton Pascal Joule Watt Unit N Pa J W Definition N = kg ⋅ m / s2 Pa = N/m2 = kg /(m ⋅ s2 ) J = N⋅m = W ⋅ s W = J/ s = N ⋅ m/ s = Kg ⋅ m2/s3 kg ⋅ m/ s N⋅m 114 .

6667 .9119 1 115 .Conversion of units Length m 1 0. volume flow min 16.28 0. 10-3 1 m3/s 1 0.37 1 ft (feet) 3.6 0.2271 Speed l/s 1000 0. 10-3 16.4 15. 10-3 1 60 h (hour) 0.277778 .277778 . 10-3 0.852 1 0.063 gpm (US) 15852 4.277778 .0254 Time in (inches) 39.6667 .277778 1 0.000063 Mass flow kg/s 1 0. 10 10 -3 -3 m3/h 3600 1 3.097 ft/s 3.0833 s 1 60 3600 Flow.3048 kg/h 3600 1 1.277778 .28 0. 10-3 kg/h 3600 1 kg/s 1 0.

28 1 kPa 1 100 9.197 1 K 1 o C J 1 3.67 .1592 rad/s 0.07 . 10-3 Work. 10-6 1 t(oC) = T . energy o mVs 0.15 C + t 1 Kinematic viscosity m /s 2 cSt 106 1 Pa . 10-3 1 0. 106 Dynamic viscosity kWh 0.15K T(Kelvin) = 273.807 Temperature bar 0.102 10. Units Rotational speed RPM = revolution per minute 1 60 9.273.01 1 98.105 6.55 Pressure s-1 16.6 .A. s 1 10-3 cP 103 1 1 10-6 116 .277778 .

it can be difficult to find out why. Check of test results B. some recommendations of where it is appropriate to start looking for reasons for the deviating test results are presented. Possible cause Power consumption is too high and/or the head is too low What to examine Decide whether it is the power consumption or the head which deviates How to find the error Use one of the three schemes below. Is the tested pump in reality not the one we thought? Is the test bed not measuring correctly? Is the test which we compare with not reliable? Have some units been swaped during the data treatment? Typical examples which deviate from what is expected is presented on the following pages. Furthermore. scheme 1 -3 117 . The test shows that the efficiency is below the catalogue curve.B. Check of test results When unexpected test results occur.

If the pump’s power consumption is ok. Possible cause The catalogue curve does not reflect the 0-series testen. Test them separately. Look at the difference of the two power curves. What to examine Compare 0-series test with catalog curve How to find the error If the catalogue curve and 0-series test do not correspond. there is probably drag. Repeat the same procedure with the impeller outlet width b2.B. Is it constant. If it is noisy. 118 . The pump can be in a test bench with torque meter or with a calibrated motor. Mechanical drag is found Remove the mechanical drag The motor efficiency is lower than specified. Separate motor and pump. Find cause for motor error. Check of test results Table 1: The test shows that the power consumption for a produced pump lies above the catalogue value but the head is the same as the catalogue curve. If the head also matches the curve.5 Listen to the pump. Measure the impeller’s outlet on the 0-series pump. turn off the pump and rotate by hand to identify any friction. it can not be expected that the pump performs according to the catalogue curve. then the diameter on the produced pump is probably too big. Make sure that the right impeller is tested. Scaling of D2 and b2 is discussed in chapter 4. Adjust impeller diameter and outlet width in the production The impeller diameter or outlet width is bigger than on the 0-series Make a scaling of the test where the impeller diameter D2 is reduced until the power matches most of the curve. the motor is the problem.

it can not be expected that the pump performs according to catalogue curve. If the catalogue curve and 0-series test do not correspond. Scaling of D2 and b2 is discussed in chapter 4.6667 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Q [m³/h] Curve 1 Impellere D2/D1: 99/100=0. How to find the error Convert to the same speed and compare again.6667 50 33. Measure the impeller outlet on the 0-series pump.Table 2: The test shows that the power consumption and head lies below the catalogue curve. then the diameter on the produced pump is probably too small. Make a scaling of the test where the impeller diameter D2 is increased until the power matches over most of the curve.5714 22.1429 11. Adjust impeller diameter and outlet width in the production.3333 66.4286 5. If the head also matches over most of the curve.5 Curve 1 Impellere D2/D1: 99/100=0. The impeller’s outlet diameter or outlet width is smaller than on the 0-series test.2857 28. The catalogue curve does not reflect the 0-series test. Compare the 0-series test with the catalogue curve. Repeat the same procedure with the impeller’s outlet width b2. What to examine Find the speed for the catalogue curve and the test.99 Curve 1 Impellere D2/D1: 100/99=1.01010101010101 Curve 1 P1 [kW] 34. Possible cause Curves have been made at different speeds.3333 16.99 Kurve 1 Impellere D2/D1: 100/99=1.8571 17.01010101010101 Curve 1 H[m] 100 83.71429 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Q [m³/h] 119 .

See section 2. Error in the differential pressure measurement. Remove elements which block the inlet. Increased hydraulic friction Compare the QH curves at the same speed. Read the test bed’s calibration report.3) If it has been more than a year since the pump has been calibrated. Examine whether the correct density has been used for calculation of the head.10 and 6. Reduce surface roughness. Examine surface roughness and inlet conditions. Remove irregularities in the surface. Cavitation Increase the system pressure. Use the right pressure transducers. Examine the information about pipe Repeat the calculation of the head. Examine that the pressure transducers can measure in the pressure range in question. 120 . Possible cause The catalogue curve does not reflect the 0-series test. it must be calibrated now. How to find the error If the catalogue curve and 0-series test do not correspond. Is the difference developing as a parabola with the flow. it can not be expected that the pump performs according to the catalogue curve. Examine whether the pressure outlets and the connections to the pressure transducers have been bleed. Calculation of the head is not done correctly. Examine whether there is sufficient pressure at the pump’s inlet.B. there could be an increased friction loss. diameter and the location of the pressure transducers. What to examine Compare O-series test with catalogue curve. Check of test results Table 3: The power consumption is as the catalogue curve but the head is too low.

there could be an increased leak l oss. Leak loss is described in section 5.Table 3 (continued) Possible cause Increased leak loss. Compare the results with the specifications on the drawing. If the curve is a horizontal Close all unwanted circuits. displacement which decreases when the head (the pressure difference above the gap) falls. Examine the pump for other types of leak loss. curves.3.7. 0-series Pump with leakage H [m ] 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Q [m ^3/h] 0-series Pump with leakage H [m ] 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 500 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Q [m ^3/h] 121 . What to examine How to find the error Compare QH curves and power Replace the impeller seal. Measure the sealing diameter on the rotating and fixed part.

Treviso. design and application”. September 18-20. Berlin. 2nd edition. 2nd edition. R&T. edition. Ludwig. Berlin. Springer Verlag. H. Anlagenplanung und Betrieb”. Pumpeståbi (2000). Fox and A. 3rd edition. J. John Wiley & Sons.og klimateknik. R. Motor compendium. edition. 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Motor Driven Systems. C. 122 . ”Design Factors Affecting Pump Efficiency”. John Wiley & Sons. ”Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques”. Pfleiderer and H. A. Gulich (2004). Meschkat and B. Grundfos.Bibliography European Association of Pump Manufacturers (1999). Stoffel (2002). Springer Verlag. Albrecht and others (2002). 1st edition. Handbuch für Entwicklung. McDonald (1998). G. Department of Motor Engineering. 5. Varme. ”Centrifugal and axial flow pumps: theory. Petermann (1990). 2nd edition. Italy. Ingeniøren A/S. Hansen and others (1997). ”Introduction to Fluid Mechanics”. ”Danvak. ”Strömungsmachinen”. ”Kreiselpumpen. H. ”NPSH for rotordynamic pumps: a reference guide”. 6. Springer Verlag. Grundbog”. S. Stepanoff (1957).

The standard deals with hydraulic tests and contains instructions of data treatment and making of test equipment. Grundfos standards for contruction and rebuilding of test benches and data loggers. ISO2548 has been replaced by ISO9906 ISO3555 has been replaced by ISO9906 ISO 5198 Pumps – Centrifugal-.Standards ISO 9906 Rotodynamic pumps – Hydraulic performance acceptance testGrades 1 and 2. mixed flow – and axial pumps – Hydraulic function test – Precision class GS 241A0540 Test benches and test equipment. 123 .

.................. 91 Double pump ............................ 90 Blade shape ............32 Dynamic pressure difference ...........60 B Balancing holes .........................87 ................................... 86 Cross section shape .................27 D Data sheet .....................................................................................................33 Diffusor ........ 35 Differential pressure sensor .................................................................................................. 62 Angular velocity ................................. 17 Dynamic pressure .........................................................................33...........................................................................................12 Chamber ...........................................37 Best point ..................................................................... 20 Barometric pressure ......................... 64................................................................................................ 83 Cutting system .................................................................44...73...........................87 Cross section expansion................................................................................... 85 Cross section contraction .... 105 124 Cavity .....................................................................................................54 Contraction ............................................................................................................................. 16 Axial thrust ................................................................................ 61 Absolute pressure ......................................................................................................................................80 Bernoulli’s equation ..............................12 Centrifugal pump principle ..........................................................................................................................................35 E Eddies .......................33 Absolute pressure sensor .................................................................................... 20 Axial thrust reduction....... 40.................................60 Affinity ...................................................................................................................23 Circulation pumps ................................... 20 Axial forces ..................................53.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 25 Closed system ............................................................................................Index A Absolute flow angle .........................................................................................................................................................................................33 Absolute velocity ........................................ 19 Centrifugal force .................................................................................................................98 Differential pressure ......................................................................................................................................................... 108 Angular frequency ..................................................... 108 Detail measurements .................................................................... 50 Double suction pump ....... 50 Axial bearing .. 108 Density ............................................................................................................ 24............................... 104 Affinity laws ............................................................................. 30 Degasification .....................................................................................21..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Axial velocity ............................ 86 Auxiliary pump .... 70 Affinity equations .. 110 Axial impeller .............................. 86 Disc friction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 104 Annual energy consumption ............................................................................................................................................................................................19............................................33 Absolute temperature ................................52 C Cavitation .........................14 Down thrust .... 109 Bearing losses ...........................................66 Bypass regulation ....................... 68 Air content .................................................................................................................................................. 39 Blade angle ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Control volume ........................................................................... 49 Constant-pressure control ........................................................................................................ 64 Corrosion .................................87 Control .................................................................................................................................... 44 Dryrunner pump .............................. 56 Area relation ........................ 34....

...............................................................................................60 meterWaterColumn...................................... 70 Impeller shape ..................................................................19.............................. 35................... 102 Head loss calculation .............................................................................................................................................37 Impact losses.................................................................... 73...............................................................................14..................................................................23 H Head ........................................................................................................................ 16 Impeller outlet heigth.....................................................64....................14 L Laminar flow ........................ 104 End-suction pump ........... 24 Inlet ..... 83 Leakage .............................................................................................................................................................49.............................. 80 Hydraulic power .................. 86 Momentum equation ............................. 34............................................................................................54 Loss distribution ............................................................................ 64 Euler’s turbomachinery equation...............57 Energy equation...............................................................................................................................17 Electrical power .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................37 Energy labeling ............................................................................ 81 G Geodetic pressure difference .....................................................................................................................................................................78 Low specific speed pumps .........................................................................................................14 Energy class ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 95 Loss types........99 Measuring holes ...............81 Flow meters ...................................................................................................................................................60 Meridional velocity .........................................................................................................................................57 Energy efficiency index (EEI) ...................................................................................................... 56 Equilibrium equations ..........................................................15..............................15 Impeller blades ........................... 62 Inlet flange.............................................. 90 Flow forces ..................................74 M Magnetic bearing.... 36 Grinder pump ............................... 34 Force measurements ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................74 Hydraulic diameter ...........................14 Inline-pump ........................... 61.......................... 101 Mechanical losses ..............................................78 Meridional cut .............................................................................99 Flow angle ..................................................................31......................... 100..........18 Maintenance test..............................Efficiency ....... 92 Leakage loss ...................................................... 19 Friction coefficient .................................................................................................................................. 82 Friction loss ......90 Impeller .... 92 Load profile............................................................................ 64 Flow friction ............... 82 Hydraulic losses ......................... 39 Electrical motor . 85 High specific speed pumps .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 38 I Ideal flow .................78...................................................................................................................................................................................................................75 Industrial pumps ........................... 65 F Final inspection test .................................................27 Guide vanes ............. 110 Friction...................................................................... 34 Mixing losses ........................................................................................................ 64 125 .....................................................100 Fluid column ...................................................................................... 110 Magnetic drive ..................

........... 56 126 ...................40 NPSHR (Required) ................................................................32 Pressure loss coefficient ............. 104 Power curves .................. 84 Motor ..............................................................................33 Relative speed .................................89 Reference curve ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 79 Pump performance ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Radial velocity ................................ 105..................................... 34 R Radial forces ...........................................................................................51 Relative flow angle ............................... 102 Pressure transducer...................................................................98 N Non-return valve ................................................................................................................................ 44....................................................................................................................................41 O Open impeller ................................................................................. 50 Pumps in series ...........................................60 Representative power consumption .............................................. 53 Regulation of pumps ..................................................................... 70 Outlet diffusor........................................................................................................ 104 Outlet ........................... 49 Optical counter .. 51 Q QH-curve ............................. 110 Radial impeller ...................................................................................... 24 Pumps in parallel............................................................................ 39 Pump losses ...................................................... 101 Primary eddy ..................................................................... 49 Operating point............................................. 91 Primary flow ................98 Pressure sensor.............. 19 Proportional-pressure control........................................................ 105 Reference plane........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 105 NPSHA (Available).......................................................................51 NPSH ............................................................................................................ 22............................................. 38 Prerotation.................................14 P Parasitic losses ...........................................................................................................................................................................Index Moody chart ....... 100.............................................................................................. 100............................ 16 Open system.....................................................................................................................17 Motor characteristics .................................................54 Pump curve............................................................................60 Recirculation losses ...................................60 Relative velocity ..................................................................................................... 40................ 61 Relative pressure ..........................................33 Pressure taps ........................................................................................ 36..................80 Pipe diameter.......................................................................31................................................................. 82 Pipe friction losses................................................................22 Outlet flange ...........................51 Pumps in series ................................................................................................................... 72 Pressure .................................................................................. 88 Pressure measurement ...............................................................................31 Pump efficiency ................... 48.............................37 Power consumption .................................................................. 109 NPSH3%-test ...........89 Recirculation zones......................................................81.......................................................................................... 102 Potential energy........................................................................................................... 108 Regulering af omdrejningstal . 63 Outlet diameter ...51............................. 62.................... 30 Pumps for pressure boosting............................ 31................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Pipe friction .............................................

.................................. 38 Standby pump .............................................................22 Rotational speed........18 Secondary eddy ...........................80 Single channel pumpe .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................51.................................................................................... 27 Slip factor.....98 Velocity profile .................................................................................. 64 Torque meter ...................................................81...........51...................................................................................................35 Submersible pump ........................................................................................... 53 Stage ...................................................................... 53 Static pressure...............................................................................................100 127 ..................................................................................................25 Semi axial impeller .........32 Static pressure difference ...................23 Reynolds’ number...........................52 Tongue.......51................................................................................................................. 16 Separation......................40 Vapour pressure.......................................... 83 Turbulent flow ........................................................................................................22 Torque ................................................................................................... 91 Secondary flow ....................................................18 Roughness.................................................................... 107 T Tangential velocity.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................87 Sewage pumps .........................................................................................................80 Shaft power............................................................................................................112 Test results ............................................................................ 49 System pressure..........................................14 Suction pipe ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Rotor can ....................................................Return channel ............................................................................................................................. 85 S Seal ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Shaft bearing lossses .............................................................22 Throttle regulation ........................................................................................................................................................ 50 Start/stop regulation .................................................................21 Velocity measurements........... 82.......................................................... 52 Throttle valve ...................... 83 Ring area .................................................................. 101 Test bed uncertainty ..........................................................................................................................................................................................98 Test uncertainty ......................................................... 111 Throat ...........................................................................40 Surface roughness ........................................................................... 84 U Up-thrust ............................... 74................................................. 39 Total pressure ..................................................................... 95 Speed control ...................................................................................................................... 62 Ring diffusor ..................................... 64 Torque balance ..................................................60 Temperature......35 Transition zone ................. 16.................................................................................................................. 40............................................................................................................ 117 Test types........................ 104 Shaft seal .............................................................................................................................................. 44 V Vapour bubbles ..............23 Standard fluid ...................................................32 Total pressure difference .......................................83................................................................................................................................... 104 Total efficiency .............. 91 System characteristics ....................... 19 Self-priming ................................... 108 Velocity diffusion ....................................17 Shaft seal loss ...........................................73 Specific number ...................

.............................................................................................Index Velocity triangles ............................................................................................21 Vortex pump ........................... 16 W Water quality ........................................... 75 Volute .......................................... 108 Water supply pumps ..........22 Volute casing ..............................................................................................................................17 128 ....................60...................................................... 24 Wetrunner pump ..............................................................................................................

{loss type} NPSH NPSHA NPSHR. Hdyn.{loss type} SPEED w f n VELOCITIES V U C W Definition Power Power added from the electricity supply network Power added from motor Hydraulic power transferred to the fluid Power loss in {loss type} Unit [W] [W] [W] [W] [W] Angular frequency Frequency Speed [1/s] [Hz] [1/min] [m] [m] The fluid velocity The impeller tangential velocity The fluid absolute velocity The fluid relative velocity [m/s] [m/s] [m/s] [m/s] GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONS A Cross-section area b Blade height b Blade angle b’ Flow angle s Gap width D. d Diameter Hydraulic diameter Dh k Roughness L Length (gap length.in pgeo ptot pstat.in pstat.rel Qoperation Ploss. into the component At outlet.List of Symbols Symbol FLOW Q Qdesign Qimpeller Qleak m HEAD H Hloss. Pressure loss in {loss type} Hydraulic efficiency Control efficiency Motor efficency Total efficiency for control. motor and hydraulics [m2] [m] [o] [o] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [Pa] [Pa] [Pa] [Pa] SPECIFIC NUMBERS Re Reynold’s number Specific speed nq FLUID CHARACTERISTICS r The fluid density n Kinematic viscosity of the fluid [-] [kg/m3] [m2/s] MISCELLANEOUS f Coefficient of friction [-] g Gravitational acceleration [m/s2] z Dimensionless pressure loss coefficient [-] General indices Index 1.abs. ptot. volume flow Design flow Flow through the impeller Leak flow Mass flow Unit [m3/s] [m3/s] [m3/s] [m3/s] [kg/s] Symbol POWER P P1 P2 Phyd Ploss. out of the component Meridional direction Radial direction Tangential direction Axial direction Static Dynamic Geodetic Total Absolute Relative Operation point Examples A1.abs. length of pipe) O Perimeter r Radius z Height Dz Difference in height PRESSURE p ∆p psteam pbar pbeho Pressure Differential pressure The fluid vapour pressure Barometric pressure Positive or negative pressure compared to pbar if the fluid is in a closed container. Cout Cm Wr C1U Ca pstat pdyn.{loss type} EFFICIENCIES hhyd hcontrol hmotor htot [Pa] [Pa] [-] [-] [-] [-] . NPSH3% Head Head loss in {loss type} Net Positive Suction Head NPSH Available (Net Positive Suction Head available in system) NPSH Required (The pump’s net positive suction head system demands) [m] [m] [m] Definition Flow. in 2. out m r U a stat dyn geo tot abs rel Operation Definition At inlet. Cin A2.

7 926.8 971.246 0.212 0.75997 6.2 950.1 995.70109 1.8 943.0 934.268 0.326 0.98543 2.3 988.0 999.4 n [10-6 m2/s] 1.199 0.568 1.03166 0.004 0.294 0.188 Affinity rules n   QB = Q A⋅  B    nA   2  nB   Scaling of HB = HA⋅    nA   rotational speed 3  nB   PB = PA ⋅     nA       Geometric   scaling  4  D ⋅b   PB = PA ⋅  B4 B    D ⋅b    A A   D 2 ⋅b  Q B = Q A⋅  B2 B   D ⋅b  A A 2  DB  HB = HA ⋅    DA  Pictograms Pump Valve Stop valve Pressure gauge Heat exchanger .02337 0.413 0.307 1.2 958.01227 0.07375 0.00611 0.2 977.19920 0.61379 4.18065 r [kg/m3] 1000.00813 0.2 997.43266 1.12335 0.7 998.228 0.7 992.9 907.31162 0.47360 0.0 916.893 0.658 0.554 0.7 965.365 0.792 1.475 0.70132 3.Physical properties for water T [°C] 0 4 10 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 pvapour [105 Pa] 0.801 0.0 1000.1 983.04241 0.01325 1.

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