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Dr Christos Braziotis Christos.Braziotis@nottingham.ac.uk
“Centre for Quality in the Global Supply Chain”
Introduction to: Implementation of Quality Improvement Continuous PDCA Prerequisites and mechanisms of CI Improvement teams 7 Basis Quality Tools 6-sigma and DMAIC
Breakthrough vs Continuous Improvement?
Breakthrough Improvement (or Innovation): (or “innovation”-based improvement) assumes that the main vehicle of improvement is major and dramatic change in the way the operation works 3examples: the introduction of a new/efficinet machine, the total redesign of a computer-based system. 3criticism: such major improvements are, in practice, difficult to realise quickly and impossible to realise instantly. Continuous Improvement (CI): “3 n organisation-wide process of focused and sustained incremental a innovation3 ” Bessant & Francis (1999) Some outcome criteria identified : cost reduction, flexibility, reduced cycle time, inter-firm relations etc. accomplish, NUBS Most, if not all, definitions of CI specify what CI activities seek to rather than the means to achieve and sustain it C Braziotis
CI = Incremental + Breakthrough + Maintain
Continuous Improvement = (Incremental Improvement + Radical/ Breakthrough Improvement) + Maintain
Increment al Improvement Maintain Performance
Improving steps (PDCA, etc)
Breakthrough Improvement (DMAIC, etc.)
Declined performance without maintenance Time
look for ways to make things happen ♦ Say "NO" to the status quo ♦ Don't worry about being perfect .get to the root cause ♦ Look for wisdom from ten people rather than one ♦ Never stop doing KAIZEN! NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 3 . Act Check c.The PDCA cycle All the Actions necessary for the Improvement take place to close the gap between plans and actual effects Comparison of the Actual Performance with the Objectives and Standards d.even if you only get it half right "start NOW!" ♦ It does not cost money to do KAIZEN ♦ If something is wrong "Fix it NOW” ♦ Good ideas flow when the going gets tough ♦ Ask "WHY" five times . Establish Performance Objectives & Standards Measure the Actual Performance NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 10 KAIZEN Sayings ♦ Get rid of all old assumptions ♦ Don't look for excuses. a. Plan Do b.
voluntarily .to recommend solutions to management People are asked to join and not told to do so. NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 Comparative CI approach for Competitive Advantage High Level of Commitment on CI Low Low High Competitor’s Level of Commitment on CI NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 4 . and work is being carried out using brainstorming and the 7 basic tools.in normal working time .Quality Circles or Kaizen Teams Kaizen: a Japanese philosophy of CI of all the employees in an organisation so that they perform their tasks a little better each day (a never-ending journey) ● Emphasis on encouraging everyone to make improvements The Quality Circle is a group of workers doing similar work who meet: .to identify.regularly . analyse & solve work-related problems .under the leadership of their “supervisor” .
Team dynamics (creativity/idea generation) .Team meetings (clear agenda) . skills & experience who are brought together specifically by management to improve processes and/or tackle & solve a particular problem.Team objectives (clearly stated) . and Prudence of Resources (Time and Money) ) No Empowerment (Employee Commitment) Are the Prerequisites in Place? Yes ? Training Team Working NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 Process & Quality Improvement Teams Groups of people with the appropriate knowledge.Team selection & leadership (5-10 members) . They are cross-functional & often multi-disciplinary. Issues to consider: . and all measurements should be recorded. technology). Recording and analysis (by means of the 7 basic tools ) of data without action leads to frustration NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 .Team results & reviews (results communicated and acted upon) * All processes can and should be measured.The Prerequisites for CI Success Strategy/Targets Obtain Prerequisites Leadership (Top Management Commitment) Support communication channels (incl.Team assignments (meetings alone do not solve problems) .
Start check 3. 1997) Process: A series of activities that takes an input.. and produces an output (application of skills adding value to an input) ● Is the process capable of meeting the requirements? [ = process capability] ● Is it meeting the requirements at any point in time? [ = process control] ● When it is not meeting the requirements. maintain control over what has to change. adds value to it.000 miles since Yes oil change? Drain old oil Remove old oil filter Install new filter Pour new oil No Is Yes Start engine & crankcase circulate oil full? Done NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 .part I What is to be measured and improved? Decision step Stop No Process step A schema that helps understand every aspect of every input and output Helps document. which are underlying the things which need to be improved.Improving the Process “continuous improvement only makes sense if an organisation knows what is going on in relation to the processes. understand and analyse the process. how do we correct or adjust the process or its inputs? [ = process adjustment] ● Who is responsible (and has the power to change) the process? Input Activities Output NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 Process Mapping .” (van der Weile et al. and reduce variations as they arise over time.
handoffs.. presenting and analysing (interpreting) most of its data • Pareto Chart • Cause and Effect Diagram • Stratification • Check Sheet (Tally Chart) • Histogram • Scatter Diagram • Graph and Control chart * Designed for use by all the workforce NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 As one tool? As two tools? 7 . Transport NUBS Data Document C Braziotis Storage Inspection 2011-201 2 The Original 7 Quality Tools A set of tools that offer the organisation means of collecting. and controls or inspections.etc. movements. delays.Process Mapping . “How do we know we are doing it right?” Additional icons: .operations.part II Create a Map of a Process: ◗ List every step and every input and output Consult with people close to the process. decision points. Break it down into all of its components .. ask two questions “Why do we do it?”. ◗ Identify every factor as value-added or non-value-added What activities are essential to transforming inputs into outputs to meet customer requirements? What activities are not essential? ◗ For every step. rework loops.
It shows the relationship between a quality characteristic (effect) and the factors which potentially affect the characteristics (root causes) in processes.The 7 Management & Planning Tools .part I A cause-and-effect analysis is a way of identifying the possible causes affecting a problem and of recording these visually.Provide systems & documentation methods used to achieve success in design by identifying objectives and intermediate steps . People Staff shortage Training Poor Machines Computers Measurement Database not current communication No communication of back orders No verification procedure Borrow from other kits 2nd-lvl sub-cause Stock purge Lost parts 1st-lvl Effect: Shortage of Parts sub-causes Methods Materials Potential root cause NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 .To supplement and complement the previous tools • Affinity Diagrams • Interrelationship Diagraphs • Systematic Diagrams • Matrix Diagrams • Matrix Data Analysis or Glyphs • Process Decision Programme Charts • Arrow Diagrams * More complex and may not be suitable for all the workforce NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 Cause and effect (fishbone) diagram .
■ Provides a team with a systematic method of communicating with each other about a problem or situation that needs to be improved. development of Pareto Diagram. e. thereby increasing the likelihood that they won’t ignore the real causes. or to identify trends NUBS Defective Item Product: Inspector: Date: TYPE OF DEFECT Cracks Surface Scars Wrong Part No.part II Create a Cause & Effect Diagram: ◗ Define the quality problem ◗ Brainstorm all the possible causes in a team situation ◗ “Asking why 5 times” is a good technique ◗ Show each problem cause as a branch on the diagram ◗ Focus on the problem causes and PLAN the improvements needed ■ Provides a team with a way of modelling a problem situation and understanding the process being investigated.part I Logical point to start in most process control or problem-solving efforts.Cause and effect (fishbone) diagram . ■ Encourages the team to identify all possible causes. distinguishing between the problem and its possible causes.g. NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 Check Sheet (Tally chart) . providing records of quality ■ Distinguish between fact and opinion ■ Gather data about how often a problem is occurring ■ Gather data about the type of problem occurring ■ Organise data in a form which makes it easy to use for other purpose. Poor Paint Other Defects CHECK ✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓✓✓✓✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓✓ ✓✓✓✓✓✓✓✓✓✓ ✓✓ TOTAL 5 ✓ 9 3 ✓ ✓12 2 31 1 GRAND TOTAL: C Braziotis 2011-2012 9 .
“Why should data be collected?”.Determine the specific things to be measured and write this down the left side of the check sheet. ◗ Collect the data for the items being measured Record each occurrence directly on the Check Sheet as it happens.part II Create a Check Sheet: ◗ Clarify the measurement objectives Ask questions such as “What is the problem?”. Zone B: This zone contains the next 30% of rejects. NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 Pareto Diagram . NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 10 . which account for about 15% of the costs.part I 80% of rejections are caused by 20% of defect types ◗ 20% of items have 80% of effect (80:20 rule) ◗ Vital Few versus the Trivial Many ◗ Focus on the Vital few for best impact on the problem Zone A: This is the top priority zone and in most cases it is found that about 20% of the rejects account for about 80% of the costs. Zone C: This is the zone with the remaining 50% of rejects accounting for the remaining 5% of the costs. . ◗ Tally the data by totalling the number of occurrences for each category being measured.Check Sheet (Tally chart) . “Who will collect the data?” ◗ Create a form for collecting data . “Who will use the information being collected?”.Determine the time or place being measured and write this across the top of the columns.
Quick results build team confidence.56 7. if it differs fromfrequency table data from a what might be expected. ◗ They can help assess whether a process is likely to be able to produce within the required limits.85 92.part I A graphic used to represent data from a frequency table ◗ They consist a visual representation of a set of data which can help identify the type of distribution which underlies that data.49 2.06 99.20 98.part II Own Classification Missing Component Quantity 7828 5071 5048 4156 4101 4003 3166 3037 2862 2719 2393 1821 1813 1367 1358 722 660 648 647 492 274 260 227 165 123 54961 Percentage 14.00 ■ Simplifies & clarifies team’s understanding of the process to improve by focusing on the areas of most importance.31 3.Pareto Diagram .22 100 Cum-% 14. ■ Enables comparisons between different processes. A graphic used to represent ◗ Their shape can highlight problems in a process. • They consist a visual Indicates that a process is running normally (only common causes are present) most frequent measurement representation of a set of bell-shaped curve data which can help identify the type of distribution which underlies that data.47 1.25 71.59 99.23 9.68 54.45 76.48 99.84 96.33 93.72 66.65 40.41 0.96 60.24 9.47 0.40 80.37 89.50 0.21 4.02 97. Bad Component Misaligned/Reversed Component Raised/Tombstoned Component Damaged Component Short Circuit Insufficient Solder Other Wrong Component No Fault Found Bareboard Component Lifted Leg Component Leg Bent Under Additional Component Unsoldered Joint Repair Damage Contamination Excess Solder Solder Balls/Splashes Dry Joint Scrap Metalwork Awaiting Diagnostics Debris Open Circuit TOTAL NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 Histogram .78 100.20 1.00 100.64 94.76 84. • NUBS C Braziotis They can help assess whether a process is likely Spread of the Process to be able to produce 2011-2012 within the required limits.95 4.76 5.90 0.46 7. .22 47.30 2.31 1.35 3.24 23. • Their shape can highlight problems in a process.18 0. if it differs from what might be expected.28 5.47 32.07 87. ■ It is easier to reduce the most frequently occurring problem by half than to reduce a rare occurrence to zero.09 98.18 1.53 5.30 0.18 7.
part III Two peaks “bimodal” Deviations from a normal distribution in a histogram suggest the involvement of additional influences in the process.Why? .part II The process is not capable of meeting the specifications. More variation in one direction: .g.How can it be reduced? NUBS C Braziotis Indicates human interference (e. May indicate that data from more than one process are mixed together (materials may come from two separate suppliers or samples may have come from two separate machines) NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 12 .Histogram . falsifying records. previous reworks selection ) 2011-2012 Histogram .
correlation exists between the parameters (pattern) Maximum Thickness Results: Trent 500 P Press Die Can you split up the data? Is it naturally stratified? What is the cause? NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 Scatter Diagram and Stratification .part I Used to establish the association.Something is different about Machine C Time Intervals between Maintenance Considering all data... NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 Considering all data.part II Separate data so that patterns can be identified. between two parameters or factors (based on a simple X-Y plot) It reveals whether or not a positive or negative.Scatter Diagram and Stratification .. initially it seems there is no clear relationship.. initially it seems there is no clear relationship … 13 . if any. strong or weak. Performance/Productivity Machine A Machine B Machine C .
Run and Control Chart .g. length. u charts: rate of non-conformities per item (number inspected). 2011-201 2 Graph and Control Chart . It identifies statistically significant variation in the process so that action can be taken. weight.part I A control chart is a visual representation of process performance based on data collected from the process. time.g.part II No indication of out of control condition is observed from the X bar chart The R chart indicates the process variability is in control A point out of the control limits indicates a process out of control NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 14 . R charts: developed from the ranges of each subgroup data = max . NUBS C Braziotis c charts: number of non-conformities per constant sample size]. Two types of data: Variable data: measured on a continuous scale e. Attribute data: measured in terms of whether or not a characteristic does or does not meet a given requirement e. pass/fail. It monitors an ongoing process and detects changes in output. conforming/non-conforming [p charts: proportion of nonconformities (%).min]. temperature [X charts: developed from the average of each subgroup data.
e.“What causes the problems?” Pareto Chart to quantify the effects of the causes: Identify the factors that together have the greatest effect. i.“How often is something done?” Cause & Effect Diagram to identify causes & solutions: A systematic way to explore causal relationships . negative correlation. “which one” & “why” to use. or no correlation .“Which are the big problems?” Histogram to go beyond averages: Look for patterns that tell you about the process . it is important to understand “when”. if there is process variation (beyond UCL/LCL) . NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 When to apply the 7 Basic Tools Check Sheet to identify the critical-to-quality characteristics: Identify the defects that most significantly affect what matters most to the customer .“Which variations to control and how?” NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 15 .Quality Tools Application 1st Step: Map the Process! Always remember that regarding Quality Control Tools.“What are the relationships between factors?” Run & Control Charts: Identify if a process is operating in control. so you can focus on the most important . “how”.“What do overall variations look like?” Scatter Diagrams & Stratification to identify cause & effect relationships: Identify positive correlation.
. GE saved $4. documenting more than $16 billion in savings in 15 years..part I NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 Six-Sigma: Introduction ..9997%).Six-Sigma: Introduction .4 defects per one million opportunities: products & services are nearly perfect (99. Motorola realised huge bottom-line results as a result of its sixsigma efforts. Eliminating defects eliminates dissatisfaction. .. NUBS C Braziotis 2011-201 2 16 . Operating at six-sigma creates an almost defect-free environment. and Honeywell saved $1.part II The six-sigma story began in the 1980s at Motorola. Allied signal (now Honeywell) saved $500 million in one year.4 billion in four years. allowing only 3.8 billion in three years.and other companies have achieved impressive savings.
Which process has more variation? . 1σ . if a critical characteristic is defective 31% of the time (or runs at 69% compliance).019 e.807 6.0000019% Defects per million 691.g.62% 0. evaluate & select best solutions. communication plan.7% 0.Which process is more capable? NUBS C Braziotis 6σ 2011-2012 Six-Sigma DMAIC Define Define & validate the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables: financial benefits.The Sigma Scale A universal measure of how well a critical characteristic performs compared to its requirements Sigma 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Percentage Defective 69% 31% 6. validate measurement system.023% 0.210 233 3. this characteristic operates at 2 sigma. develop data collect plan. determine process capability Analyse & determine the root cause(s) of the defects: confirm root cause effect on outputs and estimate impact.4 0. develop implementation plan Measure Analyse Improve Control Control future process performance: Implement mistake proofing. prioritise root causes Improve the process by eliminating defects: develop potential solutions.462 308.00034% 0. implement process measurement. identify opportunities to apply project lessons C Braziotis 2011-201 2 NUBS . voice of the customer Measure the process to determine current performance: identify inputs/outputs. confirm attainment of goals.538 66.
as well as their inputs and expected outcomes from using them 6-sigma and DMAIC.Tools used in the DMAIC Cycle NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 Concluding Remarks Topics covered: Implementation of Quality Improvement & CI (PDCA) in theory and in practice Prerequisites and mechanisms of CI – How to start with CI. its relation to quality improvement and the expected results NUBS C Braziotis 2011-2012 18 . how to continue with CI Improvement teams. their role and their characteristics 7 Basic Quality Tools – Their role & contribution.
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