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68046378 English Grammar

68046378 English Grammar

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  • GRAMMAR CHANTS

English Grammar 1

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

INTRODUCTION TO CDI

The Career Development Institute was established to achieve the following objectives:

You might have a professional degree ,you might be a good student you might be very

good in the subject knowledge but if you lack communication you will not be able to

communicate your knowledge to the other person henceforth losing out on the future

prospects even if you get through it you would not get the desired package.
Recognizing the importance of English Language Fluency is the success of every career,

CDI has introduced a range of programs to enhance English communication skills for

Individuals. Whether you wish to start learning English as a beginner or whether you are a

student, Executive, House wife, we have the right learning package for you, based on your

level.

CDI teaches English in a very easy way making it as a part of your daily life. The institute

emphasize in teaching British English because it is the most acceptable language over the

world with the use of correct grammar and neutral accent.
CDI offers programs catering to various levels of learners from the basics to the advances

level.

Other career Options - In today’s work culture every carrier option would require an

individual to be good in communication as well as in interpersonal skills no matter how

qualified you are in the respected subject of interest.

Various Job Fields- Information Technology, Management, Retail Industry, Mass

Communication, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, Fashion design, Allied health, Telecom,

Hospitality, Banking and Commerce, Army, Infrastructure, Sales and Marketing, Aviation,

Finance, Legal, Manufacturing and Engineering, Acting and Sports.

English Grammar 2

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Topic Name

Page No

Topic No

1

The Sentence

3 – 9

2

Noun

9 – 14

3

Pronoun

14 – 16

4

Verb

17 – 28

5

Adverb

28 - 33

6

Adjective

33 – 44

7

Conjunction

44 – 46

8

Preposition

46 – 50

9

Articles

51– 55

10

Case

55– 57

11

Clauses

57 – 62

12

Determiners

62 – 63

13

Gerunds

63– 66

14

Direct and Indirect Speech

66 – 70

15

Pluralisation Guide

70 – 71

16

Punctuation Guide

71 – 73

17

Asking Questions

74 – 78

18

Spelling Guide

79 – 80

19

Prefix & Suffix

80 – 83

20

Tenses

83 – 95

21

Grammar Chants

95 - 98

22

English Grammar Summary - Miscellaneous Topics 98 - 145

23

English Grammar 3

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

CHAPTER 1 - THE SENTENCE

Let’s take two Examples –

Sentence No 1 – Ram is a Good Boy.
Sentence No 2 – Boy is good Ram.

Now can you tell which sentence is correct Sentence 1
or Sentence 2?

The answer is Sentence 1 because the group of words
in Sentence 1 in making sense (you can understand)
So a group of words like this, which makes complete
sense (you can understand), is called a Sentence.

A sentence is a group of words which starts with a
capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question
mark (?) or exclamation mark (!). A sentence contains
or implies a predicate and a subject.

KIND OF SENTENCES- Sentences are of 4 kinds

Assertive or Declarative Sentence – Those which
make statements or assertions; as, E.g.: Humpty
Dumpty sat on a wall.
Interrogative Sentences – Those which ask questions;
as, E.g. Where do you live?
Imperative Sentences – A sentence that expresses a
command or an entreaty. E.g. - Be Quite, Stand Up.

Exclamatory Sentence - A sentence that expresses
strong feeling. E.g. howcold the night is!

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

When we make a sentence –
- We name some person or thing and

- Say something about that person or thing
In other words, we must have a subject to speak about
and we must say or predicate something about that
subject.
Hence every sentence has 2 parts –

Sentence–Lucknowis a Beautiful city.

SUBJECT PREDICATE

PARTS OF SPEECH

Let’s take an example –

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Red
Green
Yellow
Blue
Pen
Violet
Purple

Apple
Mango
Banana
Orange
Spinach
Grapes
Guava

January
April
July
September
December
Monday
June

Now can you tell which is the odd word in these
groups?

Assertive or
Declarative
Sentence
- They
make statements

Imperative
Sentences -

Expresses a
command

Interrogative
Sentences -

Ask Questions

Exclamatory
Sentence -

Expresses strong
Feeling

• The part which names
a person or thing

Subject

• The part which tells
something about the
subject

Predicate

English Grammar 4

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Group 1– Colors - Pen
Group 2- Fruits - Spinach
Group 3 - Months - Monday

By this example we can observe that everything has its
own category and if something comes in between we
come to know about it.

Similarly English Grammar has 8 categories of
speeches which are also called as Parts of Speech. Let’s
learn them.

There are 8 parts of Speech -

1. Noun
2. Verb
3. Pronoun
4. Adjective
5. Adverb
6. Conjunction
7. Interjection
8. Articles

Sentences contain clauses.

Simple sentences have one clause.

Compound sentences and complex sentences have two
or more clauses.

Sentences can contain subjects and objects.

The subject in a sentence is generally the person or
thing carrying out an action. The object in a sentence is
involved in an action but does not carry it out; the
object comes after the verb.

For example:

The boy climbed a tree.

If you want to say more about the subject (the boy) or
the object (the tree), you can add an adjective.

For example:

The young boy climbed a tall tree.

If you want to say more about how he climbed the tree
you can use an adverb.

For example:

The young boy quickly climbed a tall tree.

The sentence becomes more interesting as it gives the
reader or listener more information.

There are more things you can add to enrich your
sentence.

Parts of a sentence

Description

Adjective

Describes things or people.

Adverb

Alters the meaning of the verb slightly

Article

a, an - indefinite articles
the - definite articles

Conjunction

Joins words or sentences together

Interjection

A short word showing emotion or
feeling

Noun

Names things

Preposition

Relates one thing to another

Pronoun

used instead of a noun to avoid
repetition

Proper noun
(subject)

The actual names of people or places
etc.

Verb

Action or doing word

WHAT MAKES A COMPLETE SENTENCE?

If it helps you, think about a sentence as if it were a
skeleton, the skeleton contains various bones and these
bones are put together to form different parts of the
body. So are sentences formed by words, the words
are the bones and they are put together in different
ways to form sentences.

English Grammar 5

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

SIMPLE SENTENCES

A simple sentence contains a single subject and
predicate. It describes only one thing, idea or question,
and has only one verb - it contains only an
independent (main) clause.

Any independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.
It has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete
thought.

For example:

Jill reads.

Even the addition of adjectives, adverbs, and
prepositional phrases to a simple sentence does not
change it into a complex sentence.

For example:

The brown dog with the red collar always barks
loudly.

Even if you join several nouns with a conjunction, or
several verbs with a conjunction, it remains a simple
sentence.

For example:

The dog barked and growled loudly.

COMPOUND SENTENCES

Compound sentences are made up of two or more
simple sentences combined using a conjunction such
as and, ororbut. They are made up of more than one
independent clause joined together with a co-
ordinating conjunction.

For example:

"The sun was setting in the west and the moon was
just rising."

Each clause can stand alone as a sentence.

For example:

"The sun was setting in the west. The moon was just
rising."

Every clause is like a sentence with a subject and a
verb. A coordinating conjunction goes in the middle of
the sentence, it is the word that joins the two clauses
together, the most common are (and, or, but)

For example:

I walked to the shops, but my husband drove.
I might watch the film, or I might visit my friends.
My friend enjoyed the film, but she didn't like the
actor.

COMPLEX SENTENCES

Complex sentences describe more than one thing or
idea and have more than one verb in them. They are
made up of more than one clause, an independent
clause (that can stand by itself) and a dependent
(subordinate) clause (which cannot stand by itself).

For example:

"My mother likes dogs that don't bark."

Dependent clauses can be nominal, adverbial or
adjectival.

THE ANATOMY OF A SENTENCE

THE VERB

The verb is the fundamental part of the sentence. The
rest of the sentence, with the exception of the subject,
depends very much on the verb. It is important to
have a good knowledge of the forms used after each
verb (verb patterns), for example: to tell [someone] TO
DO [something]

Here we can see that the verb to tell is followed
immediately by a person (the indirect object, explained
later), an infinitive with 'to', and, possibly, an object for
the verb you substitute for DO.

Verbs also show a state of being. Such verbs, called BE
VERBS or LINKING VERBS, include words such as:
am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being, became, seem,

English Grammar 6

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

appear, and sometimes verbs of the senses like tastes,
feels, looks, hears, and smells.

For example:

"Beer and wine are my favourite drinks." The verb
"are" is a linking (be) verb.

Fortunately, there are only a limited number of
different verb patterns. Verbs can descibe the action
(something the subject actually does) or state
(something that is true of the subject) of the subject.

For example:

ACTION: I play football twice a week.
STATE: I've got a car.

Some verbs can represent both actions and states,
depending on the context.

For example work:

ACTION: David's working in the bank.
STATE: David works in a bank.

FINDING THE VERB

When you analyze a sentence, first identify the verb.
The verb names and asserts the action or state of the
sentence.

For example:

"Working at the computer all day made David's
head ache."

The main verb of the sentence is "made", not working.

Verbs identify our activity or state.

For example:

eat, sleep, run, jump, study, think, digest, shout,
walk ....

THE SUBJECT

The subject is the person or thing the sentence is
'about'. Often (but not always) it will be the first part

of the sentence. The subject will usually be a noun
phrase (a noun and the words, such as adjectives, that
modify it) followed by a verb.

FINDING THE SUBJECT

Once you determine the verb, ask a wh...?Question of
the verb. This will locate the subject(s).

For example:

David works hard.

o Who "works hard"?=David does=the
subject.
Beer and wine are my favorite drinks.
o What "are my favorite drinks"? Beer and
wine are=the subjects.

The subject(s) of a sentence will answer the questions,
"who or what."

THE PREDICATE

Once you have identified the subject, the remainder of
the sentence tells us what the subject does or did. This
part of the sentence is the predicate of the sentence.

The predicate always includes the verb and the words
which come after the verb. For example:

Michael Schumaker drove the race car.
o "Michael Schumaker" is the subject; "drove
SHORT FORMS IN ENGLISH

THE LONG AND THE SHORT OF IT

Verb conjugation and contraction - in other words;
"The short form".

In English we use the short form a lot. We say things
like: I'm / you're / didn't etc. instead of I am / you are /
did not etc.

We also use these short forms in informal written
English. When we write in the short form, we use an
apostrophe (') for the missing letter(s).

English Grammar 7

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Forms of the auxiliary verbs to be, to do and to have:-

To be - Simple Present Form
Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short form Long form

Short form

I am

I'm

I am not I'm not

He is

He's

He is not He isn't or He's not

She is

She's

She is not She isn't or She's not

It is

It's

It is not

It isn't or It's not

You are You're

You are not You aren't or You're
not

We are We're

We are not We aren't or We're not

They are They're

They are not They're not

To be - Simple Past Form
Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short form Long form

Short form

I was

---

I was not

I wasn't

He was

He was not

He wasn't

She was

She was not

She wasn't

It was

It was not

It wasn't

You were

You were not You weren't

We were

We were not We weren't

They were

They were not They weren't

To do - Simple Present Form
Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short form Long form Short form

I do

---

I do not

I don't

He does

He does not He doesn't

She does

She does not She doesn't

It does

It does not It doesn't

You do

You do not You don't

We do

We do not We don't

They do

They do not They don't

To do - Simple Past Form
Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short
form

Long form

Short form

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

did

--- I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

did not

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

didn't

To have - Simple Present Form

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long
form Short form Long form

Short form

I have I've

I have not I haven't or I've not

He has He's

He has not He hasn't or He's not

She has She's

She has not She hasn't or She's not

It has

It's

It has not It hasn't or It's not

You have You've

You have
not

You haven't or You've
not

We have We've

We have not We haven't or We've
not

They
have

They've They have
not

They haven't or They've
not

To have - Simple Past Form
Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form

Short
form

Long form

Short form

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

had

I'd
he'd
she'd

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

had not

I hadn't or I'd
not
he hadn't

English Grammar 8

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

it'd
you'd
we'd
they'd

orhe'd not
she hadn't or
she'd not
it hadn't or
it'd not
you hadn't
oryou'd not
we hadn't or
we'd not
they hadn't or
they'd not

The long and short forms of the modal verbs can, could,
shall, should, must, will and would

CAN

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short
form

Long form

Short form

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

can

--- I / he / she/ it / you
/ we / they cannot

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

can't

COULD

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short
form

Long form

Short form

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

could

--- I / he / she/ it / you
/ we / they could
not

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

couldn't

MUST

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short

form Long form

Short form

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

must

--- I / he / she/ it /
you / we / they

must not

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

mustn't

SHALL

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short
form

Long form

Short form

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

shall

--- I / he / she/ it / you
/ we / they shall
not

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

shan't

SHOULD

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form Short
form

Long form

Short form

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

should

--- I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

should not

I / he / she / it
/ you / we /
they shouldn't

WILL

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form

Short
form Long form

Short form

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

will

I'll
He'll
She'll
It'll
You'll
We'll
They'll

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

will not

I won't or I'll
not
He won't or
He'll not
She won't or
She'll not
It won't or It'll
not
You won't or
You'll not
We won't or
We'll not
They won't or
They'll not

WOULD

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Long form

Short
form Long form Short form

I / he / she / it / you /
we / they would

I'd
He'd
She'd
It'd*
You'd

I / he / she / it /
you / we / they

would not

I wouldn't
or I'd not
He wouldn't
or He'd not
She

English Grammar 9

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We'd
They'd

wouldn't or
She'd not
It wouldn't
or It'd not*
You
wouldn't or
You'd not
We wouldn't
or We'd not
They
wouldn't or
They'd not

* Not "good" English, but you will hear occasionally.

CHAPTER 2 - NOUN

Isa name of the person, place or things? Here are some
examples of nouns: boy, river, friend, Mexico,
triangle, day, school, truth, university, idea, John F.
Kennedy, movie, aunt, vacation, eye, dream, flag,
teacher, class, grammar. John F. Kennedy is a noun
because it is the name of a person; Mexico is a noun
because it is the name of a place; and boy is a noun
because it is the name of a thing.

Let’s take some examples –

Ram was a great king.
Allahabad is on the banks of river Ganga.
The sunshine’s bright.

Note – Things includes

All objects that we can see, hear, taste, touch, or smell.
Something that we can think of but cannot perceive by
senses.
Types of Nouns – There are majorly divided into 2
groups -

Proper Noun

Common Noun

Definition – It is the
name of person or place.
It always starts with a
capital letter.

Definition – It is the
name given in common to
every person or thing of
the same class or kind.

Some examples of proper
nouns are: Mexico, John
F. Kennedy, Atlantic
Ocean, February,
Monday, New York City,
Susan, Maple Street,
Burger King.

1. Sita is proper
Noun
2. Hari is a proper
Noun
3. Kolkatta is a
proper noun
4. India is proper
noun

Some examples of proper
nouns are: class, girl, boy,
city, country.

1. Girl is a common
noun
2. Boy is a common
noun
3. City is a common
noun
4. Country is a
common noun

SOME OTHER TYPES OF NOUNS–

Collecti
ve
Nouns

Abstract
Nouns

Countable
Nouns

Uncount
able
Nouns

Definiti
on – is
the
name of
the
number

Definition – is
the name of
quality, action,
state.
E.g. –
Quality –

Definition –

are the names
of objects,
People, etc.
That we can
count.

Definiti
on – are
the
names of
the
things

English Grammar 10

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

(or
Collecti
on) of
persons
or
things
taken
together
and
spoken
as one

E.g. –

Crowd,
team,
heard,
army,
Fleet,
jury
,family,
nation,
Commit
tee.

A Fleet

Collecti
on of
ships or
vessels.

An
army –

a
collectio
n of
soldiers

Goodness,
Kindness,
whiteness,
Hardness,
brightness,
Honesty,
Wisdom,
Bravery.

Action –

Laughter,
Theft,
movement,
Judgment,
hatred.

State –

childhood,
Boyhood,
youth, slavery,
Sleep,sickness,
death,
Poverty.

The names of
Arts and
Sciences are
also abstract
nouns (E.g. –
Grammer,Mus
ic,
Chemistry

E.g. –

Book,Pen,App
le,boy,
Sister, doctor,
horse.

Countable
nouns have
Plural form
but
uncountable
nouns do not.

E.g. – we say
‚Books‛ but

we cannot say

‚milks‛

which
we
cannot
count.

E.g. –

Milk, oil,
sugar,
gold,
honesty.

THE NOUN GENDER-

Masculine
Gender

Feminine
Gender

Comm
on
Gende
r

Neuter
Gender

Def. – The
noun that
denotes
male.

E.g. –

Boy,Lion,H
ero

Def. –The noun
that denotes a
female.

E.g. –
Girl,Lioness,Her
oine

Def. –

The
noun
that
denote
s either
a male
or a
female.

E.g. –

Parent,
Child,
Servant

Def. – the
noun that
denotes
neither
male nor
female.

E.g. –

Book,Pen,T
ree

THE NOUN NUMBER –

Singular Noun

Plural Noun

Def. –The noun that
denotes one person or
thing.

E.g. – Boy,Girl,Cow

Def. – The noun that
denotes more than one
person or thing.

E.g. – Boys, Girls, Cows.

NOUNS

A noun is the word that refers to a person, thing or
abstract idea. A noun can tell you who or what.

There are several different types of noun:-

There are common nouns such as dog, car, chair etc.
Nouns that refer to things which can be counted
(can be singular or plural) are countable nouns.
Nouns that refer to some groups of countable
nouns, substances, feelings and types of activity
(can only be singular) are uncountable nouns.

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Nouns that refer to a group of people or things are
collective nouns.
Nouns that refer to people, organizations or places
are proper nouns, only proper nouns are
capitalized.
Nouns that are made up of two or more words are
called compound nouns.
Nouns that are formed from a verb by adding -
ingare called gerunds

ABSTRACT NOUNS

An abstract noun is a noun that you cannot sense; it is
the name we give to an emotion, ideal or idea. They
have no physical existence, you can't see, hear, touch,
smell or taste them. The opposite of an abstract noun is
a concrete noun.

For example:-

Justice; an idea, bravery and happiness are all abstract
nouns.

COLLECTIVE NOUNS / GROUP NOUNS

A collective noun is a noun that is singular in form but
refers to a group of people or things.

Sometimes they refer to a group of specific things:-

For example:-

Tables, chairs, cupboards etc. are grouped under the
collective noun furniture.
Plates, saucers, cups and bowls are grouped under the
collective noun crockery.

These collective nouns are often uncountable.

Sometimes they are more general:-

For example:-

Groups of people - army, audience, band, choir, class,
committee, crew, family, gang, jury, orchestra, police,
staff, team, trio

Groups of animals - colony, flock, herd, pack, pod,
school, swarm

Groups of things - bunch, bundle, clump, pair, set,
stack

When such a group is considered as a single unit, the
collective noun is used with a singular verb and
singular pronouns.

For example - The committee has reached its decision.

But when the focus is on the individual members of
the group, British English uses a plural verb and plural
pronouns.

For example - "The committee have been arguing all
morning
." This is the same as saying "The people in the
committee have been ....
"

A determiner in front of a singular collective noun is
always singular: this committee, never these committee
(but of course when the collective noun is pluralized, it
takes a plural determiner: these committees).

COMMON NOUNS

A common noun is a word that names people, places,
things, or ideas. They are not the names of a single
person, place or thing.

A common noun begins with a lowercase letter unless
it is at the beginning of a sentence.

For example:-

People:-

man, girl, boy, mother, father, child, person, teacher,
student

Animals:-

cat, dog, fish, ant, snake

Things:-

book, table, chair, phone

Places:-

school, city, building, shop

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Ideas:-love, hate, idea, pride

COMPOUND NOUNS

A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or
more words. Most compound nouns in English are
formed by nouns modified by other nouns or
adjectives.

For example:

The words tooth and paste are each nouns in their
own right, but if you join them together they form a
new word - toothpaste.

The word black is an adjective and board is a noun,
but if you join them together they form a new word -
blackboard.

In both these example the first word modifies or
describes the second word, telling us what kind of
object or person it is, or what its purpose is. And the
second part identifies the object or person in question.

Compound nouns can also be formed using the
following combinations of words:-

Noun

+ Noun

toothpaste

Adjective

+ Noun

monthly ticket

Verb

+ Noun

swimming pool

Preposition

+ Noun

underground

Noun

+ Verb

haircut

Noun

+ Preposition

hanger on

Adjective

+ Verb

dry-cleaning

Preposition

+ Verb

output

The two parts may be written in a number of ways:-

1. Sometimes the two words are joined together.
Example: tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room =
bedroom

2. Sometimes they are joined using a hyphen.
Example: check-in

3. Sometimes they appear as two separate words.
Example: full moon

A good dictionary will tell you how you should write
each compound noun.

Concrete Nouns

A concrete noun is the name of something or someone
that we experience through our senses, sight, hearing,
smell, touch or taste. Most nouns are concrete nouns.
The opposite of a concrete noun is an abstract noun.

For example:-

Cats, dogs, tables, chairs, buses, and teachers are all
concrete nouns.

Countable / Uncountable Nouns

A noun can be countable or uncountable. Countable
nouns can be "counted", they have a singular and
plural form .

For example:

A book, two books, three books .....
An apple, two apples, three apples ....

Uncountable nouns (also called mass nouns or
noncount nouns) cannot be counted, they are not
separate objects. This means you cannot make them
plural by adding -s, because they only have a singular
form. It also means that they do not take a/an or a
number in front of them.

For example:

Water
Work
Information
Coffee
Sand

Countable
(use a/an or a number in
front of countable nouns)

Uncountable
(there is no a/an or number
with uncountable nouns)

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An Apple / 1 Apple

Rice

I eat an apple every day.

I eat rice every day. (not I eat a
rice every day.)

Add (s) to make a countable
noun plural

There is no plural form for
an uncountable noun

apples

rice

I eat an apple every day.
Apples are good for you.

I eat rice every day. Rice is good
for you.

A computer= Computers are
fun.

To make uncountable nouns
countable add a counting
word, such as a unit of
measurement, or the general
word piece. We use the form
"a ....... of ......."

An elephant=Elephants are
large.

Rice=a grain of rice

Water=a glass of water

Rain=a drop of rain

Music=a piece of music

You can use some and any
with countable nouns.

Some dogs can be dangerous.
I don't use any computers at
work.

You can use some and any
with uncountable nouns.

I usually drink some wine with
my meal.
I don't usually drink any water
with my wine.

You only use many and few
with plural countable nouns.

So many elephants have been
hunted that they are an
endangered species.
There are few elephants in
England.

You only use much and little
with uncountable nouns.

I don't usually drink much
coffee.
Little wine is undrinkable
though.

You can use a lot of and no
with plural countable nouns.

No computers were bought last
week.
A lot of computers were reported
broken the week before.

You can use a lot of and no
with uncountable nouns.

A lot of wine is drunk in France.
No wine is drunk in Iran.

Making uncountable nouns countable

You can make most uncountable noun countable by
putting a countable expression in front of the noun.

For example:-

A piece of information.
2 glasses of water.
10 litres of coffee.
Three grains of sand.
A pane of glass.

Sources of confusion with countable and uncountable nouns

The notion of countable and uncountable can be
confusing.

Some nouns can be countable or uncountable
depending on their meaning. Usually a noun is
uncountable when used in a general, abstract meaning
(when you don't think of it as a separate object) and
countable when used in a particular meaning (when
you can think of it as a separate object).

For example:-

glass - A glass of water. (Countable) | A window
made of glass. (Uncountable)

Some supposedly uncountable nouns can behave like
countable nouns if we think of them as being in
containers, or one of several types.

This is because 'containers' and 'types' can be counted.

Believe it or not each of these sentences is correct:-

Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two coffees a
day.

(Here coffees refers to the number of cups of coffee)
You could write; "Doctors recommend limiting
consumption to two cups of coffee a day.
"

The coffees I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian.

(Here coffees refers to different types of coffee)
You could write; "The types of coffee I prefer are Arabica
and Brazilian.
"

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!Note- In good monolingual dictionaries, uncountable
nouns are identified by [U] and countable nouns by
[C].

GERUND NOUNS

A gerund (often known as an -ing word) is a noun
formed from a verb by adding -ing. It can follow a
preposition, adjective and most often another verb.

For example:

I enjoy walking.

PREDICATE NOUNS

A predicate noun follows a form of the verb "to be".

He is an idiot. (Here idiot is a predicate noun because
it follows is; a form of the verb "be".)

A predicate noun renames the subject of a sentence.

Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister. (Margaret
Thatcher
is the subject and Prime Minister is the
predicate noun - notice it follows 'was' the past tense
of 'to be'.)

PROPER NOUNS

Proper nouns (also called proper names) are the words
which name specific people, organizations or places.
They always start with a capital letter.

For example:-

Each part of a person's name is a proper noun:-

Lynne Hand - Elizabeth Helen Ruth Jones...

The names of companies, organisations or trade marks:-

Microsoft - Rolls Royce - the Round Table - WWW

Given or pet names of animals:-

Lassie Trigger Sam

The names of cities and countries and words derived from
those proper nouns:-

Paris - London - New York - England - English

Geographical and Celestial Names:-

The Red Sea - Alpha Centauri - Mars

Monuments, buildings, meeting rooms:-

The Taj Mahal - The Eiffel Tower - Room 222

Historical events, documents, laws, and periods:-

the Civil War - the Industrial Revolution - World War I

Months, days of the week, holidays:-

Monday - Christmas - December

Religions, deities, scriptures:-

God - Christ - Jehovah - Christianity - Judaism - Islam -
the Bible - the Koran - the Torah

Awards, vehicles, vehicle models and names, brand names:-

the Nobel Peace Prize - the Scout Movement - Ford
Focus - the Bismarck - Kleenex – Hoover

CHAPTER 3 - PRONOUN

A pronoun usually refers to something already
mentioned in a sentence or piece of text. They are used

instead of nouns to prevent repetition of the noun to
which they refer. One of the most common pronouns
is it.

Example (Singular):

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Without a pronoun:

The train was late, the train had been delayed.
(Sounds horrid, doesn't it?)

With a pronoun:

The train was late, it had been delayed. (Much better!)

In this example the train is singular, therefore the
pronoun must be singular also - it.

Example (Plural):

Without a pronoun:

The trains were late, the trains had been delayed. (Still
sounds horrid, doesn't it?)

With a pronoun:

The trains were late, they had been delayed. (Much
better!)

In this example the trains are plural, therefore the
pronoun must be plural also - they.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Indefinite pronouns refer to things or people without
mentioning what or who they are.

Singular:

another, anybody, anyone, anything, each,
either, everybody, everyone, everything,
little, much, neither, nobody, no one,
nothing, one, other, somebody, someone,
something

Plural:

both, few, many, others, several

Singular
or Plural all, any, more, most, none, some

For example:-

Somebody stole my car.
Does anybody know who she is?

Does anyone have something that could help me
with anything?

!Note

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Personal Pronoun - SubjectI you he/she/it we they

Personal Pronoun - Objectme you him/her/it us them

The personal pronoun is used to refer to someone or
something already mentioned (he, she, it etc.), or to
refer to the person speaking (I, me etc.) or the person
listening (you).

FORM FUNCTION

First Person Pronoun

singular

I

subject

me

object

plural

we

subject

us

object

Second Person Pronoun

singular

you

subject

you

object

plural

you

subject

you

object

Third Person Pronoun

singular

he,she,it

subject

him,her,it

object

plural

they

subject

them

object

! Note

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I, me, he, she, him, her, you = a person
you, we, us = people
it = thing
they, them = things or people

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

he possessive pronoun shows who the thing being
referred to belong to or is associated with.

In English these pronouns change form to show their
function.

For example:-

Q. Whose is this web site?
A. It'smine.

Q. Does Lynne own this web site?
A. Yes, it's hers.

Q. Does Lynne own the Internet?
A. No. It's ours.

! Note

My, your, his/her/its, our and their arepossessive
determiners (sometimes called possessive adjectives).

Watch out for the following:-

Possessive Pronoun

Short Form of 'it is'

its

(no apostrophe)

it's

(with apostrophe)

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

I

he/she/it

you
(singu
lar)

you
(plura
l)

we they

Reflex
ive
Prono
uns

mys
elf himself/hersel
f/itself

yourse

lf yoursel

ves oursel

ves themse
lves

A reflexive pronoun shows that when someone or
something affected by an action is the same as the
person or thing doing it. This form is used less in
English than some other languages.

For example:-

She looked at herself in the mirror.
He washed himself.
They tested themselves.

NOTES –

I

You
(singular
and
plural)

He/She/It We They

Possessive
Pronouns

mine yours his/hers/its ours theirs

Form

First Person Pronoun

singular

mine

plural

ours

Second Person Pronoun

singular

yours

plural

yours

Third Person Pronoun

singular

his, hers, its

plural

theirs

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CHAPTER 4 - VERB

VERBS - AN OVERVIEW

Verbs are a class of words used to show the
performance of an action (do, throw, run), existence
(be), possession (have), or state (know, love) of a
subject. To put it simply a verb shows what something
or someone does.

Most statements in speech and writing have a main
verb. These verbs are expressed in tenses which place
everything in a point in time.

Verbs are conjugated (inflected) to reflect how they are
used. There are two general areas in which
conjugation occurs; for person and for tense .

Conjugation for tense is carried out on all verbs. All
conjugations start with the infinitive form of the
verb. The infinitive is simply the toform of the verb
For example, to begin. The present participle form
(the -ing form), is formed by adding ingto the bare
infinitive. For example, the present participle of the
verb to begin is beginning. There are two other forms
that the verb can take, depending on the tense type
and time, the simple past form (began) and the past
participle (begun). See here for a list of irregular verbs.

Conjugation for person occurs when the verb changes
form, depending on whether it is governed by a first,
second, or third person subject. This gives three
conjugations for any verb depending on who is acting
as the subject of the verb. For example, we have: to
begin, you begin
, and he begins. Note that only the third
conjunction really shows a difference.

While most English verbs simply do not show
extensive conjugation forms for person, an exception is
the verb to be.

ACTION VERBS

Action Verbs

Action verbs are verbs that show the performance of
an action. They are dynamic verbs that show
something happening.

There are regular and irregular action verbs.

For example:

To walk is a regular action verb - see example.
To run is an irregular action verb - see example.

Use Action / Dynamic Verbs

I + am

He/She/It + is

We, you, they + are

Verb = to stand

Q - "What am I doing?"

A- "I'm standing."

Verb = to laugh

Q - "What's he doing?"

A- "He's laughing."

Verb = to fish

Q - "What are they doing?"

A- "They're fishing."

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Verb = to shop

Q - "What's Mr Bean doing?"

A- "He's shopping for food."

Verb = to teach

Q - "What is she doing?"

A- "She's teaching the alphabet."

Verb = to learn

Q - "What are you doing?"

A- "You're learning English."

Verb = to spin

Q - "What's the chair doing?"

A- "It's spinning."

Verb = to surf

Q - "And what are we doing?"

A- "We're surfing the net."

AUXILIARY VERBS

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs are used together with a main verb to
give grammatical information and therefore add extra
meaning to a sentence, which is not given by the main
verb.

They are used to form the passive voice.

They are used to form the continuous tense.

They are used to form the perfect tense.

Be, Do and Have are auxiliary verbs, they are irregular
verbs and can be used as main verbs. The verbs 'to be'
and 'to have' are the most commonly used auxiliary
verbs and work alongside the main verbs in any
statement.

Modal verbs are also auxiliary verbs, but will be
treated separately, these are can, could, may, might,
must, shall, should, will, and would, they differ from
the others in that they can never function as a main
verb.

TO BE

Be is the most common verb in the English language. It
can be used as an auxiliary and a main verb. It is used
a lot in its other forms.

Base form = be

Present form = am/is/are

Past form = was/were

Present Participle / Gerund = being

Past Participle = been

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More on the Verb To Be

TO DO

The verb do is one of the most common verbs in
English. It can be used as an auxiliary and a main verb.
It is often used in questions.

Base form = do

Present form = do/does

Past form = did

Present Participle / Gerund = doing

Past Participle = done

More on the Verb To Do
!Note - The auxiliary verb 'do' is always followed by the base
form (infinitive).

To have

Have is one of the most common verbs in the English
language.

Base form = have

Present form = have / has

Past form = had

Present Participle / Gerund = having

Past Participle = had

More on the Verb To Have

FINITE / NON FINITE VERBS

FINITE VERBS

A finite verb (sometimes called main verbs) is a verb
that has a subject, this means that it can be the main
verb in a sentence. It shows tense (past / present etc) or
number (singular / plural).

For example:-

I live in Germay. (I is the subject - live describes what
the subject does - live is a finite verb).

NON-FINITE VERBS

A non-finite verb has no subject, tense or number. The
only non-finite verb forms are the infinitive (indicated
by to), the gerund or the participle.

For example:-

I lived in Germany to improve my German. (To
improve
is in the infinitive form - improve is non-
finite).

IRREGULAR VERBS

Irregular verbs have no rules for conjugation. These
can only be learnt in context - sorry!

They all have a base form. e.g. to run

A gerund (ing) form where ingis added to the end of
the verb.e.g.running

An -s form where s is added to the end of the
verb.e.g.runs

A past tense form which must be learnt.e.g.ran

A past participle form which must be learnt.e.g.run

See this comprehensive list of irregular verbs for the
past and past participle forms, along with a
pronunciation guide.

COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS

Base Form Past Simple
Form

Past Participle
Form

arise

arose

arisen

awake

awoke

awoken

be

was /were

been

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

bend

bent

bent

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bet

bet

bet

bid

bid

bid

bite

bit

bitten

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

broadcast broadcast

broadcast

build

built

built

burst

burst

burst

buy

bought

bought

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

creep

crept

crept

cut

cut

cut

deal

dealt

dealt

dig

dug

dug

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

driven

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

flee

fled

fled

fly

flew

flown

forbid

forbade

forbidden

forget

forgot

forgotten

forgive

forgave

forgiven

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grow

grew

grown

hang

hung

hung

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

interweave interwove

interwoven

keep

kept

kept

kneel

knelt

knelt

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

light

lit

lit

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

mistake

mistook

mistaken

offset

offset

offset

pay

paid

paid

put

put

put

quit

quit

quit

read

read*

read*

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

seek

sought

sought

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

set

set

set

sew

sewed

sewn

shake

shook

shaken

shine

shone

shone

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

shown

shrink

shrank

shrunk

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

slide

slid

slid

speak

spoke

spoken

spend

spent

spent

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spit

spat

spat

split

split

split

spread

spread

spread

spring

sprang

sprung

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

sting

stung

stung

stink

stank

stunk

strike

struck

struck

swear

swore

sworn

sweep

swept

swept

swim

swam

swum

swing

swung

swung

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

throw

threw

thrown

understan
d

understood

understood

undo

undid

undone

wake

woke

woken

wear

wore

worn

weave

wove

woven

weep

wept

wept

win

won*

won*

write

wrote

written

THE MAIN VERB

Sometimes there is more than one kind of verb in a
sentence. There are auxiliary verbs , modal verbs, and
main verbs (sometimes called full or non-auxiliary
verbs).

The main verb expresses the main action or state of
being of the subject in the sentence and changes form
according to the subject (singular, plural, 1st person,
2nd person, 3rd person).

Most statements in speech and writing have a main
verb.

The main verb changes its form according to the verb
form (perfect tense, past tense, simple tense etc).

For example:

Dogs usually chase cats.
But my cat chases my dog.
My cat is chasing my dog.
My dog has sometimes chased my cat.
But, only because my cat ate my dog's dinner.
My cat has been eating my dog's dinner a lot.

There are regular and irregular verbs.

MODAL VERBS

All the auxiliary verbs except be, do and have are
called modals. Unlike other auxiliary verbs modals
only exist in their helping form; they cannot act alone
as the main verb in a sentence.

Be, do, and have also differ from the other auxiliaries
in that they can also serve as ordinary verbs in a given
sentence.

The modal verbs are:-

CAN / COULD / MAY / MIGHT / MUST / SHALL /
SHOULD / OUGHT TO / WILL / WOULD

Modal

Example

Uses

Can

They can control their
own budgets.

We can’t fix it.

Can I smoke here?

Can you help me?

Ability / Possibility

Inability /
Impossibility

Asking for
permission

Request

Could

Could I borrow your
dictionary?

Could you say it
again more slowly?

We could try to fix it

Asking for
permission.

Request

Suggestion

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ourselves.

I think we could
have another Gulf
War.

He gave up his old
job so he could work
for us.

Future possibility

Ability in the past

May

May I have another
cup of coffee?

China may become a
major economic
power.

Asking for
permission

Future possibility

Might

We'd better phone
tomorrow, they
might be eating their
dinner now.

They might give us a
10% discount.

Present possibility

Future possibility

Must

We must say good-bye
now.

They mustn’t disrupt

the work more than
necessary.

Necessity /
Obligation

Prohibition

Ought to We ought to employ a
professional writer.

Saying what’s right

or correct

Shall

(More
common in
the UK than
the US)

Shall I help you with
your luggage?

Shall we say 2.30
then?

Shall I do that or will
you?

Offer

Suggestion

Asking what to do

Should We should sort out this
problem at once.

I think we should
check everything
again.

Profits should
increase next year.

Saying what’s right

or correct

Recommending
action

Uncertain
prediction

Will

I can’t see any taxis so
I’ll walk.

I'll do that for you if
you like.

I’ll get back to you

first thing on
Monday.

Profits will increase
next year.

Instant decisions

Offer

Promise

Certain prediction

Would Would you mind if I
brought a colleague
with me?

Would you pass the
salt please?

Would you mind
waiting a moment?

"Would three o`clock
suit you?" - "That’d
be fine."

Would you like to
play golf this Friday?

"Would you prefer
tea or coffee?" - "I’d
like tea please."

Asking for
permission

Request

Request

Making
arrangements

Invitation

Preferences

! Note the modal auxiliary verbs are always followed by the
base form.

The verb used to, which is explained here, can also be
used like a modal verb.

PHRASAL VERBS

What is a Phrasal Verb?

A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and
preposition, a verb and an adverb, or a verb with both
an adverb and a preposition.

A phrasal verb has a meaning which is different from
the original verb. That's what makes them fun, but

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confusing. You may need to try to guess the meaning
from the context, or, failing that, look it up in a
dictionary.

LITERAL USAGE

Many verbs in English can be combined with an
adverb or a preposition, a phrasal verb used in a literal
sense with a preposition is easy to understand.

"He walked across the square.

Verb and adverb constructions are also easy to
understand when used literally.

"She opened the shutters and looked outside."
"When he heard the crash, he looked up."

An adverb in a literal phrasal verb modifies the verb it
is attached to, and a preposition links the subject to the
verb.

IDIOMATIC USAGE

It is, however, the figurative or idiomatic application
in everyday speech which makes phrasal verbs so
important:

"I hope you will get over your operation quickly."

The literal meaning of ‚to get over‛, in the sense of ‚to
climb over something to get to the other side‛, is not

relevant here. Here "get over" means "recover from" or
"feel better".

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE
PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal verbs also differ in their transitivity or
intransitivity in the same way as normal verbs do. A
transitive verb always has an object.

For example:-

‚Many people walked across the bridge.‛

"Across" in this sentence is the preposition to "the
bridge".

An intransitive verb does not have an object.

For example:-

‚When I entered the room he looked up.‛

"Up" here is an adverb, and does not have an object.

SEPARABLE OR INSEPARABLE PHRASAL
VERBS

A further way of considering phrasal verbs is whether
they are separable or inseparable. In inseparable verbs,
the object comes after the particle.

For example:-

"She got on the bus ."
"On weekdays, we look after our grandchildren."

Separable verbs have several ways of separating verb,
particle and object. Usually, the object comes between
verb and particle.

For example:-

"She looked up the word in her dictionary."
"She looked it up in her dictionary."

However, with some separable verbs, the object can
come before or after the particle.

For example:-

"Switch the light off."
"Switch off the light."
"Switch it off."

! Note - There is usually no way of telling whether
they are separable, inseparable, transitive or
intransitive. In most cases you have to get a feel for
them.

VERBS AND PHRASAL VERBS ABOUT THE
HUMAN BODY

Many verbs have different meanings, however this
section deals with verbs and phrasal verbs connected
with the human body. An example is provided only

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where the verb is commonly used in everyday
conversation.

One irregular verb in bold is shown in all its forms.

VERBS

The Verb
(infinitive
form)

The Meaning

An example
( Simple
Past Tense)

Regular
/Irregular

To break

If you break a limb
(an arm or a leg etc.)
it means you have
broken the bone in
the limb. The bone
shatters into two or
more pieces.

She fell and
broke her
arm.

Irregular

To eye

To look at someone
or something with
interest.

Sam eyed
my cake
until I'd
finished.

Regular

To finger To touch or feel
something with
your fingers:

She
fingered all
the material
to find the
best.

Regular

To head

To hit a ball with
your head.

Owen
headed the
ball into the
back of the
net.

Regular

To mouth Forming words with
your lips without
making any sound.

The singers
only
mouthed
the words.

Regular

To neck

To kiss and hold a
person in an
amerous way.

They
necked at
the back of
the cinema.

Regular

To nose

To look around or
search in order to
discover somethin,
especially

She nosed
around
until she
found out

something that
other people do not
want you to find.

the truth.

VERBS AND PHRASAL VERBS ABOUT
BUILDINGS

Many verbs have different meanings, however this
section deals with verbs and phrasal verbs connected
with buildings. An example is provided only where
the verb is commonly used in everyday conversation.

One irregular verb in bold is shown in all its forms.

VERBS
The Verb
(infinitive
form)

The Meaning

An example
( Simple Past
Tense)

Regular
/Irregular

To build

To construct for
a dwelling.

He built his own
house

Irregular

To construct To pile up,
arrange or build

They
constructed the
new offices in
record time.

Regular

To demolish To pull or tear
down a
structure.

They
demolished the
old slums in
1951.

Regular

To extend

To increase in
size or area. To
add to an
existing
building.

As the family
grew they
extended the
house.

Regular

To move

To change ones
place of
dwelling or
business.

To be nearer his
job he moved to
London.

Regular

PHRASAL VERBS

The
Phrasal
Verb

The Meaning

An example
( Simple Past
Tense)

S=Separable
I=Inseparable

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build in

To incorporate
something as an
integral part of
something else.

They built new
safety features
in.

S

build on To add a new part
to an existing
structure

They built a
double garage
on to improve
their house.

S

build up To construct or
erect gradually,
little by little

They built the
business up bit
by bit.

S

tear
down To destroy or take
apart.

They tore the
village down
before the dam
was built.

S

VERBS AND PHRASAL VERBS ABOUT
CLOTHES

Many verbs have different meanings, however this
section deals with verbs and phrasal verbs connected
with buildings. An example is provided only where
the verb is commonly used in everyday conversation.

One irregular verb in bold is shown in all its forms.

VERBS

The Verb
(infinitive
form)

The Meaning

An example
( Simple Past
Tense)

R=Regular
Verb
I=Irregular
Verb

To attire

To dress
(especially in
fine elegant
clothes).

(Rarely used in
conversation)

R

To buckle To fasten an
item of clothing
using a buckle.

She buckled up
her daughters
shoes.

R

To button To fasten an
item of clothing
using buttons.

She buttoned up
her cardigan
before she went
outside.

R

To clothe To dress
(yourself or
someone else).

(Rarely used in
conversation)

R

To dress

or more
common

To get
dressed

To put clothes
on (yourself or
someone else).

She dressed
before she went
to work.

or

She got dressed
before she went
to work.

R

(get is
irregular)

To fasten

To secure an
item of
clothing, using
zips, buttons or
buckles.

She fastened his
jacket to make
sure he didn't get
cold.

R

To undress

or more
common

To get
undressed

To take off
clothes (your
own or
someone elses).

He undressed
before getting
into the shower.

R

(get is
irregular)

To unfasten To undo or
open an item of
clothing.

He unfastened
his tie before he
took it off.

R

To unzip To unfasten an
item of clothing
using a zip.

She unzipped her
jacket when she
got too warm.

R

To wear

To have an
item of clothing
on one's
person.

She wore her best
suit for the
interview.

I

To zip

To fasten an
item of clothing
using a zip.

She zipped up
her jacket before
she went outside. R

PHRASAL VERBS
The
Phrasal
Verb The Meaning

An example
( Simple Past
Tense)

S=Separable
I=Inseparable

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do up To fasten an item
of clothing.

She did his
jacket up for
him before he
left the house.

S

dress up

To dress (oneself
or another) in
your best clothes.

or

To put on fancy
dress (disguise
oneself or another
to be someone
else) in children's
games.

She enjoyed
dressing up to
go out.

or

The children
enjoyed
dressing up in
their mother's
clothes.

I

hang
out

To dry clothes
outside after
washing.

The weather
was fine, so she
hung out the
washing.

S

hang up To put something
on a hook or a
hanger.

She was a very
neat child. She
hung her
clothes up
every night.

S

have on To wear an item
of clothing on
one's person.

She had a red t-
shirt on when
he saw her.

S

kick off To remove your
shoes quickly.

He kicked his
shoes off as
soon as he got
home.

S

put on

To dress yourself
or someone else
with an item or
items of clothing.

He put his
shoes on before
he went out.

S

slip on To put on an item
of clothing easily.

She slipped her
sandals on
before she went
into the sea.

S

take off To remove any
item of clothing.

He took his
shoes off before
he went to bed. S

try on

To put on an item
of clothing to find
out whether it fits
or is suitable.

She always
tried shoes on
before she
bought them.

S

throw
on

To put on an item
of clothing
quickly and
without thought.

She was in such
a hurry she just
threw on a few
clothes before
she left the
house.

S

turn up

To shorten
trousers, a dress
or a skirt so that
they fit better.

Her jeans were
too long, so she
turned them
up.

S

wrap up To put warm
clothes on.

His mother told
him to wrap
himself up
warm because it
was so cold
outside.

S

zip up To fasten an item
of clothing using a
zip.

It was cold
outside, so he
zipped his
jacket up.

S

VERBS AND PHRASAL VERBS ABOUT
EATING

VERBS
The Verb
(infinitive
form)

The Meaning

An example
( Simple Past
Tense)

Regular
/Irregular

To binge

To eat more than is
good for you.
(Often associated
with eating
disorders.)

(Rarely used in
conversation) Regular

To bite

To tear, cut or grip
food with the
teeth.

He bit into the
apple.

Irregular

To
breakfast To eat breakfast. (Rarely used in

conversation.) Regular

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To chew

To work food
between the jaws
and teeth (see also
masticate)

He chewed his
food well.

Regular

To
consume See to eat.

(Rarely used in
conversation.) Regular

To digest

What happens to
food after it is
swallowed. (Not
something you do
consciously.)

(Rarely used in
conversation.) Regular

To dine

To eat dinner.
Especially related
to eating out.

They dined at
their friend's
house.

Regular

To eat

The complete
action of putting
food in the mouth
and then biting,
chewing and
swallowing it.

She ate her
dinner.

Irregular

To feast

To eat a lot or to
enjoy eating
something. (Often
something out of
the ordinary.)

They feasted on
caviar and
salmon.

Regular

To gobble

To eat or swallow
food too quickly
and in large
amounts.

The little boy
gobbled his
sandwich.

Regular

To guzzle To eat food
greedily.

He guzzled his
lunch.

Regular

To ingest To take food into
the body.

(Rarely used in
conversation.) Regular

To lick

To pass the tongue
over food in order
to taste or
consume it.

She licked the
ice cream.

Regular

To lunch To eat lunch.

(Rarely used in
conversation.) Regular

To munch

To chew food
steadily, especially
with a crunchy
noise, such as
when eating an
apple.

He munched the
apple.

Regular

To nibble To take small
repeated bites of
food.

The rabbit
nibbled on the
carrot.

Regular

To snack To eat a light meal,
or eat between
main meals.

She snacked on
biscuits and
sweets all day. Regular

To swallow

The act of passing
food from the
mouth to the
stomach.

She swallowed
a fish bone.

Regular

To taste

To take a small
amount of food in
the mouth and test
it.

He tasted the
soup before he
added more
salt.

Regular

To wolf

To eat food
quickly. (Often
followed by
down.)

He wolfed
down his
breakfast.

Regular

PHRASAL VERBS
The
Phrasal
Verb The Meaning

An example
( Simple Past
Tense)

S=Separable
I=Inseparable

eat out To go out to
eat, usually to
a restaurant.

They were both
tired so they ate
out.

I

eat up To eat

everything on
your plate.

He was very
hungry and ate
everything up.

S

plate up To arrange
food on a
plate.

He always makes a
mess when he's
plating up the
food.

S

tuck in To eat with

He enthusiastically
tucked in to his

I

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enthusiasm. dinner.

VERBS AND PHRASAL VERBS TO DO WITH
EDUCATION

Many verbs have different meanings; however this
section deals with verbs and phrasal verbs connected
with education. An example is provided only where
the verb is commonly used in everyday conversation.

One irregular verb in bold is shown in all its forms.

VERBS
The Verb
(infinitive
form)

The Meaning

An example
( Simple Past
Tense)

Regular
/Irregular

To
educate

To teach someone,
especially using
the formal system
of school, college
or university.

He was educated
at a public school. Regular

To learn To obtain

He learnt English Irregular

knowledge or skill
in a new subject or
activity:

at school.

To study To learn about a
subject

I studied
information
systems at
University.

Regular

To teach

To give someone
knowledge or to
instruct or train
someone.

She taught
geography before
she retired.

Irregular

PHRASAL VERBS
The Phrasal
Verb
(infinitive
form)

The
Meaning

An example
( Simple Past
Tense)

S=Separable
I=Inseparable

To study
under
someone

To be taught
by someone.

"As a young
artist he
studied under
Monet."

I

CHAPTER 5 - ADVERBS

Adverbs can tell you where, when, how, why and to
what extent something happens.

There are several different classes of adverb (see
above).

They are often formed from adjectives or nouns be
adding the suffix -ly.

For example: Quick becomes quickly, sudden becomes
suddenly, intelligent becomes intelligently,

To form an adverb from adjectives ending in -y change
the y to i before adding the -ly.

For example: angry becomes angrily, busy becomes busily

To form an adverb from adjectives ending in -e drop
the -e before adding the -ly.

For example: feeble becomes feebly, true becomes truly,

Some adjectives ending in -ly need no changes.

For example: heavenly,

However there are exceptions.

For example: sly becomes slyly, shy becomes shyly,

Some adverbs do not end in -ly.

For example: fast, hard, straight,

Adjective Pretty Serious

Fast

Quiet

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Example

She was
a pretty
girl.

He was a
serious
boy.

It was a fast
car.

They were
quiet
children.

Adverb Prettily Seriously Fast

Quietly

Example

The
bird
sang
prettily.

The
policeman
spoke
seriously.

Schumacher
drives fast.

The
woman
spoke
quietly.

Adverbs can modify adjectives

An adjective can be modified by an adverb,
which precedes the adjective.

For example:-

That's really nice.

Adverbs can modify adverbs

Some adverbs can modify others. As with adjectives,
the adverb precedes the one it is modifying.

For example:-

She did it really well.

Adverbs can modify nouns

Adverbs can modify nouns to indicate time or place.

For example:-

The concert tomorrow.

The room upstairs.

Adverbs can modify noun phrases

Some adverbs of degree such as quite, rather, so, such ...
can modify noun phrases.

For example:-

We had quite a good time.

They're such good friends.

Adverbs can modify determiners, numerals and pronouns

Adverbs such as almost, nearly, hardly, about, etc., can
be used:

For example:-

Nearly everyone, who was invited, came to the party.

Adverbs can modify sentences

Some adverbs modify a whole sentence, not just a part
of one.

For example:-

Luckily the car stopped in time. In this sentence luckily
modifies the whole sentence, it shows that it was good
luck that the car stopped in time.

ADVERBS OF DEGREE

Adverbs of degree tell us the strength or intensity of
something that happens. Many adverbs are gradable,
that is, we can intensify them. Basically they answer
the sort of question that asks How much ...? or How
little...?

Adverbs of degree include; adequately, almost,
entirely, extremely, greatly, highly, hugely,
immensely, moderately, partially, perfectly,
practically, profoundly, strongly, totally,
tremendously, very, virtually etc.

For example:-

The man drove badly. = The man drove really badly. - In
this sentence really shows us just how badly he drove.
They enjoyed the film. = They enjoyed the film immensely.
- In this sentence immensely shows us how much they
enjoyed the film.

These intensifiers are not gradable though, you cannot
say The man drove extremely very badly.

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ADVERBS OF DURATION

Adverbs of duration tell us how long something
happened.

They include; briefly, forever, long, shortly,
permanently, temporarily . . .

For example:

"They were occupied." = "They were briefly occupied." - In
this sentence briefly shows us the duration.

"The phone was out of order." = "The phone was
temporarily out of order." - In this sentence temporarily
shows us the duration.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

Adverbs of frequency tell us how often something is
done. These include; always, constantly, continually,
frequently, infrequently, intermittently, normally,
occasionally, often, periodically, rarely, regularly,
seldom, sometimes,

For example:

I always do my homework on time. - In this sentence
always shows us the frequency.
She goes out occasionally. - In this sentence occasionally
shows us the frequency.

Most frequent

always
constantly
nearly always
almost always
usually
generally
normally
regularly
often
frequently
sometimes
periodically
occasionally
now and then

once in a while
rarely
seldom
infrequently
hardly ever
scarcely ever
almost never

Least frequent

never

When something happens regularly at a fixed time we
can use the following as adverbs:-

Every day

= Daily

Every week

= Weekly

Ever fortnight (two weeks)

= Fortnightly

Every month

= Monthly

Every year

= Yearly/Annually

For example:

I get a newspaper every day. = I get the newspaper daily.
I pay my rent every month. = I pay my rent monthly.

ADVERBS OF MANNER

Some adverbs tell us how an action is or should be
performed.

Often these adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the
end of an adjective.

Adjectives ending -l add -ly; careful-carefully.

Adjectives ending -y change to -ily; lucky-luckily

Adjectives ending –ble change to -bly; responsible-
responsibly

adjective

adverb

anxious

anxiously

bad

badly

beautiful

beautifully

capable

capably

lucky

luckily

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quick

quickly

weak

weakly

For example:

The little girl ran quickly. In this sentence quickly
modifies the verb ran (to run).

ADVERBS OF PLACE

Adverbs of place indicate where something happens.

These include; abroad, anywhere, here, outside,
somewhere, there, underground, upstairs ...

For example:

My passport is here in my bag.

Place

Example

Upstairs The children were playing upstairs.
In London The people demonstrated in London.
Outside

The children were playing outside.

Adverbs of Probability

Adverbs of probability tell us the likelihood of
something happening.

If you imagine playing dice, what's the likelihood
(probability) of rolling a six? It's possible, but it's not
certain. You'll certainly throw something between one
and six, but your not likely to throw two sixes.

Adverbs of probability include; certainly, definitely,
doubtless, maybe, perhaps, possibly, probably etc.

For example:

We will win the game. = We will certainly win the game. -
In this sentence certainly shows us the probability.

ADVERBS OF TIME

Some adverbs tell us when something happened.

These include:afterwards, later, now, soon, yesterday, . . ..

For example:-

Yesterday all my troubles seemed so far away. - In this
sentence yesterday shows us when.

Other adverbs of time include:-

Time

Example

Saturday, Sunday ...

I am going to the shops on
Monday.

Today

I've been to the shops today.

Yesterday

I went yesterday.

Next week/month/year I am going next week.

Last week/month/year I went last year.

Finally

I finally went.

Eventually

I eventually went to the shops.

Already

I've already been to the shops.

Soon

I'm going to the shops soon.

Just

I'm just going to the shops.

Still

I'm still at the shops.

ADVERBS OF COMPARISON

When we compare what two things or people do we
look at what makes one different from the other.

Adverbs of comparison are used to show what one
thing does better or worse than the other.

When an adverb ends in -ly, more is put in front of the
adverb.

For example:-

"Jill did her homework more frequently."

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The rule for forming the comparative of an adverb is if
it has the same form as an adjective add the suffix -er
to the end.

For example:-

"Jill did her homework faster."

The following irregular adverbs are exceptions to this
rule:

'well' becomes 'better'
'badly' becomes 'worse'
'little' becomes 'less'

For example:

"Jill was better."
"Jack was worse."
"To lose weight you need to eat less."

When comparing two things you need to put than
between the adverb and what is being compared.

For example:-

"Jill did her homework faster than Jack."
"Jill did her homework more frequently than
Jack."

SUPERLATIVE FORM OF ADVERBS

The superlative form of an adverb is used to say what
thing or person does something to the greater degree
within a group or of its kind. Superlatives can be
preceded by 'the'. In general the superlative forms of
adverbs are the same as for superlative forms of
adjectives.

The rule for forming the superlative of an adverb is if
it has the same form as an adjective add the suffix -est.
to the end.

For example:-

fast -"Jill ran the fastest."

When an adverb ends in -ly, most is put in front of the
adverb.

For example:-

Frequently - "Jill did her homework most frequently."

The following irregular adverbs are exceptions:-

'well' becomes 'the best'
'badly' becomes 'the worst'

For example:

"Jill did the bestin the test."
"Jack did theworstin the test."

CHAPTER 6 - ADJECTIVE

Is often defined as a word which describes or gives
more information about a noun or
pronoun. Adjectives describe nouns in terms of such
qualities as size, color, number, and kind.

In the sentence –

The lazy dog sat on the mat, the word lazy is an
adjective which gives more information about the
noun dog.

We can add more adjectives to describe the dog as well
as in the sentence
The lazy, old, brown dog sat on the rug.
We can also add adjectives to describe the rug as in
the sentence the lazy, old, brown dog sat on the
beautiful, expensive, new rug.

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The adjectives do not change the basic meaning or
structure of the sentence, but they do give a lot more
information about the dog and the rug.

As you can see in the example above, when more than
one adjective is used, a comma (,) is used between the
adjectives.

Let’s take some more examples –

He is a brave boy. (Boy is Noun and Adjective Brave
tells about boy’s personality)

There are twenty boys in this class. (Boys and class are
nouns here and twenty, this (Adjectives) because they
are adding information.

Sita is a clever Girl. (Girl of what kind) – ‘clever’ shows
what kind of girl Sita is; or ‘clever’ describes Sita

I don’t like that boy. (Which Boy?) –‘that’ points out
which boy is meant.

He gave me five mangoes. (How many mangoes) –
‘five’ shows how many mangoes he gave me.

There is a little time for preparation. (How much time)

– ‘little shows how much time there is for preparation.

KINDS OF ADJECTIVES

Descript
ive
Adjectiv
es
Or
Adjectiv
es of
Quality

Adjecti
ves of
Quantit
y

Adjectiv
es of
Number
s

Exclamat
ory
Adjectiv
es

Emphasi
zing
Adjective
s

Show the
kind or
quality of
a person
or thing

E.g. –

Show
the
quantity
of a
thing.
Some
adjective

Show
how
many
persons
or things
are
meant, or,

Word
'what' is
sometime
s used as
an
exclamato
ry

Are used
to
emphasize
the
statement

E.g. –

(a) India
is a vast
country.
(b)
Harish
Chandra
was a

truthful

man.
(c) Kabir
Dar was
a great
poet.
(d) The

brave

boy did
not leave
the
burning
deck.

s many
be used
as of
quantity
or
number,
accordin
g to
their
use.

E.g. –

1.1

in what
order a
person or
thing
stands.

E.g. –

(a) There
are

seventeen
hundred

students
in our
college.
(b) Few
Indians
hate their
culture.
(c) How
many

players
were
awarded
for their
best
performa
nce?

(d) No
teachers
were
present in
the
meeting.
(e) The
cat drank
up all the
milk in
the pot.

adjective.
For
example:

E.g. –

1. What a
boy you
are!
2. What
folly!
3. What a
lucky girl
she is!
4. What
an idea!
5. What a
game!

1. I saw all
this with
my own
eyes.
2. This is
the very
man who
was
disturbing
the
meeting.
4. Mind
your own
business.
5. I am my

own

master.

E.g. 1.1

S.No Adjectives of
Quantity

Adjectives of Number

1. The cat drank all the
milk.

The boy sold all his books.

2. I have no difficulty. I have no pens.

3. The man did not eat
any bread.

Are there any mango trees in
the garden?

4. There is enough
sugar in the milk.

I have not enough plates in my
kitchen at present.

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5. My grandfather lost
all his wealth.

All the books in the bookshelf
have gone out-dated.

COMPARISONS OF ADJECTIVES –

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Rama’s mango

is sweet.

Def. – The
adjective is in
its simple form.
It is used when
no comparison
is made.

Hari’s mango is

sweeter than

Rama’s.

Def.–It denotes
the higher
degree of the
quality that the
positive and is
used when two
things are
compared.

E.g. – This boy is
stronger than
that.
Which of these
two pens is the
better?

Govind’s

mango is
sweetest of all.

Def. – It
denotes the
highest degree
of quality and is
used when
more than two
things are
compared.

E.g. – This boy
is the strongest
in the class

Note – There is another way which we can compare

things. Instead of saying ‚Ram is stronger than Babu‛
we can say ‚Babu is less strong than Ram‛.

EXAMPLES OF FORMATION OF
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE

By adding 'er' to form the Comparative and 'est' to
form the Superlative.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Great

Greater

Greatest

Clever

Cleverer

Cleverest

Kind

Kinder

Kindest

Young

Younger

Youngest

Short

Shorter

Shortest

Tall

Taller

Tallest

Sweet

Sweeter

Sweetest

Deep

Deeper

Deepest

Old

Older

Oldest

Small

Smaller

Smallest

By adding 'r' to form the Comparative and 'st' to form
the Superlative when the Positive ends in 'e'.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Brave

Braver

Bravest

Fine

Finer

Finest

Noble

Nobler

Noblest

Wise

Wiser

Wisest

Able

Abler

Ablest

Large

Larger

Largest

By changing 'y' into 'i' before adding 'er' and 'est' when
the Positive ends in 'y' preceded by a consonant.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Happy

Happier

Happiest

Healthy

Healthier

Healthiest

Early

Earlier

Earliest

Costly

Costlier

Costliest

Heavy

Heavier

Heaviest

When the positive is a word of one syllable and ends
in a single consonant, preceded by a short vowel, this
consonant is doubled before adding 'er' and 'est'.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Sad

Sadder

Saddest

Thin

Thinner

Thinnest

Fat

Fatter

Fattest

Hot

Hotter

Hottest

Big

Bigger

Biggest

Adjective of more than two syllables form the
Comparative and Superlative by putting 'more' and
'most' before the Positive.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Beautiful

more beautiful

most beautiful
Industrious more industrious most industrious
Careful

more careful

most careful
Courageous more courageous most courageous

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Magnificent more magnificent most magnificent

Some adjectives take either 'er' and 'est' or 'more' and
'most'.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Polite

Politer

Politest

Polite

more polite

most polite

Common

Commoner

Commonest

Common

more common

most common

Gentle

Gentler

Gentlest

Gentle

more gentle

most gentle

Handsome

Handsomer

Handsomest

Handsome

more handsome

most handsome

Pleasant

Pleasanter

Pleasantest

Pleasant

more pleasant

most pleasant

Some adjectives are compared irregularly, that is, their
Comparative and Superlative are not formed from the
Positive.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Little

Less (Lesser)

Least

Much

More

Most

Many

More

Most

Fore

Former

Foremost, First

Fore

Further

Furthest

Late

Later, Latter

Latest, Last

FORMATION OF ADJEVCTIVES

Many Adjectives are formed from Nouns

Noun

Adjective

Man

Manly

Girl

Girlish

Boy

Boyish

Friend

Friendly

Mother

Motherly

Care

Careful, Careless

Silk

Silken

Gold

Golden

Difficulty

Difficult

Honesty

Honest

Trouble

Troublesome

Courage

Courageous

Bravery

Brave

Glory

Glorious

Storm

Stormy

Father

Fatherly

Laugh

Laughable

Dirt

Dirty

Craze

Crazy

Cream

Creamy

Many Adjectives are formed from Verbs

Verb

Adjective

Sustain

Sustainable

Think

Thinking (intelligent)

Tickle

Ticklish

Tire

Tireless

Talk

Talkative

Cease

Ceaseless

Move

Moveable

Throw

Throwaway

Work

Workable

Watch

Watchful

Understand

Understandable

Forget

Forgetful

Relate

Related

Go

Gait

Giggle

Giggly

Arrogate

Arrogant

Breathe

Breathy

Breeze

Breezy

Beautify

Beautiful

Fantasize

Fantastic

Many Adjectives are formed from Other
Adjectives

Adjective

Adjective

Red

Reddish

White

Whitish

Tragic

Tragical

Three

Threefold

Black

Blackish

Sick

Sickly

Whole

Wholesome

Green

Greenish

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ADJECTIVES

Adjectives describe or give information about nouns
or pronouns.

For example:-

The grey dog barked. (The adjective grey describes the
noun "dog".)

The good news is that the form of an adjective does
not change. It does not matter if the noun being
modified is male or female, singular or plural, subject
or object.

Some adjectives give us factual information about the
noun - age, size color etc (fact adjectives - can't be
argued with). Some adjectives show what somebody
thinks about something or somebody - nice, horrid,
beautiful etc (opinion adjectives - not everyone may
agree).

If you are asked questions with which, whose, what
kind, or how many, you need an adjective to be able to
answer.

There are different types of adjectives in the English
language:

Numeric: six, one hundred and one
Quantitative: more, all, some, half, more than
enough
Qualitative: color, size, smell etc.
Possessive: my, his, their, your
Interrogative: which, whose, what
Demonstrative: this, that, those, these

! Note - The articles a, an, and the and the possessives
my, our, your, and there are also adjectives.

OPINION

Adjectives can be used to give your opinion about

something.

good, pretty, right, wrong, funny, light, happy, sad,
full, soft, hard etc.

For example:

He was a silly boy.

SIZE

Adjectives can be used to describe size.

Big, small, little, long, tall, short, same as, etc.

For example:

"The big man." or "The big woman".

AGE

Adjectives can be used to describe age.

For example:

"He was an old man." or "She was an old woman."

SHAPE

Adjectives can be used to describe shape.

Round, circular, triangular, rectangular, square, oval,
etc.

For example:

"It was a square box." or "They were square boxes."

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COLOUR

Adjectives can be used to describe color.

Blue, red, green, brown, yellow, black, white, etc.

For example:

"The blue bag." or "The blue bags".

ORIGIN

Adjectives can be used to describe origin.

For example:-

"It was a German flag." or "They were German flags."

MATERIAL

Adjectives can be used to describe material.

"It was a cotton cushion." or "They were cotton
cushions."

DISTANCE

Adjectives can be used to describe distance. l -- o -- n --
g / short

long, short, far, around, start, high, low, etc.

For example:

"She went for a long walk." or "She went for lots of long
walks."

TEMPERATURE

Adjectives can be used to describe temperature.

Cold, warm, hot, cool, etc.

For example:

"The day was hot." or "The days were hot."

TIME

Adjectives can be used to describe time.

Late, early, bed, nap, dinner, lunch, day, morning,
night, etc.

For example:

"She had an early start."

PURPOSE

Adjectives can be used to describe purpose. (These
adjectives often end with "-ing".)

For example:

"She gave them a sleeping bag." or "She gave them
sleeping bags."

!Note - In each case the adjective stays the same,
whether it is describing a masculine, feminine,
singular or plural noun.

When using more than one adjective to modify a noun,
the adjectives may be separated by a conjunction (and)
or by commas (,).

For example:

"Her hair was long and blonde." or "She had long, blonde
hair."

More examples:

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Adjective Pretty

Serious

Fast

Quiet

Example She was a
pretty girl.

He was a
serious
boy.

It was a
fast car.

They were
quiet
children.

! Note - Adjectives that go immediately before the
noun are called attributive adjectives.

Adjectives can also be used after some verbs. They do
not describe the verb, adverbs do that. Adjectives after
a verb describe the subject of the verb (usually a noun
or pronoun). They are called predicative adjectives.

For example:

"David looks tired." The subject (in this case David) is being
described as tired not the verb to look.

There is also the adjective used to, which is explained
here.

ADJECTIVE ORDER

Adjectives can be used to describe lots of things, from
physical size, age, shape, color, material, to more
abstract things like opinion, origin and purpose. We
can use adjectives together to give a detailed
description of something. Adjectives that express
opinions usually come before all others, but it can
sometimes depend on what exactly you want to
emphasize.

For example:

"That nice, big, blue bag." (You like the bag.)
"That big, nice, blue bag." (You like the color.)

When we group adjectives together there is a general
rule for the position of each type adjective, these are:-

Positi

on 1st* 2nd

* 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th

Opini
on

Siz
e

Ag
e

Shap
e

Colo
ur

Mater

ial Origin Purpo
se

Nice Sm
all

Ol
d

Squar
e

Blac

k Plastic British Racin
g

Ugly Big Ne
w

Circu

lar Blue Cotto
n

Ameri
can

Runni
ng

This is just a guide as you wouldn't normally see so
many adjectives in one description.

For example:

"She had a big, ugly, old, baggy, blue, cotton, British,
knitting bag." Is grammatically correct but a bit too
long-winded.

* You might swap opinion and fact adjectives
depending on what you wish to emphasize:-

For example:

"She had a long, ugly nose." emphasizing the length of
her nose.

"He was a silly, little man." emphasizing that the man
was silly.

COMPARATIVE FORM OF ADJECTIVES

When we compare two things or people we look at
what makes them different from each other.

For example:

Tall / Short

The man on the left is taller than the man on the right.
The man on the right is shorter than the man on the
left.

Fast / Slow

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A car is faster than a bicycle.
A bicycle is slower than a car.

Comparative adjectives are used to show what quality
one thing has more or less than the other. They
normally come before any other adjectives.

For example:

Big / Small

The red bag is bigger than the blue bag.
The blue bag is smaller than the red bag.

FORMING THE COMPARATIVE

Form

Rule

For
example

Words of one
syllable ending in 'e'. Add -r to the

end of the word. wide -
wider

Words of one
syllable, with one
vowel and one
consonant at the end.

Double the
consonant and
add -er to the
end of the word.

big -
bigger

Words of one
syllable, with more
than one vowel or
more than one
consonant at the end.

Add - er to the
end of the word. high -
higher

Words of two
syllables, ending in
'y'.

Change 'y' to 'i',
and add -er to
the end of the
word.

happy -
happier

Words of two
syllables or more, not
ending in 'y'.

Place 'more'
before the
adjective.

beautiful -
more
beautiful

The following adjectives are exceptions to this rule:

'good' becomes 'better'
'bad' becomes 'worse'
'far' becomes 'farther' or 'further'

! Note - When comparing two things like this we put
than between the adjective and the thing being
compared.

For example:-

"Mount Everest is higher than Mount Snow don."

"Arguably, Rome is more beautiful than Paris.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

Possessive adjectives are used to show ownership or
possession.

Subject pronoun

Possessive adjective

I

my

you

your

he

his

she

her

it

its

we

our

they

their

For example:

I own a laptop. = It is my laptop.
You own this computer (I presume). = It is
your computer.
My husband owns a car. = It is his car.
My sister owns a house. = It is her house.
My dog owns a collar. = It is its collar.
We use this website. = It is our website.
Manchester United own a football ground. = It
is their football ground.

SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

The superlative is used to say what thing or person has
the most of a particular quality within a group or of its

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kind. Superlative adjectives normally come before any
other adjectives.

Snowdon
is not the
highest
mountain
in
Britain,
Ben
Nevis is.

Mount
Snowdon is
3,559 feet high.

Ben Nevis is
4,408 feet
high.

FORMING THE SUPERLATIVE

Form

Rule

For
example

Words of one
syllable ending in 'e'. Add -st to the

end of the word. wide -
widest

Words of one
syllable, with one
vowel and one
consonant at the end.

Double the
consonant and
add -est to the
end of the word.

big -
biggest

Words of one
syllable, with more
than one vowel or
more than one
consonant at the end.

Add - est to the
end of the word. high -

highest

Words of two
syllables, ending in
'y'.

Change 'y' to 'i',
and add -est to
the end of the
word.

happy -
happiest

Words of two
syllables or more,
not ending in 'y'.

Place 'the most'
before the
adjective.

beautiful -
the most
beautiful

The following adjectives are exceptions:

'good' becomes 'the best'
'bad' becomes 'the worst'
'far' becomes 'the furthest'

For example:

"Jill is thebest student in the class ."
"Jack is theworst student in the class."
"In our solar system the planet Pluto is the
furthest planet from the Sun."

! Note - superlatives are usually preceded by 'the'.

For example:

"The Rio de la Plata river, on the southeast
coastline of South America, is the widest river
in the world."
According to the List of World records Carol
Yager (1960-1994), from Michigan, is the
fattest person ever to live, weighing 725 kg
(1,600 lb).
"Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the
world."
"I think that Castle Combe is the prettiest
village in England."
"Arguably, Rome is the most beautiful city in
the world."

PICTURE THIS - ADJECTIVES - POSSESSIVE

My

I have a car and I
have a dog called
Sam.

This is my car
with my dog
Sam.

Your

You have a
computer.

You aren't using my
computer to read this.
You are using your
computer.

Her | His

I don't have a
crown. Prince
Charles doesn't
have a crown. The
Queen has a crown.

This is the queen's
crown. It isn't my
crown and it isn't your
crown. It isn't his
crown, either. It is her
crown.

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Its

This padlock has
a key.

This is the padlock's key.
It is its key.

Our

We have a
website called
Learn English.

It is my website
and it is your
website. It is our
website.

Their

The pop
group
Elbow have
a CD.

This is their
CD.

COMMON ADJECTIVES TABLE

Appearance

Condition

adorable
alert
average
beautiful
blonde
bloody
blushing
bright
clean
clear
cloudy
colourful
concerned
crowded
curious
cute
dark
dirty
drab
distinct
dull
elegant
fancy
filthy
glamorous

alive
brainy
broken
busy
careful
cautious
clever
crazy
damaged
dead
difficult
easy
fake
false
famous
forward
fragile
guilty
helpful
helpless
important
impossible
infamous
innocent
inquisitive

gleaming
graceful
grotesque
homely
light
misty
motionless
muddy
plain
poised
quaint
scary
shiny
smoggy
sparkling
spotless
stormy
strange
ugly
unsightly
unusual

mad
modern
open
outgoing
outstanding
poor
powerful
puzzled
real
rich
right
robust
sane
scary
shy
sleepy
stupid
super
tame
thick
tired
wild
wrong

Feelings -
negative

Feelings -
neutral

Feelings -
positive

afraid
angry
annoyed
anxious
arrogant
ashamed
awful
bad
bewildered
bored
concerned
condemned
confused
creepy
cruel
dangerous
defeated
defiant
depressed
disgusted

alright
calm
different
fair
fine
OK
pleasant
puzzled

agreeable
alert
amused
brave
bright
charming
cheerful
comfortable
cooperative
courageous
delightful
determined
eager
elated
enchanting
encouraging
energetic
enthusiastic
excited
exuberant

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disturbed
doubtful
eerie
embarrassed
envious
evil
fierce
foolish
frantic
frightened
grieving
guilty
helpless
hungry
hurt
ill
jealous
lonely
mad
naughty
nervous
obnoxious
outrageous
panicky
repulsive
safe
scared
shy
sleepy
sore
strange
tense
terrible
tired
troubled
unusual
upset
uptight
weary
wicked
worried

faithful
fantastic
friendly
frowning
funny
gentle
glorious
good
happy
healthy
helpful
hilarious
innocent
jolly
kind
lively
lovely
lucky
obedient
perfect
proud
relaxed
relieved
silly
smiling
splendid
successful
thoughtful
victorious
vivacious
well
witty
wonderful

Shape

Size

Sound

broad
crooked

average
big

cooing
deafening

curved
deep
even
flat
hilly
jagged
round
shallow
square
steep
straight
thick
thin
triangular
uneven

fat
gigantic
huge
large
little
long
massive
medium
miniature
narrow
petite
short
skinny
small
tall
tiny
wide

faint
harsh
high-pitched
hissing
hushed
husky
loud
melodic
moaning
mute
noisy
purring
quiet
raspy
screeching
shrill
silent
soft
squeaky
squealing
thundering
voiceless
whispering

Speed

Taste

Time

fast
quick
rapid
slow
swift

bitter
bland
delicious
different
fresh
greasy
hot
juicy
repulsive
revolting
ripe
rotten
salty
sour
spicy
stale
strong
sweet
tasteless
tasty
terrible

ancient
brief.
early
late
long
modern
new
old
old-fashioned
quick
short
young

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wonderful

Touch

blunt
boiling
breakable
breezy
broken
bumpy
chilly
clean
cold
cool
crooked
cuddly
curly
damaged
damp
different
dirty
dry
dusty
filthy
flaky
fluffy
fuzzy
greasy
grubby
hard
icy
loose
plastic
prickly
ripe
rough
rubbery
scratchy
shaky
shaggy
sharp
silky
slimy
slippery
smooth
soft
solid

steady
sticky
tight
uneven
unusual
unripe
warm
weak
wet
wooden
wooly

Summary -

Adjectives are used to describe nouns. They give more
details or information about the nouns they are associated
with.

A: Tell me about your boyfriend

B: Well, he is tall, dark, and handsome.

A: Sounds like mine.

Adjectives can be used to answer the questions "What kind
(of) ?" or "Which one?"

A: Hi. I'm calling about the car you're selling?

B: It's a great car. (It's) in excellent condition.

A: What kind of seats does it have?

B: They're very comfortable seats, (soft, plush, just
like a sofa.)

A: Uh. I think I'll sleep on it.

A: Hand me a book.

B: Which one do you want?

A: The red book. The red one.

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CHAPTER 7 - CONJUNCTION

You can spend your life writing or speaking short
sentences, but (and that's a conjunction) if you want
your English to flow a bit more naturally you need to
learn how to join sentences together and (another
conjunction) you need some linking words to do this.

Basically a conjunction connects two words, sentences
or clauses together: although, and, because, but, if, or, so,
unless, when, while ...

There are two types of conjunction: coordinating
conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.

You can also use conjunctions in pairs, these are called
correlatives.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

A coordinating conjunction, also called a coordinator,
links parts of a sentence with the same status. This
could be two independent (main) clauses, two noun
phrases, adjectives, adverbials etc of equal importance.

They include: for, and, nor, but, or, yet,

There's a mnemonic for remembering them:
FANBOYS.

For example:-

It was cold. I wore a coat.

Both sentences are valid on their own, but they can be
written as, "It was cold, so I wore a coat."

I attended the meeting. + My friend attended the meeting. =
My friend
and I attended the meeting.

The three most often used coordinating conjunctions
are and, or, and but.

The coordinating conjunction and usually expresses
addition or combination.

For example:-

Poetria has a dog and Karen has two cats.

The coordinating conjunction but expresses a contrast.

We were tired but happy.

The coordinating conjunction or expresses choice.

For example:-

Would you like tea or coffee?

There are two negative coordinating conjunctions:
neither and no.

For example:-

She spoke neither German nor French. ("nor" must
always be part of the "neither ... nor" construction).

! Note - nor, for, and so can only join independent
clauses.

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

A subordinating conjunction, also called a
subordinator, joins a dependent / subordinate clause to
a main verb. They are used to show any relationship
between them and they turn the clause into something
that is dependant on the rest of the sentence for its
meaning.

For example:-

Because it was snowing ... makes no sense on its own.
We went skiing, because it was snowing. Aha!

Be warned, there are a lot of them.

Subordinating conjunctions include: after, although,
because, before, if, in case, so that, therefore, unless,
when, while...

For example:

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Before you came here, you thought you understood English
grammar.
We left the party
when the police arrived.

!Note - The subordinate clause sometimes comes at the
beginning of a sentence.

CORRELATIVES

Some conjunctions are used in pairs, they are called
correlative conjunctions. They are used to show the
relationship between ideas expressed in different parts
of a sentence.

Most are coordinating correlatives.

They include:-

both ... and
either ... or
neither ... nor
not only ... but also

For example:-

He was not only a scoundrel, but also a cruel man.

We use either…or together when we want to link two

positives:-

For example:-

Either the president or the vice-president will go to the
conference.
(The president will go to the conference, or
the vice-president will go, not both of them though.)

We use neither…nor together when we want to link

two negative ideas:-

For example:-

Neither the president nor the vice-president were able to
solve the problem.
(The president couldn't solve the
problem and the vice-president couldn't solve it
either.)

Some are subordinating correlatives.

if ... then
less ... than
more ... than
so ... that

For example:-

She was so hungry that she could have eaten a horse.

CHAPTER 8 - PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions are a class of words that indicate
relationships between nouns, pronouns and other
words in a sentence. Most often they come before a
noun.

The good news is that they never change their form,
regardless of the case, gender etc. of the word they are
referring to.

Prepositions are classified as simple or compound.

Simple prepositions are single word prepositions -

across, after, at, before, between, by, during, from, in, into,
of, on, to, under, with and without
are all single word
prepositions.

For example:-

The book is on the table.

Compound prepositions are more than one word - in
between
and because of - are prepositions made up of
two words - in front of, on behalf of - are prepositions
made up of three words.

For example:-

The book is in between War and Peace and
The Lord of the Rings.
The book is in front of the clock.

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PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT

Prepositions can be used to show movement.

For example:-

To, through, across

We use to show movement with the aim of a specific
destination

For example:-

I moved to Germany in 1998.
He's gone to the shops.

We use through to show movement from one side of
an enclosed space to the other.

For example:

The train went through the tunnel.

We use across to show movement from one side of a
surface or line to another.

For example:

She swam across the river.

More prepositions of movement

She ran

to

the door.

through

the tunnel. (from one side of
an enclosed space to the
other)

across

The road. (from one side of
an open space to the other)

along

The road. (the length of the
road)

down

The road. (the length of the
road)

over

The bridge. (from one side of
an open space to the other)

off

The stage.

round

The track.

into

The room.

PICTURE THIS - PREPOSITIONS OF
MOVEMENT

Picture It Clip
Art

Preposition

Example

to

"He carried the
rubbish to the bin."

through

"The train came
through the tunnel."

across

"He swam across the
channel."

along

"He walked along
the road."

down

"He skied down the
mountain."

over

"They walked over
the bridge."

off

"The man ran off the
cliff."

round

"The arrow is moving
round the ball."

into

"The man poured the
sand into the timer.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

Prepositions can be used to show where something is
located.

The prepositions at, on, and in

We use at to show a specific place or position.

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For example:

Someone is at the door.
They are waiting at the bus stop.
I used to live at 51 Portland Street.

We use on to show position on a horizontal or vertical
surface.

For example:

The cat sat on the mat.
The satellite dish is on the roof.

We also use on to show position on streets, roads, etc.

For example:

I used to live on Portland Street.

We use in to show that something is enclosed or
surrounded.

For example:

The dog is in the garden.
She is in a taxi.
Put it in the box.

We also use in to show position within land-areas
(towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).

For example:

I used to live in Nottingham.

More prepositions of place

Prepositions of Place

after
She slammed the door

after

her.

They ran

after

the thief.

among
I enjoy being

among

my friends.

I found my handbag

among

my luggage.

at
The secretary was sitting

at

her desk.

The man was standing

at

the taxi stand.

behind
The car park is

behind

the building.

He never won a race, he was
always

behind

the others.

between

The prisoner sat

between

the two
policemen.

I held the pen

between

my thumb and
fingers.

in
The pen was

in

the drawer.

He lives

in

South Africa.

in front of
The teacher stands

in front of the class.

The car was parked

in front of

the garage.

next to / beside / by
In my English lesson I always
sit

next to/
beside/by

my friend.

The bank is

next to/
beside/by

the hotel.

on
The painting was hanging on

the wall.

The boy was sitting

on

the chair.

over/above

The sign hanging

over/above the door read
'No smoking'.

English Grammar 48

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

I put the tablecoth

over

the table.

I enjoy watching the planes
fly

above

me.

under / below
The temperature outside was under/below 0.

The woman was sheltering under

a tree.

When flying I enjoy watching
the clouds

below

me.

PICTURE THIS - PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE

Where is it?

The ball is in
the box

The ball is on the
box.

The ball is under the
box.

John's house

Jane's house

Bill's house

John's house is
next to Jane's
house.

Jane's house is
between Bill's and
John's houses.

Bill's house is next
to Jane's house.

The
climbers
stood on
top of the
mountain.

The man
stood

between

the two
enemies.

The
enemies
stood

opposite

each other.

The
gardners
stood
behind the
pumpkins.

The man
stood

next to

the
gopher
and held
the
umbrella
over it.

The man
looked

through

the
telescope
in his
hands.

The man
wrote the
address on
the
package.

The man
looked at
the mail
in the post
box.

The man
looked at
the clock
on the
wall.

The
manager
sat at his
desk on his
chair.

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME

Prepositions can also be used to show when something
happened.

The prepositions at, on, and in

We use at for specific times.

For example:-

I start work at 7.00 a.m.
I don't work at night.

We use on for specific days and dates .

For example:

My birthday is on Monday.
We're having a party on 7th September.

We also use on for some special days.

For example:

On Christmas day.

We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month,
a season, or a year.

For example:

In summer it's too hot to work.
I started this web site in 1999.
She woke up in the night.

More prepositions of time

English Grammar 49

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

POINT IN TIME

at

6 o'clock
Midnight

on

Saturday
April 10th
Christmas Day

by

the end of July

(indicates a deadline=at the
latest)

till / until /
up to

March

(indicates an end point)

since

April
10th March

(indicates a beginning point
in time)

LENGTH OF TIME

in

July
the autumn
the morning

the middle of …….

at

night
the weekend

during

the meeting
the lesson

for

two days
twelve months

throughout August

the project

PICTURE THIS - PREPOSITIONS OF TIME

Picture It Clip Art Preposition

Example

at

(a time)

"I got to work at
8.00 this
morning."

on

(a day)

"I'll see you on
Tuesday."

on

(a date)

"I have an
appointment on
the 31st."

in

(a month)

"My birthday is
in June"

in

(a year)

"I was born in
1959"

in

(the morning)

"I get up in the
morning."

in

(the afternoon)

"I have lunch in
the afternoon."

in

(the evening)

"I go home in the
evening."

at

(night)

"I go to bed at
night."

in

(a season)

"It usually snows
in the winter."

PRONOUNS

Personal
Pronoun
-
Subject

I

you

he/she/it

we

they

Personal
Pronoun
- Object

me you

him/her/it

us

them

Possessi
ve

my your

his/hers/its

ours theirs

English Grammar 50

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

Pronoun
s

Reflexiv
e
Pronoun

myse

lf yourse

lf himself/herself/i
tself

ourselv

es themselv
es

s

CHAPTER 9 - ARTICLES

There are only three articles in English: a, an
andthe. There are two types of articles indefinite
'a' and 'an' or definite 'the'.

INDEFINITE
ARTICLES

DEFINITE ARTICLES

A or an is called the
Indefinite article because
it usually leaves
indefinite the person or
thing spoken of –

E.g. – A doctor

It is used before a
singular
countable noun

E.g. – A book, an orange,
a girl.

The is called the definite
article because it normally
points out some particular
person or thing.

E.g. – He saw the doctor. –
Meaning some particular
doctor.

It is used before
singular countable
nouns plural
countable nouns
and uncountable
nouns.

E.g. – The book, the books,
the milk

RULES TO USE ARTICLES

1. We use a / an when we are talking about something
for the first time.

He is wearing a suit and a tie.
They have a cat.

2. We use the when we are talking about a specific
person or thing, or if there is only one, or if it is clear
which one we are talking about.

She took a glass of water and started to drink. -- one of
many glasses of water
She took the glass of water nearest to her. -- a specific
glass
She took the glass of water and started to drink. --
There is only one glass of water
Can you turn on the TV? -- It’s clear we are talking
about the TV in this room
I have to see the doctor tomorrow. -- It’s clear I am
talking about my usual doctor
I need to see a doctor. -- Not any specific doctor
how many people have walked on the moon? -- There
is only one moon
the best film I've ever seen is Top Gun. -- There can
only be one best film

3. We use no article when we are talking about people
or things in general.

Carrots are good for you. -- Carrots in general
The carrots growing in my garden are almost ready to
eat. -- Specific carrots
English people drink a lot of tea. -- English people in
general
The English people in this hotel are very nice. --
specific English people

4. We use a / an to say what kind of person or thing
someone or something is (often with an adjective, or to
say it belongs to a particular group.

English Grammar 51

Confidence, Fluency & Personality

You have a nice house.
That's a very expensive car!
A cat is an animal a bus is a vehicle.

5. With school, university, prison, hospital, church,
bed, work and home we use the when we are talking
about a particular one, and no article when we are
talking about the idea of school, university...

The church on our street was built in the 17th
Century. -- a particular church
I go to church every Sunday -- the idea of church, not a
particular building
My friend works at the prison outside the city centre.
My husband is in prison.
The work isn't finished yet.
I was feeling sick yesterday so I didn't go to work.
The new bed is bigger than the old one.
I put my children to bed at 8pm.

6. We use the with singular countable nouns to talk
about a type of thing.

The computer was invented in the 20th Century. -- not
a particular computer
The computer in my office is broken. -- a particular
one
The crocodile is very dangerous. -- this type of animal
The crocodile in the river is very big. -- a particular
one
She plays the piano. -- not a particular piano but this
type of instrument
The piano she is playing is very old. -- a particular one

7. We use the + adjective to talk about a group of people
(including nationalities).

I always give money to the homeless.
The unemployed receive money from the
government.
The French produce good wine.

8. We use a / an to talk about someone's job.

My wife is an optician.
She works as a mechanic.

9. We use no article with continents, countries, regions,
cities, streets, mountains, lakes and parks.

Asia, Italy, California, Bristol, Main St., Mount Everest,
Lake Superior, Central Park
-- we use the if the country contains Kingdom,
Republic, State, Union

10. We use the with plural names of people and places.
The Smiths, The Netherlands, The United States, The
Bahamas, The Alps (also The Caribbean)

11. We use the with oceans, seas, rivers and canals.

The Atlantic Ocean, The Red Sea, The Nile, The
Panama Canal

12. We use the with north, south, east and west to talk
about the location of a place within another place, but
no article to compare the location of two places.

Greece is in the south of Europe.
Spain is south of France.
-- we use no article with northern, southern, eastern
and western:
Greece is in southern Europe

13. We normally use the with buildings, except if the
first word is the name of a place.

The White House, the Sheraton Hotel.
Oxford University, Buckingham Palace.

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