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Published by: Pradeep Yadav on May 16, 2012
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Prepared By:

Under the Guidance of:
Prof. MANJU LAMHA I.T.S., Mohan Nagar Ghaziabad (U.P)

I.T.S-Management and IT Institute Mohan Nagar, Ghaziabad.

Declaration Certificate

Certified that Pradeep Yadav have carried out the Dissertation work presented in this thesis entitled “Cadbury india limited” for the award of PGDM from Institute of Technology and Science under OUR supervision. The dissertation embodies result of original work and studies carried out by our self and the contents of the thesis do not form the basis for the award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else.

Prof. Manju Lamba


Any accomplishment requires the effort of many people and this work is no different. We have been fortunate enough to get the help and guidance from many people. It is a pleasure to acknowledge them though still it is inadequate appreciation for their contribution. We would not have completed this journey without the help, guidance and support of certain people who acted as guides and friends along the way. We would like to express our deepest and sincere thanks to my faculty guide Prof. Manju Lamba for his invaluable guidance and help. The project could not be complete without the support and guidance. We are also thankful to all our friends and colleagues for cooperating with us at every stage of the project. They acted as continuous source of inspiration and motivated me throughout the duration of the project helping me a lot in completion of this project.

Submitted with regards Pradeep Yadav Sec – c PGDM (20011-13)

Table of Contents
Declaration Certificate Abstract Acknowledgement Table of Contents List of Tables & Figures 1. Chapter -1 1.0.Introduction ………………………………………… 1.1.Background…………………………………………….. 1.2.Research Problem 1.3.Research Objectives ………………………………………. 2. Chapter – 2 2.0.Literature Review ………………………………………….. 3. Chapter – 3
3.0. Research





25 29 31

3.1.Type of Data ……………………………………………….. 3.2.Choice of Method for Data Collection…………………….. 3.3.Sample Size ………………………………... 33

3.3.1. Sampling Techniques ………………………. 4. Chapter – 4 4.0. Data Analysis & Interpretation………………………….. 5. Chapter – 5 5.0. Findings ……………………………………… 6. Chapter – 6 44 35

6.0. Conclusion………………………………………………

7. Chapter - 7 7.0. Suggestion for Future Research ………………………… Bibliography / References Appendices Appendix I – The Questionnaire Appendix II – The Interview Questions 77


Even more firms and other organizations have come to the realization that one of their most valuable assets is the brand names associated with their products or services. In our increasingly complex world, all of us, as individuals and as business managers, face more choices with less time to make them. Thus a strong brand’s ability to simplify consumer decision making, reduce risk, and set expectations is invaluable.

According to the American Marketing Association (AMA), a Brand is a “name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of the sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitor”. Technically speaking, then, whenever a marketer creates a new name, logo, or symbol for a new product, he or she has created a brand.

Brand Recognition:
Brand recognition consists of brand awareness and brand recall performance. Brand recognition is consumer’s ability to confirm prior exposure to the brand when given the brand as a cue. In other words, when they go to the store, will they be able to recognize the brand as one to which they have already been exposed? Brand recall is consumer’s ability to retrieve the brand from memory when given the product category, the needs fulfilled by the category, or a purchase or usage situation as a cue. If research reveals that many consumer decisions are made at the point of purchase, where the brand name, logo, packaging, and so on will be physically present and visible, the brand recognition will be important.

Brand Image:
Creating a positive brand image takes marketing programs that link strong, favorable, and unique associations to the brand in memory. The definition of customer-based brand equity does not distinguish between the source of brand associations and the manner in which they are formed; all that matters is their favorability, strength, and uniqueness. This means that customers can form brand associations in a variety of ways other than marketing activities: form direct experience; through information from other commercial

or nonpartisan sources such as consumer reports or other media vehicle; from word of mouth; and by assumptions or inference consumers make about the brand itself, its name, logo, or identification with a company, country, channel of distribution, or person, place, or event. Marketers should recognize the influence of these other sources of information by both managing them as well as possible and by adequately accounting for them in designing communication strategies.

Building a strong brand:
The CBBE model looks at building a brand as a sequence of steps, each of which is contingent on successfully achieving the objectives of the previous one. There are four steps of brand building as follows:
1. Ensure identification of the brand with customers and an association of the brand in

customer’s minds with a specific product class or customer need.
2. Firmly establish the totality of brand meaning in the minds of customers by

strategically linking a host of tangible and intangible brand associations with certain properties.
3. Elicit the proper customer responses to this brand identification and brand

4. Convert brand response to create an intense, active loyalty relationship between

customers and the brand. These four steps represent a set of fundamental questions that customer’s invariability asks about brands- at least implicitly. The four questions (with corresponding brand steps in parentheses) are:
1. Who are you? (brand identify) 2. What are you? (brand meaning) 3. What about you? What do I think or feel about you? ( brand response) 4. What about you and me? What kind of association and how much of a connection

would I like to have with you? ( brand relationships)

Brand Salience:

Achieving the right brand identity means creating brand salience with customers. Brand salience measures awareness of the brand, for example, how often and how easily the brand is evoked under various situation or circumstances.
1. To what extent is the brand top-of-mind and easily recalled or recognized? 2. What types of cues or reminders are necessary? 3. How pervasive is this brand awareness?

We’ve said that brand awareness refers to customer’s ability to recall and recognize the brand under different conditions and to link the brand name, logo, symbol, and so forth to certain associations in memory. In particular, building brand awareness helps customers understand the product or service category in which the brand competes and what products or services are sold under the brand name. It also ensures that customers know which of their “needs” the brand- through these products- is designed to satisfy. In other words, what basic function does the brand provides to customers?

INDIAN HISTORY Namaste and welcome to India- the land of amazing diversity and stunning landscapes. Stretching from the icy peak of the Himalayas to the tropical greenery of Kerala, and from the sacred Ganges to the sea of sand dunes in Thar Desert, the country encompasses incomparable variety. It is steeped in history, and every stone and ancient structure has a story to narrate. India's history is more than just a set of unique developments but it is, in many ways, a microcosm of human history. No matter how many Persians, Greeks, Chinese nomads, Arabs, Portuguese, British and other raiders invaded the land but India always formed a positive way out. Pre-Vedic and Vedic Age The history of this starling land begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization in such sites as Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Lothal. The twin cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa now in Pakistan possessed a sophisticated lifestyle, a highly developed sense of aesthetics, astonishing knowledge about town planning together with effective road side drainage system and multi storied houses. After surviving for about thousand years the civilisation fell to tectonic upheavals. The coming of the Aryans around 1500 B.C gave the final blow to collapsing Indus Valley Civilisation. The four Vedas or the important books of Hinduism were also compiled during this period. Buddism and Mourya Empire In 567 B.C, the founder of Buddhist religion Gautama Buddha was born. His Buddhism inspired the great king, Asoka of the Mauryan Empire to give up his warfare and embrace Buddhism and spread the same in many parts of Asia. He built the group of monuments at Sanchi ( a UNESCO world heritage site). The Asoka Pillar at Sarnath has been adopted by India as its national emblem and the Dharma Chakra adorns the national flag. Blend of Religions The Mauryas were followed by the Guptas in the North while in the South disparate Hindu empires, the Cholas, the Pandayas and the Cheras spread and grew. During this time Christianity and Zoroastrianism established their roots in India. In the 15th century Guru Nanak Dev laid the foundation of the Sikh Religion in Punjab. Islamic Sultanate

In 1192, the history of India took a new turn with the arrival of Mohammad of Ghori from Afghanistan who captured several places in North including Delhi. The rise of Islam was also witnessed during this period. The north region of India strengthened with time, till Timur from Turkey attacked India in 1398. He carried as much as valuables as he could and left India again. After this, the Delhi Sultanate was never that strong and soon lost their grip of the land to Mughals. Mughal Era (16th Century) Babar, the great grandson of Timur came to India in 1526 . He fought and defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate in the first battle of Panipat and laid the roots of the Mughal Empire. However it was Akbar, his grandson who contributed to a superlative degree in the glorification of the empire. He initiated Din - i - Ilahi, which was an attempt to blend Islam with Hinduism, Christianity, Jainism and other faiths. Vijaynagar Empire (1336-1646) The Hindu Vijaynagar Empire founded by Harihara, also known as Hakka, lasted for more than two centuries as the dominant power in South India. Urbanisation and monetization of economy were the significant developments of the period that brought all the peninsular kingdoms into highly competitive political and military activities in the race for supremacy. Great part of Vijaynagar Empire's history is obscure but its power and wealth are attested by more than one European traveller. Europeans The quest for wealth and power brought the Europeans to Indian shores. The Portuguese, French Dutch, Danish and British started arriving in India in the early 1600s. All of them held territories in India and got more and more involved with the Indian Politics by making friends and enemies among the Indian rulers. However it was the British who managed to control most of India by their intelligence and made it one of their colonies for about 200 years. Fruit of Independence The spirit of Indian nationalism was intensified with the growing dissatisfaction and discontent with the British rule due to the racial arrogance of the rulers. The economic exploitation both of the landlords and tenants, destruction of the old and famous royal dynasties such as those of Peshwas, Bhonsle, Avadh, Jhansi, Punjab and Satara, closure of Indian industries and forced land increase in the land revenues were some of the causes that led to the Revolt of 1857 also called as the Sepoy Mutiny. After a tough long struggle of the masses of India, guided by great national leaders, India managed to gain the fruit of independence on 15 th August 1947. In the years since independence India has achieved outstanding progress in many fields and has coped with several problems.

This study is based on research of historical references, demographics, cultural trends, economic forecasts, political landscape, inhabitants or residents, periodicals, and books regarding branding as it relates to municipalities. This paper further illustrates cities that have positive brand images and continue to experience brand success. The Creative Class and Municipal Marketing are also explored as new methods being utilized to measure the current market trends of cities. This information is based on a number of sources including books, periodicals, personal experience, word-of-mouth, residents, and advertising. There are reasons why people choose particular cities in which to live. Certain cities are making comebacks even when the industries they were built on have become obsolete. Brands evolve, and cities that survive have managed to evolve. Progress and technology have become both friend and foe. If you doubt that a new market for city brands is emerging, consider the loyalty a city can command. Strategists and planners are working at a feverish pace to re-brand cities or to brand a city that’s never had a strong brand in order to create a community where people will want to live. City planners are spending millions of rupees in brand investing to bring their cities to life, or in some instances, back to life. Volume breeds mediocrity, and the sheer scale of today's cities prevents them from excellence in all but pockets, quarters, and precincts. If a city is to be considered a brand, it must start with a brand’s most important characteristics; its fundamental properties. This means that a good city must have the following: • Offer attractive employment. • Not be unduly expensive in relation to wages. • Provide good and affordable housing. • Have reasonable public transportation.

• Have a reasonable climate. The way that brands work for a city is how these qualities are projected: by word ofmouth, public relations, and in some cases, advertising. These attributes must be based on something substantial. The city must be “live-able”. There must be an attraction to individuals.

Competition for residents has increased substantially among cities. This is in part because of globalization and technology. Society now has the choice of living in one place and working in another because of the Internet, laptops, home offices, and wireless connections. Living in one particular city if you want to succeed in a certain industry still exists, but is starting to erode. People now have the option of being able to do business anywhere in the world and can decide what is best location wise to provide them with the most benefits. Cities are also giving way to foreign manufacturing and can no longer bank on their traditional industries as a means to keep them alive. To combat this, they need to brand themselves as good places to live, where a diverse range of technology, industry, retail, and other attractions can thrive. For many cities, this could be their last opportunity to keep current residents and attract new ones.


A study of branding the cities through culture and entertainment which was conducted by Kavaratzis Mihalis, Stated ThatUrban and Regional Studies Institute, University of Groningen Place marketing has been established as a philosophy of place management and a function complementary to planning. Within the context of place marketing and in pursuit of wider place management goals, places throughout the world are shifting the focus towards place branding and are increasingly importing the concept and techniques of product and corporate branding. This is a trend that has been accelerated in recent years, especially within the new conditions created by the increasing role of image-based strategies and the growing importance of the cultural, leisure and entertainment industries within the contemporary economy, as much for tourists and other visitors, as for the local population. Both evidence from the practice, interest in the press and theoretical contributions on the topic suggest that Culture and Entertainment have a major role to play in local economic development. This is exemplified, for instance, in the intense competition between cities to become the cultural capital of Europe, which demands an increased investment. Also the transformation of derelict industrial areas into culture and entertainment districts has been seen all over Europe as a major “method” of regeneration and the means to revitalize local economy. Culture and Entertainment, therefore, have a major role to play in place and city branding as well. A role, that is apparent in the highlight in city promotional material of these new cultural districts, the promise of “exciting” entertainment opportunities, the emphasis on cultural events and festivals and cultural “flagship” projects. Especially the organization of small or bigger scale art, sport and other types of events and festivals are seen as instrumental in establishing and reinforcing the place’s brand. So far, the literature of place and city branding has dealt mostly with the appropriateness and possibility to transfer knowledge from the original field of marketing products to the peculiar operational environment of places and there is a clear focus on branding the place as a tourism destination. This paper first identifies distinct trends in the discussion, understanding and implementation of city branding, in order to assist in clarifying the concepts involved. The paper goes on to provide a description of the conceptual development of the trend of Cultural/entertainment branding, highlighting the important factors that lead cities to adopt such strategies. Finally it discusses elements that are necessary for cities to successfully undertake this kind of city branding by stressing the importance of cultural production, entertainment and the sign value of a city's attributes.

A city’s brand is increasingly considered an important asset for urban development and an effective tool for cities to distinguish themselves and improve their positioning. The introduction of corporate level marketing concepts and, especially, corporate branding has significantly contributed towards the development of a city branding theory. In practice, however, there is an evident confusion of a wide branding strategy with one of its components, namely the design of a new logo and slogan or, at best, the development of a promotional campaign. This paper first describes the rise of city branding and the reasons of its popularity and, after a short review of the basic elements of corporate branding, it goes on to identify essential similarities between these two forms of branding. It finally detects the need to adapt any branding tools to the needs of cities and addresses the necessity of a comprehensive city brand management framework. Journal of Brand Management (2009) 16, 520 – 531. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.bm.2550133; published online 23 November 2007 A study city branding- all smoke, no fire was conducted by Jorgen Stigel & soren Frimann stated thatSuccessful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are addressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from traditional product branding will inevitably give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their populations, and potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has become known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns’ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of – or willingness to face – these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated. Research on state branding is not new. For the past 40 years, numerous studies have been carried out on the so-called ‘country of origin effect’: the effect of national image on products. During the 90s, Philip Kotler dealt with the topic of place branding and marketing in four books: The Marketing of Nations (actually a book on economic development and government policy rather than on marketing), Marketing Places Europe (on how to attract investments, industries, residents and visitors to cities, communities, regions and nations in Europe), and Marketing Asian Places, and Marketing for Hospitality

and Tourism. Another significant contribution to the field is National Image and Competitive Advantage by Eugene D. Jaffe and Israel D. Nebenzhal. In addition to reviewing the theoretical underpinning of country image for products, they provide useful insight as to how it can be managed by countries, industries and firms. One of their central points is that country image is product specific. What’s much more recent, however, is the coining of the term “brand state” or “state branding.” The September 2001 publication in Foreign Affairs of the article “The Rise of the Brand State” by Peter Van Ham was a turning point, attracting a great deal of attention both from the academic community and the world of practitioners, and bringing about further research on the multidimensional nature of state branding. In April 2002 The Journal of Brand Management devoted a special issue to the topic of ‘Branding the Nation” bringing together contributions from the leading experts in the field, including scholars (Kotler, Papadoupulos), consultants (Anholt, Ollins) and practitioners. It is to this day the most comprehensive and up-to-date set of papers on state branding. In the consulting world, Simon Anholt, one of the leading international marketing thinkers, has written about state branding in the collective work Destination Branding, and more recently authored the book Brand New Justice, in which he argues that developing countries can increase their competitiveness and therefore reduce economic disparity through effective branding. Equally important is the work of Wally Ollins, whose book Trading Identities establishes a linkage between state branding and companies going global. Finally, the International Marketing Council of South Africa (IMC) has put together a number of case studies of how countries around the world (of India, Britain, Brazil, Thailand, Spain, Germany and others) have approached the promotion of their national image.


The structure of this report will focus on what successfully branded cities have done to brand themselves and compare, contrast, and offer insights to cities with indifferent brands or those in need of re-branding. This report will be examining the cases of cities which brand themselves well. Chamber of Commerce organizations for cities are realizing that strong and effective branding has become essential to the success of a city. Cities are seeking new ways to promote their individual personalities and unique qualities to attract a workforce, a creative community, culture, entertainment, leisure, and values. This attraction ultimately translates into residents and visitors who reap monetary rewards for the city. Cities developing brand images successfully are following the lead of corporations. They attempt to establish a target market and a client base they hope will translate into a loyal customer, which in this case is a loyal resident of the city. Brisbane Institute Director Peter Spearritt states, “Cities should try and promote themselves in ways that their residents find believable.” When branding a city, the personality of the people who live there needs to be an essential part of the brand, and if people are promoting the city from within, the word-of-mouth advertisement finds its way to potential customers.


Since source of primary data directly relevant was scare. It was decided that the analysis had to be secondary data analysis, collected directly from the Internet, News Paper, & Magazine.

Due to the availability of knowledge of specific problems, the research could be classified as an analytical research.
AREA OF STUDY: Area of study is Delhi-NCR.

 Delhi

 Noida  Ghaziabad  Gurgaon


According to the thesis of my research I have collected secondary data from Literature Review, Internet, News paper, & Magazine.

SOFTWARE USED: Microsoft Excel, MS word.


History: New Delhi was laid out to the south of the Old city which was constructed by Mughal Emperor Shah jahan. However, New Delhi overlays the site of seven ancient cities and hence includes many historic monuments like the Jantar Mantar and the Lodhi Gardens. Calcutta was the capital of India until December 1911 during the British Raj. However, Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient and medieval India, most notably of the Mughal Emperor from 1799 to 1849. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire (as it was officially called) from Calcutta to Delhi. Unlike Calcutta, which was located on the eastern coast of India, Delhi was located in northern India and the Government of British India felt that it would be easier to administer India from Delhi rather than from Calcutta. On December 12, 1911, during the Delhi Durbar, George V, the then Emperor of India , along with Queen mary, his Consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation park, Kingsway camp. The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on December 15, 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens (Sir Edwin from 1918) and Herbert Baker (Sir Herbert from 1926), both leading 20th century British architects, and the contract was given to Sobha Singh (later Sir Sobha Singh). Lutyens first visited Delhi in 1912, and construction really began after World War I and was completed by 1931, when the city later dubbed “Lutyens Delhi” was inaugurated on February 13, 1931, by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens laid out the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations. Though soon Lutyens started considering other places, and finalized on a site atop the Raisina Hill, formerly Raisina village, a Meo village, for the Rashtrapati Bhawan, then known as the Viceroy's House. The historic reason for this choice was that the hill laid directly opposite to the Dinapanah citadel, which was also considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911-1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood as

well, and embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretriat. The Rajpath, also known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, which houses various ministries of the Government of India, flanked out of the Rashtrapati Bhawan, and the Parliament House, both designed by Herbert Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath. After India gained independence in 1947, a limited autonomy was conferred to New Delhi and was administered by a Chief Commissioner appointed by the Government of India. In 1956, Delhi was converted into a union territory and eventually the Chief Commissioner was replaced by a Lieutenant Governor. The Constitution (sixty-nineth amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as National Capital Territory of Delhi. A system of diarchy was introduced under which the elected Government was given wide powers, excluding law and order which remained with the Central Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993.

Geography and Climate: With a total area of 42.7 Sq.Km, New Delhi forms a small part of the Delhi metropolitan area and is located in the Indo-genetic plain because of which there is little difference in the city's altitude. New Delhi and surrounding areas were once a part of the Aravalli Range, but all that is left now is the Delhi Ridge. The second feature is the Yamuna floodplains; New Delhi lies west of the Yamuna River, although for the most part, New Delhi is a landlocked city. East of the river is the urban area of Shahdara. New Delhi falls under the Seismic Zone- IV, making it vulnerable to major earthquakes. The climate of New Delhi is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Koppen climate classification Cwa) with high variation between summer and winter temperatures and precipitation. The temperature varies from 40 degrees Celsius in summers to around 4 degrees Celsius in winters. New Delhi's version of a humid subtropical climate is noticeably different from many other cities with this climate classification in that it features long and very hot summers, relatively dry cool winters, and monsoon and dust storms. Summers are long, from early April to October, with the monsoon season in between. Winter starts in November and peaks in January. The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 14 °C to 33 °C (58 °F to 92 °F). The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 mm (28.1 inches), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August. Government: As of 2005, the government structure of the New Delhi Muncipal Council includes a chairperson, three members of New Delhi's Legislative Assembly, two members nominated by the Chief Minister of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) and five members nominated by the central government. The current Chief Minister of the NCT

is Sheila Dikshit. According to the Indian constitution, if a law passed by Delhi's legislative assembly is repugnant to any law passed by the Parliament of India, then the law enacted by the parliament shall prevail over the law enacted by the assembly. New Delhi is governed through a muncipal government, known as the New Delhi Muncipal Council. Other urban areas of the metropolis of Delhi are administered by the Muncipal Corporation of Delhi. However, the entire metropolis of Delhi is commonly known as New Delhi in contrast to Old Delhi. Urban Structure: Much of New Delhi, planned by the leading 20th century British architect Edwin Lutyens, was laid out to be the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial pretensions. New Delhi is structured around two central promenades called the Rajpath and the Janpath. The Rajpath, or King's Way, stretches from theRashtrapati Bhavan to the India Gate. The Janpath (Hindi: "Path of the People"), formerly Queen's Way, begins at Connaught Circus and cuts the Rajpath at right angles. Nineteen (19) foreign embassies are located on the nearby Shantipath (Hindi: "Path of Peace"), making it the largest diplomatic enclave in India. At the heart of the city is the magnificent Rashtrapati Bhavan (formerly known as Viceroy's House) which sits atop Raisina Hill. The Secretariat, which houses various ministries of the Government of India, flanks out of the Rashtrapati Bhavan. The Parliament House, designed by Herbert Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath. The Connaught Place is a large, circular commercial area in New Delhi, modeled after the Royal Crescent in England. Twelve separate roads lead out of the outer ring of Connaught Place, one of them being the Janpath. Transport: Being a planned city, New Delhi has numerous arterial roads, some of which have an iconic status associated with them such as Rajpath,Janpath and Akbar Road. In 2005, private vehicles accounted for 30% of total transportation demand for the Delhi metropolitan area. Road construction and maintenance is primarily the responsibility of NDMC's Civil Engineering Department. Underground subways are a common feature across New Delhi. As of 2008, 15 subways were operational. In 1971, the administrative responsibility of the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) was transferred from Municipal Corporation of Delhi to Government of India following which DTC extended its operations to New Delhi. In 2007, there were 2700 bus stops in New Delhi, of which 200 were built and maintained by NDMC and the rest by DTC. The Delhi Metro, constructed and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), connects the city with the rest of the metropolis of Delhi. Under an agreement with NDMC, DMRC can acquire land for the construction of metro rail and stations in New Delhi without any financial implications. NDMC is also constructing multi-level parking

systems in collaboration with DMRC at various Delhi metro stations across New Delhi to increase parking space. The New Delhi Railway Station which is the main railway station in Delhi is the second busiest and one of the largest stations in India connects Delhi with the rest of the country. Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is the primary aviation hub of Delhi. In 2006– 07, the airport recorded traffic of more than 23 million passengers, making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. New US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 will handle an additional 34 million passengers annually. Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020. Safdarjung Airport is the other airfield in Delhi used for general aviation purpose. Demographics: In 2001, New Delhi had a population of 179,112 while the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) had a population of 13,850,507 making it the second largest metropolitan area in India after Mumbai. There are 925 women per 1000 men in NCT, and the literacy rate is 81.67%. Hinduism is the religion of 86.8% of New Delhi's population. There are also large communities of Muslims (6.3%), Sikhs (2.4%), Jains (1.1%) and Christians (0.9%) in Delhi. Other minorities include Parsis, Buddhists and Jews. Hindi is the principal spoken language while English is the principal written language of the city. The linguistic groups from all over India are well represented in the city; among them are Haryanvi, Rajasthani, Punjabi, Urdu, Bihari, Bengali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Garhwali, Ka nnada, Malayalam, North-East, Marathi and Gujaratiroughly in same order.




Traditionally, the term “Marketing” has been a term applied to the craft of linking the producers of a product or a service with customers, both existing and potential. However, in popular usage the term refers to the promotion of products, especially advertising and branding. In professional usage the term refers to a customer centered product, and for our purposes, a city. The traditional ‘Marketing Mix’, otherwise known as ‘The four P’s’, consists of Price, Promotion, Product and Placement. Not only do cities focus on the Marketing Mix, but also on Relationship Marketing (marketing them from a long term relationship perspective), rather than individual, one-time transactions. A municipality is defined as “an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government.” Cities across the India are striking deals with corporate sponsors in an effort to raise money for municipalities. This has become a trend in order to balance budgets. “This trend is driven by city officials trying to balance the budgets. Citizens expect more from government, but they don’t want property or sales taxes to increase.” says Douglas Peterson, who studied the issue for the National League of Cities. These way cities can balance budgets easier without raising taxes. Although it looks like it could be a win-win situation, it has gotten plenty of criticism for selling out city resources.


Research Paper on “Branding the City through Culture and Entertainment” by “Kavaratzis Mihalis” Urban and Regional Studies Institute University of Groningen Research Paper on “City Branding – All Smoke, No Fire?” by “Jorgen Stigel & Soren Frimann” Nordicom Review 27 (2006), pp.245-268 Research Paper on “Beyond the Logo: Brand Management for Cities” by Gregory Ashworth and Kavaratzis Mihalis in 3rd Octuber, 2007 INTERNET www.wttc.org/eng/tourism_research/economic www.itopc.org www.delhitourism.com www.kerlatourism.com www.goatourism.com Newspaper Travel ET Yatra


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