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Registration No. : IIMM/DH/02/2006/8154
Name : Vikash Khichi
Answer 1. (a) Book Keeping It can be defined as “Systematic Recording of business transactions in a set of books”. The importance of recording business transactions need not be emphasized whether it is business or non business activities. Hence book keeping is very important and essential for any person. Here the person may be a Proprietary Concern, or Business Organizations such as Partnership Firms, Private or Public Limited Companies, Charitable Institutions, Educations Institutions, State Government, Central Government or any local bodies. Transaction To transact means to perform or carry out business. Thus ‘transaction’ is an event of business between two or more persons or group of persons. The transaction involves exchange of money, goods, property or services, viz. Sales, purchase, cash/cheque receipt or payment. A more adjustment in the books can also be a transaction. Single Entry Book Keeping: First let us know what is meant by single entry booking keeping. Here it is not desired to go into the details of single entry book keeping but only to make the student understand the term of single entry book-keeping as one can always have in his mind what is this double entry? Yes, there is single-entry system of accounting which is an old and unprofessional method of accounting wherein only Personal Accounts and a Cash Accounts are maintained. Further, only one aspect of each transaction as it affects the Personal Account is recorded. In certain cases though there may be books viz, Sales purchases returns and bills etc. the postings from these books are made only to the Personal Accounts concerned. As explained above it sis not our intention to go into further details of single-entry system as this system is not popular as it ahs many disadvantages like (i) the arithmetic accuracy of the books cannot be tested as two fold aspect of transactions are not recorded (ii) Since nominal accounts are not kept it will be difficult to obtain information regarding profit and loss of the business periodically. (iii) One cannot ascertain the exact financial potion on a particular date (IV) The information available on single entry system may not be reliable. (v) It can encourage fraud and misappropriation as assets accounts are not generally maintained. (vi) If one wants to sell the business it will be difficult to evaluate the assets and liabilities and also good will on a particular date. An example of a non-cash transaction is ordering a vehicle for £15,000. The vehicle might take a month to arrive. During that month, a single entry system would not record the transaction on the formal accounts. This would mean that the accounts showed you as having £15,000 more than you do: a dangerous situation. With the above serious draw backs in the Single Entry System, the same is not usually practical now and hence the Double Entry Systems has been developed. Double Entry System of Book – Keeping In this system each transaction is given two effects once on the credit side. In other words every debit will have a corresponding credit. This debit and credit are recorded simultaneously. One or more accounts are debited and for equal amount one or more accounts are credited. Hence the totals of debit and credit will be equal. This system is called double-entry because each transaction is recorded in at least two accounts. Each transaction results in at least one account being debited and at least one account being credited, with the total debits of the transaction equal to the total credits. This requirement has a benefit to the bookkeeper, but also introduces confusion to the layman. The benefit is that the accuracy of the accounts can be checked quickly - for, when all the accounts that have debit balance are summed, they
should equal the sum of all the accounts which have a credit balance. Without this requirement, there would be no quick means to check accuracy. The confusion arises because a healthy business with money in the bank will have a debit balance in the account called "Bank". This is contrary to the layman's experience that, when the layman's bank balance is healthy, his bank statement shows a credit balance. An easy way to visualize this is to consider that the bank writes the statement from its own point of view; hence if you are in credit, you are a liability on their balance sheet - you can turn up and draw your money out. Consider also these two examples, if Business A sells an item for cash to Business B, the bookkeeper of the Business A would credit the account called "Sales" and debit the account called "Bank". Conversely, the bookkeeper of Business B, would debit the account called "Purchases" and credit the account called "Bank". For instance, you might have an account called ‘Goods ordered’. Then, if the vehicle above was ordered, the cash account would decrease by £15,000, and the ‘Goods ordered’ account would increase by £15,000. This is just a transfer in the accounts: no real money would have moved. But it would show you that you have put aside £15,000 for something. When the vehicle arrives, and you have to pay the bill for it, then the double entry that you make would be to decrease the ‘Goods ordered’ account by £15,000, and increase the ‘vehicles’ account by £15,000.
Answer 1. (b) Basic Features of Accounting Principles: Following are the three basic features of allowing principles − − − usefulness objectivity feasibility
Usefulness: An accounting principle should be useful; an accounting rule which does not increase the utility of the records is not accepted as an accounting principle. Objectivity: Accounting principle should be objective in nature. It should not be influenced by personal bias. Feasibility: Accounting principle should be practicable and feasible. Kinds of Accounting Principles: There are two kinds of accounting principles, “Concepts” and conventions”. The term concept is used to mean the accounting postulates necessary ideas and assumptions which are fundamental to accounting practice. The term convention is used to mean customs and or traditions as a guide to the preparation of accounting statements. The following diagram gives the classification of generally accepted accounting principle into “concepts” and conventions.
Concepts Entity Going Concern Duality Accounting Period Historic cost Money Measurement Revenue Recognition Maching Accural Objectivity
The following chart also explain the accounting principles ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES
While Recording Transactions
While Preparing Financial Statement
Verifiable Continuity Accounting Objective Evidence Period
Matching of Cost & Revenue
Let us now briefly understand what the above concepts and conventions indicate. Concepts Entity: Which means a business institution in its own rights is difference from the parties who owns it. In other words a business institution is a legal person having its own entity and is different from those who have generated the funds to form it. Continuity or Going Concern: Which means a business institution when set up is not expected to be liquidated or dissolved in the near future; it is perpetual. It is assumed that the concern will continue indefinitely.
Duality Concept: The recognition of two aspects to every transaction is known as duality concept or dual aspect analysis. Modern financial accounting is based on such recognition. One entry consists of debit to one or more accounts and another entry consists of credit to one or more accounts. The total amount debited equals to the total amount credited. This balancing of the debit and credit is the fundamental and basic concept of modern accounting. Accounting Period: Twelve months period is normally adopted as accounting period under the Companies Act and Banking Regulations Act. Accounts are to be prepared for a 12 months period.
Historic Cost: This concept indicates that the value of transaction is recorded at the price paid to acquire it, that is at its cost and the cost is the basis for all subsequent accounting. The value may change in future but the recorded cost does not change. Money Measurement: In this concept all the event, happening or transaction is recorded in terms of money. In other words a fact or a happening which cannot be expressed in terms of money is not recorded in the accounting books. Revenue Recognition / Realization Concept: The revenue is derived from selling the products, rendering services, disposing of resources other than products. The revenue is generally recognized when the earning process is complete or reasonably complete and an exchange is taken place. Thus when a sale has been affected there is evidence of revenue realized and the inventory exchanged for costs or account receivable. Maching: This concept consists of two different concepts, concepts of accounting period and concept of matching. Once the revenue is recognized to have been earned then it is essential to determine the related expenses and costs incurred for earning the same. For determining the net profit, both costs viz. product cost and period costs are matched against revenue. This process is known as matching of cost against revenue. Accrual: This concept indicates that the revenue recognition depends on its realization and not actual receipt. Provision to be made for income accrued relating to a particular period. Similarly provision to be made for expense incurred or proposed to incur against particular revenue already accounted. This concept is known as accrual basis. Objectivity: According to this concept all accounting must be based on objective evidence. In other words the transaction recorded should be supported by verifiable documents.
Answer 2. (a) Need and Importance of Final Account: Generally the Trading, Profit and Loss Accounts are prepared every financial year (12 months period) to find out status of business, profit or loss and also to know the Asset & Liabilities (net worth) of the business, such accounts can be made of regular intervals depending on need for decision making.
It is important to know the following terms during finalization. Trial Balance (T/B): The trial balance is prepared by listing out the balances (Debit or Credit) of each ledger account (summary of account). If the balances are rightly recorded the credit and debit balance if totalled will tally. This ensures arithmetical accuracy of the account. Balance Sheet (B/S): This is a statement which shows the capital assets and liabilities of a business. Incomes: This amount will show the various receipt of amount by sale of goods or services rendered. Expenses: This is the amount spent for running the business; it covers all expenses. Closing Entries Again through journal proper we have to make certain entries to transfer all nominal accounts to trading, profit and loss account. After passing the entries the relevant ledger accounts are posted two more accounts, trading accounts and profit and loss account are prepared. After preparation of Trading, Profit & Loss Account, only Real and Personal Account (Assets & Liabilities) will have balances which will be later on opening balances for the next accounting period. Depreciation The process of writing off of a part of the cost of the various assets like land, building, vehicles, plant, machinery etc. used in business is known as depreciation. Many of the assets will have a life span and hence the cost written off every year be used to replace such assets. The expenditure incurred for acquiring the assets are known as capital expenditure. Process of Finalization of Accounts Briefly following is the finalization process of accounts. The balance in all ledger accounts, balance in cash books, petty cash books, bank book are summarized and tabulated in the form of trial balance as per the following format. Trial Balance for the period 01-04-06 to 31-03-07
Name of Ledger Folio Debit (Rs.) Credit (Rs.) Account The total of Debit Column and Credit Column will be equal which ensures arithmetical accuracy. Adjustments entries are passed, closing entries are passed Depreciation is calculated on assets as per rules Following illustration will explain the process clearly
TRIAL BALANCE AS ON 31-03-2007 PARTICULARS Purchase Account Sales Returns Sales Account
DEBIT (DR) Rs. 41,000 3,000
CREDIT (CR) Rs.
Purchase Returns Staff Welfare Account Conveyance Account Salaries Account Postage & Telegram Account Interest Account Depreciation Account Books & Periodicals Account Discount Allowed Account Rent Account Professional Charges Account Electricity Account Bad Debts Account Discount Received Account Capital Account Avinash Loan Account Balu Account Shyam Account Chavan Account Goods withdrawn for Personal use A/c. Goods withdrawn for Free Sample A/c. Goods Donated A/c Goods lost by theft Account Drawings Account Plant & Machinery Account Furniture & Fixture Account Office Equipment Account Investments Account Telephone Deposit Account Dinesh Account Rajesh Account Raj Account Cash on hand Bank Balance Advertisement Account Donation and charity Account Loss by Theft Account Advance Salary Account Advance to Saurabh Account Divident Account Profit on Sale of Furniture Account Hemali Account Bank Charges Account Bank Interest Account Jay Account Bombay Furniture Mart Account TOTAL Following additional information is given
20,000 200 50 300 25 2,000 1,670 40 50 100 250 150 50 160 44,000 10,000 5,000 1,000 1,500 500 200 300 50 1,100 4,080 2,000 1,350 3,000 1,500 2,000 5,000 3,850 13,795 22,530 200 300 50 100 2500 300 1,000 100 20 50 5,000 1,17,360 5,000 1,17,360
i. Stock as on 31st march 2007 was Rs. 2,800/- at cost. The market value of which was Rs. 3,500/ii. Interest of Rs. 800/- was paid in advance iii. Salaries of Rs. 60/- were outstanding at end of the year. For illustration, the following adjusting and closing entries are passed (also taking into additional information provided above.
Decide whether transaction is Completed or not No No entry Yes Decide which subsidiary Book to enter
Sale Return Enter in Sales Return Registers
Cash Transaction Enter in Cash Book Registers
Enter in Purchase Registers
Enter in Sales Registers
Enter in Purchase Return
Enter in Bank Book
Enter in journal Proper
Post in Ledger
Balance Ledger Accounts
Prepare Trial Balance
Prepare Final Accounts
Financial forecasting is a continuous process of directing and allocating financial resources to meet strategic goals and objectives. The output from financial planning takes the form of budgets. The most widely used form of budgets is Pro Forma or Budgeted Financial Statements. The foundation for Budgeted Financial Statements is Detail Budgets. Detail Budgets include sales forecasts, production forecasts, and other estimates in support of the Financial Plan. Collectively, all of these budgets are referred to as the Master Budget.
Answer 2. (b)
We can also break financial forecasting down into planning for operations and planning for financing. Revenue people focus on sales and production while financial planners are interested in how to finance the operations. Therefore, we can have an Revenue Plan and a Financial Plan. However, to keep things simple and to make sure we integrate the process fully, we will consider financial forecasting as one single process that encompasses both operations and financing. Financial forecasting aims at predetermining the demand for funds and the avenues where in the funds are to be utilized. Thus, a systematic projection of the financial data is made in the form of financial statements. Fund Flow Statement, Financial ratios etc. These projections are based on past record of an enterprise with a view to predict the future financial performance. Financial forecasting generates certain information which is utilized by the management of an enterprise for taking decisions particularly for judging the financial efficiency of the funds and projecting a scale of standards to be followed in the future course. Another important basic objective of financial forecasting is its use as a control device. Standard of financial performance of an enterprise could e laid down through financial forecasting for evaluating the results and assuring its growth. It aids the corporate unit in planning its growth on anticipation of the financial needs. Optimum utilization of fund, by a company can be
planned through financial forecasting. A pre-testing of financial feasibility of implementation of its production prospects or programmes can also be arranged through financial forecasting. Financial forecasting is done by using the following techniques: 1) Fund Flow Analysis 2) Proforma Financial Statements 3) Cash Budget (1) Fund Flow Analysis
Fund flow analysis is accomplished by preparing a fund flow statement for evaluating the uses of funds and determining the sources of funds to finance those uses. Fund flow analysis is done by studying past fund flows and projecting future fund flows. Fund flow statement provides the management of a corporate enterprise complete first hand knowledge of the financial growth of the enterprise and its resulting financial needs. As a matter of fact funds flow statement is known as the best way of determine as to how to finance those needs. It is a useful foot in planning needs. (2) Proforma Financial Statement
Preparation of Proforma financial statement is another technique for financial forecasting. In Proforma financial statement, the Proforma Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account (or Income Statement) is prepared to enable the management to evaluate the performance of the enterprise in future financial conditions. (3) Cash Budget
Cash Budget is another technique of financial forecasting. It is used to determine short term cash needs. The liquidity position of an enterprise and degree of business risk involved for planning a realistic margin of safety. It given clues of the enterprise for adjusting the liquidity cushion, rearranging maturity structure of the debts and making arrangement for availing cash credit facilities from the banks.
PROBLEMS IN FINANCIAL FORECASTING (1) Business environment is frequently changing. Every change reflects upon the uncertainty of future and enhances the degree of incompatibility of present decision in future. Therefore, the likely margin of error inherent in forecasting the future should be considered in advance to avoid disappointment caused by false results and the loss to be incurred due to inaccuracy attached to the forecast. (2) Pretesting under controlled conditions of forecast should be done by designing alternative forecasts for making a better choice and flexibility in decision making by allowing to pick up one out of several alternative forecasts. (3) Continuous modifications should be made in forecasting to adjust the same against changes in business environment. Many experts hold that forecasting is a changeable phenomenon and forecasts should be continuously reviewed and modified and adjusted to changes in sales volumes, inventory levels, balances of debtors affected by seasonal parameters. (4) To make the forecast reliable and also as a precautionary measure to unpredictability of forecasting results, the corporate enterprise is advised by experts to maintain sufficient cash balances to minimize the risk involved in higher degree of unpredictability associated with forecasting liquidity. (5) Use of mathematical techniques can make the forecast more reliable and dependable. These techniques may include (a) simple linear regression method; (b) simple curvilinear regression method or (c) multiple regression models.
Answer 4. (a) Process of Determination of Cost The Process of determination of cost involves the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Collection and classification of costs. Analysis of costs. Allocation and appointment of costs to the cost centres or cost units. Absorption of overheads Determination of costs.
(1) Collection and classification of costs: After costs are collected from some basic or subsidiary documents, they have to be classified and analyzed according to the needs of the organization. Costs may be classified according to their nature and a number of other characteristics. Such as, function variability, controllability, normality etc. This has been discussed in detail subsequently. (2) Analysis of Costs: If management is to be provided with the data required for cost control it is necessary to analyse costs. The total cost of production or service can be ascertained without such analysis and in most cases an average unit cost can also be obtained, but none of the by what is known as “Element of Cost”. (3) Allocation and apportionment of costs to the Cost Centres or Cost Units: Allocation implies identification of the overhead costs with particular cost centre or production or service department to which they relate. It is the process of charging the full amount of overhead costs to a particular cost centre. This is possible when the nature of expense is such that it can be easily identified with a particular cost centre. As for example, the salary paid to a foreman of a particular production department can be directly identified with that department and therefore it should be directly charged to that production department. Appointment refers to the distribution of overheads among department of cost centres on an equitable basis. In short, appointment involves charging a share of the aggregate overhead expenses, to a number of departments or cost centres. This is done in case of those overhead items which cannot be wholly allocated to a particular department. As for example, the salary paid to the works manager of the factory, factory rent, general manager’s salary etc. cannot be charged wholly to a particular department or cost centre, but will have to be charged to all departments or cost centres on an equitable basis. A greater degree of precision is required in allocation while there is an effort to obtain a reasonable standard of precision in apportionment. (4) Absorption of overheads: Absorption of overheads is charging of overheads from cost centres to products or services by means of absorption rates for each cost centre which is calculated as follows : Overhead absorption Rate = Total overheads of the cost centre Total quantum of base The base (denominator) is selected on the basis of type of the cost centre and its contribution to the products or services, for example, machine hours, labour hours, quantity produced etc. Overhead absorbed = Overhead absorption rate x units of base in product or service (5) Determination of Cost: After the costs are analysed into different elements the next step is to proceed towards determining the total cost. In arriving at the total cost of the product from the different elements of cost, the build up is done in four stages successfully known as (I) Prime Cost, (II) Works Cost of Factory Cost (III) Cost of Production and (IV) Total Cost or Cost of Sales. This can be expressed in the form of chart as follows: Components of Total Cost 1st Stage 2nd Stage 1. Direct 4. Prime 6. Works Cost or Materials Cost Add (+) Factory Cost Add (+) 2. Direct 5. Factory 7. Office and Labour Overhead or Administration Works Overhead Overhead 3. Direct Expenses
3rd Stage 4th Stage 8.Cost of 10. Total cost of Cost Production Add of Sales (+) 9. Selling and Distribution Overhead
Prime Cost: Direct materials plus direct labour plus direct expenses together make up the prime cost. This is also known as direct cost first cost, flat cost etc. (II) Works Cost:
Prime cost plus works overhead together make up the Works Cost. This is also known as Factory cost, production cost, manufacturing cost etc. (III) Cost of Production:
Works cost plus office and administration overhead together makeup the cost of production. This is also known as office cost, administrative cost etc. (IV) Total Cost:
Cost of production plus selling and distribution plus selling and distribution overhead together make up the total cost. This is also known as cost of sales, selling cost etc.
Answer 4. (b) Working capital management is a significant fact of financial management. Its importance arises from two reasons − Investment in current assets represents a substantial portion of total investment. − Investment in current asset and the level of current liabilities have to be geared quickly to changes in sales. Hence any business in operations need long term investment in fixed assets like Land, Building, and Plant & Machinery etc. and also for daily operation, cash, raw material, finished goods, receivables etc. Constituents of current assets & current liabilities Part A - Current Assets Inventories − − − − Raw Materials and components Work in progress Finished goods Others
Trade Debtors Loans & advances Investment Cash and Bank balances Part B - Current Liabilities − − − − − − Sundry Creditors Trade Advances Borrowings Commercial Banks Provisions Others
Factors influencing the requirement of working capital
The requirement of working capital is generally decided by the Revenue cycle of the business which we discussed above.
− − − − −
Daily requirement of cash Minimum requirement of raw material for smooth production activities The number of day’s requirement to convert raw material into finished product. Minimum quantity of finished goods to be kept on stock to meet market demand. The number of day’s credit given to customers. Current Assets Cycle Finished Goods
Work in Process
Wages, Salaries Factory Overheads
CREDIT POLICY The credit policy of a company is very important for the business prospects and hence a decision on this should be taken after considering various factors. a. b. c. d. e. Government guidelines Nature of product Competition Customer background Financial position of the company
We will see how the decision of credit policy affects the working of the company and the profitability. Following three credit policies were under consideration of ‘X’ Ltd we have to find out which of the policies would be beneficial to the company considering the net profit for the year concerned. Particulars Sales in Units Sales price per unit (RS.) Profit/Volume Ratio Fixed Cost (Rs) Cost of Credit Interest Collection expenses Bad Debts Answer Particulars Sales Less: Variable cost Credit Policy (A) 25,00,000 12,50,000
Credit Policy (A) Credit Policy (B) Credit Policy (C) 60 30 days 45 days days 25,000 30,000 40,000 100 100 100 50% 51% 51% 1,00,000 1,00,000 1,00,000 15% 15% 15% 1% 2% 3% 1% 2% 3%
Credit Policy (B) 30,00,000 14,70,000
Credit Policy (C) 40,00,000 19,60,000
Contribution Less: Fixed Cost Gross Profit (a) Less: Cost of credit Interest Collection Expenses Bad Debts Total cost of credit (b) Net Profit (a) - (b)
12,50,000 1,00,000 11,50,000 30,822, 25,000 25,000 80,822 10,69,178
15,30,000 1,00,000 14,30,000 55,479 60,000 60,000 1,75,479 12,54,521
20,40,000 1,00,000 19,40,000 98,630 1,20,000 1,20,000 3,38,630 16,01,370
From the above working, we can come to a conclusion that credit policy ‘C’ would give more profit hence to be ranked as I, credit policy ‘B’ as II and credit policy ‘A’ as III. Note: collection expenses and bad debts are calculated as percentage of sales. Interest is calculated on average receivables. Credit policy ‘A’ Rs.25,00,000 x 30 = Rs. 2,05,479/365 Interest on Rs. 2,05,479 x 15% = Rs. 30,822/Policy ‘B’ Interest on Policy ‘C’ Rs. 30,00,000 x 45 = Rs. 3,69,863/365 Rs. 3,69,863 x 15% = Rs. 55,479/Rs. 40,00,000 x 60 = Rs. 6,57,534/-
Interest on 6,57,534 x 15% = Rs. 98,630/-
Answer 5. (a) Budgetary Capital Expenditure The capital budgeting refers to the process of planning the investment of funds is long term assets of an enterprise. The purpose is to help the management control capital expenditure. With the help of capital budgeting, the management is able to reject poor investment decisions and select profitable ones. The same principles apply to additions, replacements modification etc. where funds are required. A wide range of techniques are used for evolving investment proposals. The most commonly used technique are as follows: − − − The pay back period method (PBP) The average rate of return method (ARR) Discounted cash flow method (DCF)
The pay back method (PBP) This technique estimate the time required by the project to recover through cash inflows, the first initial outlay while estimating net cash inflows the following points are to be considered. − − − The cash inflows should be estimated on incremental basis, so that only the difference between the cash inflows of the firm with an without the proposed investment is considered. Cash inflow should be estimated on after tax basis. Since non cash expense like depreciation do not involve any cash out flows estimated cash inflows form a project should be adjusted for such item. Pay back period = Initial investment Annual cash inflows = Rs.25,000 5,000 = 5 Years
The annual cash inflow is calculated taking into account the net income of the asset before depreciation and after taxation advantages of pay back period method. 1. 2. 3. It is easy to calculate and investment proposals can be ranked quickly. It considers early recovery of investment The pay back method permits the firm to determine the length of time required to recover the investment.
It is suitable for industries which are subject to early obsolescence. Due to lesser PBP the operational tension is less for the managers.
DISADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. 4. It ignores the time value of money It does not consider long term profits given by a firm It does not take into account salvage value (Residual value) of the asset. It ignores the cost of capital
Suitability of the Method − Where the firm suffers from liquidity problem and is interested in quick recovery of fund the profitability. − High external financing cost of the project. − Those projects involving uncertain return − Political and economic pressures. Average Accounting of rate of return method (ARR) This method considers the relative profitability of different capital investment proposals for ranking the projects. Rate of return is calculated by dividing earnings by capital invested. We may find number of variations to the average rate of return method. The following are the common variations. a) Average rate of return on original investment = Net earnings after depreciation of taxes ÷ Average investment No. of years project will last b) Average rate of return on average investment = Net earnings after depreciation of taxes ÷ Average investment No. of years project will last Average investment is arrived at by dividing the total original investment and investment in the project at the end of its economic life by 2. The following example will help us to learn how the ARR is calculated and how it can be compared with pay back period method. There are two investments proposals ‘A’ and ‘B’ each with capital investment of Rs. 20,000/and depreciable like of 4 years. Assume that following are the estimated profits and cash inflows when annual straight line depreciation charges is Rs. 5,000/-
1 2 3 4 Total
Project ‘A’ Project ‘B’ Book Profits Net Cash inflows Book Profits Net cash inflows Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. 4,000 9,000 1,000 5,000 3,000 8,000 2,000 6,000 2,000 7,000 3,000 7,000 1,000 6,000 4,000 8,000 10,000 30,000 10,000 30,000
Average rate of return = Average Annual Profit x 100 Investments x 2500 x 100 ARR = *2,500 x 100 2,000 2,000 = 12.5% = 12.5% * Average profit of 4 years Hence both the projects are equally profitable as per ARR method. But if we apply PBP method project ‘A’ is more favourable as it gives better cash flows in the initial years Advantages of this method 1. Earnings for the entire life of profits are considered. 2. Easy to understand and single to follows 3. Accounting comparison possible
Disadvantages 1. It does not consider early recovery of investments 2. Not suitable for fast changing industries 3. Does not consider time value of money.
Answer 5. (b) Budget as Tools of Control As discussed before the budget is a statement of estimated performance for a specific period. The means of performance evaluation is the comparison between the ideals and actual. Hence the ideals are the budgeted or standard specifications which are not before preparation of the budget. Hence the actual performance is confirmed with the standard / budgeted performance. This comparison gives the fact of success or failure of the actual performance. Budgetary control refers to the principles, procedure and practices of achieving given objective through budgets. A budgetary control system secures control over Performa and costs in the different parts of a business. If a budgeting is the Art of planning, budgetary control is the act of adhering to the plan. Advantages of budgetary control The principle advantages of a budgetary control system are as follows: 1. Budgetary control aims at maximization of profits through effective planning and control of income and expenditure. 2. There is a planned approach to expenditure and financing of the business so that economy is affected in the utilization of funds to the optimum benefit of the concern. 3. It provides a clear definition of the objective and policies of the concern and subjecting these policies to provide reviews. 4. The task of managerial coordination is facilitated through budgeting control. 5. Since each level of management is aware of its task to be performed maximum utilization of men, material and resources can be attained. 6. Reports are furnished under the principles of management or control by exception; only deviations from budgets which point out the week spots and inefficiencies are properly looked into 7. It enables the management to think ahead, making possible to identify the problems in advances before taking decisions. 8. Budgetary control system assists delegation of authority and is a powerful tool of responsibility accounting. 9. Budgets help setting up the conditions for standard tooling. 10. Provides a basis for performance appraisal (variance analysis). A budget is basically a yardstick against which actual performance is measured and assessed. Control is provided by comparisons of actual results against budget plan. Departures from budget can then be investigated and the reasons for the differences can be divided into controllable and noncontrollable factors. 11. It helps in establishing reward and punishment system for better / work performance. 12. It ensures better working capital. 13. Prerequisites for an effective budgeting control system. 14. The objectives, plans and policies of the business should be defined in clear terms.
15. A budget committed should be set up for formation and execution of plans. 16. The budges should primarily be prepared by those who are responsible to perform. 17. For the success of a budgetary control system there should be a sound organization for budget preparations, headed by budget controller or budget director. Phases in budgetary control Following are the stages to be considered and followed while budget as a technique of control and performance evaluation. 1. Preparing a budget statement 2. Recording the actual performance 3. Periodical comparison between the budgeted and actual performance and finding out the variances (favourable and unfavourable). 4. Foundry out the causes for such variances 5. Grouping the variances as ‘controllable’ and uncontrollable based on the causes found. 6. Deciding the quantum of reward of penalty for the individual or group of individuals for their favourable or unfavourable variances. 7. If required revising the standards or budgeted specification in order to suit the cyclical environment changes. It is clear from above that the process of budgetary control has to be continuous, flexible and unbiased. The technique of budgetary control requires the knowledge and practical application of following concepts: 1. Cost benefit analysis including social, 2. Contingency approach 3. Responsibility accounting based on the application of the technique of variance analysis. 4. Value analysis for revenues, system, cost incurrence etc. 5. Application of certain mathematical models such as PERT, CPM, Transportation and assignment models, L.P. and simplex models, sensitivity analysis, etc.
Answer 6. (b) Indian Financial Market Financial market means an organized or unorganized system though which funds are raised by the industries to meet their financial needs. The savings of both individual and corporate sector are harnessed to meet the above need. Let us now find out the structure of Indian Financial Market. INDIAN FINANCIAL MARKET
Indian Financial System
Unorganized Money Lenders Indigenous Bankers Securities Market
Organized Loans from Banking Non Banking Financial Institutions
New Issue Market
IFCI ICICI LIC IDBI UTI SIDBI State Finance Corporations
From the above chart we can observe that the Indian Capital Market is mainly divided into two organized and unorganized. Under unorganized we have money lenders and Indigenous Bankers. In the organized sector we have a host of Agencies and Systems, Security Market under which there are news issues and further Government bonds and Corporate Securities. Then there is stock market under which again Government Bonds and Corporate Securities and under Corporate Securities here are again Bonds and Shares. In addition to these under organized sector there are Banks and Non Banking Financial Institutions exclusively engaged in capital financing. The organized sector is under the direct control of Reserve Bank of India and those under the unorganized sector they work under certain guidelines of government or Reserve Bank of India. Let us now have a look into the role of major financial institutions that provides long and medium term capital market.
Answer 6. (c) Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is a board (autonomous body) created by the Government of India in 1988 and given statutory form in 1992 with the SEBI Act 1992. Its head office is in Mumbai, and other offices in Chennai, Kolkatta and Delhi. SEBI is the regulator of Securities markets in India. SEBI has three functions rolled into one body: quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial and quasiexecutive. It drafts rules in its legislative capacity, it conducts enquiries and enforcement action in its executive function and it passes rulings and orders in its judicial capacity. Though this makes it very powerful, there is an appeals process to create accountibility. There is a Securities Appeallate Tribunal which is a three member tribunal and is presently headed by a former Chief Justice of a High court Mr. Justice NK Sodhi. A second appeal lies directly to the Supreme Court(where important questions of law arise. In 1998 Government of India established the Board with the following objectives. − − − − − − To guide & control companies while issuing shares / debentures etc. To regulate stock market operation To audit and inspect the brokers, lenders etc. To control amalgamation and mergers To design rules for investor protection To control intermediates like, mutual funds, Merchant Bankers, portfolio managers etc.
Answer 6. (d) Capital and Revenue There are no single fixed criteria for deciding the distinction between capital and Revenue Expenditure and Receipt. Capital Expenditure: An expenditure incurred to get an asset or advantage or benefit of an enduring nature for the business such expenditure is considered as capital and not revenue. Expenditure on Land & Building, Plant and Machinery, development of patent trade mark etc. Capital expenditures (CAPEX or capex) are expenditures creating future benefits. A capital expenditure is incurred when a business spends money either to buy fixed assets or to add to the value of an existing fixed asset with a useful life that extends beyond the taxable year. Capex are used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as equipment, property, or industrial buildings. In accounting, a capital expenditure is added to an asset account ("capitalized"), thus increasing the asset's basis (the cost or value of an asset as adjusted for tax purposes). Capex is commonly found on the Cash Flow Statement as "Investment in Plant Property and Equipment" or something similar in the Investing subsection. Revenue Expenditure: In business, a Revenue expense is a day-to-day expense such as sales and administration, or research & development, as opposed to Production, costs, and pricing. In short, this is the money the business spends in order to turn inventory into throughput. Revenue expenses also include depreciation of plants and machinery which are used in the production process. On an income statement, "Revenue expenses" is the sum of a business's Revenue expenses for a period of time, such as a month or year. In throughput accounting, the cost accounting aspect of Theory of Constraints (TOC), Revenue expense is the money spent turning inventory into throughput. In TOC, Revenue expense is limited to costs that vary strictly with the quantity produced, like raw materials and purchased components. Everything else is a fixed cost, including labour unless there is a regular and significant chance that workers will not work a full-time week when they report on its first day. In a real estate context, Revenue expenses are costs associated with the operation and maintenance of an income producing property. Revenue expenses include − − − − − − − − − − − − − − accounting expenses license fees maintenance and repairs, such as snow removal, trash removal, janitorial service, pest control, and lawn care advertising office expenses supplies attorney fees and legal fees utilities, such as telephone insurance property management, including a resident manager property taxes travel and vehicle expenses leasing commissions salary and wages
Answer 6. (f) Source and Uses of Funds
Sale of fixed assets
Sale of Stock
Long term loan
Funds from operations
Cash expenses Tax, Interest
Working Capital Pool (All Current Accounts) Marketable Securities Accounts Receivables Cash Accounts Payable
Purchase of Fixed Assets
Payment of Dividend
Repayment of Long term loans
Make up losses
Buy Back Stocks
Though the traditional fund flow analysis is useful in assessing Net Working Capital needs of the enterprise and in enlightening on the sources and application of funds, yet it assimilates certain weaknesses as listed below: 1. All flows of funds through business operations are not depicted in the statement. For example, intra-period flows like repayment of loans at several times during the year are not shown in the statement. Thus management is deprived of the useful information required as basic input in making various financial strategic decisions which require information above intra- period movement of funds. 2. Historical accounting information in fund flow statement is analyzed as supplementary to final accounts profit and loss account and balance sheet and nothing fundamentally new information is added to make the analysis more pragmatic and problem solving.
Answer 6. (g) Classification of Costs Classification of costs is the process of grouping costs according to their common characteristics. In order to identify costs with cost centres or cost units a suitable classification of costs is of much significance, costs may be classified from difference view points which are as follows a. Costs may be classified from the view point of their nature : According to the nature of items, costs may be of two types, namely I). Direct Costs : Direct costs refer to those costs which can be easily identified with a product, process or department, materials used and labour employed in manufacturing in article or in a particular process of production are common examples of direct costs. II). Indirect Costs :
Indirect costs, on the other hand, refer to those costs which are not traceable to any particular product, process or department, but are common to a number of products, processes or departments; Factory rent, factory manager’s salary etc. are typical examples of indirect costs. b. Costs may be classified from the view point of their variability. According to variability, cost may be classified into three types, namely I). Fixed Costs : Fixed costs refer to those costs which tend to remain unaffected by variations in the volume of output of sales. In other words, fixed costs remain the same when the volume of output or sale changes. II). Variable Costs : Variable costs refer to those costs which vary directly in proportion to changes in the volume of output or sales. These costs increase or decrease with the rise of fall in production or sales. III). Semi Variable Costs : Some costs have tendency to vary with changes in the volume of output or sales, but not in direct proportion to the change. These costs are partly fixed and partly variable and as such these costs are known as semi variable costs. c. Costs may be classified from the view point of their controllability. According to controllability costs may be classified into two types namely I). Controllable Costs : Controllable costs refer to those costs which can be influenced by the action of a specified member of an undertaking. Any undertaking is usually divided into departments or costs centres which are placed under the direct control and supervision of specified persons. II). Uncontrollable Costs : Uncontrollable costs, on the other hand, refer to those costs which cannot be influenced by the action of a specified member of an undertaking. d. Costs may be classified from the view point of their normality I). Normal or unavoidable costs : Normal or unavoidable costs refer to those costs which are normally incurred at a given level of output in the conditions in which that level of output is normally attained. Such costs cannot be avoided at all. II). Abnormal or Avoidable costs : Abnormal or avoidable costs refer to those costs which are not normally incurred at a given level of output in the conditions in which the level of output is attained. Such costs can be avoided if proper action is taken. e. Costs may be classified from the view point of relevance to decision making and control. According to relevance to decision making and control, costs may be classified into I). Sunk Costs : Sunk costs refer to those costs which have already been incurred and cannot be altered by any decision in the future. II). Out of pocket costs : Out of pocket costs refer to those costs which signify the present or future cash expenditure regarding a certain decision that will vary depending upon the nature of decision made. III). Opportunity costs : Opportunity costs refer to those costs which are related to benefits sacrificed or foregone. IV). Imputed Costs : Imputed costs refer to those costs which are not included in costs but are considered for making management decisions. V). Differential costs : Differential costs refer to the difference in total costs between two alternatives. In case, the choice of alternative results in an increase in total costs such increased costs are knows as incremental costs.
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