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) Beyond The Standard Model: Searching For Unity In Physics, 153168,
© 2005 The Noetic Press, Printed in the United States of America.
THE ORIGIN OF SPIN: A CONSIDERATION OF TORQUE AND CORIOLIS FORCES
IN EINSTEIN’S FIELD EQUATIONS AND GRAND UNIFICATION THEORY
N. Haramein
¶
and E.A. Rauscher
§
¶
The Resonance Project Foundation, haramein@theresonanceproject.org
§
Tecnic Research Laboratory, 3500 S. Tomahawk Rd., Bldg. 188, Apache Junction, AZ 85219 USA
Received January 1, 2004
Abstract. We address the nature of torque and the Coriolis forces as dynamic properties of the spacetime metric and
the stressenergy tensor. The inclusion of torque and Coriolis effects in Einstein’s field equations may lead to
significant advancements in describing novae and supernovae structures, galactic formations, their center super
massive black holes, polar jets, accretion disks, spiral arms, galactic halo formations and advancements in
unification theory as demonstrated in section five. We formulate these additional torque and Coriolis forces terms to
amend Einstein’s field equations and solve for a modified KerrNewman metric. Lorentz invariance conditions are
reconciled by utilizing a modified metrical space, which is not the usual Minkowski space, but the U
4
space. This
space is a consequence of the Coriolis force acting as a secondary effect generated from the torque terms. The
equivalence principle is preserved using an unsymmetric affine connection. Further, the U
1
Weyl gauge is associated
with the electromagnetic field, where the U
4
space is four copies of U
1
. Thus, the form of metric generates the dual
torus as two copies of U
1
x U
1
, which we demonstrate through the S
3
spherical space, is related to the SU
2
group and
other Lie groups. Hence, the S
4
octahedral group and the cuboctahedron group of the GUT (Grand Unification
Theory) may be related to our U
4
space in which we formulate solutions to Einstein’s field equations with the
inclusion of torque and Coriolis forces.
1. INTRODUCTION
Current standard theory assumes spin/rotation to be the result of an initial impulse generated in the Big Bang
conserved over billions of years of evolution in a frictionless environment. Although this first theoretical
approximation may have been adequate to bring us to our current advanced theoretical models, the necessity to
better describe the origin and evolution of spin/rotation, in an environment now observed to have various plasma
viscosity densities and high field interaction dynamics which is inconsistent with a frictionless ideal environment,
may be paramount to a complete theoretical model. We do so by formulating torque and Coriolis forces into
Einstein’s field equations and developing a modified KerrNewman solution where the spacetime torque, Coriolis
effect and torsion of the manifold becomes the source of spin/rotation. Thus, incorporating torque in Einstein’s
stress energy term may lead to a more comprehensive description of the dynamic rotational structures of organized
matter in the universe such as galactic formations, polar jets, accretion disks, spiral arms, and galactic halos without
the need to resort to dark matter/dark energy constructs. These additions to Einsteinian spacetime may as well help
describe atomic and subatomic particle interactions and produce a unification of fundamental forces as preliminarily
described in section five of this paper.
Modification of the field equations with the inclusion of torque requires an unsymmetric affine connection to
preserve the Principle of Equivalence and inhomogeneous Lorentz invariance, which includes translational
invariance as well as rotational invariance and, hence, spin. The antisymmetric torsion term in the stressenergy
tensor accommodates gauge invariance and maintains field transformations. Although the affine connection is not
always a tensor, its antisymmetric components relate to torsion as a tensor. This is the case because when only the
unsymmetric part is taken, the affine connections no longer disallows the existence of the tensor terms. We
demonstrate that such new terms lead to an intrinsic spin density of matter which results from torque and gyroscopic
effects in spacetime. The conditions on the Riemannian geometry in Einstein’s field equations and solutions are also
modified for torque and Coriolis forces and spacetime torsion condition. The torque and torsion terms are coupled
algebraically to stressenergy tensor. The effect of the torque term leads to secondary effects of the Coriolis forces
that are expressed in the metric. Torsion is a state of stress set up in a system by twisting from applying torque.
Hence, torque acts as a force and torsion as a geometric deformation. The gauge conditions for a rotational gauge
potential,

oo
I are used.
153
N. Haramein & E. A. Rauscher
154
The affine connection relates to transformations as translations and rotations in a uniform manner and
represents the plasticity of the metric tensor in general relativity. Connections can carry straight lines into straight
lines and not into parallel lines, but they may alter the distance between points and angles between lines. The affine
connection
o
µv
I has 64 components or 4
3
components of A
4
. Each index can take on one of four values yielding 64
components. The symmetric part of
o
µv
I has 40 independent components where the two symmetric indices give ten
components including the times four for the third index. The torsion tensor
µvo
T has 24 independent components
and it is antisymmetric in the first two indices, which gives us six independent components and four independent
components for the third index (indices run 1 to 4). These independent components relate to dimensions in analogy
to the sixteen components of the metric tensor
µv
g . If this tensor is symmetric then it has ten independent
components. Note for a trace zero, tr 0 symmetric tensor, we have six independent components. The components of
a tensor are, hence, related to dimensionality.
It appears that the only method to formulate the modified Einstein’s equations, to include torque and Coriolis
terms, is to utilize the U
4
spacetime and not the usual fourdimensional Minkowski space, M
4
. This is the case
because the vectors of the space in spherical topology have directionality generating a discontinuity or part in the
hairs of a sphere whereas a torus topology can have its vectors curl around its short axis having no parts in the
hairs so that no discontinuity of the vector space exists. Thus all the vectors of the space obey invariance
conditions. Also, absolute parallelism is maintained. The U
4
space appears to be the only representation in which we
can express torsion, resulting from torque, in terms of the Christoffel covariant derivative, which is used in place of
the full affine connections where
µ
V represents the covariant derivative in U
4
spacetime using the full unsymmetric
connections. Thus we are able to construct a complete, selfconsistent theory of gravitation with dynamic torque
terms and which results in modified curvature conditions from metrical effects from torsion. In the vacuum case, we
assume
}
= 0
4
x d R o where R is denoted as the scalar curvature density in U
4
spacetime. This new approach to
the affine connection may allow the preservations of the equivalence principle. The usual nonsymmetric stress
energy tensor is combined with its antisymmetric torque tensor. The U
4
is key to the structure of matter affected by
the structure of spacetime. We present in detail the manner in which the U
4
group space relates to the unification of
the four force fields. The structure of U
4
is four copies of U
1
, the Weyl group, as
1 1 1 1 4
U U U U U × × × = where
U
1
x U
1
represents the torus. Hence U
4
represents the dual torus structure. In this case we believe the U
4
spacetime,
which allows a domain of action of torque and Coriolis effects, is a model of the manner in which dynamical
properties of matterenergy arise.
Further, in section five we show that the 24 elements of the torsion tensor can be related to the 24 element
octahedral gauge group S
4
which are inscribed in S
2
, and that the 24 element octahedral gauge is related to the cube
through its being inscribed in S
2
. The 24 element group through S
2
yields the cuboctahedral group which we can
relate to the U
4
space; thus, we can demonstrate a direct relationship between GUT theory to Einstein’s field
equations in which a torque tensor and a Coriolis effect is developed and incorporated.
2. ANALYSIS OF TORQUE AND CORIOLIS FORCES
In this section we present some of the fundamental descriptions of the properties of the torque and Coriolis forces.
We examine the forces, which appear to yield a picture of galactic, nebula, and supernova formation. We apply
these concepts to Einstein’s field equations and their solutions. The angular momentum is = L and p r L × =
where r is a radial variable and p is a linear momentum. The torque
(1) F r
dt
L d
× = = t
where F is force and the conservation theorem for the angular momentum of a particle states that if the total torque
t is zero then
(2) 0 = =
dt
L d
L
The Origin of Spin
155
and thus the angular momentum is conserved. In the case where 0 = t then L is not conserved. Torque is a
twisting or turning action. Whereby
(3) ( ) p r
dt
p d
r v m
dt
d
r F r × = × = × = × = t
for r is a constant. The force F is orthogonal tot , and r is not parallel to F . The centrifugal term is then given as
(4) u e cos
0
2
r c =
where e is the rotation of a spherical body, such as the earth’s angular velocity or rotation and
0
r its radius and u
is the angle of latitude. The Coriolis term is proportional to v × e 2 and is responsible for the rotation of the plane
of oscillation of a Foucault pendulum. This is a method whereby the Coriolis force can be detected and measured.
The key to the gyroscopic effect is that the rate of change in its angular momentum is always equal to the applied
torque. The direction of change of a gyroscope, therefore, occurs only when a torque is applied. The torque is
(5) 
.

\

÷ × = ¸
t
t
2
F r
due to F which is perpendicular to r and L is the vector angular momentum ( ) v r m p r L × = × = where the
vector r is taken along the axis of the gyroscope, and ¸ is a phase angle in the more general case.
A spinning system along an axis r with an angular momentum L has a torque in equation (1) when the force F
is directed towards the center of gravity. If the total force, 0 = F then 0 = p and linear momentum is conserved.
Angular frequency, e
(6)


.

\

=
2
2
2
1
dr
V d
m
e
in the generalized case where T V E + = where E is the total energy, V is the potential energy, T is kinetic energy
and m is the mass of the system. A revolving of a particle has angular velocity
(7)
2
mr
L
dt
d
= =
u
u
.
The rate of revolution decreases as r increases. If r = constant, then the areas swept out by the radius from the origin
to the particle when it moves for a small angle u d , then
(8) u d r dA
2
2
1
=
then u
2
mr L = and has an area A. Then
(9)
m
L
dt
d
r r
dt
dA
2 2
1
2
1
2 2
= = =
u
u
the radius vector r moves through u d and for a central force, if the motion is periodic, for integration over a
complete period
0
t of motion, we have the area of the orbit
m
Lt
A
2
0
= .
For a rigid uniform bar on a frictionless fulcrum, the moment of a force, or torque, in the simplest of mechanical
terms, is the mass times the length of the arm. The product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the axis
line of the action of the force is called the force arm or movement arm. The product of the force and its force arm is
called the moment of the force or the torquet . In more detail, we can describe torque in terms of a force couple
exerted on the end of a rod for a solid or highly viscous material producing a twist displacement and hence shear
stress and shear stain
(10) M
A F
strain
stress
Shear
Shear
= =

/
N. Haramein & E. A. Rauscher
156
where F is the force, A is the area,  is the angle of distortion and M is the shear modulus. Torsion is a state of
stress set up in a system by twisting from an applied torque. Torque creates action or work. The external twisting
effect is opposed by the shear stresses included in a solid or highly viscous material. That is, torsion is the angular
strain produced by applying torque, which is a twisting force, to a body or system, which occurs when, for example,
a rod or wire is fixed at one end (i.e., has an equal and opposite torque exerted on it) and rotated at the other.
Therefore, torque is a force and torsion is a geometric deformation in the medium given by the torsion 
(11)
d
Mr
2
4
t
 =
where r is the radius and d is the length or distance in flat space. The torque for such a system is defined by
 t = O or
(12)
d
Mr
2
4
O
=
t
t
where t is in units of dynecm, M is the shear modulus and relates to the distortion of the shaft in dyne / cm
2
and
O is the angle in radians through which one end of the shaft is twisted relative to the other. The moment of inertia
is denoted as I and we substitute
2
e from equation (6).
(13) ( )
2 2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
e e I mr mv E
k
= = = .
In our case, the term W for a generalized modulus in a medium that relates to the shear tensor of a fluid
torsion (Ellis, 1971) is utilized. We employ a torque tensor as the ( )
µv
t ì = E m, which is a term in Einstein’s
stressenergy tensor T
µv
where torque is given as
(14)
R
Wr
2
4
µv
µv
t
t
O
=
where R is the scalar curvature path in U
4
space over which torque acts and r is the radius of twist produced by the
torquing force acting over R. In order to define the scalar sustained for maximum curvature, hence maximum torque
in spacetime, we express the spatial gradient of R along the vector length
µ
R as
µ µ
R R = V . This is the tensor form
that can be utilized in Einstein’s field equations. The distance or length is now denoted as R in a generalized curved
space. We can denote R as
µµ
R . The quantity
µv
O is a tensor in which rotation is included, and hence requires
inhomogeneous Lorentz transformations and requires a modification of the topology of space from M
4
into U
4
space, which has intrinsic rotational components. In order to convert from Minkowski space to U
4
space we must
define the relationship of the metric tensor and the coordinates for each space. We have the usual Minkowski metric
 o
o
dx dx g ds =
2
and the metric of U
4
space is given as
v µ
µv
q dx dx ds =
2
. We relate the metrics of the M
4
space and U
4
space as
o
v

µ
o
µv
q g
x
x
x
x
c
c
c
c
= . For any tensor
v
T
µ
than
¸
v µ¸ µ
q T T
v
= (all indices run 1 to 4). Then
under the gauge transformation for an arbitrary
v µ
ì as
v µ µv µv
ì ¢ ¢ + ÷ , we have 0
4
= ÷
}
µv
µv
ì t q x d in
U
4
space in analogy to
µv
xT d g
4
}
÷ in Minkowski space.
Note that the spin field is the source of torsion and is the key to the manner in which spin exists in particle
physics and astrophysics. The formulation of torque is not included in Einstein’s field equations in any manner and
is not incorporated in v v g R µ µ , and
v
T
µ
terms without modifications. Currently it appears that torque and Coriolis
forces are eliminated by attaching the observer to a rotating reference frame and by assuming an absolute symmetry
of the stressenergy tensor
vµ µv
T T = so to make the torque vanish [1]. We believe that inclusion of torque is
essential to understanding the mechanics of spacetime, which may better explain cosmological structures and
potentially the origin of rotation.
The Origin of Spin
157
3. INCLUSION OF TORQUE AND CORIOLIS FORCE TERMS IN EINSTEIN’S FIELD EQUATIONS
In order to include torque, we must modify the original form of Einstein’s field equations. The homogeneous and
inhomogeneous Lorentz transformations involve linear translations and rotation, and hence angular momentum is
accommodated. The time derivative of angular momentum, or torque, is not included in its field equations.
Researchers have attempted to include torsion by different methods since Elie Cartan’s letter to Einstein in the early
1930’s [2]. However, we feel that an inclusion of torsion in Einstein’s Field Equations demands a torque term to be
present in the stressenergy tensor in order to have physical effects.
Two currently held key issues are addressed in which torque and Coriolis forces are eliminated. First, in
reference [1] the complications of fractional differences are avoided by formulating them in terms of the size of
spatial lower limit Planck length dimension, and the earth’s gravitational acceleration g ~ 10
3
cm/sec
2
. The choice
of 1 g << is made so that the accelerated frames undergo small accelerations which yields an approximately
inertial frame. Black hole dynamical processes requires a relaxation 1 g << . If one considers a vacuum structure
having a lattice form, then the conditions to include torque and Coriolis forces require a relaxation of the 1 g <<
condition to be consistent with black hole physics and torque terms in relativity, then 1 s g or ~1 g . Second, the
torque and Coriolis forces are eliminated in a nonrelativistic manner by carefully choosing the observer’s state of
coordinates by preventing the latticework from rotating, i.e. by tying the frame of reference to a gyroscope that
accelerates in such a manner that its centers of mass are chosen to eliminate these forces [1]. Hence, we have a
major clue for including torque so as to fix our frame of reference to the fundamental lattice states, which includes
rotation terms, and does not eliminate them. Then, for
(15) ( ) ( ) e u a a m
dt
e d
· ÷ · = u
so that ( ) e u a · is eliminated, noting that u is the four vector velocity and e is a basis vector in analogy to x, y, z.
The incorrect transport equation is the FermiWalker transport equation because it is formulated in a rotating frame
that eliminates torque. This equation acts at the center of mass so that I, the moment of inertia, is zero; hence this
cannot be our reference frame.
It appears that we must utilize a different kind of rotational frame of reference. We have utilized this frame using
the KerrNewman or ReissmanNordstrom solutions with spin, as well as atomic spin and the spin of the whole
universe as in our scaling law [38]. We thus generate a torus from our new basis vector set e [9].
Given these two conditions, we proceed to account for a torque term in Einstein’s Field Equations. The angular
momentum vector L for a system must change in order to have torque. Hence L is not orthogonal to u, the four
velocity; thus, a torque can be utilized in Einstein’s field equations. Then
(16) L a u
dt
L d
 × = ) (
whereas in the FermiWalker transport case
(17) L a u
dt
L d
 × = ) (
where a is the four acceleration. The fact that a nonzero solution exists allows us to choose frames of reference
that do not move with the system and include torque, which requires a variable acceleration. No longer is
(18)
4
3
2
2
= L
constant because torque,
(19) 0 = = =
dt
L d
L
t
where L is the angular momentum.
Key to the inclusion of torque terms and its torsion effects is the modification of Einstein’s field equations
formulated in the generalized U
4
spacetime. This approach can be reconciled with conditions for affine connections
and extended Lorentz invariance. Torsion resulting from torque is introduced as the antisymmetric part of the affine
connection. The U
4
space appears to be the only spacetime metric that yields an unsymmetric affine connection and
N. Haramein & E. A. Rauscher
158
an antisymmetric torsion tensor term that preserves Lorentz Invariance [10,11]. We believe the U
4
spacetime allows
a domain of action of torque and gives us a model of the manner in which dynamical properties of matterenergy
arise out of the vacuum structure [12].
The vectors of the space in spherical topology have directionality (having a part in its hairs on a sphere) whereas
a torus topology can have its vectors curl around its short axis (i.e., having no parts on the hairs of a torus) so that no
discontinuity of the vector space exists. Thus all the vectors of the space obey invariance conditions. Also, absolute
parallelism is maintained. Topologically, a torus is a surface of revolution generated by rotating a circle about a non
intersecting coplanar line as its axis.
For the vacuum gravitational field equations we introduce the antisymmetric torque term where 0
,
;
=
o µv
o
t
which gives us the antisymmetric derivative of a secondrank potential field
o µv
¢
,
. Torsion appears to be the
property of the geometry of spacetime, not the stressenergy tensor term; whereas torque is an inherent property of
the stressenergy term. Thus torque and torsional effects on curvature can be expressed as tensor terms. We utilize
the variational principle
(20)
}
= + ÷ 0 ) (
4
x d L R q o
where R is subtended curvature density and L is the Lagrangian. We define
µv
q as
µv
g expressed in U
4
space.
Then we can write the field equations
(21) 0 2 = + V + ÷
µo µ
o
µvo
o
µv
t t t q
which are the gravitation and
µv
q is the Einsteinian tensor of U
4
space time. In vacuum 0
; ;
=
µvo
v o
o implies the
existence of a conserved current, giving us a more generalized form of the variational principle or
(22)
}
= + + 0 ) (
4
x d KL L R
o µ µ
k o
for the source tensors
(23a)
µv
µv
µ µ
o o g T L =
and
(23b)
µv
µv
o o
o¢ o j L =
where
µv
µ
T is the density stressenergy tensor and
µ
L is the Lagrangian density. The constant k is the coupling
constant t k 8 = and K is the coupling constant for torque term. We define
(24) 2 / T
µv µv µv
k Kj J ÷ =
which the field equation
(25)
µv vo µ
o
µv
t t q J = ÷ 2
which is given as the right side of the above equation (24) and
µv
t is the antisymmetric source term which arises
from intrinsic spins where
µv o µv
o
J
K
T
2
,
;
÷ = . Then gauge invariance implies 0
4
= ÷
}
µv
µv
ì t q x d for an
arbitrary gauge transformation
µv
ì .
The stressenergy tensor can then be related to the stress tensor and the torque tensor as
(26)
o
o
µv o µv
o
t k t j s K ) / 3 (
,
;
= .
In vacuum the static solution yields the line element
(27)
2 2 2 2 2
dr e d r dt e ds
v ì
+ O ÷ =
where ì and v are functions of r only as ) (r ì and ) (r v . The O term is an anharmonic object which preserves
absolute parallelism. We can write a more generalized stress energy term as
(28) T
µv
µv µv
kt + = T K
where the first term
µv
T is the usual stress energy term where 0 T = c
v
µ v
and the second term
µv
t is the torque
term and T
µv
becomes the total stress energy term including torque. Note that both covariant and contravariant
The Origin of Spin
159
tensor notations are utilized. The most general form of Einstein’s field equations with torque and the cosmological
term, 0 = A in U
4
spacetime is
(29)
µv µv µv µv µµ µv
kt q q + = A ÷ ÷ T
2
1
K R R
where we have the usual gravitation source terms
µv
T and nongravitational source terms
µv
t with A as the
cosmological constant in U
4
space. Note that units of 1 = = G c are used in this section and that the cosmological
constant in a torque field may yield correct approximations for the universal cosmological acceleration of distant
objects.
A conceptual picture of the interpretation of Einstein’s field equations is that the presence of matterenergy
curves space and time. Torque is considered as a property of the stressenergy term, and the Coriolis forces are
derived as secondary properties resulting from the torquing of matterenergy in spacetime. Hence, resulting Coriolis
effects are driven by torquing on spacetime and therefore spacetime geometry is modified.
The Coriolis and centrifugal terms enter when we define a new frame of reference. We start from the Lorentz
coordinates which holds everywhere
(30)
µv v µ
q = 
.

\

c
c

.

\

c
c
x x
.
We define
j
j
, 00
 = I for a given scalar potential field,  for a Galilean rather than Lorentz coordinates. Then
(31)
jk k j
x x
o = 
.

\

c
c

.

\

c
c
and t x =
0
. The potential  satisfies the LaplacePoisson equation.
For rotation and translation, we have
j k
jk
j
a x A x + = where the rotation matrix is
jk k j
A A o =
and the
translation part is given as
j
a . Then
k j
jk
k
a x A x ÷ = for
k j
jk
a A a ÷
which defines a new coordinate system. The
(32)
' ' ' 0 k j k
j
k
A A = I = I
produces the Coriolis forces from these transformations. From
(33) ) (
00
k
k jk j
j
a x A A
x
÷ +
c
c
= I

gives us the centrifugal force,
k jk
A A
and the inertial forces
k
a which are separated. Thus we have tensor notation
which allows us to relate these terms to the stressenergy tensor of Einstein’s field equations. The inertial
forces
k
a is the second derivative with respect to time and
' k
A is the first time derivative.
The scalar potentials transform as + ÷ =
k k
x a   additional higher order terms such as ( )
k k
x a a for
Coriolis,
' k j
A A and centrifugal forces,
x A A
k jk
. If the additional higher order terms are zero, then no Coriolis
and centrifugal terms are included. One can measure the quantity
00
j
j
x
 c
= I
c
but only in a finite range. We can express these terms in terms of the metric theory of gravity as
(34)


.

\

c
c
÷
c
c
+
c
c
= I

µv
v
µ
µ
v o o
µv
x
g
x
g
x
g
g
2
1
.
For
(35) 0 ) (
0
÷ · V ÷ = I
o  o
e dt
N. Haramein & E. A. Rauscher
160
then the gradients 0 dt

V = for all  and 0 dt
µ
V = for all velocity vectors v =
k
x and spatial vectors, x
acting on arbitrary basis set,
j
e or 0 = ·
k j
e e . This is clearly not the case for centrifugal, torque and Coriolis
terms. The gradient of proper universal time is not conveniently constant (as it is in the above case) when additional
terms are included, hence we will need to redefine the geometric version of space and time by use of our vacuum
equations, which we demonstrate in this section and in section 4 and relates to the U
4
metric. Hence, the key may be
in relating the Gaussian curvature through a radius
2
1
a =
a
to the cuboctahedron and dual torus form (see Fig. 1).
Even for an accelerated observer for a particle velocity
j
j
e
dx
dx
v
0
÷ then we have the inertial acceleration
(36) ( )v v a a e
x d
x d
j
j
 + × ÷ ÷ = 2 2
) (
2 0
2
v e
where t x =
0
is the fourth component of space, which is time, and 2e v × is the Coriolis term and ( )v v  a 2 is
the relativistic correction to an inertial frame. The signature we use is ) , , , ( + + + ÷ . The expression in terms of the
potential energy is
2
2
2
1
( )
d
m dr

e = where e is the angular velocity. This latter term requiring modification in
order to include torque is
(37) L
dt
L d
= = t
where F r × = t , see equations (1),(2),(3).
Torque also has intrinsic properties of the spacetime manifold. One can relate the torsional effect as a
geometrical effect on spacetime curvature topology in analogy to Riemannian geometry. Using the torque term from
equation (14) which is in units of dynecm we return to our generalized stressenergy tensor
(38) T
µv
µv µv
t
t t
4
4
8
T
8
c
G
G
c
+ =
where T
µv
is the total stressenergy tensor including its torque term. The quantity in the usual stress energy and the
new torque term includes the fundamental force [8]
(39)
G
c
F
4
=
in units of dynes. The units of the left side of the field equations are in cm
2
, or length squared. The quantity is in
cm and
(40)
2 / 1
3

.

\

=
c
G
which is the Planck length and can be written as
(41)
2 / 1

.

\

=
F
c
for the fundamental force in equation (39) . Now we can write the torque term as
(42)
( )
µv µv
t
t
t
t
2 / 3
2 / 1 2 / 1
8 8
F
c
F
c
F
= 
.

\

.
Now we can write the total stress energy term as
(43) T
µv
( ) ( )
(
¸
(
¸
+ = + =
µv µv µv µv
t t t
t
t
2 / 5
2 / 1
2 / 3
2 / 1
T 8
8
T 8
F
c
F
F
c
F
.
From equation (29) and (38) we can write our generalized field equations with the inclusion of torque as,
The Origin of Spin
161
(44)
µv µv µv µv µµ µv
t
t t
q q
4
4
8
T
8
2
1
c
G
G
c
R R + = A ÷ ÷
where
µv
q represents the metric of tensor for the U
4
topological space. This topology is unique for the inclusion of
the torque term in the stressenergy tensor in equation (44). Coriolis forces result from rotational effects of torque in
this topology and also may yield a nonzero cosmological term, A, discussed the next section.
4. EXTENDED KERRNEWMAN SOLUTION TO EINSTEIN’S FIELD EQUATIONS WITH THE
INCLUSION OF TORQUE
We have developed a new solution to Einstein’s field equations in the previous section which contains a torque term.
This requires unsymmetric affine connections in the metrical space. To introduce torque into the EinsteinMaxwell
equation, in order to unify gravity and electromagnetism, we must introduce an antisymmetric part into
v
F
µ
divided
by the number of permutations related to the degrees of freedom. We can then represent the simplest covariant
second rank tensor potential to represent torsion, which we term
o µv
¢
,
. The electromagnetic field vector is
constructed from the vector fields as
v v
F
µ µ
 2 = where
v µ
 is the potentials. We define the torsion term in terms of
generalized potentials as
o µ o µ
¢ t
, , v v
= . Gauge invariance is then expressed as
v v v µ µ µ
ì ¢ ¢ + ÷ where
v µ
ì is
any vector field. Thus one expects that the second rank current density is conserved [13,14].
We proceed from the solutions to Einstein’s field equations including the torque term conditions and determine
that these conditions require the inclusion of the cosmological constant 0 = A and the modified stressenergy
tensor. The Schwarzschild spacetime geometry for the Schwarzschild black hole gravitational field for a spherical
coordinate line element, is given by
(45) ) sin (
) / 2 1 (
)
2
1 (
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
 u u d d r
r M
dr
dt
r
M
ds + +
÷
+ ÷ ÷ = .
We consider the metric parameter, u for a nonzero cosmological constant of the form ) / 2 1 (
2
1
r M n ÷ ÷ = A .
The normalization scale ) / 2 1 (
2
1
r M n ÷ = u for a frame of reference external to the black hole. We can also
write this form of the cosmological constant as
(46)
2 / 1
] / 2 1 [
1
r M
e
÷
=
A
or
(47) ] / 2 1 [
2
r M e ÷ =
A ÷
at the Schwarzschild radius
s
r , for a variable radius M(r). A slice through the equator of a spherical system and also
between the two tori of a dual torus is given as
(48)
2 2 2 2
] / ) ( 2 1 [
1
 d r dr
r r m
ds +
÷
=
which comprises an apparent flat space where M r m = ) ( . We can then write
(49)
2 2 2 2 2
 d r dr e ds + =
A
for a nonzero cosmological constant A, for
2
c
M
r
s
· , which is the Schwarzschild singularity. The global structure
of the Schwarzschild geometry represents a method of embedding Feynman diagrams. The coordinate system that
provides maximum insight into the Schwarzschild geometry is known generally as the KruskalSzekeres coordinate
N. Haramein & E. A. Rauscher
162
systems [15,16]. Charge and spin are relevant; for example, consider the KerrNewman or ReissnerNordstrom
generalization of the Schwarzschild geometry. For gravitational and electromagnetic fields, we solve the coupled
EinsteinMaxwell field equations to include the constraints of M, mass, q, charge, and s , spin. The KerrNewman
metric is written in the form
(50)
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
] ) [(
sin
] sin [ u µ
µ

µ
u
 u
µ
d dr adt d a r d a dt ds +
A
+ ÷ + + ÷
A
÷ = .
We define the quantities in terms of charge, q, and the quantity a is defined as M s a / ÷ , the angular momentum,
which we usually define as L. This gives us a method to bring torque into our model since t is defined as
L
dt
L d
= = t . Also torque is dependent on angular velocity O
which is expressed in terms of torque as
R
Wr
2
4
O
=
t
t where the angular velocity acceleration is
2
mr
L
dt
d
=
O
= O
. Hence it appears we can expand the
KerrNewman solution to accommodate torque. For the present the units of 1 = = G c are used. Using dimensional
analysis we can consider the scalar magnitude of the torque, which is a vector. We can convert the units of torque
into units proportional to cm
2
. The units of torque are dynecm and the scalar part is ergs
cm
gm =
2
2
sec
.
Before proceeding further, we need to define two other quantities
(51) u µ
2 2 2 2
cos a r + ÷
and
(52)
2 2 2
2 q a mr r + + ÷ ÷ A .
Note we use the action integral
}
+ x d F R
g
4
) ( c so that we can convert mass in gm or density in gm/cm
3
into mass
in cm or density in cm
2
by multiplying by 0.742 x 10
–28
cm/gm and lengths in units
2 / 1
0
) 8 / 3 ( P t and pressure in
units
0
µ , mass in units
2 / 1
0
) 32 / 3 ( tµ . Constraints on the KerrNewman geometric solution to Einstein’s field
equations give black hole topology for the condition
2 2 2
a q M + > . Recall that the quantity, a contains spin and
mass, in the condition where for M such that
2 2 2
~ a q M + . It is possible that, under imminent collapse, near
s
r
centrifugal forces and/or electrostatic and plasma electromagnetic repulsion will be delayed, or halt and collapse,
and become balanced [17].
In the case of the ReissnerNordstrom geometry which contains electromagnetic fields, for 0 = q but 0 = s ,
spin is zero. The Kerr geometry is valid for an uncharged system or q = 0 and a Schwarzschild geometry for
0 = = s q . The case we consider that is relevant to including torque is the case for
2 2 2
) / ( M s q M + = for the
KerrNewman geometry for a black hole rotation in the u direction and spin along the z axis. Also, angular
momentum will occur along the z axis only. For black holes q<<M (utilizing 1 = = c G units), the repulsive
electrostatic force on protons of mass m
p
is similar to the gravitational pull by a factor of
(53)
20
10 ~ ~
µ µ
m
e
M m
eq
force
force
nal gravitatio
tic electrosta
=
where M is the mass of the black holes.
We do not need to convert rectilinear coordinates x, y, z to the spherical coordinates u , r , and  . The u
coordinates moves or rotates in the xy plane and  moves in the zr plane where r is a radius vector from the
The Origin of Spin
163
origin of the x, y, z system. The spherical coordinate u can go from t u 2 0 s s and t  s s 0 and 0 > r .
Then u  cos sin r x = and u  sin sin r y = and  cos r z = . Also
2 2 2 2
z y x r + + = and
x
y
= u relating
the variables x, y, z, and r and u utilizing the KerrNewman extended solutions including torque in units of
1 = = = G c gives
(54)
mR
dr Wr
d dr adt d a r d dt ds
2
cos
] ) [(
sin
] sin 2 [
2 2 4 2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
u t
u µ
µ

µ
u
 u
µ
O
+ +
A
+ ÷ + + ÷
A ÷
=
where the latter term is the torque term
mR
Wr
R
Wr
E 2 2
) (
4 2 4 2
O
=
O
=
t t
t with precession defined as u cos and ,
E and m are in Planck units. Note that spin and torque are related. The Coriolis forces act as higher order terms
which are smaller than the other terms but are still significant [17].
Figure 1. 1(a). is a topological representation of the HarameinRauscher solution as a result of the addition of torque and Coriolis force terms as
an amendment to Einstein’s field equations, which modifies the KerrNewman solution. The Lorentz invariance conditions are reconciled by
utilizing a modified metrical space, which is not the usual Minkowski space, but the U4 space. This space is a consequence of the Coriolis force
acting as a secondary effect, which is generated from the torque term in the stressenergy tensor. In figure 1(b). Coriolis type dynamics of the
dual U1 x U1 spacetime manifold are illustrated. The form of metric produces the dual torus as two copies of U1 x U1, which we demonstrate
through the S
3
spherical space, is related to the SU2 group and other Lie groups. In figure 1(c). the 24 element group through S
2
yields the
cuboctahedral group which we can relate to the U4 space (next section). Thus the S
4
octahedral group is related to the U4 topology and we
demonstrate that the cuboctahedral group relates to the GUT (Grand Unification Theory).
N. Haramein & E. A. Rauscher
164
In this section we have shown that we can modify Einstein’s field equations and the KerrNewman solution in
order to accommodate torque and the Coriolis forces, which we term the HarameinRauscher solution. Since
Einstein’s field equations obey the LaplacePoisson condition, the torquing of spacetime may be the result of the
vacuum gradient density in the presence of matterenergy. Modification of the field equations makes it possible to
include the torque terms and hence generate more realistic solutions. These solutions more comprehensively
describe the dynamical rotational structures of galaxies, novae, supernovae, and other astrophysical structures which
in this case are driven by a spacetime torque. Hence, with the inclusion of torque and Coriolis effects in Einstein’s
field equations, the spacetime manifold correlates well with the observable mechanisms of black holes, galactic
topology, supernova formation, stellar plasma dynamics and planetary science such as ring formation and the
Coriolis structure of atmospheric dynamics. This may lead to a model where the driving torque and the dynamical
Coriolis forces of the spacetime manifold topology are responsible for the observed early formation of mature spiral
galaxies [18]. Further, our model is consistent with galactic structures, the supermassive black hole at their centers,
as well as polar jets, accretion disks, spiral arms and galactic halo formations.
5. THE GROUP THEORETICAL APPROACH TO A UNIFIED MODEL OF GRAVITATION
INCLUDING TORQUE AND THE GUT THEORY
A test particle falling in a gravitational field accelerates relative to the observer’s frame as
(55) v a e
dx
x d
j
j
× ÷ ÷ = e 2 ˆ
ˆ
2
0
2
where
0
x is the temporal component of X ( ) t z y x , , , = or t x =
0
for 0 = j and in general j runs 0 to 3. The
inertial acceleration of the observer’s four space acceleration is a . For the spatial vectors of the observer,
j
eˆ are
rotating with angular velocity, e . In flat space this is the geodesic trajectory only if there is an additional rotational
frame of reference ( )v v · + a 2 [1]. This is not our case when we include the Coriolis effects.
We term
0
e the points along the observer’s path as its time direction
t d
dx
u e
0
0
= = where t is now defined as
the proper time and the spatial components
j
eˆ are the basis vectors. For tetrad orthogonality we have
ij j i
e e o = · ˆ ˆ ,
for Euclidian absolute parallelism or for the generators of Lorentz transformation, then the transport laws of a test
particle space in curved spacetime appear as moving in a flat space. However, this is only a very limited
approximation, as spacetime is curved and Riemannian in global space. The equivalence principle or the time rate of
change of a vector occurs over finite distances, not just infinitesimal distances.
We define a the four acceleration u a
µ
V = and the angular velocity of rotation, of the spatial basis vectors,
j
e in the FermiWalker transport theory, is e . The Fermitransport vectors are expressed relative to the inertial
guidance gyroscope, 0 = · = · e u a u . If u and e are zero then the parallel to the observer is 0 ˆ = V
j u
e . The
proper time gives us the starting point of the geodesic with an affine parameter equal to the proper length. Hence, we
see that the role of the Coriolis force, as well as including the torque term in Einstein’s field equations, is again
going to lead us to a U
4
space rather than an M
4
space, in which we utilize the inhomogeneous Lorentz
transformation.
Further, we must consider a geometric picture in terms of finite group theory with finite generators and its
relationship to the Lie group theory and their algebras having infinitesimal generators. These finite groups are the C
n
groups. These groups can be related to the 24 element octahedral group, the   O C and   O C groups. There is no
real independent observer as the observer moves within the system since, in fact, under no circumstances could any
observer be completely disconnected from the observed, since observation would then be impossible.
The affine connections that are utilized in general relativity also apply in crystallography. Under affine
connections, transformations are linear and rotational in a uniform manner. Straight lines are carried in to straight
lines and parallel lines, but distances between points and angles, lines can be altered. All representations of a
The Origin of Spin
165
compact group are discrete. Unitarity relates to the conservation of such quantities as energy, momentum, particle
number, and other variables. The crystallographic lattice groups are finite groups: C
n
and K
n
specify the translations
and rotations in a finite dimensional space. (Note in crystallography, the finite dimensional space involves arrays
specifying elements of the groups in a spatial lattice.) This lattice structure appears to reflect the actual geometric
structure of space and time [19]. The two torus satisfies conditions of a Lie group which can have an underlying
manifold as a Lie algebra. This is necessary for the concept of invariance to exist. The McKay groups are a finite
subgroup of the special unitary Lie groups such as SU
2
, which is the set of unit determinants 2 x 2 complex matrices
acting on C
2
, the complex space. The SU
2
group is geometrically the 3 sphere, S
3
acting on C
2
. Thus, we can relate
its torus geometry to the Lie groups of the GUT scheme.
For the infinitesimal generators of the Lorentz group, we have an associated Lie algebra. However, if we have
finite generators, we have a C
n
group space. We might then say that M
4
space has a Lie algebra associated with it,
whereas U
4
space has a finite C
n
algebra associated with it. We might well expect this because of the group
theoretical association of the double torus and the cuboctahedron, which is described by a crystallographic C
n
group
theory.
The Coriolis force comes from the metric; that is the spatial part or the left side of the field equations utilizing
the double octahedral group or cuboctahedral geometry. For the U
4
metric we see that the   O C group naturally
leads to the GUT scheme. Hence, the unification picture results directly from the geometry of spacetime with the
consideration of finite group theory. The U
4
space directly relates the new HarameinRauscher equations of gravity,
matterenergy, and torque with the GUT theories. Thus, we can construct a fundamental relation of cosmology and
quantum particle physics by relating Lie groups and their infinitesimal generators of the Lie algebra, and groups
having finite generators for finite groups.
The special unitary Lie groups, which are topological groups having infinitesimal elements of the Lie algebras,
are utilized to represent the symmetry operations in particle physics and in infinitesimal Lorentz transformations.
For example, the generators of the special unitary SU
2
group is composed of the three isospin operators, I as
÷ +
I I ,
and
z
I having commutation relations  
z
iI I I =
÷ +
, . The generators of SU
3
are the three components of I, isospin,
and hypercharge Y, and for other quantities which involve Y and electric charge Q. Thus, there are eight
independent generators for the traceless 3 x 3 matrices of SU
3
. The
+
O
3
group of rotations is homomorphic to the
SU
3
group.
The regular polyhedral groups, including the cube and the octahedron, form a complete set of finite subgroups of
SO
3
the special orthogonal3 group. The continuous Lie group SU
2
acts on a two dimensional real space in analogy
to SO
3
acting on a three dimensional real space. Significantly, the S
3
group, also called the SU
2
group acts as a space
which is the double cover of SO
3.
That is SU
2
acts as a space that is a sphere, S
3
, and SO
3
which is S
3
/ {+1} so that
SO
3
can be derived from its subgroup SU
2
by the plus and minus elements of SU
2
in order to form SO
3
[2022]. The
set of all rotations of a sphere is a useful example of a Lie group. They are a continuous infinity of rotations of an
ordinary sphere or 2sphere, S
2
, which is embedded in SO
3
. The rotations of S
2
form a 3sphere modular plus or
minus 1, called S
3
/ {+1} which is embedded in SO
3
. This group is the set of all special orthogonal 3x3 matrices.
The finite subgroups of SO
3
are the symmetry groups of the various polyhedra which are inscribed on the sphere S
2
upon which SO
3
acts. These regular polyhedral groups are the symmetry groups for the five Platonic solids. The
octahedron and icosahedron are inscribed in S
2
, the symmetry group of 24 elements for the octahedral group O and
the 60 element icosahedral group I. The polyhedral groups T, O, and I describe the symmetries of the five Platonic
solids [23].
The octahedron and the cube have the same symmetry group and are dual to each other under the S
4
group. The
icosahedron and the dodecahedron are dual to each other under the A
5
group and the 12element group T is the
tetrahedral group of which the symmetries are inscribed in S
2
and is the A
4
group. The 24 element octahedral group
is denoted as O and is the set of all symmetries inscribed in S
2
, which is also the symmetry group of the cube since
the eight faces of the octahedron correspond to the eight vertices of the cube. The relationship of the finite and
infinitesimal groups is key to understanding the symmetry relation of particles, matter, force fields or gauge fields
and the structural topology of space, i.e., real, complex, and abstract spaces. We now relate the toroidal topology and
the cuboctahedron geometry to current particle physics.
The 24 element octahedral group is given as
(56a)  
4 2 2
~
U U U O C × × =
which is mappable to the conformal supergravity group SU(2,2/1). We can write this as
(56b)
3 3 2 1 1
] [ SU SU SU U U O C × × × × =
N. Haramein & E. A. Rauscher
166
The U
1
can act as the photon (electromagnetic) gauge invariance group and relates to the rotation group SO
3
. The
other U
1
scalar is the base for space and time as the compact gauge group of the spin two gravitron. The SU
2
group
can be associated with weak interactions and
2 1
SU U × is the group representation of the electroweak force. The
SU
3
groups represent the strong color quark – gluon force or gauge field. [20]
Thus we have a topological picture that relates to the unification of the four force fields in the GUT and
supersymmetry models. More exactly, the maximal compact space of   O C is embedded in S
4
or SU(2, 2/1) which
yields the 24 element conformal supergravity group. The icosahedron or Klein group yields the set of permutations
for S
4
permutation group associated with   O C . Also in the Georgi and Glashow scheme [24], we can generate SU
5
as a 24 element group related to S
4
embedded in SU
5
=SU
2
×SU
3
. The key to this approach is the relationship of the
finite groups   O C and the Lie groups such as the SU
n
groups. This picture is put forward in detail by Sirag in his
significant advancement of fundamental particle physics [2022].
The eight (8) fundamental spinor states can be expressed in terms of the Riemann sphere S
2
which defines the
relationship of spinors to spacetime. The 8 spinor states correspond to the 8 vertices of a cube. For 8 antistates, Sirag
can generate all 16 states of the fermions family for a cube and its mirror image cube. In his work, Sirag utilizes the
symmetric four group S
4
which is isomorphic to O, the octahedral group.
As before stated, the cube and octahedron are dual to each other under the symmetry operations of the S
4
group.
Also, the tetrahedron is dual to the cube under the A
4
group, and the icosahedron and dodecahedron are dual under
the A
5
groups. The cover group ] [O C ' , which is the DS
4
group, is the cover group of   O C and   O C . The
  O C group is also denoted SU(2, 2/1) and is the compact representation of the YangMills Bosons and   O C
represents the matter fields of the Fermions. The Weyl group is SU(2,2) which is related to SU(2, 2/1), the Penrose
twistor [25,26], which represents a vortical rotational complex dimensional space, mappable to the KaluzaKlein
model, which relates the electromagnetic metric to the gravitational metric as a five dimensional space [27,28]. The
Penrose twistor is a spin space and is like a double torus without a waist. The U
2
group represents the four real
spacetime dimensions and
2
U
the four imaginary spacetime components forming a complex eight space [2931].
The twistor algebra of this complex eight space is mappable 1 to 1 with the spinor calculus of the KaluzaKlein
geometry, thus electromagnetism is related to the gravitational spacetime metric [29]. The S
4
and
4
S groups are 24
element groups, as S
4
can be associated with   O C and
4
S with   O C . The S
4
group is associated with the 24
dimensions of the Grand Unification Theory, or GUT theory. The conjugate group of
4
S is associated with
2 2 4
U U U × ×
or for U
4,
which is four copies of U
1
. That can be written as
1 1 1 1
U U U U × × × where
1 1
U U ×
represents a torus, hence U
4
represents a double or dual torus. Both   O C and   O C relate to the T
4
group, where
T
n
is the direct product of n copies of U
1
, called an n torus, which is always an Abelian group. The T in this context
refers to the structure of space and time.
We have demonstrated that the cover group of the cuboctahedron generates the double of the torus
1 1
U U × ,
and hence we demonstrate that this cover group generates the dual torus, which is
1 1
U U × cross
1 1
U U × in the
Harameinian topology (see Fig. 1), which is defined as the dual torus space. The hourglass topology is directly
formed from the topology of the dual sphere. The relationship of the cuboctahedral groups and the dual torus is a
fundamental tenet of the Haramein geometric topology and, as seen here, seems to be fundamental for unification
[31].
The key is that the infinitesimal Lorentz transformation is related to the concept of the infinitesimal generators
of the Lie algebras. We are dealing with both infinitesimal and finite element systems when we consider torque and
Coriolis terms in Einstein’s field equations. The Lie groups are, of course, the basis of the GUT unification scheme.
The relationship between the torus space U
4
and the subset of the   O C and   O C spaces is the cuboctahedron.
Therefore, the modification of Einstein’s field equations with the inclusion of torque and Coriolis terms, yields a
group theoretical basis in the U
4
metrical space that forms a possible unification of the gravitational force with the
strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces in a unified theory.
The Origin of Spin
167
CONCLUSION
We have developed an extended form of Einstein’s field equations in which we include torque and Coriolis forces,
and hence torsion effects. New solutions are found to the extended field equations, which generates a modification
of the KerrNewman solution we term the HarameinRauscher solution. We establish a reference frame in the
description of the rotating metric that accommodates the complexities of gyroscopic dynamics – torque and Coriolis
forces. This approach may allow us to define the origin of spin in terms of the new torque term in the field equations
and better describe the formation and structure of galaxies, supernovas, and other astrophysical systems, their
plasma dynamics and electromagnetic fields. We formulate a relationship between gravitational forces with torsional
effects and the Grand Unification Theory (GUT). This unification is formulated in terms of the metric of the new
form of Einstein’s field equations which is a U
4
space and the group theoretical basis of the GUT picture. Hence,
gravitational forces with spinlike terms may be related to the strong and electroweak forces, comprising a new
unification of the four forces.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to express our appreciation to our colleagues, Ulrich Winter, Michael Coyle, Robert Gray, and
Buckley Lofton.
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Each index can take on one of four values yielding 64 components. Thus we are able to construct a complete. The affine connection has 64 components or 43 components of A4. Rauscher The affine connection relates to transformations as translations and rotations in a uniform manner and represents the plasticity of the metric tensor in general relativity. Connections can carry straight lines into straight lines and not into parallel lines. related to dimensionality. we can demonstrate a direct relationship between GUT theory to Einstein’s field equations in which a torque tensor and a Coriolis effect is developed and incorporated. The angular momentum is L and L r p where r is a radial variable and p is a linear momentum. tr 0 symmetric tensor. These independent components relate to dimensions in analogy to the sixteen components of the metric tensor g . 2. Haramein & E. as U 4 U 1 U 1 U 1 U 1 where U1 x U1 represents the torus. It appears that the only method to formulate the modified Einstein’s equations. ANALYSIS OF TORQUE AND CORIOLIS FORCES In this section we present some of the fundamental descriptions of the properties of the torque and Coriolis forces. nebula. We examine the forces. Thus all the vectors of the space obey invariance conditions. resulting from torque. The usual nonsymmetric stressenergy tensor is combined with its antisymmetric torque tensor. and that the 24 element octahedral gauge is related to the cube through its being inscribed in S2. The U4 space appears to be the only representation in which we can express torsion. to include torque and Coriolis terms. M4. which allows a domain of action of torque and Coriolis effects. The components of a tensor are. in terms of the Christoffel covariant derivative. This is the case because the vectors of the space in spherical topology have directionality generating a discontinuity or part in the hairs of a sphere whereas a torus topology can have its vectors curl around its short axis having no parts in the hairs so that no discontinuity of the vector space exists. A. is a model of the manner in which dynamical properties of matterenergy arise. in section five we show that the 24 elements of the torsion tensor can be related to the 24 element octahedral gauge group S4 which are inscribed in S2. If this tensor is symmetric then it has ten independent components. and supernova formation. The structure of U4 is four copies of U1 . thus. which is used in place of the full affine connections where represents the covariant derivative in U4 spacetime using the full unsymmetric connections. The symmetric part of has 40 independent components where the two symmetric indices give ten components including the times four for the third index.154 N. but they may alter the distance between points and angles between lines. The U4 is key to the structure of matter affected by the structure of spacetime. This new approach to the affine connection may allow the preservations of the equivalence principle. we have six independent components. Hence U4 represents the dual torus structure. the Weyl group. The torsion tensor has 24 independent components and it is antisymmetric in the first two indices. Also. Note for a trace zero. we assume R d 4 x 0 where R is denoted as the scalar curvature density in U4 spacetime. The torque (1) dL rF dt where F is force and the conservation theorem for the angular momentum of a particle states that if the total torque is zero then (2) dL 0 L dt . hence. Further. which gives us six independent components and four independent components for the third index (indices run 1 to 4). We present in detail the manner in which the U4 group space relates to the unification of the four force fields. which appear to yield a picture of galactic. The 24 element group through S2 yields the cuboctahedral group which we can relate to the U4 space. absolute parallelism is maintained. We apply these concepts to Einstein’s field equations and their solutions. is to utilize the U4 spacetime and not the usual fourdimensional Minkowski space. In this case we believe the U4 spacetime. selfconsistent theory of gravitation with dynamic torque terms and which results in modified curvature conditions from metrical effects from torsion. In the vacuum case.
(6) 2 1 d 2V m dr 2 in the generalized case where E V T where E is the total energy. In more detail. V is the potential energy. then the areas swept out by the radius from the origin to the particle when it moves for a small angle d . such as the earth’s angular velocity or rotation and r0 its radius and is the angle of latitude. The torque is (5) due to F which is perpendicular to r and L is the vector angular momentum L r p mr v where the vector r is taken along the axis of the gyroscope. Torque is a dp d mv r r p dt dt for r is a constant. A revolving of a particle has angular velocity (7) d L .The Origin of Spin 155 and thus the angular momentum is conserved. A spinning system along an axis r with an angular momentum L has a torque in equation (1) when the force F is directed towards the center of gravity. in the simplest of mechanical terms. dt mr 2 1 2 r d 2 The rate of revolution decreases as r increases. for integration over a complete period t0 of motion. The key to the gyroscopic effect is that the rate of change in its angular momentum is always equal to the applied torque. and r is not parallel to F . F 0 then p 0 and linear momentum is conserved. the moment of a force. This is a method whereby the Coriolis force can be detected and measured. if the motion is periodic. we can describe torque in terms of a force couple exerted on the end of a rod for a solid or highly viscous material producing a twist displacement and hence shear stress and shear stain (10) Shear stress F / A M Shear strain . The product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the axis line of the action of the force is called the force arm or movement arm. we have the area of the orbit A dA 1 2 1 2 d L r r dt 2 2 dt 2m Lt 0 2m . therefore. is the mass times the length of the arm. The force F is orthogonal to . The Coriolis term is proportional to 2 v and is responsible for the rotation of the plane rF r of oscillation of a Foucault pendulum. The product of the force and its force arm is called the moment of the force or the torque . then (8) 2 then L mr and has an area A. Angular frequency. T is kinetic energy and m is the mass of the system. If r = constant. In the case where twisting or turning action. The direction of change of a gyroscope. Then dA (9) the radius vector r moves through d and for a central force. and r F 2 is a phase angle in the more general case. or torque. If the total force. For a rigid uniform bar on a frictionless fulcrum. The centrifugal term is then given as (4) c 2r0 cos where is the rotation of a spherical body. Whereby (3) 0 then L is not conserved. occurs only when a torque is applied.
the term W for a generalized modulus in a medium that relates to the shear tensor of a fluid torsion (Ellis. torque is a force and torsion is a geometric deformation in the medium given by the torsion (11) Mr 4 2d Mr 4 2d where r is the radius and d is the length or distance in flat space. which may better explain cosmological structures and potentially the origin of rotation. which has intrinsic rotational components. That is. We can denote R as R . and hence requires inhomogeneous Lorentz transformations and requires a modification of the topology of space from M4 into U4 space. The external twisting effect is opposed by the shear stresses included in a solid or highly viscous material. This is the tensor form that can be utilized in Einstein’s field equations. to a body or system. Currently it appears that torque and Coriolis forces are eliminated by attaching the observer to a rotating reference frame and by assuming an absolute symmetry of the stressenergy tensor T T so to make the torque vanish [1]. . We have the usual Minkowski metric ds 2 g dx dx and the metric of U4 space is given as ds 2 dx dx . is the angle of distortion and M is the shear modulus. a rod or wire is fixed at one end (i. In order to convert from Minkowski space to U4 space we must define the relationship of the metric tensor and the coordinates for each space.e. The moment of inertia is denoted as I and we substitute (13) 2 from equation (6). torsion is the angular strain produced by applying torque.156 N. The quantity is a tensor in which rotation is included. We relate the metrics of the M4 x x g . we have d x 0 in space and U4 space as U4 space in analogy to g d 4 xT in Minkowski space. For any tensor Tv than Tv T (all indices run 1 to 4). Note that the spin field is the source of torsion and is the key to the manner in which spin exists in particle physics and astrophysics. We believe that inclusion of torque is essential to understanding the mechanics of spacetime. In order to define the scalar sustained for maximum curvature. has an equal and opposite torque exerted on it) and rotated at the other. for example. Torque creates action or work. we express the spatial gradient of R along the vector length R as R R . which occurs when. A is the area. hence maximum torque in spacetime. 2 2 2 In our case. 1971) is utilized. Rauscher where F is the force. which is a twisting force. gv and Tv terms without modifications. Torsion is a state of stress set up in a system by twisting from an applied torque. Then x x 4 under the gauge transformation for an arbitrary v as v . A. E which is a term in Einstein’s stressenergy tensor T where torque is given as (14) Wr 4 2R where R is the scalar curvature path in U4 space over which torque acts and r is the radius of twist produced by the torquing force acting over R. The torque for such a system is defined by or (12) where is in units of dynecm. The distance or length is now denoted as R in a generalized curved space. We employ a torque tensor as the m. M is the shear modulus and relates to the distortion of the shaft in dyne / cm2 and is the angle in radians through which one end of the shaft is twisted relative to the other.. 1 1 1 Ek mv 2 mr 2 2 I 2 . The formulation of torque is not included in Einstein’s field equations in any manner and is not incorporated in Rv. Therefore. Haramein & E.
Key to the inclusion of torque terms and its torsion effects is the modification of Einstein’s field equations formulated in the generalized U4 spacetime. Second. Then (16) whereas in the FermiWalker transport case (17) de ma au e dt dL (u a) L dt dL (u a) L dt where a is the four acceleration. we have a major clue for including torque so as to fix our frame of reference to the fundamental lattice states. hence this cannot be our reference frame. The choice of g 1 is made so that the accelerated frames undergo small accelerations which yields an approximately condition to be consistent with black hole physics and torque terms in relativity. the four velocity.The Origin of Spin 3. and hence angular momentum is accommodated. which requires a variable acceleration. we feel that an inclusion of torsion in Einstein’s Field Equations demands a torque term to be present in the stressenergy tensor in order to have physical effects. We have utilized this frame using the KerrNewman or ReissmanNordstrom solutions with spin. noting that u is the four vector velocity and e is a basis vector in analogy to x. The homogeneous and inhomogeneous Lorentz transformations involve linear translations and rotation. Researchers have attempted to include torsion by different methods since Elie Cartan’s letter to Einstein in the early 1930’s [2]. Black hole dynamical processes requires a relaxation g 1 . First. thus. in reference [1] the complications of fractional differences are avoided by formulating them in terms of the size of spatial lower limit Planck length dimension. y. INCLUSION OF TORQUE AND CORIOLIS FORCE TERMS IN EINSTEIN’S FIELD EQUATIONS 157 having a lattice form. Two currently held key issues are addressed in which torque and Coriolis forces are eliminated.e. The time derivative of angular momentum. The angular momentum vector L for a system must change in order to have torque. for (15) so that au e is eliminated. by tying the frame of reference to a gyroscope that accelerates in such a manner that its centers of mass are chosen to eliminate these forces [1]. the moment of inertia. This equation acts at the center of mass so that I. which includes rotation terms. and does not eliminate them. the torque and Coriolis forces are eliminated in a nonrelativistic manner by carefully choosing the observer’s state of coordinates by preventing the latticework from rotating. However. or torque. The fact that a nonzero solution exists allows us to choose frames of reference that do not move with the system and include torque. (19) L 2 3 2 4 dL 0 dt L where L is the angular momentum. The incorrect transport equation is the FermiWalker transport equation because it is formulated in a rotating frame that eliminates torque. we proceed to account for a torque term in Einstein’s Field Equations. then the conditions to include torque and Coriolis forces require a relaxation of the g 1 inertial frame. a torque can be utilized in Einstein’s field equations. We thus generate a torus from our new basis vector set e [9]. The U4 space appears to be the only spacetime metric that yields an unsymmetric affine connection and . Torsion resulting from torque is introduced as the antisymmetric part of the affine connection. If one considers a vacuum structure In order to include torque. is not included in its field equations. Then. This approach can be reconciled with conditions for affine connections and extended Lorentz invariance. z. It appears that we must utilize a different kind of rotational frame of reference. as well as atomic spin and the spin of the whole universe as in our scaling law [38]. is zero. Hence L is not orthogonal to u. and the earth’s gravitational acceleration g ~ 103 cm/sec2. Hence. we must modify the original form of Einstein’s field equations. then g 1 or g ~ 1 . i. No longer is (18) constant because torque. Given these two conditions.
2 0 is the Einsteinian tensor of U4 space time. For the vacuum gravitational field equations we introduce the antisymmetric torque term where which gives us the antisymmetric derivative of a secondrank potential field . In vacuum . K J . is the antisymmetric source term which arises . Haramein & E.158 N. arbitrary gauge transformation (26) . Thus torque and torsional effects on curvature can be expressed as tensor terms.11]. The vectors of the space in spherical topology have directionality (having a part in its hairs on a sphere) whereas a torus topology can have its vectors curl around its short axis (i. existence of a conserved current. . Thus all the vectors of the space obey invariance conditions. 0 implies the . . We define Then we can write the field equations (21) which are the gravitation and (22) for the source tensors (23a) and (23b) where constant L j as g expressed in U4 space. We believe the U4 spacetime allows a domain of action of torque and gives us a model of the manner in which dynamical properties of matterenergy arise out of the vacuum structure [12]. Then gauge invariance implies 2 d 4 x 0 for an The stressenergy tensor can then be related to the stress tensor and the torque tensor as . We can write a more generalized stress energy term as 2 (28) where the first term term and T T KT is the usual stress energy term where T 0 and the second term is the torque T becomes the total stress energy term including torque.. Topologically. A. having no parts on the hairs of a torus) so that no discontinuity of the vector space exists. giving us a more generalized form of the variational principle or ( R L KL )d 4 x 0 L T g is the density stressenergy tensor and L is the Lagrangian density. Rauscher an antisymmetric torsion tensor term that preserves Lorentz Invariance [10. Also.e. not the stressenergy tensor term. whereas torque is an inherent property of the stressenergy term. We utilize the variational principle (20) ( R L )d 4 x 0 where R is subtended curvature density and L is the Lagrangian. We define J T Kj / 2 2 J which is given as the right side of the above equation (24) and from intrinsic spins where T. 2 v 2 2 2 In vacuum the static solution yields the line element ds e dt r d e dr (27) where and are functions of r only as (r ) and (r ) . 0 . . absolute parallelism is maintained. (3K / s ) j . The term is an anharmonic object which preserves absolute parallelism. The constant is the coupling (24) which the field equation (25) 8 and K is the coupling constant for torque term. a torus is a surface of revolution generated by rotating a circle about a nonintersecting coplanar line as its axis. Note that both covariant and contravariant . Torsion appears to be the property of the geometry of spacetime.
and the Coriolis forces are derived as secondary properties resulting from the torquing of matterenergy in spacetime. for a Galilean rather than Lorentz coordinates. resulting Coriolis effects are driven by torquing on spacetime and therefore spacetime geometry is modified. We can express these terms in terms of the metric theory of gravity as x j g (34) 1 g g g 2 x x x . The Coriolis and centrifugal terms enter when we define a new frame of reference. If the additional higher order terms are zero. then no Coriolis and centrifugal forces. we have x A jk x a where the rotation matrix is A j Ak jk and the j k j k k j translation part is given as a . A conceptual picture of the interpretation of Einstein’s field equations is that the presence of matterenergy curves space and time. Hence. The (32) 0jk ' k ' j k ' j 00 produces the Coriolis forces from these transformations.The Origin of Spin 159 tensor notations are utilized. A jk Ak and centrifugal terms are included. Then x A jk x a for a A jk a which defines a new coordinate system. A j Ak ' a k x k additional higher order terms such as aa k x k for x . From (33) A jk ( Ak x a k ) j x k gives us the centrifugal force. The inertial k forces a is the second derivative with respect to time and Ak ' is the first time derivative. The potential 0 j k x x jk satisfies the LaplacePoisson equation. Torque is considered as a property of the stressenergy term. x x j We define 00 . j k j For rotation and translation. The most general form of Einstein’s field equations with torque and the cosmological term. A jk Ak and the inertial forces a which are separated. One can measure the quantity j 00 but only in a finite range. The scalar potentials transform as Coriolis. j for a given scalar potential field. For (35) 0 ( dt e ) 0 . 0 in U4 spacetime is 1 R KT 2 where we have the usual gravitation source terms T and nongravitational source terms with as the (29) R cosmological constant in U4 space. Then (31) and x t . We start from the Lorentz coordinates which holds everywhere (30) . Note that units of c G 1 are used in this section and that the cosmological constant in a torque field may yield correct approximations for the universal cosmological acceleration of distant objects. Thus we have tensor notation which allows us to relate these terms to the stressenergy tensor of Einstein’s field equations.
x acting on arbitrary basis set. The expression in terms of the in relating the Gaussian curvature through a radius a potential energy is 2 1 d 2 ( ) where is the angular velocity. . Hence. A. The gradient of proper universal time is not conveniently constant (as it is in the above case) when additional terms are included. and 2 is the Coriolis term and 2a is the relativistic correction to an inertial frame.160 N. or length squared. F3/ 2 F From equation (29) and (38) we can write our generalized field equations with the inclusion of torque as. This is clearly not the case for centrifugal. Now we can write the total stress energy term as (43) 8FT 1/ 2 c 1 / 2 8 c 8F T 5 / 2 . Rauscher then the gradients dt 0 for all and dt 0 for all velocity vectors x k and spatial vectors. the key may be 1 to the cuboctahedron and dual torus form (see Fig.(3). ) . torque and Coriolis terms.(2). Using the torque term from equation (14) which is in units of dynecm we return to our generalized stressenergy tensor (38) dL L dt T 8c 4 8G T 4 G c 4 where T is the total stressenergy tensor including its torque term. which we demonstrate in this section and in section 4 and relates to the U4 metric. Haramein & E. This latter term requiring modification in m dr 2 order to include torque is (37) where r F . The signature we use is (. which is time. 1). see equations (1). The quantity is in cm and (40) which is the Planck length and can be written as (41) G 3 c c F 8 F T 1/ 2 1/ 2 for the fundamental force in equation (39) . The quantity in the usual stress energy and the new torque term includes the fundamental force [8] (39) F c G 1/ 2 in units of dynes.. a2 dx j e j then we have the inertial acceleration Even for an accelerated observer for a particle velocity v dx 0 d 2x j (36) e j a 2 2a v v d ( x 0 )2 0 where x t is the fourth component of space. Torque also has intrinsic properties of the spacetime manifold. ej or e j e k 0 . hence we will need to redefine the geometric version of space and time by use of our vacuum equations. Now we can write the torque term as (42) 8 c c F 3/ 2 F 1/ 2 . . One can relate the torsional effect as a geometrical effect on spacetime curvature topology in analogy to Riemannian geometry. The units of the left side of the field equations are in cm2.
The global structure c of the Schwarzschild geometry represents a method of embedding Feynman diagrams. We can then represent the simplest covariant second rank tensor potential to represent torsion. for rs 2 . We can then write (49) ds 2 e 2 dr 2 r 2 d 2 M for a nonzero cosmological constant . This topology is unique for the inclusion of the torque term in the stressenergy tensor in equation (44). . (1 2M / r ) r 1 n(1 2 M / r ) . which is the Schwarzschild singularity. A slice through the equator of a spherical system and also between the two tori of a dual torus is given as (48) ds 2 1 dr 2 r 2 d 2 [1 2m(r ) / r ] which comprises an apparent flat space where m(r ) M . . We define the torsion term in terms of generalized potentials as v . To introduce torque into the EinsteinMaxwell equation. The Schwarzschild spacetime geometry for the Schwarzschild black hole gravitational field for a spherical coordinate line element. which we term 1 8c 4 8G R R T 4 2 G c .The Origin of Spin 161 (44) where represents the metric of tensor for the U4 topological space. discussed the next section. 2 We consider the metric parameter. The coordinate system that provides maximum insight into the Schwarzschild geometry is known generally as the KruskalSzekeres coordinate . is given by (45) ds 2 (1 2M 2 dr 2 )dt r 2 (d 2 sin 2 d 2 ) . for a variable radius M(r). v . Coriolis forces result from rotational effects of torque in this topology and also may yield a nonzero cosmological term. The electromagnetic field vector is constructed from the vector fields as Fv 2v where v is the potentials. we must introduce an antisymmetric part into Fv divided by the number of permutations related to the degrees of freedom. Thus one expects that the second rank current density is conserved [13. for a nonzero cosmological constant of the form The normalization scale 1 n(1 2M / r ) for a frame of reference external to the black hole. This requires unsymmetric affine connections in the metrical space. We proceed from the solutions to Einstein’s field equations including the torque term conditions and determine that these conditions require the inclusion of the cosmological constant 0 and the modified stressenergy tensor. 4. EXTENDED KERRNEWMAN SOLUTION TO EINSTEIN’S FIELD EQUATIONS WITH THE INCLUSION OF TORQUE We have developed a new solution to Einstein’s field equations in the previous section which contains a torque term. Gauge invariance is then expressed as v v v where v is any vector field. . We can also 2 write this form of the cosmological constant as (46) or (47) e 1 [1 2M / r ]1 / 2 e 2 [1 2 M / r ] at the Schwarzschild radius rs . in order to unify gravity and electromagnetism.14].
consider the KerrNewman or ReissnerNordstrom generalization of the Schwarzschild geometry. mass. (R )F d 1/ 2 4 x so that we can convert mass in gm or density in gm/cm3 into mass 1/ 2 in cm or density in cm2 by multiplying by 0. For gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The units of torque are dynecm and the scalar part is gm Before proceeding further. Haramein & E. and the quantity a is defined as a s / M . We do not need to convert rectilinear coordinates x. . We can convert the units of torque into units proportional to cm2. near rs equations give black hole topology for the condition M centrifugal forces and/or electrostatic and plasma electromagnetic repulsion will be delayed. charge. angular momentum will occur along the z axis only. and s . a contains spin and 2 2 2 mass. Constraints on the KerrNewman geometric solution to Einstein’s field 2 q 2 a 2 . This gives us a method to bring torque into our model since is defined as dL L . For black holes q<<M (utilizing G c 1 units).742 x 10–28 cm/gm and lengths in units (3 / 8P0 ) units and pressure in 0 . which is a vector. y. A. the angular momentum. q.16]. and become balanced [17]. Also. It is possible that. The moves in the zr plane where r is a radius vector from the . For the present the units of c G 1 are used. sec 2 2 r 2 a 2 cos 2 r 2 2mr a 2 q 2 .162 N. in the condition where for M such that M ~ q a . under imminent collapse. which we usually define as L. spin is zero. or halt and collapse. The Kerr geometry is valid for an uncharged system or q = 0 and a Schwarzschild geometry for q s 0 . The case we consider that is relevant to including torque is the case for M 2 q 2 ( s / M ) 2 for the KerrNewman geometry for a black hole rotation in the direction and spin along the z axis. Also torque is dependent on angular velocity which is expressed in terms of torque as dt Wr 4 d L . Recall that the quantity. In the case of the ReissnerNordstrom geometry which contains electromagnetic fields. The KerrNewman metric is written in the form sin 2 2 2 2 [dt a sin 2 d ] 2 [(r a 2 )d adt ]2 dr 2 d 2 . Hence it appears we can expand the where the angular velocity acceleration is 2R dt mr 2 KerrNewman solution to accommodate torque. the repulsive electrostatic force on protons of mass mp is similar to the gravitational pull by a factor of (53) electrostatic force eq e ~ ~ 10 20 gravitational force m M m where M is the mass of the black holes. spin. and coordinates moves or rotates in the xy plane and . mass in units (3 / 32 0 ) . we solve the coupled EinsteinMaxwell field equations to include the constraints of M. Charge and spin are relevant. Rauscher systems [15. q. Using dimensional (50) ds 2 analysis we can consider the scalar magnitude of the torque. for q 0 but s 0 . for example. 2 2 We define the quantities in terms of charge. z to the spherical coordinates r . we need to define two other quantities (51) and (52) Note we use the action integral g cm 2 ergs .
is a topological representation of the HarameinRauscher solution as a result of the addition of torque and Coriolis force terms as an amendment to Einstein’s field equations. The Coriolis forces act as higher order terms which are smaller than the other terms but are still significant [17]. which is generated from the torque term in the stressenergy tensor. Figure 1. Note that spin and torque are related. and r and utilizing the KerrNewman extended solutions including torque in units of c G 1 gives origin of the x. The spherical coordinate (54) ds 2 2 2 2Wr 4 cos 2 dr 2 sin 2 2 dr 2 d 2 [dt 2 sin 2 d ]2 [( r a 2 )d adt ]2 2 2mR 2 2 Wr 4 2Wr 4 with precession defined as cos and . Also r x y z and relating x the variables x. but the U4 space. is related to the SU2 group and other Lie groups. y. which we demonstrate through the S3 spherical space. Coriolis type dynamics of the dual U1 x U1 spacetime manifold are illustrated. where the latter term is the torque term ( ) E 2R 2mR E and m are in Planck units. Thus the S4 octahedral group is related to the U4 topology and we demonstrate that the cuboctahedral group relates to the GUT (Grand Unification Theory). 1(a). the 24 element group through S2 yields the cuboctahedral group which we can relate to the U4 space (next section). . y 2 2 2 2 Then x r sin cos and y r sin sin and z r cos . y. This space is a consequence of the Coriolis force acting as a secondary effect. The Lorentz invariance conditions are reconciled by utilizing a modified metrical space. which is not the usual Minkowski space.The Origin of Spin 163 can go from 0 2 and 0 and r 0 . In figure 1(c). In figure 1(b). which modifies the KerrNewman solution. z. The form of metric produces the dual torus as two copies of U1 x U1. z system.
e j are rotating with angular velocity. Further. in fact. Modification of the field equations makes it possible to include the torque terms and hence generate more realistic solutions. as well as polar jets. THE GROUP THEORETICAL APPROACH TO A UNIFIED MODEL OF GRAVITATION INCLUDING TORQUE AND THE GUT THEORY A test particle falling in a gravitational field accelerates relative to the observer’s frame as (55) ˆ d 2x j j ˆ e a 2 v 2 dx0 j runs 0 to 3. For the spatial vectors of the observer. This may lead to a model where the driving torque and the dynamical Coriolis forces of the spacetime manifold topology are responsible for the observed early formation of mature spiral galaxies [18]. stellar plasma dynamics and planetary science such as ring formation and the Coriolis structure of atmospheric dynamics. since observation would then be impossible. under no circumstances could any observer be completely disconnected from the observed. this is only a very limited approximation. not just infinitesimal distances.164 N. The proper time gives us the starting point of the geodesic with an affine parameter equal to the proper length. These finite groups are the Cn groups. t or x0 t for j 0 and in general . A. Hence. The ˆ inertial acceleration of the observer’s four space acceleration is a . for Euclidian absolute parallelism or for the generators of Lorentz transformation. accretion disks. The Fermitransport vectors are expressed relative to the inertial guidance gyroscope. 5. For tetrad orthogonality we have ei e j ij . the torquing of spacetime may be the result of the vacuum gradient density in the presence of matterenergy. In flat space this is the geodesic trajectory only if there is an additional rotational dx0 where is now defined as d ˆ ˆ ˆ the proper time and the spatial components e j are the basis vectors. u a u 0 . Under affine connections. Since Einstein’s field equations obey the LaplacePoisson condition. spiral arms and galactic halo formations. then the transport laws of a test particle space in curved spacetime appear as moving in a flat space. However. the spacetime manifold correlates well with the observable mechanisms of black holes. All representations of a . The affine connections that are utilized in general relativity also apply in crystallography. There is no real independent observer as the observer moves within the system since. as well as including the torque term in Einstein’s field equations. The equivalence principle or the time rate of change of a vector occurs over finite distances. the supermassive black hole at their centers. Haramein & E. z . transformations are linear and rotational in a uniform manner. We term e0 the points along the observer’s path as its time direction e0 u where x0 is the temporal component of X x. is again going to lead us to a U4 space rather than an M4 space. frame of reference 2a [1]. the C O and C O groups. supernovae. This is not our case when we include the Coriolis effects. supernova formation. which we term the HarameinRauscher solution. Straight lines are carried in to straight lines and parallel lines. novae. of the spatial basis vectors. we must consider a geometric picture in terms of finite group theory with finite generators and its relationship to the Lie group theory and their algebras having infinitesimal generators. our model is consistent with galactic structures. These solutions more comprehensively describe the dynamical rotational structures of galaxies. Rauscher In this section we have shown that we can modify Einstein’s field equations and the KerrNewman solution in order to accommodate torque and the Coriolis forces. but distances between points and angles. Further. If u and ˆ are zero then the parallel to the observer is u e j 0 . in which we utilize the inhomogeneous Lorentz transformation. as spacetime is curved and Riemannian in global space. is . and other astrophysical structures which in this case are driven by a spacetime torque. galactic topology. we see that the role of the Coriolis force. These groups can be related to the 24 element octahedral group. lines can be altered. We define a the four acceleration a u and the angular velocity of rotation. with the inclusion of torque and Coriolis effects in Einstein’s field equations. Hence. e j in the FermiWalker transport theory. y .
The 24 element octahedral group is denoted as O and is the set of all symmetries inscribed in S2. We now relate the toroidal topology and the cuboctahedron geometry to current particle physics. Thus. Thus. and torque with the GUT theories. The special unitary Lie groups. complex. This is necessary for the concept of invariance to exist. we can construct a fundamental relation of cosmology and quantum particle physics by relating Lie groups and their infinitesimal generators of the Lie algebra. Unitarity relates to the conservation of such quantities as energy. isospin. the complex space. The relationship of the finite and infinitesimal groups is key to understanding the symmetry relation of particles. real. the unification picture results directly from the geometry of spacetime with the consideration of finite group theory. and abstract spaces. However. including the cube and the octahedron. The set of all rotations of a sphere is a useful example of a Lie group. The octahedron and icosahedron are inscribed in S2. which is embedded in SO3. also called the SU2 group acts as a space which is the double cover of SO3. form a complete set of finite subgroups of SO3 the special orthogonal3 group. momentum. This group is the set of all special orthogonal 3x3 matrices. The icosahedron and the dodecahedron are dual to each other under the A5 group and the 12element group T is the tetrahedral group of which the symmetries are inscribed in S2 and is the A4 group. which is the set of unit determinants 2 x 2 complex matrices acting on C2. and SO3 which is S3 / {+1} so that SO3 can be derived from its subgroup SU2 by the plus and minus elements of SU2 in order to form SO3 [2022]. The Coriolis force comes from the metric. and groups having finite generators for finite groups. I ~ . The continuous Lie group SU2 acts on a two dimensional real space in analogy to SO3 acting on a three dimensional real space. That is SU2 acts as a space that is a sphere. S3. particle number. we have a Cn group space. The rotations of S2 form a 3sphere modular plus or minus 1. I as I . For example. and hypercharge Y. These regular polyhedral groups are the symmetry groups for the five Platonic solids. Thus. Hence. We might then say that M4 space has a Lie algebra associated with it. the symmetry group of 24 elements for the octahedral group O and the 60 element icosahedral group I. and I describe the symmetries of the five Platonic solids [23]..) This lattice structure appears to reflect the actual geometric structure of space and time [19]. The octahedron and the cube have the same symmetry group and are dual to each other under the S4 group. which is also the symmetry group of the cube since the eight faces of the octahedron correspond to the eight vertices of the cube.The Origin of Spin 165 and I z having commutation relations I . and for other quantities which involve Y and electric charge Q. and other variables. force fields or gauge fields and the structural topology of space. The SU2 group is geometrically the 3 sphere.2/1). i. the finite dimensional space involves arrays specifying elements of the groups in a spatial lattice. there are eight independent generators for the traceless 3 x 3 matrices of SU3. are utilized to represent the symmetry operations in particle physics and in infinitesimal Lorentz transformations. the S3 group. The polyhedral groups T. The 3 group of rotations is homomorphic to the SU3 group. S3 acting on C2. which are topological groups having infinitesimal elements of the Lie algebras. Significantly. The finite subgroups of SO3 are the symmetry groups of the various polyhedra which are inscribed on the sphere S2 upon which SO3 acts. (Note in crystallography. The 24 element octahedral group is given as (56a) C O U2 U2 U 4 which is mappable to the conformal supergravity group SU(2. The U4 space directly relates the new HarameinRauscher equations of gravity. which is described by a crystallographic Cn group theory. we have an associated Lie algebra. The regular polyhedral groups. S2. The generators of SU3 are the three components of I. For the U4 metric we see that the C O group naturally leads to the GUT scheme. that is the spatial part or the left side of the field equations utilizing the double octahedral group or cuboctahedral geometry. They are a continuous infinity of rotations of an ordinary sphere or 2sphere.e. We might well expect this because of the group theoretical association of the double torus and the cuboctahedron. we can relate its torus geometry to the Lie groups of the GUT scheme. matterenergy. the generators of the special unitary SU2 group is composed of the three isospin operators. The McKay groups are a finite subgroup of the special unitary Lie groups such as SU2. For the infinitesimal generators of the Lorentz group. The crystallographic lattice groups are finite groups: Cn and Kn specify the translations and rotations in a finite dimensional space. if we have finite generators. whereas U4 space has a finite Cn algebra associated with it. called S3 / {+1} which is embedded in SO3. The two torus satisfies conditions of a Lie group which can have an underlying manifold as a Lie algebra. I iI z . We can write this as (56b) C[O] U 1 U 1 SU 2 SU 3 SU 3 compact group are discrete. matter. O.
The key is that the infinitesimal Lorentz transformation is related to the concept of the infinitesimal generators of the Lie algebras. where Tn is the direct product of n copies of U1. For 8 antistates. called an n torus. The Penrose twistor is a spin space and is like a double torus without a waist. mappable to the KaluzaKlein model. hence U4 represents a double or dual torus. The other U1 scalar is the base for space and time as the compact gauge group of the spin two gravitron. The cover group C[O ] . This picture is put forward in detail by Sirag in his significant advancement of fundamental particle physics [2022]. More exactly. The icosahedron or Klein group yields the set of permutations for S4 permutation group associated with C O . weak. 2/1). The conjugate group of S is associated with U 2 U 2 U 4 or for U4. the cube and octahedron are dual to each other under the symmetry operations of the S 4 group. That can be written as U1 U1 U1 U1 where U1 U1 represents a torus. thus electromagnetism is related to the gravitational spacetime metric [29]. 1). A. Sirag utilizes the symmetric four group S4 which is isomorphic to O. Both C O and C O relate to the T4 group. The relationship between the torus space U4 and the subset of the C O and C O spaces is the cuboctahedron. [20] Thus we have a topological picture that relates to the unification of the four force fields in the GUT and supersymmetry models. which is defined as the dual torus space. as seen here. The twistor algebra of this complex eight space is mappable 1 to 1 with the spinor calculus of the KaluzaKlein geometry. the Penrose twistor [25. In his work. the tetrahedron is dual to the cube under the A4 group. as S can be associated with C O and S 4 4 4 with C O . 2/1) which yields the 24 element conformal supergravity group. which is the DS4 group. which is four copies of U1. We have demonstrated that the cover group of the cuboctahedron generates the double of the torus U1 U1 .26]. Also. Haramein & E. the modification of Einstein’s field equations with the inclusion of torque and Coriolis terms. The C O group is also denoted SU(2. The Weyl group is SU(2. and the icosahedron and dodecahedron are dual under the A5 groups. The S4 and S element groups. The 8 spinor states correspond to the 8 vertices of a cube. which is always an Abelian group. Sirag can generate all 16 states of the fermions family for a cube and its mirror image cube. The S group is associated with the 24 4 groups are 24 4 dimensions of the Grand Unification Theory. Therefore. The Lie groups are. yields a group theoretical basis in the U4 metrical space that forms a possible unification of the gravitational force with the strong. is the cover group of C O and C O .2) which is related to SU(2. the basis of the GUT unification scheme. The U2 group represents the four real spacetime dimensions and U 2 the four imaginary spacetime components forming a complex eight space [2931]. The T in this context refers to the structure of space and time. the maximal compact space of C O is embedded in S4 or SU(2. The SU3 groups represent the strong color quark – gluon force or gauge field. The SU2 group can be associated with weak interactions and U1 SU 2 is the group representation of the electroweak force. or GUT theory. of course. which represents a vortical rotational complex dimensional space. 2/1) and is the compact representation of the YangMills Bosons and C O represents the matter fields of the Fermions. The hourglass topology is directly formed from the topology of the dual sphere. which is U1 U1 cross U1 U1 in the Harameinian topology (see Fig. As before stated. which relates the electromagnetic metric to the gravitational metric as a five dimensional space [27. the octahedral group. The relationship of the cuboctahedral groups and the dual torus is a fundamental tenet of the Haramein geometric topology and. The key to this approach is the relationship of the finite groups C O and the Lie groups such as the SUn groups.28]. and hence we demonstrate that this cover group generates the dual torus. and electromagnetic forces in a unified theory. Also in the Georgi and Glashow scheme [24]. The eight (8) fundamental spinor states can be expressed in terms of the Riemann sphere S 2 which defines the relationship of spinors to spacetime. Rauscher The U1 can act as the photon (electromagnetic) gauge invariance group and relates to the rotation group SO3.166 N. . we can generate SU5 as a 24 element group related to S4 embedded in SU5=SU2 SU3. We are dealing with both infinitesimal and finite element systems when we consider torque and Coriolis terms in Einstein’s field equations. seems to be fundamental for unification [31].
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