This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
windmills have been used for irrigation. Although off-shore wind farms using dry-type transformers are beginning to grow in popularity. Oregon 97503 Tel : (541) 826 – 2113 Fax : (541) 826 .8847 2 . Both conventional distribution transformers and power generator step-up transformers are typically subjected to more constant loading at. grinding grains. we believe. WTSU transformers fall somewhere in between and as such. On the other hand. For this to happen. The turbines are highly dependant upon local climatic conditions. This turbine output is then delivered to the WTSU transformers and transformed to a collector voltage of 13. Even the generation of electricity from wind power is not a new idea. their theoretical maximum rating. but the relatively large numbers of recent failures would strongly suggest that WTSU transformer designs need to be made substantially more robust. WTSU transformers are neither conventional “off the shelf” distribution transformers nor are they conventional “off the shelf” power generator step-up transformers. stepped-up to transmission levels and passed across the nation’s interconnected power grid to the end users. as such. is the scale at which this renewable energy source is being used today. This high level of loading stresses insulation thermally and leads to reduced insulation life. for this discussion we will look only at liquid-filled transformers that are normally associated with inland wind farm sites. What is new. its design needs to be carefully and thoughtfully analyzed and reevaluated in our view.800 to 46. On land. Since the earliest of times.Introduction: Harnessing wind energy to perform work is not a new concept. and performing crude manufacturing for centuries. however. require a unique design standard. Today. often supplying power for isolated equipment. the relatively light loading of WTSU transformer has a favorable effect on insulation life but introduces two unique and Pacific Crest Transformers 300 West Antelope Road – Medford. “off the shelf” distribution transformers. Transformer Loading: Wind turbine output voltages typically range from 480 volts to 690 volts. Early wind generation served a local need. wind energy represents nearly 5% of the US electrical generation and is targeted to reach 20% in the foreseeable future. Historically this WTSU transformer function has been handled by conventional. The role of the Wind Turbine Step-Up (WTSU) transformer in this process is critical and. wind turbine outputs need to be gathered. and this dependency can result in yearly average load factor as low as 35%. or slightly above. merchants and explorers to ply their trades and discover the world around them. wind power has been captured with sails to allow traders.000 volts.
Typically used price evaluation formulae do not apply to this scenario. Harmonics and Non-Sinusoidal loads: Another unique aspect of WTSU transformers is the fact that they are switched in the line with solid state controls to limit the inrush currents. Conventional distribution transformers do not typically see non-linear loads that require preventative steps due to harmonic loading. taking the additional loading into consideration as well as providing electrostatic shields to prevent the transfer of harmonic frequencies between the primary and secondary windings. cannot be ignored from a heating point of view. NEMA TP1 and DOE efficiencies are not modeled for the operational scenario where average loading is near 30-35% and. forming bubbles within the oil which can migrate into the insulation and windings to create hot spots and partial discharges which can damage insulation. Oregon 97503 Tel : (541) 826 – 2113 Fax : (541) 826 .8847 3 . Transformer sizing and voltage variation: WTSU transformers are designed such that the voltage is matched to the generator (e. There is no “designed in” over-voltage capacity to overcome voltage fluctuations. as is typically done on distribution and power transformer designs which allow for up to 10% over-voltage. it should Pacific Crest Transformers 300 West Antelope Road – Medford. Repeated thermal cycling causes nitrogen gas to be absorbed into the hot oil and then released as the oil cools. these same electronic controls contribute damaging harmonic voltage frequencies that. The first problem is that. and in the extreme Ferroresonance. when coupled with the nonsinusoidal wave forms from the wind turbines. While potentially aiding in the initial energization. consequently. quite dissimilar to conventional distribution transformers. This differs widely from the typical step-up transformer which must be designed to withstand high magnetizing inrush currents which cause core saturation. when lightly loaded or idle. Further. The thermal cycling can also cause accelerated aging of internal and external electrical connections. This causes repeated thermal stress on the winding. should be cautiously applied when calculating the total cost of ownership for WTSU transformers The second problem is that the WTSU transformer goes into thermal cycling as a function of these varying loads. wind turbine) output voltage exactly. seals and gaskets. the WTSU transformer must be designed for harmonics similar to rectifier transformers. When a rectifier/chopper system is used. These cumulative effects put the WTSU transformer at a higher risk of insulation and dielectric failure than either the typical “off the shelf” distribution transformer or the power generator step-up transformer experiences. clamping structure. the core losses become a more significant economic factor while the coil or winding losses become less significant and de-emphasized.g.functionally significant problems with which other types of conventional transformers do not have to deal.
the WTSU transformers must be designed to withstand the full mechanical effects of short circuits. Since wind turbines must stay connected during disturbances in the network. Since overload sizing is a common protective practice with “off the shelf” distribution or power step-up generator transformers. Therefore. the generator may be required to carry as low as 15% rated voltage for a few cycles and then ramp back up to full volts a few seconds after fault clearing. it’s design must be equally unique and robust. The combination of wide variations in loading. sizing without protection for over-voltages. under-voltages or over-loading. It is neither a conventional distribution transformer nor is it a conventional generator step-up transformer. carefully controlled network guidelines developed for generating plants. During this time the generator will continue to deliver an abnormally low voltage to the WTSU transformer. . Depending upon the specific network regulations.8847 4 . Oregon 97503 Tel : (541) 826 – 2113 Fax : (541) 826 . and other types of step-up transformers will “drop out” when subjected to an under-voltage or overcurrent situation caused by a fault. “down on the farm”! Pacific Crest Transformers 300 West Antelope Road – Medford. This means that the WTSU transformer must be uniquely designed with enough “ruggedness” to withstand full short circuit current during the initial few cycles when the maximum mechanical forces are exerted upon the WTSU transformer windings. Therefore. Conclusions: The role of WTSU transformers in today’s wind generation scheme is unique. the length of time the generator is required to stay on line can vary. and the requirement to “ride through” transient events and faults sets the WTSU apart from it’s more conventional. the WTSU transformer size ( kVA or MVA) is designed to match the generator output with no overload sizing. conventional distribution transformers. the distribution transformer is brought back on-line either individually or with it’s local feeder in conjunction with automatic reclosures. . on the other hand. harmonic loads from associated control electronics and generators. Wind turbine generators. in order to maintain network stability are only allowed to disconnect from the system due to network disturbances within certain. Once the fault has cleared.be noted that the generator output current is monitored at millisecond intervals and the generator limited to allow up to 5% over-current for 10 seconds before it is taken off the system. power transformers. . “Off the shelf” . doesn’t belong . . the WTSU transformer design must be uniquely robust to function without it. “off the shelf” counterparts. during near-to generator faults. Requirement to withstand Fault Currents: Typically.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.