Heidegger's Thinking on Architecture Author(s): Christian Norberg-Schulz Source: Perspecta, Vol. 20 (1983), pp.

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Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 61 61 Heidegger'sThinkingon Architecture Caspar David Friedrich. Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal.00/0 ? 1983 by Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal. Volume 20 0079-0958/83/20061-008$3. Inc." 1830. "The Temple of Juno at Agrigentum.. and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology .

p. But men and animals. or with the merely astronomical idea of a planet. disaster and blessing. The Greeks called this emerging and rising in itself and in all things phusis. endurance and decline acquire the shape of destiny for human being. Standing there. rather it presents.if we think of all this in reverse order. It simply stands there in the middle of the rock-cleftvalley. Poetry. The temple-work. which we shall use as our point of departure: A building. and when discussing the problem of "dwelling poetically. it brings something into presence. but we shall also have to refer to other writings 1 Martin Heidegger. The luster and gleam of the stone. only to represent incidentally also a fitting environment for the temple. done for its own sake. The temple. Deliberately he chooses to describe a work "that cannot be ranked as representational. the work of art does not represent. We shall get closer to what is. Standing there. 2 Poetry. and how is it done? The quotation indicates answers to both questions. By means of the temple. rather. however. or may be. first gives to things their look and to men their outlook on themselves. portrays nothing. Language. and its own repose brings out the raging of the sea. also. As a work of art the building "preserves truth. 41ff. earth is present as the sheltering agent. Heidegger defines this something as "truth. a Greek temple."2 The example moreover shows that a building according to Heidegger is. 1971).' What does this passage tell us? Firstof all we have to consider the context in which the quotation is used. When Heidegger mentions the temple. the building rests on the rocky ground. that on which and in which man bases his dwelling. It is the templework that first fits together and at the same time gathers around itself the unity of those paths and relations in which birth and death. do not fade away into the indefinite. In his essay "The Origin of the Workof Art. Thought. What this word says is not to be associated with the idea of a mass or matter deposited somewhere. are never present and familiar as unchangeable objects. a work of art. snake and cricket first enter into their distinctive shapes and thus come to appear as what they are. eagle and bull. the breadth of the sky. which itself only thus emerges as native ground. yet first brings to light the light of the day. Thought.The steadfastness of the work contrasts with the surge of the surf. This presence of the god is in itself the extension and delimitation of the precinct as a holy precinct. His concept of being-inthe-world implies a man-made environment. the darkness of the night. Earth is that whence the arising brings back and shelters everything that arises without violation. an eye for how differently everything then faces us. in its standing there. This resting of the work draws up out of the rock the mystery of that rock's clumsy yet spontaneous support. ed." That is. plants and things. The temple and its precinct. We call this ground the earth. . and in this concealment lets it stand out into the holy precinct through the open portico. It clears and illuminates. opens up a world and at the same time sets this world back again on earth. victory and disgrace. An exposition of Heidegger's thinking on architecture therefore ought to be a part of our interpretation of his philosophy. yet it plays an important role in his philosophy. Language. The building encloses the figure of the god. though itself apparently glowing only by the grace of the sun.Christian Norberg-Schulz 62 62 Heidegger did not leave us any text on architecture. Only from and in this expanse does the nation first return to itself for the fulfillment of its vocation."a major example is taken from architecture. In the things that arise. the building holds its ground against the storm raging above it and so first makes the storm itself manifest in its violence. assuming of course that we have. Hofstadter (New York:Harper& Row."he explicitly refers to the art of building. The temple's firm towering makes visible the invisible space of air. Tree and grass. which one fine day is added to what is already there. The all-governing expanse of this open relational context is the world of this historical people." Whatis thus preserved. the god is present in the temple. reveals nothing. to begin with. standing there. pp. Such an exposition may also contribute to a better understanding of the complex environmental problems of our time. 36. he does so to illuminate the nature of the work of art. Mere reversing.

and blue depth of the ether.N. Fourtimes Heidegger repeats that the temple does what it does by "standEarth is the building bearer. being used to thinking again on earth. the gloom and glow of By means of the building the place gets night. we everyday life-world really consists of concrete things. mirrorsthe others. the course are certainly not introduced as an ornaof the moon. finally. 178. World the Greek temple. and he even remarks that "here. removes him from any comparison that is: the fate of the people is also intiwith beings that are present. of the day and the darkness of the night. social or cultural structures. as was already suggested by held forth into the Open by the work.7We 'N. The visualizamortals are human beings. and consider man or society its origin. Language. Thus it rests on by To die means to be capable of death the ground. tutes the world. fecit' that is to be made known. 93.4In his earth visible: the rock. rather than the abstractions look at the second question. 1957). the plants. nourishing there.the word means the ly. Thought. emphasizes that "it is not the "multifariousbetween" the world. is taken care of called mortals because they can die.the simple 'factum est' crete totality. 13. the naThe what in our question comprises three ture of world can only be indicated. p." and calls this however. 179." In doing this. Being and Time (New York:Harper. Today Heidegger in fact talks about man's stay we are used to thinking of art in terms of "between earth and sky. In "The Origin of the Workof Art" Heidegger does not offer any true explanation. it fits together what world ontically as the totality of things. The mately related to the place. p. he defines components. 7 Martin Heidegger. In his essay on Johan Peter Hebel. is not explicit. it is and thing are hence interdependent conwhich we have to consider to arrive given here and now. cepts. Heidegger also emphasizes that the temEach of the four is what it is because it ple is not added to what is already there. p. whereby a of the weather. however. p. They are tion of the earth. between work and word. . In general. rock."3 the references made in the discussion of T'hisfactum is revealed when a world is opened up to give things their look. the sea. the hidden sway of the divinities the done simulbut it is implied that this is god emerges as what he is. the light and are built in particular. Again we may and at the same time sets this world back feel bewilderment. and may even seem bewildering. and death. 5 Poetry. Heidegger. and towers into the air. the temple "opens up a world sky. 6 Poetry. Thus he says: how. the world is howtheory. In doas death. 3 Poetry. dusk of day. 65. The ing with its fruits." wherein things appear as what they as a "setting-into-work of truth" is new. it sets truth of world in terms of physical." Both words are important. of Heidegger's to arrive at the needed understanding. mortals and divinities. Thought. p. the clemency and inclemency extension and delimitation.5 ing this. Thought. it gives to things their look. shapes the destiny of human being. the temple's standing. Hebel der Hausfreund(Pfullingen: G. Ratherthey indicate that temples the year's seasons. the given place possesses a hidden meaning which is revealed by the The divinities are the beckoning temple. "in the middle of the rockcleft valley. between birth expression and representation. Final. Language. Evidently Heidegger into work. the may of science. First. that Heidegger's world is a conis to be Rather. the temple makes all the things of the wherein a human being is living. thus." In Being and Time. between joy and pain. and even the light later writings he offers an interpretation of this wherein as a fourfold of earth. Language. at a better understanding of Heidegger's As the totality of things. are. They all belong tobut that the building first makes the which constigether in a "mirror-play" things emerge as what they are.Christian Norberg-Schulz 63 63 4 Martin Heidegger. the air. the glitter of the stars.the temple makes the god present. Ratherthan being conceived as a distant world of ideas. other words. see. tending water and it temple does not stand anywhere."The words rock-cleftvalley The sky is the sun's path. which taneously with the housing of the god. ment.and ontologically as the Being of these fhings. wants to remind us of the fact that our To understand what all this means. plant and animal.prominent places. 1962). In particular. How the building makes the desmessengers of the godhead. the animals. stands there.6The mirror-playmay Heidegger's interpretation of architecture be understood as an open "between. Out of tiny of the people present. Neske. Second. the drifting clouds In holy precinct for the god is formed.

Heidegger accordingly defines language as the "House of Being. Naturalthings. gate. and discloses "that into which human being as historical is already cast. though still hidden from itself. the temple relates to all of them."" Later. at the same time as they are united into a "simple onefold. 9 Poetry. is the origin of poetical images? Heidegger answers explicitly: . When Heidegger wrote "The Origin of the Workof Art" he had not yet arrived at the concept of the fourfold. its world. fruit tree. and when we use language poetically the house of being is opened. and a world is opened up. at the same time as its elements emerge as what they are. thus. p. and.. 215."18 What. p. he introduced the term Andenken to indicate that kind of genuine thought which is needed to disclose a thing as a gathering. Heidegger says. 18 Poetry. Thought. is opened up. 8 Poetry.p."9 Heidegger also offers examples to illustrate the nature of the thing. . by naming beings for the first time. and the bridge makes this fact manifest. Language.'6 Language's own nature is poetical. that is: when he listens to and responds to language the world which he is."8Thus he says: "Things visit mortals with a world. Language.however. Thought. as is a bridge. 194ff. As a thing. Thought. Human life takes place on earth. whereas the bridge is a building which discloses more comprehensive properties of the surroundings. This is the earth and. The bridge thus makes a place come into presence. and makes them appear as what they are. bridge. p. the selfclosing ground on which it rests together with everything that already is. he cannot accept the interpretation of language as a means of communication. When Heidegger understands the thing as a manifestation of the fourfold he revives the original meaning of thing as a coming together or "gathering. Language. When things are named for the first time. Thought. but to denote things that are disclosed through the gathering of the bridge. forms part of that equipment which constitutes man's proximal environment. Heidegger calls this to "dwell poetically. A jug is a thing. Both examples are relevant in our context." Man dwells in language. Before they were just transient phenomena. Thought. jug.. copies and imitations are mere variations on the genuine image . p. Language. Language. they are recognized as what they are. 226. then. 11 Being and Time. This disclosure happens in poetry. based on habit and convention. Language. The jug. Thought. Language is therefore the original art. p. p. tower." The temple is manmade. Thus Heidegger says: The bridge gathers the earth as landscape around the stream . p. which prevails in virtue of the relation of human being to the unconcealedness of Being. Thought. but in the description of the Greek temple all the elements are there: the god. tifully shown by Heidegger in his analysis of Trakl'spoem "AWinter Evening. and an authentic existence becomes possible. Thought.Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 64 13 Poetry.10 guage. Language. and they gather the fourfold each in their own way. and ask for an interpretation which discloses their thingness." 16 Poetry. 74. p. . Thought."15 Thus he says: But where do we humans get our information about the nature of dwelling and poetry? . It is. 14 Poetry. 15 We may in this context be reminded of Rilke'sIX Elegy: "Arewe perhaps here to say: house. window-at best: column. and "the nature of the image is to let something be seen."2 "Lan- it from the telling of language. 174. It does not just connect banks that are already there.. The words "earth" and "landscape" are not used here as mere topographical concepts. ever not a mere collection of objects. 200. which lets the invisible be seen . fountain. the human beings. In this kind of thought language comes to play a primary role as a source of understanding. the world they gather. only when and only as long as [we respect] language's own nature. Of course. Poetry speaks in images. What Heidegger wants to reveal in his examples... 73. Just as he does not understand art as representation."'4 The quotation is important because it tells us that the earth and the world of an historical people are what they are because they are related to the earth and the world in general. The banks emerge as banks only as the bridge crosses the stream. is the thingness of the things. 58ff. By contrast.. that is. In Being and Time the technique used was called "phenomenology. and in general in language which "itself is poetry in the essential sense. Language keeps the world but is used to say a world.. for an historical people it's earth. however."'3 The last quotation shows that in order to grasp Heidegger's theory of art we also have to consider his notion of language. also gather the fourfold. . implicitly. however. Language. Language. first brings beings to word and to appearance. 12 Poetry." 7 What this means is beau- 17 Poetry. but the names keep them. [We receive] 10 Poetry. and is deliberately created to reveal a world. 152. p.the sky. the earth. 75.

In his essay "Building Dwelling 27 Being and Time. Language." An inhabited landscape obviously is a known landscape. In the Hebel essay Heidegger says: The buildings bring the earth as the inhabited landscape close to man and at the same time place the nearness of neighbourly dwelling under the expanse of the sky.6 or in other words. 26 In Hebel der Hausfreund. p. awaits the divinities and initiates the mortals. means "what has been thought. In poetic language truth is brought "to word. and the things which constitute the place have to be dis- closed in their immediate presence. Neither earth alone nor sky alone produces a work of art. 137."20 In other words. which he relates to the regions of life and death." "Memory is the source of poetry. VortrageundAufsatze II (Pfullingen:G. In the work the world is set back on earth. memory..." Heidegger says. p. Although poetry is the original art. but a "lived space" between earth and sky. Van Gogh's painting may be called a representational image. 7. 135. the landscape is revealed as what it is in truth. understand "thought" in the sense of Andenken. The poetic image is therefore truly integral. he "saves the earth."24 Buildings are such constructed things. sky.Heidegger explicitly considers villages and cities "buildings"in this context.. sunset and midnight. that is. Thought. 24 Poetry.25 This statement offers a clue to the problem of architectural gathering. What a poem and a work of art have in common is the quality of image." Here we must. 1954). whereas a thing proper does not possess the quality of image. Zeus needed memory to bring forth art: Mnemosyne herself was the daughter of the earth and the sky.Christian Norberg-Schulz Christian Norberg-Schulz 65 65 19 Martin Heidegger. and he adds: "Yet image formed rests in the poem. but its thingness is hidden and has to be disclosed by a work. Heidegger says. "Only image formed keeps the vision. but we have to emphasize that its quality as a work of art does not reside in its being a representation.. Heidegger in fact emphasizes that "Staying with things is the only way in which the fourfold stay within the fourfold is accomplished at any time . with Zeus as the father. and her daughters are hence understood as the children of a complete world: earth. Gedachtnis. for rescue. What. Being a goddess. as the disclosure of "thingness" or the "Being of beings. Other works of art." Heidegger points out that the Greeks already understood the relation between memory and poetry. He also mentions sunrise." The word opens up the world." But it also has to be "set-into-work. memory is kept in language. and below as what is on the floor. p." Human life takes place between earth and sky in a concrete sense. and specially construct things that do not grow. What is gathered. This landscape is brought close to us by the buildings. something that is gewohnt. Language. p. that live only in passing . the work gives the world presence. 13. we first have to say a few more words about man-made things as such."'9 The German word for memory. In Being and Time Heidegger points out that "what is withinthe-world . isomorphic space.28 Already in his early magnum opus. Thus Heidegger says that a man dwells "between work and word. Thus the building defines a precinct. do not portray anything. receives the sky. the most fugitive. that is. is a landscape? A landscape is a space where human life takes place. but the work of art speaks for them. and radically different from the analytic categories of logic and science. which implies that the memories which give rise to art are our understanding of the relationship between earth and sky.p. p. it becomes part of the immediate here and now. however. p. To them the goddess Mnemosyne. 21 We may again recall Rilke'sIXElegy: "Andthese things. 22 Poetry. is the "inhabited landscape. 151."27 and explains the concrete nature of this space referring to above as what is on the ceiling. 28 Being and Time. Mnemosyne is also simultaneously human and divine. midday. at the same time as it discloses the nature of this space by standing there. It is this kind of disclosure which is accomplished by the Greek temple. and are hence to be understood as non-representational images.22 When man stays with things in a fourfold way. . that is. What is a non-representational image? To answer this question. 23 Poetry.2' In "The Origin of the Work of Art" Heidegger shows how van Gogh's painting of a pair of peasant shoes reveals the thingness of the shoes. Thought.. the notion of the fourfold was implicit. Thought. whereby the latter is disclosed in its being. 11. it does not exhaust the disclosure of truth. Language. A work is in addition a thing. humans and divinities. It is therefore not a mathematical. 25 Hebel der Hausfreund. Language. Thought. 150. in particular works of architecture. look to us."23 Therefore "mortals nurse and nurture things that grow. The discussion of the Greek temple indicates the nature of spatiality. As a gathering it mirrors the fourfold in its way. In general he points out that spatiality (Raumlichkeit) is a property of being-in-the-world. the shoes are mute. or a space in the narrower sense of the word. is also within space. Neske. 20 Poetry. By themselves. which gather a world and allow for dwelling. however. was the mother of the Muses. 151. p.

it brings the opposition of measure and boundary into their common outline. 37 Poetry."39 be replaced by 'image.. In general this lines up with Heidegger's saying that the building sets the world back on earth. as an embodiment of a difference. building is closer to the nature of space and to the origin of the nature of 'space' than any geometry and A mathematics. in the sense of poiesis. Together. 12. did not feel qualified to discuss. offers a measure to things. In his analysis of Trakl's"A Winter Evening. that is. Thinking"Heidegger makes this more precise. p. p. what is alien and what is habitual. Thought. (space) originates from raumen. plan and elevation make up a figure or Gestalt.34 Sculptural embodiment is therefore the "incarnation of the truth of Being in a work which founds its place. 202. The earth thus keeps the world that is opened up. the simply belong to the place. . thus. Gallen. As the image comprises an elevation."32 learn to understand that the things themselves are the places and that they do not Second. is not a riftas a mere cleft is ripped open."33 are embodied by means of sculpplaces tural forms. Die Kunst und der Raum (St. 145. rather.Architecture occurs in the boundary as an embodiment of world. It is a gathering middle where an outlook on the world is opened up and set back on earth. Thought. 64. p. "Building never shapes pure 'space' as a single entity . Thought. 39 Poetry.Christian Norberg-Schulz Norberg-Schulz 66 66 29 Poetry."29 Admittance (Einraumen)and installment (Einrichten)are the two aspects of spatiality as location. 36 Poetry. p. Language. 41 Poetry. p. p.38 a In building the threshold separates and simultaneously unites an outside and an inside. whereby the twofold nature of spatiality again becomes apparent. Thus Heidegger says: "A boundary is not that at which something stops but. His aim was not to offer any explanation. The simultaneous opening and keeping may be understood as a conflict which Heidegger calls the "rift"(Riss). 10.it is the intimacy with which opponents belong together." Heidegger shows how the threshold carries the unity and difference of world and thing (earth). which he. The rift is fixed in place by a Grund-rissas well as an Auf-riss. 34 Die Kunst und der Raum."4' The statement clearly shows that for Heidegger the arts have their particular professional problems. rests and towers. "The conflict. p. it is a thing rather than a mere geometrical diagram. Thought. The thingness of a building is hence determined by its being between earth and sky as a sculptural form. but is provided for by locations. as the Greeks recognized. as a philosopher. In a certain sense it stops outside architecture itself. Thought. by a plan and an elevation. as the word Riss means rift as well as plan. 158. whereas the earth as embodi- ment provides a boundary.. 63. p. we may say that a place is determined (be-dingt) by its boundary. that is. "Standing there" as elevation. that is. that is. the dark glow of colours. in gathering things "We must which here belong together. Language. however. 11. 13."30 location or "lived space" is generally called a place. Setting back on earth means embodiment. Ifwe refer this to our context. Thought. Language. The location makes room for the fourfold and simultaneously discloses the fourfold as a built thing. In German its nature is beautifully shown by language itself. p." saying: "This thinking on building does not presume to discover architectural ideas. the "freeing of places for human dwelling. Space is therefore not given a priori." Heidegger in more detail discusses the twofold nature of spatiality." "The place opens a domain. 30 Poetry."35 Heidegger's statements here may be related to his description of the temple as a body which stands. and architecture may be defined as the making of places."36 The world. p. (but) because it produces things as locations.3'First he points out that the German word Raum. let alone give rules for building. All the same. They form part of a figure which discloses the spatiality in question.' whereby we gain an important clue to the understanding of the architecturalimage. Language."37 boundary may also be understood as a threshold. 32 Die Kunst und der Raum. 154. he certainly laid a foundation for the 31 Martin Heidegger. Language. These embodiments are the characters which constitute the place. 40 Poetry. or in other words. saying that buildings are locations and that "the location admits the fourfold and installs the fourfold. Thought."40 Here Heidegger's thinking on the art of building stops. Language. And in fact Heidegger starts his essay "Building Dwelling Thinking. the dumb hardness of wood. 63. 158. 1969). as it does not treat the problems of the architecturalGestalt as such."Gestalt is the structure in whose shape the riftcomposes and submits itThe word Gestalt evidently could self. Boundary and threshold are constituent elements of place. 35 Die Kunst und der Raum. the architectural image sets the rift "back into the heavy weight of stone. 38 Poetry. Language. p." "The rift does not let the opponents break apart. that the fourfold is brought into a thing through the act of building. the boundary is that from which A something begins its presencing. 33 Die Kunst und der Raum. Language. but to help man to get back to authentic dwelling. In a late essay "Artand Space. p. Thought.

which is understood as the House of Being. The general point of departure is the thought that the world only emerges as what it is. it is impossible to consider the world separately from language. and demonstrated that his Andenken may bring us far "on the way to architecture.what remains.46Standing there.""3 other words. and the world it brings ple. as column. scape cannot be isolated from human life and from what is divine. It does image. that is.45 function." "resting. thing. the factum est."49 The architecturalsolution should. field. Duringthe last ply that man's being-in-the-world mirrors decades it has become increasingly clear the between of earth and sky. At a moment of the fourfold.dwelling.for instance in "Artand Space" where we read: "DerOrt offnet jeweils eine Gegend. light and darkness. however. Heidegger explicitly distinguishes spaappear as variations on archetypes. Standing there. spatiality and building were implicit already in Being and Time (1927). tiality from space in a mathematical sense. hardly intending it in a radicalfunctionalist sense. to recall the terms used in Heidegger's description of the Greek temple. suggests its nature. but only cerfer to modes of being-in-the-world in tain of its aspects. animals and men. Heidegger's thinking shows great consistency and may certainly be understood as a "way."In our opinion. therefore. or tower." Already in Being and Time."The discussion of the Greek temple illustrates this idea. and comes into presence confusion and crisis. We could also say that inhabited field. also stand.Christian Norberg-Schulz 67 67 42 It is interesting to notice that Heidegger's basic ideas on world. We all know some of these. be derived directly from the When we say that life takes place. rest and tower. but rather brings us a step further on the way." This sentence presents Heidegger's thinking on architecture in a nutshell! We have already pointed out that To give the world immediate presence. The problem of meaning in ar- . the breadth of the sky. It is an embodied Gestalt. and enter the field of and sky. stating that the work "opens up a world" and "first gives to things their look. Although the possibilities are infinite. 45 On several occasions Heidegger uses the German word Ort." remake a total world visible." and man's access to the world is through listening and responding to language. we impatterns of practical use. man also has to set truth into Heidegger does not offer any further exwork. 203. p. proves which constitute an inhabited landscape. A work of architecture therefore discloses the spatiality of the fourfold through its standing there. 46 This is also how the world is described in Genesis I. These aspects are terms of spatiality. indem er die Dinge auf das Zusammengehoren in ihr versammelt. it may help us to arrive at an authentic understanding of our through the buildings which bring it close to man."which got its classical manifest as a particularbetween of earth definition in the slogan "Formfollows and sky.47Thus it brings the inhabited landscape close to man. which is the ultimate aim of architecture. Thus Heidegger quotes Holderlin's dictum: Watbleibt aber. 44 Heidegger's term Gegend (in Gelassenheit.) may be translated with "domain"or "region." "delimitation.4 their importance as types of images The Greek example in fact starts with the which visualize the basic structure of spaimage of a rock-cleftvalley and later retiality. the darkness of the night. Language names things which "visit man with a world. 38ff. where the Grundriss mirrorsthe admittance and the Aufriss the mode of standing. The natural and man-made things which constitute the boundaries of the be. Pfullingen 1959. The later essays on "TheThing"(1950) and "BuildingDwelling Thinking"(1951) as well as the late text on "Artand Space" (1969). The very fact that nominating a domain (Gegend) of things language names these things." 48 We may infer that a theory and history of archetypes is urgently needed. with insufficient possibilities for human ing. "TheOriginof the Workof Art" (1935) does not represent a new departure. stiften die Dichter. pp. and lets him dwell poetically. clarifyand organize the thoughts contained in "TheOriginof the Workof Art. The primary purpose of architecture planation of the architecturalGestalt or is hence to make a world visible. The discussion of the Greek temthis as a thing. The into presence consists in what it gathers. Heidegger emphasized that "discourse is existentially equiprimordial with In state-of-mind and understanding." and "towering. and actschematic and characterless environment. Spatiality is a concrete term dearch. 43 Being and Time. 49 Louis Sullivan who coined the phrase. implies that what is standing must be understood as a materialized image. gable. This spatiality becomes "functionalism." A work of architecture is therefore not an abstract organization of space. words "extension. thus. The inhabited Heidegger's thinking on architecture is of landscape therefore is a manifestation of great immediate interest. we may repeat the main points of Heidegger's thinking on architecture. tween. But it also suggests that landarchitecturaltheory proper. when it is "said" or "set into work. water and air. it admits life to happen in a concrete place of rocks and plants. Between the two wars.4 But here we go beyond the limits fers to several concrete elements of earth of the present essay. resting. It is the "luster and gleam of the stone which brings to light the light of the day." Evidently a work of architecture does not "standing. dome. however. is founded by the poets. however."42 To sum up. the modes always comprised in the concept of spatiality. architectural landscape denominates the spatiality practice was founded on the concept of of the fourfold. Thus they embody characters which mirror man's state-ofmind (Befindlichkeit). the same time as at delimit a precinct which admits they man's actions. Man is in that this pragmatic approach leads to a this between."a metaphor he himself liked to use. 47 It is therefore something more than a matter of convenience when architects present their projects by means of plans and elevations. standing. as a place.

51Considering architectural forms as representations of something else. Meaning in Architecture (London: Design YearbookLimited. 53 See C.the structure of dwelling. "Kahn.Heidegger and the Language of Architecture. Norberg-Schulz." New Chicago Architecture (Chicago: Rizzoli. 1969). whereby architecture is understood as a system of conventional signs. This does not mean. proved incapable of explaining works of architecture as such. Here Heidegger comes to our rescue. eds. he leads us out of the impasse of scientific abstraction. 55 Poetry. Baird."Chicago:vision and image. In his essay "Building Dwelling Thinking." Oppositions 18 (New York."55 . and C. See C."54In other words. 52 This was also accomplished by Louis Kahn. Language. Symbols and Architecture (Chichester:Wiley.Christian Norberg-Schulz 68 68 50 See C. to the things themselves. where functionalism is being abandoned while a new architecture of images is emerging. that the problems are solved. Bunt. however. 54 Poetry. Language. Signs. 1981). This is apparent in architectural practice. that is. semiological analysis has. and his Andenken is certainly the method we need to gain a fuller understanding of the things themselves. Thought. each in its own way. R. Through such a poetical Andenken we take "the measure for architecture. p. inescapable for dwelling.whose conception of architecture comes surprisinglyclose to Heidegger's thinking.. Jencks. p. chitecture has therefore come to the fore. and back to what is concrete. His thinking on architecture as a visualization of truth restores its artistic dimension and hence its human significance. 227.52By means of the concepts of world.53Heidegger's thinking may help us to understand what this implies. however. 150. it has mostly been approached in semiological terms.. we have to give thought to the thingness of things in order to arrive at a total vision of our world." Heidegger in fact concludes that "thinking itself belongs to dwelling in the same sense as building . .1979). Jencks and G. . Thought. Norberg-Schulz. Building and think- ing are. Broadbent. Today we are only at a beginning. thing.eds.50So far. and work. 1980). 51 See G.