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Lac Hen Mann - Gran Torso

Lac Hen Mann - Gran Torso

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Published by: Dominic Lash on May 16, 2012
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Notation

and Performing Techniques

The instruments ViOlirll~

are to be tuned as follows, Violinll~ Viola

Slopping and muting signs for the left hand

In

~

m$

I"

Violoncello

~

The pitches in the score do not indicate the ~udible result but the tone, Lo be stopped on the lndicated string; Lhis does not apply to the pitch mdications added in parentheses at natural harmonic stops, which indicate the actual resulting sound The viola and violoncello should be equipped with tailpieces of wood r.n,tead of a synthelic rnateriall lor this piece. Besides the following indications. further details concerning the performance of certain pas,ages are given in the 'core.

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Besides the harmonic, which are notated conventioll"lly ,,,,d to be played normally, the half harmonic slop also I""Y' an Important role IT) thls work. It is noraicd with ~ dli'lmOl'ld ... shaped note head. like normal hannonirs, but is block like a quarter note; moreover, it on be recognized by the horizon131 beam which shows its duration. It is important not 10 produce any harmonics here; the result should be a veiled. ~.llllost immaterial and hardly perceptible coloring of the dominating wing sound produced by the stopped note lor Its transpcsiLion resulting from scordatural which, as indicated, is only lightly touched, in conjunction with the "03t1I ...to" bowing.

or llll' ~~Jll1g':1 ,~I t.' obliqu e, lh.lt I~, (hl"..;'r "\h."t1Y~ cOnltlln an upb- l\ ... or d1lWnhm\' jl Huron. whJ(ll .~ then 11I!roo gi\'C'"n In. tld• diuon, O({"~:-rni1llJly (~', ~ Violin II, bar 2) the l,l:-.b or llw right hand .. nd lI1t' fef, hand t:ue notated s('lklr 1Io1l~ly above each 1
l~llC

other

At more rornpk», hmving l(,..~hl1jques (e.g. Viola. s.tMtmg at bar 251. the ,'!'prol)f'.1!C· nmuon i, ilillstr~ted by a c()rr~pondi"g

graphit_

i""sui." Stops which are placed either in system or in parentheses within fingering which is 10 be prepared of the action subsequently called
own,

rnotio n info rrn of an "eig h tn 1"lmost

t/ ebl c -der

likel

Clefs

r

1

1·-

This piece makes use of the bridge def besides the usual .I<..c\..' ... clefs. It SChema.ticallY reproduces .... the (ront of the instrument between the tailpiece and the middle o( the fingerboard Ion ~''1. pag" 23, up to the neck or the violin and viola) and allows the ~tI'--~. depiction of the point of cootaci of In" bow on the instrument -" as well as its distance from the bridge. At the same time, it a Iso illustrares th e di rection of the bowing between the bridge and the middle of the fingerboard Depending on the llmits of the area in which such vertical motions are prescribed" the b ridge def co n be gi "en 0 nly in excerpt The excerpts occur in ad hoc shifted positions for the same rea Son. To faci liL;lte til e orientation, th e posi ti on of the bridge is occasionally drawn through the SCore ill the form of a broken horizontal line. The string del illustrates actions On the four strings below the bridge, between the bridge and tailpiece.

-clef boxes" at the left of the the musical text show the thanks to which the pitches for are determined on their

irregulM circular motion

oblique l-windsilield·wiper"·likel

motion

back and forth

Arabic numerals

in parentheses

ere ~ngerings, uprighl motion backwards and io,wards merg~ into the pre-

Pitches in brackets show the appropriate string or stop which is not to be heard as a pitch, but which serves to prepare or clarify enotber effect (e. g. a toneless arco salt.andol,

A horizontal arro,," signiiie~: gradually scribed mot ion.

Muting sign, generally to be executed by playing the hand lightly over all four 'trings, Occasionally, with respect to the "half harrnonn; pitches", the exact positon of the muting Slop has been given.

A plus sign indicates that the indicated direction does not annul tho previous motion. but increases it In the given limlts. these indlCoj.ltions aUo\",,' ..:1 ce rtai n .a mou nt of i m provisatorv (re.llivity.

o
~
~-

Slop muting by pulling the hand away from the string,. audible release of the indicated and previously muted strings in the given rhythm

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1

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a,..---,

~-- The string def ~-- score.

is sometimes

reduced 50 as not to encumber

the

+==1B

H 1.

K

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In bars 1- 22, the schematic disunrtion between light and dark indicates the point of contact of the bow ·'grinding· on the back of the instrument bstween the nut ('"dark" grinding) and the middle of the bow or the lower pert of Ihe upper bow half ('light" gr"'dil1g\. In bar 3S of the Violin I part, the same def is used in connectio n with light and dark sha dings at blow, 0 n the edge of the
instrurnenr's

Actions of the right hand
Bowing Directions Wherever the bridge clef is indicated. other directions for the bowing On the string are also called for besides the usual horizontal hewing manner. Since the horizontal reading of Ihe score correspond> to a chronological progression, the shuts oj the bow between the bridge and fingerboard are "I WilY' notated with oblique lines. Upright shifts of the bow at an ,'''gl,) vi 90=' La the u sual 110fi zo n' 211no ti on occur only \vher e (I n arrow r pointed upwards or downwards is drawn intn th~ iir5t note tail of such ,1 passage. All other shifts or the bow on tile sur-

"__ ~. _ The combination of successive horizontal and vertical ffi motions yields more or less "rectangular" forms of motion. 1 hey ,'ppe", in a somewhat jagged rhythm _j statting at bar 220 if, the Violoncello, at bar 224 in --"''3_ Violin II, at bar 239 in Violin I and at bar 241 in the viola. The direction of the motion [esLllong he,e has been represented in the tonn of a little graphic appended to the respective rhythmic I'sure. Its purpose is to make the intended action easier to recognize, but it does I10t ~Ilow any irnpro,,;,.lion' It should be executed in " stro~gly rhythmic manner, almost non IQgato. The cello pl.-,ys the only legato variant in bar 238: its distinctness is clearly visible.

,k/, ,.

body.

For the cello, the schematic represe nlaticn 0 r th e fIa I surface of the bridge in bars H6 to 166 Indicates tile point of contact of the how held under the 'trings.

Bow pressu re l}esidC'sthe "normal" ~)OW pressure whrch !~ vaned ... usual t.~ by Ihe inclicatl(lll; of volume and n\lells,ly, the f1aul.lo technique and the pressed bowing also pt"y an important role, To gll~.r~lntel(,,' ~1 bcuur c oraml of the bC)\,I/, it is recommended lO hold it in lhe fist \ v-hercvcr these two techniques Me {.?IJI",d
iUL

This action should never be performed too dosely to the bridge...hiiti'lb of tilt' ll<lInt whore the bouncing bow hits the slring. .."\I!.hermore.tnr] thus il is not\lLl"{j A{. At R 7 oll . however. balzando A genlle "bou~cing"' of the bow on the millS by its own "'elghL This produces" very gradual accelerando of the bouncing sound. The sound result should recall a flutter-tongue played by _a muted trombone or trumpet The dull. me bow auor $1 n.~ hd~ bee-n ph 14. this should lurrdly make Ihe required tones more dilfirulr 10 produce The rosin can be easily removed IVllh a dOlh an.n the note tail also signifies that an up.C'\I· Slnl1 ut thl? 5l. . Whal is more serious is .. the side of the body or the tailpie<:e (e.___"'~~ c---_ till • Wib=. should never falter unless this is expressly called for..I. exception. riuicalo fluido.. he ow ancr striki . Vinlm I.. [loin! of U)llt.ifln-screw brushes rnu. (/1 is imp05sible 10 prewni rmin from mding up on Ihe pdf( of the Siring ".1 upl. the point of contact of the wood of the bow is also indicated as • pitch in addition to the stop of the left hand. sound Or the legno tone so produced by a friction oi the strings.. lh(· sound produ~ cd hy lh(· t('f1sinn-S<r£"w .ltel y t h er<'af\er (e. Occasionally. b~' .~ pressed Other actions with the bow The rolling motion of the wood of the bow pressed into the "air of the bow is described in bars 1 and 18 of the score: the bow lies on top of the middle Ilrings (at Violin t.'1l1 tn avoi? muddying th~ ('n~i)'t:1gcd~·nllegm~pit(hc~.bilrty... notes On the half harmonic stop). Here. one must also be careful to prevent the wood of ~he bow from moving in an up-and-down bowlng while il is striking the strlng since Ihi. Dynamics in quotation marks are to be understood in a relative sense in this context.1$ of the instrument the bow pressure should be gauged . the arm must be completely eelaxed.in the cello part ..ion:" I~\\ .lUl:--l il 'J j~ f TI1('same i~'tructi"m<" sa Ita ndo!:-o'ltlke 01.wn ~'s lIM".lled ior by Ihe appropriate . yiyiS A '~ r"" At harmonic pizzicati (natural harrnonlcsl with notated echo SiLII.sh. rebound of Ihe string on the wood of the lingerboard ~h..llif'"tl'n-. I"ai... generally in combination with a hah-harmonlc stop' a hasty bowinS with e"'rerncly I'ght bow pressure. performed too closely to Ihe bridge is to be strictly avoided.r. but With legno sa ltando..:tng l I1€' Sinn '..-- . But this should never lead 10 the destruction 01 me intended effect. .--.1 pArl."(:ordingfy\vith ..wri wilh the 1"lt h.l<ln~ll\..ud jOr r)t.\:-. the left hand must release me string at the right moment so as not to prevent the string from resonating. on the back of the instrumentJ.or down-bow motion should be avoided.cr.. distinguished very precisely. . The reslJlt snould always be a dry. Violoncello. Of even (ing. In this manner..p~ pu l Ill?<k on ([Ii-> L!Uitdl A d!. g. Hefcr .rply perforated rattling (except lor imperfect intermediate levels at transitions from the flalltato)... it.mpenng sound which results from such a technique when it . muting stop.:.p. pizzicato with fingernail fl.... and in the case 01 the Viola.. unless an echo slut in parentheses indicates thai such J n echo eifect is in tended.~r1(hl ~-"I'JiClnSJ since JWH' Iht" strif""JJ1 w b'l' hil hy Ilw \\'ooci of lhi' how 110m bdn . \\ ILl.gr~f)b. ~ the nut. imll"'lt·didklv rUle! tbt-> sld. Pizzicati 1\ "wawa" effect is ptoduced starting at bar 188 in the Viola and at bat 2S 5 in the other Wings by the on-and-off mute stop. Den!it. 10 a distorting bU1. J..\\lrds . these two instruments should have tailpieces of wood which allow a distinct rendition._. let alone a fortissimo.hil" the bow j. The pressed bow functions simultaneously like a "stop" whim shortens the string and alters the brightness of the pitch of the clattering sound by ilS shift. mllffied grating or whining wh.v hair (he II5e/1 al Ihe end 01 Ihe piece.lftiull"rly imrW1.1ils).ll it . 1 he dead weight of the bow must be neutralized by opposin/\ it wilh the pressure of the wrist A minimal el11e<gence of the stopped pitches should produce a maximal audibility of the bowing sound (d.wn III lilt' noto t.h~n·n .t~ . above the fingerboard.i·ll. up'.<110 lxJ. the combined friction of me bow hair. held uprighL The It".nere the notes are stopped. the string and the wood of the bow prodocesa dryly crackling grinding.at..m~ .:l. produce a kind of bU24ing..t lht' iL'.{ Il_ ion..dia/e proximily..left hand (c:.'d itrcm The frequent upright shifts of the pressed bow before the bridge. as it is described at . battuto.illly lrW t.where indicated accordingly ..g the shJkt. gb. an approximate value..r.. lighdy tossed stroke or '1ab" of the bow hair (arco battutol or the wood of the bow l!egno battutol. A special case is the "reo saltando perpetuo of the Violin t in bar 145(1.f I.' t~ljlpll'«' p() .1 H'(. sahando and balzando must be Execution before the bridge: Over or near the edge of the fingerboard or . . In order 10 make it dearly audible. The dense final phase of the rapid bouncing then perpetuates itself in this manner without interruption ad infinitum Salrando perpetuo is possible only when the bow has been well rubbed with rosin and there is a film of rosin on the string.-. the neck. Pizzicato by pulling at the string will! the tension-screw "..-.l[! depoSit chI''''' selves !here II migllt be .Pd. (IOIH tins.J -- trt:n_ f' ~ J 1:0: lL_ AA 'I 11 t l~. !o lx.1Ildn t'tlC'{ts are also possible aod c.'. even the most minimal one.! bow motion. a Where a completely toneless bowing on the wood of the briqge. Here.LHLllo pih h.Ilngl'r{"od hv IJw rd-l ih~nd Rap the tension-screw on lIlt' \"d H)('Iolllll' (in. rlease note: the indication "tonlos" ("LOnclessl)l') and "spharisch" ('"elhereail(l in connection with the indica· tion 'espressivo" means me grCdt~"5tintenSity.. Depending on the length 01 the indicated hOrilOn". tor "'gll~' b.I. n"mely the vertical f"lIing direction of the bow on the s[ring.ICles of ro"" C.'rbo or Ihv .lin witl1 111.IL m . at bar 97ffi is called for.\ t.""J. also '0 I)p I'P..ling or screeching tone. the n.ututo "IJP~ here.nn.~ ~n [hi' nOl. However.~'Itl not in m drr:. the intensity of which is generally somewhat weaker than when bowing horizontally or obliquely It is only effective On the part of the string which has rosin on i~and should be primarily performed there...1 hOI. the stopped pitch gains oe loses in alJd. u ts p. At bowing actions On other P".lIed (or.Illl' :--lring. Thil pitch.1 Slll)p!~ml"nt\'r.I."ld be heard All the other Sirins.the o051rudion 01 Ihe bolY h~ir by Ihe stopping nalld oll11e cel/ist w!lien has 10 reach 10 Ihe loutll. densest phase of an arco balzaodo must be kept going withoul interruption.fldo !C" .III- B.. the upnght afrO\\'.268. Execution behind the bridge: _ Pressed bowing....V\lrcb hUl d~H\ n\wtrd. second bow rei":!r lor tilis p..l ""uLlIO.~ltf'l'l ShSS. 01 Ille bridge.(cord. this briglitness Or frequency of the clattering is then choked by a muting stop indicated at the left hand. d 11!f' "'tJlbPqLIt"'"n( .lll11h I .MSilge. so Ih.u.{ the pedormi!ncc. fUr1. maximal bow pressure with extremely restrained bowing whfch. (i. uh . flllii1 fih.' c!rl. on the doth binding 01 the strings The shift in the direction of the bridge is possible in order to reinforce the intensity of th e sound.l{'! will &.{' I h~' pi[chC's.The phase of the most rapid bouncing up and down is prevented from dying out when the bow is tossed upwards again and again by a minimal and highly sensitive push in a down-bow motion nothing more than a minute horiwn~1 (ridional resistance. ' IE bauuto A simple. an d occasionally even c. ft'"'>p. notated as a rectangular ope" note head..__ . the arrows in the note IJils signify... !ht~(.esP' un the S(FlIl~ dr1~1 .. is to be understood a.. Siring in {he Inm"...lu-ordrll.. Whete legno banoto is required.lr16k pizzicato with normally stopped pitch ~1 ___ " 1'# ". hence an intensive bow pressure.1 diiierent vertical motion Ihan al the aforementioned arco or legno bowing actions. bars 262 . Only the .U nOll' lu-ac! abo.10". dry bouncing noise..IS respective appearance on the score. "urm v:-. bar -l0i. llly Ihe sto[1ped tone . BeGlllSe of Ihe long bowed passages performed on the ~ilpiece in the Violoncello starting at bar 97 a. it is dearly audible only where the mute sign is indicated for the left hand Ih"5 when all fouf strings are lightly damped so that no string vibration can possibly COver up the legno tone. however.~ht rl~mi. sha.r~ th(1 \'inron('dln p..~hly agJinslllle sIring aod hils Ill(' woodof th" iingc-rlxwd immrdi." L. in normal playing it would be stopped by the left hand but in this case it should be made audible by hilting the string at this point as precisely as possible with the wood of the bow. primarrly near the ta iIpi ece.nd ill the Viola starting at bar 104. which is often J.ng 10 the prescribed resuh. the bow pressure can and must eventually be somewhat reinforced . As a result of the rolling motion of the pressed wood of the bow..iif"d.in <Ol"~ <N~~ lh~ wood 01 the bow too -" '0 l. sh[)uld be muii1cd by the mule stop. Al arcc balzando (I"gno balzando does not occur). they refer 10 the intensity of a performance technique which does not actually allow true forte.ln6k plzzicato with completely choked strings..' qU41:-. and Ille entire procedure carefully controlled by the eyes and the ears.. an upnght arrow .-f. a practically soloistic irlterpretalion of the toneless-espressivo sound An imperceptible modification of the sound by the sympathetic vibration of the instrornent's body can be useful under certain CirCUn1113nCCS is permitted when it can help realize the and "ethereal" sound quality.gt. good idea 10 have. legno batture is best performed with the lip of the bow •• reo and legno sakando or arco balzando with th e middle of the bow.1l~rd('nl~ll hnri~nnhlr mouons of the how dllru-..rlddion to . he h~·d(d in .lg. The performance indication. In thrs performance lcchOlque.g. even normally stopped pitches should only be heard as a dull. Between bMS 136 and -IG.l - ['_. coold mlJddy the hitlin!.. [he final.0 UI:.

__ .. <f-. 10 1. Wiesbaden f!irUlced in Cermcrv ...~< . "'\_ 'J3._J_"\..::k:".---. II· . " "'o.h~~>-~~~ I:...~.- ---JY I ~.. ...~'~"'~ ":l~_ "f.~"'.I.. c... Kiiln 198U assigned to Breitkop! & Hartel.:------p +-1-+A ..---.. gV{ ._ -~ -+ + .- ~~"I:~~f) 1 I 31111 ~l 3 tlLH-Jrul ~Ut...11.achenrnann (1971/761881 - 1L 11!. d ... r-A." c.J...1 S~k 'il'-t('~--~ . .f' 1 V~/~I~w~_~ / "::1 l~_~--_I~ ~ ........Sb Helmut t...e.I -==: (.t... Karnmermusik-Biblicthek 2233 © 1972 by Musikverlage Hans Gerig....:!i~'In... JA~. .~~\+ b<>k- -Il ~I>PI' .:1/0 Comez und der Sadela Cameris(iGl Ilv/iana gcwidmel Gran Torso Musik fur Streichquartett J CQ... 1.-."..~ r I. le.\ h<>..

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