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Calculate Radius of Turn (ROT) by the Formula:

Radius, R = Avg. speed x 0.96 ROT Where Avg speed and ROT is decided by the Master as per the maneuvering characteristics of the vessel.

2. Construction :
a) Draw two arcs, one on the old course and one on the new course by taking any point as centre along the course line. Radius of these areas should be the above calculated radius. b) Draw two tangents to these arcs by transferring the corresponding course line. c) The point of intersection of these two tangents is the centre from which the arc is drawn to cut the old and the new course. This arc is the curve to follow at the given rate of turn and the average speed, Radius of these arc is the same calculated "R". d) However, the vessel will take some distance to respond, which is called the "F" factor. This is equal to one ship's length, approx. e) Transfer the new course line to a point on the old course line which is at a distance of one ships length from the curve. This is called wheel over line.

Example :
Radius, R = Avg. speed x 0.96 ROT R = 15 kts x 0.96 = 1 NM. 15