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Q1. What is meant by „Strategy‟? Differentiate between goals and objectives? Ans. Sometimes, when clients hear, “What is your strategy?”, there is a deafening silence on the other end of the line. Not only do they have no strategy, they have no concept of the meaning of the word. So what is a strategy and how do you develop one? The American Heritage College Dictionary’s first definition of strategy is, “The Science and Art of using a nation’s forces to execute approved plans as effectively as possible.” Leaving aside the military aspect of this definition, substitute a few words, and for our purposes, you get, “The Science and Art of using a client’s resources and skills to execute detailed plans as effectively as possible.” Science and Art means that the effort is done in a meticulous way, according to laws of nature, but adjusted and finessed in the moment, as needed when circumstances require it. In practice, what are the most meaningful ideas that need to be understood about strategies? 1. The primary purpose of behaving strategically is to be as effective as possible, i.e. have the best results, and to have the intended results. 2. Strategic actions are part of a well thought out, detailed plan, a plan that has the most likely probability of success, a plan so well prepared that chance is no longer in play. 3. A client will execute their plan in a logical and realistic progression. Effective strategies are laid out on time lines, so that the client is taking the right action at the right time. With a timeline, the client can release fretting and worrying about any action but the current one. 4. Using a client’s resources and skills means that the client looks at their current resources and considers how they can be used to produce the greatest results. Has the client considered all their resources, including those that have just been sitting on a shelf? Assessing skills is equally as important. Which skills bring the greatest satisfaction? Is there a new combination of existing skills that could produce greater financial return in the market place? 5. Plans are detailed. Initially, the client spends some time brainstorming every possible idea they could conceivably put into action as part of their strategy. Later as part of the process, the client chooses some actions and deletes others. These choices are made, based on things such as clients’ likes and dislikes, likelihood of success, projected results, conditions in the marketplace, time available, and family considerations. 6. Strategies, in the end, are about being executed as effectively as possible. This means that they bring the intended results, and are almost guaranteed to do so. This means that, if executed as planned, there is a high likelihood of success as projected. It also means that skills and resources have been used as efficiently as possible. 7. Lastly, strategies are flexible. Clients should review their strategies regularly (weekly is recommended), and as needed, adjust when the need becomes obvious. If you are reviewing your strategies and evolving them as you go, you can expect even greater results Goals and Objectives: Goals and objectives create the foundation for lesson plans. If they are written well, an instructor will have an effective and meaningful structure for discussion, activities, and assessment. Goals and objectives serve as a reminder that teaching is not an end in itself, but the means to an end. Goals Goals explain the reasoning behind what you will teach in a session. They articulate what you wish to accomplish and help to map your direction. They address the question: What do I want my students to take with them after the session is completed? Once you've organized what a student should be able to do at the end of the library session; they do not describe the learning
Ex: Students will locate indexes as they are grouped by subject and choose one. Better: Students will be able to perform a title search in the library catalog. perform a search. This definition captures two main elements that go to the heart of the field of strategic management. described in your goals.They will then evaluate their search results.Next they will perform searches using advanced search techniques. That is. decisions. refine their search if needed. Worse: Students will understand how to use the Boolean operators AND and OR.' Examples . These decisions. Objectives Objectives are student performances of the concepts described in your session goals. mission. Worse: Students will be able to find an online periodical index. Define the term „Strategic Management‟. Q2. What are the types of strategies? Ans. open it. Better: Students will be capable of selecting and searching library resources that relate to their discipline. Try to avoid using vague verbs such as 'understands' and 'knows. Goals Objectives What you want students to take with them after Student performances demonstrating the abilities the session is completed. and actions. Ex: Students will be able to select and search online indexes related to their discipline. leaders must make strategic decisions.Goals Worse: Students will go through a sample search in Lexis-Nexis.Objectives Worse: Teach students to search the library catalog. and strategic objectives) along with the analysis of the internal and external environment of the organization. and then choose three articles for their research paper. Examples . and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages.reachable. Better: Students will able to distinguish between scholarly and popular magazines. strategic management is concerned with the analysis of strategic goals (vision. decisions. address two basic questions: What industries should we compete in? How should we compete in those industries? These questions also often involve an organization’s domestic as . First. Better: Students will be able to effectively search a commercial database. They are often referred to as 'learning outcomes' because they define more specifically what skills students will be able to demonstrate after your session. Next. Worse: Students should know and apply evaluating strategies for choosing articles. Strategic management consists of the analysis. broadly speaking. the strategic management of an organization entails three ongoing processes: analysis. evaluate their results. Better: Students will demonstrate how to use the Boolean operators AND and OR. Concentrate on naming the most important broad concepts. They can be used to assess the effectiveness should addre Objectives should measure specific behaviors.
Corporate level strategies are innovative. the essence of strategic management is the study of why some firms outperform others. instead of competitive advantage. pervasive and futuristic in nature. Usually small business organisations follow no change strategy with an intention to maintain the same level of operations for a long period. unless they are acted on. Corporate level The board of directors and chief executive officers are involved in developing strategies at corporate level. for the simple reason that everyone is doing them. internally consistent. of course. or develop products and services that are unique which will enable the firm to charge premium prices-or some combination of both. not competitive advantage. Companies such as Wal-Mart. not longterm advantage. managers need to determine if the firm should position itself as the low-cost producer. Southwest Airlines. In an effective stability strategy. and IKEA have developed unique. Further classifications of stability strategy are as follows: No change strategy No change strategy is the process of continuing the current operation and creating nothing new. That means focusing on two fundamental questions: How should we compete in order to create competitive advantages in the marketplace? For example. evolving process that requires a great deal of interaction among these three processes. The four grand strategies in a corporate level are: The basic approach of the stability strategy is to maintain the present status of the organisation. A company with a good strategy must make clear choices about what it wants to accomplish. just-in-time. Decisions are of little use. Trying to do everything that your rivals do eventually leads to mutually destructive price competition. And last are the actions that must be taken. this is an ongoing.well as its international operations. Each of these is important. Firms must take the necessary actions to implement their strategies. Within weeks. In the 1980s. managers need to determine how a firm is to compete so that it can obtain advantages that are sustainable over a lengthy period of time. Overnight. Most of the popular management innovations of the last two decades-total quality. and difficult to imitate activity systems that have provided them with sustained competitive advantage. in the marketplace. is to create competitive advantage that is sustainable. Second. Types of Strategies: 1. instead of highly temporary. therefore. Sustainable competitive advantage is possible only through performing different activities from rivals or performing similar activities in different ways. Thus. benchmarking. This requires leaders to allocate the necessary resources and to design the organization to bring the intended strategies to reality. but none lead to sustainable competitive advantage. the organisation tries to maintain consistency by concentrating on their present resources and rapidly develops a meaningful competitiveness with the market requirements. . The challenge. all the airlines did the same thing. American Airlines tried to establish a competitive advantage by introducing the frequent flyer program. frequent flyer programs became a necessary tool for competitive parity. outsourcing all are about operational effectiveness. Managers must also ask how to make such advantages sustainable. That is: How can we create competitive advantages in the marketplace that are not only unique and valuable but also difficult for competitors to copy or substitute? Ideas that work are almost always copied by rivals immediately. Operational effectiveness means performing similar activities better than rivals. Michael Porter argues that sustainable competitive advantage cannot be achieved through operational effectiveness alone. Strategy is all about being different from everyone else. As we will see in the next section. business process reengineering.
Diversification is a process of entry into a new business in the organisation either marketwise or technology wise or both. Organisations select expansion strategy to increase their profit. or alternative technologies of the organisation.Pause/Proceed with caution strategy Pause/Proceed with caution strategy provides an opportunity to halt the growth strategy. Expansion strategy also broadens the scope of customer groups. The customers were able to easily assemble the furniture. sales and market share. . concentration of resources for present activity which means strategy for growth. Expansion strategy also provides a significant increase in the performance of the organisation. ric diversification The organisation adopts conglometric diversification when it takes up an activity that does not relate to the characteristics of its current business activity. This was because furniture got damaged easily while shipping and the cost of transport was high. of an organisation is discontinued due to environmental and regulatory factors. Profit strategy Profit strategy is the process of reducing the amount of investments and short term discretionary expenditures in the organisation. The present line of activities in an organisation indicates its real growth potential in the present activities. Many organisations adopt diversification strategy to minimise the risk of loss. or alternative technologies. gains control over a limited resource. Retrenchment strategy is followed by an organisation which aims to reduce the size of activities in terms of its customer groups. IKEA successfully expanded in many European countries since customers were willing to purchase similar furniture. The organisation adopts horizontal growth when it takes over the activity to expand into other geographical locations. The new idea of transporting unassembled furniture parts lead to minimizing the costs of transport. obtain access to potential customers. Example Prior to 1960s most of the furniture industry did not venture into expanding their industry globally. The further classification of expansion strategy is as follows: . The organisation prefers to diversify concentrically either in terms of customer group. IKEA also lowered the costs by involving customer in the value chain. Hence it is termed as pause/proceed with caution strategy. The two basic concentration strategies are: The organisation adopts vertical expansion when it takes over the activity to make its own supplies. customer functions. The organisation chooses to diversify conglometrically either in terms of customer group. customer functions. and customer functions. or alternative technologies of the organisation. Many organisations pursue expansion strategy to reduce the cost production per unit. Concentration Concentric expansion strategy is the first route towards growth in expanding the present lines of activities in the organisation. This increases the range of products and services offered to the current markets. It is also called as related strategy. Expansion strategy The organisations adopt expansion strategy when it increases its level of objectives much higher than the past achievement level. Later in 1970s a Swedish furniture company. The two basic diversification strategies are: The organisation adopts concentric diversification when it takes up an activity that relates to the characteristics of its current business activity. IKEA. customer functions. It is also used to capitalise organisational strengths. It is also called as unrelated diversification. pioneered towards expanding the industry to other geographical areas. It analyses the advantages and disadvantages before processing the growth strategy. Vertical expansion reduces costs.
Mainly strategic business unit (SBU) managers are involved in this level. It is the process of formulating the objectives of the organisation and allocating the resources among various functional areas. mid-level and lower level management. expansion and retrenchment strategies. selling the current resources. It results in unemployment. 2. The idea behind this strategy is to have a temporary reduction of activities in the organisation to pursue growth strategy at some future point. This process involves in closing down an organisation and selling its assets. Corporate restructuring is the process of fundamental change in the current strategy and direction of the organisation. This is used either at the same time in various businesses or at different times in the same business. With these changes the company was able to make profits and achieved success. This was due to the manufacture of jeans that did not attract the younger generation. The effect towards the success is greater when there is a synergy between the strategies. Bankruptcy Bankruptcy is a legal protective strategy that does not allow others to restructure the organisations debt obligations or other payments. changing the personnel at various levels of management and analysing the competitors in the market. Divestment strategy Divestment strategy is followed when an organisation involves in the sale of one or more portion of its business. Business level Business level strategy relates to a unit within an organisation. Combination strategy is a process of combining .Example A healthcare hospital decides to focus only on special treatment to obtain higher revenue and hence reduces its commitment to the treatment of general cases which is less profitable. This led to the change in acquiring new resources. Different types of retrenchment strategies are: Turnaround Turnaround is a process of undertaking temporary reduction in the activities to make a stronger organisation. selling of buildings and equipments and the products become obsolete. The main aspects of business level strategies are related with: n . Captive company strategy Captive company strategy is a process of tying up with larger organisations and staying viable as an exclusive supplier to the large organisations. a jeans manufacturing company suffered corrosion in market share in 1990. most of the managers work hard to avoid this strategy. operations. investments and management in the organisation. Liquidation Liquidation strategy is considered to be the most unattractive process in an organisation. It results in better performance of the organisation. This kind of processing is called downsizing or rightsizing. Usually if any unit within the organisation is performing poorly then that unit is sold and the money is reinvested in another business which has a greater potential. It mainly relates to how a strategy functions rather than what a strategy is in corporate level. It is reorganising and reassigning of roles and responsibilities of the personnel due to unsatisfactory performance and poor results. Hence there was a change in strategies laid at the corporate level with diversification of products. If an organisation declares bankruptcy with customers then there is a possibility of turnaround strategy. This change affects the structure of the organisation. Turnaround strategy acts as a doctor when issues like negative profits.stability. Corporate restructuring involves increasing or decreasing the levels of personnel among top level. Hence. Business level strategy is more specific and action oriented. An organisation may also be taken as captive if their competitive position is irreparably weak. Example Levis & co. Synergy is obtained in terms of sales. mismanagement and decline in market share arise in the organisation.
obtaining transport. Differentiated products satisfy the customers needs. External risks External risk includes various risks experienced externally like competition with companies.Business stakeholders are a part of business. It must be acceptable to the characteristics as mentioned by customers. maintenance of processes. Plan the cost budget of the goods or services being purchased and the procedure of contracting by checking the cost and requirements with various sellers. Tactical decision means involving or pertaining to actions for short term than those of a larger purpose. the organisation that succeeds in cost leadership and differentiation often has the following internal strengths: The company possesses the skills in designing efficient products High level of expertise in the manufacturing process Well organised distribution channel Industry reputation for quality and innovation Strong sales department with the ability to communicate successfully the real strengths of the product Risk is the probability of good or bad things that may happen in the business. Cost leadership strategy is adopted by the organisations to produce a relatively standardised products or services to the customer. Customers value the company if it adopts cost leadership strategy. Risk will impact the objectives of the organisation. impact of changes in strategies. marketing. owners and customers. Steps involved in procuring strategy are: Identify the need of purchase and the required quantity. Other indirect business stakeholders are competitors. methods. . interest rates. finance and personnel (employees). According to Porters generic strategy. cash flows. Internal risks Internal risks include issues of employees. The aim of the functional strategy is doing things right whereas the corporate and business level strategy stresses on doing the right thing. natural hazards etc. Close the contract once the goods or services are acquired. and storage for organisation use. They play a very important role in ups and downs of the organisation. efficient sales and a unique collection of features in the product or services.external and internal risks. Differentiation strategy mainly deals with providing the products or services with unique features to the customers. In the management field procuring is the process of purchasing goods or services which includes ordering. superior quality. Business stakeholders include employees. suppliers and the procedures that are used to communicate with their suppliers. Tactical of functional level The functional strategy mainly includes the strategies related to specific functional area in the organisation such as production. Select the seller who is matching the cost and requirement criteria as per the organisation. government etc. But cost leadership must be pursued in conjunction with differentiation strategy to produce a cost effective. political issues. Any operation which is affected in business also affects the business stakeholders along with profit or loss of the business. Perform the contract deal with selected seller and monitor the contract. Decisions at functional level are often described as tactical decisions. The unique features of the product attract the customers more when compared to the traditional features of the products. The risk factors in the business strategies include two types . 3. The different types of strategies at functional level are: Procuring and managing Monitoring and directing resources towards the goal Procuring and managing Procuring basically means purchasing or owning. security of employees and equipments. Most of the individual organisations set procurement strategy to obtain their choice of products. Considering tactical decisions in functional level strategy describes involving actions to specific functional area.
It leads to risk if monitoring of the resources show a deviation from the true path as expected by the organisation. Porter developed the Five Force Model in his book. Monitoring the resources includes monitoring the employees. An effective managing process strengthens the critical activities in the business such as marketing. and communications. Managing includes completing the task effectively in every sector of the organisation. . The systematic planning and scheduling of activities result in utilisation of less budgeted resources for greater profits in an organisation. 4. Many strategies are implemented at various levels of the business. and procurement. Planning and scheduling activities in business plays a major impact on the utilisation of resources. It deals with minimising the waste and maximising the resource capabilities. Monitoring means knowing what is going on. Productivity growth is a vital factor for continuous growth of the organisation. Organisations must implement cost achievement in targeted operational areas like HR. the equipments. The objective of corporate strategy should be to revise these competitive forces in a way that improves the position of the organisation.Describe Porter‟s five forces Model. The basic function of this level is translating the strategic decisions into strategic actions. The level of these forces determines the intensity of competition in an industry. the external and internal factors of organisation.Managing is the process of monitoring the strategies that are implemented in the business. Monitoring and directing resources towards the goal Monitoring and directing is the essential part of management. Monitoring and directing process of resources sets the organisation to work on the right track by removing all hurdles and produces effective outcome in reaching the goals of the organisation efficiently. Usually the board of directors ensures that the process of optimal utilisation of resources is implemented and monitored on a regular basis. Productivity basically means a relative measure of the efficiency of production in terms of converting the ratio of inputs to useful outputs. human resource planning. Michael E. Monitoring is also called as measuring. Competitive Strategy. and the activities being performed in the organisation. performance assessment. supply chain. The basic aspects in operational level are: Achieving cost deals with achieving greater profits by reducing the cost for various resources within the organisation to balance the expenditure and investment. The operational efficiency comes into picture once the cost reduction is achieved with greater profits. Operational level Operational level is concerned with successful implementation of strategic decisions made at corporate and business level. The directing process will make path to ensure a relevant action is performed to remove the deviation and lay all the resources on the right track. manufacturing. Optimal utilisation of resources includes usage of resources in a planned manner. It can be managing employees. The usage of resources must be cost effective. and the equipments. Q3. Productivity is a key to success of an organisation. Hence catering these strategies is termed as managing. Porter has identified five competitive forces that influence every industry and market. In an organisation monitoring includes measuring the performance of the organisation to check whether the strategy implemented is achieved or not. Directing process uses principles and statement of the objectives to solve the problem which was identified during monitoring process. Ans.
The following are the features of strategy formulation: es The main processes involved in strategy formulation are as follows: . stakeholders . The importance of stakeholders varies according to the industry. trade association unions. The threat of an entry depends on the presence of entry barriers and the reactions can be expected from existing competitors. and shareholders. competitive move by one organisation may result in a noticeable effect on its competitors and thus cause retaliation or counter efforts. It is used for the effective management of environmental opportunities and for the threats which weaken corporate management. An entry barrier is a hindrance that makes it difficult for a company to enter an industry.A sixth force should be included to Porters list to include a variety of stakeholder groups.Forces driving industry competitions are: market share and substantial resources. and services. Q4. Strategy formulation is the development of long term plans. substitute products and services Substitute products appear different but satisfy the same needs as the original product. more services. Its objective is to express strategical information to achieve a definite goal. .Identifying useful information like planning for strategic management. objectives to achieve the goals of the employees and the stakeholders. Substitute products curb the potential returns of an industry by placing a ceiling on the prices firms can profitably charge. local communities. Therefore. What is strategic formulation and what are its processes? Ans. they are threats to an established organisation. Some of these groups include governments.
Strategic evaluation and control consists of data and reports about the performance of the organisation. The top management needs to be updated about the performance to take corrective actions for controlling the undesired performance. All strategies are subject to constant modifications as the internal and external factors influencing a strategy change constantly. planning or implementation of the strategies will result in negative performance of the organisation. . provides feedback to the management to take corrective measures. It is essential for the strategist to constantly evaluate the performance of the strategies on a timely basis. One of the obstacles to effective strategic control is the difficulty in developing appropriate measures for important activities. Strategic evaluation and control ensures that the organisation is implementing the relevant strategy to reach its objectives. If performance results are beyond the tolerance range. new implementation procedures are introduced.. After the evaluation. Strategic evaluation consists of performance and activity reports. Strategic control stimulates the strategic managers to investigate the use of strategic planning and implementation. Improper analysis. The core aim of strategic management succeeds only if it generates a positive outcome. Explain strategic evaluation and its significance. Ans.A number of questions arising during utilisation and transfer of information have to be solved The questions that arise during utilisation and transfer of information are the following: is the nature of the requested information? Q5. It compares the current performance with the desired results and if necessary. The five step process of strategic evaluation and control are…. the manager will have knowledge about the cause of the problem and the corrective actions.
Example The process that accounts for the highest proportion of expense. Policies encourage cooperation and promote initiative. The following questions must be answered: i) Is the variation. A company operates consistently. both internally and externally when the policies are established. Each standard defines a tolerance range for acceptable deviations. a minor or temporary fluctuation? ii) Are the procedures being implemented appropriately? iii) Are the procedures appropriate to the achievement of the desired standard? The strategic-evaluation process with constantly updated corrective actions results in significant and long-lasting consequences. Strategy evaluation is vital to an organisations well-being as timely evaluations can alert the management about potential problems before the situation becomes critical. The limits within which the decisions are made are well defined. Ans. Business policy involves the acquirement of resources through which the organisational goals can be achieved. actions must be taken to control the deviation. Explain its importance. It also deals with the major issues that affect the success of the organisation. the greatest number of problems etc. They ensure that the activities are synchronised with the objectives of the organisation. It saves time by predicting frequent problems and providing ways to solve them. It deals with the constraints of real-life business. -established standards Strategic objectives provide a crystal view of the standards to measure performance. They help subordinates to take decisions with confidence without consulting their superiors every time. It identifies the range within which the subordinates can take decisions in an organisation. Standards can also be set for the output of intermediate stages of production along with the final output. The strategy of all the important areas must be evaluated irrespective of the difficulty. Define the term “Business policy”. Every policy is a guide to activities that should be followed in a particular situation. Business policies are important due to the following reasons: helps in ensuring uniformity of action throughout the organisation. The processes and results must be compared with the organisations objectives in a consistent manner. Policies serve as a guidance to administer activities that are repetitive in nature. basis for assessing performance. However. Successful strategists combine patience with a willingness to take corrective actions promptly. It is a mechanism adopted by the top management to ensure that the activities are performed in the desired way. the evaluation process stops here. Business policies should be set up before hiring the first employee in the organisation. Business policies are the instructions laid by an organisation to manage its activities. It channels the thinking and action in decision making. It is important to formulate policies to achieve the organisational objectives. focus should be on the most significant elements in a process. It authorises the lower level management to resolve their issues and take decisions without consulting the top level management repeatedly. It prevents divergence from the . Q6. Business policy analyses roles and responsibilities of top level management and the decisions affecting the organisation in the long-run. when necessary. e range.specify the implementation processes and the results that are to be evaluated. The policies are articulated by the management. The complete process of management is organised by business policies. demarcate the section within which decisions are to be taken.
Policies are derived objectives and provide the outline for procedures. Policies contribute in building coordination in larger organisations. Policies provide guidelines to the executives to help them in determining the suitable actions which are within the limits of the stated policies. Authority is delegated to the executives who refer the policies to work efficiently. responsibility are clearly identified. The required managerial procedures can be derived from the given policies. This affects the overall efficiency of the organisation.planned course of action. . The management tends to deviate from the objective if policies are not defined precisely.
BIA reveals the financial and operational impact of a major disruption. The resumption timeframe plays an important role in examining which elements may require pre-positioning. coordinates its activities. The BIA will provide a basis and cost justification for risk management. BCP is a collection of procedures which is developed. The time-frames in which the time-sensitive processes. To be effective. restoration and permanent recovery of the organisational operations and business activities during a business interruption event. access to vital records. the project team should develop recommendations of strategies to provide funds for implementation.Set 2 Winter Drive – November 2011 Sikkim Manipal University Q1. approval. Ans. What is meant by “Business Continuity Plan” (BCP)? Discuss the steps involved in BCP. recovery and restoration. most Business Continuity Plans also require testing. skilled personnel. planning. An analysis of the organisations financial status and operational impacts. It will provide the organisation with the following details: The identification of time sensitive business operations and services.Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 4 Assignment . The BCPs senior management committee is responsible for the initiation. A document containing the recovery timeline methodology.Based on the needs of the business and evaluation of alternatives. the project team should assess the alternative strategies that are available to the organisation and identify two or three strategies that are more credible. These steps are discussed below: Initiation The senior management initiates the project and conducts the meeting to review the following: Establish a business continuity planning committee The senior management identifies a team and discusses the business continuity planning project with them. recorded and maintained in readiness for use in the event of an emergency or disaster. and alternate recovery resources including facilities. the organisation develops the budgetary plan. and action instructions developed specifically for use in restoring organisation operations in the event of a declared disaster. Recommend disaster readiness strategy .MB0052 – Strategic Management & Business Policy . The management forms a team and clearly defines the roles of project team members. Draw up business continuity policies The team establishes the basic principles and framework necessary to ensure emergency response for resumption and recovery. response. BIA report describes the potential risks specific to the organisation. operations and functions must resume. An estimation of the resources necessary for successful resumption. The BCPs senior management committee also implements the BCP. procedures. recovery and restoration. supervises its creation and reviews the results of quality assurance activities. test-validated documentation. Business impact analysis (BIA) BIA is the most important element of the continuity plan. Prepare a formal report based on the findings of the BIA for the strategy alternatives . testing and audit of the BCP. The disaster readiness strategies include the following activities: Define business continuity alternatives Using the information from BIA. Estimate cost of business continuity alternatives Based on these strategies.
Sample emergency response exercises Emergency response exercises should be ongoing. Awareness and training plans It should ensure that the personnel is aware of the importance of business continuity plan and can operate effectively in case of an event . It should focus on the priorities of overall business continuity strategy. Ans. Evaluate the results of each exercise against pre-stated values and document the results along with proposed plan enhancement. it can be started by a small investor that has valuable resources and time. Q2. a formal business plan is written to outline the purpose and mission of the business for the future use. Audit and update the plans regularly It should regularly audit the plans to check if it meets the needs of the organisation and ensures that the documentation remains accurate and reflects any changes inside or outside the business. Once the need of the organisation is identified.that were developed and analysed Take approval from senior management to proceed with the project. Document the objectives of each exercise and it should include the measurement criteria. more effort must be put on the short-term goals. The strategies for creating a business plan are as follows: tive advantage? business. Develop and implement the plan includes the following activities: Emergency response and operations It establishes a crisis management process to respond to these incidents. Other investors involve themselves by providing support for further development of the venture once the business is created. Strategies for creating a business plan Strategies for creating a business plan. What is meant by “Business plan”? Describe the strategies to create a business plan. An accurately made business plan helps to allocate resources properly. to handle unforeseen complications like financial crisis and to make good business decisions. It also contains the detailed plans which show how the objectives are being accomplished. Every entrepreneur creates a business plan and its completion will determine the feasibility of the plan. On the other hand.Review the effectiveness of awareness training and identify the need for further training. Apply business unit plans for each department Describe the roles that each department has to perform in the event of an emergency. . Develop and implement a business continuity plan The plan describes specifically how to deal with the incidents. Maintenance and testing includes the following activities: Establish a plan exercise program BCP should develop and schedule the exercises to achieve and maintain high levels of competence and readiness. The exercises can be repeated using alternate setup and it should involve whole organisation within a particular facility that may be affected by a system disaster. A business plan is a complete internal document that summarises the operational and financial objectives of a business. Example It should detail the actions that the IT department will have to carry out if IT services are lost. business venture is a start-up enterprise which is formed with expectations and plans of achieving financial gain. In the case of establishing a business venture.
Benefits are 1. Competitors. MNCs have certain unique advantages in their operations that are not benefited by domestic oriented companies. Always get the answers of the following questions which will assist you in learning from your competitor and focusing on your customer. services or production. They are as follows: skill which you must have. Extensive application of these technologies gives a competitive advantage to the MNC in international market. To the company Superior technical knowledge The most important advantage of MNCs is the patented technical knowledge which enables them to compete internationally. This results in efficient production and services like that of IBM or Microsoft. The following are the four steps to create a marketing strategy for your business: d tools Q3. Large MNCs have access to advanced levels of technology which are either developed or acquired by the corporation. . The advantages widely depend on the nature of individual corporations and the type of their business. The higher volume of production leads to lower fixed costs per-unit for the companys products. try to know the perception of the customer. These technologies are patented. as it results in efficient. Learn from your competitors You can learn a lot about the business and the customers by looking at the business of your competitors. Large size of economy Generally. What are the benefits of MNCs? Ans. It can be in the areas of management. The large size gives the advantage of significant economic growth to the MNCs. hi-tech products and services that dominate a large international market. MNCs are large like Wal-Mart and ExxonMobil which has sales larger than the gross national products of many countries. low-priced. You must understand the customer in terms of the following factors: have? advantages of the product/services of your business which resolve the customers problems. Clarify the doubts of the customer regarding your profession and the products/services of your business. The international success of MNCs is mainly because of the ability to capitalise the advantages. whose volume of production of goods is smaller. tors approaching the market? decisions.sted below: customer Understanding the customer is essential for a perfect business plan.
2. In many cases. It brings inward investment to the host countries. This helps in boosting the national economy. Managerial experience and expertise The MNCs function in large number in different countries simultaneously. Lower input costs means less expensive and more competitive products. automobiles etc. can bargain for lower prices than small buyers can. This knowledge is used to create new products for potential market niches and expand the market coverage of their products. social and cultural changes that affect the business of MNCs in different countries. The network also helps in providing important information about economic conditions.must raise the price to recover the higher fixed costs. Bulk purchases of inputs enable the corporation to bargain for lower input costs and obtain considerable amount of discount. Brand image and goodwill advantage Most of the MNCs possess product lines that have created a good reputation for quality. capital and labour. Ability to access raw materials overseas By accessing raw materials in foreign countries. Such access can give MNCs monopolistic control over raw materials because they supply technology in exchange for monopolistic control. The inward investment can help in generating wealth in the local economy . They take advantage of the lower costs by exporting lower-cost goods to foreign markets. many MNCs lower the input and production costs. This reputation spread to other countries through exports and promotion and adds to the goodwill or brand image of the company. Many MNCs have set up factories in low-cost areas like China. The benefits of MNCs to the nations where it operate are: Economic growth and employment An MNC comes to a country with more amount of money to invest than any local company. Information advantage MNCs have a global market view with which it collects. value and service. in which fixed costs form a major proportion of total costs. etc. Brand names like Sony help the company to charge premium prices for its products. Example An MNC located in Japan can attain knowledge of Japanese management techniques and apply them successfully in a different location. Through this information network. This situation implies to capital-intensive industries like steel.. By identifying which product sell effectively. and processes the in-depth knowledge of worldwide markets. Example Nestle. changing market trends. To the nations where it operates (domestic nations) MNCs bring advantage to the countries in which they operate. This control enables them to supply or deny raw materials to their competitors. This experience helps them in dealing with different business situations around the globe. This enables them to integrate wealth for valuable managerial experience. analyses. With these information MNCs can position themselves appropriately to contingencies. Wal-Mart combines low-cost purchasing with efficient inventor to achieve competitive advantage in retail market. Ability to shift production overseas Another advantage of MNCs is the ability to shift the production overseas. which buys huge quantities of coffee from the market. the MNC is able to forecast government controls and gather commercial information. The MNCs have good information gathering capabilities in all aspects of their operations. MNCs are able to influence this brand image by standardizing their product lines in different countries. raw materials and other incentives offered by the host countries. It provides employment to a large number of people which helps in dealing with the unemployment problem in the host countries. India. MNCs relocate their production facilities to take advantage of lower labour costs. Wal-Mart sells products at lower prices relative to its competitors due to bulk purchasing and efficient inventory control. MNCs supply the technology to extract raw materials. because the customers are ready to buy quality products at premium prices. Example MNC like Nippon Steel of Japan can sell its products at lower prices than those of companies with smaller plants. Example Sony PlayStations do not have any modifications for different countries and the parent factory produces standardised products for the world market. The countries from where the MNCs operate are also called host countries. Example Constructing new plants requires resources like land. Mexico. Lower input costs due to large size The production levels of MNCs are large and thus the purchase of inputs is in large volumes.
Example The UK has access to high quality vehicles at cheaper price. Skills. The MNCs employ local labour and train them in new skills to improve productivity and efficiency. Strategic alliances contribute in successful implementation of strategic plan because it is strategic in nature. These firms provide different services to the MNCs. However. As the MNCs provide employment to the people. The MNCs also attracts other smaller firms to the area where it is located. It is stronger when the organisations involved have balancing strengths. Differentiate between Joint ventures and Mergers. This can benefit the entire country. Improvement in infrastructure The MNCs invest in a country for production and distribution facilities. Strategic alliance involves the individual organisations to modify its basic business activities and join in agreement with similar organisations to reduce duplication of manufacturing products and improve performance. This can be a challenge and can also lead to improvement in productivity. this competition has led to improvement in prices. It provides relationship between organisations to plan various strategies in achieving a common goal. This helps in improving the quality of human capital in the host country. they pay taxes to the local government. in some cases. This pools the resources among the organisations and helps each other in achieving the objectives. the company might also invest in additional infrastructure facilities like road. Ans. port and communication facilities. The workers had to get used to different ways of working that were used in other British firms. Joint venture has been the hallmark for most successful organisations in the world. Availability of quality goods leads to improved quality in other related industries. An individual partner in joint venture may offer time and services whereas the other focuses on investments. techniques and quality human capital The MNCs bring with them new ideas and new techniques to improve the quality of production. working practices and quality in other related industries. The advantages of joint venture are: isations educes production time as the organisations are into join venture The organisations do not have the opportunity to take up decisions individually . Define the term “Strategic Alliance”.because it increases the spending ability of the people by providing them employment. In addition to this. Joint venture is the most powerful business concept that has the ability to pool two or more organisations in one project to achieve a common goal. They are obtained by the co-operation between the companies. time and skills to achieve the objectives. both the organisations invest on the resources like money. Strategic alliance is the process of mutual agreement between the organisations to achieve objectives of common interest. An agreement is formed between the two parties and the nature of agreement is truly beneficial with huge rewards such that the profits are shared by both the organisations. The skills that the workers build up can be passed on the other workers which help in improving the supply of skilled labour in that area. The people have more money to spend which provides market for local companies to sell their goods. Availability of quality goods and services Generally. Example Sunderland is one of the most productive car manufacturing plants in Europe. Q4. production in a host country is aimed at the export market. the inward investment can gain access to the host country market to avoid trade barriers. In a joint venture.
-extension merger: It is the process of merging two organisations that sell same products in different geographical areas. The joint venture between the two companies is to gain profits and provide affordable mobile phones to the market that consists of advanced features and aims to earn eight billion dollars in the next five years. The different types of mergers are: same market join together. -extension merger: Most of the organisations execute product extension merger to sell different products of a related category. The main purpose of this merger is to make the merging organisations to achieve higher positions in bigger markets and ensure a bigger base for client. enlarge debt capacity and obtaining synergy of managerial functions. Merger is the process of combining two or more organisations to form a single organisation and achieve greater efficiencies of scale and productivity. research. Consider two large organisations that merge with twenty percent share in the market. instead it focuses on the process of acquiring stability and using resources in a better way to generate additional revenue. The participating organisation can help the active partner in acquiring products. A smart organisations merger helps to enter into new markets. This merger enables the new organisations to pool their products to serve a common market. They share the same product line and markets. With the perception of the organisation structure. The minimum effect could also be zero. The vertical merger involves careful planning. a mobile handset maker is getting into an agreement with the Reliance Communications Ltd (RCom) to launch its new mobile. It is the union of different kinds of businesses under one management organisation. Q5. This is an added advantage of the organisations over its competitors in the market. distribution channel. The main purpose of this merger is to utilise financial resources. The organisations under conglomerate merger are not related either horizontally or vertically. In order to explore new methods of using existing products to create a new product line for wider markets.the organisation enters into joint venture agreement with unprofessional selfish organisation. here are a few types of mergers. There are no important common factors among the organisations in terms of production. The new mobile consists of dual SIM smart phone with 3G technology at a cheaper rate. What do you mean by „innovation‟? What are the types of innovation? . development and technology. inventories and cash assets. The purpose of a vertical merger is to build the strengths of the two organisations for an effective future growth. buildings. It is the process of combining assets to capture a sector of the market that it fails to acquire as an individual organisation. But when the large organisations set up horizontal merger. The participating organisations determine the intentions of joining forces that will strengthen the current positions of both the organisations and lay basis for expanding into other areas. The main reason to involve into mergers is to join with other company and reap the rewards obtained by the combined strengths of two organisations. The results of the mergers are less noticeable if the small organisations horizontally merge. activities. Example The China Wireless Technologies. marketing. The organisations do not share the resources. technical knowledge. They serve the common market. infrastructure to drive into new levels of success. This type of merger either has a maximum or minimum effect on the market. then it increases the risk of hurting business reputation and devastating customers trust. acquire more customers. and excel among the competitors in the market. Consider a small local drug store that horizontally merges with another small local drug store. then the effect of this merger on drug market would be minimal. then higher profits are obtained in the market share providing advantages over its competitors. They achieve forty percent increase in the market share. it is also important to consider the assets like property. merger: This involves the union of a customer with the vendor.
yet it is applied to existing markets and customers. Builds an improved management system CSR improves the management system by providing products which meets the essential customer needs. ical and production competence that out of date. environment conservation and occupational health safety to various regions and countries. product promotion. safety at work. It develops relevant regulations through the utilisation of innovative technologies in the organisation Contributes to countries by improving the quality of management CSR contributes high quality product. Example TATA implemented social welfare provisions for its employees since 1945. CSR also provides health and safety measures. Thus CSR makes a significant contribution towards sustainability and competitiveness of the organisation. A) Features of CSR CSR improves the customer satisfaction through its products and services. The meaning of CSR has two folds. caring for the environment. climate protection. it exhibits the ethical behaviour that an organisation exhibit towards its internal and external stakeholders. so on. it denotes the responsibility of an organisation towards the environment and society in which it operates. and such other issues. . consumer protection. The National Innovation Initiative (NII) defines innovation as "The intersection of invention and insight. And on the other hand. The information system has improved by enhancing better responses to complex security accidents. Describe Corporate Social Responsibility. nnovation: This innovation involves development of new marketing methods for the existing products. Enhances information security systems and implementing effective security measures CSR enhances the information security measures by establishing improved information security system and distributing them to overseas business sites. Q6." Innovation is defined as using new ideas to apply current thinking in different ways that results in a significant change. a gain. It provides the scope for improvement in product design. The effect of these changes is to develop the existing skills and resources. Ans Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the continuing obligation of a business to behave ethically and contribute to the economic development of the organisation. It will establish the technical and marketing agendas that will guide subsequent developments. leading to the creation of social and economic value. or a profit. The following are the features of CSR: Improves the quality of an organisation in terms of economic. Innovation is the production or implementation of ideas. On one hand. resorting to legal assistance in case of unresolved business problems. CSR activities include commitment to product quality. providing correct information to the consumers. pplied on established technical and production competence of the existing markets and customers. and pricing.Ans. fair pricing policies. legal and ethical factors CSR improves the economic features of an organisation by earning profits for the owners. Innovation can be described as an action or implementation which results in an improvement. It improves the quality of life of the organisation. CSR is effective in number of areas such as human rights. sustainable management of natural resources. The types of innovation are as follows: process. It also improves the legal and ethical features by fulfilling the law and implementing ethical standards. preserves employee rights and discourages discrimination at workplace. It also assists in environmental protection and contributes towards social activities.
This is done by utilising information and technology for automobiles. The information and technology helps in establishing a safety driving assistance system. The following are the roles played by CSR: Improves the relationships with the investment community and develops better access to capital and risks Enhances ability to recruit. Creates awareness towards environmental issues CSR serves in preventing global warming by reducing the harmful gases emitted into the atmosphere during the process of business activities. competitiveness and market positioning Improves the ability to attract and build effective and efficient supply chain relationships Improves relationships with regulators Reduces the costs through re-cycling process Enhances stronger financial performance and profitability through operational efficiency gains . develop and retain staff Improves the reputation and branding of the organisation Improves innovation. B) Roles played in terms of ethical conduct CSR plays a significant role in maintaining ethical conduct in an organisation.Creates a new value in transportation CSR creates a new value in transportation for the greater safety of pedestrians and automobiles.
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