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1439839158 Toxic Chemicals

1439839158 Toxic Chemicals

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TOXIC CHEMICALS
Risk Prevention through Use Reduction

TOXIC CHEMICALS
Risk Prevention through Use Reduction

Thomas E. Higgins
Jayanti A. Sachdev Stephen A. Engleman
and

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4398-3915-7 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

Contents
Foreword....................................................................................................................xi Acknowledgments...................................................................................................xvii About.the.Authors....................................................................................................xix Acronyms.and.Abbreviations.............................................................................. xxiiii Chapter 1 Introduction........................................................................................... 1 Bibliography..........................................................................................5 Chapter 2 Toxic.Chemical.Composition.Reporting............................................... 7 Introduction........................................................................................... 7 California:.Proposition.65.....................................................................8 Basis.for.Program............................................................................. 8 Program.Requirements..................................................................... 9 Role.of.Stakeholders.........................................................................9 Financial.Impacts............................................................................. 9 Effectiveness.of.Program............................................................... 10 European.Union’s.Registration,.Evaluation,.Authorization,.and. Restriction.of.Chemicals.Program...................................................... 11 Basis.for.Program........................................................................... 11 Program.Requirements................................................................... 11 Registration................................................................................ 11 Toxics.Release.Inventory.................................................................... 12 . Bibliography........................................................................................ 12 Chapter 3 Toxic.Chemical.Release.Reporting..................................................... 15 Introduction......................................................................................... 15 Basis.for.Program................................................................................ 15 . Program.Requirements....................................................................... 16 Refinements.to.TRI............................................................................. 18 . Role.of.Stakeholders........................................................................... 19 Financial.Impacts................................................................................20 Limitations.of.TRI.Program...............................................................20 Bibliography........................................................................................34 Chapter 4 TRI.Programs.in.Other.Countries...................................................... 35 . Introduction......................................................................................... 35 Canadian.National.Pollutant.Release.Inventory.Program.................. 37 . Australian.National.Pollutant.Inventory............................................. 37
v

vi

Contents

European.Union..................................................................................44 European.Pollutant.Emission.Register........................................... 47 European.Pollutant.Release.and.Transfer.Register........................ 47 Japan.................................................................................................... 48 Accessing.PRTR.Data......................................................................... 51 North.American.Data..................................................................... 51 European.Data.from.E-PRTR........................................................ 52 International.PRTR.Data.from.OECD........................................... 52 Bibliography........................................................................................ 53 Chapter 5 TRI.Program.Impacts.on.Reducing.Toxic.Chemical.Releases........... 55 Introduction......................................................................................... 55 TRI.Success.Stories............................................................................ 58 . Bibliography........................................................................................ 58 Chapter 6 Quantifying.Toxicity........................................................................... 59 Introduction......................................................................................... 59 Ingestion.Carcinogenicity...................................................................60 Inhalation.Carcinogenicity..................................................................60 Ingestion.Noncarcinogenic.Toxicity. ..................................................60 . Inhalation.Noncarcinogenic.Toxicity.................................................. 61 Development.of.a.Single.Toxicity.Factor............................................ 61 Ingestion.Carcinogenic.Toxicity.Factor.Development................... 62 Inhalation.Carcinogenic.Toxicity.Factor.Development.................. 62 Ingestion.Noncarcinogenic.Toxicity.Factor.Development............. 63 . Inhalation.Noncarcinogenic.Toxicity.Factor.Development............ 63 Single.Combined.Relative.Toxicity.Factor.Development...............64 Bibliography........................................................................................ 89 Chapter 7 Quantifying.Mobility.......................................................................... 91 Introduction......................................................................................... 91 Air.Mobility.Factor............................................................................. 91 Water.Mobility.Factor.........................................................................92 Combined.Mobility.Factor..................................................................92 Bibliography...................................................................................... 103 Chapter 8 Quantifying.Persistence.................................................................... 105 Introduction....................................................................................... 105 Persistence.Factor.............................................................................. 105 Bibliography...................................................................................... 118

..Requirements........................................................ 181 PBT.Contents vii Chapter 9 Quantifying..........of..........of.......Use.......................Toxic.............................. 173 Financial.......................for.....................Toxics..........Program..Targeted.........................versus................................. 179 Effectiveness........................................Restriction............on........................Use...............Department............ 173 Washington.......Authorization.......... 177 Program.......Toxicity........Environmental..Releases..................................................Adjustment...................Program.. 137 Effective.................... 180 Authorization...................Impact.............the.............Evaluation...........................Factors. 173 Effectiveness............................ 135 Chapter 10 Developing................ Chemicals........................................... Chemicals....... 187 Restriction......................Reporting..............S...............Release..........Factor...... 119 Bioconcentration......Effective..................................................................... 172 Role..........Program...............Impact.Ecology.................Requirements.. 191 Comparison..........and....Impacts..................................Chemicals........Requirements..............................................................Toxicity...........Program................................................................... 176 Basis..........................................Persistent........... 119 Introduction. 179 Registration...............European.............Stakeholders.... 180 Basis. 192 Reporting............the.........of.......................... 191 Massachusetts.......................for..............................Other...................Program...........Impacts.....................of....................................................Act..Persistent................................................................Agency.............Program............ 138 Toxicity............. 177 Role.................................Reduction...................Program.................................... 187 Very...........of......... Bioaccumulative Toxins..................Program.Factor......... 179 Financial........................................................Programs.................................... Bibliography...........of... 138 ...................................................................................................... 192 ...........................................................................Reduction..........and..of.................................and.......... .......of............. 191 Introduction...................for.............................................................. 137 Introduction..Bioconcentration.......... 119 Bibliography......Substances....................... 180 Program..............Stakeholders.........Bioaccumulative........Requirements.............(Mercury)...........................33/50.......................Protection...........Substances...Union............................. 180 Evaluation...................................................... 187 ..... 171 U...... Chapter 11 Focusing.............................................................................................. 171 Basis...... 172 Program..................... 189 Chapter 12 Use...Mercury........and.................. 171 Introduction...............................

...........Program..................14)........... 197 Introduction...........Hazardous....................Reduction and.................Requirements......................................................................................................... 198 Washington..................... 215 Massachusetts.........Waste.........Hazardous.........Prevention...............of................of...Waste.......Department.....................................................Hazardous...........Stakeholders...........Examples.....New................... 219 Role......... 197 Massachusetts.............Impacts.........Hazardous.......Reduction.....................Program..Act......... 193 Bibliography......... 193 Reporting.Program...........Program.................................Toxics.........Program........................and........................................Reduction....Reduction.......Ecology....Review..................Reduction............. 222 Basis...........................State)...................Reduction.......................Source....................................... 216 Program................224 ..........of..............................................Jersey........................... 221 Company.....Efficiency......Program..........................Technical........Waste.Use..............State....Toxics..........202 Lessons..208 Arizona...Program..................Jersey.............................1989........Toxics...................................Use.......... 211 Chapter 14 Technical.....Department....................................................................Planning..........Environment.............Pollution. 220 Financial.........and..............Companies.by......207 ............ 218 Lean.......................207 Minnesota.. 218 Basis...........viii Contents Maine..for...Program........................................................Act...Program.......................................Quality................. 221 Effectiveness.....................Learned.....................and.................Jersey...........for.....................Programs........................................................................Assistance.... New......... 222 Role......the.Prevention..... 217 Effectiveness................ 215 Technical.....(Washington................................................ 219 Program....................................Engineering.....................of...............Assistance..................................Environmental...................of....................................Assistance.. 197 Maine................................... 199 New....................................and........... Prevention Program..Waste........................Program.....Requirements......... 216 Role........Bill...Pollution..........Stakeholders..........Technical................................Program...Toxics........ 193 .........of....... 222 New......................... 215 Maine.............................Act....... Texas........for...209 Voluntary..........................................for....Resources.....Program... 195 Chapter 13 Pollution............. 205 California:...Requirements...........Program.Requirements............Prevention...... 215 Introduction........ 217 Financial.......of...............Impacts................. 216 Basis................................of.......... 222 Program.............Stakeholders..... 211 Bibliography.......Toxics........Jersey...(Senate............Pollution.......................... Management..........

....................Toxic Chemical.............................................to.............Use.............Transfer....................and.................................................................Capacity...................to......................................Building...............Fee..................Impact...... 238 Chemical.......... 226 Chapter 15 Market-Based.....Benefits..........Toxic.........Toxicity................................. Reduction............................................. 303 ........................................... Environmental................. Cap................................................. ..... 287 Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers..Reporting.................... 233 Chapter 16 A..........................................................Assistance....................284 Positive............. 277 Health.................... Toxic...................................................................... 255 ............................................Assistance........................................................Use.....Rating.................. Index..................................... Technology. .....Disclosure................Use.................................... 225 ............. 285 Reduced............ 317 .............Fees.................................................................................................the..........Regulatory.....Revenue.Program...................................................Approaches..... 281 Direct.............Chemical................................. 229 ...............Impacts......................Use.Use..............Program... 289 Appendix B: CAS Numbers with Chemical Names...................Benefits.......................................................................................or. 238 Chemical..........................of.....................................Composition......224 Effectiveness...and...........................Benefits......................... ............................................................................ Chemical.... 225 California.......................to.........Benefits.................. 285 Other.................... 256 ................Chemical.....Environmental......................of................... Bibliography..........................................Taxes................. 275 Costs.............. 283 .Reduce............Contents ix Financial.......................Program.... 255 Public.......Burden............. 275 Toxic................... 275 Introduction.....................and...............Planning........ 229 Command..Chemical...........Successful............................................................Businesses.............................. 271 Technical..Fees..Protection. 273 Chapter 17 Costs.... 282 Human........Productivity.without.................240 ................... 271 ... Chemical...........Usage.................. 286 .................................................. Introduction..Trade............................................ 235 Introduction........ 231 Pollution...................................Program...........................................Control................................Associated.............................................................................................................Technical... 232 Bibliography.................................. 272 Bibliography.and.............................Reporting...........Publicity................... 277 .........................a......Program... Incentives.................................. 229 ....... 235 Target....Impacts................Chemicals............... Bibliography....Reduction.....of......Enhancement......................Increased..

unique.me. leaning.The Pollution Prevention Handbook. at. the.to.Union.our..effectiveness.methods.even. the.was.remediation.. ended.on. published.he.produced.eliminating.on.I..individual.the. first.provided. i 24.chemicals.Waste Minimization Handbook..up. Subsequently.from.various.environ..to.companies. to.group.field. roduced.engineers. began. he.the.in.of.Poland. meeting.efficiency. had..toxic.. my.of.waste.that.than.of.treating.associated.from.going. environmental. and.talk.but.efficiency.gave.that.subsequently.treatment. my..for.reducing.hazardous.. which.would.Poland.. At.consulted.companies.I..was.and.was. who...it.the.published. Ruckelshaus.and. efficiency.was.In.followed. I. on.provided.of.waste. p .instead.kindly. with. Agency. Protection.manufacturing.privatized.I. as.In.I. engineering.young.of.team.audits.or.write. at. toxic..left.When. enefits.spoke.to.on.pollution.with.individual. emphasis.and..individual.the. I. d developing. and.experience.agreed.observing.in. that..Based.maintenance.dollars.we.changing.over.following.expanding. sites.a. many.companies.moved.our.into. their.moving. helpful. During.manufacturer.directors.that.countries..of. (USEPA)..treatment. audits.water.toxic.under.program.my.processes.seed.be.upstream.a. to.When.the. practicing.compiled.. foreign.continued.supervision.continents.. developing.liabilities.rundown.have.of.control.prevention.to. to.the.former.performed.we.professionals..research.scientists.eliminating.worked.S.Department.birth. administrator....wastewater.and.of. projects..also.time..had..our.companies.companies.but. returned.projects.As.of. rather.expanded.industrial. ental.the.of..this.we.the.with.them.training.remediation. engineers.concept.importance.limited.a.a.program.waste... to.used.professor.and.prevention.Foreword When.the.with.My.goal. eveloping. for.of.I.the.over. beyond..toxic..It.solid... after.. was.sites.Russian. U.book.waste.Western.who.hazardous.to.Superfund.on. with. waste.suits.we.the.. b of.Hungary.who.assisting.experience.projects.talk.widely.moving.which.who. and.working.of. chemicals.vein.their.by.with.to.Soviet.By.my.these.pollution.industries. I.for.minimization. career..cadre.I.six.them.focused.tools.for.responsible.time—reducing.was.worked.this.manufacturing. in.foreword. I..before. need. regulate..waste..trained.a.nationals. c them.the.about. a.from.air.in.I.in.providing.Union.in. first. When.through.in. m requirements..in.decided.I.I.paternity.in.millions. its.a.I. to. the. treating.20. programs.efficient.We. a..a. it.and.career.that.the..waste.200..board.the.setting. on.technical.talk.evolving.that.trainees.I. the.Defense.professionals. xi .In.more.industrial.lawyer.with. waste. greatly.From. to.a.effort.efficiency.on.evolved.and. discussing.by.the. time. the.metals.only.of.the. involved.began.on.not.In.about.Russia.experience.more..lawyer.fell.that. nvolving. six.governments.primary.was.was. was.for. formed. Environmental. engineering.technologies. being. at.and.removing. just..lessons.major. was.a..learned.money.other..compliance. in.. various.or.newly.program.audits.. scientists.minimization.completed.six.As..carried.with.The..was.lead.Soviet.our. Bill.and. performed..chemicals.also. met.our.advice.wrote.eliminating. waste.training. and.prepared. Waste Minimization Handbook.opportunity.improve. Bill...the. industrial.all.status.and. was. was.we.for.we. Ruckelshaus. Polish.

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impacts.specific.the. fact.typically..in.would.initial.success.or.requires.this. of.time..the.of. detailed.xiv Foreword in.other.learned.and.potential.of.based.from.was.updates.elements.that.This.and.best.warranted.in.especially.fact.a.from.response.impacts..it. on. impact.could.of.objective..the..reduction.will.the.continue.health.homes.of.we.on.of.reduction.and. also.is.release.how.existing.. the.applied.an.United. products.as.program.each. review. In.toxic..applied.worker.level.what.be..learn.provided.eliminating.book..these.and.is.initial.with.focuses. previous. I.among.proposal. to.given.on.program.as.how.each.and.for.suggested.continue.of.to.responsibility. of. chemicals.these.effectiveness.on. foreword.worked.and.TRI. thinking.a.toxic.on.program.. but.the.what. a. that.. Reducing.how.regarding.are..of.this.public.in.of.USEPA.initial.for.and.. based.book.of.use.move. to.the.in.if.associated... policy. select. ending.makers.intention.can.recognize.Office.exposure.to..are.welcome.to.elements.propose. built.in.to.interesting.regulations. ideas.and.actual.we.and. the.use..but.how. chemical.field.Due.of.also.we.impact.at.This.as.an.of.chemical.set.ideas.the.Some.of.and.any. Why.impetus..is.the.potential. requires. our.chemicals.also.the.a.toward.and.based.a.move.our.on.it.determine..reduction.greatest.manufacturing. started.the.a.an.current.programs.on.suggestions.which.as.our.any.us.the. approach. is.lays.use.. home.of..chemical.goal.on.TRI.has.current.and.part.chemical.each.toxic. I.would.modifications.out.from.toxic.is.not.program.the.those.the.global.failures.and.Use.various.any.effective.process. near.but..costs.attended.into. and.Water.of. For. The.to.program.data.S. analysis.admittedly.proposed.thoughts.is.only.each.how.agency.the.reduction.purposes.the.changed.of.evolved.toxic.needs. medium.separate.to.convert. writing.. toxic.countries. Washington.market-based.CETESB.regulation.even.healthy. global.build.approach.of.of.have. use.reducing.formal.efforts.once.deemed.program.offices.our. additional.the. exposure.new.meeting.not.thinking.the. The.required.to.the.to.book. for.not.program.Our..the.into. of.have.behind.that. while.media.program.chemical.of.the.this.this. these..on.was.to.part. of.that.we.spur.proposal.idea.the. programs.of.initial.for.use. program.toxicity.builds.our.over.that.toward.at.discussion.chemicals.usage.the.been.the.for. to.and.have.concepts.to.to.of. Brazil.that.and.conceptual-level.Regardless.regarding.the.was.the.be.chemical.the.progress.TRI.States.reduction.details.proposes.the. environment. point.accounts.and. affected.takes.approach. additional.concerning. a.reflect.firmly. traveling.paper. releases.thoughts.policy.and. refine.reduction.in. .taken.entrenched.which.next.past.if.in.a.and.analysis.analysis.simplify.these.an.like.. The.book.we.flawed.addition.downstream.toxic. to.released...was.stone..next.sold.has.program.appropriate.chemical.make.that..be.specific.of.environment.all.toxic.a.programs.to.policy....use.proposed.on.to.lessons.generate.are.implementation.in.Soviet.usage. the. certain.federal-level.more.the.chemical.world.professionals. to.U.was.this. would.what.lessons. of.the..States.proposing.about.the.it.structure.further.This.to. environmental.regulatory.policy.much.other. individuals.be.successful.toxic. system.actual. releases. this.release.and.level.C.way.could.successes.successful. addiction.D.maximize.programs.simplified.the. from.approach.to.United.on.into.new.looking. pathways.the.certainly.especially.refinement.reviewing.thinking.same.adjustments.toxicity..instituting.market-based.our.approach.the.and.-based. develop.use.professionals. my.on.steps.or.other.in. charging. the.ultimate.chemical.I.point.components.cannot?.fit.

in.do.to.and.toxicity.published.measure.is.toxic.develop. objective.in.by.up.chemicals.to. was.use.to.on.chemicals. to. chemicals. apples-to-apples.actual..Rather.rank.targeted.chemicals.overall.all.used.some.in.Foreword xv analysis.applying.not. coming.to..come.rank.overall.used.across.reduction.will.ranking.to.this.and.toxicological.relative.effect.or.routinely.ranking.single.reducing.a.will..how.by.not.suggestions.be.which.the.option.. methodology. Thomas E.not. of.point.eliminating.prioritizing.fixed.chemical.done.would.conduct.proposed.on.an. nothing..to.the.Without. We.to.of..to.chemicals.to. developed.type.next.some.that.therefore.absolute.and.chemicals.can.absence..reach.impact.a.of.use.be.ones.accordingly.therefore.reduce.toxic.can.focus.claim.their. additional.represent.eliminate.number.analysis. among..that.ultimately.the.equally.an.The.be.“toxicity”.factor. means.potential. logical.“bad.in.approach.then.comparison. solely.up.effect. chemicals.then. chemical-specific.and.claim.overwhelming.chemicals.factors.managed.such.was.be.of.step.this.the..analysis. for..and.we. a.with.with.of.not.to.that.is.We.all.to.”.of.same.of.perfect.relatively.welcome..an..data.toxicity. to. purposes. even.The. the.mind.chemical-specific.toxicity.be.and.come.toxic.be.. with.rank.to.the.factors.data.use.differently.improve.to..considered.the.of.various..important. Higgins . be. up.our.toxicity.relatively.the.toxicity.keep.The.to.undertaking.how.These.or.

of..the.manuscript.chemicals.lengthy.São.State.and.book.Petro.. de..of.book. for.background.Higgins..employers....Acknowledgments This.research.for.While.reflects. Keisha.continuous.implementation.(CETESB).Longley-Cook.the.book. .reducing. We.provided.the..You. Michael..that.of.our.N.Minelli.are.prepare.evaluate.considered.of.Tecnologia.Marcelo.does.. p and. Voigt.this. Senior.Jersey.Reduction.Ribeiro.in. grateful.particularly. the.appreciate.clients.and.the.absences.formed.Souza.book.we.the.Environmental. acknowledge.we.toxic.and.reducing.for. are.the.program.families. the.current.Toxics. Specialist..authors’..of. We. Telles. Policy..of. hysical.and. assistance.some.his.work. and.chief.who.Protection.views. us. We.helped. We.of.not.programs..Flávio.book. Halloran. research.same. the state.of..is.worked.of.de.for.and.material.opportunity.. are.editing.Miranda.Paulo.work.Know.their.for. represent. Office. of.or. Victoria.de.help..encouragement. to.understand.and.on.de.our.suggested.program.being..of.for.for. Peeler.Wendy.helped.staff.and.in. to.the.who. We.Paulo.assisting.conducted...advice.Saneamento.options.Ecology.. Waste. encouragement..to.the.of.in.help.CETESB..toxic. Right..background. Hazardous.and.any.not. this.to.work.mental.appreciate.developed.to.Zajac.. xvii .This.endured.on.as.opinions.wrote. Maria.Brazil..New.with.the.Companhia. Finally.and.the..the. for or.in.and. Amy.for.the.state.past.by.Ambiental.or.Washington.J. DiGiore.Washington.grateful.Department.overall.. Pollution..opinions.this. Prevention.for.to.the..impacts. their.and.information.provided.program.Nate.the.of.mercury.. to.in.views.chemicals for..important.Meron.she.understanding.of.CETESB.São.most.collecting.support.Stacy. Lucila.or.the. wish.and.in.indebted.authors.book.Department..

eliminate.staff..air. .in.80. in.any...in.. Thomas E. toxic.emissions.. then.and. these.program.in.are. to.private.. Canada.training. chemicals.clients.range.the.One.programs.Higgins.China.study.savings.projects.in..to. tailored.over..years. engineering.articles.or.The Pollution Prevention Handbook.MS.publication.current.changes.year. adapting.BS.is. for.of. at. prevention.toxic. used..University.and.net. this.of.to..plants.is.an.public.and. result. and.in.minimization. reduction. with.or. for.in. subsequent.assessments.where.produced. p .developed. developed. treatment. methods. As..project. use.public.experience...of. and.Jayanti.reduce..and. Higgins..These. degrees. clients.impacts.research.providing. program. to. Italy.. Sâo..employers.a. of. United. in.in. rogram..led. project..This.views.(author). Germany.Engleman. After.does..and.chemicals.. and.up.. waste.or.recommended. law. and.the.in. PhD. in. He. During. in.the.for.. United.and.wastewater. graduating.for..professionals.States.book.he.resulted. a.resulting. a. led.. States.engineering. this.result. an.and. m minors.Dame:.from.A.waste..and.opinions..Defense. a. to.and. other. develop..This. PE received. State.substantial. reduction.courses.project.taught..a. with.tools.helping.leading. was.countries. p civil. wastewater.for. Arizona.their.. up. designed..a.reduction.first. to. h of.the.The.Notre.to.by.of.companies.Poland. Paulo. Higgins. power.private. engineering. processes. Hungary.develop.sector. H .. chemistry.industrial. iggins. of.research.was..Taiwan. Brazil.. companies. Higgins... needs.teams. governmental.and. setting.worked.and.This. methods. (coauthor). environ.hazardous.disposal.reflects. in.these.25.United.costs. of. ental.set. agencies. other.with.The Hazardous Waste Minimization Handbook and.mainland.led.waste.to..engineering.waste.not.workers. three.had.of.engineering. state. the.environmental.and.and. Brazil..waste.$100. pollution. This.in.methods.or. xix . plants. the.A.Sachdev.. of.book. experience. effort. recently. and.governments.. and. set... the.Higgins. rofessor.the.of.it.Russia.and. programs.policy. Based. Great. up. PhD.book. and.Department.. He.the.University.resulted.operations. States..Brazil. Britain.minimization.the.exposure.performed..performing.of..(coauthor). on.million.sector. implementing. chemical. applied. authors’. Higgins.per.environmental.treatment. a. plants..clients.and. waste.environmental. environmental..avoided.broad.for. the..waste. evaluated.that.eliminating.views. resulted.before.has. azardous.the.books.designing.evaluation.over. program.their.engineering.of.that.technologies.in.treating.About the Authors Thomas.Uzbekistan.experiences.opinions. civil. a.work..in.of.that.of.a.of.the.to.hazardous..Stephen. of.work.two.lectures. assisted..the. the. nuclear. treatment. a.past. has. in.represent. project.the.past.authors.E. the. .efforts.that.Australia..

data.of. sciences.recommend.evaluating. contaminated.for. at.regulatory. and. of.associated.quantification.company. conducted.as.from.Higgins.. and. education..in. PE received.minimization. and.. Subsequent.into.assist. the.analysis.(USGS). sites.including. gas.private.groundwater. emissions.site.operations..(groundwater. both..After. driver.power.associated.contaminated.years). of.of..work.impacts. for.Survey.various..for.process. material.and.substitution. soil).Sachdev’s.. or. engineering.reducing.surface. associated. on.. risk. and.12.level). goal.the. .environmental.sustainable.state.up. Sachdev.options.and..and. as.contamination. ollaboration. process. various.options. managed.gas.included.. under. environment. the.media.Protection.was. programs. by. environmental.control. studying.(completed.as. air. potential.. and.air.issues. by.Polytechnic.associated.Geological. and.engineering..to.example. was. work.program. uses. the.promoting. work.environment.plant-generated.at. Specifically.MS.the.water. as. human.of. evaluation. land.of.sector.and. based.and.and.(Storage.in. a .Close.the.Reston. surface.also.project. releases.in.ultimate.toxic.the.applications.environmental.on. More. Sachdev.hazardous..technology.support. internship.plant. technical. c ..in. past.one. Sachdev. behind.research. environmental.on.3.S.. future.investigations.as.of..programming.pollution. The.and.options.environmental.required.. management.in.potential.worked.impacts.concentrations.projects.State.worked. past.database. and. the. the.in..practices.Agency.water. change.control. and.utilities.analysis. of.wastewater.to.community-level.of. health.was.the.overall. remediate.the.toxics. of. various. evaluate.prevention.compliance.support. a.xx About the Authors Jayanti A.two. inventorying. the.S.tissue. on.technical.state.. She. with. U. Sao. chemicals. current.. under.Sachdev.Institute. greenhouse.an.evaluation.of.analysis.various.recently..biology.in. with.for.years have.sampling.of. to.. of. contamination. and. was.ultimate. quality. protection.and. Sachdev. f . various..local.and.chemicals.An.USGS.. an. associated. and.the.graduating. evaluations. human.(both. health.federal.and. of.at. assessments. her.degrees. ultimate.database.quality.metal.effects.BS.over. various.opportunities.responsible.with. and.for.in. technical.waste..goal.and.these.Virginia.reduce. permitting. managed. held. to.Paulo.a.in.U.past.contributions.STORET. services.program.included.remediation.and. Virginia.the.conduct. state-level.. climate. nalysis. chemicals.biological.add-on.industrial.in.sites.Sachdev.as.technologies.reducing. risk. During. and.remediation.work..options.determine.clients. ecological.was. well.Retrieval).well.to. wastewater.and.Environmental.climate.detected. the.to. water/sediment. Her. and.management.environmental..of.and. projects. ederal-.responsible.in.well.of. air.an.and.areas. releases.contributions. effect. pesticides. various.on.of.set.greenhouse. remediation.collection. endocrine.change. conducted.Brazil.emissions. systems.the.University:.emissions.

.and..Paulo.incinerators.Paris. PE earned.quality.to.for.(graduating.mechanical..that. South.on-site.mechanical.in.soil.diligence.issues..Higgins.honors).the.provided.Southern.University. dispersion..Africa.pulp.audits.. two. services.and.assisting. including.industrial..for.also.the.program.sites.of..to. major.and...that.in.asbestos. kilns.performed. emissions.recently.(PCB.Brazil.innovative. of.industrial.technical.accidents.degree.pollution.petroleum.pharmaceutical.technology.industrial.air.environmental. incineration.work.in.paper.Asia. .complex.area. with.in.regulations.covered.state. in.climate. complex. compliance... degrees. Engleman..understand.film.conducted.included..manufacturing.toxic. printing. companies.international. Engleman..support.and.4.and. his..assessments.engineering.waste.to.About the Authors xxi Stephen A.of..high-temperature.to.plastic.the.materials).tires.and.industrial.America..air.CFC..Engleman.. testing.. on.hazardous.clouds.and..manufacturing.engineering. worked.from.assessments.years.of.He.special.distribution.toxic.research.liability.Angeles. of. industrial.While.of.radioactive.with.of.and. from.cement.due.reduce.material. air..Los.potential. sources.up.and.the.impacts.The. Engleman.3.reviews.set.he.managing.compliance.Sâo.water.quality..performed.a.chemical.Australia.using.. quality.as. Engleman.resource.and. groundwater.California. assists.wastes.difficult.an.effective..change.California.the..conducting.involved.He.auditing.sites. catastrophic.France. greenhouse.in.a.and.air.identifying.and.also.are.After.spent. include.MS.the.technologies... various.waste.earning..facilities.America.Europe.in.senior. [chlorofluorocarbon].refinery.environmental..metalwork. His. currently.with.master’s.chemicals.North.graduating.Representative.air.a.services.at.and.gas.. and.assisted.destruction.burned.[polychlorinated. control.companies.for.modeling.and.the.a.available.biphenyl].most.comply.eliminate.years.BS.Berkeley:.with.

Ambiental.Change xxiii .Act Companhia.methodology Air.Research.Right-to-Know.professional Development.Register Engrossed.Vehicle.air.Natural.of.Identification.São.management.Saneamento.Community.Materials Atmosphere average bioconcentration.of.Protection.employee former.Union gross.toxicity.Planning.(Environmental.Corporation environmental.practice British.Organization Intergovernmental.Testing.of.product hazardous.Associates International.Protection.financial.Resources.Toxicant.safety.Company.Pollutant. CFO CIC CRTK CSP DART DDT DEP DNR DOE E-PRTR ELVS EMS EPA EPCRA EPER ESHB ETF FTE FSU GDP HAP HL HRA ILO IPCC Assembly.Board Automotive.of.Agency Emergency.Ecology European.identification.Panel.Committee Community.Society.Systems Chemical.Environmental.adjustment.and.for.Solutions.of.Labor.Registry End-of-Life.Agency) chief.Transfer.Department.Environmental.unit Center.system Environmental.the. Technology.thermal.Pollutant.Environment.Abstracts.Committee) dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Department.Acronyms and Abbreviations AB ADEQ AIM ARB AROW ASTM atm avg BAF BCF BMP BTU CAES CAS CEC CEPA CETESB.for.and.Recyclers.Act European.(Identification.House.Tecnologia.Emission.Washington American.Reproductive.Energy.Quality analog.Release.Bill effective.de.factor bioconcentration.Environmental.Cooperation Canadian.and.Protection Department.pollutant half-life Hampshire.Sanitation.Bill Arizona..Substitute.for.domestic.State.Paulo.factor best.Climate.officer Carcinogen.Soviet.Service Commission.on.Right-to-Know.factor full-time.and.Environmental.Advanced.Resources Department.management.Act certified.de.

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650.and.risk.the.of.date. are.products.is.includes.The.prop65clearinghouse.EU Common Ground on REACH.to.product.the. of. Commission.to.uses 7..public.required..the.toxic.on.appropriate.electronic.classification.been.The REACH Proposal Process Description.information..substance.then. become.Toxics. most.highly.the..an..they.put.on.composition.of.these.Brussels.releases. the..substances.up.reporting).concentrations.to.include. Council.reported.2006).report.chemicals..chemical.further. actual.into.the.Preliminary.approximately.Chapter 3). Registration.advance.materials. November. .on.of.the.goes. .measures toxics rElEasE invEntory The.companies.requires.based. the.and.is.Safety.properties.not. including. Council.for.White Paper: Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy.required.identity.however.in.chemicals. emphasis..(discussed.Reports.has.includes.of..not. This. in.Data. company”.. 2003.concern. Prop. of.toxicological.of. those. Council.. chemicals.this..of..not.(accessed.following: .of.Union.does.. data.purchase..of.a.program.suppliers. highly. that..the.Release.that. in. the. of.management.the.TRI.require.composition.those.human.these.report.keep.reporting.the.total.14.the.regulated.the.environmental.their.because.Communities. “internal. Data/information.number..Sheet 6.for.of.Questions and Answers on REACH.Proposal.screen.relative.ecotoxicological.of.ended.including.2006.EU.their... .the. tracking.. rogram.assign.European.Union..but..to.their..chemicals.far.(i.database.BE.Brussels.quantity.2006.2007. composition.envisaged 4.chemicals.also. p pounds.exposure 3.those.covering.registration. chemicals.risk.properties.product..assessment.specific.Proposed.. of.to...uses. for.of.for.a. essence.e. although.chemicals.toxic.companies.necessarily...ranking.The.BE.directly.and.the.program.The.. placing.. the.Production.to.Clearinghouse.only.importing.on.these. has. .that.composition.com/.their.65.of.particular..a..that.(TRI).be.releases. chemicals.raising.reporting.and.environmental.substance 5.and.the.are.the.authority. TRI..that.the.in. their.information.as.and. the.. of. that.it.. .will.Union.2006.the.Inventory. .track.report.has..12 Toxic Chemicals in. 1.estimated.public.U. products.to. chemical.the.the. Therefore.Intended.requirement. Communities. European.European.to.of. requirement.intended.each.http://www.releases.materials. .of.entities.report.TRI. registered..not. .releases.regulation.a. BiBliography Commission.the.to. used.toxic.they.and.individual.are.on. of.labeling.... an. Commission Staff Working Paper: Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning REACH—Extended Impact Assessment.on.. toxic.2001..European.on.products.European.considered.properties 2.in.are.as.S.

6.of.Toxicity. State.Made. of..CA..Office..htm. (accessed.State.Toxic Chemical Composition Reporting 13 Prop.of. 2006).by.Title. Hazard..3..http://www.Environmental.1986.6.Added.ca.Simple. State. State. about. of..Health.gov/prop65. Enforcement. Frequently.of.Act. Assessment..Agency.65.. Assessment.Water. net/Pubs/brochure/Proposition%2065%20Made%20Simple.. Office.2006).Toxic. 2007.Drinking.Environmental..Protection.http://www..Water.of. Chemicals.7.(accessed.(accessed.Division. Safe. Chapter 6.html. of.6. 65.gov/prop65/p65faq...Environmental. Assessment. Proposition.. California..Sacramento.Proposition.of..2010). Protection.65.Office.. oehha.California.January. Environmental.2..of.2006.California.Part..Agency.Protection.1986. Questions.Reproductive.Environmental.Protection. U.2010..(accessed.oehha.Agency. Drinking.CA.gov/TRI/..California..Health.the. Environmental.Hazard. Health.News—Online.. Office.2..to. Subdivision.1986. State. epa. ..November. Environmental..20.2005.ca. Health.Election.. Environmental. Proposition.Toxic.Program... of. http://www.California Code of Regulations.Environmental.Known. of.or.2006).Edition. State..prop65news.html.Assessment....Assessment.Hazard. November. List.Protection.65. Asked. of.. 2006.Chapter.Toxics.1. Agency. http://www..22.Enforcement.. 1986.Release.Sacramento..Cancer.Inventory. Protection.Hazard.November. Agency.S.Environmental.of.Act.Proposition.. Hazard. 2007. California.Agency. 65...Office.to..Environmental.Cause.Safe. and.Health.General.and.

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were.current.by.persistent..of.treatment.under.calendar..not.bioaccumulative.The..state.ketone. year. and.annually. billion.on.any..or. ..of. programs.makes.commerce.some. including.996. static.distribution.bulk. processes. 100 lb.full-time-equivalent..federal.categories.and. Resource.removed. these.Subtitle.by. facilities.except.toxic. these.20–39) •.within. 30.chemicals The.mining. otherwise.number..(RCRA). categories.code •.sulfate.ethyl.. to. compounds.in.except.EPA. energy. than.for. reported..on.both.that.purpose.sectors: •.and. thresholds. 3.(SIC.wholesalers.facility.to.codes.for.largest. waste. chemical.it •.as.12.following. treated. provided.gov/enviro). dioxin.category.(PPA). more.(in.hazardous. have.except.and.how. Reports.TRI.code.1011.on.chemicals.. Explorer. on.facilities.use.to. to.of..year.in.program.report.and.The. or.chemical.5171) •. g..is.(http://www. A. or.PBT.above.000. 21.chemicals.industrial.stations...these.annually. the.sites:. lb. for.TRI.industry. recycled.. the.amounts.two.the.toxic.4939) •.that. program rEquirEmEnts Information.. site. is..(http://www. Employs.and.codes. report.000.Recovery.and.reporting.recovery.code.code. The. and.the.in.for.10.of..1.employees.C.(MEK).1.TRI.and. For.available.filed.the.(SIC.original.methyl.epa. reporters.if.313.report. 2007. specified.(SIC.(PBT).require.reported.4953) •.The. filed.have. chemicals. that.the. Chemical. on. Metal.the. submit.contains.oil. 58 chemicals.of.SIC. to.to.consisted.chemicals.by. were.chemicals.chemicals. EPA.data.TRI.coal.collection.16 Toxic Chemicals activities.combust.Web.industries.mining. more.were.chemicals.industrial.but.. through. other. Each..program.included.any.toxic.Classification.and.Conservation.year.original.specified.that.of.toxic. or.581.the.EPCRA. Together.of.waste.individually.code.for.disposal. A. releasing.. and. Operates.Act.years. Coal.306. chemicals.Figure 3... power.categories.which.code. Electrical.section.under.Industrial.services.applicable. containing. 10.code.agency...of.SIC.chemical.not. format.Pollution. some.public.includes .is.EPA.laws.chemical.5169) •.to. some. the.shows..utilities. dioxin-like. or.must. such. at.toxic.disposal.sodium.list. Manufacturing.1. related.the.[SIC]. a.process.listed.. Petroleum. with.Act.others. This. both.which.TRI.the. and. reports. Manufactures.states.the..(Standard.facilities. activities. for.been..facilities.. are. pounds.with.these. 0. 4. allow.during.releases.666.are. 25.1081.total. once.(SIC.4931.certain.mandated.1094) •.of. other.and.and •.Most.more. management.or.data..The.epa.facility.in.subject.the.other.Envirofacts.reported.lb...list.TRI.Over. and.Prevention.list.been. categories.(SIC.for..1990.or. delimited.1241) •.and.terminals.site.be. releases.generating. chemicals.must.of.any.10.gov/triexplore). Solvent. combusted. chemicals.10.7389) •.4911. related. chemicals.added. recovery.(SIC.listed.manufacture. than. are.releases.Internet. uses.

to.involving.the.chemical. at.the.or.S. two.of.about.used..energy.chemical.these.the. different. the.sent.a.those.500. other.toxic.releases..each.listed. Types.for... Source. R.chemicals. •.information.waste. each.the.disposed. of.or.treatment. Form. Form. facility. •.about.year •.site.manufacture. Amounts.category.can. 12% figurE 3. 5% All Others.listed.facility.treat.further.disposal...is. Form.the.facility.use.treated. Environmental.facilities.the.the.the.processed.location.treatment.amount.recovery.activities •.including.telephone..activities.industry.Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 17 Food. to. General. manufactured.energy.name.methods •.amount..less. 4% Hazardous Waste.by.the.otherwise.lb/yr.facility •. from.other.pounds..than.release .toxic.is.off.the.or.PBTs.if.1. and.facility •.amount.chemical. 12% Electric Utilities.of.site. forms..chemical •.parent.held •.transfers There.are.contact.toxic.and. recycling.less.of.present.of.or.identifying. 25% Primary Metals. simplified.of.for.burned.of.number. Maximum.the.containing.of.of.waste.used.in.on.of.and. Information. chemicals.equal. A.and.chemical.at. Amounts.of.management.to. 10% Paper.destination.not.and.the.and.or.of.information. Basic.regarding.the.amount..to.than. The. for. business. sent.and.streams..or.the. and. reporting..released.person •.used..facility.2007.million.at. chemical. locations.the.at.type..question.at.environment. at.of.process.facility •.company •..the.each. 28% Chemicals. Name. .be.A..site.methods.1 U.otherwise.during. Information. the.or.conducted.equal. 5% Metal Mining.permits.recovery.recycled.for.name. Amounts. are.chemicals.TRI.efficiencies.when.to..the.reportable.reduction.the.

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5 0 technical 3 22.917 Average.first-time.4 16. subsequent.per.6 $3.per.6 $3.6 6 131. first-time.and.6 $70 Recordkeeping/submission 3 $122 Total. subsequent.EPA.6 5 Per.5 $939 Average.2 $759 year.243 $70 $366 $8.3 20.filers. 16.filers 1.4 30..familiarization:.5 cost $1.per. or 3 chemicals) number of chemicals reported on Each form a 1 chemical activity hours cost 2 chemicals hours 34.completion:.644 Calculations/certification:.3 6 39.5 89 1.PBTs Calculations.A.Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 21 taBlE 3.162 $70 $244 $6.completion:.and.familiarization:.chemical 20.5 7 43. .774 first-year filers Rule.determination:.6 1.2 form r average annual Burden hour Estimate by activity category Facility. level activity Compliance.081 Form..filers Form.report..subsequent.7 2.chemical 83.first-time.first-time.6 59.5 1.filers 1.5 $939 Source:.518 $58 $244 $1.non-PBTs Calculations. first-time.644 $4.filers.per.completion:. 2.9 19.2005b.3 24.8 $1.subsequent.PBTs Calculations.6 46.5 24 66.year.820 $910 48.facility 83.all filers management 1 12 0 20.3 $58 Recordkeeping/submission 3 $122 Total.1 7.report.4 1.filers 34. 32.completion:.7 $2.filers.report.917 subsequent year filers Calculations/certification:.277 $58 $366 $2.completion:.and.3 9 58.filers Supplier.5 14.completion:.7 19. Form R Source:.9 1.notification Calculations..6 9 178.year.701 $900 taBlE 3.644 $6.first-time.0 1 total hours 4 34.5 cost $1. all facilities Rule.year.filers.8 1.2005b.323 $2.120 $3.5 133.facility 20.report.A.5 $2.060 3 chemicals hours 34.8 67.EPA.non-PBTs Recordkeeping/submission:.1 65.9 44.1 form a annual Burden and cost per facility (assuming 1.and.filers 44.5 $1.1 4 clerical 0 0 17 2.

the.4 tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Zinc.870 106.completion:.136. taBlE 3.and.986 $1..384.314 92. used.and...935.709 488.956 138.206 502.2005b. increased.in.4.TRI. facilities Rule.and.the.fact.ironically.608.346 99. first-time.compounds Hydrogen.method.484 396.476 153.076 $1.and.733 4.TRI.957 67.all. potential.902.In.867 1.483.456 air 6.PBTs Calculations.report.report.product.compounds Hydrochloric.the.. chemicals. consumer.of.filers Supplier. subsequent. need.compounds land 449..130.in.notification Calculations.542.800.product.completion:.707 219. is.for.591.2007. .633.EPA.filers.475 4.965 $1.toxic.053 250.689. Arsenic.623 59.707. by.ends.fluoride Zinc. toxic. for.890.determination:.(fume.798.375 68.593.. the.379.compounds Nitrate.104 $3. end.564.compounds Barium.can.that.144 $203 Per.216 48.year. chemicals. user. level activity Compliance.823 116.324 7.non-PBTs Calculations.Table 3..filers.releases.644 $715 $3.347.928 160.to.082 1.829.product.3 form r average annual cost Estimate by activity category Facility.year.22 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 3.reducing..182 Water 275.441.178 32.143 129.360 86.304.254. exposure.256 474.532.083. exposure.739 15.429.541.filers. subsequent.035.202.compounds Ammonia Methanol Sulfuric.418.releases.722 32.408 175.219 270.or.filers.790. or. largest.088 $748 $400 $0 technical $134 $1.442 totals 731.process.674. to.554 94.140 $2.014.is.087.741 137.report..acid.of.releases.152 $1. when.031 351.familiarization:.more.filers management $53 $637 $0 $1.755 459..completion:. exempt.report.674.the.725 311. products.399 702.907. Lead.435 69.compounds Manganese. Companies.594 2.result.up.216 158.079 .751 74.365.360 $720 $179 clerical $0 $0 $402 $63 $66 $44 $24 $24 total cost $187 $1.153. Form R Source:. do.258.ensure.174 72.759.report. not.427.746 536.313.373.first-time.170 61. of.476.in.exposure..338.chemical.all.716 501.909 236.915 161.008 $314 $1.048 151.shows.312 19. the.compounds Copper.PBTs Calculations.to.dust) Chromium.completion:.as.947 162. first-time.184 473.non-PBTs Recordkeeping/submission:.acid.230 2.one. to.457 19..584 802. Finally.the.

918.614.242.512.isobutyl.307 11.523.372 78.230 23.603.255.918 2.688.766 6.204 1.833.660 16.550.978.2.353 1.541 4.355 277.761.611.113.841 668.745.871.460.670 25.465.413.841.627.578 6.247 6.248.968.303.926.999 196.798 1.243.251 446.810 38.576.924.436 756.dust) N-Hexane Nickel.430.534 576.045.616 297.997 224.682.100 5.854 totals 44.877.796.1-difluoroethane Dichloromethane Chlorine Cyclohexane Ethylbenzene Methyl.914.388 11.367 13.676.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Vanadium.4-Trimethylbenzene Acrylonitrile Cyanide.309.000 274.420 17.924 1.983 22.136 5.970 14.843.287.864 34.638 6.223 5.634 3.309 820.798.365 10.513 6.291 5.234 2.glycol Acrylamide Cobalt.204 544.667.826 10.102 1.646 19.895 3.Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 23 taBlE 3.161.216 continued .410 3.or.780 — 1.769.342 394.570 36.818.572.isomers) Manganese Formaldehyde Lead Carbonyl.305 52.ketone land 24.093 5.639.935 11.924 18.032 459.242 5.344 19.189 29.416.973 2.770 962.390 6.940.371.768 462.235.216.841 35.423.039.549 447.341.345 4.778 6.059.935.669 752.684 20.577.779.538 6.903.148 17.433 21.534 6.846 2.424 7.540 41.097.194 1.184.864 18.220 2.224.271 6.(mixed.897.974.410 11.367 8.689.compounds Chlorodifluoromethane Phenol Ethylene.841 107.compounds Xylene.927.638 11.441 703.531 40.790 4.074 11.645.885 10.492 12.compounds 1-Chloro-1.925 155.750 13.939 6.381 8.000 2.288 6.445 2.705 Water 18.355 3.902.448 261.901.692.714 4.102 4.476.090 34.347 17.121.468.983 7.700 11.247.675 4.184 2.001 6.614 7.847.compounds Toluene Styrene Aluminum.132 10.426.ethers Nitric.207.836 6.disulfide Benzene Barium Nickel 1.929.426 11.934.532 247.743 12.098 1.899.149 8.800 — 7.827 71.114 13.379 17.821 1.919.137.905 2.233 18.144.892.677.666 400.892.846.547 136.660 1.933.117.compounds Asbestos.compounds Mercury.sulfide Ethylene Certain.450 542.687 484.397.897 152.277.282 1.748.941.095.050.447 1.430.493 18.897 38.350 37.974 2.033 1.283.acid Acetonitrile Copper Formic.acid N-Butyl.180 2.656 air 600.247 225.595.146.600 11.716.437.600 92 1.alcohol Chromium Acetaldehyde Propylene Antimony.glycol.172 213.619.433 99 8.109 426.704 9.912 8.779 120.643 422.367 8.902 243.771.961 12.748.042 5.767 6.013.456 36.791 55.551 3.379 5.994.(friable) Carbon.(fume.212.093 18.636 872.160 12.643.094 25.666 39.735 639.

546 9.biphenyls Chloromethane Creosote Thallium.733.269.isomers) 4.898.628 totals 4.616 1.994 1.755 1.378.485.compounds Naphthalene Selenium.152 1.864 2.200 777.3-Butadiene Triethylamine Acrolein Diethanolamine Diisocyanates Selenium Molybdenum.039.512 920.316 752.447 965.240.758.725 43.907 6.457 103.226.174 16.776.808 40 1.027 323.686.746 289.916 814 346.093.920 151.563.090.993 184.309.695 862.912 1.237.371 2.585 1.069 789. Vinyl.883 495.acid Trichloroethylene Sodium.415 — 883.713.918 700.971.278.072 258 1.435 44.581 1.540 1.305.743 1.134 1.199 907.452.137 1.817 4.716 6.986 2.131.157 107.alcohol land 4.008 4.283.581 552 380.298.362 7.989 81.619 118.106.616.311.aromatic.938 567.288 1.624 284.953 Water 23.oxide.569 1.170 4.249.069 259 815.056 290.473 756.944 2.641 1.469.730.696.431.591 1.782.625.583 41.320.384 1.937 1.843.341 54.688 1.711 1.992 2.108.170 121.(mixed.417.100 343.201.043 2.phthalate Cumene Acetamide Cadmium Aniline Cobalt Beryllium.878 2.268 2.198 6.704 41 474.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol Di(2-Ethylhexyl).095.533.189 2.512 428.795 5.944 3.800.700 28.117.270 air 362.298 1.compounds Methyl.and.679 1.084 1.185 557.624.414.231 301.nitrite Arsenic Cadmium.413.877 1.salts tert-Butyl.045 371.001.787 3.576 51.443.285 519.453 1.604.compounds Antimony P-Xylene Cresol.375 70.432 162.946 632.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Biphenyl N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Aluminum.300 1.031.232 2.488 778.079 9.403 27.360 4.24 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 3.919 91.879 2.438 4.472.358.056.312.309 96.330.987.606 875.019 178 238.061 1.090.717 1.126.223 719.494 935.788.202 4.709 1.014.403 7.cyanide Tetrachloroethylene Vanadium.577 48.112 1.410 2.723 67.821 5.053 812.894 844.336 441.467 1.017.113 175.N-Dimethylformamide Hydrogen.713 1.511 37.241 3.385 111.586 251.948 771.703 4.792 364.142 122.583 1.154 2.371 2.trioxide Polycyclic.028 6.850.950.556.593.081.549 1.408 1.003 449 1.862 2.087 2.876 1.097.202 136.725 189 1.acetate Polychlorinated.817 1.297 953 9.013.182 13.748 4.907 2.compounds Nicotine.850 .170 2.534 2.769.(fibrous.092 4.292 852.307 147.738 1.103 188.744.alcohol sec-Butyl.269 1.051 5.994 1.286 1.365.compounds 1.970 22.forms) Acrylic.methacrylate Cyclohexanol N.498 71.

579 81 8.301 20.419 91 94.150 50 115.tetrachloride Ethylene.(yellow.438 327.722 563.291 526.551 27.225 11 2.782 599.556 372.436 Water 20.961 298.289 312.824 1.144 114.750 1.349 458.1.229 8.524 343.113 2-Chloro-1.907 516 501.993 268.482 383.729 354.958 38.893 2.740 312.803 707.508 23.696 24.934 715.ether Silver.111 650.348 232.tert-butyl.475 5.082 570.722 55.496 318.598 335.952 864 air 721.161 246.(CFC-114) Carbon.550 13.628 26.946 39.710 9.936 565.078 336.577 32.oxide Nitrobenzene Methyl.868 17.216 515.599 262.600 314.065 706.780 165.733 252.1.008 702.448 295.A Silver Propylene.994 — 496.635 363.396 12.871 308.997 continued .506 43.990 542.640 342.853 726.132 13.052 317.989 410.184 326.2-Dichloroethane Hydroquinone Bromine Mixture Phenanthrene Vinyl.163 517.321 325.187 2.558 291.835 10.023 3.307 404 167 1.white) Phthalic.2-tetrafluoroethane Chlorobenzene Chlorine.398 3.120 585.273 339.075 264.477 111.oxide Benzoyl.428 108.752 455.409 287.310 53 32 — 48.440 — 666.anhydride Chloroform Ozone Pyridine Decabromodiphenyl.646 288.193 1.phthalate Propionaldehyde 1.606 60.266 1.099 59.774 83.709 4.072 510.312 521.235 2.357 305.003 119.or.chloride Bromomethane Dimethylamine Tetrabromobisphenol.279 704.305 378.839 223.712 32.337 29.316 276.156 8 783 9.426 32.020 263 — 29.836 — 3.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Chloroprene Acetophenone Chloroethane Maleic.712 702.anhydride land 343 48.567 449.530 351 294.277 250 2.281 103.dioxide Allyl.218 309.697 totals 741.658 84 4.698 52.861 601.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane O-Xylene Trichlorofluoromethane M-Xylene Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.367 695.682 327.364 395.Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 25 taBlE 3.571 362.282 399.549 14.oxide Dibutyl.014 57.487 334.531 92 13.971 401.384 29.phthalate Phosphorus.516 97.853 430.alcohol Atrazine Butyraldehyde 1.358 545.022 16.compounds Freon.861 338.124 319.708 545.466 285.506 372.690 571.010 5.006 334.peroxide Dimethyl.465 235.482 551.555 704.465 571.

111 44 61.844 166.480 — air 268.837 47.257 31.tetrachloride 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 1.881 127.692 98.184 226.239 70.153 20.135 69.dimethyldithiocarbamate Fluorine Thiram 2-Methoxyethanol Epichlorohydrin Chlorothalonil 2.123 833 35.742 56.945 19 2.hydroperoxide Pendimethalin 2-Ethoxyethanol 1.268 — 9 92.656 12.492 4 8.045 92.796 1.245 22.039 158.871 0 0 82.476 137.813 154.26 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 3.748 513 500 2.acrylate Fomesafen 4.834 5.332 — 21.189 146.acrylate Nitroglycerin 2-Methyllactonitrile Titanium.298 78.I)perylene Urethane Polychlorinated.775 192.208 110.857 101.546 121.1.971 59.356 75.279 4.227 118.168 130.218 21 3 totals 268.2-Dichloro-1.959 57.854 2.896 171.234 10.693 86.4-Dichlorobenzene Ethyl.765 2.588 1.411 90.899 .acrylate 1.404 125.438 126.275 69 291 265 — 59.258 14.acid Propiconazole land — 259.341 121.161 112.440 100.alkanes Methacrylonitrile 1.832 137.carbonate 1.1-trifluoroethane Isobutyraldehyde Lithium.911 3.394 63 69.418 92.267 90.960 84.336 82.419 81.1.793 7.627 65.385 — 20.646 185.606 22.777 385 36.773 186.2-Dichlorobenzene Cumene.286 94.145 27 10.710 115.161 2.638 12.115 67.670 136.984 98.393 257 112.828 97.024 10 37.132 174.379 69.119 87.474 27 28.240 141.896 Water 5 — — 163.504 20.710 226.408 1.620 115.445 261.671 59.185 24.018 4.266 78.2-trifluoroethane Butyl.810 94.169 123.904 30.fluoride P-Cresol Mercury Benzo(G.1.4′-Methylenedianiline Nitrilotriacetic.470 59.819 156.291 0 600 88.119 — 21 3 95.870 112.423 63.butylcarbamate Thallium M-Cresol Methyl.405 30.385 141.818 171.957 42.476 113.023 3.H.2-Dichloro-1.578 137.192 18.479 79.627 — 23.115 200 79 129.112 736 7.769 131.1-Trichloroethane 1.3-Phenylenediamine Sulfuryl.607 4.932 137.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Dichlorodifluoromethane 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.4-Dioxane Dicyclopentadiene Anthracene Sodium.917 2.124 2.833 155.471 168.000 97.920 12.440 1.467 178.2-Dichloropropane 1.996 52.245 104.617 147.030 — 75.583 2.

551 20 30.215 7.acid.005 51.277 30.955 18.032 18.547 1.2-Trichloroethane Monochloropentafluoroethane 2.089 Water 847 — 47.188 35.718 16.006 20.851 88 — 785 — air 55.118 18.018 41.429 21.461 52.587 159 15 567 8.2-pentafluoropropane O-Toluidine Sodium.129 22 — 44.759 16.720 488 48.163 70 2.204 30.015 43.348 16.697 15.iodide 1.1-trifluoroethane Ethoprop Picric.276 39.037 550 16.chloride Nabam Metham.isomers) Peracetic.isomers) Chlorophenols 2-Chloro-1.391 2. and.054 35.4-Dimethylphenol Allyl.742 704 142 18.339 25.433 35.4-D O-Cresol Toluene-2.154 60 35.438 8.368 — 47.acid Hexachlorobenzene P-Phenylenediamine Dicamba 2-Methylpyridine 2.440 17.204 502 25.920 — 32.513 26.azide land 1.132 14.369 16.721 501 139 758 12 13.329 327 1.208 54 2.chloride Dichlorotrifluoroethane Catechol Diphenylamine Toluene.012 25.1.042 33.013 53..esters Iron.2.002 9.(mixed.700 25.diisocyanate.220 17.358 45 14.711 26.287 1.560 22.107 17.151 102 24.425 32.026 28.005 27.724 32.745 26.4-diisocyanate 2.655 21.881 486 4.025 22..491 378 500 — 29.145 17.409 331 5 4 5 14.sodium 2-Nitrophenol Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.4-Trichlorobenzene Propargyl.Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 27 taBlE 3.003 53.196 48.524 2.936 25.902 17.368 8.283 21.571 27.800 126 16.306 1.367 21.437 11 totals 57.acid 1.585 1.311 45.pentacarbonyl Thiabendazole 2-Nitropropane Pentachloroethane Methyl.(mixed.834 — — — — — 881 3.163 23.579 136 48.100 continued .827 707 9.725 21.3-Dichloro-1.026 49.554 23.1.777 30.2.497 16.4-Diaminotoluene Dibenzofuran Diuron Hydrazine Metribuzin 3.563 15.677 50.1.873 39.145 26.300 39.681 48.479 1.523 160 11 335 5.959 2.000 — 32.1.840 112 11.054 — 8 — 308 8.871 11.850 27.138 38.salts.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Vinylidene.alcohol Diaminotoluene.000 10.232 31.

4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Quinoline Aluminum.956 339 8.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) Allylamine Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 1.805 255 — Water 12.812 totals 15.isomers) Crotonaldehyde 2.323 4.(mixed.chloride 1.525 — 1.008 3.2-Dibromoethane Dinitrotoluene.500 4.084 500 2.secret.042 4.147 1 — 51 — 2.bromide 1.dichloride 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene Chlordane 4.849 11.dimethyldithiocarbamate Trade.035 3.740 6.727 5.phosphide Phosgene M-Dinitrobenzene 1.715 271 — 7 500 357 948 256 3.121 10 8.972 8 — — 8 — 665 150 9.468 15.3-Dichloropropylene Diethyl.626 6.695 5.2.354 — 11 — 22 — 1 24 4.714 2.929 298 1.871 9.310 30 — 13.2-dichloroethylene Benzoyl.346 5.660 14.984 1.089 3.568 6.270 2.chemical 1-Chloro-1.350 14.638 12.dicamba N-Methylolacrylamide Potassium.536 6.955 9.000 — 5 — — 7.682 10.180 8.541 13.369 3.632 14.664 — air 1.399 4.489 15.536 61 3.233 6.572 8.317 4.786 180 127 6.323 11.353 6.098 1.364 225 15.2-Dichloro-1.3-Dichloropropene land 1.031 — 447 — — 5 — 5 510 — 1.391 13.812 .094 5.864 8.423 5.990 5.185 13.2-Phenylenediamine Bromotrifluoromethane Dimethoate Dichlorobenzene.908 5.616 14.036 6.000 651 667 6.acid Dichloropentafluoropropane Dinitrobutyl.041 3.626 8.132 7.330 — 1.628 502 — 6.043 10 5.323 12.1-difluoroethane Tetramethrin Beryllium 2.682 11.4-Dichloro-2-butene 2-Phenylphenol 1.phenol Trifluralin Ethylidene.isomers) Sodium.290 7.1.253 6.753 162 10.358 8.235 — 7.346 5.594 13.(mixed.419 8.236 4.trifluoride Benzyl.956 8.324 — 7.2-tetrafluoroethane Malathion Chloroacetic.843 923 996 — 5.541 9.519 11.276 8.616 197 2.998 4.442 8.522 9.295 7.28 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 3.290 14.chloride 1.825 15.sulfate Dichlorofluoromethane Methylene.103 4.4-Dichlorophenol Boron.715 5.721 — 1 — — 1.557 8.325 250 5.351 4.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.594 14.

100 105 — 10 — — — — 941 — 291 2 59 500 12 12 — — 20 air 2.482 1.247 1.229 2.783 1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.methyl.dicamba Hexachloroethane Acephate Captan Dichlorvos C.333 1.736 1.098 255 3.167 Water 83 — — — 7 — — 250 426 214 — — — — 2.013 896 2.2.945 1.619 85 345 2.194 2.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.N-Dimethylaniline Propyleneimine 1.679 3.398 1.800 448 — 1.300 2.6-Dinitrotoluene Thiourea O-Dinitrobenzene P-Dinitrobenzene Propanil Methyl.dihydrochloride Lindane N.3-pentafluoropropane 1.3-Dichloro-1.828 1.659 1.122 1.oxide 1.751 1.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Toluene-2.883 — 3.424 — — 2.259 1.474 1.765 2.1.sulfate Boron.326 1.206 5 1 — — — — 698 1.828 874 683 595 986 590 389 — 2 182 515 1.827 1.126 70 500 1.662 463 — 255 — 1.2.600 3.853 1.218 3.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.659 1.261 1.6-diisocyanate Oxydiazon Chloromethyl.626 2.081 3.009 25 totals 3..2.115 3.614 3.563 1.272 1.ether Dimethyl.491 224 3.1.727 2.234 1.795 3.047 2.126 215 7 513 26 26 511 1.212 continued .thiourea 1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.482 1.715 1.parathion Pentachlorophenol 4.oxide Ethylene.5.234 750 250 1.I.3-Dichlorobenzene Dimethylamine.blue.chloride 1.1.7-triaza-1azoniaadamantane.2-Tetrachloroethane Norflurazon Diazinon Bis(tributyltin).492 2.600 3.1.081 34 1.722 1.direct.740 2.343 1.051 750 1.2.801 — 462 — 92 270 1.422 1.272 1.trichloride 1.277 320 1.000 1.ether Bromochlorodifluoromethane Quintozene Chloropicrin Folpet Methyl.249 2.861 1.isocyanate Toxaphene land 1.149 500 2.565 1.001 1.206 2.555 1.2-Butylene.546 1.373 90 — 57 1.3-Trichloropropane Pentachlorobenzene 2.708 2.Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 29 taBlE 3.464 1.491 3.932 1.

chloride Warfarin.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Dazomet 2.trichloride Permethrin O-Anisidine Tetracycline.and.158 1.salts Hexachlorophene Hexazinone Benzoic.092 1.4-Dinitrophenol N-Nitrosodi-N-propylamine 2-Acetylaminofluorene Benzal.198 1.050 1.3-butadiene Thiodicarb Carbaryl Bis(2-Chloro-1-methylethyl).128 1.3-Dichloropropene Picloram land 949 74 1.083 8 37 26 500 — 417 885 549 718 261 16 251 250 208 100 81 256 636 341 388 — 568 51 11 13 232 9 500 — — — 500 — — — 86 85 415 170 389 336 totals 1.5-Trichlorophenol N-Nitrosopiperidine Dipotassium.4.30 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 3.hydrochloride Tribenuron.6-Trichlorophenol 4-Nitrophenol Dihydrosafrole Bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane 2.2-ethylhexyl.024 500 815 512 — 275 70 500 424 500 500 500 602 609 — 10 303 — 631 58 550 587 515 255 135 10 500 500 500 — 500 500 500 393 380 — 221 — 39 Water 179 2 20 — — — 174 5 5 23 — — 317 — — — — — 396 — — 250 — — — — — 26 368 — — — — — — — — 12 1 — — — 4 air 70 1.endothall Fluorouracil N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiethylamine Simazine Styrene.000 989 934 890 847 788 761 757 751 750 708 702 690 652 646 644 638 631 626 601 598 528 513 512 510 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 491 466 415 391 389 379 .ester Heptachlor Aldrin Methoxychlor Safrole Octachlorostyrene Hexachloro-1.oxide Chlorotrifluoromethane Carbofuran trans-1.4-d.4.105 1.ether P-Chloroaniline 2. Pronamide Thiophanate-methyl 2.133 1.methyl Saccharin.

Butoxyethyl.ether 4-Aminoazobenzene 2.chloroformate Paraldehyde P-Nitroaniline Dioxin.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.dioxin-like.ester Ethyl.N-methyldithiocarbamate Tetrachlorvinphos Bis(2-Chloroethyl).3-Dibromopropyl). dihydrochloride Prometryn Potassium.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane Isosafrole Diallate 5-Nitro-O-toluidine 3.sultone Tebuthiuron 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 1.cyanamide Amitrole land — 239 88 — 255 — — — 215 255 303 — — — 251 106 255 10 — 10 250 6 255 255 255 255 — — — — 224 194 136 — 173 — 128 — 114 88 113 Water 4 — — — 2 335 — — — — 13 11 — — — — — — 250 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — air 369 133 270 355 90 — 327 325 108 66 3 302 301 296 23 161 5 250 10 250 10 250 — — — — 255 255 250 250 — 18 66 191 16 175 14 139 15 39 10 totals 373 372 358 355 347 335 327 325 323 321 319 313 301 296 274 267 260 260 260 260 260 256 255 255 255 255 255 255 250 250 224 212 202 191 189 175 142 139 129 127 123 continued .Toxic Chemical Release Reporting 31 taBlE 3.dichloride Bromoform Cyanazine Benfluralin Linuron Dimethipin Propoxur Calcium.compounds Ametryn Methyl.chlorocarbonate Dichlorobromomethane Hydramethylnon Mecoprop Dimethylcarbamyl.phosphate P-Cresidine Propane.4-D.chloride Tris(2.bromate Trichlorfon Oxyfluorfen Myclobutanil Paraquat.and.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds) chemical Alachlor Aldicarb Potassium.

32

Toxic Chemicals

taBlE 3.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds)
chemical Methoxone Dimethyl.chlorothiophosphate 4,6-Dinitro-O-cresol Ferbam Chlorendic.acid Parathion Methazole Desmedipham Ethyl.dipropylthiocarbamate Propargite Chlorsulfuron Phenytoin Triallate Cyfluthrin Chlorobenzilate Bromoxynil.octanoate Isodrin Phenothrin Chlorimuron.ethyl Benzidine Chlorotetrafluoroethane 1,1-Dimethyl.hydrazine Carboxin Bromoxynil Chlorpyrifos.methyl 4-Aminobiphenyl Abamectin O-Toluidine.hydrochloride 3,3′-Dimethylbenzidine 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine 3,3′-Dimethoxybenzidine Malononitrile N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosodiphenylamine Naled Quinone Thioacetamide Triclopyr.triethylammonium.salt Trypan.blue 2,4-D.Sodium.salt Bromacil Trichloroacetyl.chloride land 109 — 103 92 88 81 — — — — — — — — 10 — 20 — — 10 — 10 — — — — — 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 — — 10 10 — 10 — — — Water — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 10 7 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — air 13 110 1 9 8 8 60 51 50 48 42 40 38 34 21 27 2 20 19 6 15 5 14 13 12 1 3 — — — — — — — 10 10 — — 10 — 9 8 6 totals 122 110 104 101 96 89 60 51 50 48 42 40 38 34 32 27 22 20 19 16 15 15 14 13 12 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 6

Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

33

taBlE 3.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds)
chemical 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2-fluoroethane Phosphine 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1-fluoroethane Lactofen S,S,S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Bifenthrin Ethyleneimine Pentobarbital.sodium Merphos Nitrapyrin 2,6-Xylidine Diglycidyl.resorcinol.ether Fenoxycarb Fluometuron Piperonyl.butoxide Propachlor Strychnine.and.salts Trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 1-Bromo-1-(bromomethyl)-1,3propanedicarbonitrile 2,4-D.Isopropyl.ester 2,4-Db Acifluorfen,.sodium.salt Alpha-Naphthylamine Amitraz Bis(Chloromethyl).ether C.I..basic.green.4 C.I..solvent.orange.7 Cupferron Cyhalothrin D-trans-Allethrin Dazomet,.sodium.salt Dibromotetrafluoroethane Dichloran Diflubenzuron Disodium.cyanodithioimidocarbonate Fenarimol Fenbutatin.oxide Fenpropathrin Fluazifop.butyl Maneb Methiocarb land — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Water — — 5 — 2 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — air 6 5 — 5 3 4 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — totals 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — continued

34

Toxic Chemicals

taBlE 3.4 (continued) tri releases in 2007 (united states) (pounds)
chemical Methoxone.sodium.salt Methyl.hydrazine Methyl.isothiocyanate Totals Source:. EPA.2005. land Water air totals — — — — — — — — — — — — 1,531,614,787 1,242,969,132 1,311,649,055 4,086,232,974

BiBliography
Eckerman,. I.. 2004.. The Bhopal Saga—Causes and Consequences of the World’s Largest Industrial Disaster..Hyderabad,.IN:.India:.Universities.Press. U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..2004..Public.Data.Release.Brochure..http://www.epa. gov/tri/tridata/tri04/brochure/brochure.htm.(accessed.November.9,.2006). U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..2005a..Toxic Chemical Release Inventory: Alternate Threshold for Low Annual Reportable Amounts; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Information Collection Request Supporting Statement..OMB.Control.No..2070–0143,. Washington,.DC:.EPA.ICR.No..1704.08. U.S.. Environmental. Protection. Agency.. 2005b.. Toxic Chemical Release Inventory: Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Information Collection Request Supporting Statement.. OMB.Control.No..2070–0093..Washington,.DC:.EPA.ICR.No..1363.14. U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..2005c..Toxic.Chemical.Release.Reporting:.Community. Right.to.Know..Code.of.Federal.Regulations,.Title.40,.Chapter.1,.Part.372..http://www. access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_06/40cfr372_06.html.(accessed.November.9,.2006). U.S.. Environmental. Protection.Agency.. 2006.. Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Forms and Instructions. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986)..Washington,.DC:.EPA.260-B-06-001. U.S.. Environmental. Protection. Agency.. 2009a.. Making.Year-to-Year. Comparisons. of. TRI. Data..http://www.epa.gov/triexplorer/yearsum.htm.(accessed.November.13,.2009). U.S.. Environmental. Protection.Agency.. 2009b..TRI. Historical.Archive:. 1980s.. http://www. epa.gov/tri/archive/1980s.html.(accessed.November.13,.2009). U.S.. Environmental. Protection.Agency.. 2009c..TRI. Historical.Archive:. 1990s.. http://www. epa.gov/tri/archive/1990s.html.(accessed.November.13,.2009). U.S.. Environmental. Protection.Agency.. 2009d..TRI. Historical.Archive:. 2000s.. http://www. epa.gov/tri/archive/2000s.html.(accessed.November.13,.2009). U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..2009e..TRI.Total.Release.Trend.1988–2004..http:// www.epa.gov/triexplorer/.(accessed.January.20,.2010). U.S.. Environmental. Protection.Agency.. The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and Factors to Consider When Using TRI Data..May.3,.2006..Washington,.DC. U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..Toxic.Release.Inventory.(TRI).Program.Homepage.. http://www.epa.gov/tri/index.htm.(accessed.November.9,.2006). U.S.. Environmental. Protection. Agency.. TRI. Explorer. (version. 4.5).. http://www.epa.gov/. t .riexplorer/.(accessed.November.9,.2006).

4

TRI Programs in Other Countries

introduction
Since.the.first.Toxics.Release.Inventory.(TRI).program.was.established.in.the.United. States,.pollutant.release.and.transfer.register.(PRTR).programs.have.been.established. in.approximately.30.countries.(Figure 4.1)..A.PRTR.is.an.inventory.of.potentially. toxic. or. hazardous. chemicals. that. are. released. to. the. air,. water,. or. land. or. transferred.off.site.for.treatment.or.disposal..Normally,.industrial.facilities.quantify.their. releases.to.the.environment.as.part.of.the.program..In.some.cases,.fugitive.or.diffuse. sources.such.as.agriculture.or.motor.vehicles.are.also.included.in.the.inventory. In.1993,.the.Organization.for.Economic.Cooperation.and.Development.(OECD),. an. intergovernmental. organization,. began. work. to. encourage. the. development. of. PRTRs..OECD.works.with.governments,.industry,.and.nongovernmental.organizations.to.develop.practical.tools.that.facilitate.efforts.by.member.countries,.provide. outreach.to.nonmember.countries,.and.coordinate.international.activities. OECD. produces. documents. describing. the. experiences. of. countries. that. have. developed. PRTRs,. current. and. emerging. uses. of. PRTR. data,. how. PRTRs. differ,. and.the.identification,.selection,.and.adaptation.of.release.estimation.techniques.that. industry.can.use.to.calculate.pollutant.releases.and.transfers..The.OECD.coordinates. PRTR.activities.between.the.industrialized.nations.of.Europe,.North.America,.and. Asia-Pacific.through.its.PRTR.Task.Force..The.goal.of.the.task.force.is.to.enable.the. OECD.member.countries.to.provide.and.improve.information.about.the.implementation.of.PRTRs.

figurE 4.1 Countries. with. active. PRTR. programs.. (From. Organization. for. Economic. Co-operation. and. Development,. Task. Force. on. Pollutant. Release. and. Transfer. Registers,. 2008..http://www.prtr.net/links_e.cfm.) 35

36

Toxic Chemicals

According.to.the.OECD.Council.Recommendation.[C(96)41/FINAL],.as.amended. by.[C(2003)87],.the.core.elements.of.a.PRTR.system.are . . . . . 1.. A.listing.of.chemicals,.groups.of.chemicals,.and.if.appropriate,.other.relevant.categories,.all.of.which.are.pollutants.when.released.or.transferred 2.. Integrated. multimedia. reporting. of. releases. and. transfers. (air,. water,. and. land) 3..Reporting.of.data.by.source.if.the.reporting.sources.are.defined 4..Reporting.on.a.periodic.basis,.preferably.annually 5..Making.data.available.to.the.public The.following.principles.are.considered.when.establishing.a.PRTR.program: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.. PRTR.systems.should.provide.data.to.support.the.identification.and.assessment.of.possible.risks.to.humans.and.the.environment. 2..The.PRTR.data.should.be.used.to.promote.prevention.of.pollution.at.the. source. and. help. national. governments. evaluate. the. progress. of. environmental.policies.and.goals. 3..Government.and.interested.parties.should.cooperate.to.develop.a.set.of.goals. and.objectives.for.the.system.and.estimate.potential.benefits.and.costs. 4..PRTR.systems.should.include.coverage.of.an.appropriate.number.of.substances. 5..Public.and.private.sectors.should.be.included. 6.. PRTR.systems.should.be.integrated.to.the.degree.practicable.with.existing. information.sources,.such.as.licenses.or.operating.permits. 7..Both.voluntary.and.mandatory.reporting.mechanisms.should.be.considered. to.meet.the.goals.and.objectives.of.the.system. 8..The.comprehensiveness.of.a.PRTR.in.helping.to.meet.environmental.policy. goals.should.be.taken.into.account.(e.g.,.fugitive/diffuse.sources). 9.. The.results.should.be.made.accessible.to.all.affected.and.interested.parties. on.a.timely.and.regular.basis. 10.. The.program.should.allow.for.midcourse.evaluation.and.flexibility.to.alter. the.program.in.response.to.changing.needs. 11.. The.system.should.allow.for.verification.of.inputs.and.outputs.and.be.capable.of.identifying.the.geographical.distribution.of.releases.and.transfers. 12..The.program.should.allow,.as.far.as.possible,.comparison.and.cooperation. with.other.national.PRTR.systems.and.possible.harmonization.with.similar. international.databases. 13..A.compliance.mechanism.should.be.agreed.upon.by.affected.and.interested. parties.to.best.meet.the.needs.of.the.goals.and.objectives. 14..The.process.of.establishing.the.PRTR.system.and.its.implementation.and. operation.should.be.transparent.and.objective.

The.Protocol.on.Pollutant.Release.and.Transfer.Registers.has.been.signed.by.at. least.38.member.states.and.the.European.Community. Countries.having.PRTR.programs.include.Australia,.Austria,.Belgium,.Canada,. Chile,. Cyprus,. Czech. Republic,. Denmark,. Estonia,. Finland,. France,. Germany,.

TRI Programs in Other Countries

37

Greece,. Hungary,. Italy,. Ireland,. Japan,. Latvia,. Lithuania,. Luxembourg,. Malta,. Mexico,.Netherlands,.Norway,.Poland,.Portugal,.Slovakia,.Slovenia,.Spain,.Sweden,. Switzerland,. the. United. Kingdom,. and. the. United. States. (U.S.. Environmental. Protection.Agency.2009;.OECD.2009). What.follows.is.a.description.of.several.existing.PRTR.programs.

canadian national pollutant rElEasE invEntory program
The. National. Pollutant. Release. Inventory. (NPRI). is. Canada’s. legislated,. publicly. accessible. inventory. of. pollutant. releases. and. transfers.. It. comprises. information. reported. by. facilities. to. Environment. Canada. under. the. Canadian. Environmental. Protection. Act,. 1999. (CEPA. 1999),. together. with. air. pollutant. emission. estimates. compiled.for.facilities.not.required.to.report.and.nonindustrial.sources.such.as.motor. vehicles,.residential.heating,.forest.fires,.and.agriculture. The. NPRI. is. Canada’s. principal. effort. for. tracking. and. public. reporting. of. releases.of.toxic.substances.and.other.substances.of.concern..It.is.used.to.identify. and.monitor. sources.of.pollution.in.Canada.as.well.as.to.develop.indicators.for.the. . quality.of.air,.water,.and.land..Information.collected.through.the.NPRI.is.used.by. Environment.Canada.in.its.chemicals.management.programs,.and.it.is.made.publicly. available.to.Canadians.each.year..Public.access.to.the.NPRI.motivates.industry.to. prevent.and.reduce.pollutant.releases..NPRI.data.help.the.government.of.Canada.to. track.progress.in.pollution.prevention,.evaluate.releases.and.transfers.of.substances. of.concern,.identify.and.take.action.on.environmental.priorities,.conduct.air.quality. modeling,.and.implement.policy.initiatives.and.risk.management.measures. The.first.report.by.Canada’s.NPRI.was.released.in.1995.and.contained.pollutant. release.and.transfer.information.reported.for.1993..In.2007,.this.list.consisted.of.347. uniquely.listed.substances.or.substance.groups,.compared.with.178.when.the.NPRI. program.was.established. The.NPRI.collects.information.only.from.industrial,.commercial,.institutional,. and.other.facilities.that.meet.reporting.requirements..These.reporting.requirements. are.based.on.the.number.of.employees.at.the.facility;.the.quantity.of.the.substances. manufactured,. processed,. used,. or. released;. and. the. type. of. activities. performed. at.the.facility..For.the.2007.reporting.year,.over.8,500.industrial,.commercial,.and. other.facilities.reported.to.the.NPRI.on.their.releases,.disposals,.and.transfers.for. r . ecycling. of. approximately. 10. billion. pounds. of. toxic. substances. and. other. substances. of. . oncern. (Environment. Canada. 2009b).. On-site. releases. for. 2008. are. c shown.in.Table 4.1.

australian national pollutant invEntory
The.Australian.National.Pollutant.Inventory.(NPI).is.a.database.of.emissions.managed.by.the.Australian.government..The.stated.purpose.of.the.NPI.is.to.maintain. and.improve.air.and.water.quality,.minimize.environmental.impacts.associated.with. hazardous.waste,.and.improve.the.sustainable.use.of.resources.

(and.6 1.2-Trichloroethane 1.783 831 9.acetate 2-Methoxyethanol 3-Methylcholanthrene 5-Methylchrysene 7.1 0.160 27.001 40 41 27 0.1.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.acid Alkanes.2-Dichloroethane 1.2.044 63 2.001 0.289 0.salts) 2008 on-site releases (tonnes unless noted) 0.C10-13.38 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 4.(and.709 0.1.1.5 148 108 0.dust) Aluminum.or.3 0.094 0.001 0.001 0.031 504 596 0.(total) Aniline.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.67 5.oxide.714 1..(fume.2.g)carbazole Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene Acetaldehyde Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetylene Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.098 10 26 18 2.4-Dioxane 1-Nitropyrene 2.7 1.910 671 2..alcohol alpha-Pinene Aluminum.093 1.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.1-Methylenebis(4-isocyanatocyclohexane) 1.8 69.acid.3-Butadiene 1.04 1.its.1.125 0.2-Dichloropropane 1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.2.065 .salts) Acrylonitrile Adipic.061 1.2-Dichloroethane 1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.1 canadian on-site releases for 2008 substance name 1.6-Di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol 2-Butoxyethanol 2-Butoxyethanol 2-Ethoxyethanol 2-Ethoxyethyl.593 1.3-Butadiene 1.chloro Allyl.forms) Ammonia.(fibrous.6 0.2.12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene 7H-Dibenzo(c.its.024 0.

red.isomers) Butyl.(and..(friable.compounds) Asbestos.1 0.1 C.365 1.its.898 1.61 571 447 0.4 6.its.001 76 2.7 5.its.basic.087 2 0.910 3.6 10 0.form) Benzene Benzene Benzo(a)anthracene Benzo(a)phenanthrene Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(b)fluoranthene Benzo(e)pyrene Benzo(g.salts) Anthracene Antimony.salts) Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform 2008 on-site releases (tonnes unless noted) 0.214 19.I.disulfide Carbon.1 (continued) canadian on-site releases for 2008 substance name Aniline.dioxide Chloroacetic.002 5064 0.I.sulfide Catechol CFC-12 Chlorine Chlorine.267 8.food.15 Calcium.971 27.073 13 9.073 161 continued .acrylate Butyl.isomers) Butene.fluoride Carbon.186 3.001 0.acid..(and.(all.benzyl.(all.8 1.788 6.TRI Programs in Other Countries 39 taBlE 4.red.291 1.(and.633 15.827 0.028 0.001 16.9 10 0.278 1.tetrachloride Carbonyl.2 715 754 773 12.phthalate Butyraldehyde C.767 10.h.i)perylene Benzo(j)fluoranthene Benzo(k)fluoranthene beta-Phellandrene beta-Pinene Biphenyl Bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bromine Bromomethane Butane.

phthalate Dioxins.e)fluoranthene Dibenzo(a.(all.193 0.salts) Diethyl.406 1.isomers) Decabromodiphenyl.total.acrylate Ethyl.compounds) Copper.(g.h)acridine Dibenz(a.(all.(all.6 0.isomers) Dibenz(a.2 135 3.3 0.its.069 32 0.j)acridine Dibenzo(a.(and.061 38 89 2.its.compounds) Cobalt.phthalate Dimethylamine Dimethylether Di-n-octyl.366 .005 360 0.(mixed.047 0.248 0.isomers) Ethyl.747 157 0.h)pyrene Dibenzo(a.(and.isomers) Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexene.734 9.salts) Cumene Cyanides.016 82 19 1.butyl.(and.I-TEQ)* Diphenylamine D-Limonene Dodecane.(and.acetate Ethyl.acetate Dihydronapthalene.their.glycol.isomers) Cyclooctane.40 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 4.compounds) Creosote Cresol.h)anthracene Dibenzo(a.ether.its.and.e)pyrene Dibenzo(a.ether Diethylene.3 16 0.1 (continued) canadian on-site releases for 2008 substance name Chloromethane Chromium.527 350 383 0.isomers.i)pyrene Dibenzo(a.phthalate Diethylene.499 114 0.isomers) Dimethyl.(ionic) Cycloheptane.906 1.phthalate Dichloromethane Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine.glycol.(all.133 22.and.its.alcohol 2008 on-site releases (tonnes unless noted) 732 104 10 858 0.ethyl.279 696 2 3.(all.l)pyrene Dibutyl.(all.899 0.8 727 990 0.furans:.oxide Decane.

007 18 1.243 14 3.436 18.ether Ethylene.solvent.acid Furfuryl.and.light.isomers) Hydrazine.878 continued .carbonate 2008 on-site releases (tonnes unless noted) 949 1.928 562 6.cyanide Hydrogen.048 9.isomers.isomers HCFC-141b HCFC-142b HCFC-22 Heavy.(grams) Hexane.029 3.isomers HCFC-124.pentacarbonyl Isophorone.excluding.aromatic.diisocyanate Isoprene Isopropyl.all.(all.464 478 1.alcohol Isopropyl.TRI Programs in Other Countries 41 taBlE 4.aromatic.n-hexane) Hexene.(all.985 5.3 70.365 1.alcohol Indeno(1.acid Hydrogen.glycol Ethylene.(and.butyl.solvent.2 721 181 90 458 4.1 (continued) canadian on-site releases for 2008 substance name Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene Ethylene.242 1.d)pyrene Iron.681 1.332 3.acetate Ethylene.all.2.alcohol HCFC-123.alkylate.salts) Hydrochloric.3 5.fluoride Hydrogen.and.3-c.hexyl.naphtha Heavy.glycol.alcohol Light.oxide Fluoranthene Fluorene Fluorine Formaldehyde Formaldehyde Formic.120 203 5.naphtha Hydrotreated.heavy.glycol.254 0.(all.naphtha Heptane.563 57 32 1.its.202 0.487 32 28 8 1.naphtha Lithium.isomers) Hexachlorobenzene.8 8.828 0.506 67 1.distillate i-Butyl.ether.278 2.sulphide Hydrotreated.

ketone Methyl.746 11 0.trioxide Myrcene N.ethyl.006 4.isobutyl.isobutyl.isomers) Octylphenol.and.its.tert-butyl.703 0.069 1.(all.(and.isomers) Nonylphenol.N-Dimethylformamide Naphtha Naphthalene n-Butyl.p′-Isopropylidenediphenol p.acid.ether Methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) Mineral.spirits Molybdenum.ethyl.514 557 5.(all.ketone Methyl.ethoxylates Octane.pH.(all.5 7.7 104 715 58 2.1 (continued) canadian on-site releases for 2008 substance name Maleic.its.isomers) Pentene.812 15.6.765 11.Schedule.559 5.406 0.ion.acid Nitrilotriacetic.679 1.methacrylate Methyl.Part.acetate n-Butyl..6 13.006 7.42 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 4.105 1.acrylate Methyl.its.ketone Methyl.total.anhydride Manganese.ketone Methyl.413 1.its.482 0.compounds) Nitrate.at.032 645 130.its.(all.salts) Nitroglycerin N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Nonane.≥..1.p′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) PAHs.671 1.911 .(and.ethoxylates o-Dichlorobenzene p.in.compounds) Methanol Methanol Methyl.and.2 p-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene Pentane.791 27 0.(and.902 265 402 66 34 15 217 4 99 10 344 121 1.isomers) Perylene Phenanthrene 2008 on-site releases (tonnes unless noted) 0.solution.alcohol n-Hexane n-Hexane Nickel.0 Nitric.691 272 62.

(and.salts) Phosphorus.nitrite Solvent.compounds) Sodium.its.TRI Programs in Other Countries 43 taBlE 4.isomers) tert-Butyl.naphtha.compounds) Silver.hexafluoride Sulfuric.salts) sec-Butyl.93 12 1.9 11.002 1.tetrachloride Toluene Toluene Toluene-2.719 55 365 0.isomers.medium.148 696 1.155 continued .271 8.alcohol Tetrachloroethylene Tetrahydrofuran Thorium.454 407 865 1.acetate Propylene.glycol.517 0.924 2.048 0.4-trimethylbenzene) 2008 on-site releases (tonnes unless noted) 873 7.anhydride Polymeric.solvent Styrene Styrene Sulfur.2 1.(total) Phosphorus.(and.(and.1 (continued) canadian on-site releases for 2008 substance name Phenol.ether Propylene.847 181 4.its.771 1.isomers) Total.salts) Quinoline.naphtha.methyl.(mixed.(all.or.1 0.its.082 7.acid Terpene.diisocyanate Propane Propylene Propylene Propylene.aliphatic Stoddard.white) Phthalic.excluding.445 24 12 0.its.sulfur.(and.alcohol Selenium.(TRS) Trichloroethylene Triethylamine Trimethylbenzene.reduced.2 9.glycol.2.(yellow.185 24 26 48 130 0.(all.04 4.116 61144 0.4-diisocyanate Toluenediisocyanate.light.butyl.aliphatic Solvent.fluoride Sodium.ether. 1.oxide Pyrene Pyridine.5 6.385 4.diphenylmethane.4 1.its.(and.dioxide Titanium.04 0.

2.values.(carbon.as. understanding.of.from..as.have.PRTR.identified.fuel. identifying.of. right-to-know.NPI.by.data.transfer.weighted..waste.to.reported.that.releases.transportation-related. established..mineral.. oxides. techniques.thresholds.and. (USEPA). and.matter).industry.and.I-TEQ).that..use.pollutant.&.used.European.sum.all.of.generation.top.(EPER).and.individual.each.use..addition.emissions.NPI.particulate.P.93. criteria pollutant emissions. its. the.and.environmental.In.furans. obligations.the.member.Government.the.environmental.to.of.annually.This.from.progress..release.industry.program.government.possible.programs.quantities.list.production..emissions.NPI.naphtha White. data. Agency. Protection.the.in.Releases.quality.many. .(all.above.isomers) Zinc.reported.when.to.total.congeners.mass.nitrogen..into.toxic.are.the.off.contains. what. The.estimated..environment..the.oil Xylene.the.sources. was.are. due.by. on.total.contrast.the. EuropEan union In.1 (continued) canadian on-site releases for 2008 substance name Trimethylfluorosilane Vanadium.agencies.Emissions.cleaner..sulfur. assist.waste.public..nitrogen.human.(Australian.and.health.making. The.has.emissions.effect.a.and.monoxide.exceeds.7 157 113 5. the.been.to.decision. Table 4.2007–2008.44 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 4.releases.the.and.environment.the.dioxide.centralizes. government.countries.substances.compounds Vinyl.NPI.EU.in. community. in.Europe-wide.and.Register.Union.consolidates.enhance.acetate Vinyl.which.first.European.the. meet. calls.represent.volatile.transferred. Environmental.chloride VM.acetate Vinyl.are. *..of.listed. of.types.its.of.compounds.furan.substance.as.(all.register.and.dioxins.931 1.increase.Canada.reduce.(and.alloy).residential.as.shown.of.to. priorities.various.PRTR.is.environmental.and.The..the..141 Source:.now.to.(in.in.dioxin.their.are.PRTR.reporting.emitted.the.programs.2009a.organic.S.compounds) 2008 on-site releases (tonnes unless noted) 4.on..Emission.679 5. The. at.Pollutant.and.that.of... industrial. electricity.17.well.site.Environment.on..the.important.industrial.has.NPRI.. U.for.for.2009a).facility.total.sources.g.countries.(except.an.track. The.called.year.8 131 95 96 1.from.NPI.incorporates.isomers) Xylene.encourage.and.substances.in.certain.and.

000 46.800.000.600.000 7.and.200.000 3.400.000 2.or.hydrocarbons Copper.200.matter.000 5.µm Total.000 1.000 30.000.(methyl.000 15.acetate Ethylene.000.2-ethanediol) Acetic.000 1.500.of.500.500.000.µm Toluene.aldehyde) Acetone Fluoride.000 34.and.and.000 2.400.acid) Dichloromethane Tetrachloroethylene Lead.acid Methyl.ketone Cyanide.000 1.acid.isobutyl.000 3.monoxide Total.000 29.2.and.000 120.600.nitrogen Ammonia.000 6.200.matter.TRI Programs in Other Countries 45 taBlE 4.000 6.100.900.phosphorus Ethanol Xylenes.0.000 1.3-Butadiene.compounds Cyclohexane Boron.000.500.000 9.compounds Methyl.000 1.ketone Acetaldehyde Manganese.900.organic.sulfide Trichloroethylene totals (kg/year) 5.compounds Ethylbenzene 1.and.000 2.glycol.000.000 1.600.100.10.000 1.300.ethylene) Chlorine Zinc.000 33.compounds Methanol Sulfuric.000.aromatic.000.compounds Hydrogen.000 continued .isomers) Benzene n-Hexane Formaldehyde.000.000 8.400.000 1.000.400.000 7.000 1.dioxide Oxides.(ethanoic.000.(individual.000 23.(1.000.400.800.nitrogen Particulate.000 1.000 3.600.000 920.(total) Hydrochloric.000 2.000.ethyl.volatile.000 1.600.compounds Polycyclic.2 npi Emissions report for australia.(inorganic).300.000 2.700.000 5.000.000 240.000.300.000 4.compounds Ethyl.(vinyl.acid Particulate.000 1.300. reporting year 2007–2008 substance Carbon.000 3.(methylbenzene) Total.000.compounds Sulfur.5.400.mixed.

000 23.000 160.compounds 2-Ethoxyethanol.(III).(1.000 22.(2-propenenitrile) Chloroethane.600 2.000 27.(benzenamine) Methyl.compounds Phenol Ethylene.and.000 15.and.600 930 750 .000 13.(1-methylethylbenzene) Cadmium.000 300.oxide.000 11.700 6.000 9.000 5.oxide Antimony.000 26.phthalate.disulfide Nitric.2-Trichloroethane Biphenyl.methacrylate 2-Ethoxyethanol Chromium.monomer Mercury.acid Di-(2-ethylhexyl).(DEHP) Organo-tin.800 7.000 290.compounds Carbon.acetate Acrylamide Arsenic.compounds Nickel.000 370.46 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 4.(ethyl.300 4.ketone totals (kg/year) 900.(VI).000 25.2-Dibromoethane Cumene.1.butyl.300 5.acid Chromium.000 82.compounds Phosphoric.fume Vinyl.compounds Acrylic.000 420.(ethenylbenzene) Nickel.000 69.subsulfide Toluene-2.000 560.chloride) Magnesium.compounds Dibutyl.chloride.000 160.1-biphenyl) Beryllium.compounds Aniline.(trichloromethane) 1.000 58.compounds 1.4-diisocyanate Ethyl.000 55.000 130.compounds Glutaraldehyde Acetonitrile Acrylonitrile.000 60. reporting year 2007–2008 substance Styrene.and.000 130.000 25.and.acid 1.000 150.compounds Chloroform.and.100 8.000 190.900 2.000 13.phthalate Cobalt.and.2-Dichloroethane 2-Methoxyethanol Selenium.and.2 (continued) npi Emissions report for australia.000 270.and.000 76.300 3.

meet..report Increasing.accessible..Register.and.acetate Polychlorinated.intended.were.to.was.1.decision.and.Protocol.prevention. Australian.of.public. compounds..chapter.are.European.a. land.program.TRI Programs in Other Countries 47 taBlE 4.and. chemicals.the.reporting. harmful.17.published.the. water..the. by.furans Source:.to.2001.the..a.carbonyl Acrolein 2-Methoxyethanol.to.established.and. reporting.replaced.of.Pollutant.consists.with.EPER. .EPER. included.the.of. •.improve.and.compounds.environmental. euroPean Pollutant release and transfer register The. 50.contribute. the.reporting.OECD. is.on...long-term.publicly.data.and.E-PRTR.emissions.by. pollutants. norganic.first.to.tetra) Methylenebis.into.2-Tetrachloroethane Nickel. member. (European.number.2009).2 (continued) npi Emissions report for australia.information. The. reporting year 2007–2008 substance Chlorine.E-PRTR.introduced.to. gases. polc lutants.was.to..of..air.frequency. ozone-depleting..list.8 0. of. transfer.including •.commission.diffuse emissions. triennial. and.2004..(di.Union.and.The.EU-level.annual. •.2008).of. reporting. Transfer.an. Increasing.changes.in.(phenylisocyanate) 1. metals.EU) The. organic. riteria.this.in.(E-PRTR). water.facilities.database.electronic..Internet.compounds.chemicals.by.described.to.1.Registers.Pollutant.the.Government. waste. chlorinated. releases. organic.E-PRTR.emissions.2000. to. nonchlorinated.on. euroPean Pollutant emission register The..was.European-wide.replaced.91 Requiring. f .starting.the.register.of.pollution.The. (European.which. EPER. compounds. .4 been. •..access.and.reduction.E-PRTR.number.industrial.. chemicals. off-site.of.required.. ugitive. i The.of.(called.EPER.the. required.Union. of.2009b.EPER.requirements.the.to.tri.dioxide Chlorophenols.reported.and.Release. states.the.year. of..2007 Expanding. greenhouse.established.and. to.July. totals (kg/year) 640 390 300 87 39 24 2.dioxins.with.Transfer.Release.

understanding.substances.collect.which.chemical.of. cover.compounds For.1.threshold.European.waste.is.on.of.to.industries. Facilities. information.stated.and.of.environmental.are.and.and..that.in..per. pollutants.stated.of.of.at.values. The.a.paper.reportable.list.chemical..ton.human.including. Class I designated chemical substances. such.threshold. The. in.chemical.. and.purposes.is.12..the.the. 0. E-PRTR...conservation. called. reported..reported.naturally.environmentally.chemicals. provide.affect.with.improvement. as.then.established.The.the. ollutants.Japanese.has.and.within.wastewater.easily.health.of.diffuse.oxide Cadmium Chromium.year. well.the.transfers. Japanese.table.meet.full.substances.below.of.environmental.E-PRTR.2008)..reporting.required..of.Union.required.transportation.mining.the.substance.the.reporting.more. power-generating..than.specific Class I designated substances. pollutants.certain.months.material. per..register.to.of.reporting. will. May.of. industrial.carcinogens. management.sources. May. hemical. required.and. under. include.since.chloride Dioxin Nickel Arsenic .promote.have.data.48 Toxic Chemicals The.considered.basic..to. sources.data.Commission.end. result.the.which..substances..pollutants. The. program. data.following.area. Japan Japan.pollutants.persistent. foster. determine.the.for. by.measures. the.end.a. as.or.. report. gases.may.the. called.occurring.quarrying.than.its.criteria: •.understand. of.considered. requires.year: Asbestos Ethylene. reporting.Commission.emit.ozone-depleting.ozone-depleting.chemical.plants.to. chemical.(European. 354. chemicals. the. of.as. register.exceed.heavy..PRTR.certain.data.collecting.land.5.are.voluntary.shown.from. values. activities.adversely.release. Each.the.chemical.more. and.or. rain.regulating.listed.are. releases..reporting.threshold.publishes.tons. The.through.treatment.is.the.water.the. p .air. Sources.is.as.used...are..reporting.the.reporting. report.substances.over.of.2001.year. from. dioxins.effect.hazardous.industries.to.metals.and.Table 4.most.3. also.timber. acid.PRTR.requires.substantial.releases.the.waste. c plants.facilities.and..and. Are.fugitive. greenhouse.ecosystem •.chemicals.industrial..consolidated.. specific.and.a.one. releases.then...of.of. businesses.be.transformation •..following.of. months.exception.the.to.emissions.12–15.thresholds..responsible.if. The.and.and.for.(VI) Vinyl. The.it.priorities.least.in.chemicals.emissions. to. substance.and. include.form.of.where.manufactured.that.year.substances.European.a.16–21.of.within.such..be.metalworking..under.hazardous.country.

F).Cd) Carbon.and.total. Atrazine.2-dichloroethane. Chlordecone.(as. 1. Endrin.and. Alachlor.i)perylene.BTEX) 1 1 5 — — 1 1 1 2. Fluorides.CN). Dieldrin.(HCH) 1.hexyl).3 list of reporting thresholds for E-prtr (European commission. DDT. Di-(2-ethyl.h.(CFCs) Chlorpyrifos.(as.2-tetrachloroethane.000 — — releases to Water (kg/year) — — 1 10 1 1 — 1 5 1 1 200. Benzo(g.1-trichloroethane.(EDC).(CO).C10-C13. 2006) pollutant 1.(as. releases to air (kg/year) 100 50 10 1000 — 1 10000 50 20 1 — 1.1. (as HCl) Chloro-alkanes.oxide. Chlorides.(CO2). Dichloromethane.000 — 10 100. Diuron. Chromium.and.Cl).TRI Programs in Other Countries 49 taBlE 4. Arsenic.dioxide. Fluoranthene.million 500000 1 1 — — 10000 — 1 — 100 100 — 1 10 1000 1 — — 1 — 1. Endosulphan.total. Chlorfenvinphos.As) Asbestos.monoxide.Cr) Copper. 1. Ethyl.compounds.(DEHP).and.and.(as.diphenylethers.1. Carbon.(PBDE) Cadmium. Chlorine.inorganic.Cu) Cyanides.compounds.(as.compounds.6-hexachlorocyclohexane.. Chlordane.total.(as. Chlorofluorocarbons.(as.4. Anthracene.(as.3.BTEX) 1 5 — — 1 1 1 2.phthalate.2.BTEX) 10 — 2000 continued . Ethylene.(as.(as.(DCM).5.benzene.million — 1 — 1 50 50 50 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 200.compounds.million — 1 — 1 50 50 50 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 200.2.(as.(NH3).BTEX) 10 1 2000 releases to land (kg/year) — — 1 10 1 1 — 1 5 1 1 200.compounds. Benzene. Aldrin. Brominated. Ammonia.

Pentachlorobenzene. Polycyclic.hydrocarbons. Octylphenols.and. compounds.cyanide. Pentachlorophenol. 2006) pollutant Fluorine.0001 1 1 — 20 0.50 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 4. Hexachlorobenzene.compounds.organic.and.Sn). Hydrochlorofluorocarbons.(as.(PAHs) Simazine.0001 1 1 — 20 0.(NOx/NO2).(CH4).3 (continued) list of reporting thresholds for E-prtr (European commission. Isoproturon.compounds. Particulate.1 1 1 — — — — 1 20 1 1 — 1 10 20 — — — 1 — 50 — 0.(PFCs) Phenols.1 5 1 — — — — .volatile. ethoxylates.(HCN). Lead.(N2O).+.1 1 1 — — — 1 1 20 1 1 —.organic.(HCFCs) Hydro-fluorocarbons. Nickel.1 10 — 1 100 200 — — 200 1 10 100000 1 100 50 100000 10000 100000 — — — 50000 0.and.(PER).(HFCs).compounds. Tetrachloromethane.hexafluoride.(dioxins. Hexabromobiphenyl.(PM10).(as Teq).matter.furans). ethoxylates.compounds.compounds.compounds(as.(TCM).oxides.total. Halons Heptachlor. Isodrin.0001 1 10 100 — 0. Nitrous.(HCB).Hg) Methane.+.(NMVOC).(SF6).(as. Naphthalene.(as AOX).(SOx/SO2). releases to air (kg/year) 5000 — 1 1 0. PCDD. Mirex. 1 10 20 — — — 1 1 50 — 0.Ni) Nitrogen. Halogenated. Hexachlorobutadiene. Organotin.(as. Perfluorocarbons.and. (as HF).Pb) Lindane. Non-methane.C) Polychlorinated. Tetrachloroethylene.biphenyls.(PCP).Octylphenol.aromatic.oxide.PCDF.Nonylphenol.(NP/NPEs). Hydrogen.total.oxides.and. Nonylphenol. Sulphur.(HCBD).1 50 — 50 150000 2.(as. Sulphur.000 100 releases to Water (kg/year) — 1000 — 1 0. Mercury.(PCBs).inorganic.1 5 1 — — 10 1 releases to land (kg/year) — 1000 — 1 0.and.

that. at. 23. is.Regulation (EC) No..(TOC). United. and. for. Agreement.on.BTEX) releases to land (kg/year) 200.000 — releases to Water (kg/year) 200. fall. Commission.. t .. created.Communities.compounds Vinyl.BE:.Brussels.(TCBs). Total. Trichloroethylene.the.sewage. businesses. Dioxins. Environmental.facilities. European.methoxsalen Reporting.certain.off. of.000 500 — — 1. sewage. on.to.to. Cooperation. fall..facilities. and.to.. and..Special.TRI Programs in Other Countries 51 taBlE 4.and. required. (NAAEC).. Total.the. international.reporting.of. In. ransfers.or. is. an.... 1.(all. site. 21. employees.report.isomers).of.chloride. Mexico. disposal.quantify. industrial.. bodies.compounds Trichlorobenzenes.under.required. have. Cooperation.disposal.for.organic. Facilities. under. States. CEC.(as. Trifluralin. by.. 2006) pollutant Toluene. Triphenyltin.BTEX) 50000 — 5000 1 1 — — — 1 1 10 200. facilities..(as.. landfill.municipal.the.Environment. The. under. by. 2010)..3 (continued) list of reporting thresholds for E-prtr (European commission. American.carbon.(as. Xylenes releases to air (kg/year) — — — — 1 — 10 2. the. categories.required.report.to.and.law. regular.(as.2-g][1]benzopyran-7-one. into. public.waste.phosphorus.and.and. Toxaphene.regulated. addition.disposal. . water. to. transfers. North.. (CEC. land. Total.Ministry.Japan.Measures. Commission. facilities. was. least.Commission.nitrogen.total.European..industrial.site.safety.2006.are. Environmental.against. Canada. mine. or..Act. and.releases. organization. 166/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 January 2006 Concerning the Establishment of a European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register and Amending Council Directives 91/689/EEC and 96/61/EC.trichloride Benzene 9-Methoxy-7H-furo[3.(Government. Beryllium Benzylidyne. that. on.C.COD/3).BTEX) 50000 50000 5000 1 1 1 10 10 1 1 10 200. the. the.BTEX) Source:..subject..2009). Tributyltin.air. Trichloromethane.(as. accEssing prtr data north american data The.are.

.the.more..European.user.The.to..across.release.North.about.of.has.profile.to..conflicts. The.Earth.transfers.environmental.and.and.allows.transfer..can.search..Center.pollutants.different.sectors.reported.also..help.generated. layer.E-PRTR.. to.Union.This.map.each.map.. euroPean data from e-Prtr The. allows.facilities.database.also.be.Environmental.map.and.activity.of.also. arious.compare.release.interface.user. trends.America.CEC.data..America.industrial.point.. conditions.2010).the. releases.using.for..searched.potential.nearby.in.locate.performance.or.facility.a. how. North.user.number.E-PRTR.queried.http://prtr..the.one.eu/MapSearch.(CEC. the.a.data.American.the. law. and.Google.and.can.North.of.This. rovides.including.or.000.industrial.state/province.Users.address.information.aspx.of.and.this.tool..to.data.other..via.interface. the.of.contains.industrial.year.trade.facilities.concerns.ec.52 Toxic Chemicals figurE 4.type.environmental. ways.pollution.data..maps.of.environmental.2005. PRTR.North.any.the.facilities.enforcement. in.sector.in.(currently..about.North.view.which.American.GIS. and.facility..countries.PRTR.Users..country.pollutant.can.CEC.to.includes.to.Agency.information..graphic.geographical.be.. which.according.by.report.The.data).learn. across.interactive. p variety. (From.in.Atlas. status.. the..2 Graphical. European.a.which.a. depict.map.europa..also. of.data. p and.regional..the. the.industry.. of.and.of.allow.geographic.America.searchable.The.2).the.Europe.Environment.be.international.of.facilities.promote. any.effective.Users.North.facility.the.PRTR.through.search.to.or.that. Union..facility.by..interface.are.can.database..through.portion.in.Search.America.accessed.OECD. international Prtr data from oecd Some..can. A. layers..2010.developed.sources.that.. PRTR.) established. map.(Figure 4.location.from...them.handles.metadata.a. .including. European..with.industrial..throughout.for.the. transfers.data..create.can.plots.of.near.releases. ollutant. v facilities.provides.35.Map.pollutants.years.releases.industrial. representation.database.a.The. environmental.prevent.

Force.Inventory.(EPER). the.2009b.facilities.Decision..Facility.cfm. http:// europa.6..countries.21...Transfer. http://www.L..TRI Programs in Other Countries 53 regions.S. the.(NPRI).the. Summary..from. Development.Release.7. Environment. http://www. (accessed. Government.ec.14. Scotland. Introducing.2009a.(accessed.releases.. location.Data.oecd.Pollutant. Official Journal of the European Communities..November.. BiBliography Australian.14.be. Pollutant. the. Pollutants.January.Spain.html.the.2010. and. the. Release.(accessed. Sweden. Efforts.eu/environment/air/ pollutants/stationary/eper/index.November..National..Agency..Council.asp?lang=en&n=DA8BFC79-1#part1b.. November. in..4.asp?PageID=122&ContentID=2587.Pollutant. http://www. Prevention. Integrated. Pollutant.ca/inrp-npri/default. Japanese. Pollutant. 2010.ec..Canada.the.(E-PRTR).European. January. http:// www.from. 2009. Government..Map.2000.ec.of.6. Organization.asp?lang=en&n=BF14CADF-1#part1a.. http://www.http:// www.cec.time.2008.. (PRTR). Register. to.types.July.192/36.According.of. 2009b...transfers. Commission. Ministry.of.and..2010).written.2009).gc.. Japan.About. Toward. Concerning...ec. and..sources. European.November.November.Australia.asp?lang=En&n=4A577BB9-1.releases.on.4..htm.http://ec.chemicals. About.http://prtr. England. individual. Japan. Development. Environment.release. 2009. and..eu/legislation_summaries/environment/general_provisions/l28149_en. of..(accessed.January.Australia.gc.European.following.sectors. Release.. PRTR.. Registers.6..(accessed. Regulation (EC) No 166/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 January 2006 Concerning the Establishment of a European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register and Amending Council Directives 91/689/EEC and 96/61/EC. and. a.Commission. for.28. 2009). http://www.. Environmental.Inventory. Co-operation. (accessed.Belgium.ca/inrp-npri/default. TRI.. and. Background.. Wales.npi. Control. of.. report—All.. Economic..S...org/Page. for.was. European.Union. and.(NPRI)... information. 2009a. (IPPC). PRTR. 2010..au/npi/index.(accessed. Chemical.could.Emission.2010). NPI.Union..prtr. 2009.to..Task...17.provide.au/data/overview/reports/national-location-report.Pollutant..15.Agency.the. Cooperation...2009). NPI.htm. (accessed.2000.Canada. Union. not.2009).. The. Transfer. Environment.. European...Commission. Release.Canada. Environmental. and.14.ca/inrp-npri/default..industry.accessed:.data. and.Pollutant.At.. United. for. Government. Hungary.Emission. Australian..book.Search.European. on..gc. http://www.(accessed.. Directive. European.gov/TRI/programs/international/#h1. .and.January...eu/MapSearch.(OECD.types.2010).npi.this. http://www.. 96/61/EC.The. 2006.html..epa.Article.States.November. for.Implementation.Environment.database.January.org/env_prtr_data/.2008. regarding.European. (accessed.Register.Release. Data.National.europa..and.Chile... Leader.2000.. European. Mapping. 2009. Centre.gov. Economic..November. Netherlands..http://www. Organization. of.14.2009). Protection.Release.2010). PRTR. Sources:.(EPER).. and. U.2009)...a. European..europa..html.the. Industrial. Pollution.2009).. Program.jp/en/chemi/prtr/about/ index.net/links_e. International.14. (accessed.env.Register.of.go..(accessed. gov. 14.2010). Commission. U. Co-operation.does. Reporting.aspx. Transfer..2010). Japan’s...Register.

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of.be..Cohen 1996). period.direct.to. first.that. emitters.result.reductions.the.pressure.a.(Figure 5.their.This..release.year.on. seven.in.chemicals.the. showed. to.emissions. . many.the.pressure. federal.time.facilities..the.Abel.facilities.. was.facilities.able.published.on. emonstrated.The.Kraft.emitters.reducing.mere. the. of.and. releases.of.in. of.access.reporting. This. group.aspect..data.however. the..through.chemical.3.to. one. environmental.to..allows.can.data.following. new.a. decisions.have.direct.credit.desire. sectors.greatest.Abel.TRI.information.to. have.. in.the.. been.. decline. releases. 286..is.result.After.on.reports.again.which.Inventory.in.emitters.TRI.in..and. disclosure.. power.toxic.the.example.over.key.targeted.contributed.the.could.successful.rankings. the.reduce.factors.comes. activist.the.program.to. regarding..of. shareholders. its. expansion.1988.program.release. new.environmental.from..Release.the... peers. addition. or. ublished. can. 55 .included..and.the. In. companies.analyzed.included. 1989.as..pressure. According.of.to.by.benchmark.drop. This.reporting.introduction.limitations.enough.some.facility..facilities. Many.of.a.burden.program.the. Another. 1998.also.. been.TRI.emission.their.motivate.the.chemicals. agree. in.to. come.reduction.performance.the.over.are.reported. in.TRI.caused.price.releases.program..are.reductions.have.of..that.stock.industry.give.program.than.view.(TRI). environmental.to.reduce.potential.the.use.factor.that.reporting.in. released. makes.their.top.the.substantial.1994.the.reductions. There.than..Kraft.. the. study.own.program. have.position.the.perception.double.volumes.to.of.of.can.the.number. a.who. addition.sources. and. form..of. The.was.top.effects.total.the.a. to.for..TRI.steadily.their.the.public. report.in.will.. spotlight.was.2005).has.. that.from.since. despite.this.emission..to.and.the.data.For.TRI. p the.in.for. company.releases.that. individuals.reduce. an.emissions.can.5 TRI Program Impacts on Reducing Toxic Chemical Releases introduction Toxics.more.or.program. and.has.based.(Konar.once.simple..by. a.declined.monitor.declined.The. the. industry. d . community-based.Facilities.reducing.is..facility.of.mass.public.has.top.releases.the.pressure. tremendous.Following.and.2005).has. of.(Stephan.the.releases.the. addition.the..the.put. over. group. the.initial.be.following.of. chemicals.1996.format.industry.reduced. (Stephan.The.location.the..reported.1).public.puts.led.to.Many.years.it.by.facilities.chemicals.numerous. could.of. By.introduced.public. to.the.more.type.

56 8.years.0 1.1 TRI.0 4.0 2. .the.0 Billions of Pounds 5.0 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year figurE 5.0 6.over.0 Toxic Chemicals 0.releases.0 7.0 3.

TRI Program Impacts on Reducing Toxic Chemical Releases

57

reduce.or.eliminate.reporting.requirements.for.this.chemical..It.has.been.our.experience.that.regulated.facilities.will.select.products.that.do.not.contain.TRI.chemicals.if. an.alternative.is.available,.even.if.the.alternate.is.more.costly..For.example,.a.recent. client,.a.federal.facility.for.which.we.are.upgrading.their.treatment.plant,.is.subject.to. TRI.reporting..In.municipal.treatment.plants,.those.not.subject.to.TRI.reporting..we. , typically.provide.methanol.as.the.treatment.chemical.for.removing.nutrients..At the. federal.facility,.the.client.chose.to.use.acetic.acid,.even.though.it.was.twice.the.cost. of. methanol,. to. avoid. the. requirement. of. reporting. methanol. releases. under. TRI.. In.performing.pollution.prevention.opportunity.assessments.at.a.series.of.. ilitary. m installations,. one. of. the. goals. was. to. reduce. the. use. of. TRI. chemicals. below. the. r . eporting.threshold. A.number.of.other.factors.not.directly.related.to.TRI.may.also.have.had.an.effect. on.release.reductions.(Stephan,.Kraft,.and.Abel.2005)..For.example,.facilities.may. choose. to. reduce. releases. to. forestall. mandatory. regulations.. The. same. reductions. could.also.be.implemented.in.anticipation.of.upcoming.pollution.reduction.legislation. Another.mechanism.by.which.companies.could.be.inspired.to.reduce.releases.is. through.cost.reduction..Through.internal.studies,.mandatory.reporting.under.TRI,. or.voluntary.or.mandatory.pollution.prevention.planning,.companies.have.found.in. a.number.of.instances.that.projects.that.result.in.emission.reductions.may.also.lead. to.cost.reductions.through.reduced.energy.use,.reduced.water.use,.reduced.cost.or. quantity. of. chemicals. used,. or. eliminated. hazardous. waste-related. costs.. This. is. d . iscussed.in.more.detail.in.Chapter.13. In.one.survey,.users.of.the.TRI.program.were.surveyed.to.determine.the.impacts. of.the.program.on.environmental.performance.(Stephan,.Kraft,.and.Abel.2009)..In. this.survey,.74.percent.of.the.respondents.either.agreed.or.were.neutral.to.the.assertion.that.the.program.helped.identify.needs.and.opportunities.for.source.reduction.at. the.facility.level..Furthermore,.73.percent.of.the.respondents.agreed.or.were.neutral. to.the.assertion.that.the.TRI.program.allowed.facilities.to.set.goals.or.demonstrate. commitment.to.emission.reductions..The.results.of.this.survey.point.to.factors.that. can.contribute.to.emission.reductions. According.to.a.study.conducted.in.2005.that.assessed.trends.in.releases.and.estimated.toxic.risk.from.individual.facilities.between.1991.and.2002,.a.small.group. of. large. facilities. contributed. significantly. to. the. national. trend. in. toxic. emission. reductions..In.1999,.in.fact,.31.percent.of.the.emission.reductions.came.from.50.of. the.21,000.facilities.reporting.under.the.program..The.study.also.determined.that,. of.the.facilities.reporting.under.the.program,.43.percent.of.the.facilities.nationwide. reduced.both.releases.and.public.health.risk.between.1995.and.2000..Over.the.same. time.period,.the.study.determined.that.48.percent.of.facilities.increased.releases.and. p . ublic. health. risk. (Stephan,. Kraft,. and. Abel. 2005).. Although. the. national. trends. for.toxic.chemical.release.reduction.would.suggest.that.the.TRI.program.has.been. effective. in. reducing. the. total. amount. of. releases. nationwide,. the. program. is. not. uniform.in.its.success..Many.facilities.do.not.seem.to.be.affected.in.the.same.way. by.the.program.

58

Toxic Chemicals

tri succEss storiEs
TRI.success.stories.include.the.following: •. The.Haartz.Corporation,.located.in.Acton,.Massachusetts,.makes.coated. fabrics.used.in.automobiles..The.firm.once.used.800,000.lb/yr.of.methyl. ethyl.ketone.(MEK),.a.solvent.that.can.cause.dizziness,.nausea,.or.unconsciousness.when.inhaled..In.1987,.when.Haartz.was.preparing.its.first.TRI. report,.the.company.installed.a.new.emissions.control.system.to.. apture. c and. recycle. MEK.. TRI. data. enabled. Haartz. to. track. the. association. between.reduced.toxic.chemical.releases.and.reduced.costs..According.to. the.Haartz.environmental.manager,.the.company’s.“emissions.have.stayed. pretty. flat”. despite. its. “double-digit. sales. growth”. between. 1993. and. 1998..In.addition,.reducing.its.MEK.releases.saved.Haartz.an.estimated. $200,000.annually.(USEPA.2007). •. Marathon.Oil.installed.a.thermal.desorption.unit.to.process.oily.waste.and. recovered.over.120,000.barrels.of.oil;.Georgia.Gulf.Corporation.relocated. a.methanol.stripper.purge.line.that.resulted.in.the.recovery.of.9,300.gallons. of.methanol.that.previously.underwent.biological.waste.treatment. •. Attendees.of.the.1997.EPA.Region.III.TRI.workshop.provided.reasons.for. undertaking. waste. reduction. activities.. The. most. frequent. reason. given. (98 percent.of.respondents).was.cost.reduction.

BiBliography
Arora,. S.,. and. T.. N.. Cason.. 1996.. Why. Do. Firms. Volunteer. to. Exceed. Environmental. Regulations?. Understanding. Participation. in. EPA’s. 33/50. Program.. Land Economics. 72(4):.413–432. Konar,.S.,.and.M..Cohen..1996..Information.as.Regulation:.The.Effect.of.Community.Right. to. Know. Laws. on. Toxic. Emissions.. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/vcems/papers/tri.pdf. (accessed.January.1,.2010). Stephan,. M.,. M.. E.. Kraft,. and. T.. D.. Abel.. 2005.. Information. Politics. and. Environmental. Performance:. The. Impact. of. the. Toxics. Release. Inventory. on. Corporate. Decision. Making.. Paper. prepared. for. delivery. at. the. 2005. annual. meeting. of. the. American. Political.Science.Association,.September.1–4,.Washington,.DC. Stephan,.M.,.M..E..Kraft.,.and.T..D..Abel..2009..Facility.Level.Perspectives.on.Toxics.Release. Inventory.and.Environmental.Performance..Paper.prepared.for.the.2009.TRI.National. Training.Conference,.March.30–April.2,.Bethesda,.MD. U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..1999..Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, 33/50 Program: The Final Record..EPA-745-R-99-004. U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..2007..How.are.the.Data.Used.by.Industry?.Chemical Emergency Prevention and Planning Newsletter.(June–July):.5. U.S.. Environmental. Protection.Agency..2009a..Class.I. Ozone-Depleting.Substances..http:// www.epa.gov/docs/ozone/ods.html.(accessed.October.31,.2006). U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..2009b..Class.II.Ozone-Depleting.Substances..http:// www.epa.gov/docs/ozone/ods2.html.(accessed.October.31,.2006).

6

Quantifying Toxicity

introduction
Generally,.the.emphasis.of.the.Toxics.Release.Inventory.(TRI).program.to.date.has. been. on. total. pounds. of. releases,. not. on. the. toxicity. of. those. releases.. Reporting. on.releases.has.generally.stressed.total.pounds.released.and.not.been.concentrated. on. the. toxicity. of. the. individual. chemicals.. This. in. essence. assumes. that. chemicals.are.either.toxic.and.included.in.the.inventory.or.they.are.not..All.pounds.are. equal..Toxicity.varies.widely.for.chemicals.that.are.reported..It.is.intuitively.. bvious. o that. a. pound. of. arsenic. has. more. potential. impact. than. a. pound. of. saccharin,. yet. both. are. included. in. the. TRI,. and. generally. both. are. reported. equally.. The. U.S.. Environmental. Protection. Agency. (USEPA). and. state. agencies. have. recognized. a. need.to.concentrate.on.chemicals.that.have.greater.impact,.with.an.increased.emphasis.on.chemicals.that.are.persistent,.bioaccumulative,.and.toxic.(PBT)..The.purpose. of. this. chapter. is. to. develop. a. single. toxicity. factor. (TF). for. the. chemicals. in. the. TRI.inventory,.which.would.be.useful.in.ranking.chemicals.by.their.potential.toxic. impact..The.purpose.of.the.TF.would.be.to.evaluate.the.relative.toxic.impacts.of.the. annual.total.release.of.a.chemical. This.is.an.initial.proposed.approach;.we.welcome.suggestions.on.how.to.improve. our.analysis.or.use.the.same.or.additional.toxicity.data.to.relatively.rank.chemicals. differently..The.important.point.to.keep.in.mind.is.that.the.objective.of.this.approach. was.not.to.come.up.with.an.absolute.number.that.we.claim.to.represent.the.actual.and. fixed.toxic.impact.of.a.chemical..Rather,.the.proposed.methodology.was.developed. solely.for.the.purposes.of.coming.up.with.a.logical.means.of.applying.published.and. routinely.used.toxicological.data.to.then.develop.chemical-specific.“toxicity”.factors. to.conduct.an.apples-to-apples.comparison.across.chemicals..This.would.relatively. rank.the.potential.effect.among.various.toxic.chemicals,.such.that.reduction.in.the. use.of.toxic.chemicals.can.be.targeted.and.managed.accordingly. Toxicity. values. represent. either. acute. or. chronic. impacts.. Acute. toxicity. is. the. measure.of.how.a.single.or.short-term.dose.of.a.compound.can.cause.death.or.other. major.impact..Chronic.toxicity.is.the.result.of.long-term.ingestion.or.inhalation.of.a. much.smaller.dose.of.the.chemical. Acute.exposure.is.handled.well.by.current.laws,.such.as.those.of.the.Occupational. Safety. and. Health. Administration. (OSHA).. It. is. rare. that. the. current. public. is. exposed.to.acute.levels.of.toxins..Chronic.levels.are.much.lower.and.therefore.likely. to.be.encountered.by.environmental.releases.or.by.the.use.of.products.containing. toxic.chemicals. There.are.four.measures.of.chronic.toxicity.used.in.our.analysis,.based.on.method. of.exposure.and.associated.effect:
59

60

Toxic Chemicals

•. •. •. •.

Ingestion.carcinogenicity Inhalation.carcinogenicity Ingestion.noncarcinogenic.toxicity Inhalation.noncarcinogenic.toxicity

The.toxicity.information.was.downloaded.from.the.USEPA.human.health-based. risk.assessment.Web.address.at.the.time.this.book.was.written.(USEPA.2009).

ingEstion carcinogEnicity
We. based. our. assessment. of. ingestion. carcinogenicity,. that. is,. cancer. risk. due. to. ingestion.of.a.chemical,.on.the.oral.slope.factor.(SFO).of.the.USEPA..The.SFO.is. expressed.as.inverse.of.dose.(milligram.of.compound.per.kilogram.of.body.mass. per.day)−1.and.represents.the.proportion.of.a.population.that.is.estimated.to.develop. increased. cancer. risk. if. each. individual. were. to. ingest. 1. mg. of. a. chemical. per. kilogram.of.their.body.weight.each.day.over.a.lifetime.(upper-bound.estimate)..The. . higher.the.SFO.is,.the.higher.will.be.the.cancer.risk.from.a.particular.chemical.relative.to.a.chemical.that.has.a.lower.SFO..The.SFO.is.generally.reserved.for.use.in.the. low-dose.region.of.the.dose-response.relationship.(i.e.,.for.exposures.corresponding. to.risks.less.than.1.in.100). For. example,. a. chemical. with. an. SFO. of. 11. (mg/kg-day)−1. represents. 11. extra. c . ancer.cases.per.person.ingesting.1.mg.of.a.chemical.per.kilogram.body.mass.per day.. An.SFO.of.1.×.10 −2.(mg/kg-day)−1.represents.1.excess.cancer.case.per.100 people. ingesting.1.mg.of.the.chemical.per.kilogram.body.mass.per.day.

inhalation carcinogEnicity
We. based. our. assessment. of. inhalation. carcinogenicity,. that. is,. cancer. risk. due. to. inhalation.of.a.chemical,.on.the.inhalation.unit.risk.(IUR).number.of.the.USEPA.. The.IUR,.expressed.in.units.of.(microgram/cubic.meter)−1,.represents.an.upper-bound. excess.lifetime.cancer.risk.estimated.to.result.from.continuous.exposure.to.a.chemical.at.a.concentration.of.1.µg/m3.of.air..The.higher.the.IUR.is,.the.higher.the.cancer. risk.from.a.particular.chemical.will.be.relative.to.a.chemical.that.has.a.lower.IUR. For.example,.if.the.IUR.of.a.chemical.equals.3.×.10 −6.(µg/m3)−1,.3.excess.cancer. cases.are.expected.to.develop.per.1.million.people.if.exposed.daily.for.a.lifetime. to.1.µg.of.the.chemical.per.cubic.meter.of.air..An.IUR.of.38.(µg/m3)−1.represents. 38 extra.cancer.cases.per.person.inhaling.1.µg.of.the.chemical.per.cubic.meter.of.air. for.a.lifetime.

ingEstion noncarcinogEnic toxicity
We.based.our.assessment.of.ingestion.noncarcinogenic.toxicity,.that.is,.noncancer. risk.due.to.ingestion.of.a.chemical,.on.the.oral.reference.dose.(RfDo).of.the.USEPA,. which.is.an.estimate.(with.uncertainty.spanning.perhaps.an.order.of.magnitude).of. a.continuous.oral.exposure.to.the.human.population.(including.sensitive.subgroups). that.is.likely.to.be.without.an.appreciable.risk.of.deleterious.effects.during.a.lifetime..

Quantifying Toxicity

61

The.RfDo.is.expressed.as.milligrams.of.chemical.per.kilogram.of.body.weight.per. day..It.can.be.thought.of.as.the.daily.dose.that.would.have.no.impact.or.the.dose. above.which.there.would.be.a.toxic.impact..The.higher.the.RfDo.is,.the.lower.the. noncarcino. enic.toxicity.from.a.particular.chemical.will.be.(i.e.,.a.higher.RfDo.repg resents.a.higher.“acceptable”.threshold).relative.to.a.chemical.that.has.a.lower.RfDo. For.example,.a.chemical.with.an.RfDo.of.2.mg/kg-day.represents.the.fact.that. 2 mg/kg.can.be.ingested.per.day.and.have.no.noncarcinogenic.impact,.whereas.a. dose.above.2.mg/kg.ingested.per.day.could.pose.a.noncarcinogenic.toxic.impact.

inhalation noncarcinogEnic toxicity
We. based. our. assessment. of. inhalation. noncarcinogenic. toxicity. (noncancer. risk. due. to. inhalation. of. a. chemical). on. the. inhalation. reference. concentration. (RfCi). of.the.USEPA,.which.is.an.estimate.(with.uncertainty.spanning.perhaps.an.order.of. magnitude).of.a.continuous.inhalation.exposure.to.the.human.population.(including. sensitive. subgroups). that. is. likely. to. be. without. an. appreciable. risk. of. deleterious. effects.during.a.lifetime..The.RfCi.is.expressed.as.milligrams.of.chemical.per.cubic. meters.of.air..It.can.be.thought.of.as.the.concentration.of.a.chemical.in.air.that.can. be. breathed. over. a. lifetime. without. experiencing. a. toxic. impact.. The. RfCi. is. not. expressed.relative.to.body.weight.because.an.individual’s.breathing.rate.is.proportional.to.his.or.her.body.weight..The.higher.the.RfCi.is,.the.lower.the.noncarcinogenic. toxicity. from. a. particular. chemical. will. be. (i.e.,. a. higher. RfCi. represents. a. higher.“acceptable”.threshold).relative.to.a.chemical.that.has.a.lower.RfCi. For.example,.a.chemical.with.an.RfCi.of.3.mg/m3.represents.the.fact.that.3.mg/m3. can.be.inhaled.per.day.and.have.no.noncarcinogenic.impact,.whereas.a.dose.inhaled. above.3.mg/m3.can.pose.a.noncarcinogenic.toxic.impact.

dEvElopmEnt of a singlE toxicity factor
These.four.individual.chemical-specific.measures.of.chronic.toxicity.were.used.to. develop.a.relative.single.TF.for.TRI.chemicals..The.TF.is.based.on.the.concept.of. how.many. individuals.could.equally.share.(ingest.or.inhale).a.pound.of.chemical. released. per. year. to. have. no. adverse. impact,. either. from. excess. cancers. or. from. n . oncarcinogenic.effects.(toxicity.threshold). The. analysis. of. specific. toxicity. of. any. given. chemical. does. require. a. more. detailed.analysis.of.exposure.pathways.and.individuals.affected..We.have.simplified. the.analysis.to.come.up.with.a.single,.relative.chemical-specific.TF.to.rank.chemicals. relatively.by.their.overall.toxic.effect..In.addition,.the.measures.of.toxicity.obtained. from.the.USEPA.Web.site.do.get.updated.periodically;.therefore,.our.calculations.of. TFs.as.presented.in.this.book.are.indeed.intended.solely.for.relative.ranking.versus. representing.absolute.numbers. We.welcome.suggestions.on.how.to.improve.our.analysis.or.come.up.with.additional. toxicity. information. to. better. rank. chemicals.. Not. to. rank. chemicals. by. some.toxicity.measure.and.therefore.not.prioritize.which.ones.to.focus.on.eliminating. is. unacceptable.. Without. some. type. of. toxicity. ranking,. all. chemicals. will. be. c . onsidered. “bad,”. the. undertaking. to. reduce. or. eliminate. use. of. all. (vs.. targeted).

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Toxic Chemicals

chemicals.will.be.overwhelming,.and.ultimately.nothing.will.be.done.to.reach.the. next.step.of.reducing.overall.toxicity.

ingestion carcinogenic toxicity factor develoPment
For.the.ingestion.carcinogenicity.TF,.we.took.a.pound.of.a.chemical.per.year,.converted.it.to.milligrams.per.day.using.standard.unit.conversion.factors,.and.divided. by.a.typical.average.body.weight.(70.kg).and.365.days.per.year: 18 mg chemical 1 lb chemical 454,000 mg 1 yr 1 = × × × kg-day yr lb 365 days 70 kg

.

Subsequently,. this. value. was. multiplied. by. the. SFO. (mg/kg-day)−1. to. yield. the. portion.of.the.population.that.could.develop.excess.cancers.due.to.exposure.of.1.lb. of.chemical.released: . 18 mg chemical SFO (kg-day) × kg-day mg

However,.this.is.not.an.acceptable.risk..While.no.cancer.is.desirable,.there.is.a. threshold.of.cancer.risk.that.is.generally.acceptable,.and.according.to.the.USEPA,. this.is.usually.from.1.excess.cancer.case.per.100,000.people.to.1.excess.cancer.case. per.million.people..For.this.analysis,.we.factored.in.1.excess.cancer.risk.per.million. people.and.hence.multiplied.the.result.by.1.million.to.obtain.the.estimated.number. of. individuals. who. could. share/ingest. (number. of. doses). a. pound. of. the. chemical. released.and.still.result.in.an.“acceptable”.level.of.cancers:
Ingestion Carcinogenic TF (doses/lb) = 18 mg chemical SFO (kg-day) × × 106 people kg-day mg

inhalation carcinogenic toxicity factor develoPment
According.to.the.USEPA,.the.adult.male.inhalation.rate.is.15.2.m3/day,.and.the.adult. female.inhalation.rate.is.11.3.m3/day..Hence,.the.average.inhalation.rate.for.an.adult. is. 13.25. m3/day,. or. 4,836. m3/yr,. using. the. standard. conversion. factor. of. 365. days. per.year..For.the.inhalation.carcinogenicity.TF,.we.took.a.pound.of.a.chemical.per. year.and.converted.it.to.micrograms.per.cubic.meters.using.standard.unit.conversion. f . actors.and.the.average.annual.inhalation.of.air.(4,836.m3/yr): 93,879 µg chemical 1 lb chemical 454,000,000 µg 1 yr = × × 3 yr lb m3 4,836 m

.

Subsequently,.this.value.was.multiplied.by.the.IUR.(µg/m3)−1..As.noted.with.the. ingestion.carcinogenicity.TF,.we.then.multiplied.this.result.by.1.million.people.to. obtain.the.estimated.number.of.individuals.who.could.equally.share/inhale.(number. of.doses).a.pound.of.the.chemical.and.still.result.in.an.acceptable.level.of.cancers:

adverse..4. chemical.we. noncarcinogenic. m3/day.we.365. year. ingestion.milligrams. adult.the.cubic.. rate.for.the.TF: .3.factor.and..year.took.average.equally.took.the.standard.is.and.13.inhalation.value.a.000 mg 1 yr 93.and.standard. obtain. 15.to.would. inhalation.standard.in.factors. was.25.released.there. Inhalation Noncarcinogenic TF (doses/lb) = 93. is.day. by.inhalation.individuals. USEPA.standard.rate.be.was.noncarcinogenic.be.divided.a.the.(number. divided.per.number.there.individuals.of.of.by.the.the. the. by.a.chemical.year.2.female. adult. the.released.who.no.879 mg chemical 1 × 3 m RfCi (mg/m 3 ) This.of. (mg/kg-day).is.no.a.whom.by.TF.pound.conversion.unit.using.for.to.of. divided.converted.equally. inhalation noncarcinogenic toxicity factor develoPment According. (4.conversion.and. the. .rate.in.noncarcinogenic.of.ingestion.the.results.days.conversion.m3/day.a.could.unit.per.it..Hence.per.for. 365.it.chemical.from.the.year: .who.unit.released..meter.Quantifying Toxicity 63 Inhalation Carcinogenic TF (doses/lb) = 93.number.879 mg chemical × × = 3 yr lb 4. of.conversion.converted.the.m3/yr.chemical..or.and.000 mg yr 18 mg chemical 1 × × × = yr lb 365 days 70 kg kg-day Subsequently.per.factor. of.pound. 1 lb chemical 454.836 m m3 Subsequently.(mg/m3).average. RfDo.to.11.using.air.a. to.share/ingest.adult.results.would.879 µg chemical 1 × × 10 6 people 3 m IUR (µg/m 3 ) ingestion noncarcinogenic toxicity factor develoPment For. This. and.micrograms..from.. value.TF: Ingestion Noncarcinogenic TF (doses/lb) = 18 mg chemical 1 × kg-day RfDo (mg/kg-day) ..the.m3/day.noncarcinogenic.chemical.a. noncarcinogenic.836.836. the.of.released. to.chemical.share/inhale. an.days.inhalation.impact.of..the.obtain.For. male. RfCi.70-kg.the.doses).pound.inhalation.the.doses).a.using.body. the.inhalation.typical.whom.this.per.and.annual.noncarcinogenic.released.weight.pound.and.TF.m3/yr): . this.factors.per.of..adverse.impact.could. 1 lb chemical 454.(number..

lb.then.in.carcinogenic/noncarcinogenic.000.relative.chemical.type.chemical..represents.57.equal.hence. Table  6. risk.noncarcinogenic.per.of.of. have.could..sharing.that.cancer.=. cancer. the.are.can.population.for. threshold.of.a.the.pound.per..by.e.calculate.United. on.an.(1/57...represents.noncarcinogenic).the.having.are.of. chemical.the.across.many.chemical.chemical.an.million. arcinogenic. smaller.potential. as.equally. noncarcinogenic.Carcinogenic TF. the.USEPA. fraction.However.TF.chemical-specific.64 Toxic Chemicals single comBined relative toxicity factor develoPment What.doses. noted.can.be.fact.of.TF. in.assuming.a. could.In.(doses/lb).This. effect.higher.an.(306.relative.the.with. (the.TF. threshold.effects.of.TF.chemical-specific.has..reaching.TF. 1. or. each.lb..of. a.Σ.people. Inhalation Noncarcinogenic.measures.. or.of.chronic.Carcinogenic.exposure.associated.relative.States The.individuals.of.1.the.will.shared.with.be.the. of.are.this.fact. impact. chemical.with.another.1.TF.because.can. a.person).the.each. which.book).this.lb.(ingestion.divided..into.in.individual..or.single.that.. released.part.people. (doses/pound).single. noncancer.be. c .(Ingestion..noncancer.having..current.writing.occur.TF) For. per. TRI. the. from. the.a.TF..the.are.population.the.United.TF.person).of.become. TFs..57.lower. to.toxicity.without. measures.this. doses/capita-pound..and.Ingestion..values).calculated.to.threshold.is. USEPA.(doses/capita-lb). doses/pound.the.risks. Inhalation.be. can. A.. or.the.toxicity.each. individual. cancer.chemical-specific.. no.chemical-specific.Single.effect.on. the..chemical.measures.TF. intake.1.across.beyond.individuals..doses/lb.adverse.the.of.a.the. of.the. in.TF.the.combined.and. the.toxic..combination.the.chemicals.single.will.values).in.to. be. of.additive: Single Chemical-Specific TF (doses/lb).for.comparison. as..four.whereas.lb.which.or.number.were.converted.time.in.effect.129. Subsequently.lb.follows.chemical. pound. TF. As. ingest.toxic.Noncarcinogenic.a.how. the.doses/capita-pound: Single.be.(based.the.the.described.of.risk. .chemical-specific.oral.dose/capita-lb.developed.as.million).developing.example.the.of.reach.per..follows: •.(as.306.unit.higher.of. relationship.higher.fact.the.that.adverse.of. ÷ 306. to. resulted.the. inhale.adverse. can.inhalation.carcinogenic/noncarcinogenic. adverse.will.higher.of.determine.equally..“shared”.the. inhale.occur).calculated.which.dose.the. the.and.of.toxicity.each.TF. only.129. year.the.the. of.toxicity. (i.inhalation).States.as.to..TF. released. pound. direct.toxicity. (1/129.chemical. higher.from.the.was.whereas.of.in. ingest.represents.all.=.Chemical-Specific.TFs. presented.units.noncancer..the.toxicity).without.cancer. in.relationship.and.1.the. carcinogenic.(carcinogenic..for. higher..individuals. interpreted.000.States.across.detail.the.some. chemical. toxicity.before.doses/lb.represents.a.adverse.noncancer.of.higher.toxicity. (based.United.essence.effect.the. was. in.higher.beyond.toxicity..the.that.an.

exposure.toxicity.present.bioconcentration.then.these.(e.fact.in.intake.policy.TRI..less.toxicity.on. included.(e. not.persistence.g.occur.the. be.factors.assuming.to.adverse.mobility.to.an.06.and.population.the.overall.States.relative. which. Subsequently.(Chapter.chemical-specific.this. the.or. can.TF. •.chapter. chemicals.are. (Chapter.releases.Quantifying Toxicity 65 •.chemical.of..developed.306. not.purpose.than.releases.chemical-specific.8).assuming.relative.to.is.than.TRI.to.in.develop.or. .factors.can.developed.. The. regardless. measures.(ETFs). adverse.these.dose/capita-lb.are.1.threshold. TRI.better.are. In.306.the.of.be.to.than.the.system.population.9).million. toxicity.come.of.potential.sharing.that.chemical.the.United. are.up.and..times.used.sharing.of.guide.0.less. of.next..(carcino.which.and..reporting.the.this.reach. represents.noncarcinogenic). g noncarcinogenic).and.into.from.1..from.equal. or.in.as.various.each.book.that.in.or. were.reducing.relative.threshold.10.(ingestion.Chapter..for.evaluate.people.of.the.this.the.of..the. The.than.which.of.effect.in.that.with.greater.of.few.(carcinogenic. A.equal.effective.to.TF.(Chapter. for.the.doses/ capita-lb).people.500.integrated.the.1.will..dose/capita-lb.factors.volume.exposed.the.chemical.total.500.Table 6.across.doses/capita-lb).exposure. TFs.that.represents.across.(ingestion.chapters.effect. are.impacts.1.lb.the.chemicals.an..fact..lb.1..alone.beyond.for.the. enic.7).beyond.intake..g. States. rather.these.the. available.toxicity.of.of.index.a.in.releases.the.occur.volume.of.compared.million.inhalation).reducing. A.releases.inhalation).to.United.that.of.has.can.chemical-specific.

92E+02 8.1.88E+00 — — 4.66 taBlE 6.2-Tetrachloro-2-fluoroethane.1′-Methylenebis(4-isocyanatobenzene) 1.55E+02 — — 2.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.10E+01 — — 2.34E+04 Toxic Chemicals .00E–04 — 4.22E–04 2.70E–06 3.1.69E+02 — 1.00E–02 — — 6.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane 1.00E–03 4.50E+05 — — — — — — — — — 5.00E–03 1.3′-dimethyl3 1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.1-Trifluoro-2.00E–02 2.56E+05 2.2.1-Dimethyl.1.88E+01 — — — — — — 4.60E–06 — — — — — — — — — 3.78E+03 — — — — — 1.78E–03 9.39E–01 — — 3.2-Trichloroethane 1.60E–05 — — 1.10E+00 — 7.00E–01 — 6.1-Trichloroethane 1.94E–02 8.70E–03 — 6.38E–05 chemical (1.2.1′-Bi(ethylene.60E–03 — — — — 7.00E+00 — — 4.1.00E+00 — — — — — — 2.4-Trimethylbenzene inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) 1.44E+06 1.4′-diamine.23E–03 — — 8.2.hydrazine 1.00E+00 3.60E–02 — — — 2..24E+08 6.1′-Biphenyl)-4.01E+05 — 1.00E–02 — — — — — 5.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.06E–01 2.1.95E+05 — — — 5. .35E+04 1.00E–03 1.chloride 1. (Hcfc-121a) 1.70E–02 — — 5.00E–03 — — 2.44E+03 — — 8.00E–01 5.1-Dichloroethylene 1.08E+08 – 1.01E+06 — — 1.00E–01 5.7-triaza-1azoniaadamantane.54E–01 5.88E+01 3.2.62E+05 — — — 3.95E+08 — — 4.40E–06 — — — 5.1.2-Tetrachloro-1-fluoroethane 1.50E+06 — — 1.40E+04 — — — — 6.80E–05 1.1.1.55E+06 1.2-dichloroethane 1.oxide) 1.3-Trichloropropane 1.1.96E+03 1.00E–03 7.2.11E–04 4.44E+03 4.1 toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 6.92E–04 4.1-Dichloroethane 1.04E–08 — — 2.5.

(Dbcp) 1.2.00E–03 — 2.14E–01 2.4.2.94E+08 1.44E+06 — 9.1-difluoroethane 2.63E+07 — — — 2.1-difluoroethane 1.00E–01 2.00E–03 6.03E+06 7.00E–04 9.95E+05 — 2.88E+04 1.4.69E+05 1.2-trifluoroethane 1.00E–03 9.00E–02 1.00E–03 — — 2.00E+00 — — 1.33E–02 6.1.17E+02 2.00E–01 3.20E–03 1.4-Dichlorobenzene 1.20E–04 3.10E–02 — — — 6.00E–02 2.00E–03 — — 2.18E–06 1.60E+04 1.2-Dichloroethane 1.1.3-Dichlorobenzene 1.(mixed.81E–06 continued 67 .65E–03 — 5.2′.91E+01 — 2.00E–05 — — 4.95E+05 — — — 5.76E+05 3.00E–02 — — — — 3.40E–03 1.00E–02 9.10E–02 — 1.00E–03 — 6.00E+01 — — — — — — 1.00E–01 — — — — 2.29E+00 3.60E–02 8.69E+02 3.92E+02 — 2.97E+02 — — — — 5.3propanedicarbonitrile 1-Chloro-1.3-Butadiene 1.88E+02 1.2-Dichloroethylene 1.6-Trinitrophenol 2.2-Dichloropropane 1.69E+03 — 1.00E–04 — — — 2.60E+00 — — 5.6.00E–02 1.2-Dibromoethane 1.4.81E–07 1.24E–03 1.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.00E–01 3.88E+00 — — — — — — 1.40E+05 1.78E+07 — — 1.07E–01 — — 7.4′isopropylidenediphenol 2.70E–06 — — — — — — 3.13E+07 — 1.4-Dichloro-2-butene 1.3-Dichloropropene.2-Dichloro-1.2-Dichlorobenzene 1.04E+04 — — 4.00E–02 — 8.35E+04 — 4.69E–03 3.04E+07 — — 1.78E+06 — 9.63E+08 5.6′-Tetrabromo-4.00E–02 — 7.3-Dichloropropene 2.isomers) 1.91E+05 — — — 8.53E–05 1.97E+03 — — 1.69E+04 — — 4.2-Diphenylhydrazine 1.3-pentafluoropropane 1.00E–03 — — 9.00E–05 2.3-Dichloro-1.00E–01 — — 2.89E+00 3.42E+07 3.2-tetrafluoroethane 1-Chloro-1.00E+00 — — — 9.6-Trichlorophenol 2.05E–03 1.2-Dichloro-1.2-Butylene.14E–09 5.88E+02 1.97E+03 1.23E+05 — — — — — — 2.78E+02 — — — — 8.07E+07 2.10E–06 — — — 2.00E–04 9.54E+02 1.4-D — 8.97E–02 6.5-Trichlorophenol 2.00E–01 1.00E–02 2.10E–05 7.60E–05 — 1.00E–01 — 5.78E+02 1.78E+04 — 1.1.90E–06 5.42E+07 6.69E+03 4.40E+00 — — 1.Quantifying Toxicity 1.4-Dioxane 1-Bromo-1-(bromomethyl)-1.40E+00 — 4.45E–06 5.oxide 1.00E–03 — 1.20E+00 — 1.82E+06 — — 3.97E+02 8.55E+07 — — — 1.61E+01 — — 1.78E+03 4.00E–02 2.10E–02 — 3.62E+06 — 6.00E–01 2.2.00E–06 4.39E+05 2.81E–02 2.

4-Diaminotoluene 2.00E–03 1.2-tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.00E–02 — 8.15E–02 7.02E+06 6.94E–05 2.58E–01 1.67E–02 5.67E–05 9.02E–02 8.00E–03 2.80E+00 1.13E–03 chemical 2.4-Dinitrophenol 2.02E+06 0.00E–03 — 3.88E+03 8.4-Dimethylphenol 2.6-Xylidine 2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-Aminonaphthalene 2-Chlor-1.81E–05 9.Butyl.87E–03 0.Butoxyethyl.03E+08 5.4-D.4-Diaminoanisole 2.2-Ethylhexyl.71E+06 8.26E–06 — 5.Sodium.80E+00 — — — 3.40E–01 — — — — .1.4-D.34E+04 — 3.00E–02 2.78E+03 — 2.90E–05 4.87E–03 6.ester 2.1.22E+08 0.30E—03 0.00E–01 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 7.10E–03 — — — 8.salt 2.70E–01 — — — — — — 1.4-Dichlorophenol 2.88E+03 1.3-butadiene 2-Chloro-1.98E–01 — — 3.6-Dinitrotoluene 2.00E–03 — — 3.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 2.68 taBlE 6.ester 2.49E+06 8.4-D.17E+06 — 3.60E–01 — 1.39E+02 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.90E–01 4.80E+00 — 1.51E+06 3.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.00E+00 2.75E+07 1.00E+00 — — Toxic Chemicals 1.19E–01 1.88E+02 8.4-D.00E+00 — — — — 1.85E–02 2.10E–01 — 1.70E–01 3.52E+06 — — — — — 1.53E–02 5.81E–06 1.90E–06 2.00E–05 — 8.00E–02 — — 1.90E–05 — — 1.00E–03 2.00E–03 — — — 2.92E+03 8.05E–01 4.00E+00 1.20E+07 — 3.22E+03 — — 5.1.88E+02 — — 9.4-Db 2.75E+07 3.78E+04 — — — 8.13E+06 — 6.ester 2.1-trifluoroethane 2-Chloroacetophenone 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) 4.36E+06 1.

90E–02 — — — 2.92E+03 — 1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine 3. dihydrochloride 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene 3-Chloropropionitrile 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.10E–04 — 1.19E+07 3.97E+04 — — — — — — — — — — 1.00E–02 — 1.22E+08 — 1.78E+05 — — — 8.60E–02 1.69E+03 — — — — — — 2.00E–02 2.6-Dinitro-O-cresol 4-Aminoazobenzene 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-Nitrophenol 5-Nitro-O-anisidine — 1.00E–03 — — 1.90E–03 — 4.47E–03 — 5.butylcarbamate 4.19E+07 — — — — — — — 4.04E+07 1.30E–03 — 1.dihydrochloride 3.69E+03 — — — — — — — 1.00E–02 — — 2.60E+00 — 4.81E–06 1.Quantifying Toxicity 2-Methyllactonitrile 2-Methylpyridine 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitropropane 2-Phenylphenol 3.91E+06 3.20E–02 4.53E+08 — — 3.60E+00 — 1.55E+05 — 1.71E+05 — — — 2.25E–02 — — 2.06E+00 6.28E–02 8.00E–02 — — — — — — — 5.06E–03 2.70E–03 — — 3.16E–03 1.45E–05 8.40E–04 — — — — — — — 4.17E+05 2.40E–05 3.78E+06 8.55E+02 8.16E–06 1.00E–03 — 6.00E–02 4.31E+06 5.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.22E+06 4.84E+07 — 3.30E–01 4.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.2pentafluoropropane 3.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol 4.10E+01 4.40E–02 7.88E+03 — 1.00E–01 4.09E–03 3.2.24E+06 7.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.00E+06 1.34E–01 5.63E+08 1.30E–05 4.13E–04 4.28E+06 8.00E–01 — — — — — — 2.88E+02 — — — — — — 4.78E+03 — 3.4′-Methylenebis(N.66E–01 2.34E+05 3.55E+05 — — 3.3-Dichloro-1.81E–04 1.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 4.60E–04 — — 6.38E–01 6.1.00E–04 — — — — — — — — — — 1.40E–01 2.50E–01 1.56E+03 — — 4.4′-Methylenedianiline 4.00E–03 — 9.17E+07 — 8.40E–04 3.ether 4.00E–02 — 5.00E+06 2.88E+03 — — 1.90E–05 7.13E–03 1.88E–02 2.73E+08 8.50E–01 7.49E+05 1.32E+07 — — 5.30E–04 1.1.66E–03 2.20E–01 — 1.sulfate 3.00E–03 1.14E–03 continued 69 .28E–01 1.18E–03 1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.00E–04 — — — 2.49E+06 3.30E–01 8.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine 3.38E+04 — 8.00E–02 — — — — — — 2.N-dimethyl) benzenamine 4.

salt Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.00E–03 — 5.10E+01 6.09E–04 6.60E–01 3.20E–06 — — — — — — 1.55E+05 4.56E+03 — — 4.39E+04 4.04E+04 1.90E–03 — — 6.80E–05 — — 4.70E–03 — — — — — — — 4.00E–06 – — 5.86E+05 — 1.00E–02 — — 2.07E–04 5.24E–02 3.63E+05 — — 3.00E–02 1.55E+01 4.03E–03 1.78E+04 5.13E+05 4.92E–03 1.20E+07 — — — 2.00E–03 3.00E–02 1.92E+05 3.40E–01 5.alcohol Allyl.00E–04 2.60E+08 — — 5.78E+02 1.60E–02 — 1.00E–03 2.73E+05 3.88E+04 3.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 1.30E–03 — 6.97E+01 — 1.55E–02 6.55E+04 8.49E+00 1.05E–01 chemical 5-Nitro-O-toluidine Abamectin Acephate Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acifluorfen.80E+00 — — — 2.00E+07 — 9.37E–03 1.39E+04 — Toxic Chemicals .00E–01 4.30E–02 — 8.14E–05 7.00E–04 2.16E–03 5.00E–04 5.00E–02 1.50E+00 — 5.00E–01 1.00E–03 — — 9.44E–08 5.26E–03 5.chloride alpha-Naphthylamine inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) 3.81E–07 5.69E+06 — 9.acid Acrylonitrile Alachlor Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl.53E–05 3.03E+00 1.55E+05 — — — — — — — 8.00E–03 3.81E–04 1.00E–05 — 1.00E–04 5.70E+01 — — 2.69E+04 — — — 3.88E+04 3.44E+03 — — 1.22E+08 6.00E–05 4.81E–05 2.sodium.95E+05 — 3.78E+05 3.00E–03 — — — — — — 9.00E–03 — — — 3.00E–03 5.11E–06 5.38E+06 — — 4.55E+03 — — — — — — 1.78E+03 1.70 taBlE 6.10E–02 1.69E+03 9.20E–04 7.02E+08 — — 3.07E+05 — — — — — — 1.00E–01 — 1.44E+02 1.60E+06 9..00E–05 5.amine Allyl.

32E–05 7.45E–04 6.14E–07 5.39E+01 9.50E–02 2.70E–03 — — 1.83E–06 1.39E+01 6.29E+09 — — — — 4.39E+04 — — 6.00E–03 3.antimony.and.07E–07 3.Quantifying Toxicity Aluminum Aluminum.14E–03 1.39E+01 9.34E–02 — 6.14E–04 — 1.97E+03 7.11E+03 — — — — 2.92E+03 — — — — 8.compounds Bendiocarb Benfluralin Benomyl Benzal.30E–01 — — — — — — 5.77E+05 4.60E–06 — — 4.barium.00E–03 — — — — — 0.90E–05 1.compounds Arsenic.61E–03 3.00E–01 — 1.oxide.94E–07 1.00E–02 — 5.54E+03 5.00E–03 — — — — 4.00E–03 — — — — 2.nitrate.sulfate.14E–05 — 1.43E+00 3.forms) Aluminum.50E–05 8.00E–03 2.compounds Asbestos.70E–01 — — — — — — — — — 1.00E–01 — 3.00E+00 1.09E+09 — 2.80E–06 6.70E–02 — — — — 4.17E+03 — — 1.88E+02 — 9.trichloride Benzoyl.88E+02 3.00E+00 — — — 1.50E–03 — — — — 7.07E–07 2.88E+05 — — — 1.60E+06 1.00E–01 5.00E–03 5.00E–02 — — 5.phosphide Ametryn Amitraz Amitrole Ammonia Ammonium.39E+04 6.00E–04 9.(solution) Aniline Anthracene Antimony.44E+04 1.chloride — — — — — — — — — 5.chloride Benzoyl.88E+04 — — — — 2.00E+00 — 4.and.88E+03 1.00E–04 — 3.55E–01 3.01E+05 — — 2.chloride Benzene Benzidine Benzo(Ghi)perylene Benzoic.00E–03 — — 1.52E–02 continued 71 .50E–02 — 2.50E+05 — — 4.35E+03 9.92E+04 — 5.55E+02 — 4.45E–06 2.39E+02 — — 9.00E–02 — 4.31E+08 — — 3.30E+01 — — 1.50E+00 — 2.88E+01 — 5.(friable) Atrazine Auramine Barium.02E+06 — — — — — — — — — 1.00E–04 3.44E+03 5.67E+07 — 4.00E–01 3.08E+02 — 8.and.00E–01 4.09E+06 — — — — — 0.30E–03 — — — — — — — — 7.32E+05 6.67E–06 3.92E+01 3.00E–02 1.78E+01 — 4.arsenic.peroxide Benzyl.(solution) Ammonium.30E+02 — 1.00E–01 — — 1.44E+04 5.00E–03 3.00E+00 9.00E+00 1.07E–06 — — 1.04E+08 — — — — — — — — 7.92E+01 4.16E–06 6.26E+06 1.(fibrous.94E–07 1.14E–07 7.13E+03 — 1.00E–04 — — — 5.45E–04 1.

88E+03 1.18E+01 1.40E–06 6.00E–03 — 6.ether Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane Bis(2-chloroethyl).88E+02 — — 4.20E+02 — — — — — — — — — — — 2.00E–02 3.88E+02 8.92E+04 — — — — — — 8.94E–05 1.00E–04 1.26E+01 — — — 5.34E+05 9.88E+02 — 5.39E+01 6.20E–02 — — — — — — — — — — — 2.50E+00 — — — 1.55E+02 4.octanoate Brucine Butyl.13E+04 2.00E–03 1.96E+01 8.ether Bis(tributyltin).adipate Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(chloromethyl).trichloride Boron.00E–02 4.80E+00 — — — 1.39E+05 — 3.00E+00 2.00E–04 — — — — — — 2.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 7.00E+00 1.22E+01 Toxic Chemicals .oxide Boron.98E–05 1.compounds Bifenthrin Biphenyl Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl).00E–02 — 3.00E+00 — 1.44E+02 5.07E–07 — 3.10E+00 1.00E–02 — 1.07E–07 2.trifluoride Bromacil Bromine Bromochlorodifluoromethane Bromotrifluoromethane Bromoxynil Bromoxynil.39E+01 — 9.40E–03 — — 1.24E+06 — 1.30E–04 — 2.38E–04 3.72 taBlE 6.acrylate inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) — — — 7.25E+05 5.00E–05 — — — — — — — — — — 7.ether Bis(2-ethylhexyl).20E–03 1.52E–01 5.92E+03 2.00E–05 — 3.00E–02 5.05E–07 2.13E–03 1.90E–06 2.55E–03 3.69E+06 — — — — — — — — — — 1.00E–02 — — 2.65E–01 6.00E–01 2.16E–06 7.and.25E+08 — — 9.95E+07 2.82E+09 — — — — — — — — — — — 8.81E–06 1.91E+09 — — — — — — — — — — 0.10E+07 2.78E+03 3.70E–07 chemical Beryllium.49E+05 3.beryllium.40E–02 2.90E–06 — 1.00E–02 2.94E–04 — 4.

phthalate Butyraldehyde C.69E+00 — — — 6.41E+06 — — — — — — — — — 8.red.05E–09 — — — — — 1.yellow.78E+02 3.I.ethyl Chlorine Chlorine.05E–03 1.direct.solvent.30E–01 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4.4 C.00E–01 7.17E+02 — 4.00E–01 5.50E+02 — — — — — 1.00E–04 — 1.78E+04 — — 1.acid..31E+06 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.benzyl.90E–03 — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.and.00E+01 — — — 1.00E–01 — — — — — — — — — — 1.I.53E–08 — — — 2.cyanamide Camphechlor Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Carbon.50E–04 2.54E+04 1.I.36E–10 3.34E+02 4.10E+00 2.54E–03 continued 73 .yellow.36E–10 5.26E–01 — — — — — 9.basic.114 C.food..I.50E–02 2.solvent.I.compounds Calcium.I.78E+02 5.92E+02 — 4.90E–01 4..02E–06 1.95E+07 4.00E–04 1.00E–01 3..26E+05 4.88E–01 — 2.50E–05 — — — — — — — — — 2.25E–01 — 6.69E+05 1.00E–05 — — — — — 7.38E+04 0.87E–06 2.30E–03 — — — 1.20E–03 — 3.dioxide 1.11E–04 1.16E–05 1.39E+06 — — — — — 1.30E–05 2.I.81E–07 1.blue.00E–01 — 1.00E+07 6.red.78E+02 2.90E–09 7.3 C.green.32E+00 — 1.22E–02 7.36E–10 8..14 C.sulfide Carboxin Catechol Chloramben Chlordane Chlorendic.81E–07 7.7 C..00E+01 — 7.00E–03 — — 1.00E–01 1.37E+02 1.09E+04 — — 2.88E+01 — — — — — — — — — — 1.36E–04 5.00E+00 — — — — — — — — — — — 1.3 Cadmium.30E–01 1.62E–01 3.cadmium.acid Chlorimuron.20E+04 — — 1.I.54E+04 — 1.00E–03 1..tetrachloride Carbonyl.25E—01 — 2.15 C.78E+02 — 1.basic..1 C.218 C.17E+02 — — 4.00E–02 — 2.Quantifying Toxicity Butyl.25E–01 — — 2.I.00E–04 3.yellow.disperse..60E–07 — — — 1.55E+03 1.17E+02 — 1.94E+08 — 3.94E+02 2.disulfide Carbon.20E–04 6.solvent.red.orange.18E+03 8.

17E+02 6.41E–06 3.90E–04 4.compounds Copper.acid Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzilate Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane Chloromethyl.81E–06 4.37E+03 — 5.00E–02 — — 3.87E–03 3.36E+04 — — — 1.58E+02 1.13E+09 8.18E+03 — 1.33E+05 5.56E+07 — 2.25E–01 — — — 1.04E+03 — — 2.78E+03 1.20E–02 9.00E–02 1.44E+02 — 1.and.ether Chlorophenols Chloropicrin Chlorotetrafluoroethane Chlorothalonil Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorpyrifos.00E+01 1.00E–06 4.09E–06 chemical Chloroacetic.32E+05 — 8.88E+00 9.45E+08 8.48E+07 4.67E–04 4.38E–03 7.07E+05 8.40E+00 1.78E+02 — 1.17E+02 — — — 6.92E+04 4.13E+06 — 5.59E–02 6.60E–06 — 8.isomers) inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) — — 1.90E–07 — — — 1.30E–05 — 6.00E–04 4.00E–03 2.00E–02 — — 1.10E–02 — 2.10E–05 — — 2.60E–06 8.88E+03 — 1.00E–01 — 5.45E–06 7.74 taBlE 6.10E–01 — — 3.39E+00 9.00E–02 — 5.10E–03 — — — — — — — — — — 3.00E+01 9.88E+02 — — 1.90E–05 9.14E–09 3.compounds Creosotes Cresol.88E+03 8.00E–02 3.00E–02 — — 4.cobalt.92E+02 — — 1.20E–01 — 3.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 2.38E–03 4.and.chromium.51E+05 — 4.16E+06 — 6.36E–10 1.00E–01 — — 1.30E–02 — 3.47E–06 3.78E+03 — — 5.51E+04 — — — — — — — — — — 2.00E–02 — — 1.methyl Chlorsulfuron Chromium.methyl.56E+02 Toxic Chemicals .00E–04 — — 4.35E+05 — — 2.80E–02 9.81E+00 1.00E–02 2.36E–10 5.57E–04 7.copper.25E–01 1.50E–02 — 1.(mixed.95E+06 — — 5.88E+02 8.and.68E+00 2.compounds Cobalt.26E+07 2.51E–01 8.07E–08 8.91E+06 — — 2.04E–06 1.00E–03 — — — 2.00E–02 — 1.

67E–09 5.35E–06 0.50E–02 1.70E–05 — — 4.88E+02 — — 8.00E–01 — — 3.oxide Desmedipham Diallate Diaminotoluene.17E+02 — 4.24E+04 — 1.89E–05 7.00E–02 — — 2.41E+04 — 1.88E+02 8.35E+02 — — 3.hydroperoxide Cupferron Cyanazine Cyanide.54E+03 — — — 2.54E+04 — — 1.isomers) Dichlorobromomethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorofluoromethane Dichloromethane 1.00E–04 — — 7.96E+02 — 2.35E–06 1..47E+06 — — 4.10E–01 1.94E–06 — 2.00E–01 — 6.40E–01 — — — — 1.88E+01 — 2.00E–03 — 6.33E+05 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.18E–06 1.00E–01 4.36E–10 3.10E–02 — — — — — — — — 6.90E–07 8.81E–04 continued 75 .00E–03 2.78E+02 1.82E–06 7.Quantifying Toxicity Crotonaldehyde Cumene Cumene.00E–02 — 4.92E+02 — 1.(mixed.10E+06 — — 1.00E–01 9.67E+06 — — — 1.00E–01 2.00E–03 — — — 7.88E+01 1.78E+02 5.00E–02 2.00E–01 1.36E–10 4.38E+07 — — — 1.00E–02 — 9.36E–10 7.92E+04 — — 2.00E–04 — 6.00E–02 2.50E–03 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.88E–02 1.56E+01 — — — 2.sodium.08E+06 — — — — — — — — 1.97E+02 8.69E+02 — 4.phthalate Dicamba Dichloran Dichlorobenzene.13E+04 — 1.isomers) Diazinon Dibenzofuran Dibromotetrafluoroethane.49E+07 — — — — 2.salt Decabromodiphenyl.00E+00 4.35E+02 2.00E–01 3.(mixed.00E–04 — — 1.17E+02 4.25E–01 — 2.(Halon.94E–04 7.50E–01 — — — 7.81E–07 1.00E+00 5.39E+01 1.90E+00 — — — 8.05E–04 0.78E+02 — 8.00E+00 8.00E+00 3.17E+02 — — — — — — — — 2.35E+00 9.00E+00 — — — 4.00E–01 – 2.72E–03 1.00E–03 3.00E+01 1.20E–02 — — 7.30E–05 — — 5.2402) Dibutyl.compounds Cycloate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyfluthrin Cyhalothrin Dazomet Dazomet.25E–01 2.88E+03 8.11E–08 2.97E+03 5.00E–01 4.25E–01 — — — — — — — — 4.70E–07 — 1.54E–03 0.69E+02 2.

26E–08 — 4.25E–01 — 2.00E–01 2.90E–06 2.30E–05 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.88E+04 — 2.00E–01 5.sulfate Dimethylamine Dimethylamine.36E–10 — 5.90E–06 7.25E–01 — 2.17E+02 — 6.00E–04 — — — — — 7.69E+02 1.11E–04 2.88E+05 — 1.00E–01 — — 3.00E–01 2.00E+00 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 7.55E+04 — 2.56E+05 — — — — — 1.00E–02 — — — 2.00E–02 2.(Cfc-114) Dichlorotrifluoroethane Dichlorpentafluoro-propane Dichlorvos Dicofol Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine Diethyl.00E–03 8.00E–01 2.88E+02 8.79E+06 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 8.36E–10 7.phthalate Diethyl.82E–06 1.26E–08 7.00E–02 2.ether.22E+03 — 2.00E–04 — 7.sulfate Diflubenzuron Diglycidyl.11E–05 7.88E+01 8.88E+01 3.69E+02 4.94E–06 chemical Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.69E+02 4.92E+02 4.00E–04 – 8.88E+01 8.(Dgre) Dihydrosafrole Diisocyanates Dimethipin Dimethoate Dimethyl.resorcinol.chlorothiophosphate Dimethyl.00E–03 4.82E–06 1.30E–02 — 5.00E–01 2.90E–01 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 8.17E+02 — 4.15E+06 —— — — — 0.00E–01 5.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 1.25E–01 — 1.22E+01 — 8.76 taBlE 6.88E+02 — — — 8.38E–05 1.36E–10 2.00E–04 — 8.82E–06 4.34E+04 2.17E+02 — 4.22E+01 — — 5.00E–01 2.90E–04 — 7.phthalate Dimethyl.00E–03 — — — — 5.dicamba inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) — — — 2.34E+04 — Toxic Chemicals .

10E–03 — — — — — 1.glycol Ethylene.45E–05 0.00E+00 4.97E+08 — — — — — 1.50E–06 — — — — 8.44E+03 — 2.00E–01 3.78E+04 — — — 1.69E+03 3.80E–02 — — 1.ether Ethylene.00E–05 — — — — — 4.76E+05 — 8.00E–03 — 6.black.38 Disodium.50E–02 — — — — 2.dipropylthiocarbamate Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene.35E+02 4.glycol.50E–02 2.ether Ethylene.(mixed.00E+00 1.chloride Dinitrobutyl.78E+02 — 8.40E+00 — — — — — 9.88E+02 — — — — 8.33E–03 continued 77 .compounds Diphenylamine Dipotassium.00E–02 – — — 1.22E+06 — 1.57E+12 — — — 1.monoethyl.00E+00 1.00E+00 — 4.39E+04 — — — — 9.00E–03 — — — 1.00E–01 2.glycol.phenol Dinitrotoluene.81E–05 3.02E+00 1.41E–03 — 7.80E+01 — — — 2.44E+01 5.32E–06 1.22E+05 — — — — — 2.10E–02 — — — — 3.00E–02 — — — — 2.53E+05 — — 1.11E+02 1.10E–01 4.80E–05 1.00E–09 2.00E–03 — — — — 1.00E–03 — 8.35E+09 — — — — — — —v — — 9.21E+07 — 1.13E+05 — — — — 2.50E–02 7.26E+06 1.30E–05 — 1.35E+05 — — — — 8.32E–06 2.95E–02 — 1.96E+03 — — — 7.80E–01 7.26E–03 — 2.isomers) Dinocap Di-N-propylnitrosamine Dioxin.11E+02 8.00E–08 — — — — — — — — — 1.monomethyl.20E–06 — — — — 2.and.chloroformate Ethyl.acrylate Ethyl.47E–05 4.31E+08 — — — — — 1.00E–01 2.30E+05 — — — 7.isocinchomeronate Direct.79E–03 — 2.69E+02 4.thiourea — — 6.oxide Ethylene.cyanodithioimidocarbonate Dithiobiuret Diuron Dodine D-Trans-allethrin Epichlorohydrin Ethoprop Ethyl.90E–06 — 1.88E+08 3.92E+03 — 2.00E–02 3.endothall Dipropyl.88E+03 4.dioxin-like.96E–07 1.Quantifying Toxicity Dimethylcarbamoyl.90E–05 1.07E+00 — — 2.13E+03 — — 5.00E–03 — — — 2.24E+08 2.88E+00 4.00E–03 3.51E+06 8.00E+05 — — — — 1.93E+04 2.00E–01 — 2.68E–06 3.39E+01 — 2.95E+05 — — — — 5.31E+12 — — — 1.78E+10 7.50E–02 1.00E–03 4.90E–03 — 4.

00E–01 — 2.58E+03 3.32E–06 — 2.80E–03 1..salts.00E+00 5.11E+02 — 7.00E–06 — — 2.00E–01 2.92E+00 4.22E+06 — — — — 2.54E+06 — — 7.30E–02 6.acid.oxide Fenoxycarb Fenpropathrin Fenthion Fenvalerate Fluazifop-butyl Fluometuron Fluorine Fluoroacetic.00E–05 — 2.02E–04 chemical Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.31E+08 — — — — — 8.88E+01 8.96E+02 8.57E+08 1.23E–04 2.esters Ethyleneimine Famphur Fenarimol Fenbutatin..00E–02 2.88E+00 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 9.00E–03 — — — — — — — — — 3.22E+04 2.32E–06 — 4.60E+05 — — — — — — — — — 6.30E–05 — — — — 7.33E+08 — 1.78 taBlE 6.sodium.90E–03 — 2.13E+04 Toxic Chemicals . and.47E–06 9.11E+02 — 1.32E–06 2.00E–03 — — — 5.78E+02 — 8.02E–03 1.04E–04 1.acid inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) — — — 3.50E–03 1.68E–07 2.60E–03 — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.37E+03 2.30E+01 — — — — — 8.50E–02 — 2.acid.88E+05 — 7.39E+00 0.80E–03 3.50E–02 1..1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) — — — 4.11E+02 1.00E+01 — 9.07E+08 — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.salt Fluorouracil Fluvalinate Folpet Fomesafen Formaldehyde Formic.00E+00 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 9.50E–02 — 1.

07E+06 4.25E–03 — — — — 4.40E–07 6.88E+02 4.95E+05 — — — — — — — — — — — 2.00E–04 — — — — — 2.92E+04 3.60E+08 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 5.33E+07 5.carbonate — 1.30E–02 1.68E+00 1.38E+02 2.00E–03 3.00E–07 2.94E–04 — 1.(Hcp) Hexamethylphosphoramide Hexazinone Hydramethylnon Hydrazine Hydrazine.68E+00 1.00E–03 8.16E–05 continued 79 .92E–01 5.71E+03 3.sulfate Hydrochloric.00E+00 — — — 5.69E+05 — 4.34E+01 — — — — — 1.39E+06 2.68E–07 1.00E–02 1.78E+04 5.pentacarbonyl Isobutyraldehyde Isodrin Isofenphos Isopropyl.91E+07 — 1.96E+02 — — — 4.00E–02 4.76E–06 9.90E–03 4.78E+04 2.34E–05 1.38E–08 — 4.00E–02 — — — — — — 1.compounds Linuron Lithium.10E+00 — 4.47E–06 5.60E–04 — 4.13E+04 — — — — — 1.13E–02 2.00E–03 3.00E+00 3.60E–01 1.acid Hydrogen.96E+03 1.44E+02 8.22E+04 2.30E+01 — — — 2.40E–02 3.30E–03 2.113 gamma-Lindane Glycol.50E+00 7.00E–02 — — — 4.55E+01 3.00E+00 — — — — — — 1.00E–03 5.90E–03 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.00E–06 — — — — 4.00E–04 1.55E+04 1.53E–05 2.88E+03 3.32E+07 — 3.13E+00 — 7.05E–04 3.90E–05 1.60E+00 — 1.00E+07 1.Quantifying Toxicity Freon.3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethane Hexachlorophene.10E–04 — 1.44E+02 — — — — — — 1.59E–01 1.76E+05 — — — — 4.92E+04 — 5.49E+05 — — — — 5.69E+03 6.ethers Heptachlor Hexachloro-1.00E–02 2.00E–04 — 3.cyanide Hydroquinone Iron.00E+01 — 1.69E+05 — — — — — 4.60E–02 — — — — — — — — — — — 3.22E+00 — — — 4.37E+03 1.55E+03 3.00E–01 5.lead.20E–05 4.00E–04 6.22E–08 1.84E+07 — 2.00E+01 3.95E+07 — 8.60E+08 4.00E–03 — — — — — 7.00E–04 — 2.80E–02 1.54E–03 2.alcohol Isosafrole Lactofen Lead.and.78E+08 8.81E–01 2.acid Hydrofluoric.34E–01 1.22E+08 2.10E–03 1.00E–03 1.33E+07 — — — 9.30E–02 6.00E–04 5.40E–02 — — — — 3.

acrylate Methyl.00E–01 5.bromide Methyl.90E–06 4.55E+03 1.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 2.00E–02 1.00E–03 — 5.81E–05 1.81E–04 5.00E–05 1.55E+03 5.00E–04 5.00E+00 — — — — — — — — — — — — 9.92E+02 1.58E–07 chemical Malathion Maleic.88E+02 1.10E+01 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.27E+02 3.27E+04 — 2.00E–04 — — 4.92E+05 1.78E+05 3.81E–04 1.55E+02 1.14E–03 1.and.96E+01 — 1.00E–02 1.00E–03 3.N-methyl-N-nitroso Methanol Methoxone Methoxychlor Methyl.13E+05 — 1.80 taBlE 6.22E+06 3.00E–02 1.78E+04 1.sodium Methanamine.35E+01 — — — 1.16E–04 1.16E–06 5.ketone inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) — — — — — — — — — — — — 5.93E–07 1.00E–01 1.manganese.26E+00 1.06E–03 1.02E–03 — 7.06E+08 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.78E+05 — 2.00E–01 — 7..00E–04 — 8.ethyl.00E–05 — — — 3.00E–04 — 7.94E–03 1.88E+01 Toxic Chemicals .00E–03 1.00E+00 — — — 5.and.78E+05 1.mercury.00E–03 1.55E+04 3.78E+02 1.11E+04 5.00E–04 1.compounds Merphos Methacrylonitrile Metham.88E+06 — — — 3.40E–02 — — — — — — — 2.00E–04 — — 5.88E+04 — 1.40E–03 — 6.40E–01 5.34E+05 — — 2.94E–06 1.34E+05 — — 1.chlorocarbonate Methyl.00E–06 5.00E–04 5.compounds M-Cresol M-Dinitrobenzene Mecoprop Mercury.39E–04 5.31E+09 — — — — — — — 8.03E–04 — 1.16E–05 1.60E–03 3.55E+01 3.16E–05 6.anhydride Malononitrile Maneb Manganese.

70E+01 — — — 4.50E–02 — 2.80E–07 2.ether Methylene.88E+03 8.08E–05 — 2.88E+03 1.13E+01 1.78E+02 — 8.78E+02 — — 2.00E–02 — 1.93E+00 1.13E+03 — — 3.60E–04 — — — 8.67E–07 2.19E+06 — — 7.00E–01 – 2.00E+00 — — — — — — — 7.iodide Methyl.34E+02 — 3.00E–05 — 5.isocyanate Methyl.00E–05 — 7.32E–04 1.28E–07 1.34E+02 1.00E–03 — — — 7.60E–07 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.44E+07 — — — 2.bromide Metribuzin Michler’s.90E–05 1.00E–02 1.11E+04 — 1.ketone Molinate Molybdenum.68E+00 — 8.80E+08 — — — 4.27E+01 7.00E–02 2.compounds Nicotine.88E+03 — — 2.tert-butyl.78E+03 7.81E–07 4.34E+02 — — 3.and.00E–01 — — 6.00E–02 2.93E+05 — — — 3.88E+02 1.96E+03 8.32E–06 — 2.00E–01 — — 3.00E+00 — — 3.20E+04 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4.00E–02 — — — 3.03E+06 — — — 2.00E–03 2.13E+04 — — — 1.05E–02 5.50E–04 — 1.90E–03 — — 1.60E+08 — — 1.44E+04 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.N-Dimethylformamide Nabam Naled Naphthalene N-Butyl.alcohol N-Dioctyl.00E–03 1.00E–02 — — 3.ketone Methyl.90E–05 1.78E+02 1.80E–03 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.68E–06 4.methacrylate Methyl.00E–02 5.32E–02 — continued 81 .23E+08 — 2.isothiocyanate Methyl.90E–07 2.00E–01 1.phthalate N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea N-Hexane Nickel.and.Quantifying Toxicity Methyl.33E+07 — — 6.90E–05 — — 9.nickel.N-Dimethylaniline N.isobutyl.88E+02 — — — 3.04E+06 — 1.10E–05 — — — 2.88E+00 8.84E–04 5.00E+00 2.00E+00 7.88E+01 8.hydrazine Methyl.90E–02 — — — 1.41E–06 8.00E–03 2.81E–07 — 3.00E–01 — 3.parathion Methyl.13E+01 — — — — — — — 1.70E–03 — 2.96E+02 8.81E–06 2.trioxide Monochloropentafluoroethane M-Phenylenediamine M-Xylene Myclobutanil N.40E–05 — — 7.11E+02 — 8.salts 3.00E–03 — — 6.00E–01 9.40E+00 2.22E+02 — 1.34E+06 — 1.00E–01 2.

00E+07 2.00E+00 6.70E–03 — 1.00E–03 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.55E+02 1.02E+05 — 8.71E+04 2.50E+08 2.50E+00 1.40E–02 2.08E–03 — 1.40E+00 — 4.81E–04 2.compounds Nitric.82 taBlE 6.14E–03 1.00E–04 — 2.19E+01 8.45E–06 7.30E–02 1.67E+09 9.16E–06 5.37E+00 1.04E+04 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Toxic Chemicals .40E–05 — — — — — — — 2.53E+08 — 1.13E+09 1.acid Nitrobenzene Nitrofen Nitroglycerin N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Methylolacrylamide N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosopiperidine Norflurazon O-Anisidine O-Cresol O-Dinitrobenzene O-Phenylenediamine inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) — — — — — — 1.52E–08 — — 1.30E–03 4.70E–02 — — — — 4.88E+04 — — — — — — 4.acid Nitrilotriacetic.70E–02 — 4.60E–03 2.35E+05 — — — — 3.44E+02 — 3.76E+06 — — — 1.50E+02 5.00E–02 1.00E–02 — 5.31E+06 — — — — — — — 8.00E–03 — 1.00E–04 — — — — — — 4.57E–03 0.04E–01 1.88E+03 — 1.23E–02 — 1.78E+05 — 8.40E+00 4.60E–01 2.73E–03 chemical Nitrapyrin Nitrate.60E–06 — 3.00E–04 — — — — — 9.22E+08 4.78E+05 — — — — — 1.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) — 4.60E+07 8.20E+02 9.00E–05 — — — 1.90E–02 — — 4.74E+01 1.04E+09 1.90E–03 — 1.67E+08 — 8.71E+05 — — 8.44E+05 3.19E+09 2.

94E–05 4.20E–01 — — — — — — — — 5..10E–05 3.31E+06 — — — — — 8.60E+06 2.55E+02 — — — — 3.00E–02 4.55E+03 5.00E–03 1.81E–04 1.68E–06 1.34E+02 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4.00E–03 4.45E–06 7.70E–05 — — — — — 1.00E–04 — 3.00E–04 5.61E–02 1.00E–03 2.38E–03 — — 1.69E+02 — 1.00E+00 1.00E–01 — — — — — — — — 7.88E+00 — — — 3.40E–05 — — — — — — — — — — — 4.92E+03 8.00E–02 — — — — 5.13E+06 — — — — — — — — 4.67E–07 — 7.55E+02 — 5.(T-4) O-Toluidine O-Toluidine.78E+05 3.55E+02 4.26E–05 5.00E–01 — — — 3.00E–03 — 5.23E–03 8.55E+06 — — — — — — 1.92E+01 — — — — — — 1.Quantifying Toxicity O-Phenylphenate.90E–02 — — — 2.00E–02 — 3.80E–01 1.00E–03 3.16E–06 — 2.00E+00 — — — 4.14E–03 — 1.16E–02 — 1.89E–02 0.73E–06 continued 83 .methyl Oxydiazon Oxyfluorfen O-Xylene Ozone P-Anisidine Paraldehyde Paraquat Parathion P-Chloroaniline P-Cresidine P-Cresol P-Dinitrobenzene Pebulate Pendimethalin Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachlorophenol Peracetic.oso4.00E–02 8.92E+02 — — 3.22E+04 — 5.32E+05 — — — — — — 3.79E+06 3.96E+03 4.16E–05 5.acid Perchloromethyl.00E–02 — — 5.20E+06 2.44E+02 2.00E–01 — — — — — — 9.50E–03 6.71E+05 — — — 3.mercaptan Permethrin Phenanthrene Phenol — — — 1.sodium Oryzalin Osmium.oxide.30E–01 — — — — — 4.16E–06 1.00E–01 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.16E–05 1.47E+06 — — — — — 1.95E+03 2.16E–06 — 1.hydrochloride Oxydemeton.44E+03 — 3.60E–06 — — — — — — 5.29E–05 9.31E+06 — — — — — — — — — — — 4.00E–02 1.55E+03 1.

92E+04 8.06E–07 — chemical Phenothrin Phenytoin Phosgene Phosphine Phosphorus.84 taBlE 6.81E–06 1.02E–03 1.biphenyls Polycyclic.13E+05 — 9.55E+05 8.54E+02 — 1.00E–04 — 1.(C10–C13) Polychlorinated.00E–04 2.44E+05 — 5.00E+00 7.90E–03 — 2.00E–02 4.54E–05 8.10E–03 — — — — — — — — 3.30E+08 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.91E–01 7.90E–03 3.00E–02 2.56E+04 — — — — — — — — — Toxic Chemicals .00E–02 — — — 6.69E+03 — — — 1.88E+05 — 8.00E–02 4.61E–01 — — — 3.or.white) Phosphoric.00E–03 — 8.60E–06 — 5.methyl P-Nitroaniline P-Nitrosodiphenylamine Polychlorinated.N-methyldithiocarbamate P-Phenylenediamine Profenofos inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) — — — — — — — — — — 2.dimethyldithiocarbamate Potassium.acid Phthalic.03E+08 — — — — — — — — 5.00E–02 — 1.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) — — 1.13E+05 3.07E–05 1.00E+00 7.00E–03 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.22E–03 2.butoxide Pirimiphos.alkanes.26E–06 2.23E–03 1.bromate Potassium.00E–03 — — — — — 1.compounds Potassium.00E–04 3.30E+00 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.35E+07 1.39E+03 4.78E+03 4.70E–04 1.71E+04 — 3.90E–01 — — — 3.35E+01 — — — 3.88E+00 2.55E+07 1.44E+03 — 2.30E–07 — 5.00E–05 — 2.anhydride Picloram Piperonyl.22E+03 — — — — — 9.(yellow.aromatic.08E–03 7.

70E–05 1.13E+00 4.47E–06 3.Quantifying Toxicity Prometryn Pronamide Propachlor Propane.55E+03 — — — — — — — — — 1.11E+01 5.00E–03 2.45E–05 7.92E+02 5.91E+06 — — — — 4.00E–03 2.91E+06 — — 3.26E+06 — — — 5.compounds Sethoxydim Silver.40E–01 — — — 3.S.47E–06 — 1.00E–02 2.00E+00 5.37E+02 1.00E–03 — — 3.74E–01 — 1.45E–05 — 1.00E–02 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4.70E–06 — — — — — — — — — — 6.88E+00 3.33E+07 — 4.00E–02 — 7.00E–03 — — — — — — — — — 8.00E–03 7.83E–05 1.00E+01 2.55E+03 — 3.78E+04 — — 5.00E–05 – – 2.00E–03 — 5.37E+03 — 3.50E–02 1.55E+03 8.16E–05 2.30E–02 — 4.sultone Propanil Propargite Propargyl.90E–01 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.00E–02 3.60E–01 — — — — 2.92E+03 7.38E+06 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.and.37E+03 — 4.34E+02 — — — — — — — — — 3.silver.74E–07 4.oxide Propyleneimine P-Xylene Pyridine Quinoline Quinone Quintozene Quizalofop-ethyl Resmethrin S.44E+03 2.92E+05 — — 8.90E–06 2.94E–06 1.38E–07 5.32E–07 1.00E–03 — — 3.00E–01 — — — — — — — — — 3.30E–02 — 5.62E+06 — — — — 3.00E+00 — 2.47E+05 — — — — — — — — — — 5.69E+03 — — 1.94E–03 — 3.10E–02 1.selenium.20E–01 — — 1.50E–01 3.93E–08 2.44E+03 — — — — 1.51E–02 — 4.alcohol Selenium.30E–05 — — — — 4.and.00E–03 — 1.alcohol Propetamphos Propiconazole Propionaldehyde Propoxur Propylene Propylene.88E+02 8.21E–02 3.S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Saccharin Safrole sec-Butyl.90E–05 — 4.17E+04 — — 3.compounds — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.16E–05 continued 85 .51E–02 2.81E–05 1.00E–03 — — — — 1.88E+03 — 1.13E+03 — 1.

00E–02 — — — 3.00E+01 2.00E–01 — — — — 7.00E–02 2.70E–01 — — 2.40E–01 2.98E–03 1.93E–08 3.81E–08 3.37E+03 1.90E–06 4.20E–01 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 5.60E+06 4.oxide Sulfuric.40E–02 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 5.dicamba Sodium.00E+00 1.88E+02 1.78E+01 8.54E+05 — — 3.26E+05 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 5.88E+00 1.47E–06 5.13E+06 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 9.94E–04 5.00E+00 — — — — — — — — 3.dimethyldithiocarbamate Sodium.00E–02 1.alcohol Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachlorvinphos Tetracycline.32E–02 1.fluoride Sulprofos Tebuthiuron Temephos Terbacil Terephthalic.44E+03 5.86 taBlE 6.55E+03 4.78E+03 5.00E–02 — — — — — — — — 1.acid Sulfuryl.30E–02 1.40E–03 — chemical Simazine Sodium.nitrite Strychnine Styrene Styrene.hydroxide.00E–04 2.92E+02 — — — — — — — — 9.92E+04 8.30E–07 2.00E–03 4.(solution) Sodium.acid tert-Butyl.00E–02 3.88E+01 — — — — 2.hydrochloride inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) 1.azide Sodium.00E+00 2.45E–05 1.13E+00 3.97E–07 — 8.48E+02 — — Toxic Chemicals .1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 6.39E+01 — — — — — — — — 3.94E–06 — — — 1.90E–06 — — 5.00E–03 3.13E–09 — — 8.54E+02 8.92E+02 — — — 5.

88E+02 — — — — — — — — — — 9.compounds Thiabendazole Thioacetamide Thiobencarb Thiodicarb Thiophanate-methyl Thiosemicarbazide Thiourea Thiram Thorium.50E–05 — — 1.6-diisocyanate trans-1.00E–04 5.00E–02 — — — — — — — — — 7.03E+06 1.00E–02 — — — — — — — — — — 1.78E+06 — — — — 1.07E–03 7.03E+06 1.00E–03 8.94E–06 4.salt — — — — — — — — 4.93E+05 1.00E–05 2.00E–01 2.94E+08 — — — 1.thallium.10E–06 — — — 2.22E+06 — — — — 1.and.4-diisocyanate Toluene-2.00E–02 — 3.33E–03 1.00E–02 1.39E+05 1.37E+03 — 8.34E+02 — 8.55E+03 — — 2.10E–05 1.92E+01 8.94E–05 7.00E–06 4.isomers) Toluene-2.88E+01 1.chloride Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane Triclopyr.30E–02 – 2.32E–07 2.4-Dichloro-2-butene Triadimefon Triallate Tribenuron.37E–03 6.00E–03 — — 8.92E+02 1.26E–07 — 7.94E–04 — — 1.34E+06 4.90E–02 1.34E+06 1.00E–05 7.00E–06 — — — 6.10E–05 1.diisocyanate.92E+03 2.(mixed.00E–04 — — — 3.00E–05 5.dioxide Titanium.tetrachloride Toluene Toluene.00E–01 — — — — — — — — — 8.30E–02 — — — — — — — — — — 1.00E–02 7.31E+05 — — — — — — — — — — 1.16E–05 — 3.20E–03 — — — 1.methyl Tribromomethane Tributyltin.47E–06 — 7.50E–02 — — — — 3.00E–02 — 8.00E–05 7.90E–02 3.Quantifying Toxicity Tetramethrin Thallium.00E–02 1.3-Dichloropropene trans-1.29E+00 1.34E+06 1.00E–02 1.88E+05 — — — 2.00E+00 7.00E–01 — — — — 7.22E+02 — 2.05E–03 1.88E+02 5.93E+05 6.triethylammonium.93E–04 — — 5.22E+02 — — — 5.92E+04 — — — 5.73E+05 — — 1.81E–06 1.90E–03 — — — 1.00E–02 3.90E–06 continued 87 .10E–05 4.87E–07 1.22E+05 3.00E+05 — — — — 6.99E–04 1.40E+05 — — — 2.00E–02 — — — 3.69E+03 — — — — — — — — — 1.00E–02 3.methacrylate Trichlorfon Trichloroacetyl.90E–02 3.76E+05 3.78E+03 5.03E+06 3.03E+05 — — — 1.30E–05 — — — — 1.93E+05 6.92E+02 — 5.

92E–03 4.00E+06 4.59E–06 9..94E–04 3.(mixed.00E–01 3.55E–04 — — — — — — 8.55E+02 — — — — — — — 4.34E+04 2.37E+03 — — — — — — 2.39E+02 — — Toxic Chemicals Source:.20E–01 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.Environmental..88 taBlE 6.compounds Zineb inhalation ingestion inhalation ingestion (iur) (rfdo) (rfci) ingestion inhalation ingestion inhalation (sfo) (mg/kg-day)−1 (µg/m3)−1 (mg/kg-day) (mg/m3) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) (doses/lb) — 7.chloride Triphenyltin.40E–06 — — — — — 7.epa.chloride Warfarin.Agency.37E+05 — — — — — — — — — — 1.00E–01 — — — 1.1 (continued) toxicity factors of tri chemicals usEpa toxicity values: carcinogenic usEpa toxicity values: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: carcinogenic toxicity factor: noncarcinogenic toxicity factor: combined (tf) (doses/ capita-lb) 4.isomers) Zinc.EPA.50E–03 — — — — — — 7.Environmental.Assessment.Factors.92E+04 8.epa.phosphate Trypan.30E–06 2.for.2005.S..and.S.94E–07 1..00E–01 — 1.00E–02 7.32E–02 1.Handbook.00E–04 2.Guidelines.hydroxide tris(2.Risk.00E–03 2.1997.13E+04 9.00E+00 — 3.Agency.3-Dibromopropyl).00E–01 5.50E–02 1.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.92E+01 3. U.compounds Vinclozolin Vinyl.00E–03 — — — — — — — — — 2.54E+03 7.28E+07 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3.70E–03 — — — — — — — — — — 7. Protection.and. .20E–05 4..13E+05 — — — — 1.11E+02 1.00E–03 1.and.38E–05 4.http://cfpub.32E–06 1.cfm?deid=12464..00E–03 3.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.88E+01 5..16E–06 chemical Triethylamine Trifluralin Triforine Triphenyltin..Carcinogen.U.00E–01 3.vanadium.Protection.acetate Vinyl.78E+01 — 5.69E+02 3.cfm?deid=116283.zinc.39E+02 — 9..http://cfpub.blue Urethane Vanadium.bromide Vinyl.Exposure.92E+03 5.salts Xylene.36E–06 1.

Agency..January. 2005. Carcinogen. U.Protection...EPA. Environmental. Environmental.htm. .(accessed.. (accessed. 20.http://cfpub.. Guidelines. Assessment.Agency.. Protection.2010).Environmental.2010).Quantifying Toxicity 89 BiBliography U.Exposure. Mid-Atlantic. Risk. Assessment. 2009.Factors..http://cfpub.epa...S.S. epa..January.S.Handbook. Risk. U.cfm?deid=116283. (2005)....gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.2010).gov/reg3hwmd/risk/human/rb-concentration_table/Generic_Tables/index.20..January. Protection. for.1997.. http://www.20.(accessed.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=12464. epa. Agency.

.

is. the.compound.solvent.the. atmospheres). dissipation.breathe.of.to.substance.was.VP.and.(in.over.the.the.or.approximately.the.which. presents..to.temperature. not. is.is.its.the.as.. respect.the.will.normal.impact.measured. air moBility factor The.a. higher. additional.liter).The. atm.in.by. rate.VP.its.specific.a.for.at.or.enter.. boil. (anything. is. development.pressure.and. dynamic.(in.VP.solubility. of.and. 1.the. root..a. the.only..the.reaches.always.not.. atmospheres).pressures. of.dissolve.which.tendency.high. evaporate.to.solution. Release.the.that.the.. chemical.10 −9.ingest.that.would.air. factor.of.the.the.. 91 .inhale.is.equilibrium.some.narrow. is.to. than.of.likelihood.such. dependent.to. the.none..(VP)..The.the..1. which. does.breathe.at.million. substance.solid. pressure.were. is.liquid.factor.based.the.is..of.air.to.dissolve. the.the.chemicals. of.Water..on. impact.MFs.increase. (in.that..chemical.the.(or.a.range.a..toxin.atmospheres).chemical.chemical.the.and.tendency.milligrams.water.. of..more..an.the.adjust.into. (MF).that. with.taken.of.chemical.in.chemical. The.solvent.temperatures.pressure.1. have. nonvapor.on.chemical.and. water. Toxics.in. obtained.release.70°F.boil. than.from.was.liquids. and. taking.mobility.represents. derived..volatile.the.forms.×.7 Quantifying Mobility introduction The. greater.VP. will.with. with. Solubility. At.the.adjustment.a.set.Department.or. chemical-specific.we. is.values..for.analysis. purposes.minimum. chemical-specific.concentration.we.the.The.Environmental.concentration. was. lower.a. solution.a. its.range. the.is.the.the.(such.and..not.too.by..particular.of.that.mobility.of.the.more.of.of.measured.its.starts.a. gas. by.that. on.as.drink.tendency.dependent. to.or.this. and.a.of.enter.of.of. in.1. or.A.we.g.a. chapter.chemical. itself.enter. solubility.with.temperature.when..as.form. This.Pennsylvania.that. as.at.liquid.indication. square.vapor.air). air.chemical.a..per.we.set. at. phases.toxicity.affect.air).VPs.of. VP.much. its.account).that. of.The.extent.the. chemical..to. the.specific.all.at.the.. the.saturation.to.a.impact. (in.(e.water.evaporate.vapor. Without.of.of.For.release. of.also.proportionally.VPs. the.to.was. Inventory.Protection.a.in.to.solubility.VPs.to.evaporation.well. homogeneous. temperature.of. (TRI).. is. the.dissolve.its.but. chemicals.water). a. that.into.atm..of. each.the. 1. adding. pressure.this.is.lower.typical. atm.evaporate. mobility.tendency.tendency.chemical.equilibrium. atmospheric.chemical-specific.of. elevations.to.liquid..were.on.the. VP. a. pressure.evaporate.of. an.as.referred.its.surrounding.increases.does.

of.milligrams.values).00E+06 Water mobility factor 3.as.converting.01E–01 5.1′-Biphenyl)-4.water.obtained.55E–01 solubility (mg/l) 1.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane 1..1.25E+03 1.09E+02 1.01E–01 7.and.This..Anything.such.82E–01 4.of.the.about.00E+06 2. for..across.the.magnitude.taking.00E–09 6.not.shown.65E–01 7.44E–02 6.Agency.61E–02 1.per.purposes.2.09E+02 2. MFs..such.64E–01 3..1.16E–05 8. taBlE 7. MFs.13E–02 7.this.greater.63E–01 9.using. value.5.dissolve.(in.00E–09 1.additional.1.of.set.chemicals.2-dichloroethane 1.Indicators.not.45E–02 5.30E+03 1.hydrazine vp (atm) 1. tendency.to.with.(RSEI).included. square.water.00E–09 1. averaging. parameter.11E–02 1.49E+03 2.are.was.to.2.effect.unit.shown.24E–03 7. (Hcfc-121a) 1.in.set. chemical-specific.in.we.resulted.74E–02 1.80E–02 5.data.the.were.shown.than.. Risk-Screening..chemical-specific.approximately.combined.the.range..00E–09 1.65E–02 5.U.with.MFs.26E–01 3.available.across.10E–01 4.the. for. WatEr moBility factor The.7-triaza-1azoniaadamantane. or.1.percent.which.minimum.1 mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 3.MFs.1-Dichloroethane 1.by. weighting..the.solubility.01E–01 7.was.chemicals.water. derived.2-Trichloroethane 1.1. 1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.per. 3.12E–01 3.78E–02 1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1. the.that. factor.TRI.of.the.11E–02 4.maximum. to.part. for.water. this. respective..some.over.standard.liter.32E–02 3.dissolution.enter.S.in. taking.94E–01 3.(USEPA).that.derived. the.1.58E–03 2..Environmental.49E–01 8.94E–02 2.is.drink.square.. the.29E–01 1.16E–05 3.per.06E+03 2. root.from. was.1.the.16E–05 3.1.58E–01 7.this.to.and.Database.in.1.values.chloride 1.86E–02 3.4′-diamine.VP.Environmental.42E–01 3. were.78E–01 2.2-Tetrachloro-2-fluoroethane. MF.the.conversion.45E–02 3.3′-dimethyl. into.spanning.1.water.does. of.orders.1.solubility..The.each. water..the.49E+03 1.32E–01 9.of..2-Tetrachloro-1-fluoroethane 1.. By.factor). chemical-specific.96E+03 4.For.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.of.36E–01 5.. the.as.(just.billion.set. the.TRI.63E+03 5.table.always. ranged.58E–02 1. chemical.1-Trichloroethane 1.1.at. comBinEd moBility factor The.1.00E–01 7.chemicals.at. chemical-specific. by. combined.00E+00 1.100.24E–03 6.air.10E+03 1.86E–02 1.narrow.taken.a. five.kilograms.Table 7.TRI. VPs.42E+03 2. Subsequently.this. account.TRI.1.release.. the.impact.1-Dimethyl.have.00E+00 combined mobility factor 1.50E–02 5.1-Dichloroethylene 1.liter). root.in.92 Toxic Chemicals a.solubilities.Protection.27E–01 chemical name (1.were.as.07E–01 .an.analysis.1.the.respect.1-Trifluoro-2.Table 7.Table 7.as.was.to.not.solubility.in.000.16E–05 1.chemicals.(after.

2-Dichloroethane 1.89E–01 1.84E–03 8.2-Butylene.71E–02 8.92E–02 5.59E+01 1.15E+03 1.87E–02 5.02E–03 1.85E–04 1.88E–02 1.00E+00 1.88E–01 3.86E–02 6.Butoxyethyl.4-D.53E–01 2.12E–02 5.32E–03 3.00E+06 4.66E–02 1.2.29E–02 4.21E–01 1.08E–02 1.48E+04 4.4.36E–05 1.90E+01 5.95E–01 3.99E–03 1.11E–05 1.90E–05 1.6-Dinitrotoluene vp (atm) 2.6.2-trifluoroethane 1.51E–02 6.16E–05 4.35E–01 1.50E+03 2.12E–02 3.44E–02 1.80E+02 8.53E–02 3.00E–09 1.70E+01 9.2-Ethylhexyl.20E+01 3.63E–03 4.1.83E–03 1.64E–02 1.83E–02 1.2.4-D.35E–02 combined mobility factor 4.49E–03 1.2-Tetrafluoroethane 1-Chloro-1.70E–05 3.2-Dichloro-1.00E+00 2.16E–05 5.81E–01 6.45E–02 1.23E+03 4.3-Trichloropropane 1.25E+02 2.2-Diphenylhydrazine 1.52E+03 3.86E–04 3.13E–02 2.isomers) 1.80E+03 2.16E–05 2.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 5.2.16E–05 2.51E–03 7.29E–02 2.41E–02 9.1.6′-Tetrabromo-4.36E–02 3.10E–01 5.40E+03 1.28E–02 1.00E–09 6.80E–04 6.4-D.00E–03 2.83E–01 6.1.45E–07 4.70E–04 1.19E–01 3.00E+00 1.87E+03 2.oxide 1.49E–02 2.13E+01 1.29E–02 1.00E–12 5.72E–02 2.38E–03 3.68E–02 8.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.56E+02 8.86E+02 9.08E–03 continued chemical name 1.55E–01 2.79E–04 solubility (mg/l) 1.97E–02 2.Sodium.2′.26E–01 5.1-difluoroethane 2.56E–01 1.3pentafluoropropane 1.35E+05 7.50E+04 1.44E–01 7.19E–06 1.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.41E–02 2.36E–03 2.17E–01 4.15E+03 1.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.64E–01 5.50E+03 7.71E–02 3.92E–09 1.81E–01 3.58E–02 5.18E–02 7.26E–08 1.41E–03 7.20E+03 8.46E–03 5.25E–02 9.24E–02 1.3-Dichloropropene 2.Quantifying Mobility 93 taBlE 7.08E–01 3.77E–02 1.13E–07 1.ester 2.61E–07 .14E–02 7.23E–02 5.01E–03 3.4-Dinitrophenol 2.salt 2.42E–08 1.64E–02 3.4′isopropylidenediphenol 2.03E–02 4.5-Trichlorophenol 2.50E–02 1.55E–03 3.90E–02 5.16E–05 3.4-Dioxane 1-Chloro-1.00E+00 3.20E–01 3.3-Butadiene 1.16E–05 4.46E–02 2.81E–02 2.37E–01 3.1-difluoroethane 1.00E–09 1.32E–01 1.2-Dibromoethane 1.99E+02 1.00E–03 7.74E–02 3.4.ester 2.16E–04 3.4-Dichlorophenol 2.16E–05 1.00E–06 7.3-Dichloropropene.75E+03 4.47E–02 1.3-Dichloro-1.00E–09 7.4.80E+03 5.38E–02 9.2.22E–02 3.56E–02 1.70E+02 1.27E+04 6.14E–01 2.3-Dichlorobenzene 1.4-Dichloro-2-butene 1.79E+03 2.4-D 2.00E+00 1.10E–01 5.6-Trichlorophenol 2.00E+02 1.16E–02 1.03E–03 3.4-Dichlorobenzene 1.77E+02 3.60E–02 1.(mixed.77E–03 2.58E–02 2. (Dbcp) 1.16E–05 2.00E–02 1.50E–04 1.21E+02 7.53E–03 5.2.2.00E–09 6.4-Diaminotoluene 2.00E+00 3.2-Dichloroethylene 1.24E–02 6.82E+02 Water mobility factor 4.00E+00 1.04E+02 1.74E–01 6.29E–02 2.64E–02 1.00E–02 2.31E–02 1.2-Dichlorobenzene 1.13E–01 2.90E–04 4.17E–04 1.79E–01 2.00E–09 3.01E–02 3.69E–02 4.29E–04 5.2-Dichloro-1.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.43E–02 9.6-Trinitrophenol 2.05E–03 1.2-Dichloropropane 1.35E+02 1.4-Dimethylphenol 2.

30E–04 3.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol 4.00E+00 1.49E–03 5.00E+00 1.16E–05 4.31E–04 1.24E+02 1.74E–02 1.32E–01 3.18E–02 5.88E+03 5.00E+00 2.99E–02 7.16E–05 3.94 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 7.66E–01 3.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.16E–05 2.16E+04 1.13E–02 1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.00E+00 1.96E–02 2.16E–05 3.05E–03 1.2-tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.88E–03 4.65E–03 1.16E–05 6.00E+00 3.24E–03 9.25E–02 3.1.20E–02 3.16E–05 3.71E–02 2.05E–02 1.16E–05 3.acid Acrylonitrile Alachlor vp (atm) 1.1. dihydrochloride 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.00E–09 3.00E+06 7.79E–01 1.51E–01 3.81E–04 3.1-trifluoroethane 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 2-Methyllactonitrile 2-Methylpyridine 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitropropane 2-Phenylphenol 3.74E–01 1.54E–01 5.90E–08 1.16E–02 1.33E–02 2.00E+00 5.00E–02 1.40E+05 1.4′-Methylenedianiline 4.60E+02 1.62E–03 3.22E–04 2.24E–02 1.08E–08 .10E–02 1.16E–05 3.13E+03 2.65E–02 3.20E–02 1.00E–09 1.00E–02 3.00E–09 1.49E–03 1.20E–03 2.00E–09 1.2.68E–04 1.06E–01 6.20E+01 2.00E+01 7.56E–01 5.50E–02 4.13E–03 4.6-Xylidine 2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-Chlor-1.00E+06 1.08E–02 2.03E–01 1. dihydrochloride 3.2pentafluoropropane 3.3-butadiene 2-Chloro-1.04E–03 6.35E–02 2.16E–05 3.02E–01 7.16E–05 3.1.91E–03 1.99E–01 4.98E+02 3.99E–03 5.00E+06 6.37E–02 1.01E–02 9.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 4.00E–09 1.3-Dichloro-1.45E+04 2.93E–01 5.00E–09 1.31E–01 1.16E–05 3.02E–01 5.41E–02 5.35E–03 2.85E–03 chemical name 2.12E+05 6.00E–09 2.59E+03 6.31E–01 1.29E–02 5.06E–02 4.1.13E–02 2.59E–02 1.41E–02 1.20E+02 1.08E–01 4.40E+02 Water mobility factor 9.09E–07 1.00E–09 2.02E–04 solubility (mg/l) 8.6-Dinitro-O-cresol 4-Aminoazobenzene 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-Nitrophenol 5-Nitro-O-toluidine Abamectin Acephate Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.30E–01 1.30E–01 2.52E–01 9.00E–09 5.00E–09 1.00E–09 1.89E–03 1.69E–02 3.24E–09 9.24E+02 2.19E–03 2.56E–04 5.21E–06 4.10E–01 4.80E–04 1.49E–02 3.00E+00 8.00E+00 1.99E–04 1.71E–02 7.83E–02 4.39E+01 1.40E–02 3.00E–09 1.54E–02 1.00E+03 1.16E–05 3.00E–09 7.73E–05 9.21E–03 1.16E–05 3.87E–01 1.25E+06 1.00E+02 1.38E–01 3.33E–08 3.62E–03 2.53E+00 8.02E–01 5.50E+03 1.00E–01 1.ether 4.74E–02 5.27E+02 5.60E–01 8.butylcarbamate 4.70E+04 7.24E+03 5.00E–09 1.55E–02 combined mobility factor 4.20E+02 1.92E–02 3.16E–01 5.09E–01 4.16E–05 2.75E–03 2.90E–01 9.04E–01 1.40E–02 2.1.30E–01 2.73E–03 3.73E–01 1.20E+03 1.16E–05 4.34E–01 1.29E–01 1.84E–03 7.75E+02 4.18E+05 1.40E+03 1.45E–04 9.00E–09 1.63E–06 1.00E+06 2.10E–02 3.12E–01 2.80E–02 5.00E+06 2.04E+02 9.00E+00 7.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine 3.66E–03 1.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.01E–03 3.59E+01 3.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 3.

34E–02 1.16E–04 1.50E+04 2.94E+00 1.16E–04 5.32E–03 1.00E–04 3.00E–09 .85E–02 1.00E–09 1.00E–09 1.63E–03 4.30E–04 1.93E–05 3.34E–02 4.00E–09 1.95E–04 1.65E–01 8.trifluoride Bromacil Bromine Bromochlorodifluoromethane vp (atm) 4.00E+00 3.82E+05 3.16E–04 2.forms) Aluminum.00E–03 1.92E+05 2.00E+06 3.96E–03 5.16E–05 3.43E–02 3.03E–01 1.26E–01 1.97E–04 5.63E–02 3.26E–04 1.80E+05 4.00E+00 1.76E–03 3.99E–02 5.31E–01 5.16E–05 3.03E–02 3.00E–09 1.16E–05 4.76E–01 3.00E+06 1.39E–05 1.00E+00 1.16E–03 3.87E–01 1.89E–02 2.29E–01 6.76E–04 5.00E–01 2.00E–09 1.00E–09 1.07E–04 2.10E+00 5.77E–04 3.16E–05 2.62E–01 3.77E+02 Water mobility factor 7.63E–02 3.trichloride Benzoyl.69E–07 1.32E+06 8.00E–09 4.05E–04 1.83E–02 1.60E–04 5.84E–07 9.00E–02 1.trichloride Boron.16E–05 solubility (mg/l) 6.15E–04 3.00E+00 5.45E–02 5.chloride Aluminum Aluminum.44E–02 8.40E–02 2.47E+01 1.00E–09 7.chloride Benzoyl.peroxide Benzyl.30E+01 4.16E–05 1.00E+02 1.31E–01 8.61E–05 7.32E–08 1.34E–04 1.00E–03 1.80E+03 1.06E–02 3.94E+03 9.09E+02 2.amine Allyl.37E–01 1.96E–02 6.15E–04 3.00E+00 1.00E–09 1.Quantifying Mobility 95 taBlE 7.20E–04 1.25E–03 2.74E–04 1.77E–02 1.08E–04 1.66E–02 1.32E–03 1.22E+02 2.58E–05 1.32E–05 3.95E–04 3.79E–02 1.15E+02 3.73E–02 4.94E–01 1.16E–05 3.14E–04 1.70E–01 1.66E–02 combined mobility factor 3.07E–02 4.ether Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane Bis(2-chloroethyl).87E–08 2.16E–05 6.16E–05 3.97E–02 3.28E–03 7.16E–05 3.23E–02 1.00E–03 3.29E–02 3.03E–03 2.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 2.16E–05 2.00E+00 1.79E+03 3.00E+00 3.00E–09 4.78E–02 1.(fibrous.chloride Benzene Benzidine Benzo(Ghi)perylene Benzoic.phosphide Ametryn Amitrole Ammonia Aniline Anthracene Antimony Arsenic Asbestos Atrazine Barium Benfluralin Benzal.06E–01 1.16E–04 3.58E–02 4.90E–01 2.69E–08 3.00E–09 1.00E–04 5.95E–04 1.00E–02 1.00E–03 1.chloride Beryllium Bifenthrin Biphenyl Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl).89E–03 1.29E–04 3.32E–08 1.70E–02 1.alcohol Allyl.70E+03 7.38E–01 1.47E–01 1.16E–05 1.02E–03 3.09E–02 2.03E+03 1.oxide.16E–01 1.16E–05 1.11E–09 1.33E–03 continued chemical name Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl.70E–01 1.81E–01 5.oxide Boron.00E+00 1.63E–01 1.61E–08 9.00E–09 1.12E–03 1.16E–04 1.16E–05 3.79E–01 9.60E+04 4.22E–04 5.51E–09 1.37E+03 1.19E–01 7.34E–04 5.05E–01 1.16E–05 4.47E–01 1.25E+02 1.63E–02 1.81E–02 3.52E–03 2.16E–05 6.00E+00 2.16E–05 3.29E–02 1.99E–02 3.00E–02 3.05E+04 3.02E–03 2.00E+00 1.00E–01 6.00E–01 1.69E–01 3.00E–09 1.15E–04 3.00E–01 3.00E–09 2.00E–09 8.ether Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(tributyltin).72E+04 2.50E+02 1.00E+00 1.00E+01 1.16E–05 8.12E–02 8.

98E+02 1.23E–02 3.00E–09 1.97E–04 1.00E+00 5.acid Chlorimuron.10E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E–09 3.42E–04 2.92E–02 3.26E–03 1.00E+00 4.methyl.10E+02 3.20E+03 6.00E+00 1.00E–09 1.83E–04 4.16E–05 3.direct.00E–04 1.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 3.94E–02 1.64E–01 4.29E–02 2.16E–05 3.15E–06 1.58E–05 7.26E–01 2.92E–02 7.00E+00 4.49E–03 2.40E–01 7.76E+00 2.18E–03 1.77E+03 5.73E–02 5.49E–01 1.50E–01 5.47E–01 6.00E+00 2.67E–01 2.00E–09 2.77E–06 1.47E–02 5.98E–03 3.16E–05 3.00E–09 1.30E+03 1.36E–01 3.blue.15E–04 3.00E–02 1.25E–01 5.59E–01 1.81E–04 5.00E–09 1.00E+00 3.49E–02 1.00E+00 1.33E–01 1.93E+02 1.47E–02 2.16E–05 4.00E–09 2.38E–01 2.16E–05 7.17E–01 7.16E–05 1.85E–01 3.17E–03 6.96E–03 5.93E–05 4.05E–01 1.99E+02 4.68E+03 7.02E–02 9.18E+03 7.16E–05 chemical name Bromotrifluoromethane Bromoxynil Bromoxynil.00E–02 2.cyanamide Camphechlor Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Carbon.00E+00 1.60E–02 3.42E–01 1.83E–01 1.10E–01 1.30E+02 8.32E–01 3.37E–04 5.35E–04 7.37E–02 1.00E+00 9.32E+03 6.11E–01 1.44E–02 2.99E–05 5.32E–09 6.86E–01 5.00E–09 1.ether Chlorophenols Chloropicrin Chlorotetrafluoroethane Chlorothalonil Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorpyrifos.79E–09 6.79E–01 2.26E–03 1.20E+02 1.00E+00 3.28E–03 1.00E–01 4.octanoate Butyl.82E–02 3.00E+00 1.94E–01 1.40E+03 1.49E–01 4.00E–04 4.16E–05 solubility (mg/l) 3.00E–09 1.46E–02 7.ethyl Chlorine Chlorine.00E–04 3.18E–03 5.62E+03 9..61E–03 5.86E–02 1.acid Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzilate Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane Chloromethyl.00E+00 5.00E–03 Water mobility factor 1.87E–09 1.67E–05 6.dioxide Chloroacetic.95E–05 7.94E+04 2.40E–01 1.03E–04 5.95E–05 7.40E–02 1.22E+03 1.61E+05 5.95E+03 5.I.90E–09 1.16E–05 combined mobility factor 8.58E+05 4.44E–01 1.00E–02 1.50E+03 1.sulfide Carboxin Catechol Chlordane Chlorendic.74E–03 1.43E–01 1.15E–04 3.23E–05 7.79E–02 3.53E–08 5.79E–02 1.07E–03 3.76E–04 2.80E+04 8.11E–04 1.00E–01 9.16E–05 3.59E–01 8.16E–05 6.tetrachloride Carbonyl.14E–02 2.00E–09 1.70E–05 1.75E–04 9.67E+04 1.00E+06 8.00E+00 1.54E–02 8.38E–09 3.56E–02 2.96 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 7.32E–09 5.26E–01 5.92E–09 1.218 Cadmium Calcium.10E+04 3.62E–09 9.00E+00 2.93E+05 5.27E–03 8.95E–05 1.00E+03 7.41E–02 6.58E–05 3.98E–01 2.00E–02 1.methyl Chlorsulfuron Chromium Cobalt Copper Creosotes vp (atm) 1.20E+02 1.00E–09 6.11E–01 6.00E–09 .58E–05 6.00E+00 2.00E+01 4.38E–05 1.96E–02 1.22E–02 1.disulfide Carbon.32E–08 1.36E–02 1.74E–01 5.26E–02 7.66E–01 1.16E–05 1.acrylate Butyraldehyde C.45E–02 9.14E–05 9.05E–02 1.16E–05 3.70E–01 7.26E–02 3.30E+01 2.90E–02 4.00E+00 1.18E–01 1.32E–08 1.21E–03 8.16E–05 1.83E–03 5.58E–05 4.00E+00 1.

35E–04 2.70E+02 1.sulfate Dimethylamine Dimethylamine.24E–02 9.00E–01 5.16E–05 3.33E–06 1.84E–07 3.29E–04 1.14E–02 3.53E–08 4.00E+03 2.00E+03 2.00E+00 1.00E–09 .94E–03 5.isomers) Diazinon Dibenzofuran Dibutyl.44E–04 1.ether.92E–01 3.58E–03 3.09E–03 1.00E–09 2.06E–03 5.oxide Desmedipham Diallate Diaminotoluene.18E–01 1.14E–02 2.67E–02 2.16E–05 3.00E+00 4.37E–01 1.57E–02 2.96E+03 5.16E–01 1.63E+06 7.43E–01 8.32E–04 2.08E–01 5.04E–04 3.42E–04 1.44E–02 7.69E+01 1.16E–05 solubility (mg/l) 9.64E–02 6.12E–04 4.37E–02 5.31E–01 8.(Cfc-114) Dichlorotrifluoroethane Dichlorpentafluoro-propane Dichlorvos Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine Diethyl.16E–05 1.31E+03 8.49E–01 combined mobility factor 5.32E–03 1.00E+03 2.(mixed.76E–03 3.16E–05 4.94E–02 5.hydroperoxide Cyanazine Cyanide.78E–01 1.00E+00 1.81E–03 2.00E+00 4.28E–02 1.74E–02 9.79E–03 4.87E–04 4.32E–02 3.32E–02 1.Quantifying Mobility 97 taBlE 7.34E–03 2.(mixed.49E–02 3.54E–03 6.10E–01 1.67E–02 1.66E–04 2.00E+00 1.63E–02 1.39E+04 1.09E–08 1.00E–09 1.00E+06 4.16E–05 4.59E–01 1.58E–01 6.56E–01 5.91E–02 3.47E–08 1.16E–05 3.00E+00 8.54E–03 1.80E+04 1.06E–01 3.83E–03 1.97E–07 2.20E+05 Water mobility factor 9.16E–01 7.00E+00 1.00E+00 1.dicamba vp (atm) 5.67E–01 1.00E+01 3.00E–09 1.65E+01 1.20E–02 2.00E–09 1.52E–02 4.00E+05 5.18E–01 1.96E–01 5.80E+02 1.78E–03 1.13E+01 1.(Dgre) Dihydrosafrole Diisocyanates Dimethipin Dimethoate Dimethyl.00E+00 8.phthalate Dicamba Dichlorobenzene.16E–05 3.00E–09 1.37E–05 1.sulfate Diglycidyl.84E–03 3.47E–03 2.10E+00 1.20E+04 3.67E–02 1.44E–02 2.34E–08 1.resorcinol.09E–02 6.51E–02 1.97E–03 4.48E+04 4.38E–02 1.16E–05 3.63E–01 1.65E–03 3.05E–01 5.18E–01 3.45E–05 1.50E–02 7.80E–03 3.69E–01 3.08E–04 3.16E–05 1.58E–04 2.00E–09 1.58E–02 1.01E–01 9.00E+01 3.chlorothiophosphate Dimethyl.53E–02 1.81E+05 6.26E–06 5.16E–05 9.85E–04 5.00E+00 6.30E–02 3.74E–01 6.14E–01 1.30E+04 1.16E–05 3.48E–05 5.66E–07 4.00E+00 3.40E+03 4.12E+01 8.48E–02 1.03E+03 2.58E–01 6.00E–03 8.phthalate Dimethyl.40E–02 5.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 2.00E+00 6.88E+04 1.30E+02 1.57E–01 1.14E–03 1.00E+00 3.03E–01 3.isomers) Dichlorobromomethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorofluoromethane Dichloromethane Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.00E+06 7.49E–05 1.24E–01 continued chemical name Cresol.00E–01 3.42E–03 2.60E+03 2.97E–03 6.63E–02 6.17E–06 6.isomers) Crotonaldehyde Cumene Cumene.38E–03 1.50E–02 4.00E–09 8.00E–09 1.95E–02 2.58E–05 1.38E–01 3.50E+04 4.12E–02 8.36E–02 7.16E–05 3.21E–03 1.35E–03 9.29E–02 6.05E–04 2.39E–02 7.00E–03 3.00E+03 2.07E+03 1.50E+01 4.00E–03 1.40E+01 7.16E–05 8.53E–03 4.78E–02 1.(mixed.compounds Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyfluthrin Dazomet Decabromodiphenyl.74E–03 2.25E–01 7.00E–09 1.

24E–08 1.87E–03 1.61E–05 9.16E–05 3.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 5.45E–03 1.00E+00 1.acrylate Ethyl.00E–09 4.03E–03 5.10E+02 4.31E+02 1.16E–05 1.97E–04 1.75E+02 1.28E–01 5.00E–09 6.59E–01 3.03E–02 1.00E–09 1.50E+04 3.30E+01 1.glycol.74E–02 1.06E–02 3.00E–03 1.20E–03 1.glycol Ethylene.00E+00 4.95E–01 3.(Hcp) vp (atm) 2.(mixed.65E–02 3.92E–03 9.24E–03 5.00E+06 1.and.00E+00 2.29E–04 6.58E–02 4.59E+04 7.00E–09 1.95E–04 4.32E–01 1. salts.42E–01 5.76E–04 1.18E–02 5.thiourea Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.00E+00 1.09E–02 5.05E–02 1.00E+00 2.00E+06 1.00E+00 1.16E–05 7.00E+00 3.57E–03 9.00E+00 1.26E–03 1.79E–03 7.20E–04 1.chloride Dinitrobutyl.endothall Diuron Epichlorohydrin Ethoprop Ethyl.59E–01 8.76E–05 4.01E–01 5.45E–02 5.16E–05 1.83E–07 2.ethers Heptachlor Hexachloro-1.monoethyl.72E–03 5.11E+04 1.79E–01 1.acid Freon.30E–02 1.13E–04 1.87E–05 1.54E–04 1.64E–01 8.00E–09 .00E–01 7.acid.70E–03 3.esters Ethyleneimine Fenoxycarb Ferbam Fluometuron Fluorine Fluorouracil Folpet Fomesafen Formaldehyde Formic.21E+04 3..ether Ethylene.40E+02 Water mobility factor 6.03E–02 1.15E–01 6.80E–01 3.26E–03 5.05E–02 6.00E–09 1.13E–01 1.dipropylthiocarbamate Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene.22E–01 1.29E–01 1.chloroformate Ethyl.16E–05 4.27E–02 5.93E–03 chemical name Dimethylcarbamoyl.00E+01 4.77E–01 7.00E+04 1.00E–03 7.00E+00 1.30E–03 1.36E–05 7.10E+02 1.45E–01 1.23E–02 3.glycol.20E+00 6.60E–02 1.ether Ethylene.06E–02 6.16E–05 1.31E–02 5.40E–02 1.00E+00 1.95E–02 1.16E–05 3.00E+00 5.04E–07 1.43E–08 1.00E+01 1.30E–02 2.98 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 7.monomethyl.34E–03 7.59E+05 5.58E–05 7.16E–05 solubility (mg/l) 4.05E–04 2.00E+00 7.16E–01 6.00E+00 1.14E–01 4.24E–04 1.07E–03 1.30E+00 1.07E–01 3.05E–01 1.00E+06 1.41E–03 6.16E–05 6.00E–09 1.57E–03 1.113 gamma-Lindane Glycol.93E–05 5.21E–03 1.16E–05 1.93E–03 4.13E–04 3.20E+01 2.61E–02 3.91E–01 1.30E+02 1.phenol Dinitrotoluene.80E+00 5.00E–09 1.00E+00 1.21E–03 1.64E–02 1.30E+04 1.80E–03 1.00E+06 1.57E–04 3.18E–02 combined mobility factor 3.16E–05 3.57E–01 2.00E–09 1.00E+00 6.38E–02 9.41E–01 1.28E–03 1.00E+00 8.isomers) Di-N-Propylnitrosamine Dioxin Diphenylamine Dipotassium.79E–03 9.89E–04 7.3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethane Hexachlorophene.28E–08 1.40E–02 1.37E–05 1.00E+06 6.20E+01 6.82E–02 1.oxide Ethylene.11E–03 8.00E+00 4.00E+06 1.48E–03 2.50E+02 1.00E+06 2.69E+02 1.75E–01 1.07E–07 1.41E–02 4.66E–02 3.70E+02 7.90E–03 5.69E+00 1.14E–02 1.26E–01 6.11E–01 1.00E+00 1.01E–03 8.70E+02 1.11E–04 1.04E–01 5.07E–02 9.16E–03 1.78E–04 1.87E–05 2.84E–07 4.94E–02 1.59E–07 3.00E+05 1.07E–03 6.26E–03 3.00E–09 1.12E–01 1.77E–04 3..06E–01 5.55E–03 8.14E–02 1.

15E+02 6.71E–07 1.20E+04 0.30E+02 1.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 3.26E–01 1.07E–02 2.59E–01 8.39E–04 3.00E+06 1.00E+00 9.21E–02 1.13E–01 1.26E–01 7.73E–01 9.04E–08 3.90E+04 1.13E–01 4.04E–02 1.00E+00 2.88E–04 1.pentacarbonyl Isobutyraldehyde Isodrin Isosafrole Lactofen Lead Linuron Lithium.37E–02 1.22E–01 6.30E+04 6.33E–01 4.16E–05 4.28E+04 1.90E–03 4.85E–03 1.65E–01 3.04E–01 1.77E–01 continued chemical name Hexazinone Hydramethylnon Hydrazine Hydrochloric.66E–02 6.09E–01 combined mobility factor 9.ketone Methyl.00E–09 1.00E–09 1.07E–01 3.57E–01 9.ether Methylene.85E–01 5.52E+04 9.16E–05 1.62E–03 3.30E–01 7.00E–09 9.19E–04 1.19E+04 Water mobility factor 1.44E–03 3.49E–02 1.57E–03 1.38E+04 1.00E+06 7.74E–01 3.50E+04 3.16E–05 3.60E–03 8.63E–01 5.44E–05 9.16E–03 1.40E–04 3.38E–01 1.58E–05 2.00E–09 2.48E–01 3.03E–03 4.16E–05 1.methacrylate Methyl.00E–01 4.42E–02 1.32E–08 1.82E–07 1.50E–03 2.87E–09 9.33E+05 1.16E–04 2.92E+04 1.08E–04 2.89E–05 5.22E–01 1.00E+01 2.00E–09 1.14E–03 2.45E–05 5.tert-butyl.04E–04 8.74E–04 1.26E–02 2.10E+04 1.43E+02 4.54E–01 1.28E+04 1.00E+00 2.85E–01 1.isocyanate Methyl.09E–03 3.63E–06 1.00E+00 3.77E+01 5.94E+04 1.16E–05 3.00E–04 5.44E+02 1.acrylate Methyl.00E+00 8.bromide Methyl.anhydride Malononitrile Manganese M-Cresol M-Dinitrobenzene Mecoprop Mercury Merphos Methacrylonitrile Metham.74E–01 6.71E–01 1.22E–01 1.00E–01 8.02E–04 1.22E–02 5.22E+05 1.72E–01 2.26E–01 8.67E–01 4.98E–02 7.16E–05 5.35E–01 1.acid Hydrofluoric.66E–03 1.20E–02 7.90E+04 2.iodide Methyl.52E–01 1.00E–02 3.46E–01 solubility (mg/l) 3.14E–04 3.carbonate Malathion Maleic.16E–01 8.58E–01 5.51E–01 1.50E–01 1.parathion Methyl.20E+02 1.28E–01 6.sodium Methanol Methazole Methoxone Methoxychlor Methyl.68E–03 3.00E–03 1.00E–09 1.68E–01 0.97E–09 9.chlorocarbonate Methyl.00E–01 1.82E–01 7.00E–04 8.41E–02 1.01E–02 3.00E+00 1.16E–05 1.05E–01 1.25E–01 6.90E–09 3.00E+06 8.28E–04 1.04E–02 .isobutyl.00E–09 1.81E–02 4.23E+05 9.91E+03 1.cyanide Hydroquinone Iron.08E–02 5.05E–02 1.92E–05 1.29E–04 1.00E–01 8.93E–05 3.16E–05 2.62E–01 3.22E–03 2.37E–02 4.32E–02 1.24E–01 1.50E+01 1.54E+04 7.17E–01 1.16E–05 3.97E–08 1.07E–04 4.bromide vp (atm) 1.75E–05 1.acid Hydrogen.98E–01 1.21E–01 1.00E+00 1.03E–01 9.Quantifying Mobility 99 taBlE 7.00E–09 1.27E+04 1.06E–01 3.00E–09 1.20E–02 3.54E–05 2.50E+00 6.16E–04 1.61E–04 4.16E–05 1.00E+00 4.77E–01 2.51E–02 3.23E–01 3.00E–02 7.22E+02 1.15E–04 1.97E–05 1.16E–05 1.15E–01 1.40E–03 5.22E–05 1.16E–01 9.49E–01 1.00E+00 1.00E–09 3.25E–01 3.99E–01 1.00E–09 3.89E–02 6.25E–02 8.

00E+06 1.08E–03 1.56E–02 5.00E+00 solubility (mg/l) 1.09E+04 5.88E–03 1.55E–03 2.51E–01 1.15E–02 2.68E–06 1.47E–01 1.58E–05 5.10E–02 8.21E–02 7.50E+00 3.compounds Nitric.91E+04 2.25E–03 3.87E–03 1.61E–01 3.00E–09 1.100 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 7.65E–01 1.74E–04 3.16E–05 3.59E–05 2.13E–03 3.97E–05 3.81E–03 9.65E+04 3.94E–02 3.58E–03 1.alcohol N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea N-Hexane Nickel Nicotine.30E+04 9.32E+04 1.acid Nitrilotriacetic.00E–09 6.60E+03 2.10E–01 1.00E+06 7.20E–03 5.00E+06 9.36E–02 6.44E–01 2.30E–02 3.63E–01 combined mobility factor 1.16E–05 5.98E–03 3.81E–02 1.acid Nitrobenzene Nitroglycerin N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Methylolacrylamide N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosopiperidine Norflurazon O-Anisidine O-Cresol Octachlorostyrene O-Dinitrobenzene O-Phenylenediamine O-Toluidine O-Toluidine.95E–01 1.16E–05 4.34E–04 1.00E–09 1.32E–04 1.49E–03 1.45E+03 1.15E–02 2.44E+05 Water mobility factor 3.88E–01 1.00E+00 2.16E–05 1.76E–06 7.88E–01 1.62E–02 1.08E–04 8.57E–03 2.29E–01 9.06E+05 1.00E–03 1.27E–02 1.05E+03 4.00E–02 1.12E–02 8.38E+05 1.00E–01 6.and.57E–06 1.58E–04 4.20E+01 1.62E–02 4.37E–04 3.16E–05 3.78E+02 7.16E–05 3.90E–03 2.00E–01 1.32E–04 4.69E–03 1.80E–02 1.50E+01 1.00E+00 1.61E+02 1.37E+01 9.78E–02 3.11E–02 1.00E–01 2.41E–04 1.19E–02 5.37E–05 1.00E+00 4.92E–03 3.00E–04 1.66E+04 8.38E+03 1.72E–02 9.41E–02 1.16E–05 3.94E–02 2.35E–01 2.28E–05 1.45E–01 5.66E–03 8.95E–05 1.10E–02 3.00E+00 .57E–02 3.00E–09 2.33E–02 8.77E–01 5.59E+04 1.89E–02 4.N-Dimethylaniline N.42E+02 1.00E+00 3.07E–03 1.22E–03 5.00E+00 8.N-Dimethylformamide Nabam Naled Naphthalene N-Butyl.71E–02 1.44E+04 7.11E–09 6.69E–04 7.29E–07 1.20E–01 2.11E–02 8.salts Nitrapyrin Nitrate.28E–03 1.87E–03 3.16E–05 2.58E–03 1.04E–01 2.13E–08 1.00E–09 5.10E+01 6.99E–02 1.00E–01 5.27E+03 3.hydrochloride Oxydiazon Oxyfluorfen O-Xylene Ozone vp (atm) 1.02E–02 4.80E+01 2.90E+02 5.01E–01 1.01E–01 2.50E+00 1.16E–04 1.80E–01 2.99E–04 1.86E–04 4.58E–01 1.33E+02 4.trioxide Monochloropentafluoroethane M-Phenylenediamine M-Xylene Myclobutanil N.43E–01 4.97E–01 3.04E+04 1.00E–09 1.97E–04 3.24E–01 8.00E–09 8.98E–03 1.29E+03 7.00E–05 3.25E–02 4.09E+03 1.16E–05 2.00E+06 2.00E+05 1.16E–05 8.72E–01 5.95E–08 1.16E–05 5.14E–01 3.00E+00 1.22E–01 2.98E–02 3.27E–04 3.19E–02 3.08E–02 5.04E–01 5.16E–05 7.02E–01 7.26E–01 3.11E–02 5.16E–05 1.16E–01 1.04E–02 9.89E–02 5.31E–01 chemical name Metribuzin Molybdenum.00E+06 1.00E–01 1.63E–07 1.21E–04 1.24E–02 2.00E–09 5.44E–03 1.00E–09 1.57E–02 6.92E–03 1.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 3.92E–03 5.13E–04 1.62E–03 4.00E+00 3.00E–09 1.40E–02 5.15E–02 1.00E–09 1.

alkanes.42E–02 3.16E–05 9.18E–03 3.95E–07 2.00E–09 4.00E–03 7.34E–01 3.90E+04 4.00E+06 6.47E–03 1.12E–07 3.01E–07 1.92E–01 5.78E–03 2.20E–02 5.24E–04 9.33E–02 1.12E–01 3.00E–09 1.88E–01 9.63E–05 3.18E–01 1.26E–02 1.91E–03 6.74E–03 3.63E–05 solubility (mg/l) 1.00E–03 1.00E–09 1.57E–03 3.dimethyldithiocarbamate Potassium.23E–04 4.38E–04 2.23E–02 7.07E–03 2.95E–03 1.45E–05 1.00E+00 1.38E–07 1.07E–02 3.83E–02 7.10E–03 1.44E–04 1.40E–03 3.alcohol Propiconazole vp (atm) 3.28E+04 9.32E–09 1.75E+05 2.28E+02 1.54E–02 5.93E–02 4.00E–01 1.00E+00 7.00E–03 6.31E–01 4.96E–07 3.00E–09 6.43E–03 3.10E+01 3.70E–03 3.77E–03 3.00E–09 3.80E+02 1.sodium Peracetic.bromate Potassium.26E–01 2.13E–02 5.05E+05 2.85E–05 5.47E–01 8.16E–05 3.90E+04 2.30E+01 1.44E–03 3.43E+01 7.00E–09 1.84E–03 8.40E+01 5.44E–02 2.16E–05 3.32E–09 .24E–02 5.20E+01 4.30E–02 1.52E–01 6.53E–01 4.00E–09 8.81E+03 2.00E+05 1.18E–04 3.53E–01 7.16E–05 3.89E–01 4.45E–04 2.87E–03 2.16E–05 5.15E+04 6.74E–03 2.91E–03 4.16E–05 2.63E–04 1.N-methyldithiocarbamate P-Phenylenediamine Prometryn Pronamide Propachlor Propane.66E–03 1.89E–03 2.00E+02 1.13E–01 1.00E–09 1.16E–05 3.45E–07 1.75E–02 2.19E–02 3.66E–03 6.white) Phthalic.16E–04 3.18E–02 5.16E–05 6.26E–03 continued chemical name Paraldehyde Paraquat Parathion P-Chloroaniline P-Cresidine P-Cresol P-Dinitrobenzene Pendimethalin Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachlorophenol Pentobarbital.99E–04 6.00E+06 1.51E–05 2.75E–01 8.82E–01 3.34E–05 1.69E–02 3.00E+00 1.00E–09 1.46E–04 1.07E–04 1.20E+03 4.90E+01 2.16E–05 2.03E–07 8.Sultone Propanil Propargite Propargyl.00E+00 2.31E–03 5.62E–04 3.58E–06 1.45E–01 7.50E–04 9.16E–05 3.96E–02 1.16E–05 3.62E–02 3.70E–01 6.04E–02 1.05E+05 6.91E–03 1.00E+00 1.52E–02 3.28E–02 1.16E–05 1.13E+02 1.90E+03 2.(C10–C13) Polychlorinated.compounds Potassium.00E–09 1.00E–09 1.63E–01 1.07E–01 6.77E–04 3.65E–02 4.63E–07 1.butoxide P-Nitroaniline Polychlorinated.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 1.78E–05 4.16E–05 3.56E–01 5.13E–04 3.32E–03 6.26E–02 1.87E–02 2.10E+02 Water mobility factor 3.or.31E–01 8.30E+02 1.16E–05 2.34E–04 5.40E+05 3.00E–01 5.71E+05 1.35E–02 2.00E–01 1.acid Permethrin Phenanthrene Phenol Phenothrin Phenytoin Phosgene Phosphine Phosphorus.anhydride Picloram Piperonyl.biphenyls Polycyclic.75E–05 1.35E–01 8.97E–08 1.15E+00 8.97E–06 1.80E–04 3.12E+05 7.aromatic.16E–05 1.00E+00 1.00E–09 1.00E–09 1.00E–09 1.34E–02 2.70E+04 3.Quantifying Mobility 101 taBlE 7.70E–02 3.12E–04 2.16E–05 3.05E–02 combined mobility factor 2.52E+02 5.(yellow.95E–08 4.63E–01 1.50E+01 7.16E–05 8.01E–03 1.32E–01 9.97E–05 1.59E–01 4.06E–03 1.37E–01 3.37E–04 3.16E–05 1.

16E–05 2.20E+00 3.alcohol Selenium Silver Simazine Sodium.00E–01 5.16E–05 3.15E–01 1.67E–01 6.49E–03 1.06E–03 1.26E–02 5.00E+03 1.10E–02 4.62E+02 1.74E+03 5.93E–04 3.79E–04 3.88E–01 2.00E–02 6.32E–02 6.55E–01 2.81E–01 4.21E+02 1.26E–03 9.31E–02 1.11E–06 1.06E–04 3.42E+05 3.06E+05 1.azide Sodium.00E–09 2.20E–09 7.16E–05 3.50E+03 1.00E+00 5.58E–03 3.81E–02 4.16E–05 3.00E+02 1.83E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E+06 6.00E–09 4.79E–03 8.16E–05 3.63E+05 3.18E–04 6.77E–01 5.102 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 7.25E–01 4.48E–03 3.00E+06 2.02E–01 3.94E–03 2.00E–09 1.15E–01 9.17E–01 7.39E+02 1.41E–02 3.00E–09 1.95E–09 1.00E–09 1.00E+06 1.53E–01 4.40E–01 2.16E–05 8.58E–05 3.41E–02 7.00E–09 1.07E–03 4.89E–03 1.62E–01 1.45E–03 3.06E+03 1.11E–02 1.32E–03 4.32E–02 1.acid Sulfuryl.29E–02 combined mobility factor 5.47E–01 8.00E+00 1.00E+06 7.09E–02 2.oxide Sulfuric.48E–02 1.S.00E–09 1.20E–02 1.92E–01 5.86E+03 2.13E–05 2.16E–05 3.74E–02 5.90E+05 1.16E–05 3.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 5.32E–02 9.07E–01 7.87E–07 1.84E–02 1.dicamba Sodium.alcohol Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachlorvinphos Tetracycline.63E–04 1.00E–01 5.16E–05 5.99E–02 2.65E–01 3.00E+06 1.00E–01 5.16E–05 1.35E–02 9.16E–05 3.73E–02 5.43E+02 3.58E–05 1.55E–03 2.00E–09 1.47E–02 5.63E–02 1.00E–09 1.00E+00 1.00E–02 5.82E–02 1.00E+00 7.10E+01 2.00E+01 1.46E–05 8.67E–03 2.23E–02 2.00E–01 1.55E–03 2.00E–09 1.48E–03 5.00E+01 2.94E–02 3.00E–04 2.04E–01 5.00E–09 1.00E+03 1.05E–08 1.49E+05 1.28E–05 1.49E–02 1.63E–09 5.dimethyldithiocarbamate Sodium.95E–04 7.hydrochloride Tetramethrin Thallium Thiabendazole Thioacetamide Thiodicarb Thiophanate-methyl Thiourea Thiram Titanium.00E–09 1.65E–02 chemical name Propionaldehyde Propoxur Propylene Propylene.30E+00 4.81E–08 1.05E–01 6.92E–01 6.99E–03 4.09E–02 3.11E+04 4.76E–02 5.00E–09 1.16E–05 3.10E+02 3.16E–05 3.00E–04 7.fluoride Tebuthiuron tert-Butyl.00E+02 5.54E–02 1.99E–01 1.81E+05 2.37E–02 2.58E–02 3.26E–04 1.tetrachloride Toluene vp (atm) 3.92E–03 2.50E+02 2.92E–04 6.86E–01 1.45E–02 1.16E–02 5.84E–01 9.16E–02 9.25E–08 1.11E+03 1.60E–04 1.90E–05 1.56E–01 6.nitrite Strychnine Styrene Styrene.00E+00 1.70E–01 solubility (mg/l) 3.52E–03 6.12E–02 1.25E–02 1.16E–05 3.00E–09 1.90E–02 .60E+05 1.00E–09 6.70E–01 2.16E–05 3.03E–04 1.26E+02 Water mobility factor 5.67E+04 3.33E–01 1.68E–01 1.00E–01 1.32E–02 2.58E–08 2.00E–09 1.27E–02 1.05E–02 1.00E+00 2.57E–04 1.50E–02 6.00E+00 7.50E+01 4.50E–01 6.00E–02 1.36E–01 3.S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Saccharin Safrole sec-Butyl.09E–01 3.16E–05 3.00E+06 1.35E–03 1.oxide Propyleneimine P-Xylene Pyridine Quinoline Quinone Quintozene S.

Properties.htm. Environmental.00E–09 6.86E–05 1. Indicators.42E–04 1.gov/oppt/rsei/pubs/basic_information.72E–02 3. BiBliography Pennsylvania.00E–02 2.and.49E+03 1.74E–02 3.63E–03 1.12E–03 1. (RSEI).3-Dichloropropene trans-1.76E+01 1.92E–01 8..salt Triethylamine Trifluralin Tris(2. of. Agency. CPP_Search.Database.Physical...04E–01 1.57E–02 3..10E+03 1. Chemical.99E+02 7.html.00E–09 7.32E–02 1.73E–01 4.dep. Recycling.93E–01 1.81E–01 9. Indicators.47E–02 2.63E–02 solubility (mg/l) 3.10E+03 1.16E–05 1.epa.20E+05 9.01E–04 3.acetate Vinyl.00E–09 3.03E–08 1.60E–04 3.81E–01 6.32E–03 Source:. Environmental.13E–03 4.23. .90E–02 9.51E–01 3.2009.chloride Warfarin.16E–05 8.76E+01 3.4-Dichloro-2-butene Triallate Tribenuron.11E–03 1.(accessed.10E+03 2.57E–01 4.diisocyanate.32E–05 2. Protection.38E–02 4.16E–03 combined mobility factor 5.47E–01 2. Environmental.16E–05 1.Quantifying Mobility 103 taBlE 7.(accessed..00E+01 Water mobility factor 6.and.83E–03 2.70E+01 1.13E–03 1..13E–01 4. Risk-Screening.us/physicalproperties/.34E–03 3.58E–02 1.chloride Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane Triclopyr.00E–09 1. 2009.63E–05 3.pa.methyl Tribromomethane Trichlorfon Trichloroacetyl..73E–02 2. 2010. Protection.55E–03 7.43E–02 1.12E–01 1.gov/oppt/rsei/pubs/basic_information.41E–01 9.07E–03 5.76E+01 3.66E–03 2.34E–01 1.3-Dibromopropyl). Environmental.00E+00 3. Agency.57E–01 3.13E–03 6.S..97E–04 3.00E+00 8.4-diisocyanate Toluene-2. Risk-Screening.00E+00 5.50E+02 4.64E–01 4.00E+04 8.13E–03 6.2010).. Environmental.92E–02 2. Land. U.blue Urethane Vanadium Vinyl.58E–05 2.29E–04 2.71E–01 4.74E–03 4.2010).63E–03 5..82E–02 1.88E–03 5.http://www.1 (continued) mobility factors of tri chemicals air mobility factor 5.20E–03 3. (RSEI).state. Database..00E–04 3.Database.(mixed..03E–01 3.80E–04 5.08E–03 5.46E–01 9.85E–02 3.html.00E+01 3.00E–09 1. U.triethylammonium.6-diisocyanate trans-1.32E–02 3.64E–02 1.58E–07 1.89E–04 6.http://www.00E–04 1.00E–02 1.80E+03 1.38E–01 5.16E–05 2.45E–07 2.99E+03 8. isomers) Toluene-2.salts Xylene Zinc vp (atm) 2.epa.50E–07 1..84E–01 8.35E–02 4.03E–02 3. Protection.37E+04 1.16E–05 3.05E–02 1.phosphate Trypan.66E–03 1. Program.00E–09 7.S.29E–02 4.05E–04 1.00E–03 7.00E+00 1..56E–01 6.80E+05 1.87E–02 1.http://www.97E–02 chemical name Toluene.16E–05 2. January. Department.January.20.51E–03 1.06E+02 1.

.

minimum. our. be. chemical.HLs.calculated.the.residual..units..to.toxic.by. method.HLs.amount..degrade. Inventory. much. is.(in.known.lb. a.remaining. then.and. media-specific. and.chemical. obtain.longer.these. the. to.data..after.using.. converting. so. for..S. in.or. HLs.chemical.on. (HL). for. chemical.70.the. the.HL. plus.would.long.yrs.the..yrs..accumulate. equating.pound. chemical-specific..release...to.not.Specifically.amount.an..HLs.yrs. end.of.year.. over.of. needed. exposure.decompose.Using.. a.Toxics.manufacturing.HL. persistence.not.the.70. about. increasing.an.residual.exposure. how.Bioaccumulative. a...the.does. each. based.or.much.in..(PBT).over. the.there.average.media-specific..accumulation.time. time. for. the. Agency.chemical. based.the.year.release. or. a.inorganics. is.365..were.for. short.days).process. compound.the. chemical.70. (in  days).the.it. amount. PF.. .million.that. a.would.workplace. were. product. environment.Chapter.HLs.degrade. the. of.persistent.70.lb.2006). on.chemical.span.. degrades.will.may.likely.or.at.the.at. (USEPA). or..69. of.in..with.residual.the.days. and. thereby. 70.as.exposure.Toxic. or. developed. (nonmetal).by..an. less.of.metals.no. averaged.impact. then.end. is. initially.converted.initial.to.yrs).life.a.a. none. on. each. released.is.(as.HL.years.of. although. were.1..compound.the.the.a. time. (metals). If. the. these. chemical.HL.through. how.of.HLs. the. were. chemicals.inorganics. compared.years.at. U.have.. factor.and. Environmental. rapidly. half-life. degrades. were. day.containing. accumulate. the.be. A.chemical-.lb.at.formula: 105 . a. of.. as.HLs.of.still.remaining..environment.while.the. there.degrade.use.8 Quantifying Persistence introduction A..Also.the.not.insignificant.or.least.applicable. yrs. from..For.degrade. the.(PF). for. of.of.or. The.remaining.of. HL. soil.the.chemical-specific. ediment. Protection..the.per. to.. HLs.is. the.(USEPA.10.than.use. the.is.that.the.dividing. organic.of. measure..would.presents. developed.Therefore..additional.that.. year.are. would. average. decomposes.by.of.home. a.following.environment.concentration.release. the.residual.when.set.Profiler.would. TRI.residual. to.due.at.over.data. water.to.a. with.that. in.would. half. Subsequently. chemical. the. obtained.infinite. of. PF. of.minimum.were. into.. rapidly. pErsistEncE factor The.. air. accumulate.if.the. for.These. the.be.was.a.a.Release.70-yr.. released.. at.in. amount.an.. a.impact.1.of. chemicals. (TRI)..This. If. in.average.or. environment. that.time.however.residual.in.accumulate.do. from.the.is. chemical.compound.released.the. environment.available.indicated. s Persistent.either.or.that.using. year.

33 0.. same.08 0.66 1.10 0.2.a. .much.lb.HL..38 0.and.99 0.49 0.70-yr.17 0. then.21 0.of.2trifluoroethane 1.2.93 air 0.TRI.00 9.05 0.1.are. time.21 0.03 ..to.16 0. as.2-Tetrachloro-2fluoroethane 1.new.16 0.2..54 0.2-Dichloro-1.02 0.the.not.2.16 0.to.t.2-Dibromoethane 1.48 0.the.10 soil 0.N0.5.TRI.13 0.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane 1. taBlE 8.10 0.a.02 0.on.38 1.chemicals.substance: .70-yr..=.up.10 0.1-Dimethyl.02 0.1.33 0.period.16 0.1.a.quantity.1.1.to.of.oxide 1.time.(0.just.21 0.before. calculate.annual.of.hydrazine 1.over.presented..HL.70.quantity..up.1-Trichloroethane 1.(0.HL.1 persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical 1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.5^[Year.33 0.values.between.02 0.by.in.02 0.t.21 sediment 4.10 0.5^[Year.t. how.2.table.51 0.t.which..course.residual.after.10 0.is.1/70.chemical.residual.01 0.38 0.….2/HL]) +.(0.(pounds).48 1..1.01 0.38 0.10 0.04 0.10 1.93 0.3/HL]).93 0.23 7.is.in.the.over.point..01 0.5^[Year. following. not.34 0.and. equation.is.2-Dichloro-1.10 0.04 0. yields.chemical-specific.was.1.2-Butylene.PFs.included. equation. residual.with.in.21 0.the.75 1.+.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 1.releases..or.48 1.yrs.17 1.resulting.frequency.04 0.the.. time. the.time.t.is.to.48 0.as.16 0.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.40 0.00 residual (lb) 3 4 2 3 3 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 pf 0.47 2.56 2.2-Tetrachloro-1fluoroethane 1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.before.Nt.3-Trichloropropane 1.both.and.13 0.74 average 1.70/HL]) This.03 0..a.or.41 4.33 0.Table 8.t½.48 1.08 0.31 0.93 0.04 0.the.00 0.expectancy.for.between.a.02 0.02 0. Nt = N0 × e − ln 2 ×t t1 2 where. and.time.long.38 0.on.1.16 0.1/HL]). the.1.for.the.1.on. used.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.in.33 0.resulted.48 1.HL.the.00 0.106 Toxic Chemicals .life.is.2-Trichloroethane 1. This.the.(0.this.available.remain.1-difluoroethane Water 0..21 0.time.divided.new.93 1.1.5^[Year.03 0.21 0.1.based.20 1.lb.93 0. to.point..08 0.. results..37 2.56 0.varying.chemicals.and.93 0.were.33 0.both.based.relatively.7-triaza-1azoniaadamantane.66 3.17 3.the.13 0.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.after.residual.04 2.34 0.releases.this.16 0. relatively.70.HL. Residual.a.04 0.chloride 1.+.06 0..a.and.due.residual.short.will.due.exposure..based.Since.just.08 0.04 0.70/70. toxicity.quantity.

21 0.6-Xylidine 2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-Chloro-1.36 0.07 0.01 0.2tetrafluoroethane 1-Chloro-1.21 0.36 0.33 sediment 0.10 0.10 0.Butoxyethyl.02 0.4-D.04 0.31 0.31 0.04 0.93 1.21 0.70 1.10 0.10 0.31 0.4-Dichlorobenzene 1.2.73 0.93 0.10 0.02 0.02 0.4-D.02 0.3pentafluoropropane 1.93 0.31 0.10 0.3-Dichloro-1.4-Db 2.33 0.4-Dimethylphenol 2.19 13.32 0.1trifluoroethane 2.93 0.01 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.01 0.1.31 0.78 0.10 0.10 0.16 soil 0.39 0.08 0.02 0.93 0.21 0.50 0.3-Butadiene 1.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical 1.4-Dichlorophenol 2.93 0.02 0.02 0.21 0.21 0.31 0.01 0.66 average 0.02 0.33 20.02 0.6-Dinitrotoluene 2.93 0.10 0.31 1.00 0.18 0.ester 2.10 0.4-Diaminotoluene 2.31 0.48 0.4-D 2.48 0.2.38 0.21 0.1.16 0.2-Dichloro-1.00 0.4-Dichloro-2-butene 1.ester 2.08 0.02 0.00 0.10 0.08 0.10 0.02 0.10 0.Sodium.02 0.02 0.02 0.4-Dinitrophenol 2.21 0.10 0.93 0.51 0.36 0.02 0.02 0.10 0.01 0.33 0.21 0.00 0.13 0.1.2-Dichlorobenzene 1.16 0.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.73 0.08 0.04 0.93 0.3-Dichloropropene 2.02 0.21 0.07 0.34 0.21 0.21 0.10 0.02 0.50 0.2-Dichloroethylene 1.4.93 0.02 0.00 0.2.4.2-Dichloropropane 1.02 0.31 0.10 0.10 0.02 0.02 0.21 0.1.2-Ethylhexyl.93 0.21 0.00 4.3-Dichlorobenzene 1.93 0.31 0.21 0.2-Phenylenediamine 1.31 0.48 air 0.02 0.48 0.10 0.93 1.21 0.2-Diphenylhydrazine 1.38 0.21 0.08 0.33 0.34 0.Isopropyl.02 0.93 1.3-Dichloropropylene 1.4-D.10 0.3propanedicarbonitrile 1-Chloro-1.02 0.00 0.Quantifying Persistence 107 taBlE 8.38 0.1.93 0.00 0.93 0.10 0.01 0.00 0.93 0.33 0.66 residual (lb) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 6 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 pf 0.00 0.04 0.93 0.93 0.00 0.1-difluoroethane 2.5-Trichlorophenol 2.33 0.4-D.31 0.93 0.21 0.10 0.2tetrafluoroethane Water 0.2-Dichloroethane 1.93 0.48 0.48 1.06 0.33 0.10 0.38 1.21 0.00 0.13 0.salt 2.10 0.6-Trichlorophenol 2.31 0.ester 2.21 0.21 0.16 0.10 0.93 0.21 0.93 0.86 3.00 4.13 0.31 0.21 0.10 0.21 0.02 0.4-Dioxane 1-Bromo-1-(bromomethyl)-1.33 0.13 1.93 0.93 0.15 0.04 0.93 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.04 continued .10 0.07 82.04 0.10 0.02 0.21 0.02 0.93 1.21 0.33 0.02 0.21 0.21 0.3-Phenylenediamine 1.00 0.

01 0.00 0.04 0.38 0. dihydrochloride 3.1.01 average 1.1-trifluoroethane 2-Ethoxyethanol 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 2-Methoxyethanol 2-Methyllactonitrile 2-Methylpyridine 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitropropane 2-Phenylphenol 3.38 0.00 0.21 0.08 sediment 0.14 0.08 0.04 0.21 0.08 0.31 0.4′-Methylenebis(2chloroaniline) 4.31 0.08 0.48 0.02 0.93 0.02 0.21 0.00 0.93 0.21 0.10 0.01 0.08 0.01 0.3′-Dimethylbenzidine 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.salt Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.01 0.38 0.93 0.08 0.31 0.15 0.01 0.11 0.13 0.10 0.01 0.13 0.08 0.93 0.02 0.00 0.38 0.04 0.93 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.38 0.01 0.17 0.00 0.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.00 0.51 0.99 0.31 0.13 residual (lb) 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 pf 0.21 0.33 0.08 0.49 0.93 0.01 0.08 0.16 0.32 0.93 0.2.01 0.04 0.02 0..13 0.04 0.00 1.38 0.02 0.00 0.16 0.04 0.6-Dinitro-O-cresol 4-Aminoazobenzene 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-Nitrophenol 5-Nitro-O-toluidine Abamectin Acephate Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acifluorfen.01 .21 0.04 0.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol 4.02 0.01 0.13 0.13 0.00 0.2pentafluoropropane 3.21 0.21 0.49 0.02 0.13 0.02 0. butylcarbamate 4.10 0.04 0.10 0.01 0.21 0.02 0.32 0.13 1.02 0.00 0.01 0.93 0.00 0.99 0.18 0.3-Dichloro-1.17 0.02 0.17 0.21 0.13 0.93 0.04 0.21 0.74 0.02 0.05 0.49 0.13 0.38 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.4′-Methylenedianiline 4.04 0.38 0.33 0.21 0.1.00 0.33 0.10 0.38 4.08 0.04 0.70 0.108 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 8.08 0.02 0.48 0.21 0.08 0.00 0.38 0.ether 4.05 0.10 0.acid Acrylonitrile Water 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.08 0.31 0.38 0.31 0.93 0.08 0.05 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.38 4.10 0.89 0.08 0.01 0.02 0.10 0.04 soil 0.00 0.00 0. dihydrochloride 3.31 0.sodium.31 0.13 1.02 0.07 0.33 0.01 0.38 0.48 0.01 0.38 0.49 0.02 0.38 0.00 0.93 0.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.08 0.16 0.04 0.35 0.31 0.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine 3.10 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical 2-Chloro-1.93 1.04 0.49 0.01 0.02 0.21 0.38 air 2.31 0.21 0.38 1.00 0.08 0.10 0.04 0.10 0.13 0.10 0.04 0.38 0.02 0.00 0.13 0.1.93 0.93 1.08 0.10 0.

08 0.48 0.31 1.02 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Alachlor Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl.02 6.21 0.21 air 0.02 0.(friable) Atrazine Barium Benfluralin Benzal.06 0.03 0.chloride Benzoyl.93 Long Long Long 1.99 0.02 0.38 0.01 0.10 0.25 0.04 0.38 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.48 1.02 0.38 0.31 0.13 0.16 0.13 0.93 0.33 0.21 Long Long Long 0.01 0.00 0.13 0.chloride Beryllium Bifenthrin Biphenyl Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl).38 0.47 0.01 0.38 0.93 0.01 1.10 0.08 0.01 0.H.00 0.00 Long 0.08 0.02 0.trichloride Boron.02 0.00 0.13 residual (lb) 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 70 70 70 1 1 1 1 10 1 70 70 70 1 70 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 70 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 pf 0.10 0.10 0.02 1.49 0.10 0.48 Long 4.or.21 0.33 0.13 0.93 0.00 1.03 0.Quantifying Persistence 109 taBlE 8.49 Long Long Long 0.31 0.93 0.16 Long Long Long 0.49 0.31 Long Long Long 0.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.16 0.33 0.31 0.chloride Benzene Benzidine Benzo(G.10 0.21 0.15 0.33 Long 0.10 0.05 0.I)perylene Benzoic.99 0.33 Long Long Long 0.(fume.00 0.49 0.48 Long Long Long 1.52 0.00 0.16 0.02 0.04 0.01 continued .93 0.ether Bis(tributyltin).04 Long 0.21 sediment 1.02 0.93 4.38 Long 4.38 0.08 soil 0.01 0.10 Long Long Long 0.21 0.00 0.21 0.93 8.04 0.31 0.10 0.01 Long 0.16 Long 0.alcohol Allyl.01 0.04 0.00 1.00 1.31 0.38 0.33 2.08 Long 0.01 0.00 0.31 0.oxide.10 0.00 0.32 0.38 0.04 0.04 0.31 0.peroxide Benzyl.13 0.93 0.ether Bis(chloromethyl).38 0.02 0.04 0.13 0.21 0.21 0.00 Long Long Long 0.trichloride Benzoyl.49 0.02 0.oxide Boron.99 0.93 1.02 1.04 0.33 0.13 Long 1.00 0.21 0.05 0.08 0.00 0.00 Long Long Long 0. ether Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane Bis(2-chloroethyl).16 0.01 0.93 0.(fibrous.04 0.chloride Allylamine alpha-Naphthylamine Aluminum.04 0.00 0.08 0.40 1.forms) Aluminum.02 0.08 0.87 0.01 0.08 0.02 0.48 0.01 0.21 0.02 0.00 0.14 0.02 0.00 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.49 Long 1.04 27.02 0.10 0.32 0.02 0.02 0.dust) Aluminum.04 0.49 0.13 0.48 0.04 average 0.49 0.47 0.02 1.phosphide Ametryn Amitraz Amitrole Ammonia Aniline Anthracene Antimony Arsenic Asbestos.00 1.03 0.trifluoride Water 0.21 0.49 0.

38 0.08 0.01 0..08 0.00 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Bromacil Bromine Bromochlorodifluoromethane Bromoform Bromomethane Bromotrifluoromethane Bromoxynil Bromoxynil.38 0.00 0.04 0.93 0.58 0.04 0.10 0.19 7.10 Long 0.93 1.04 0.33 0.00 0..04 0.00 0.7 Cadmium Calcium.86 3.25 0.99 sediment 0.glycol.00 0.93 0.13 0.02 0.49 soil 0.110 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 8.04 0.cyanamide Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Carbon.93 0.02 0.01 0.green.02 1.49 0.46 0.04 0.02 0.21 0.04 0.04 1.47 0.02 0.38 0.06 0.01 9.21 0.01 0.32 0.10 0.I.99 0.tetrachloride Carbonyl.solvent.07 0.02 0.acid Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzilate Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane Chloromethyl.33 0.ethyl Chlorine Chlorine.10 0.25 0.49 0.08 0.38 1.38 1.31 Long 0.21 0.31 0.08 0.33 0.38 0.02 0.15 0.41 1.04 0.08 4.01 0.04 0.99 0.02 0.sulfide Carboxin Catechol Certain.38 0.orange.00 0.00 0.I.ethers Chlordane Chlorendic.49 1.16 0.08 0.10 0.48 Long 0.21 0.14 0.49 0.38 0.00 0.08 0.47 1.02 0.02 1.93 0.02 0.31 0.43 0.93 0.48 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.38 0.33 Long 0.07 ..dioxide Chloroacetic.02 0.38 4.14 0.01 0.04 0.10 0.48 4.02 0.50 2.16 0.49 0.21 0.4 C.methyl.38 air 0.00 0.ether Chlorophenols Chloropicrin Chloroprene Chlorotetrafluoroethane Chlorothalonil Water 0.10 0.02 1.93 0.21 0.01 0.13 0.00 0.05 0.49 0.38 0.01 0.48 0.33 0.38 1.21 0.02 0.04 0.49 1.02 0.01 0.31 0.21 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.21 0.38 1.00 0.16 0.38 0.25 0.blue.48 0.01 0.04 0.10 0.10 0.direct.08 0.49 0.02 0.01 0.21 0.21 0.02 0.01 0.21 0.01 0.93 0.33 0.13 20.10 0.93 0.02 0.93 Long 0.acid Chlorimuron.38 0.02 0.16 0.25 0.08 0.02 0.31 0.01 0.49 0.31 0.25 residual (lb) 1 70 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 70 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 5 pf 0.218 C.06 0.I.03 1.21 Long 0.21 0.10 0.40 0.12 average 0.10 0.10 0.49 0.08 0.43 0.00 Long 0.00 0.08 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.11 0.00 82.00 0.16 Long 0.36 0.acrylate Butyraldehyde C.02 0.49 0.basic.93 4.08 0.33 0.octanoate Butyl.02 0.00 0.49 Long 0.01 0.05 0.93 0.38 0.00 0.62 0.57 0.04 0.disulfide Carbon.41 0.16 0.47 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.33 0.16 0.01 0.38 0.48 0.99 0.39 0.00 Long 0.02 0.13 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.38 1.

10 0.31 0.08 0.49 0.21 0.10 0.02 1.43 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.10 0.phthalate Diallate Diaminotoluene.04 0.31 0.10 0.isomers) Diazinon Dibenzofuran Dibromotetrafluoroethane Dibutyl.00 0.00 average 0.04 0.21 0.hydroperoxide Cupferron Cyanazine Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyfluthrin Cyhalothrin Dazomet Dazomet.00 1.04 0.13 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.(mixed.01 0.49 0.00 0.21 0.38 4.08 0.49 0.01 0.49 0.04 0.62 0.47 0.13 1..02 0.58 0.93 1.10 0.21 0.31 0.04 0.48 1.00 0.01 0.(mixed.99 0.30 0.isomers) Dichlorobromomethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorofluoromethane Dichloromethane Dichloropentafluoropropane Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.34 0.02 0.00 0.49 1.33 0.49 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.43 0.21 sediment 0.13 0.38 0.21 0.38 1.93 0.10 0.07 0.02 0.93 0.10 0.01 0.78 0.04 0.02 0.compounds Copper Creosote Cresol.38 0.00 1.99 0.02 continued .02 0.00 0.38 0.93 0.16 Long Long Long Long 1.02 0.00 0.00 1.10 0.02 0.21 0.13 1.48 0.10 0.93 0.00 0.68 0.33 Long Long Long Long 0.47 0.02 0.31 residual (lb) 1 1 1 70 70 70 70 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 pf 0.05 0.99 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.55 0.04 0.10 0.93 0.48 Long Long Long Long 0.48 0.45 0.49 0.21 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.Quantifying Persistence 111 taBlE 8.(mixed.21 0.02 Long Long Long Long 0.49 0.00 0.21 0.38 4.50 Long Long Long Long 0.21 0.01 0.00 0.salt Decabromodiphenyl.isomers) Crotonaldehyde Cumene Cumene.16 0.08 0.04 0.10 0.10 0.93 1.10 0.93 0.04 0.38 0.00 0.31 0.04 0.00 0.13 0.03 0.39 0.93 air 0.01 0.21 0.31 0.02 0.38 4.93 1.48 0.16 0.33 0.08 0.31 1.93 0.33 0.02 0.33 0.49 0.21 0.10 0.47 1.93 4.08 0.26 0.02 0.93 0.32 0.49 0.38 0.33 0.31 0.10 0.phthalate Dicamba Dichloran Dichlorobenzene.38 0.93 0.01 0. (Cfc-114) Dichlorotrifluoroethane Dichlorvos Water 0.02 0.08 0.21 0.38 0.08 0.10 0.21 0.00 0.16 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.38 0.48 0.00 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorpyrifos.sodium.methyl Chlorsulfuron Chromium Cobalt Cobalt.13 0.43 0.03 0.93 0.00 0.13 0.13 0.oxide Desmedipham Di(2-ethylhexyl).99 0.01 0.00 1.16 0.02 0.04 0.33 0.00 0.10 soil 0.93 0.02 0.42 0.21 0.21 0.

21 0.08 0.08 0.40 0.01 0.69 0.02 0.01 0.10 Fenarimol 0. 0.01 0.13 0.75 Fenoxycarb 0.oxide 0.08 0.48 0.03 0.93 0.00 0.10 Diisocyanates 27.02 0.13 0.21 0.00 0.ether 0.25 0.04 Dinitrobutyl.01 0. 0.08 0.48 0.chlorothiophosphate 0.04 Diflubenzuron 0.00 0.58 0.27 0.02 0.08 0.00 0.38 0.38 0.13 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.93 air 0.08 0.38 0.50 13.40 Dimethipin 0.23 0.00 0.01 0.esters Ethyleneimine 0.04 Dimethyl.07 0.04 Ethylene 0.38 1.02 .31 Dicyclopentadiene 0.38 0.dicamba 0.38 0.04 Diethanolamine 0.93 0.04 salts.31 0.01 0.38 0.00 0.31 0.33 0.02 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.13 0.00 0.01 0.acid.47 0.05 0.acrylate 0.phthalate 0.02 0.38 0.21 27.31 0.38 0.01 0.21 0.38 0.13 1.01 0.38 4.93 1.10 Dioxin.01 0.93 0.13 0.08 0.00 0.08 0.13 0.04 Dimethyl.31 27.35 0.93 0.04 Ethoprop 0.04 Epichlorohydrin 0.02 0.31 0.(mixed.38 0.27 0.38 0.01 0.18 0.00 0.112 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 8.33 0.21 0.01 0.13 0.31 0.05 0.04 Ethylidene.08 0.40 0.01 0.sulfate 0.10 Dinitrotoluene.93 0.02 0.01 0.93 0.04 Dimethylamine.21 0.38 0.21 sediment 0.21 0.10 Dihydrosafrole 0.02 0.23 0.01 0.01 0.15 0.01 0.40 0.04 Ethyl.31 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.and.47 0.04 0.93 12.04 Ethyl.21 0.16 Dimethylcarbamyl.thiourea 0.01 0.21 0.02 0.16 0.02 0.13 0.38 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.chloroformate 0.02 0.08 0.21 0.10 Disodium. 0.49 Diglycidyl.00 0.38 0..chloride 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.dichloride 0.16 Fenbutatin.40 0.04 Ethylene.38 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Water soil 0.93 27.02 Diethyl.00 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.15 0.08 0.02 0.04 Ethylene.glycol 0.phenol 0.sulfate 0.13 0.04 Ethyl.21 2.08 0.isomers) 0.93 0.01 0.49 0.99 0.38 0.74 0.01 0.01 compounds Diphenylamine 0.00 0.31 0.10 residual (lb) 1 1 1 3 1 1 33 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 1 pf 0.21 0.04 Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.and.04 Dimethyl.endothall 0.00 average 0.38 0.08 0.38 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.00 27.10 Dipotassium.10 Dimethoate 0.25 0.00 0.13 0.37 3.resorcinol.dipropylthiocarbamate 0.13 0.01 0.02 0.13 0.oxide 52.dioxin-like.07 0.08 0.01 0.02 Ethylene..10 Ethylbenzene 0.01 0.01 0.04 Dimethylamine 0.38 0.31 0.10 0.10 D-trans-Allethrin 0.13 0.00 0.04 cyanodithioimidocarbonate Diuron 0.

02 continued .01 0.13 0.cyanide Hydrogen.02 0.01 0.99 0.00 0.93 0.anhydride Malononitrile Maneb Manganese M-Cresol M-Dinitrobenzene Mecoprop Water 0.31 1.38 4.13 1.47 0.02 0.13 0.02 0.49 0.10 0.05 0.49 0.47 0.04 0.113 Heptachlor Hexachloro-1.08 0.84 1.01 0.99 Long 0.21 sediment 1.08 0.04 0.50 0.00 0.48 0.01 0.00 average 0.02 0.13 27.04 0.49 0.38 27.52 0.99 0.05 0.16 0.38 1.33 0.48 1.49 0.62 1.38 0.31 residual (lb) 1 1 1 1 70 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 33 1 3 1 3 70 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 70 1 2 1 pf 0.99 0.38 0.02 0.02 0.49 0.38 0.04 0.49 0.40 0.00 0.00 0.49 Long 0.3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethane Hexachlorophene Hexazinone Hydramethylnon Hydrazine Hydrochloric.01 0.16 0.49 0.33 Long 0.00 1.48 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.49 0.27 0.02 0.carbonate Malathion Maleic.38 0.33 0.38 0.68 0.38 4.Quantifying Persistence 113 taBlE 8.01 0.04 0.01 Long 0.03 0.93 Long 0.99 0.00 27.48 4.04 0.02 1.44 0.47 0.10 Long 0.01 0.00 0.93 4.00 0.04 0.49 Long 0.21 0.01 0.10 0.27 0.23 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.08 27.08 0.27 0.49 0.27 0.99 0.04 0.01 0.49 0.00 Long 0.48 0.51 1.10 soil 0.49 0.04 0.16 0.00 0.38 0.26 0.08 0.00 0.38 0.00 1.04 0.25 0.08 0.93 air 0.00 0.08 0.16 0.00 1.04 0.38 4.02 0.49 1.10 0.48 4.00 0.38 4.38 Long 4.acid Hydrogen.01 Long 0.21 1.00 1.99 0.04 0.01 1.04 0.04 0.00 0.47 Long 1.02 0.16 Long 0.38 0.38 4.40 0.59 1.00 0.99 0.38 0.38 0.13 0.49 0.33 0.acid Freon.31 1.pentacarbonyl Isobutyraldehyde Isodrin Isosafrole Lactofen Lead Lindane Linuron Lithium.99 0.04 27.47 1.11 0.93 4.02 0.04 0.40 0.21 0.21 Long 0.fluoride Hydroquinone Iron.33 0.00 0.00 0.27 0.01 0.48 Long 0.00 0.01 0.40 0.08 0.00 0.49 0.02 0.16 0.47 0.21 0.08 0.04 0.10 0.01 0.99 0.99 0.10 0.49 0.04 0.01 0.04 1.40 0.00 0.38 1.butyl Fluometuron Fluorine Fluorouracil Folpet Fomesafen Formaldehyde Formic.00 0.49 0.38 0.00 0.02 0.48 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Fenpropathrin Ferbam Fluazifop.13 0.04 0.16 0.02 1.38 4.13 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.49 1.00 0.47 0.31 Long 0.49 0.48 0.

21 0.31 1.93 0.93 air Long 0.08 0.02 0.99 0.00 0.03 0.08 0.78 0.04 0.02 0.21 0.21 1.08 0.93 0.04 0.31 0.01 0.00 1.00 0.21 0.93 0.02 0.27 0.49 0.02 0.38 0.38 0.93 0.02 0.13 0.00 0.16 0.02 0.alcohol N-Hexane Nickel Nicotine.ketone Methyl.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.38 0.08 0.10 0.01 0.31 0.38 0.31 5.38 0.04 0.16 0.compounds Nitric.38 0.acid Nitrilotriacetic.21 0.38 0.27 0.114 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 8.08 0.00 0.00 0.salts Nitrapyrin Nitrate.00 0.05 0.13 0.21 0.33 0.10 0.acid Nitrobenzene Nitroglycerin Water Long 0.00 4.01 0.05 0.31 0.08 0.50 0.93 1.01 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Mercury Merphos Methacrylonitrile Metham.01 0.49 0.21 0.00 0.02 0.93 0.08 0.00 0.28 0.13 0.00 0.trioxide Monochloropentafluoroethane M-Xylene Myclobutanil N.00 0.02 0.07 Long 0.01 Long 0.08 0.07 0.04 0.27 0.21 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.sodium Methanol Methazole Methiocarb Methoxone Methoxone.31 0.04 average Long 0.08 0.04 0.parathion Methyl.62 0.21 10.07 0.02 0.13 0.93 10.99 0.38 0.04 0.38 0.38 0.01 0.04 0.48 0.tert-butyl.38 0.13 0.01 0.13 0.00 0.21 Long 0.08 0.08 0.33 0.01 0.01 0.methacrylate Methyl.02 .48 0.13 0.bromide Metribuzin Molinate Molybdenum.31 0.10 0.04 0.15 0.38 0.01 0.01 0.21 0.22 0.49 0.02 0.hydrazine Methyl.05 0.00 1.33 0.01 0.N-Dimethylaniline N.00 0.07 0.05 0.00 0.38 0.05 Long 0.00 0.21 0.00 1.isocyanate Methyl.01 0.chlorocarbonate Methyl.21 0.01 0.21 0.00 0.01 0.32 residual (lb) 70 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 70 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 pf 1.10 0.04 0.and.02 0.33 0.isobutyl.N-Dimethylformamide Nabam Naled Naphthalene N-Butyl.93 4.00 0.01 0.00 0.salt Methoxychlor Methyl.02 Long 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.10 0.02 0.00 0.01 1.38 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.21 0.38 0.38 0.04 0.02 0.18 0.ether Methylene.00 0.21 0.04 0.sodium.01 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.26 0.01 0.01 0.acrylate Methyl.04 0.48 0.02 0.08 0.38 0.27 0.isothiocyanate Methyl.27 0.33 0.04 0.04 0.13 0.16 0.01 0.03 0.21 sediment Long 0.11 0.31 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.10 0.55 0.08 0.21 0.93 0.13 0.13 0.47 0.04 0.05 0.31 0.01 0.08 0.21 0.60 0.10 0.38 0.iodide Methyl.08 0.00 0.04 0.38 0.10 soil Long 0.33 0.08 0.01 0.49 0.

13 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.01 0.13 0.01 0.02 0.49 0.93 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.21 0.02 0.00 1.01 0.49 0.33 0.04 0.10 0.02 continued .31 0.08 0.00 0.48 0.13 0.02 0.10 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Methylolacrylamide N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodimethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-propylamine N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosopiperidine Norflurazon O-Anisidine O-Cresol Octachloronaphthalene Octachlorostyrene O-Dinitrobenzene Oryzalin O-Toluidine O-Toluidine.38 4.13 1.13 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.21 0.93 air 0.49 1.16 0.01 0.38 0.00 0.21 0.02 0.31 0.93 0.99 0.05 0.04 0.21 sediment 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.49 0.99 0.99 0.00 0.48 0.dichloride Parathion P-Chloroaniline P-Cresidine P-Cresol P-Dinitrobenzene Pendimethalin Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachlorophenol Pentobarbital.02 0.04 2.31 0.49 0.21 0.33 0.10 0.hydrochloride Oxydemeton.02 0.38 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.93 0.75 1.13 0.08 0.13 0.31 0.02 0.16 0.38 4.04 0.10 0.04 0.49 0.sodium Peracetic.methyl Oxydiazon Oxyfluorfen O-Xylene Ozone Paraldehyde Paraquat.93 1.00 0.33 0.93 0.00 0.08 0.38 0.49 0.10 soil 0.93 1.00 0.93 0.13 0.38 4.01 0.01 0.33 0.21 0.04 0.38 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.13 0.05 0.16 0.01 0.03 0.38 0.00 0.13 0.21 0.99 0.21 0.38 0.Quantifying Persistence 115 taBlE 8.21 0.08 0.00 0.13 0.38 1.48 4.16 0.10 0.00 0.05 0.48 0.08 0.10 0.38 0.04 0.02 0.10 0.16 0.10 0.49 1.31 0.93 0.99 0.93 0.00 average 0.31 0.38 0.48 1.38 0.04 0.31 0.38 0.21 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.27 0.08 0.01 0.04 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.02 0.49 0.93 1.33 0.33 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.99 0.acid Permethrin Phenanthrene Phenol Phenothrin Water 0.82 0.21 0.49 0.01 0.49 0.00 0.21 0.03 0.08 0.04 0.66 2.03 1.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.48 0.49 0.08 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.48 4.31 residual (lb) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 pf 0.08 0.00 2.01 0.13 0.01 0.15 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.13 0.93 0.00 0.38 4.38 0.38 0.38 0.10 0.93 0.00 0.82 0.04 0.21 0.02 0.02 0.38 0.77 2.00 0.16 0.02 0.13 0.00 0.04 0.47 0.01 0.38 1.08 0.49 0.31 0.08 0.08 0.00 0.93 0.

16 Picric.04 Quinone 0.02 0.33 0.00 0.31 0.38 1.40 Polychlorinated.16 Propachlor 0. 0.13 0.49 0.49 0.biphenyls 0.10 S.00 0.47 0.13 0.16 0.02 0.08 0.oxide 0.01 0.38 0.33 0.40 27.10 Profenofos 0.93 0.30 0.02 0.00 6.01 0.04 Propiconazole 0.00 0.21 0.01 0.13 0.00 0.S.38 0.13 0.38 4.48 27.08 sediment 0.04 N-methyldithiocarbamate P-Phenylenediamine 0.01 0.07 0.49 0.00 0.40 1.40 27.38 0.01 0.00 0.21 0.16 Propargite 0.40 0.07 0.21 0.40 27.08 0.04 P-Xylene 0.40 Potassium.02 0.alcohol 0.38 0.01 .97 0.(yellow.93 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Water soil 0.31 0.10 Propylene 0.03 0.00 0.16 Propionaldehyde 0.01 0.16 Prometryn 0.50 0.04 Propylene.01 0.aromatic.48 1.01 average 0.13 Phenytoin 0.16 Pronamide 0.08 0.08 0.04 Propanil 0.31 0.40 Long 0.38 0.93 0.00 0.33 0.16 Propargyl.10 Phosgene 0.47 0.47 1.48 1.03 0.01 0.14 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.38 0.21 0.08 0.bromate Long Potassium.49 Polycyclic.57 0.04 Propyleneimine 0.48 1.00 Phosphorus.49 0.00 0.00 0.48 0. 0.04 Picloram 0.acid 0.01 0.33 0.04 Quinoline 0.01 0.02 0.10 Polybrominated.40 Long 0.49 0.93 0.93 27.00 0.10 Propane.38 1.33 0.01 0.38 27.02 0.21 27.31 0.08 0.31 27.alkanes 27.02 0.33 0.38 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.13 0.04 residual (lb) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 33 33 3 33 70 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 pf 0.02 0.00 27.02 0.40 Long 0.40 Polychlorinated.03 Phthalic.00 0.08 0.00 0.49 0.02 0.04 Quintozene 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.06 0.08 0.93 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.white) 0.13 0.38 air 0.00 0.02 0.04 dimethyldithiocarbamate Potassium.08 0.48 1.anhydride 0.12 0.01 0.04 27.31 0.10 P-Nitroaniline 0.21 0.S-Tributyltrithiophosphate 0.48 0.99 27.25 0.02 0.03 0.48 0.21 0.01 0.02 0.93 1.00 0.02 0.49 0.01 0.38 1.00 0.13 2.51 0.03 0.48 0.00 0.01 0.13 0.or.38 1.sultone 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.48 0.13 0.33 0.02 0.33 0.compounds 27.40 27.40 0.31 0.biphenyls 27.13 0.04 Phosphine 0.02 Saccharin 0.116 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 8.16 Piperonyl.38 0.40 Long 0.04 0.08 0.33 0.99 0.04 Propoxur 0.49 Quizalofop-ethyl 0.butoxide 0.40 4.08 0.08 0.16 Resmethrin 0.02 0.38 0.38 0.04 Pyridine 0.15 0.

48 0.10 Long Long 0.47 0.14 1.only) Sulfuryl.08 0.31 Long 0.02 0.04 27.02 0.38 0.50 0.00 0.01 0.21 Long 0.31 Long Long 0.38 0.03 0.08 0.03 0. “acid.00 0.hydrochloride Tetramethrin Thallium Thiabendazole Thioacetamide Thiobencarb Thiodicarb Thiophanate-methyl Thiourea Thiram Thorium.00 Long Long 0.31 Long Long 0.08 0.13 0.nitrite Sodium.99 sediment 0.fluoride Tebuthiuron Temephos tert-Butyl.00 0.02 1.03 27.38 0.02 0.13 27.27 0.01 0.04 Long 0.31 0.40 0.21 0.00 0.13 0.02 average 0.93 Long Long 0.31 0.40 0.13 0.tetrachloride Toluene Toluene.08 0.31 1.Quantifying Persistence 117 taBlE 8.48 0.38 0.38 Long 0.acid.alcohol Tetrabromobisphenol.01 0.10 0.47 0.47 residual (lb) 1 1 70 1 70 70 1 1 1 1 1 1 33 1 1 1 33 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 70 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 70 70 1 1 3 pf 0.dicamba Sodium.49 0.10 0.27 1.(1994.A Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachlorvinphos Tetracycline.16 0.10 Long Long 0.03 27.16 0.21 Long Long 0.16 0.oxide Sulfuric.93 4.93 0.08 0.13 0.49 0.04 0.10 0.40 0.08 0.93 1.00 0.03 27.40 0.02 0.diisocyanate.04 0.02 0.O-phenylphenoxide Strychnine.04 0.21 0.02 1.04 0.33 0.16 0.38 1.01 0.01 0.38 0.08 0.27 0.26 0.49 0.33 0.08 27.99 0.01 0.compounds Simazine Sodium.00 0.93 0.38 4.27 0.00 0.(mixed.93 0.08 0.02 0.33 0.33 0.00 1.31 0.01 0.31 0.40 0.38 27.alcohol Selenium Sethoxydim Silver Silver.00 Long 0.00 0.03 27.48 1.dioxide Titanium.31 0.00 1.02 0.and.00 27.10 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.38 air 0.00 0.13 0.01 1.and.13 0.00 0.38 0.13 Long 0.49 0.01 0.01 0.00 Long Long 0.01 0.93 Long Long 1.00 0. dimethyldithiocarbamate Sodium.03 27.10 0.01 0.21 0.21 0.03 0.21 0.02 0.33 0.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Safrole sec-Butyl.01 0.40 0.10 0.04 0.00 0.00 Long 0.03 0.27 0.01 0.13 0.02 0.47 0.04 0.38 0.48 0.after.40 0.21 0.93 Long 0.48 0.40 0.03 0.azide Sodium.04 0.00 0.10 Long 0.04 0.02 0.48 1.02 0.04 0.02 1.16 0.01 0.49 soil 0.33 0.04 continued .21 Long Long 0.salts Styrene Styrene.16 0.93 0.02 0.04 0.56 0.01 0.40 0.00 0. isomers) Toxaphene Water 0.49 0.aerosols”.40 0.01 0.08 Long 0.00 0.02 0.

48 0.01 0..47 0.93 0.33 0.33 0.38 Long air 0.13 0.49 1..38 0.04 Zinc.2006. .00 0.118 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 8..47 0.04 Vinylidene.21 0.02 0.40 0.Profiler.10 trans-1.31 27.Bioaccumulative.Environmental.48 27.http://www.40 Trichlorfon 0.40 0.38 27.31 0.chloride 0..02 0.02 0.21 0.01 0.net/before.33 0.40 0.13 0.Persistent.16 Trichloroacetyl.93 1.47 0.methacrylate 27.49 Urethane 0.21 27.02 0.31 0.dust) Long residual (lb) 1 1 1 1 1 33 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 33 1 3 1 70 1 1 1 1 33 1 70 pf 0.38 0.00 0.16 Tribenuron.31 0.isomers) 0.00 0.Persistent.pbtprofiler.38 0.08 Long 0.21 0.62 0.01 0.triethylammonium.and.33 0.99 0.13 Long trans-1.40 0.(PBT).99 27.02 0.02 0.net/before.02 0.02 0.00 Long average 0.49 0.47 27.48 4.1 (continued) persistence factors of tri chemicals half-lives (yrs) chemical Water soil 0.40 0.16 Tributyltin.49 0.2010).31 1.16 Trichloroethylene 0.40 0.(fume.48 1.Environmental.33 0.33 0.40 1.01 27.00 27.acetate 0.Bioaccumulative.48 1.49 0.01 1.Protection.93 1.04 Vinyl.00 0.10 Triadimefon 0.99 0.and..01 Long 0.4-Dichloro-2-butene 0. BiBliography U.00 0.40 Xylene.S.2006.01 1.49 0.02 0.methyl 0.chloride 0.chloride 0.33 27.(PBT).04 Vanadium Long Vinclozolin 0.40 0.02 0.01 0.asp.S.(mixed.00 0.blue 0.93 27.50 27.48 1.(accessed.49 0..salt 0.hydroxide 27.47 0.10 Trifluralin 0.16 phosphate Trypan.08 Long sediment 0..21 0..00 0.00 0.01 0..Agency.48 4.38 Long 1.08 0.Agency.02 0.00 Source:..02 0.33 0.or.40 1.62 1.20.93 4.08 0.3-Dichloropropene 0.16 Triallate 0.. 0.Toxic.47 0.salts 27.13 Long 0.16 Vinyl. http://www.10 Warfarin.3-dibromopropyl).and.04 0.40 Tris(2.00 0.00 0.49 0.00 27.49 Triethylamine 0.04 0.January..04 0.02 0.16 Triclopyr.Toxic. Profiler.48 0..40 0.pbtprofiler. U.asp.10 Trichlorofluoromethane 0.40 0.40 0.49 Triphenyltin.02 0.38 0.Protection.

(BCFs).than.air.ppm.. but.consumption.and.is.via. the.faster.a.shark.a.the.to.that.For.that..of.sharks.process.tissue.and.herring.or.in.concentrations.meat..could.provides.contains.due.levels.is.the.this.At. chemical.exposure.tissue. in.or.although.environment.sources.the.analysis. 119 .concentrate.soil.then. environmental.part.that.particular.as.the.higher.in. human.other. and.through.chemical. uptake.dose.absorbs.as.birds.of.air). only.published.the.. excreted.and.ratio.than.chain. the.by.bioaccumulation.by. in.like. as.food. to.eaten.the.why.than.can. It.et.concentration.at.accounted.consumption.water..whereas.concentrate.indirect..of.the.and.an.up. Bioconcentration.uptake. combined.swordfish..in.mercury. surrogate.water. analysis.predatory.chemical.that.of. direct.step.the.in. absorbed. it.plants.mercury.excreted. water. to. is.organism. of.tissue.at.is. substance.(ppm).1.by. toxic. organisms.direct.the.have.or.internal.environment.chemical. methyl.adipose.to. on.by.osprey. a.consumption.9 Quantifying Bioconcentration introduction Compounds..organism.consumed.(air).soil.water.refers.of.and. of.the.and.and.an. of.the.of.explains..For..all.2005).Bioconcentration.availability..rate. seafood.which.surrounding.process..that. associated.a. is.e.for. a.it.through.greater.higher.a.in..water.soil. of.approximately. slowly.across.builds.eaten. the.is.by.the.(e.The.and.result. compared.the.than.as. such.Bioconcentration. the. breathing.al.eaten..initial.affects. Therefore.in.a.higher.food.Bioconcentration. associated..level.simply.organism. dependent.each. exposure. through.of.at.As.is..chain.higher..a.organisms. ingestion.example.be.food.a.used.its.of.are.increasing. accumulation.seafood...in.food. on. of.in.from.organism.chain.mercury.to.in.. efficiently. relative.can.by. refers.was.cattle.of.the.generally. is.alone.Mercury.the.reliable..from.bioconcentration.media.example.represented.of.data.the.uptake.release.than.Bioaccumulation.the.air. chemical.which.the.accumulates.in.to.consumption.amounts. is.takes.chain. that...small.in.. per.its.the..the.seawater.of.with.path. of.contains.bioconcentration.purpose.million.0. amount.be.environmental.chemical.chemical.of.to.present.For. it. mercury.that.01.successive.in.develops.chemical.This.in.will.further. consumption.the.mercury. health.up.is.in. seafood.(i.higher.until.algae.. impact.. is.. the.organism.concentration.chemical.uptake.. when. BioconcEntration adJustmEnt factor Bioconcentration.for.absorbed..fish.metabolized.or.only.of.eagles. (Croteau.the.g.food.from.the. specific. through. concentration..their..plants.other.factors.much.mercury.and.. chemical.is.results.BCF.. by.the.the.alone..through.organism. mercury.then.in. consumed.

water. Inventory.kg/yr..adjustment.in.the. based.we. analysis. r e. by..1+.L.distribution..and.to.BAFs. aries.fish).is. regarding.to.for. developed.compared.the.conversion.BCF.to. vein.toxicity. air.1. of.averages.and.will.and.based.then.the.water).bioconcentration).consideration.of. (USEPA).the. of. of.our. to...examination. chemicals.(i. bioaccumulation.(highest.of.the.most.to.for.further.humans.chemicals.the.fish). consumption. adjusted.found.only.sensitive. to.is.for. For.and.is. develop.addition.specifically.1)/(3.2.the.20.. human.the.per. etc.. (conservative. for.into.. in.to.S.have. Toxics.the.pathway. consumption.analysis. on..chemical-specific.to.kg/yr.of.overall.media.have.the. the.as.in.taken.also. Along.represented.of.found.by..to.the. is. media.BCF.as.BAFs. consumption.=.health. as. from.the.equal.The. multiplied.amount.no.likely.population. 4. of  3.in. concept.is.toxic.followed...three.×.. Table  9.on. health. our.other.humans.on. (BAFs).U.of.this.on. taking.More.4.environmental.air.of..Therefore.5. other. published.of.or.. sensitive.365. or. and. for. to.Those.quantified. adjustment. addition. Japan.who..been.based. itself.e.this. the. soil.days.Eskimos.assessments.. different. kg/yr.standard.for. .water. effect.−.is..most. associated.is.that.average.we.average. transfer. In.averages.addition.the.using.which..to.. is. three. the.36.Adjustment.published.accounting.Factor..[(BCF.(highest.detailed. bioconcentration.a.it.between.this.consume. uptake..water.represent.. BCFs. by. Japan..4.for.The..population.there.to.by. of.as.90.consume.but. water-to-seafood.pathways.one.factor. factors.BCF.of.protection. fish.that.water.we.consume). water. year. presents. factor.kg.risk. chemical-specific.to.were.general.fish.3. Environmental.bioconcentration.day. Agency.consumers. Therefore.chapter.population.1.impact.account.media.to. same.a. chemicalspecific.each.is.in.3)] If.that. BCFs.BAF.kg/yr.dividing.g.. human. Bioconcentration.sensitive.chemical.the.consumers.impacts.or..approximately..of..been.water. in.have. noted.United. further.for.ratio.S.fish..population.as.here. regulatory..consume.ingested.kg/yr.by. direct.(BAF). the. water-to-food. the.per.TRI. ratio.equal.due. (TRI).and. U. epresenting. land.in..69.assumption.bioconcentration.the..120 Toxic Chemicals milk.1. bioaccumulation. Profiler. 150. (.humans).these. the. food.. Protection..of. across.may. The.also.of.detailed.3. of. USEPA.).and.tendency.follows: . humans.analysis.. water.the. chemical-specific. release.Maldives. v .detail.169. 2006).chemical. consumption.no.is. chemicals.standard. the. PBT.. and. across.factor.consumption.impact..bioconcentration..impacts.the. Release.kg/yr.730.base.to.(in.our.not. (USEPA. were.BCF.States.that.terms.a. published.humans.the. water.

(mixed.1-Dichloro-1.3-pentafluoropropane 1.2 100 10 140 26 140 34 150 2 15 10 100 19 140 140 575 32 56 150 Baf 4 10 1 7 9 2 3 7 2 2 1 12 3 12 4 2 3 1 1 3 57 27 1 9 2 12 3 12 4 13 1 2 2 9 2 12 12 45 3 5 13 continued .2-Dibromoethane 1.2-Trichloroethane 1.2-Tetrachloro-1-fluoroethane 1.4-Dichlorobenzene Bcf 35 120 3.Quantifying Bioconcentration 121 taBlE 9.2-Dichloro-1.1.3-Butadiene 1.4-Dichloro-2-butene 1.2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane.3-Trichloropropane 1.dihydrochloride.3.oxide) 1.2-dichloroethane 1.2-Dichloroethane 1.2 — 31 720 340 3.(9ci) 1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.hydrazine 1.3.1-Dichloro-1.2-Tetrachloro-2-fluoroethane.1.3.2-Dichlorobenzene 1.2.2.isomers) 1.1.3.2.1-difluoroethane 1.2-trifluoroethane 1.3-pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225eb) 1.(Dbcp) 1.2 79 99 8.1.1.1.3-Dichloro-1.1-Dichloro-1.3′-dimethyl-.3′-dimethyl(1.1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.2-Butylene.3-Dichloropropene.3.2.2-Dichloro-1.3-pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225da) 1.3-pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225bb) 1.7-triaza-1-azoniaadamantane.1′-Biphenyl)-4.1..3-Dichlorobenzene 1.2.1.1′-Bi(ethylene.3.(Hcfc-121a) 1.3.9 26 79 8 10 3.1.1-Trichloroethane 1.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.3-pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225cc) 1.2..2.2-Dichloropropane 1.1-Dichloroethane 1.1′-Methylenebis(4-isocyanatobenzene) 1.1.2.2.5.3.3.2-Dichloroethylene 1.1′-Biphenyl)-4.1-Dimethyl.2.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.4′-diamine.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane 1.1 Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name (1.1-Dichloroethylene 1.2.4′-diamine.1-Trifluoro-2.3-Dichloro-1.2-Dichloro-1.2-Dichloro-1.3-pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225ea) 1..2.2-trifluoroethane 1.1.2 140 26 140 37 14 24 3.1.2-Diphenylhydrazine 1.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.2.Oxide 1.1.chloride 1.

122 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 9.glycol.300 1.2 3.ester 2.4.3.Chlorocrotyl.ester 2.ether.butyl.ester 2.6-Trinitrophenol 2.1-trifluoroethane 2-Chloroacetophenone 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 2-Methyllactonitrile Bcf 3.1.3.2.6′-Tetrabromo-4.Butoxyethyl.4-Diaminoanisole 2.4.4-Diaminoanisole.1.2′.4-D.4-D.4-D 2.200 3.2-Ethylhexyl.ester 2.2 730 10 15 21 — 140 52 140 41 1910 309 1 10 9700 34.1-difluoroethane 2.ester 2.dihydrochloride 1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone 1-Bromo-1-(bromomethyl)-1.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name 1.2.300 1..4-D.1.Butyl.3-Dichloropropene 2.1.2-Ethyl-4-methylpentyl.3-butadiene 2-Chloro-1.4-Db 2.4-D.000 770 1.methylcarbamate 2.5-Trimethylphenyl.Isopropyl.6-Xylidine 2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-Aminoanthraquinone 2-Aminonaphthalene 2-Chlor-1.ester 2.4-Dichlorophenol 2.2-tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.Propylene.2 62 48 11 204 23 15 140 190 32 49 15 19 17 41 — Baf 1 1 58 2 2 3 1 12 5 12 4 149 25 1 2 753 2.3-Dichloro-1.salt 2.4-Diaminotoluene 2.sulfate 2.3-pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225ba) 2.1.6.1.2 3.4-D.4 3.3-pentafluoropropane(Hcfc-225aa) 2.2-Dichloro-1.4′-isopropylidenediphenol 2.2 460 71 2.Sodium.4-Dinitrophenol 2.4-Phenylenediamine.5-Trichlorophenol 2.1.3-propanedicarbonitrile 1-Chloro-1.6-Dinitrotoluene 2.1.637 61 102 102 94 1 37 6 1 1 1 6 5 2 17 3 2 12 16 3 5 2 2 2 4 1 .4-D.2-tetrafluoroethane 1-Chloro-1.4-Dimethylphenol 2.ester 2.4-D.4-Dioxane 1.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.6-Trichlorophenol 2.4.4-D.

3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.2 350 1 3.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.200 9.salt Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.butylcarbamate 4.sodium.600 3..Quantifying Bioconcentration 123 taBlE 9.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol 4.7 16 3.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.5 24 230 88 1.dihydrochloride 3.1.2 Baf 1 2 2 11 12 26 22 22 2 1 1 4 4 4 1 4 1 3 9 44 94 2 3 19 8 140 37 9 2 2 280 1 1 1 1 2 1 28 1 1 continued .3′-Dimethoxybenzidine 3.2 9.sulfate 3.3 3.N-dimethyl)benzenamine 4.1 14 10 130 140 329 270 270 14 4 — 35 45 45 1.1.1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine 3.dihydrochloride 3.1-trifluoropropane 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene 3-Chloropropionitrile 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.2 3.3′-Dimethylbenzidine.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name 2-Methylpyridine 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitropropane 2-Phenylphenol 3.4′-Methylenedianiline 4.sulfide 4.800 470 110 7.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.4′-Methylenebis(N.acid Bcf 4.hydrochloride) 3.2-pentafluoropropane 3.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.2 3.6-Dinitro-O-cresol 4-Aminoazobenzene 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-Nitrobiphenyl 4-Nitrophenol 5-Nitro-O-anisidine 5-Nitro-O-toluidine Abamectin Acephate Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acifluorfen.hydrochloride(O-dianisidine.ether 4.dihydrofluoride 3-Chloro-1.4 43 6.2.2 3.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 4.4 27 100 550 1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.3-Dichloro-1.

900 3.200 24 — 2.2 3.chloride alpha-Lindane alpha-Naphthylamine Aluminum Aluminum.2 3.alcohol Allyl.900 1 44 — 8.peroxide Benzyl.(solution) Anilazine Aniline Anthracene Antimony Arsenic Asbestos.2 12 6.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Acrylonitrile Alachlor Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl.chloride Benzamide Benzene Benzidine Benzo(Ghi)perylene Benzoic.trichloride Benzoyl.715 3.(solution) Ammonium.(friable) Atrazine Auramine Barium Bendiocarb Benfluralin Benomyl Benzal.chloride Benzoyl.chloride Beryllium beta-Propiolactone Bifenthrin Bcf 48 280 42 3.2 3.sulfate.000 Baf 5 23 4 289 1 1 2 152 3 19 1 1 9 691 1 1 1 1 41 2 148 1 4 1 2 9 1 2 482 3 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1.2 110 8.amine Allyl.2 21.124 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 9.nitrate.(fibrous.2 520 9.8 110 3.9 5 93 — — — — 33 19 3.950 30 231 3.2 3.phosphide Ametryn Amitraz Amitrole Ammonia Ammonium.629 .oxide.forms) Aluminum.2 17 1.2 3.3 1.

95 C.solvent..I.2 550.orange.2 24 16 1.disperse.yellow.640 2 24 4 2 3 continued .5 C.yellow.I.14 C.218 C.2 16 15 79 25..I..solvent.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Biphenyl Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl).yellow.trifluoride Bromacil Bromacil.Quantifying Bioconcentration 125 taBlE 9.direct.octanoate Brucine Butyl.blue.red.food.disulfide Carbon.000 64 3.714 6 1 2..939 1 4 1 1 42..ether Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane Bis(2-chloroethyl).basic.green.solvent.000 9.114 C.6 3.730 706 86 2.red.3 C..brown.vat.4(H.2 620 18 47 61.ether Bis(tributyltin)..salt.I. lithium.basic..050 10 300 34 18 23 Baf 30 4 1 2 17 1 55 1 1 3 2 1 2 2 7 1.cyanamide Camphechlor Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Carbon.oxide Boron.3 C..red.637 1 1.(2.000 3.000 3.ether Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(chloromethyl).3 37 3.1 C.000 1.yellow.3h)-pyrimidinedione.ethyl-3.15 C.I...7 C.food.acid.lithium.I..I.2 3.I.green.100 35.I..trichloride Boron.6 18.salt) Bromine Bromochlorodifluoromethane Bromotrifluoromethane Bromoxynil Bromoxynil.100 1.I.7 11 210 — 700 1.396 1 1 49 2 5 4.I.(1-methylpropyl).I.2 3.I.acrylate Butyraldehyde C.red.2 34..3 C..4 Cadmium Calcium.direct.4 C.tetrachloride Bcf 377 45 5.acid.

8 Baf 2 3 1 35 2 858 12 5 1 1 1 7 187 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 2 10 2 86 2 2 344 4 1 2 1 4 3 1 3 1 41 20 1 1.5-B]quinox Chloramben Chlordane Chlorendic.9 — 46 23 15 120 11 1.9 7.isomers) Crotonaldehyde Cumene Cumene.2 4.050 140 47 3.1 20.acid Chlorimuron.2 3.745 1 .400 3.8 2.methyl.000 87.126 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 9.sulfide Carboxin Catechol Chinomethionat.100 19 16 4.methyl Chlorsulfuron Chromium Cobalt Copper Creosotes Cresol.(6-methyl-1.dioxide Chloroacetic.2 440 16 11.000 6.430 36 — 18 3.(mixed.2 29 3.ether Chlorophenols Chloropicrin Chlorotetrafluoroethane Chlorothalonil Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorpyrifos.ethyl Chlorine Chlorine.compounds Cycloate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyfluthrin Cyhalothrin Dazomet Bcf 11 25 3.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Carbonyl.2 35 26 3.2 520 240 5.acid Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzilate Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane Chloromethyl.2 79 2.hydroperoxide Cupferron Cyanazine Cyanide.2 3.551 6.3-dithiolo[4.

chlorothiophosphate Dimethyl.sulfate Dimethylamine Dimethylamine.(mixed.350 100 866 28 79 26 180 19 26 8.2 320 4.1 310 58 5.phthalate Dimethyl.(Cfc-114) Dichlorotrifluoroethane Dichlorpentafluoro-propane Dichlorvos Diclofop.900 150 3.2402) Dibutyl.(Halon.900 220 1.1.900 13.sulfate Diflubenzuron Diglycidyl.salt Decabromodiphenyl.8 4.chloride Bcf 6.3 — Baf 1 381 18 117 1 37 2 106 9 68 3 7 3 15 2 3 2 1 78 7 3 12 2 148 1.2 4.isomers) Dichlorobromomethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorofluoromethane Dichloromethane Dichlorophene Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.3 520 5.9 5.Quantifying Bioconcentration 127 taBlE 9.2 460 19 1.dicamba Dimethylcarbamoyl.2-trifluoroethane Dichlorobenzene.sodium.3 2 6.500 3.phthalate Dicamba Dichloran Dichloro-1.resorcinol.(mixed.isomers) Diazinon Diazomethane Dibenzofuran Dibromotetrafluoroethane.000 82 26 140 7.7 1.methyl Dicofol Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine Diethatyl.ethyl Diethyl.078 13 1 26 1 41 1 25 5 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 continued .oxide Desmedipham Diallate Diaminotoluene..ether.9 3.7 58 1.2 1.(Dgre) Dihydrosafrole Diisocyanates Dimethipin Dimethoate Dimethyl.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Dazomet.

acrylate Ethyl.phenol Dinitrotoluene.2 7.ester) Fenoxycarb Fenpropathrin Fenthion Fenvalerate Ferbam Fluazifop-butyl Bcf 30 27 21.chloroformate Ethyl.009 60 2..monoethyl.000 40 1.4 — 26 30 17 300 3.glycol.000 6.100 13.3 10 — — 3.compounds Diphenamid Diphenylamine Dipotassium.2 320 5.38 Direct.black.6 Disodium.blue.monomethyl.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Dinitrobutyl..endothall Dipropyl.300 3.glycol Ethylene.glycol.dipropylthiocarbamate Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene.629 1 1 3 3 2 24 241 5 1 1 6 2 20 195 1 26 1 1 13 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 26 412 264 86 1.and.thiourea Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.isocinchomeronate Direct.oxide Ethylene.100 56 3.3 2.and.8 3.400 1.500 3.oxide Fenoxaprop.ethyl(2-(4-((6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyen)oxy)penoxy)propanic.esters Ethyleneimine Famphur Fenarimol Fenbutatin. ethyl.2 64 16 240 2.salts.acid.ether Ethylene.2 2.128 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 9.4 4.500 Baf 3 3 1.9 1.dioxin-like.(mixed.acid.cyanodithioimidocarbonate Dithiobiuret Diuron Dodine Dodine D-trans-Allethrin Epichlorohydrin Ethoprop Ethyl.isomers) Dinocap Di-N-propylnitrosamine Dioxin.327 4 117 .ether Ethylene.000 760 30..8 160 8.2 29 320 5.

2 3.(Hcp) Hexamethylphosphoramide Hexazinone Hydramethylnon Hydrazine Hydrazine.953 11.2 — 40 470 — 3.000 320.000 86 94 0 3.alcohol Isosafrole Lactofen Lead Linuron Lithium.sulfate Hydrochloric.2 15 34 — 1.700 42 160 3 36 — Baf 4 1 1 1 6.861 24..807 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 37 1 1 1.carbonate Malathion Maleic.salt Fluorouracil Fluvalinate Folpet Fomesafen Formaldehyde Formic.cyanide Hydroquinone Imazalil Iron.113 gamma-Lindane Glycol.2 3.Quantifying Bioconcentration 129 taBlE 9.3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethane Hexachloronaphthalene Hexachlorophene.180 800 3.823 8 8 1 1 13 102 1 1.ethers Heptachlor Hexachloro-1.acid Hydrofluoric.000 3.300 — 19.565 63 1 17 210 4 13 1 4 1 continued .acid Freon.2 210 2.2 3.anhydride Bcf 41 3.400 66.2 150 1.548 885 5.acid Hydrogen.000 120 440 24.sodium.pentacarbonyl Isobutyraldehyde Isodrin Isofenphos Isopropyl.2 20.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Fluometuron Fluorine Fluoroacetic.117 10 35 1.2 88.acid.8 3.

parathion Methyl.bromide Methyl.8 — 3.1 6.gas M-Xylene Bcf 3.792 1.isobutyl.2 3.trioxide Monochloropentafluoroethane Monuron M-Phenylenediamine Mustard.ketone Methyl.2 3 160 170 3.hydrazine Methyl.2 8.ethyl.bromide Metiram Metribuzin Mevinphos Michler’s.2 8.2 510 160 10 44 18 3..sodium.ether Methylene.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Malononitrile Maneb Manganese M-Cresol M-Dinitrobenzene Mechlorethamine Mecoprop Mercaptodimethur Mercury Merphos Methacrylonitrile Metham.salt.isocyanate Methyl.ketone Methyl.iodide Methyl.000 2 3.tert-butyl.N-methyl-N-nitroso Methanol Methazole Methoxone Methoxone.2 40 13 Baf 1 18 1 2 7 1 12 9 2.128 1.130 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 9.5 12 2.7 — 3.000 15.2 3.6 40 1.acetate.sodium.ketone Molinate Molybdenum.sodium Methanamine.((4-chloro-2-methylpgenoxy).9 140 98 36.3 5.acrylate Methyl.chlorocarbonate Methyl.methacrylate Methyl.4 4.164 1 1 1 1 13 14 1 631 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 40 13 2 4 2 1 4 2 .2 220 3.8 12 3.isothiocyanate Methyl.salt) Methoxychlor Methyl.2 20 74 2.

1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Myclobutanil N.2 59 219 1.Quantifying Bioconcentration 131 taBlE 9.compounds.Oso4.6 18 100.2 3.acid Nitrobenzene Nitrofen Nitroglycerin N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Methylolacrylamide N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine N-Nitrosomorpholine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosonornicotine N-Nitrosopiperidine Norflurazon O-Anisidine O-Anisidine.2 2.oxide.000 — 11 1.2 3.alcohol N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea N-Hexane Nickel Nicotine.9 10 Baf 9 2 1 1 1 6 1 1 43 5 1 19 1 1 1 2 121 2 1 1 1 5 18 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 7.753 1 2 1 5 6 2 1 2 continued .N-Dimethylformamide Nabam Naled Naphthalene N-Butyl.and.8 3.2 13 1.(water.sodium Oryzalin Osmium.6 230 — 3.2 33 4.dissociable) Nitric.(T-4) O-Toluidine O-Toluidine.hydrochloride O-Cresol Octachloronaphthalene Octachlorostyrene O-Dinitrobenzene O-Phenylenediamine O-Phenylphenate.acid Nitrilotriacetic.6 4.8 3.7 3 540 47 4.N-Dimethylaniline N.2 3.550 10 3..2 3.hydrochloride Bcf 100 10 3.2 6.6 48 70 10 5.6 60 2.salts Nitrapyrin Nitrate.2 3.

alkanes Polychlorinated.160 45 8.acid Perchloromethyl.500 67 110 23 3.600 2.methyl P-Nitroaniline P-Nitrosodiphenylamine Polybrominated.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Oxydemeton.compounds Potassium.954 168 4 652 4 1 1 1 1 2 187 72 1 13 1.000 912 3.644 72 1 .400 920 6.412 1 3.2 — 20 2.isocyanate P-Cresidine P-Cresol P-Dinitrobenzene Pebulate Pendimethalin Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachlorophenol Pentobarbital.methyl Oxydiazon Oxyfluorfen O-Xylene Ozone P-Anisidine Paraldehyde Paraquat Parathion P-Chloroaniline P-Chloro-O-toluidine P-Chlorophenyl.biphenyls.2 480 14 31 170 10 18 7.7 150 18.sodium Peracetic.2 Baf 1 202 179 2 1 1 1 1 38 2 3 14 2 2 2 38 152 582 6 9 3 1 21 3.or.944 7.mercaptan Permethrin Phenanthrene Phenol Phenothrin Phenytoin Phosgene Phosphine Phosphorus.bromate Bcf 3.2 3.300 11 3.2 2.000 2.biphenyls Polycyclic.aromatic.1 3.400 44 — — 3.butoxide Pirimiphos.200 — 47.2 3.white) Phthalic.(PBBs) Polychlorinated.anhydride Picloram Piperonyl.6 480 1.132 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 9.2 260 51.(yellow.

azide Sodium.9 3.and.900 13.S.dimethyldithiocarbamate Potassium.000 2.6 2.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Potassium.N-methyldithiocarbamate P-Phenylenediamine Profenofos Prometryn Pronamide Propachlor Propane.100 3.2 21 — 13 9.2 470 400 3.sultone Propanil Propargite Propargyl.S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Saccharin Safrole sec-Butyl.dicamba Sodium.5 27 1.300 0.2 1.2 8.9 Baf 1 1 1 164 22 20 3 1 1 288 1 37 32 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 72 86 303 1.4 13 3.2 1.nitrite Sodium.9 250 3.2 8 3.700 3.salts Styrene Styrene.2 3.100 270 240 27 3.oxide Propyleneimine P-Xylene Pyridine Quinoline Quinone Quintozene Quizalofop-ethyl Resmethrin S.2 19 3.8 1.alcohol Propetamphos Propiconazole Propionaldehyde Propoxur Propylene Propylene.alcohol Selenium Sethoxydim Silver Simazine Sodium.5 28 3.2 4.2 3.pentachlorophenate Strychnine.009 1 20 1 1 102 1 3 1 3 1 1 3 1 2 2 continued .oxide Bcf 3.dimethyldithiocarbamate Sodium.Quantifying Bioconcentration 133 taBlE 9.2 912 1.6 3.

chloride Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane Triclopyr.4 — — — 21 56 75 1.800 3.methyl Tribromomethane Tributyltin.2 2.tetrachloride Toluene Toluene.3-Dichloropropene trans-1.2 100 10 2.alcohol Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachlorvinphos Tetracycline.134 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 9.2 — 17 49 8.4 3.200 770 3.2 15 8.triethylammonium.4-diisocyanate Toluene-2.acid Sulfuryl.4 Baf 1 2 668 2 1.fluoride Tributyltin.7 7.hydrochloride Tetramethrin Thallium Thiabendazole Thioacetamide Thiobencarb Thiodicarb Thiophanate.1 7.salt Triethylamine Bcf 3.300 116 44 3.6-diisocyanate trans-1.methacrylate Trichlorfon Trichloroacetyl.600 14 20.2 230 12 22 6.ethyl Thiophanate-methyl Thiosemicarbazide Thiourea Thiram Thorium.551 2 1 3 23 1 179 10 4 1 19 2 3 1 1 1 9 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 7 140 1 6 1 94 61 1 1 2 5 2 1 .dioxide Titanium.2 1.(mixed.2 23 280 3.isomers) Toluene-2.diisocyanate.000 16 3.4-Dichloro-2-butene Triadimefon Triallate Triaziquone Tribenuron.fluoride Sulprofos Tebuthiuron Temephos Terbacil tert-Butyl.8 3.2 68 3.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Sulfuric.

..Toxic.Limnology and Oceanography..2006. Fisheries:. U. 2007. and.. Freshwater..http://www.Agency..asp. Kromhout.Bioaccumulative.Cadmium. CIHEAM-IAMZ.Protection.salts Xylene.Estimated Per Capita Fish Consumption in the United States...in. NOAA.H....phosphate Trypan.Agency.(PBT).1993.. .pbtprofiler. Science.nmfs..gov/st1/fus/fus05/.2 3.S.2 3..674 28 900 280 2.chloride Triphenyltin.... and. States—2005.2010)...20.(mixed. of.8 3.January.Persistent.3-dibromopropyl).431–439.net/before.asp.and. the.blue Urethane Vanadium Vinclozolin Vinyl..of. Technology.2010).20.and.52.Profiler.January..of.1 (continued) Bioconcentration factors (Bcfs) and associated developed Bioconcentration adjustment factors (Bafs) of tri chemicals chemical name Trifluralin Triforine Triphenyltin. Transfer.D.and.. Josupeit..2 10 56 150 47 5. 2006.Nature.9–23.bromide Vinyl. S. U.Food.Washington.. along.acetate Vinyl.. Stewart.DC:.(PBT).noaa.http://www.50(5):.Persistent.diet.02-003.hydroxide Tris(2..S.Agency. of..aspects.. A. Metals..chloride Warfarin. Profiler. R.fish. BiBliography Croteau..3 9.Biomagnification.Environmental. Fisheries..Evidence.Epidemiological.1511–1519.Global Overview on Fish Consumption... Trophic.Environmental.EPA-821-C-. U.S.pbtprofiler.....net/before.2 130 2.7 Baf 441 3 71 23 1 1 1 1 11 1 2 2 5 13 5 1 Source:.Webs:.isomers) Zinc Zineb Bcf 5. of...2002.Protection.Bioaccumulative.1996.Protection. N.Quantifying Bioconcentration 135 taBlE 9. 2005. Luoma.in.Environmental. M..http://www.Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.the.(accessed..(accessed..Toxic. Office. United.st.

.

toxic.quantified. the.chapter. approach.data.to. toxicity. Ranking.managed..then. the.only.or. a.. (pounds).releases. capita.be. among. and. of. to.the. across.of. conduct.various.the. methodology. other.an.. initial. approach. in.and.solely..in. welcome. of. absolute.bioaccumulative. of. we.relative.or. the. the. the.toxicity.(doses/capita-pound).chemicals. claim.overall.the. chapters. used. factor. is. factors.effective. same.. toxic. Environmental. doses.9).relatively.the. evaluate. is. that.coming. 137 . this.percent.index. means. up.to. (Chapter. and. rank.the. The.. each.analysis.. fixed.used. of.data. an. release.toxic.same. “toxicity”.of.chemical. represent. proposed. toxic.represent..to. the.overall.17. the. per.is.policy.. units. (ETF).representing.multiplied.for. toxic.This..the.the.shows.use. that.in.cannot. toxicity. potential.that.chemicals.the.Agency.in. impact.list. important.(Chapter.persistence. unit.to. releases. keep.a. come.(PBT).99. would. a. this.the.and. chemical. chemicals. words.. releases.reducing.reported.develop. in.toxicity. This.developed..our.volume. the. toxic. list. build. doses/capita-pound.toxicity. drives. Protection.top. factors.highest. previous.these.10. in.routinely.of. by. the. resulting..chemicals. on.chapter. is. This.the.then.8). Rather.(Chapter.. apples-to-apples. with. can. we. derived. 2007.toxic. chemical-specific.on.chemicals.10 Developing Effective Toxicity Factors introduction In.reported.additional.can.logical.98.reduction.impacts. how..of. effect.was.guide.releases. a.for.alone..percent.accordingly.In. chemical-specific. TUs.yet. U. various. to. of.by. TRI.10 chemicals. actual. of.use..chemicals. chemical. comparison.toxic.overall. The. the. the..in.Toxics.such. be. point.TRI.of. differently. by.these. chemicals.up. TRI. or.relative.. mobility.that.the. that. emphasis. suggestions. 2007.volume.toxicological. improve.releases. not. on.policy.Release. to. respective.impact..reducing.develop. mind.Inventory.and. toxicity.an. in..the.applying..of. releases.(USEPA). of.used. in.TRI. to. relatively..of.on..S.published.home. measure. of.this. an.and.the. to. an.with.trend.purposes.be.targeted. of. to. the. impact.relative. (Chapter.rank.the. we.bioconcentration.This. to. (TU). proposed. 6). for. purpose.chemical.use. then.develops.of.guide. number.persistent. objective.of. was.7).(TRI). the.ETF.point.

2.in.yet.chemicals.took. The. Figures 10.was. (PCBs).compared.those. equipment. on. together.98. of.ban.includes. is. cobalt.equally.the.multiplied.BAF.of. TU.would. calculated. One.threshold.that. cobalt..releases.A.17.hexavalent.top. the.that.person.TRI.products.1. the. the.. the.modification. were.percent.1. reporting. release.the.by.with. commercial.adjustment.TRI.represent.0..factor.acceptable.pounds.70.toxicity.quantifying..were.United.evenly.ETF. amount..released. releases.ranks.since..chromium.they..the.in.developed. for.of... has. such...have.releases. Undoubtedly. impact.coupled.data. banned.of.chemicals. useful.TU.presence.As. logic.median.all..that.chromium. chemical.the..logarithmic. PF. the. addition.for.chromium.shown. chromium. hexavalent.the. a.scale.TF.chromium.2. and.TRI.before. are.(Chapter.to. BAF.widely.the.chemical.of.needed.releases..in.the. chromium.pounds.respectively.TRI.place.was.TU.in.TRI.the.of.of.for.. represent.of.benign.chromium.times.variation.releases.quantified.top.2007.6) MF.of. applies... of.value.waste. are. TRI.a.distributed. hromium.example.population.. same.As..chemicals. toxicity.general.are.dose.chapters: •.1. in. toxicity impact Table 10. this.over. polychlorinated.and. TUs.factor.million.by. chromium.. ETF.S. Table 10.only. on.the.U.pounds.data.see.present.TU.if. a.moderately. and.. calculated.TRI. compounds.only.are.each. States.the. biphenyls.together. by.ranked.volume.by.70..to. the. hexavalent.can.99.based.following.as.TU.reported.each.. chromium.(Chapter.chemical..toxicity. but.factor..ranges. eliminated.persistence.2007.metallic. important.not.. ETF..and.the. of.ranked. •.3.bioconcentration.are.amount.and.MF.previous.toxic. USEPA.only.chemicals. the. is.the.an.1976..release.exposed. the..were.of.a.is.2.release.due. and.is.them.. the.The. TF.is. The. quantified. reported.chromium..of. based. separately.for.compound.to. apparent. multiplying.produced.the. In. represents.rearranges.by.multiplying. in.data. estimated.9) For.of.service/remediation.the. of.PCB-containing.the..One.the.States. by.mobility. production.or.(Chapter.factors. to. released.presents.and.7) PF.data.the. by.to.release.chromium.the. toxicity.derived.002. that.a. •.MF.. reported.list.that..a.did. toxicity. pounds.10.to. toxicity. reached.out.toxic. •.2007.. given.. releases.PCBs. United. in. impact. with.the.ETFs.of.a.trivalent.estimated.released.population. the.across.the. and.assumption.(doses/capita-pound).the. distortion. TRI.the. trivalent. receive. data.If.data.example. coupled.sixth.10.million.doses/capita. metallic.of.the.138 Toxic Chemicals EffEctivE toxicity factor Table 10.due..on. of. the. an.materials.percent.proposed. revise. was. c . yet.have.beneficial.PCB.PF. .and. has. in.taking.ranked. it  would.the.in. relative.released.TUs.the.this..for.highly.TRI.this.and. per.the.factors. and. and. capita.chemicals.this.ETFs. from. been.on.2007.the.means. top.as.of.release.by. the. the. types. the.that. year.(Chapter. be. in. All.factor.shows.8) BAF.Figure 10. analysis. in. chromium.

from.1-Dimethyl.52E–05 2. than.up.as.releases.in.00724 0.1-Trifluoro-2.the.59E–08 2.1.1-Dichloroethylene 1.although.2.4′-diamine.78E–03 9.17E–06 4.same.2dichloroethane 1. As.(pounds). persistence. seven. release. Figure  10.07942 0.same.(Hcfc-121a) 1..72727 0. to. shown.58E–03 4.with.releases.chemicals.. quantified.38E–05 1.2.46467 0.years.the.trend/curve.volumes.2007. 5.5.58E–04 Baf 5.releases. through.2-Tetrachloro-1fluoroethane 1. (Dbcp) 1.2-Tetrachloro-2fluoroethane.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane 1.58E–04 continued .volumes.total. total.2. releases. more.49E–07 6.002 0.facilities.3.02E–06 8.05E–08 7. and. sectors. TRI.49E–07 6.declined. in.addition.06E–01 2.2.1996.declined.for.TUs.21E–09  —  — 5.1-Trichloroethane 1.54E–01 5.08E–06 3.these.17E–06 4.01804 0.286. included.TRI.26E–05  — 7. the.03376 0.the.for.49E–07 6. overall.As.TU.in. Following.51E–04  —  — 7. 1988.2-Butylene.1.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 139 The.50124 0. caused. taBlE 10.the.consistently.04E–08  —  — 2. 1994. 2007.total.(along.through.51E–03  — 8.that.94E–02 8.2.TUs.1.yearly. ETFs.3′-dimethyl1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.50002 0.years).31005 0.05E–08 7.1′-Methylenebis(4isocyanatobenzene) 1. expansion.59E–08 2. The.70E–06 3.71E–04 4.51E–03 1.steadily.volumes.21E–09  —  — 5.after.(pounds).release.and.1.08E–06 3.39474 0.26E–05  — 7.were. on. first.64E–05 1.the. 1998.02221 0. the.TRI. applied.71E–04 4...2-Tetrachloroethane 1..(1988).00E–01 mf 0.are.1 combined impact of toxicity.federal.in.05E–08 7. to. were. report.with.total..1.3-Trichloropropane 1.the.the.01411 0.1′-Biphenyl)-4.as.pounds.89E+00 3.of..addition.through. to.over.summed.come.1.chemical-specific.shown.far.a.58E–04 Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 5.as. reports.each.and. reported. 3. to.total.the.58E–03 4.51E–04  —  — 7.the.08E–06 3.06776 0.1.59E–08 2.26E–05  — 7.2-Tetrachloroethane 1. reporting.58E–03 4.1-Dichloroethane 1.followed. double.new. Etf) chemical name (1.11230 0.17E–06 4.2-Dibromoethane tf (doses/ capita-lb) 6.noted. new.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.TUs.20068 0. mobility.64E–05 1.00724 0.than.92E–04 4.again.pattern. the.1..39E–01  —  — 3. industry. then.3.hydrazine 1..chemicals.year..51E–04  —  — 7.52E–05 2. this.51E–03  — 8. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.11E–04 4.22E–04 2.23E–03  — 8. despite.the. which.1988.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.52E–05 2.1.individual.39382 0.concerned. year. Chapter.year.2-Trichloroethane 1.53E–05 1.04657 0.oxide 1.for..TRI.of.21E–09  —  — 5.71E–04 4..of. the.7-triaza-1azoniaadamantane.64E–05 1.09237 pf 5.release.by.lower. the.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane. Figure 10. chemical-specific.chloride 1.TU.the.

14E–04 2.90E–05 4.02001 0.04E–08 3.51005 0.80E–05 6.140 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.67E–05 mf 0.24E–05 3.28941 0.18E–03 5.79E–05 2.14E–04  — 4.5-Trichlorophenol 2.14401 0.05003 0.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.18E–06 1.2-Ethylhexyl.92E–02 6.75E–05 6.09E–05 9.07E–03 1.97E–08 1.09E–05 9.01580 0.51871 0. persistence.53E–02 5.86E–08 9.13E–05  — 1.77E–08 5.00009 0.2-Diphenylhydrazine 1.81E–06 1.4-D 2.80E–05 6.68E–07 .79E–05 2.03310 0.05E–03 1.85E–09 9.6-Trinitrophenol 2.18E–03 5.4′isopropylidenediphenol 2.ester 2.00201 0.43E–08 2.6-Xylidine 2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-Aminonaphthalene 2-Chlor-1.25405 pf  —  — 1.2-Dichloroethane 1.81E–06 2.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.35607 0.2tetrafluoroethane 1-Chloro-1.19E–01 1.04E–08 3.002 0.81E–05 9.23E–05 1.15523 0.79E–05 2.2.62E–09 1.90E–06 2.67E–05  — 1.59E–09 1.14E–09 5.70E–05 4.01582 0.43E–08 2.16E–08 6.20E–05 2.4-Dichloro-2-butene 1.2′.43E–08 2.salt 2.12E–03  —  — 3.07E–03 1.3-Dichloro-1.65E–03  — 5.00708 0.00841 0.24E–03 1.04563 0.97E–02 6.01856 0.05E–01 4.3-butadiene tf (doses/ capita-lb)  —  — 2.4-D.75E–05 6.4.4.24E–05 3.97E–08 1.15E–02 7.09E–05 9.32E–08 2.97E–08 1.24E–05 3.62E–09 1.Sodium.11715 0.34E–08 1.51356 0.4-D.68E–07 Baf  —  — 1.70E–05 4.4-Db 2.62E–09 1.00003 0.14E–01 2.58E–01 1.77E–05  — 6.82E–10 6.82E–10 6.19E–05 1. Etf) chemical name 1.02677 0.23E–05 1.Butyl.32E–08 2.59E–09 1. (mixed isomers) 1.1.3-Dichlorobenzene 1.6-Dinitrotoluene 2.6-Trichlorophenol 2.77E–08 5.4-Dinitrophenol 2.4.00119 0.07E–03 1.1.13690 0.82E–10 6.12E–03  —  — 3.002 0.2-Dichlorobenzene 1.45E–06 5.3pentafluoropropane 1.61048 0.20E–05 2.14E–04  — 4.00E–03 6.01425 0.87E–03 6.1-difluoroethane 1.2-Dichloro-1.02771 0.4-Dichlorobenzene 1.68E–07 Etf (doses/ capita-lb)  —  — 1.75E–05 6.81E–02 2.1-difluoroethane 2.4-D.2.6.34E–08 1.2-trifluoroethane 1.ester 2.Butoxyethyl.4-Diaminotoluene 2.69E–03 3.80E–05 6.4-D.1.2-Dichloroethylene 1. mobility. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.12E–03  —  — 3.19E–05 1.2-Dichloropropane 1.3-Butadiene 1.33E–02 6.92E–02 6.00683 0.2.05636 0.18E–03 5.77E–05 1.00177 0.6′-Tetrabromo-4.45E–08 1.18782 0.13E–05  — 1.81E–07 1.4-Dimethylphenol 2.002 0.23E–05 1.20E–05 2.00753 0.59E–09 1.67E–05  — 1.77E–08 5.34E–08 1.3-Dichloropropene.13E–05  — 1.94E–05 2.ester 2.77E–05  — 6.90E–06 5.3-Dichloropropene 2.92E–02 6.2-Dichloro-1.85E–09 9.26E–06 5.29E+00 3.86E–08 9.32E–08 2.09E–04 4.04E–08 3.85E–09 9.70E–05 4.85E–02 2.4-Dichlorophenol 2.07E–01  —  — 7.86E–08 9.03895 0.67E–02 5.19E–05 1.67E–05 1.4-Dioxane 1-Chloro-1.04540 0.

81E–04 1.66E–03 2.3-Dichloro-1.1.65E–07 2.83E–05 1.00E+00  — 1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.09E–04 6.2pentafluoropropane 3.02997 0.00549 0.00284 0.43E–05 7.01184 0.00113 0.92E–04 1.89E–06 3.14E–05 mf 0.42E–07  — 1.25E–06 1.62E–06 6.49E–03 8.25E–06 1.08E–04 1.38E–01 6.75E–06 3.42E–07  — 1.34E–08 8.20163 0.87E–03 0.37E–03 4.42E–07  — 1.4′-Methylenebis(2chloroaniline) 4.27E–10 1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine 3.04707 0.40E–04 1.10E–07 continued .79E–03 1.1-trifluoroethane 2-Chloroacetophenone 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 2-Methyllactonitrile 2-Methylpyridine 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitropropane 2-Phenylphenol 3.51622 0.56E–07 7.47E–03 5.33E–04 0.56E–07 7.Ndimethyl)benzenamine 4.34E–08 8.33E–04 0.ether 4.43E–05 7.37E–03 4.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.78E–05 1.10E–07 Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 4.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.79E–03 1.00762 0.002 0.27E–10 1.89E–06 3.88E–07 1.25E–07 1.06E+00 6.08E–04 1.00549 0.88E–07 1.62E–07 7.1.49E–03 4.78E–05 1.40E–04 1.30E–01 8.1.27E–10 1.25E–07  — 1.83E–05 1.6-Dinitro-O-cresol 4-Aminoazobenzene 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-Nitrophenol 5-Nitro-O-anisidine 5-Nitro-O-toluidine Abamectin Acephate Acetaldehyde Acetamide tf (doses/ capita-lb) 9.89E–06 3.2.16E–03 1.88E–07 1.04798 0. Etf) chemical name 2-Chloro-1.17E–09 2.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol 4.33E–05 2.62E–07 7.99342 0.34E–01 5.00E+00  — 1.49E–03 4.02997 0. mobility.1.56E–07 7.00E+00 2.62E–07 7.45E–05 8.16E–03 5.16E–06 1.92E–04  — 2.14E–03 1.30E–01 4.20E–04 7.10E–07 Baf 4.66E–01 2.03127 0.25E–06 1.65E–07 2.13E–03 2.18E–03 1.08E–04 1.00E+00 1. dihydrochloride 3.49E–03 4.71E–06 2.53E–06 1.50602 pf 4.00389 0.03205 0.62E–06 6.71E–06 2.40E–04 1.13E–04 4.06E–03 2.62E–06 6.1.81E–06 1.17E–09 2.34E–08 8.56E–07 7.01347 0.09E–03 3.37E–03 4.33E–04 0.13059 0.13E–03 1.90E–05 7.sulfate 3.00188 0.05397 0.10E–04  — 1.51005 0.49E–03 8.56E–07 7.4′-Methylenedianiline 4.78E–05 1.17E–09 2. persistence.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 141 taBlE 10.01404 0.55130 0.00720 0.43E–05 7.05E–05 1.65E–07 2.002 0.00201 0.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine 3.56E–07 7.53E–06 1.00565 0.75E–06 3.92E–04  — 2.43E–05 1.25E–07  — 1.28E–01 1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.71E–06 2.45224 0.75E–06 3.02997 0. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.83E–05 1. dihydrochloride 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.79E–03 1. butylcarbamate 4.00026 0.92E–03 1.49E–03 8.28E–02 8.002 0.2tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.02E–02 8.53E–06 1.4′-Methylenebis(N.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.

34E–10 1.18E–04 9.04E–06 6.49925 0.49E–08 3.45E–04 6.29E–05 2.34E–02  — 6.10480 0. persistence.40152 0.71E–07  — 1.81E–03 2.24E–07 5.44E–08 5.01784 0.07E–07 3.71E–07  — 1.00725 0.00152 pf 1.13E–10 5.002 0.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.chloride alpha-Naphthylamine Aluminum Aluminum.and.49E+00 1.07E–06 1.19E–03 3.04E–06 6.00011 0.18E–04 9.01972 0.14E–07 5.00031 0.04662 0.87E–10 2.72E–05 7.09E–10  — 1.55E–01 3.86E–06 7.01067 0.142 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.67E–06 3.86E–08 4.48E–08 2.91E–05 6.87E–10 2.30E–13 1.80E–10 1.86E–06 7.05058 0.00E–08 8.32E–09 1.53245 0.30172 0.84713 0.28E–05  — 3.55E–02 6.arsenic. Etf) chemical name Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acifluorfen.06E–09  — 1.acid Acrylonitrile Alachlor Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl.and.compounds Bendiocarb Benfluralin Benomyl Benzal.00013 0.87E–06 1.81E–07 5. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor. compounds Arsenic.16E–06 6.06E–09 2.(fibrous.002 0.28E–05  — 3.55E–11 7.08E–06  — 3.and.08E–06  — 3.00785 0.09E–10  — 1.22E–03 1.65603 0.81E–03 2.salt Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.91E–05 6.11E–06 5.45E–06 2.16E–06 1.96E–03 5.80E–10 1.45E–04 1.04E–06 6.32E–05 7.65E–08 2.80E–10 1.07E–07 mf 0.83E–06 1.30E–13 1.76E–05 3.87E–10 2.26459 0.14E–04  — 1.chloride Benzene Benzidine Benzo(Ghi)perylene Benzoic.00903 0.chloride Benzoyl.32E–04 1.27E–02 2.22E–03 1.amine Allyl.54E–09 4.36348 0.29E–05  — 2.86E–08 4.14E–03 1.24E–07 5.03E–03 1.91E–05 6.70E–12 Baf  — 3.53E–05 3.antimony.61E–03 3.81E–04 1.70E–12 Etf (doses/ capita-lb)  — 3.49E–08 3.48E–08 2.54E–09  — 2.sodium.oxide.05E–01 6.21910 0.forms) Aluminum.27E–02 2.22E–03 1.48E–08 2.94E–07 1.55E–11 7.00E–08 8.87E–06 1.39E+01 6.29E–05  — 2.00022 0.13E–10 5.00E–08 8.17928 0.00003 0.002 0.81E–05 2.34E–10 1.19E–03 3.76E–05 3.43E+00 3.96E–03 5.58112 0.34E–10 1.49E–10 3.00296  — 0.76E–05 3.alcohol Allyl.30E–13 1.70E–12 .50002 0.03893 0.60E–01 3.49E–08 3.87E–06 1.37E–03 1..54E–09  — 2.00052  — 0.86E–06 7.phosphide Ametryn Amitraz Amitrole Ammonia Aniline Anthracene Antimony.(friable) Atrazine Auramine Barium.06E–09  — 1.19E–03 3.81E–03 2.26E–03 5.00052 0.94E–07 1.00002 0.002 0.72E–05 7.71E–07  — 1.trichloride Benzoyl.compounds Asbestos.96E–03 5.peroxide tf (doses/ capita-lb) 7.barium.09E–04 2.72E–05 7.00052 0.18E–04 9.002 0.24E–07 5.14E–05  — 1.09E–10 1.32E–04 1.32E–04 1.27E–02 2.28E–05  — 3.14E–07 7.24E–02 3.08E–06  — 3.55E–11 7. mobility.13E–10 5.07E–04 5.86E–08 4.

11E–04 1.90E–09 7.13E–04  — 6.phthalate Butyraldehyde C.tetrachloride Carbonyl.04437 0.60E–10  — 8.90E–06  — 1.I.13E–03 1.00833 0.00502 0.16E–06 7.44932 0.87E–06 2.72E–10 4.00527 0.36E–04 5.octanoate Brucine Butyl.15E–10 1.00E–11 2.00E–11 2.20E–05 1.ether Bis(tributyltin).11E–04  — 6. persistence.benzyl.54E–08 3.04E–11 1.13E–08 5.21E–04 7.15E–08 9.00574 0.13E–08 5.33142 0.16E–05 1.72E–10 4.37000 1.disulfide Carbon.54E–10 2.58E–03 1.trifluoride Bromacil Bromine Bromochlorodifluoromethane Bromotrifluoromethane Bromoxynil Bromoxynil.00000 0.13E–04 1.acrylate Butyl.73E–11 6.90E–06 2.67E–09 1.ether Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane Bis(2-chloroethyl).and.53E–08 2.05E–09 1.02959 0.54E–10 2.38E–04 3.60E–10  — 8.beryllium.02960 pf 2.ether Bis(2-ethylhexyl).chloride Beryllium.11E–04  — 6.74E–06  — 4.81E–07 1.00007 0.65E–01 6.60E–10  — 8.52E–02 7.15E–10 1.36E–10 5.06E–10 2.direct.06E–10 2.04E–11 1.acid tf (doses/ capita-lb) 2.61E–09 1.81E–07 7.15E–10 1.00018 0.14E–08  — 2. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.15E–08 9.58E–03 1.96E–12 1.05E–07 2.96E–12 1.18E–04 6. compounds Calcium.52E–01 5.14E–08  — 2.55E–05 1.96E–12 1.58E–03 1.002 0.00118 0.74E–09 1.13324 0.and.46E–12  — 1.70E–07 1.11E–04  — 6.00017 0.98E–05 1.08086 0.13E–04  — 6.002 0.00E–11 2.36E–02 2.94E–05 1.74E–06  — 4.cadmium.55E–03 3.07E–07  — 3.34E–08  — 2.trichloride Boron.22E–02 7.05864 0.21E–07 2.07E–07 2.40E–06 1.13E–08 5.blue.30965 0.18616 0.02E–06 1. mobility.63E–11 9.46E–12  — 1. compounds Bifenthrin Biphenyl Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl).63E–11 9.62E–01 3.03734 0.56E–12 continued .74E–06  — 4.40E–06 1.adipate Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(chloromethyl).15E–08 9.00002 0.00018  — 0.oxide Boron.00028 0.00007 0.94E–04  — 4.72E–10 4.88E–09 8.18E–04 6.218 Cadmium.01429 0.54E–10 2.32E+00  — 1.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 143 taBlE 10.39E–14 5.18E–04 6.46E–12 7.34E–08  — 2.67E–09 1..55E–05 1.56E–12 Baf 2.40E–06 1.63E–11 9.00041 0.36E–10 3.54E–08 3.00898 0.81E–06 1.21E–04 7.73E–11 6.34263 0.20E–05 1.88E–09 8.sulfide Carboxin Catechol Chloramben Chlordane Chlorendic.54E–08 3.cyanamide Camphechlor Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Carbon.39E–14 5.67E–09 1.04E–11 1.61E–09 1.002 0.51746 0.55E–05 1.002 0.56E–12 Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 2.06E–10 2.00707 0.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.34E–08  — 2. Etf) chemical name Benzyl.39E–14 5.14E–08 6.61E–09 1.88E–09 8.00896 0.20E–05 1.18E+01 1.00176 0.73E–11 6.36E–10 mf 0.21E–04 7.40E–07 6.

33E–13 1.00654 0.00040 0.26E–10 4.35E–06 1.15E–08 9.50E–09 3.36E–10 3.28E–10 2.08370 0.36E–10 7.00E+00 8.chromium.04E–11 1.94E–04 7.52632 0.84E–13 7.methyl.84E–13 3.53647 0.11818 0.copper. compounds Cobalt.00121 0.84E–13 3.00009 0.69E–06 1.48E–05  — 1.50474 0.05E–04 5.50005 0.01734 0.29178 0.and.35E–07  — .ethyl Chlorine Chlorine.oxide Desmedipham Diallate Diaminotoluene.12E–07 1.15E–08 9.00007 0.57E–04 7.17E–09 3.22E–06 3.77E–05 1.16287 0.33E–16 1.07E–08 1.37E–02 3.06085 0.59E–02 6.(mixed.81E–06 4.17E+00 6.87E–03 3.10E–01 1.35E–06 4. persistence.68E+00 2.74E–08 2.78E–10 6.30E–05 2.33E–16 1.36E–09 3.83E–05 3.52E–05 2.28E–06 1.17E+00 6.87E–07 3.84E–13 7.81E+00 1.28E–06 1.00338 0.22E–06 3.54E–08 1.14E–04 1. Etf) chemical name Chlorimuron.02451 0.12E–07 1.37E–02 3.cobalt.41E–07 4.39E–07 1.methyl Chlorsulfuron Chromium.77E–05 1.00003 0.00134 0.36E–10 5.09469 0.60976 0.53768 0.and.17E+00 6.26E–09 3.48E–05  — 1.22E–06 3.compounds Copper.39E–07 1.38E–03 7.02740 0.72E–03 1.10E–03 8.07E–08 1.88E–02 1.55E–10 3.26E–09 3.74E–08 2.48E–05  — 1.acid Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzilate Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane Chloromethyl.39E–07 1.ether Chlorophenols Chloropicrin Chlorotetrafluoroethane Chlorothalonil Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorpyrifos.33E–16 1.52E–05 2.35E–07  — Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 1.11E–08 2.14726 0.03E–08 1.38E–03 4.78E–10 6.77E–05 1.00013 0.39772 0.30E–05 2.41E–06 3.07362 0.51E–01 8.salt Decabromodiphenyl.12E–05 1.69E–06 1.sodium.45E–06 7.30E–05 2.00183 0.03E–08 1.03E–08 1.13753 0.02740 0..33E–13 1.07E–08 1.10E–03 8.26E–10 4.03636 0.55E–10 3.28E–06 1.50E–09 3.00000 0.78E–10 6.28E–10 2.36E–09 3.67E–04 4.isomers) Diazinon Dibenzofuran tf (doses/ capita-lb) 8.47017 0.14E–04 1.83E–05 3.84E–13 3.63E–05  — 3.26E–10 4. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.15E–08 9.63E–05 3.144 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.80E–03 1.53969 1.12E–05 1.27402 0.36E–10 4.14E–09 3.28E–10 2.00178 pf 1.(mixed.07E–08 8.37E–02 3.30E–05  — mf 0.00007 0.04E–11 1.04E–11 1.isomers) Crotonaldehyde Cumene Cumene.10E–03 8.dioxide Chloroacetic.90E–05 9.54E–03 0.26E–09 3.80E–03 1.compounds Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyfluthrin Cyhalothrin Dazomet Dazomet.41E–07 4.04E–06 1.84E–13 7.54E–03 2.33E–13 1.and.17E–09 3.compounds Creosotes Cresol.47E–06 3.12E–05 1.17E–09 3.69E–06 1.74E–08 2.14E–04 1. mobility.50E–09 3.hydroperoxide Cyanazine Cyanide.12E–07 1.80E–03 1.05950 0.54E–08 1.002 0.30E–05 2.54E–08 1.05E–03 1.41E–07 4.55E–10 3.89E–05 7.83E–05 3.36E–09 3.90E–07 8.52E–05 2.35E–07  — Baf 1.09E–06 1.63E–05  — 3.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.36E–10 1.00209 0.

81E–09 1.chloride Dinitrobutyl.02669 0.38 Diuron Dodine Epichlorohydrin tf (doses/ capita-lb) 5.and.94E–06 2.28E–07 1.dicamba Dimethylcarbamoyl.isomers) Dichlorobromomethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorofluoromethane Dichloromethane Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.06E–07  — 1.99E–10 4.14292 0.endothall Direct.36E–10 2.002 0.09634 1.90E–05 1.28E–07 1.73E–09 2.11E–06 1.47E–10 4.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 145 taBlE 10.50E–10  — 7.76E–08  — 2.82E–12  — 5.68E–12 9.56856 0.98E–05 4.81E–04 1.19E–03 5.32E–07 4.26E–08 7.32E–07 4.95E–02  — 1.002 0.30E–08 1.19119 pf 3.38E–05 1.30E–08 1.11E–04 2.03318 0.(mixed.00003 0.50E–10 2.50E–06 1.82E–12  — 5.02E+00 1.03E–12 4.02403 0.47E–10 4.15E–10  — 4.45E–10 4.15E–03 7.00004 0.50E–10  — 7.73E–09 2.00326 0.99E–10 4.19E–08 8.18E–13  — 1.30E–02 5. mobility.39586 0.50837 0.50570 0.90E–06 1.28E–07 2.19E–03 5.isomers) Dinocap Di-N-propylnitrosamine Dioxin.90E–08 2. compounds Diphenylamine Dipotassium.36389 0.32E–09  — 2.62E–09 1.ether.02E–05 1.50E–06 1.28E–07 1.32E–12  — 4.13E–08 1.02E–05 1.sulfate Diflubenzuron Diglycidyl.30E–08 1.32E–09  — 2.62E–09 1.phthalate Dimethyl.50E–06 1. persistence.05284 0.82E–06 4.04569 0.chlorothiophosphate Dimethyl.02E–05 1.50002 0.45E–05 1.90E–06 2.11E–06 1.00000 0.04671 0.28E–07 2.06E–07  — 1.03393 0.26E–08  — 4.90E–04  — 7.11E–05 7.98E–05 4.50030 0.07E+00 2.82E–05  — 1.(mixed.13E–08 1.06233 0.11E–06 1.00179 0. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.76E–08  — 2.phenol Dinitrotoluene.36E–10  — 5.00857 0.01065  — 0.002 0. Etf) chemical name Dibutyl.82E–05  — 1.81E–05 3.73E–09 2.00526 0.18E–13 5.68E–12 9.32E–09 2.82E–06 7.60E–06 Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 3.19E–08 8.black.62E–09 1.82E–12  — 5.42428 0.dioxin-like.sulfate Dimethylamine Dimethylamine.82E–05  — 1.90E–06 7.68E–12 9.15E–10  — 4.60E–06 Baf 3.32E–06 2.19E–03 5.13E–08 1.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.87E–10 3.93E+04 2.28E–07 2.phthalate Dicamba Dichlorobenzene.(Dgre) Dihydrosafrole Diisocyanates Dimethipin Dimethoate Dimethyl.82E–06 1.81E–07 1.60E–06 continued .15579 0.18E–06 1.06E–07  — 1.00806 0.94E–06  — 5.26E–03 mf 0.32E–12  — 4.03E–12 4.99E–10 4.67E–09 5.80E–02 3.87E–10 3. (Cfc-114) Dichlorotrifluoroethane Dichlorpentafluoro-propane Dichlorvos Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine Diethyl.07911 0.47E–10 4.32E–12 1.03E–12 4.32E–07 4.19E–08 8.15E–10  — 4.00403 0.00003 0.phthalate Diethyl.002 0.18E–13  — 1.98E–05 4.80E–02 3.80E–02 3.50E–02 1.36E–10 7.03236 0.87E–10 3.76E–08  — 2.resorcinol.82E–06 1.

15892 0.01E–09 1.thiourea Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.86E–02 3.77E–06  —  —  —  — 7.00E+00 5.01E–09 1.02E–04 1.53E–05 5.01308 0.oxide Ethylene.59E–01 1.68E–07 2.65E–09 5.05269 0.02E–03 1.ether Ethylene.06E–03 4.09E–03 2.32E–06 1.00E+00 7.sodium. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor..00526 0.acid.72943 0.67E–07 5.01403 0.07093 0.50035 0.46E–07 6.40E–07 6.47E–06 9.002 0.47E–05 1.146 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.50E–02 7.54516 1.54E–03 2.34E–07  —  — 1.47E–05 1.76E–06 9.65E–09  — 1.45E–04 4.3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethane Hexachlorophene.09E–03 2.46E–07 6.32E–09 1.00593 0.00000 0.10E–06  — 5.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.00E–12 7.00580 0.34E–07  —  — 1.67E–07 5.esters Ethyleneimine Fenarimol Fenbutatin.94E–04 1.acid Freon.01E–09 1.10E–06  — 5.04E–07 9.45E–04 4.47E–08 2.55736 0.01E–06  — 3.04E–07 9.78E–03 0.09E–03 2.00792 0.06E–03 4.68E–06 3.53E–05 5..47E–08 2.33E–03  —  — 4.46E–07 6.32E–06 2.41E–03  — 7.10E–03 1.19E–03 7.54188 0.60731 0.53E–05 5.ethers Heptachlor Hexachloro-1.113 gamma-Lindane Glycol.00010 0.46E–06 3.32E–06 4.08954 0.19E–03 Baf  — 5.00E–12 7.monoethyl.37E–10 8. mobility.monomethyl.53E–03 3.37E–10 8.06E–03 4.46E–06 3.45E–04 4.86E–02 3.50065  — 0.00141 0.002 0.37E–10 8.34E–07 4.38E–09 7.77E–06  —  —  —  — 7.002 0.81E–06  —  — 1.00355 0.00E–12 7.90E–03  — 2.00124 0.002 0.32E–09 1.68E+00 mf 0.79E–10 1.79E–10 1.04E–07 9.81E–06  —  — 1.68E+00 1.47E–05 4.sulfate tf (doses/ capita-lb)  — 2.50406 0.47E–05 1.19E–03 .and.00049 0.32E–09 1.002 0.77E–06  —  — 8. salts.23E–04 2.67E–07 5.68E–07 1.04E–04 1.46E–06 3.53E–03 3.47E–08 2.55736 pf  — 5.57E–03 4.19E–03 7.00005 0. persistence.79E–03  — 2.74E–09 7.92E+00 4.ether Ethylene.01185 0. Etf) chemical name Ethoprop Ethyl.81623 0.53E–03 3.19E–03 Etf (doses/ capita-lb)  — 5.salt Fluorouracil Fluvalinate Folpet Fomesafen Formaldehyde Formic.32E–06 2.dipropylthiocarbamate Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene.glycol.09085 0.38E–09 7.acid.22E–08 1.10E–06  — 5.01E–06  — 3.57E–03 4.acrylate Ethyl.39E+00 0.57E–03 4.34E–01 1.65E–09 5.79E–10 1.19E–03 7.00056 0.06414 0.74E–09 7.chloroformate Ethyl.(Hcp) Hexazinone Hydramethylnon Hydrazine Hydrazine.65E–09 5.75E–04 1.glycol Ethylene.74E–09 7.01E–06  — 3.glycol.50572 0.oxide Fenoxycarb Fenpropathrin Fenvalerate Fluometuron Fluorine Fluoroacetic.75E–04 1.96E–07 1.65E–09 1.05449 0.81E–06  — 4.86E–02 3.75E–04 1.60E–01 1.31273 0.38E–09 7.13E–02 2..

11335 0. N-methyl-N-nitroso Methanol Methoxone Methoxychlor Methyl.81E–04 1.90E–06 4.28E–07 1.00010 0.10E–09 2.81E–04 5.04411 0.00005 0.67E–08 4.acid Hydrofluoric. persistence.06E–03 1.14E–06  — 3.42E–10 1.alcohol Isosafrole Lactofen Lead.94E–09 5.mercury.94E–03 1.52E–07 2.24896 0. Etf) chemical name Hydrochloric. mobility.26289 0.00440 0.pentacarbonyl Isobutyraldehyde Isodrin Isopropyl.00086 0.47E–05  —  —  —  —  — 6.49E–02 2.90E–05 1.14E–06  — 3.15E–05 1. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.76E–11 1.08E–09 4..42E–10 1.13463 0.chlorocarbonate Methyl.60E–04 2.23E–05 Baf 1.ketone Methyl.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 147 taBlE 10.58E–07 1. compounds Merphos Methacrylonitrile Metham.36E–03  — 1.58E–06 1.42150 0.isobutyl.002 0.00063 0.00E–06  — 1.18457 0.34E–05 1.12E–06  —  —  —  — 1.03E–04  — 1.23E–05 Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 1.02E–03  — 7.60E–04 2.55E–03 5.00E–06  — 1.12E–06  — 3.93E–07 1.94E–09 5.01257 0.47E–05  —  —  —  —  — 6.67398 0.42E–10 1.08219 0.16E–10 3.002 0.47E–06 5.49E–02 2.iodide Methyl.58E–06 1.77E–11  — 6.32E–08 1.51E–07 2.01247 0.67E–08 4.00E–06 2.compounds Linuron Lithium.17331 0.23274 0.95164 0.91E–08 8.81E–07 1. compounds M-Cresol M-Dinitrobenzene Mecoprop Mercury.97E–09 4.81E–01 2.39E–04 5.10E–09 2.isocyanate tf (doses/ capita-lb) 1.76E–11 1.acrylate Methyl.95360 0.26E+00 1.05658 0.anhydride Malononitrile Maneb Manganese.81E–07 1.97E–09 4.and.002 0.acid Hydrogen.cyanide Hydroquinone Iron.hydrazine Methyl.51E–07 2.72E–07 5.81E–05 1.47E–05  —  —  — 8.72E–07 5.00557 0.12E–07 2.00160 0.00885 0.00603 0.00021 0.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.42487 0.91E–08 8.36735 0.14E–03 1.39E–09 1.16E–05 1.23E–07 5.00017 0.49E–02 2.15E–05 1.and.91E–08 8.84E–08 1.ethyl.23E–07 5.15E–05 1.00002 0.52E–07 2.52E–07 2.12E–06  —  —  —  — 1.68E+00  — 8.14E–06  — 3.42381 pf 1.23E–07 5.76E–11 1.67E–08 4.16E–05 2.05E–04 3.bromide Methyl.60E–04 2.ketone Methyl.carbonate Malathion Maleic.23E–05 continued .97E–09 4.10E–09 2.39E–09 1.51E–07 2.002 0.08E–09 4.16E–05 6.manganese.55E–03 5.55E–03 5.12E–07 2.25E–03  —  —  — 4.81E–07 1.12E–07 2.58E–06 1.sodium Methanamine.08E–09 4.and.56164 0.16E–04 1.84E–08 1.84E–08 1.38E–08  — 4.94E–06 1.53E–05 2.72E–07 5.00E–02 mf 0.94E–09 5.16E–06 5.00011 0.39E–09 1.lead.

45E–07 3.90E–05  —  — 9.16E–06 6. persistence.64E–08 3.and.50381 0.16E–06 6.16E–06 mf  — 0.74E+01 1.81E–07 3.52E–10 6.12E–08 9.compounds Nicotine.01E–09 1.15E–06 2.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity. Etf) chemical name Methyl.73E–04 2.81E–08  —  — 3.08935 0.32E–02  —  — 4.32E–06 2.and.alcohol N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea N-Hexane Nickel.52E–10 6.50002 0.14E–03 1.04E–03 2.00292 0.79E–08 6.15E–06 2.81E–07 4.00E+00  — 7.24476 0.ether Methylene.84E–06  — Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 1. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.80E–07 2.01108 0.79E–08 6.52E–10 6.02988 0.32E–09 Baf 1.12161 0.81E–02 3.98E–10 2.05077 0.05121 0.47E–07 2.03187 0.06E–02 7.27E–03 6.82E–10 1.00087 0.22362 0.00598 0.66E–08 2.00520 0.64E–08 3.65E–08  — 6.06E–08 5.00588 0.02096 0.06E–08 5.13E–09 0.16498 0.67E–07 2.tert-butyl.18E–10 6.45E–06 7.57E–03 0.52E–08  —  — 1.21E–06 2.01622 0.00007 0.90E–05 1.82E–10 1.27E–03 6.04E–03 2.90E–05 1.47E–07 2.N-Dimethylaniline N.66E–08 2.00E+00  — 7.04E–03 2.nickel.12E–08 9.10229 0.19E–10 2.parathion Methyl.methacrylate Methyl.13E–09 0.19E–10 2.acid Nitrilotriacetic.04E–01 1.17364 0.18E–10 6.12E–08 9.00309 0.16E–09 9.05E–02 5.27E–03 6.18E–10 6.salts Nitrapyrin Nitrate.68E–06 6.acid Nitrobenzene Nitroglycerin N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Methylolacrylamide N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosopiperidine Norflurazon O-Anisidine O-Cresol O-Dinitrobenzene O-Phenylenediamine Oryzalin tf (doses/ capita-lb) 5.65E–08  — 6.93E+00 1.50002 0.05944 0.23E–02 1.20024 0. mobility.41E–06 8.isothiocyanate Methyl.00E+00 6.17194 0.96E–10 3.002 pf 1.21E–06 2.148 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.71E–07  — 3.22E–03 6.19E–10 2.N-Dimethylformamide Nabam Naled Naphthalene N-Butyl.81E–06 2.81E–02 3.60E–01 2.trioxide Monochloropentafluoroethane M-Phenylenediamine M-Xylene Myclobutanil N.84E–06  — .47E–07 2.73E–04 2.79E–08 6.22E–03 6.39913 0.08E–05  — 2.06E–08 5.01E–09 1.21E–06 2.98E–10 2.16E–06 5.06E–02 7.00798 0.01E–09 1.32E–04 1.compounds Nitric.64E–08 3.50E–05  —  — 1.37E+00 1.002 0.17961 0.00E+00  — 7.bromide Metribuzin Molinate Molybdenum.16E–06 6.13E–09 0.15E–06 2.73E–04 2.82E–10 1.98E–10 2.81E–04 2.22E–03 6.01886 0.18E–10  —  —  — 3.08E–03 1.14379 0.00869 0.65E–08  — 6.50E–05  —  — 1.71E–07  — 3.50002 0.18E–10  —  —  — 3.19E+01 8.16E–09 9.90E–07 2.84E–04 5.81E–02 3.16E–09 9.68E–06 6.17743 0.18E–10 5.45E–07 3.96E–10 3.73E–03 1.50E–05  —  — 1.53489 0.45E–07 3.68E–06 4.71E–07  — 3.68E–06 6.06E–02 7.96E–10 3.50354 0.84E–06 2.29479 0.66E–08 2.

hydrochloride Oxydiazon Oxyfluorfen O-Xylene Ozone P-Anisidine Paraldehyde Paraquat Parathion P-Chloroaniline P-Cresidine P-Cresol P-Dinitrobenzene Pebulate Pendimethalin Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachlorophenol Peracetic.89E–02 1.31E–08 2.07016 0.63E–07  — Baf 2.23E–03 1.31E–08 8.10E–05 1.or.84464 0.16E–08 3.58E–09 1.93131 0.002 0.41E–08 5.15E–10  — 1. Etf) chemical name O-Toluidine O-Toluidine.81E–06 1.68E–06 1.04616 0.69E–10  —  — 3.30E–07  — 9.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 149 taBlE 10.15E–06  — 4.66E–09  —  — 9.15E–10  —  —  — 8.13136 pf 2.38E–03  — 1.23399 0.26E–06 2.36E–09 6.39E–06 2.03E–05  — 1.00003 0.74E–08 2.acid Phthalic.97E–09 3.bromate tf (doses/ capita-lb) 2.16E–06 9.23E–05 1.00007 0.00003 0.18E–12 2.36E–09 6.aromatic.00043 0.002 0.30E–02 9.30E–07  — 9.02834 0.15199 0.39E–06 2.15E–10  —  —  — 8.002 0.74E–08 2.78E–08 9.10E–05 1.00284 0.94E–05 4.00177 0.002 0.alkanes.63E–07  — Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 2.00391 0. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.00019 0.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.03963 0.25E–05 9.30E–02 9.07933 0.16E–05 1.39E–06 2.25857 0.95E–05 6.97E–09 3.66E–09  —  — 9.73E–06  —  — 1. mobility.03345 0.18E–12 2.26E–05 5.23E–05 1.95E–05 6.10E–05 1.compounds Potassium.31E–08  — 1.45E–06 7.41835 0.14E–08 4.16E–02  — 1.white) Phospohoric.81E–06 6.29E–05 9.01419 0.91E–01 7.81E–04 1.03E–05  — 1.18E–12 2.methyl P-Nitroaniline P-Nitrosodiphenylamine Polychlorinated.58E–09 1.41E–08 5. (C10-C13) Polychlorinated.00058 0.69E–10  — 1.97E–09 3. persistence.61E–01  — mf 0.23E–03 8.67E–07  — 7.08E–03 7.81E–06 6.27E–09  — 9.00036 0.05E–07 6.16E–05 5.30E–07  — 5.04440 0.36E–09 6.58E–09 1.16E–06 1.90E–03 3.(yellow.15E–06  — 4.00101 0.30E–02 9.72627 0.05E–07  — 4.78E–08 9.54E–05 8.95E–05 6.43E–05  — 8.63E–07  — continued .69E–10  —  — 3.butoxide Pirimiphos.31E–08 8.27E–09  — 9.00443 0.31E–08  — 1.00191 0.50002 0.00005 0.07E–05 1.002 0.41E–08 5.27E–09  — 9.81E–06 6.25E–05 9.02E–03 1.32E–09 1.acid Permethrin Phenanthrene Phenol Phenothrin Phenytoin Phosgene Phosphine Phosphorus.00206 0.22E–03 2.30E–07 2.anhydride Picloram Piperonyl.03E–05  — 1.23E–05 1.15E–06  — 4.05E–07  — 4.61E–02 1.66E–09  —  — 9.04723 0.74E–08 2.01038 0.16E–06  — 1.78E–08 9.14E–03  — 1.Biphenyls Polycyclic.31E–08 8.25E–05 9.

dimethyldithiocarbamate Sodium.21E–02 3.56E–05  — 8.002 0.alcohol Propiconazole Propionaldehyde Propoxur Propylene Propylene.09746 0.00E–04  — 3.52E–05 1.52E–05 1.43E–10 2.94E–03  — 3.03164 0.53E–07 1.56E–05  — 8.68E–07 1.07E–08  —  — 2.28E–08 2.43E–10 2.58E–07 1.32E–08 4.56E–08 5.69196 0.53E–07 1.50707 0.93E–08 2.45E–05 7.nitrite Strychnine Styrene Styrene.00046 0.azide Sodium.compounds Simazine Sodium.06E–07 1.002 0.00210 0.S.10E–10 1.35E–10 4.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.04E–10 8.29E–09 4.01350 0.03732 pf  —  — 4.56E–08 5.61E–10 3.35E–10 4.00126 0.74E–01  — 1.10E–07  — 7.51E–02  — 4.70E–05 1.28E–08 2.94E–06  —  — 1.21E–05 7.40E–05  —  — 1.sultone Propanil Propargite Propargyl. mobility.S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Saccharin Safrole sec-Butyl.04936 0.78E–08 3.50002 0.49E–09  — 1.56E–05  — 8.oxide Propyleneimine P-Xylene Pyridine Quinoline Quinone Quintozene Quizalofop-ethyl Resmethrin S.55464 0.23E–04  — 4.94E–04 5.45E–05 1.61E–10 3.76669 0.03177 0.50002 0.10E–07  — 7.52E–05 1.39E–09  — 1.00E–04  — 3.002 0.94E–06 1.90E–06 2.97E–07  — mf 0.47E–06  — 1.10E–10 1.00599 0.53E–07 1.29E–09 4.04E–10 8.74E–10  — Etf (doses/ capita-lb)  —  — 4.20704 0.47E–06 3.10E–07 2.33168 0.74E–10  — .40E–05 4.40E–05  —  — 1. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.56E–08 5.00289 0.05261 0.30002 0.00618 0.00994 0.16E–05 6.32E–07 1.02321 0.65E–10 3.and.74E–07 4.87E–09 1.and.32E–08 4.78E–08 3.28E–08 2.00E–04  — 3.58112 0.27008 0.78E–08 3.53E–07 1.58E–07 1.00526 0.51E–02 2.32E–08 4.150 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.dicamba Sodium.07E–08  —  — 2.08516 0.49E–09  — 1.selenium.35E–10 4.10E–10 1.08E–07 6.08E–07 6.74E–10  — Baf  —  — 4.39E–09  — 1.oxide tf (doses/ capita-lb)  —  — 3.53E–07 1. dimethyldithiocarbamate Potassium.81E–05 1.49E–09  — 1.68E–07 1.98E–03 1.61E–10 3.silver.38E–07 5. persistence.00007 0.16E–05 2.83E–05 1. compounds Sethoxydim Silver.53E–07 1.05812 0.43E–10 2.68E–07 1.04470 0.alcohol Selenium.07E–08  —  — 2.23E–04  — 4.10E–02 1.45E–05  — 1. N-methyldithiocarbamate P-Phenylenediamine Prometryn Pronamide Propachlor Propane.08E–07 6.58E–07 1.04E–10 8.39E–09  — 1.90E–05 4. Etf) chemical name Potassium.02160 0.29E–09 4.09580 0.55608 0.00148 0.23E–04  — 4.

29E–03  — 1.04873 0.16E–10 2.50014 0.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.45E–09 2.55E–10 6.methacrylate Trichlorfon Trichloroacetyl.fluoride Tebuthiuron Temephos Terbacil Terephthalic.00E–02 7.68E–05 4.05E–03 1.55E–04  — mf 0.01371 0.tetrachloride Toluene Toluene.88E–10 1.00166 pf 5.88E–08 1.18843 0.45E–09 2.002 0.93E–09 1.28E–08  — 1.17326 0.00167 0.94E–04  —  — 1. mobility.99E–07 2.22E–06  —  —  — 6.81E–09 8.11302 0.35E–05 9.002 0.compounds Thiabendazole Thioacetamide Thiobencarb Thiodicarb Thiophanate-methyl Thiourea Thiram Titanium.22E–06 3.02503 0.hydrochloride Tetramethrin Thallium.and.27E–07 3.38E–06 2.00866 0.46E–10 1.94E–05 7.00E–05 2.94E–06 4.24952 0.51E–10  —  —  — 2.24E–04 9.methyl Tribromomethane Tributyltin.08E–06 2.diisocyanate.99E–04 1.81E–06 1.46E–10 1.68E–05 4.27E–07 3.13E–09  — 8.salt Triethylamine Trifluralin Tris(2.00355 0.87E–09 1.3-dichloropropene Trans-1.28E–08  — 1.15708 0.02E–06  — Baf 5.00040 0.99E–07 2.02E–06  — continued .83E–07  —  — 4.68E–05 4.33E–10 3.42E–12  — 5.00007 0.90E–04 9.87E–07 1.4-diisocyanate Toluene-2.08353 0.51E–10 5.33E–10  — 1.002 0.88E–10 1.02E–07  —  — 5.88E–08 1.93E–08 3.07E–03 7.55E–10 6.87E–08 1.46E–10 1.00563 0.00E–05 2.29E+00 1. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.00120 0.38E–05 4.00E–05 2.32E–07 2.002 0.07494 0.20188 0.90E–04 9.00355 0.88E–10 1.00E–02 1.21E–10 2.51E–10  —  —  — 2.02E–06  — Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 5.83E–07  —  — 4.33E–03 1.61671 0.00E–02 1. Etf) chemical name Sulfuric.21E–10 2.29E–03  — 1.02E–07  —  — 5.08E–06 2.42E–12  — 5.83E–07  —  — 4.26E–07 7.00069 0.40E–03  —  — 8.thallium.21E–10 2.002 0.88E–08 1.09654 0.chloride Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane Triclopyr.04817 0.93E–04  —  — 5. (mixed isomers) Toluene-2.28E–08  — 1.35E–05 9.99E–07 2.00488 0.29E–03 3.55E–10 6.26397 0.37E–03 6.35E–05 9.00279 0.4-dichloro-2-butene Triadimefon Triallate Tribenuron.6-diisocyanate Trans-1.27E–07 3.38E–06 2.30E–07 2.87E–07  —  — 6.acid Sulfuryl.81E–08 3.24E–04 9.22E–06  —  —  — 6.45E–09 2.47E–06 5.00574 0.33E–10  — 1.47E–06  — 7.90E–06 4.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 151 taBlE 10.02E–07  —  — 5. persistence.triethylammonium.01049 0.90E–06 4.08E–06 2.32E–02 1.06999 0.3-dibromopropyl).00306 0.38E–06 2.acid tert-Butyl.49200 0.90E–04 9. phosphate tf (doses/ capita-lb) 8.42E–12  — 5.alcohol Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachlorvinphos Tetracycline.16E–05 3.002 0.24E–04 9.

92E–03 4.bromide Vinyl.32E–06 1.05642 0.74E–08 2.54690 0.and.32E–02 1.36E–04 8. compounds Vinclozolin Vinyl.vanadium.36E–06 1.39E–10  — 3.152 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.23794 0.(mixed.salts Xylene.36E–04 8.48E–09  — 3.65E–09 3.74E–08  — . mobility.002 0.1 (continued) combined impact of toxicity.01972 0.99E–08 1.002 pf  —  — 6.48E–09  — 3.94E–04 3.acetate Vinyl.59E–06 9.30E–06 2.blue Urethane Vanadium.94E–07 1. and Bioaccumulation (Effective toxicity factor.002 0.16E–06 mf 0.04E–09 1.48E–09 1.chloride Warfarin.isomers) Zinc.04E–09 1.zinc. Etf) chemical name Trypan.99E–08 1.99E–08 1.04E–09 1.32E–09 Baf  —  — 6.compounds Zineb tf (doses/ capita-lb)  —  — 8. persistence.35566 0.and.74E–08  — Etf (doses/ capita-lb)  —  — 6.39E–10 4.98E–05 3.36E–04 8.00016 0.and.00208 0.00007 0.39E–10  — 3.

160 72.61E–09 1.76E–11 5.49E–07 6.424 7.and.875.compounds Copper.423 502.381 8.309.7 4.256 495.935 10.8 0.684 19.242.66E–09 2007 tri release (lb) 800.compounds Cyanide.1 148.353.18E–04 6.656.059.476.1 0.acid Arsenic.acid Lead.924 18.956 138.531 40.compounds Nitrate.503.0 0.581.994.compounds Hydrofluoric.19E–10 7.9 61.538 6.and.420 17.3 2.(mixed.1 continued .970 13.909 245.alcohol Antimony.237.vanadium.0 0.0 0.941.50E–05 6.166.367 7.394.3 2.04E–07 6.mercury.and.28E–05 2.sulfide Ethylene Glycol.5 4.cobalt.935.compounds Hydrochloric.0 0.590 153.8 444.7 7.copper.0 0.7 0.2 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical Zinc.3 90.0 0.677.compounds Acetaldehyde Propylene Asbestos.acid Chromium.8 0.6 129.483.and.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 153 taBlE 10.902.37E–02 2.907.242.901.(friable) Carbon.00E+00 3.acid N-Butyl.402.0 0.093 18.933.532.716.0 311.255.666 39.isomers) Formaldehyde Carbonyl.87E–10 2.318.66E–08 1.and.55E–10 8.593.lead.1 0.837.80E–10 8.3 0.864 37.compounds N-Hexane Xylene.622 6.compounds Toluene Styrene Aluminum Nickel.077 34.76E–05 3.28E–10 9.39E–10 9.577.367 13.902.manganese.364.189 25.934.048 151.60E–04 1.083.767 tu (doses/capita) 13.23E–07 2.970.689.0 0.595.426 11.465.42E–12 3.13E–09 1.compounds Chlorodifluoromethane Phenol Etf (doses/capita-lb) 1.430.and.zinc.compounds Vanadium.2.19E–03 5.and.99E–08 2.814.28E–06 2.073 176.84E–08 1.and.9 0.0 909.748.and.8 0.074 12.136.arsenic.0 0.554 97.79E–10 0.9 947.4-Trimethylbenzene Acrylonitrile Cobalt.912 8.897.935.8 2.antimony.15E–05 3.74E–08 1.53E–05 7.682.71E–07 3.96E–12 — 1.053 11.1 0.435 60.293 6.326.564 270.9 77.5 555.and.and.489 46.670 21.disulfide Benzene 1.compounds Mercury.and.ethers Nitric.89E–06 — 3.0 17.871.74E–10 2.86E–08 5.348 244.0 0.534 6.chromium.836 6.0 0.17E+00 6.978.49E–08 6.4 8.709 41.compounds Ammonia Methanol Sulfuric.barium.55E–10 4.compounds Manganese.55E–03 1.nickel.379 17.0 0.acid Acetonitrile Formic.compounds Barium.822.3 70.

5 1.131.and.090.26E–09 7.22E–03 6.371 2.0 4.forms) Acrylic.850.591 1.360 4.223 5.912 1.686.50E–06 1.6 85.042 5.0 0.876 1.045.08E–09 5.10E–07 2.384 1.27E–10 6.acetate Polychlorinated.0 3.96E–10 3.8 28.656.65E–08 1.862 2.4 0.345 4.(mixed.766 6.0 3.4 3.241 4.154 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.371 2.58E–06 1.0 47.0 0.625.0 4.3 0.9 0.534 2.8 0.32E–12 5.52E–05 1.247 6.63E–07 4.641 1.0 0.and.oxide.isobutyl.33E–16 2.494 920.283.391 2.0 .878 2.108.102 4.61E–10 1.097.696.0 26.0 0.07E–08 3.903.methacrylate Cyclohexanol N.288 1.818.286.2 0.092 4.ketone Biphenyl N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Aluminum.0 0.417.744.125.aromatic.14E–08 1.242 5.82E–10 4.81E–03 2.569 1.74E–09 2.78E–10 5.1 0.11E–06 — 9.trioxide Polycyclic.540 1.silver.cadmium.27E–07 1.83E–07 3.311.(fibrous.788.1 3.616.843.16E–06 9.472.15E–10 — — 1.35E–10 2007 tri release (lb) 6.10E–07 5.0 7.485.365.cyanide Tetrachloroethylene Thallium.6 0.614.biphenyls Chloromethane Creosotes 1.2 0.014.38E–06 — 8.950.compounds P-Xylene Cresol.3-Butadiene Triethylamine Acrolein Diethanolamine Diisocyanates Molybdenum.585 1.996.9 0.161.1 0.008 4.216 4.compounds Etf (doses/capita-lb) 3.7 277.755 1.106.6 0.3 26.606 911.5 0.4 0.48E–09 2.compounds Naphthalene Methyl.154 2.36E–09 1.1 17.790.50E–09 3.733.431.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Cumene Acetamide Aniline Silver.0 0.309.thallium.907 2.0 0.0 0.5 1.91E–05 7.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical Ethylene.713.0 0.0 13.0 0.126.30E–02 3.796 tu (doses/capita) 0.907.563.817 1.and.isomers) 4.12E–03 2.04E–06 6.864 2.glycol Acrylamide 1-Chloro-1.N-Dimethylformamide Hydrogen.202 4.compounds Vinyl.compounds Cadmium.943 3.066.983.240.084 1.769 2.11E–04 6.453 1.01E–06 1.1-difluoroethane Dichloromethane Chlorine Cyclohexane Ethylbenzene Methyl.703 4.800.acid Trichloroethylene Sodium.320.nitrite Selenium.and.643.709 1.0 1.selenium.237.24E–04 5.

0 0.68E–07 7.0 0.989 410.0 continued .6 0.47E–07 9.598 335.571 362.45E–04 5.0 17.80E–05 1.487 334.065 706.51E–07 4.6 0.216 515.08E–06 2.496 318.409 tu (doses/capita) 102.36E–04 1.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane O-Xylene Trichlorofluoromethane M-Xylene Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.00E–11 3.3 0.88E–08 3.21E–04 6.12E–05 5.482 551.tert-butyl.740 312.853 430.32E–07 1.1 4.3 197.850 741.3 0.12E–06 4.0 37.321 325.4′isopropylidenediphenol Propylene.6 0.1 0.0 0.compounds Nicotine.08E–07 — 5.635 363.82E–10 1.358 545.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 155 taBlE 10.46E–10 1.120 585.oxide Dibutyl.367 695.87E–10 2.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical Beryllium.6′-Tetrabromo-4.anhydride Chloroform Ozone Pyridine Decabromodiphenyl.(Cfc-114) Carbon.712 702.28E–07 6.86E–06 1.0 0.oxide Nitrobenzene Methyl.3 0.tetrachloride Ethylene.04E–10 4.83E–05 — 3.072 510.chloride Methyl.0 0.853 726.bromide Dimethylamine 2.465 565.0 238.4 0.33E–04 4.alcohol 2-Chlor-1.555 704.0 0.438 327.beryllium.ether Freon.alcohol sec-Butyl.7 0.0 0.482 378.291 526.3-butadiene Acetophenone Chloroethane Maleic.2′.1 0.37E–10 4.708 545.069 789.phthalate Propionaldehyde 1.524 343.6.peroxide Etf (doses/capita-lb) 1.0 0.15E–08 2.68E–06 6.357 305.078 844.961 298.113 2-Chloro-1.47E–05 — — 3.5 0.dioxide Allyl.5 3.861 601.0 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.and.567 449.1 6.052 317.2-Dichloroethane Hydroquinone Bromine Phenanthrene Vinyl.68E–07 4.871 308.70E–12 2007 tri release (lb) 867.556 372.15E–10 2.1.1 34.18E–04 — 2.0 41.salts tert-Butyl.200 777.23E–04 3.and.273 338.934 715.4 0.0 125.26E–10 1.09E–10 2.32E–08 1.3 0.1.74E–08 7.0 0.alcohol Atrazine Butyraldehyde 1.0 0.2-tetrafluoroethane Chlorobenzene Chlorine.803 707.oxide Benzoyl.0 11.

316 276.acrylate 1.15E–10 9.64E–08 — 1.01E–09 1.17E–09 1.anhydride Dichlorodifluoromethane 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.0 0.0 0.9 0.white) Phthalic.1.438 126.0 0.1 0.2-Dichloro-1.266 78.0 0.620 115.0 35.60E–06 1.156 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.8 0.833 155.4-Dioxane Dicyclopentadiene Anthracene Sodium.0 0.09E–03 2.245 104.0 0.2 0.2 .267 90.0 0.169 123.glycol.4 0.21E–09 1.40E–04 2007 tri release (lb) 287.1-Trifluoro-2.0 3.36E–09 7.carbonate 1.19E–05 5.30E–08 1.896 171.0 0.286 94.135 69.0 0.857 98.3 0.10E–06 2.56E–07 2.3 0.4 144.818 171.8 16.21E–07 6.423 tu (doses/capita) 0.0 0.2-Dichlorobenzene Cumene.479 79.phthalate Nitroglycerin 2-Methyllactonitrile Titanium.819 156.17E–09 1.14E–06 1.1-Trichloroethane 1.693 86.773 186.0 0.dimethyldithiocarbamate Fluorine Thiram Ethylene.0 0.419 81.132 174.75E–05 3.or.benzyl.71E–07 1.0 0.90E–04 1.acrylate Fomesafen 4.0 0.646 185.30E–13 — 9.ether Epichlorohydrin Chlorothalonil 1.97E–09 4.(C10–C13) Methacrylonitrile 1.79E–05 1.1.monoethyl.0 0.05E–07 4.4-Dichlorobenzene Ethyl.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical Dimethyl.184 192.0 0.189 146.94E–09 — 2.hydroperoxide Pendimethalin Ethylene.2 2.tetrachloride 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 1.18E–12 2.0 0.115 67.0 0.418 92.fluoride P-Cresol Benzo(Ghi)perylene Urethane Polychlorinated.385 141.2-trifluoroethane Butyl.810 94.0 0.471 168.55E–11 — 5.21E–10 1.997 268.39E–09 1.0 0.161 112.butylcarbamate M-Cresol Methyl.2-Dichloropropane M-Phenylenediamine Sulfuryl.phthalate Phosphorus.97E–09 4.0 0.0 0.932 137.0 0.813 154.04E–08 3.844 166.monomethyl.67E–07 9.28E–07 6.476 137.993 268.710 115.1.578 137.168 130.0 0.4′-Methylenedianiline Etf (doses/capita-lb) 1.0 0.546 121.0 0.39E–07 — — 8.336 82.2-dichloroethane Isobutyraldehyde Lithium.0 0.0 0.445 261.glycol.53E–06 1.46E–07 2.alkanes.1 0.ether 1.78E–08 2.(yellow.119 87.

59E–08 2.018 41.429 21.25E–06 — — — 1.4-Diaminotoluene Dibenzofuran Diuron Hydrazine Metribuzin 3.955 18.29E–05 — — 7.554 23.0 0.006 20.0 0.220 17.32E–09 7.0 0.339 25.899 57.2-pentafluoropropane Etf (doses/capita-lb) — 1.0 0.4 0.01E–09 2.26E–05 — 1.4 0.277 30.2 0.alcohol Diaminotoluene.054 35.53E–03 4.681 48.0 0.99E–07 8.9 0.0 0.0 continued .85E–09 2.0 0.433 35.0 0.3-Dichloro-1.2.08E–06 1.026 28.005 51.971 59.025 22.1-trifluoroethane Ethoprop 2.0 0.138 38.2.311 45.(mixed.4-D O-Cresol Toluene-2.10E–10 3.79E–03 6.4 21.sodium 2-Nitrophenol Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.042 33.232 31.isomers) Peracetic.4-Dimethylphenol Allyl.4-diisocyanate 2.677 50.0 51.18E–10 — 2007 tri release (lb) 63.and.18E–03 — 7.diisocyanate.0 0.acid 1.46E–12 3.013 52.936 25.0 0.62E–09 2.28E–08 4.571 27.0 0.0 0.1.8 0.(mixed.204 30.0 0. esters Iron.0 0.62E–09 7.718 16.188 35.0 0.43E–05 5.0 1.0 0.99E–10 6.0 194.196 48..iodide 1.22E–06 0.5 0.4.acid.026 49.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 157 taBlE 10.1-Dichloroethylene Catechol Diphenylamine Toluene.6-Trinitrophenol Hexachlorobenzene P-Phenylenediamine Dicamba 2-Methylpyridine 2.1.1 0.015 43.isomers) Chlorophenols 2-Chloro-1.118 18.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical Nitrilotriacetic.9 0.759 16.1.1.0 0..acid Propiconazole 1.497 tu (doses/capita) 0.00E–05 1.513 26.0 0.369 16.chloride Nabam Metham.0 0.0 2.95E–05 — 4.5 0.salts.0 120.58E–07 — — 2.2-Trichloroethane Monochloropentafluoroethane 2.00E+00 — — 4.367 21.0 0.0 0.276 39.7 0.4-Trichlorobenzene Propargyl.0 0.745 26.300 39.440 17.Pentacarbonyl Thiabendazole 2-Nitropropane Pentachloroethane Methyl.19E–03 9.

09E–05 5.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.158 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.07E–03 1.094 5.phosphide Phosgene M-Dinitrobenzene 1.990 5.825 15.4-Dichlorophenol Boron.557 8.632 14.132 7.956 8.40E–06 2.1 0.323 12.00E–04 3.0 1.sulfate Dichlorofluoromethane Methylene.azide Quinoline Aluminum.0 0.2 0.trifluoride Benzyl.399 4.phenol Trifluralin 1.727 5.83E–05 1.0 0.03E–12 2.295 7.0 0.180 8.594 13.103 4.849 11.39E–06 4.695 5.3-Dichloropropene.(mixed.19E–08 3.14E–04 2007 tri release (lb) 16.541 9.0 0.1-Dichloroethane 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene Chlordane 4.042 4.42E–10 1.1 0.715 5.02E–06 7.536 6.13E–10 4.(mixed.0 0.0 0.17E–06 1.34E–08 1.0 1.0 1.008 tu (doses/capita) 0.1-difluoroethane Tetramethrin 2.0 0.0 252.41E–07 9.353 6.47E–10 2.chloride 1.1 0.522 9.6 0.isomers) Sodium.3 .0 0.358 8.22E–03 — 2.dicamba N-Methylolacrylamide Potassium.616 13.1.2 0.0 0.9 0.84E–06 6.acid Dichlorpentafluoro-propane Dinitrobutyl.0 0.660 14.06E–07 1.253 6.468 15.2.92E–04 7.18E–13 1.bromide 1.6 0.9 0.1 0.998 4.0 23.2-Dichloroethylene Benzoyl.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) Allyl.3 0.72E–05 9.81E–07 — — 9.0 29.20E–05 3.0 0.1 1.0 0.77E–08 4.0 1.391 13.10E–05 1.12E–08 6.amine Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 1.236 4.dimethyldithiocarbamate 1-Chloro-1.233 6.2-tetrafluoroethane Malathion Chloroacetic.2-Dibromoethane Dinitrotoluene.48E–08 3.682 11.346 5.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical O-Toluidine Sodium.955 9.4-Dichloro-2-butene 2-Phenylphenol 1.1 0.78E–08 1.317 4.46E–06 4.58E–04 1.isomers) Crotonaldehyde Etf (doses/capita-lb) 2.626 8.70E–05 4.92E–02 5.0 0.42E–07 3.0 0.04E–11 2.290 14.13E–08 3.0 0.0 0.07E–08 3.82E–05 3.isomers) Diethyl.(mixed.chloride O-Phenylenediamine Bromotrifluoromethane Dimethoate Dichlorobenzene.100 15.3 0.2-Dichloro-1.0 0.541 13.0 0.3 0.2 0.348 16.63E–11 1.276 8.

dihydrochloride gamma-Lindane N.64E–05 2.1.0 0.2-Tetrachloroethane Norflurazon Diazinon Bis(tributyltin).oxide Ethylene.001 1.oxide 1.0 0.2.3 0.0 0.861 1.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical 2.52E–10 1.765 2.methyl.47E–05 3.2.945 1.600 3.0 0.206 2.35E–05 1.0 0.79E–08 6.115 3.0 0.52E–05 6.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.trichloride 1.1 0.15E–08 4.0 0.715 1.56E–07 — — — 7.722 1.40E–05 3.39E–14 4.343 1.740 2.06E–08 — 8.parathion Pentachlorophenol 4.0 0.29E–09 2007 tri release (lb) 3.3-Dichlorobenzene Dimethylamine.73E–11 3.0 0.1 1.300 2.3-Dichloro-1.081 3.0 3.15E–06 2.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.45E–07 9.9 0.249 2.I.828 1.76E–08 3.5.77E–06 — 5.565 1..2.0 0.3-Trichloropropane Pentachlorobenzene 2.783 1.708 2.932 1.474 1.thiourea 1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.08E–06 1.812 3.751 1.3-pentafluoropropane 1.272 1.1.1 0.827 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.sulfate Boron.464 1.0 0.555 1.81E–06 9.chloride 1.0 0.0 0.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 159 taBlE 10.047 2.0 0.10E–03 8.7-triaza-1azoniaadamantane.6-Dinitrotoluene Thiourea O-Dinitrobenzene P-Dinitrobenzene Propanil Etf (doses/capita-lb) 2.1.78E–05 8.1 0.69E–06 1.0 0.ether Dimethyl.71E–04 6.47E–08 3.0 0.2-Butylene.736 1.0 0.ether Bromochlorodifluoromethane Quintozene Chloropicrin Folpet Methyl.0 0.546 1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.659 1.dicamba Hexachloroethane Acephate Captan Dichlorvos C.43E–08 2.N-Dimethylaniline Propyleneimine 1.59E–09 1.02E–05 2.0 0.blue.492 2.2 0.0 0.74E–08 1.05E–08 — 1.482 1.0 1.194 2.4 0.direct.6-diisocyanate Oxydiazon Chloromethyl.0 0.0 0.626 2.491 3.0 0.333 1.261 tu (doses/capita) 0.0 0.795 3.75E–04 2.218 3.74E–06 4.31E–08 1.272 1.2.679 3.3-Dichloropropene Toluene-2.1.35E–07 2.62E–06 1.0 0.0 continued .1 0.

0 0.(Hcp) Hexazinone Benzoic.0 0.03E–05 1.000 934 890 847 788 761 757 751 750 708 702 690 652 646 644 638 631 626 601 598 528 513 512 510 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 491 466 415 391 tu (doses/capita) 0.15E–06 — — — 5.4 0.0 30.chloride Warfarin.0 0.259 1.0 0.14E–04 1.0 .4.0 0.3 0.04E–11 4.43E–10 1.trichloride Permethrin O-Anisidine Tetracycline.0 0.04E–03 4.58E–03 3.0 0.13E–05 1.158 1.0 0.06E–02 7.06E–03 4.86E–02 5.72E–10 1.6-Trichlorophenol 4-Nitrophenol Dihydrosafrole Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane 2.57E–03 3.27E–09 6.04E–09 1.3 0.53E–07 — 1.0 0.23E–05 6.34E–10 8.88E–10 1.4.isocyanate Camphechlor Dazomet 2.0 0.5-Trichlorophenol N-Nitrosopiperidine Dipotassium.0 0.54E–08 2.212 1.0 0.1 0.2-Ethylhexyl.55E–05 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.24E–05 1.3-butadiene Thiodicarb Carbaryl Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl).67E–08 8.4-D.84E–13 9.0 0.0 0.and.198 1.9 0.128 1.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical Methyl.1 21.97E–08 3.endothall Fluorouracil N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine Simazine Styrene.ether P-Chloroaniline 2.88E–09 2007 tri release (lb) 1.4-Dinitrophenol Di-N-propylnitrosamine 2-Acetylaminofluorene Benzal.86E–08 1.0 0.0 0.19E–03 1.0 0.38E–09 1.96E–03 5.1 6.7 0.50E–10 — 6.salts Hexachlorophene.52E–05 3.0 0.0 0.32E–04 4.hydrochloride Tribenuron.1 8.73E–04 4.7 0.ester Heptachlor Aldrin Methoxychlor Safrole Hexachloro-1.0 0.methyl Saccharin Pronamide Thiophanate-methyl 2.0 0.1 0.050 1.160 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.oxide Chlorotrifluoromethane Carbofuran Etf (doses/capita-lb) 4.25E–07 — 1.0 0.1 3.0 0.133 1.87E–08 9.5 0.

56E–08 — — 2.compounds Ametryn Methyl.ester Ethyl.9 0.41E–08 1.0 0.69E–10 9.0 0.51E–10 4.0 0.0 continued .0 18.0 0.49E–09 2007 tri release (lb) 389 379 373 372 358 355 347 335 327 325 323 321 319 313 301 296 274 267 260 260 260 260 260 256 255 255 255 255 255 255 250 250 224 212 202 191 189 175 142 139 129 tu (doses/capita) 0.0 0.0 0.24E–07 — 9.chloride Tris(2.0 0.71E–06 8.5 0.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 161 taBlE 10.08E–04 7.91E–08 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.phosphate P-Cresidine Propane.98E–10 8.0 0.0 0.chlorocarbonate Dichlorobromomethane Hydramethylnon Mecoprop Dimethylcarbamoyl.0 0.68E–05 3.0 0.22E–06 3.0 0.87E–06 1.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical Trans-1.3-dibromopropyl).0 0.88E–07 1.chloroformate Paraldehyde P-Nitroaniline Dioxin.80E–02 7.77E–05 1.0 0.06E–09 2.0 0.(Dbcp) Isosafrole Diallate 5-Nitro-O-toluidine 3.0 0.0 0.98E–05 7.73E–09 6.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.dioxin-like.0 0.0 0.48E–05 1.0 0.30E–07 5.N-methyldithiocarbamate Tetrachlorvinphos Bis(2-chloroethyl).54E–09 — 8.13E–04 7.dihydrochloride Prometryn Potassium.1 0.0 0.31E–08 1.Butoxyethyl.bromate Trichlorfon Oxyfluorfen Myclobutanil Paraquat Tribromomethane Cyanazine Benfluralin Linuron Dimethipin Propoxur Etf (doses/capita-lb) 2.0 0.and.65E–07 3.0 0.0 0.00E–12 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.77E–05 — — 3.0 0.sultone Tebuthiuron 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 1.ether 4-Aminoazobenzene 2.3-dichloropropene Picloram Alachlor Aldicarb Potassium.4-D.58E–03 — 1.02E–07 3.12E–07 — — — — 5.0 0.0 0.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.

0 0.56E–12 8.27E–03 2.33E–13 5.30E–05 1.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine Malononitrile Naled N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea Quinone Thioacetamide Triclopyr.0 0.0 0.0 0.18E–10 2.0 0.hydrochloride (1.5 0.3′-dimethyl1.23E–05 5.0 0.0 0.1-Dimethyl.37E–03 2.54E–08 — 1.53E–07 1.0 0.60E–10 — 2007 tri release (lb) 127 123 122 104 96 89 51 50 48 42 40 38 34 32 27 22 20 19 16 15 15 14 13 12 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 6 tu (doses/capita) 0.0 0.00E–08 1.21E–06 2.3.4-D.80E–03 2.0 0.triethylammonium.0 0.0 0.chloride Etf (doses/capita-lb) — 2.0 0.03E–08 2.67E–05 1.81E–02 — — 1.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical Calcium.45E–09 — 6.54E–10 1.0 0.0 0.salt Trypan.salt Bromacil Trichloroacetyl.octanoate Isodrin Phenothrin Chlorimuron.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.162 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.methyl 4-Aminobiphenyl Abamectin O-Toluidine.12E–07 3.0 0.0 0.1′-Biphenyl)-4..2-Diphenylhydrazine 3.0 0.0 0.75E–06 1.0 0.6-Dinitro-O-cresol Chlorendic.0 0.28E–08 6.62E–07 9.0 .58E–09 2.51E–04 6.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.32E–09 4.34E–08 — — 1.00E–06 6.0 0.3 0.0 0.blue 2.0 0.0 0.20E–05 8.0 0.0 0.4′-diamine.0 0.0 0.27E–02 1.0 0.51E–03 1.63E–05 9.34E–08 2.ethyl Benzidine Chlorotetrafluoroethane 1.cyanamide Amitrole Methoxone 4.72E–07 1.Sodium.0 0.hydrazine Carboxin Bromoxynil Chlorpyrifos.dipropylthiocarbamate Propargite Chlorsulfuron Phenytoin Triallate Cyfluthrin Chlorobenzilate Bromoxynil.67E–09 1.acid Parathion Desmedipham Ethyl.

13E–08 — 5.0 0.52E–07 — 1.0 0.65E–09 — 2.0 0.butoxide Propachlor Strychnine trans-1.S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Bifenthrin Ethyleneimine Merphos Nitrapyrin 2.0 0.25E–05 — 6.S.2.10E–09 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 163 taBlE 10.(Dgre) Fenoxycarb Fluometuron Piperonyl.1.1.0 0.56E–05 6.0 0.resorcinol.2 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by volume (pounds) chemical 1.0 0.39E–09 2.23E–05 1.82E–12 7.34E–07 1.0 0.4-Dichloro-2-butene Etf (doses/capita-lb) — 2.0 0.(Hcfc-121a) Phosphine 1.2-Tetrachloro-1-fluoroethane Lactofen S.0 0.1.29E–03 2007 tri release (lb) 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 tu (doses/capita) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.ether.32E–08 4.2-Tetrachloro-2-fluoroethane.0 .6-Xylidine Diglycidyl.

626 551.17E+00 6.19E–03 2.242.Chloride Hydrazine Beryllium.09E–03 3.and.81E–03 1.643.402.348 3.tetrachloride Chloroform N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Methylolacrylamide Trichloroethylene Aniline Dichloromethane 1.50E–06 4.and.6 197.933.371 6.8 144.92E–02 4.barium.53E–03 1.391 37.8 34.compounds Chlorine Acetaldehyde Hydrochloric.202 920.83E–05 6.503.822.059.223 11.37E–02 3.073 5.901.1 .3 1.788.077 39.compounds Arsenic.1 947.581.996.36E–04 7.12E–03 1.489 6.11E–04 2.biphenyls Mercury.161.1.and.4 17.903.compounds Barium.and.606 5.8 277.38E–06 2.28E–05 2.133 tu (doses/capita) 70.79E–03 1.598 308.485.9 555.837.3 29.91E–05 4.53E–05 1.90E–04 4.71E–07 1.0 3.and.compounds Cobalt.06E–02 3.and.3 2007 tri releases ranked by toxicity unit (tu) chemical Chromium.22E–03 6.078 244.961 43.814.555 500 9.7 129.52E–05 6.864 21.chromium.364.oxide Carbon.935.276 4.0 41.76E–05 2.622 6.3 909.6 51.983.2 4.9 28.9 77.164 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.160 495.5 194.357 123.18E–04 2.nickel.6 23.090.5 102.7 90.4 21.353.1.mercury.7 148.084 1.and.237.45E–04 4.6 37.836 1.6 26.23E–04 1.19E–03 1.21E–04 2.1 238.8 47.compounds Polychlorinated.89E–06 1.and.790.18E–03 1.066.oxide Hexachlorobenzene Benzene Fomesafen Vinyl.1.and.18E–04 3.24E–04 2.875.7 85.902.242 5.compounds Nickel.23E–07 1.3-Butadiene Acrolein Manganese.684 2.358 305.367 69.3 120.656.426 502.9 61.15E–05 5.5 252.compounds Lead.656.4 13.220 1.8 26.acid 2-Nitropropane Propylene.3 35.cobalt.4 2.247 7.1 444.696.256 28.55E–03 2.532.564 2.115 372.8 125.759 867.compounds Acrylamide Acrylonitrile 1.33E–04 6.635 16.4-Dichloro-2-butene 2.cadmium.compounds Cadmium.arsenic.465.4-Diaminotoluene Heptachlor Etf (doses/capita-lb) 1.876 245.293 97.86E–02 2007 tri release (lb) 60.2.manganese.lead.beryllium.309.50E–05 2.2-tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.8 3.571 338.compounds Aluminum Formaldehyde Tetrachloroethylene 1-Chloro-1.22E–03 6.and.07E–03 1.907.727 18.1 30.018 8.546 706.3 21.864 8.0 311.tetrachloride Titanium.60E–04 2.970.2-tetrafluoroethane Ethylene.237.166.30E–02 2.

6 4.934.75E–05 4.8 8.58E–04 7.3-Trichloropropane Crotonaldehyde Thallium.63E–07 8.and.5 7.120 72.3 3.907.14E–04 5.3 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by toxicity unit (tu) chemical Dioxin.242.3 1.594 6.871.008 601.7 6.978.9 1.3 3.3 1.74E–08 2.4-Dioxane Allyl.5 8.47E–05 1.216 39.compounds 1.10E–07 3.4′-Methylenedianiline Zinc.compounds Di-N-propylnitrosamine Etf (doses/capita-lb) 5.compounds Chlorine.600 2.80E–02 6.769 13.58E–03 6.00E–04 3.1 16.850.04E–03 8.3 3.825 500 1.92E–04 1.989 4.9 continued .318.dioxide Cyanide.zinc.538 1.102 4.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.853 67.9 3.1 2.125.antimony.28E–06 6.01E–06 1.75E–04 9.291 6.266 12.710 4.128 430.132 526.49E–07 6.acid Aldrin Hydroquinone Ethylbenzene Acrylic.10E–03 1.57E–03 1.9 0.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 1.58E–03 5.2-Dibromoethane 1.2-Dichloropropane 1.7 3.2.84E–08 1.0 6.138 7.3-butadiene 1.ether Hydrogen.49E–08 1.19E–05 7.86E–06 7.367 1.3 2.625.selenium.423 545.83E–07 9.212 1.acid Nitrobenzene Hydrofluoric.compounds Camphechlor Diisocyanates Formic.6 1.95E–05 1.878 449.and.compounds 2.6 17.cyanide Selenium.2 1.alcohol 2-Methylpyridine 1.11E–06 5.5 17.compounds Naphthalene 1.aromatic.309.053 751 tu (doses/capita) 18.326.43E–05 3.16E–06 3.(Dbcp) Pentachloroethane Quinoline N-Nitrosopiperidine gamma-Lindane Polycyclic.424 34.4-Dinitrotoluene 4.04E–07 5.thallium.19E–03 2007 tri release (lb) 319 2.943 934 185.286.9 11.236 255 27.68E–06 5.0 7.513 15.4-Trimethylbenzene N-Hexane 1.423 800.71E–04 3.9 1.and.843.0 1.methyl.66E–08 1.474 4.2 1.862 4.5 2.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 165 taBlE 10.acid Chloromethyl.8 4.3 4.365.9 4.58E–06 8.435 3.and.2 13.3 1.9 1.5 1.5 3.96E–03 1.453 13.555 1.2 0.04E–06 7.4 1.compounds Hexachloro-1.dioxin-like.233 79.80E–05 2.2.2-Dichloroethane 4.384 1.472.12E–05 1.4-Dichlorobenzene Antimony.189 115.40E–04 1.79E–05 5.9 0.09E–05 1.and.008 2.9 2.

3 0.chloride N-Nitroso-N-methylurea Pyridine Phosphorus.72E–05 1.4 0.white) 2-Nitrophenol 1.bromide Epichlorohydrin Chlorophenols Ethyl.2 0.87E–10 1.52E–05 5.chloride Hexachlorophene.24E–05 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.267 121.86E–08 3.4 0.065 3.670 22.1 0.99E–08 2.290 2.39E–06 5.2.1 0.83E–05 3.367 276.06E–03 3.431.4 0.689.6 0.12E–06 2.27E–07 7.620 2.(yellow.585 500 18.249 362.10E–07 1.4-Trichlorobenzene 2.ester Maleic.13E–04 4.993 33.ether 1.844 tu (doses/capita) 0.2.2-Tetrachloroethane Dimethylamine Phosgene N.1 0.22E–06 5.5 0.(Hcp) Acetonitrile Aluminum.67E–07 2007 tri release (lb) 35.196 78.909 13.4 0.anhydride Quintozene 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 1.970 15.7 0.2-Trichloroethane Methyl.08E–04 5.4 0.1 0.73E–04 2.4-D.3-Dichloropropene.4 0.25E–06 3.7 0.348 1.3 0.115 256 1.4-diisocyanate Methyl.isomers) 1.70E–05 2.5 0.64E–05 4.2 0.367 363.339 1.1 0.1.27E–02 1.853 16.536 347 26.68E–07 2.3 0.744.phosphide Atrazine Benzidine Xylene.81E–02 3.1 .188 690 17.6 0.00E–05 6.955 585.3 0.or.3 0.861 168.3 0.ether 2-Chlor-1.8 0.26E–05 1.2 0.20E–05 2.465 741.1 0.14E–06 1.907 153.483.072 16 25.048 6.05E–07 7.10E–06 2.53E–06 7.4 0.3 0.1.232 5.2 0.(mixed.1.813 49.29E–05 1.166 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 10.tert-butyl.158 707.135 1.2-Tetrachloroethane Fluorine Etf (doses/capita-lb) 2.3-butadiene O-Toluidine Acetamide Nitrate.941.3 0.494 270.524 15.2 0.68E–07 9.323 10 702.5 0.08E–06 9.acrylate Triethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine Toluene-2.097.1 0.60E–06 8.1.compounds Benzyl.13E–09 2.468 515.2-Ethylhexyl.10E–05 3.695 92.N-Dimethylformamide Ammonia 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene Bis(2-chloroethyl).1 0.47E–07 4.571 155.65E–08 8.595.2 0.08E–06 3.28E–07 9.51E–07 3.3 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by toxicity unit (tu) chemical Allyl.(mixed.40E–05 4.isomers) Methacrylonitrile 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 1.1 0.

71E–07 1.52E–05 1.000 646 8.copper.14E–08 4.55E–10 3.767 176.1 0.82E–05 2.1 0.disulfide 3.593.32E–04 8.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.565 4.14E–04 8.817 1.590 2.1 .569 1.861 1.74E–08 4.391 695.66E–09 3.isocyanate 1.Developing Effective Toxicity Factors 167 taBlE 10.1 0.dihydrochloride Dinitrotoluene.trifluoride Decabromodiphenyl.isomers) Propionaldehyde Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Dichlorvos Phenol Copper.1 0.1 0.02E–05 9.751 13.935.438 750 1.1 0.1 0.677.1 0.1-Dichloroethane Etf (doses/capita-lb) 6.23E–05 7.61E–09 4.trichloride Carbon.47E–05 4.17E–06 2007 tri release (lb) 130.oxide Methyl.014.07E–08 3.and.(mixed.compounds Chloromethane Hexachloroethane Boron.40E–06 7.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.103 334.78E–05 1.1 0.08E–07 6.438 1.1 0.715 6.3 (continued) 2007 tri releases ranked by toxicity unit (tu) chemical Nitroglycerin 2-Acetylaminofluorene Safrole Benzoic.1 0.912 1.126.253 tu (doses/capita) 0.259 7.1 0.1 0.

by.releases.data.release.2007.ranked.total.168 Zinc and 'Zinc Compounds Hydrochloric Acid Lead and Lead Compounds Nitrate Compounds Manganese and Manganese Compounds Barium and Barium Compounds Copper and Copper Compounds Ammonia Methanol Sulfuric Acid Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds Hydrofluoric Acid Chromium and Chromium Compounds Vanadium and Vanadium Compounds Toluene Styrene Aluminum Nickel and Nickel Compounds N-Hexane Xylene (Mixed Isomers) Formaldehyde Carbonyl Sulfide Ethylene Glycol Ethers Nitric Acid Acetonitrile Formic Acid N-Butyl Alcohol Antimony and Antimony Compounds Acetaldehyde Propylene Asbestos (Friable) 0 100 200 2007 TRI Releases (Millions of Pounds) 300 400 500 600 Toxic Chemicals 700 800 figurE 10.pounds.in. .1 Top.TRI.

Developing Effective Toxicity Factors Chromium and Chromium Compounds Cobalt and Cobalt Compounds Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds Lead and Lead Compounds Polychlorinated Biphenyls Mercury and Mercury Compounds Acrylamide Acrylonitrile 1.1.1.2-Tetrafluoroethane Ethylene Oxide Hexachlorobenzene Benzene Fomesafen Vinyl Chloride Hydrazine Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds Barium and Barium Compounds Chlorine Acetaldehyde Hydrochloric Acid 2-Nitropropane Propylene Oxide 0.3-Butadiene Acrolein Manganese and Manganese Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds Nickel and Nickel Compounds Aluminum Formaldehyde Tetrachloroethylene 1-Chloro-1.1 1 10 100 2007 TRI Release Impacts (Millions of Effective Toxic Doses per Capita) 169 figurE 10.(TUs).01 0.2 Top.data.00001 0.ranked.toxicity.units.0001 0.1.001 0. .release.2007.by.doses/capita.2.2-Tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.TRI.in.

2007.units.through. .releases.3 Yearly.toxicity.TRI.1988.170 250 100's of millions of Pounds Millions of Toxicity Units 200 Pounds or Toxicity Units 150 100 50 Toxic Chemicals 0 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 Year 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 figurE 10.and.from.(pounds).

a.volume.Protection.33.on.and.1 seventeen targeted chemicals: u.targeted.1999).the.cooperation.as.have..poundage.and.potential...impact.with. which.on. U.interim.use.toxic.Environmental. transfers.of.greatest. this.on.number..of..1999.the.of. could.in.Toxics.compounds Chromium.high-volume. volume.chemical.those. the.and.(USEPA. releases. versus.reduction.may.a.Agency.compounds Lead. The.basis.1).and. and.lead.of.result. scenario..DC:.by.of. 1991.voluntary.. use. of.toxicity. EnvironmEntal protEction agEncy 33/50 program The.have. one. total. name.focused. low-toxicity.by. presents.chemical.. focused.EPA-745-R-99-004.ethyl.(P2).(Table 11..the. that.stakeholders..nickel.baseline.a.on.in.(USEPA). its.program.Program.Inventory..(TRI).more.a. Under.requirements.compounds Cyanide..low.data. reduce.impact.11 Focusing on Impact Chemicals introduction Successful.toxic.that.s.and.ketone Methyl.the. existing.Washington.much.isobutyl..EPA.impacts.program. chemical.1995.(with. the.implemented. off-site.S.pollution.initiative.replacing.1992).17.chemicals. Epa 33/50 program Benzene Carbon.including.companies.compounds Source:.large...U..goal.smaller. from.33/50.50.total.percent.Prevention.efforts. releases.S.toxicity.33/50 Program: The Final Record.high. 171 . conceivably.in.reduction. was.Office.tetrachloride Chloroform Dichloromethane Methyl.the.effectiveness. This.chemicals.chemical. have.ketone Tetrachloroethylene Toluene 1.the.compound.Agency.and. a. takes.compounds Mercury.of.the.chemicals..s.toxicity.1.a. toxic.programs.target.using. goal. the. chapter.program.prevention.basis..of.financial.toxic.chemical.of. reduction..a.chemicals. programs.programs. reporting.in.by.Release. its.compounds Nickel.1988. reduce.by.mercury.for.program.was..could. an. to..Basing. u.which.Pollution.role.1-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Xylenes Cadmium.with.Protection.a.percent. taBlE 11.chromium.and.Toxics.cadmium.Environmental.

focusing. the.companies.improve.Another.data.releases.executives. had. after.of.data.the.reduce. 1.of. more.33/50.by.500.examined.33/50.rather.top. top. source.traditional.Program.companies.the.reduction.with.other.in.enforceable.associations.EPA. to.to.33/50. of.the.The. a.dispose. and. than. to..costeffective..in..environmental. to. p .The.to.identified. EPA.media.set.Soon..land)..alone.and.major.reduce.of.its.environmental.asked.the..companies.Some.600.voluntary.program. industries.chemicals.The.led.disposing.demonstrate..from.citizen.1994.largest.to.not.their. consider.to..of.it.in.specific.reductions..These. apply. unless.and.the.guidelines.the.in.that..then. the. those. also.the. supplement..2. success. the.is.data.in.a.the. their.or. Program.company’s.the.This.basis.1996)..production.companies.oriented. foster.ways. of.that.. by.sent.groups.simple.steps.that.to.transfers.environmental.chief.multimedia.nationwide.opportunities.with.to. in. invitations. to.whether.participation.waste.first.approached. law.chemical.were.approaches. A  total. (16. the. about.for.for.any.meetings.land.scope.1988.in. bringing.in.for. otherwise.on.EPA.was. by.was.to..water.practices.facilities.program. of.and.to..treat.did.of.The. and.as.years.and. achieved. traditional.1989. highlighting.release. of.and. voluntary.placed.more.environmental.1988.wastes.5.example.looking. corporate. of.then.000.mandatory.sent.of.of.truly.the. air. approach.33/50. The. companies.air.reduction.could.own.program.to. the.the...the.chemicals.performance.releases.program.processes.17 targeted.to.The. full-page. the.of.invitations.pledged.treating.trade.were. evaluating.the. accepted.first.commitments. reductions. been. reduction.effect. ads.A.regulation. and.(integrating.and. The. by.1991.over.the. were.Program.involved.write.and..program.an... measured.plans.sent. regulations.EPA.on.outreach.from.these.enforceable. quickly.not. New York Times..reduction.developed..for. on.TRI.goals.public.next. the.chemicals.of. whether. encouraging. end-of-the-pipe.spring. 33/50..methods.294.their.voluntary.to.EPA.purpose. .releases.to.with. the.with. articipate..33/50. facilities.conducted.companies. was.then.industry.the. the.focus.TRI.releases.the.. The.the. Program.for.Any.taken. of.P2.the.concentrated. hierarchy.looked.to. Basis for Program The. reductions.P2.the. the.all.Program.no.participate.summer.responsibilities.the. command-and-control.In.invitations.three.targeted.and.complying..Cason.at.172 Toxic Chemicals Because.groups.Program.the. all.reduce.polluters.in.the.release. regulation.their.total. release. invited).33/50.use..EPA.and.TRI. according.their.to. regulation.solicit.an.their.high-level.reporting. Participants.for. percent.to.and..would.targeted.TRI..majority.of.their.all. not.voluntary. commitment.in..EPA.on. stating.prevention.public. ethic.national. management.law.their. Program requirements There. required..aggregate.releases.chemicals..the. to. or. targeted.letter. strategies.was.EPA.preclude.by.program.laws. water. waste.to..to.looking..were.(Arora.was.reduce. which.were. invitation.started.was.and.were.than. to.their. sought.meetings.participation.companies.EPA.of. 10. .the.corporations.companies.public.and. activities.Program. P2. could.recycle.

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chemicals.33/50.by.the.in.Program.reduced.chemicals. Some.affected.changes.200 1.400 TRI Releases (Millions of Pounds) 1.64..were.ozone-depleting. agreement.have.Program.the. treatment.departure.any.with.transfers.of.in.between.the.all. progress. outpaced.the.1.by.(POTWs).33/50.also.been. reducing.in. chemicals.of.releases.EPA.000 800 600 400 200 0 1.for.get.(From. its.to. source.TRI.. .1988.Table 11. TRI.the.600.1 Releases.publicly.these. in.higher.1995.their.was.1988.based.ended.usual.of.In.33/50.016 Toxic Chemicals 1.on.non-33/50.compared.the.a.but.effect.chemicals..423 1.top.chemical.companies.companies..phase. Protection. the.chemicals.treatment.targeted.a.protocol.chemicals.reporting.consistent.and. Program.instead.of.of. implementation.release..focusing. targeted.36.in..environmentalists. and. and.facility.addition. at.and. year-to-year.and.works.reducing. than.percent.(Figure 11.control.also.carbon.Between.these.over. 17. During.program. releases.a. The.the.. all.the.list.the. measured.original.Toxics.tetrachloride.1996.600 1.companies. transfers.by.by.to. The.releases. Office.(EPA.496 1.after.(1988–1996).and.and.. Prevention.60.transfers.1..shows.releases.of.other. of.2.was. TRI.that.not.Protocol..and.Washington..33/50.the.chemical..from.the.. Pollution. chemicals.chemicals.to.participate.1.174 1.1. Agency.) instead. international.U.list. program..002 million pounds 898 804 1995 goal 748 748 million pounds 672 601 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 figurE 11. other.decrease. chemicals.and.1996.categories.year.Montreal.and.approach.DC:.Reductions.were.the.using.to.program.chemicals.the. an. to.releases.14.rate.Figure 11. the. in.to.also.at.disposal.transfers.at.percent.1-trichloroethane.continued.in. 33/50.transfers.reduced.reductions.To.of.of.command-and-control.on.S.facilities.1999.transfers.50.the. reflected.reported. The.EPA-745-R-99-004.comparisons.1999).in.largest.arguing. years.the..chemicals...and. to.point.from. of.were. the.percent..by.largest.pollution. the.265 1992 goal .TRI...the.average.2).the..chemicals....able.based.reduction. and.percent.owned.in. 33/50 Program: The Final Record.criticized.in.and.that.percentage.than.out.as.1988.Although.was.33/50..1995.less. program.Program. on.of.reduced.the.percent.. Environmental..smaller.time.. for.would.1988. other.

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authorization.an.practically.the. 1.risk.for.review. risks.the.before. Category.environment. application.are. risk.reduced.for.that. the.to.system.the.these.prepared.with.or.socioeconomic.expected.10.to.the.to.the.to.community.substance: .to.to.will.or.2.in. account.are.concern. in.they.included: •. authorization. .presents.there.properties..that.the.the.the.exposure.and.risk.. an.(Tables 11.is.conditions.use.or.task.or.no.that.Annex.be.and.parties. This.in.goal. benefits.of.. controlled.conditions.of.or.authorization. the.give.arrangement Notwithstanding. considerable. high.for.or.or.which.shown. authorization..general.if.is.11.“safer”.that.human.which. Category. EU.lack.authorization.authorization.The.that.properties.Any.year.5) •. Category.1..with. economically.substances. the.use.for.substances.a. the. An. the.The. that. very.(Table 11.review.be.considered.minimizing.ensure.other.be.public.that.authorization.technically.is. technologies. by. rogram).that. .intrinsic. The. recognizes.only. the.4. and. properly.authorization.. 11.arising.information.use.environment.interested.from.same. require.adequately.(Tables 11.would.use.2.health.be.may.by. substances.demonstrating.are.is.suitable.viable. evidence.regulatory.hazardous.benefits.7.outweigh.a.that.consumers.toxic.of.and.industries...alternative..the. taking.such..cases.controlled.to.the.chemicals.that.a.specific. .is. subjected.human. are.one.employed. each.possible.level.use. of. .technologies.Evidence.chemical.The.Any.that.granted 4.period 6. are. ensuring. REACH. these.8) •.is.ensure.identity.time-limited. One.is..a.the. (list.uses.and. Substances.to.given. will. substances.of.following.or.ensure.eventually.negligible.goal.is.authorization.. resources.for.for.the.It. authorization.have. concern.holder.2. .applications.6) •..any.the.also..should.use-specific.the. includes.are. suitable. procedure.the.for.whom.the.monitoring.specified.measures.persons.comply.an.to.the.if. into.carcinogens.permission.replaced. XIV.included..very.. m while.to. of.is. socioeconomic.good.mutagens. The.about.under. .chemicals. substances.substance.selected.is.can..1.workers.acceptable.program.of. to.is.is.granted.of. if.The.before.the. exposure..Focusing on Impact Chemicals 181 authorization Substances.for. The.and.organized.the.it.Another.granting.low..5.internal. alternative.process. arket.be.each.granted 2.high.and. program.be.1..particular.and. from.certain.will.substances.environment.as. that. substances.PBTs The. from.. technically.substance 3.the.following.of.health..authorization.be.functioning.reproduction. p .granted 5.should. or.the.rise. will.in.is.and.in.as.

the.its.or. authorization.BE.or.of.1%.intrinsic.environment.substance 2.for.be.articles.the.covering. Authorizations.human.if. . Chlorodimethyl.for.potassium. .of.submitted..the.from.the.of.the.of. substance.uses. White Paper.technical.in.market.time.available.request.use.dioxide Dinickel.chromate Nickel.Brussels..one.if.use.the..new.risk. the..persons. by.hydrogen.of.and.for..any. Communities.covering.The.substances.182 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 11.the. Arsenic.2001.preparation.application 3.the. . Applications.including.manufacturer.An.or.socioeconomic..subsulfide Diarsenic.incorporation. or.the.ether Chloroethylene Bis(chloromethyl). European..the.human.on.sulfide Nickel.substitutes.the.making.their.contact.environment.tar Erionite Asbestos Source:.. may.by.which.intends.information.of.may.arsenate Butane.if.zinc.A.health. becomes. one.monoxide Nickel.4 initial list of category 1 carcinogens Chromium.chemical.and.reviewed.or.safety.butadiene) 1. the.be.arising.of.one.is.the. be.original.4′-ylenediamine Salts.uses.4′-diaminobiphenyl Biphenyl-4.biphenyl-4-ylamine Salts..the.place.changed.or.of.the.risks.details.can.report.methyl.1%.authorization.person.trioxide.ether Chloromethyl.of.authorization.for.include.use.risks.which.include.substance.impact. applicant...salts Lead.or.of.trioxide Zinc.to.so.buta-1.chromates.shall..(VI).of.could..health.for.the.the..of.and.of.on. sought.butadiene) Isobutane.the.the. or.for. Applications.authorization.for.ether 2-Naphthylamine. downstream.substance.alternatives. several.be.in. The.may.the.persons...following.3-Butadiene.or.relevant 4..beta-naphthylamine Benzidine.4. submitted.benzidine Salts.circumstances. user.use.out.substitution.or.and. Commission.0.own.the.0.(containing.affect.properties 5.several.importer.at.authorization.information: .identity. of. .from.substance. Applications.≥. . economic.name.the.application.the.analysis.possible.more. An.the.A.to.and.pentoxide Arsenic.and.substance. 1.acid.to..for.the.chloride.is.filled.feasibility.xenylamine Salts.they.the.≥.applicant’s. of.(containing. Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy.the..3-diene Benzene Vinyl.this..specifying.trioxide Nickel.2-naphthylamine Biphenyl-4-ylamine Xenylamine 4-Aminobiphenyl Salts..trioxide Arsenic.have.4-aminobiphenyl Coal.considering.

0.bis(3-carboxy-4-.of.acrylamidoglycolate.4-Dichlorobut-2-ene 2.4-Dinitrotoluene.chromate Chromium. acrylamide) Methyl.sulfate.3-epoxypropane 4-Amino-3-fluorophenol 5-Allyl-1.acrylamide) Acrylonitrile 2-Nitropropane 2..2:3.5 initial list of category 2 carcinogens Beryllium Beryllium. hydroxybenzensulfonate) Hexamethylphosphoric.oxide Cadmium.the.diethyldithiocarbamate Dimethylcarbamoyl.of.2-Epoxypropane Methyloxirane 2.3-Epoxypropyl.4-diepoxybutane 2.chromate Chromic.barium.ether 1. Salts.oxide (Epoxyethyl)benzene Phenyloxirane Furan R-2. Diazomethane. exception.2-Dimethylhydrazine. exception...hydrazine.aluminum.[2] Dinitrotoluene.technical. N. Strontium.acrylamidomethoxyacetate.dichromate Ammonium. Sulfallate.Focusing on Impact Chemicals 183 taBlE 11.3-Dibromopropan-1-ol 2.N-Dimethylhydrazine.≥.oxide Oxirane 1-Chloro-2.3-Dibromo-1-propanol Ethylene.III.triamide Hexamethylphosphoramide Dimethyl.1%.dichromate Sodium.2-Epoxy-3-phenoxypropane Styrene.3-Propanesultone.chromate Cobalt.chromate Chromium.(VI).chromate Calcium.0.(containing.(ISO*) 2-Chlorallyl.phenyl.(containing. Dimethylsulfamoylchloride Potassium.fluoride Cadmium.compounds.sulfate Diethyl.dichromate Sodium.glycidyl.sulfate 1.grade 5-Nitroacenaphthene 2-Nitronaphthalene continued .chloride.≥. Hexachlorobenzene 1.sulfate Potassium. Hydrazine.with.3-benzodioxole Safrole 3-Propanolide 1.1%. silicates Beryllium.oxide.dichloride Chromic.the.chromate.dihydrate Chromyl.dichromate.chromate Sodium.chloride Cadmium.3-epoxypropane Epichlorhydrin Propylene.oxide 1.[1] Dinitrotoluene.ether 2.with. 1.oxychloride Potassium.of.compounds.beryllium.3-Propiolactone Urethane(INN) Ethyl.carbamate Methyl. Hydrazobenzene 1.2-Diphenylhydrazine Hydrazine.3-Epoxypropan-1-ol Glycidol Phenyl.dichloride Cobalt.2′-Bioxirane 1.3-Epoxy-1-propanol (R)-1-Chloro-2.bromate Cadmium.

to.1-biphenyl]-4. Commission.actions.substance..not.proposed.an.2001.3-Dichloro-2-propanol Source:. A.4-.BE.3-Dinitrotoluene 3.analysis 2.addition.95 4-o-Tolylazo-o-toluidine.for.research.4-Dichlorophenyl-4-nitrophenyl..European.include .and.a.4dylbis(azo)] bis[4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate) 1.the.for.A.chloride α.White Paper.azo.3...also...which.arising. Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy.A.development.acetate Disodium.environment.may.the.3-[[4-[(2.5-Dinitrotoluene Azobenzene Methyl-ONN-azoxymethyl.permit.substance. .if.. .7-disulfonate Tetrasodium.diaminophenyl)azo] [1. Benzo[d.either a.h]anthracene Chrysene Benzo[e]pyrene 1.1-bifenyl]-4.184 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 11.e.direct.(ISO*) 2.human.4′-Diarylazobiphenyl.azoxy..4-dylbis(azo)] bis[5-amino-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2.applicant 3. In.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane Bromoethylene Trichloroethylene Trichloroethene α-Chlorotoluene Benzyl.Communities.(1.timetable.methyl.for.acetate Methyl.4-amino-2.plan.from.dyes 4.5 (continued) initial list of category 2 carcinogens Benzo[a]pyrene.3.health..from.of.Organization.and.1-biphenyl]-4-yl]azo]-5-hydroxy-6-(phenylazo) naphtalene-2. .3-dimethylazobenzene o-Aminoazotoluene 4-Aminoazobenzene Benzidine-based. Emissions..source .a.dyes Disodium.by. .α-Trichlorotoluene Benzotrichloride 1. Discharges.dichloride 4-Nitrobiphenyl Nitrofen.. Brussels.considering.4-Dinitrotoluene 3.the.α.6-hydroxy-3-((2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl) azo)phenyl)azo).2-Dibromoethane Ethylene.a.was.Standards.from. *.application.ether 2-Nitroanisole 2..7-disulfonate] Disodium.installation.and.f]chrysene Benzo[a]anthracene.dibromide 1.4-amino.5-Dinitrotoluene Hydrazine-tri-nitromethane 2.a. International.substitution.justification.3-[[1.2-Dichloroethane Ethylene. a.3′-[[1.socioeconomic.point. Benzo[b]fluoranthene Benzo[e]acephenanthrylene Benzo[j]fluoranthene Benzo[k]fluoranthene Dibenz[a.of.{5-[(4-((2.1-biphenyl)-4-yl)azo]salicylato(4-)} cuprate(2-) CI. granted.or b.the.6-Dinitrotoluene 2.brown.risks.of. 1.including.for.appropriate.

4..chromate.BE.butadiene) Isobutane.bis(orthophosphate) Lead.oxide 1.(containing.5-triazine2.3-epoxypropyl]-1.I.2001.3H.5-triazine-2.hexafluorosilicate Lead. Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy.(containing. Ammonium.monoxide. Butane.4. Sodium.methanesulfonate C. Sodium. Sodium.oxychloride Potassium.di(acetate)   Source:.1%.dichloride Chromic.(containing.acrylamidoglycolate.≥..European.pigment. Lead.fluoride Cadmium.0.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane Ethylene.of. category 1 Carbon.5H)-trione Source:.butadiene) 1.0.≥. Lead..2-Epoxypropane Methyloxirane 2.0. European. Commission.3H. Communities.1%.acrylamidomethoxyacetate.. Cadmium. White Paper.acrylamide) Ethyleneimine Aziridine 1.pigment.dichromate.chromate.and. of.6 initial list of category 2 mutagens (no category 1 mutagens Were initially listed) Hexamethylphosphoric.I.6(1H.oxide Oxirane Propylene.dihydrate Chromyl.sulfate Potassium.7 initial list of chemicals toxic to reproduction. Brussels.4-Diepoxybutane Methyl.e..3.0.1%.dichromate.5-Tris-[(2S.f]chrysene 1. Lead.Commission.6-(1H.3.2001.2:3.Focusing on Impact Chemicals 185 taBlE 11.acetate Lead(II).White Paper.3.red.5H)trione Triglycidylisocyanurate. Trilead.alkyls.. BE.2R)-2.5.(containing..the.Communities.yellow..3.triamide Hexamethylphosphoramide Diethyl. the. acrylamide) Methyl.≥.buta-1.(TGIC) Acrylamide 1.2′-Bioxirane 1.dichromate. Brussels..104 .1%.chromate.dichromate.chloride.-Tris(oxiranylmethyl)-1.≥. taBlE 11.3-Butadiene.3-diene Benzo[a]pyrene Benzo[d.34 C.azide Lead. Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy.

tetracarbonyl Cadmium.ether Methylglycol 2-Ethoxyethanol Ethylene.the.(ISO*).4-triazol-1-yl)-ethyl]oxirane N.6-dinitrophenyl-3-methylcrotonate Dinoseb.N-(7-fluoro-3.N-Dimethylformamide Dimethyl.6-dimethyl-4-tridecylmorpholine Ethylene.(ISO*)..2-dicarboxamide (2RS.4-[[bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-methylsilyl] methyl]-4H-1.bis(4-fluorophenyl)-(methyl)(1H-1.4-nitrophenyl.4-triazole Nickel.of.(ISO*).methyl. 2.and.(RS)-2-[4-(5trifluoromethyl-2-.for. Bis(2-methoxyethyl). Benzo[a]pyrene Benzo[d.azoxy.ether.glycol. Cadmium.phthalate DEHP Dibutyl.acetate Bis(2-methoxyethyl).(ISO*).acetate Methylglycol.. ether Methyl-ONN-azoxymethyl.4-dinitrophenol Dinoterb.7. .esters.N-Dimethylacetamide Formamide N-Methylacetamide N-Methylformamide 2-Methoxyethyl.acetate Fluazifop-butyl. R-2.2.4′-Isobutylethylidenediphenol 2.monomethyl.3-Epoxypropan-1-ol Glycidol 2-Methoxypropanol..thiourea Imidazolidine-2-thione 2-Imidazoline-2-thiol Cycloheximide Flumioxazin.4-benzoxazin-6-yl) cyclohex-1-ene-1.e.4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-silane A.monomethyl.formamide N.glycol. Commission.2.3-epoxy-1-propanol.5-bis(1.2.Standards. Brussels.etacelasil Flusilazole.fluoride.methyl..of.glycol.3oxazolidine-2.dichlorophenyl. N-3.acetate Ethylene..Tetrahydrofurfuryl.dinoterb Nitrofen.European.White Paper.8 initial list of chemicals toxic to reproduction.BE.monoethyl.glycol.ether.monoethyl. *.phthalate (+/–).acetate Tridemorph.2001.Communities.6-dinitrophenol Salts.186 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 11..1-dimethylethyl)-4hydroxyphenyl.(ISO*). category 2 6-(2-Chloroethyl)-6(2-methoxyethoxy)-2.f]chrysene 2-Methoxyethanol Ethylene.(R)-2-[4-(6chloroquinoxalin-2-yloxy)phenyloxy]propionate Binapacryl.2.acetate Methyl.2-tert-butyl-4.6-sec-butyl-2.mixture.acetate Ethylglycol.4.4-dione Methoxyacetic.(ISO*).3RS)-3-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)[(1H-1.pyridyloxy)phenoxy]propionate Vinclozolin.butyl.5-dichlorophenyl-5-methyl-5-vinyl-1.Organization. 1-[[bis-(4-Fluorophenyl)methylsilyl]methyl]-1H1. International..5.thio.of.acetate 2-Ethylhexyl.2....ether..ether Ethylglycol 2.. Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy.acetate Ethylene.10tetraoxa-6-silaundecane.phthalate Di-(2-ethylhexyl).acetate 2-Ethoxyethyl..chloride.4-triazole.3. 2-secbutyl-4.(ISO*).4-dihydro-3oxo-4-prop-2-ynyl-2H-1.phthalate Source:.2-Bis(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methylpentane 2-Methoxypropyl.acid Bis(2-ethylhexyl). 4.

effect.half-life.or. of.toxic.species. three. substance. as.in.chemicals..days..chronic. than.2). estuarine. freshwater.days Bioaccumulative. or. A. in.is..are.chemicals.as.REACH.days.180. longer.or...uses. the..have .in. (BCF). 1.marine.sediment.000.water.are. higher.those.There.. A.longer. following. . of. or.mg/L. sections.or.water.than...shown.estuarine.marine.a..longer. marine.or 3. The.half-life.days.or.water.180.toxic. concentration.longer. .0.of.60.than..toxicity very Persistent. water.reproduction. 1. is.than..substance.A. bioconcentration. have.5. than.fresh-.Data..120.Focusing on Impact Chemicals 187 PBt suBstances A.or.than.higher. that.than.half-life.freshwater.or.other. all.chemicals.marine.than.proposed.well. .000.half-life.(VPBT).chemicals. 2. 2.. half-life. criteria. or. . classified. PBT.or 5.aquatic.than. fresh-.marine.than.is. 1.estuarine.01. Bioaccumulative..A..(Category. .water.have. factor. marine. fulfills.3).A.and.days Bioaccumulative.very. the.are.species.ban.longer.can.40..that.9.days. Toxic.fresh-. be.soil.2.these.are. 4.for.Some.uses.estuarine.. (Category.chemicals. and toxic suBstances The.A.aquatic. substance. chemicals. 2). Persistent.that.or 2.have . . 3. chemicals.A. no-observed.soil..longer. a. mutagenic.in.as..from..or.days.species.has. long-term.120.those.longer.used.evidence.of.in.. for. carcinogenic.less. (NOEC).than.sediment.in.those.program.fresh-.BCF. 2.persistent.longer. restriction The.have .in.certain.half-life.1.60. 180 days.to.half-life. ...in. (Category.1.in. a.The.water. sediment. 1.of.and.organisms. .that.in.bioaccumulative. is.in.Table 11.

9 Examples of Banned uses of chemicals in proposed rEa ch legislation designation of the substance.by.industrial.higher. substances. 1. in quantities.hazardous.condensers..the.be.2. 1907/2006.in. phosphate .as.by.preparations.is.emission.excess. closed-system. Shall.are. resistors.covered.in.of.Annex.garments.. (EC). 1. are.concerning.Registration.December.188 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 11.toys.mg/kg.and.in.mining..articles.inductors.30.to..not.until. Chloro-1-ethylene.excess.with.(1).fluids..not. waste.BE.covered.not.of.laid. (d).not.skin.placed. than..fluids.were.be. 1.by..Directive. 18 December. existing legislation.kg. 2. of 12..0.of.used.98/70/EC. . .permitted.Evaluation. However. Shall. (c).the.Council.in.down. .market.toys.toy. The.. .such.or.mass. The.for.However.weight).shall. (a).free.1.use. (b).(REACH).Directive. hydraulic. of the groups of substances or of the preparation ... .which.on. equipment.used. Of..where. Of.end.91/689/EEC.not. Shall. conditions of restriction .fuels. . small.the. (a)..shall.terphenyls.service.1.including.European. heat-transmitting. with the. And.contact.into.and.5.waste.Authorisation.of.in.the.1986.equal.the.and.linen..in. Not.dibromopropyl).benzene.by.or. Regulation.. motor. Polychlorinated..fluids..P.0.the.of.disposed.of.to.. on.not.waste.their.of.benzene..and.be.in.substances. than.for.of.they. (e)..continue. oils.for.greater.or.005.VII.and.paragraph.apply.service.. Shall.(2.2006.the..used.PCT.placed.the.1991.of. .aerosol. 4. . part.in.of. —.of. No.the.(monomer.Union. 3. chloride) . (b).for. Benzene Source:.use.%.come. . on.concentrations.June.content.life: .in.or.those. 2. of.Preparations..2006/12/EC. undergarments.electrical. Chemicals.which.textile. state. European.167.any.use. .be.(PCTs). Council. 5. (c).3.on.in.intended.as.of. and Directive.weight..used..%.(≥. market.the.of..Brussels.to: .be.heattransfer.condensers.equipment. large.vinyl.concentration.toy.reach.Council.closed-circuit.weight. Tris. installations.allowing.Restriction.or.equipment.preparations. Parliament.transformers.permitted.underground.total.to.in. processes..following.the.a.propellant.parts.installations. .as.

.Committee. Bioaccumulative Toxins (PBTs) in Washington State.2006b.260.52(1):.Journal of Environmental Economics and Management..Confrontation.. contributions.wa..Collaboration.State.Technical.2003.Dental..U. Washington.M.DC:.the. of.January.wa... Mercury. Distributional. Reduce.of.DC:.WA:.. with.S.20.summaries.JADA.Mineral.M.European.for.Act.Agency. (MERA). html..07-07-016.of.to.Olympia..of.WA:. 00-03-054.of.Government. Council.Union. of..the.Brussels.Publication.. Analysis.Publication. Education. 2006a..EPA’s.http://www. Department.0607025..Meyer.Prevention. 1999.. Commission.. 2003.02-04-023..Survey.Ecology.Survey.Ecology.WA:.Department.Leveraging:. 2006..Association.H.Madison.. Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy.University.Brussels.. A.D. ao.html.. Ecology. No.WI:. Ecology.2006c.Sandrik..March.Gasparac.WA....Laboratory.. Pollution.Participation.the.and.Number.2002.2007:..White Paper.2000a.of...Washington..72(4):.Partnerships. Bioaccumulative Toxins (PBTs) in Washington State.of. Pollution Prevention Plans.Publication.Department. Voluntary.S.Number..Union...Ecology..of.. Chapter 173-333 WAC. Center..No. of. GIS. EPA’s..Environmental.WA..Olympia.of... By-Media. of.2006). Department.Plan. Code.2006b.European.00-03-054.2004. 2000b. Department.. U. 33/50 Program: The Final Record.No.Washington.The REACH Proposal Process Description.Printing.Cason....Department.Department.. Brussels.Ecology.ecy. WA:.and.Ecology. S. Office. Devices. Tecnologia.BE. Apresentação. Olympia. Peeler.do. Food.from. Reduction. Olympia..Proposed Strategy to Continually Reduce Persistent. Washington.....Chou...State.Mercúrio.BE.. and.Office.of. Revised. Washington.Press.PBT.20.States.Chemical.Communities.Study—EPA’s..Case.Toxics.gov/mercury/mercury_dental_bmps.1996..January. Health. of.in. State.L. Impacts.(accessed.33/50.P.Ecology. Administration. Evaluation.BE.Publication. State. U. Gallagher.Ecology.. State. U. for. Ambiental. Olympia..Washington..Questions and Answers on REACH.Exceed..Program:.. Radiological. Washington.Schedule.. Multiyear.. Publication.Dental.. Drug.2001..State.N.WA:.gov/biblio/.. Substitution. No.. Peele. 2006. M Lacy.Union. Communities.European. Analysis.and.Department.of.United..J.(accessed.Separators..Department. Council. Washington.Volunteer.. Wisconsin. and. eeting.PBT...S.gov/cdrh/leveraging/2. Emissions?.S. European. Waste.the.Olympia.Amalgam..the..http:// www.... Amalgam. Commission..Geological. Protection. de. Washington State Mercury Chemical Action Plan.to..Action.with.Batchu. C...EU Common Ground on REACH. 2003.Focusing on Impact Chemicals 189 BiBliography Arora. Olympia.through.fda.Olympia.. Companhia... Brussels. 2000.2007. Washington...commodity.. Washington. of.Department.Point.BE.Stakeholders— Mini.WA. Washington...Publication.European... ...c. Redução.5.Regulations?.H.Chapter 173-307 WAC. Proposed Strategy to Continually Reduce Persistent.the. Outside.2006). of..Relationships.State..2000...413–432.the. Legislature.Power..T.2006a. http://www.Creating. de. Ecology.and. Program... and. of. Management. Department.§. Toxics. the.33/50.Understanding.133:.J. Industrial..Why..2007.of. Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxins Regulation..Health.From. Environmental. Commission Staff Working Paper: Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning REACH—Extended Impact Assessment..Firms..S.WA..Program.Geological.... Washington..EPA-745-R-99-004.03-03-001... State.of.ecy. Council..html.Pollution Prevention Plan: User’s Guide.Do.. M. Saneamento... of. Fan. Gamper-Rabindran.of..W. Did.BE.. Ecology..Washington.391–410.577–84.presentation.Brussels..333-051.

Polybrominated. July.(accessed...Publication. http://www. Final....Department.(accessed.Legislature.State. Source. Reduction.html.Mercury.gov/.gov/RCW/default.ecy.Ecology. 1998. wa.Code.State. State.3.2010.70. 6.State.Department. with.Don’t. Plan.95M.Mess. RCW.html. (accessed. Department.2006).. Washington..Ecology.State.of.20. State.leg.State.http://www. Ecology.of.WA:... b . http://www. 98-320.Mercury. Ether.wa.of. State. Washington.Industry.of.Legislature.Revised.Department..WA. Chemical.190 Toxic Chemicals Washington.State..html.gov/mercury/mercury_outcomes.html.Strategies.Outcome. Mercury...November. Publication.wa.2010).of. Plan:..Ecology. number.Reduction— Mercury.gov/programs/eap/pbt/hgreductionstrategy. Dioxin..State.November. November.2006).Toxics.html.Hazardous..... November..Department. Washington.Understanding.(RCW). .aspx?cite=70.06-04-009.2006b..of.of. iblio/0507048.2006)..Chapter.wa.Department.. Washington..2006c.Olympia. Washington. Assessment..wa..2006. Olympia.and.2006). Washington.2006).Memorandums.Washington..2006d.Mercury.. 2006d.With.http://www.ecy.and.State.6.November.WAC Chapter 173-333 Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxins.January. (PBDE).. (accessed...Measures.6...ecy.95M.ecy.ecy.. Action. http://www. Olympia.Department.6.Reducing Toxics in Washington: Progress Report for 2001 through 2003.Waste.Washington..Ecology. http://apps.Ecology. Diphenyl.(accessed..WA:. of. Washington..(accessed.wa.2006c.Ecology.2006a.gov/mercury/mou.Number.of.gov/mercury/index. Washington. Washington.

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must. and. that.strategies.the.federal. initial.to.years..trade. combining. or. avoid. conservation.toxics.obtain.other. public.reporting. The.is.must.line. reporting.Release. the. accounting.. 1990.senior. materials.State. •.facilities.Maine.the.. by.of. environmental.91.driven.(MassDEP. tracking. and.promotes.plan.development.state.The. product. or. changes.(allowed.MassDEP.P2. by. from.analyzing.and. updates.40.review.planning.collection.secret. in. use. has. mainE toxics and hazardous WastE rEduction program The. subject. or.use.an. reduce..many..other.percent.chemical. operations.the.The.the.state. regulations.substantial.without. on-site. of.the. and. encourages.(DEP).This.support..risk.Maine.who.toxics. and.P2.the.implement.Department.data.a.and. also. available.facility. anagement. reporting.will.management.in.reducing. resource.Environmental.made. or.business.of. period.out. confidential.use.and.be. toxics.submitted.state.with. or.generation.techniques.the. release.transfers.of.state.report. Hazardous Waste Reduction:.TUR..staff. raw.goals.various.forms. materials.employees. the.plan. develop.steps:.use.the.. health. production.(State. the.or.Maine.plan.every.of. materials.percent.the.approach. auditing. P2.. MassDEP.sensitive.in. information.of..waste.to.reducing.a.management. two.with. the.the.the.strategies.production. In.must..production.release.Toxics.by. 71.Toxics Use and Hazardous Waste Reduction Law.the. 15-yr.summary.manufacturing.data.supplements.without. with. based.hazardous.with. in.the. use.toxic.addressing. Facility-level.1989).need. and. options..also.use. to. m . to.and.reduced. unit. 2005.substances..waste.by.through.public.and.toxic.to.as. were.conventional.federal. of.management.and. percent.use.encourages. state. increased. protecting.Form. establish.energy.by..and.or.an..is.technical. to.teams. .materials.system.to. state..planning.60.employed.and.the.both.. toxics. completed.toxic. an. of. Massachusetts.release. a.complete. by.in. products.first.of. eliminate.use.of.MassDEP.(EMS).health.off. integrated.by. the.Inventory.of. that.cycle).encouraged. may... TUR.involve.toxics.a. shipped. •.addresses.of.reduction. lieu.is.be.tracking. information.TUR.companies.further. are.TUR.that.reduction.or.by-products..water.to.planning.waste. by. in.approach.also.carry. annually.(TRI).protections.of.creating.outlined. plan.substances.by.and.toxic..toxics.designed. production.. According. processes.to.management.of.during. of. Toxic Use Reduction:.for.report.of. company. the.The.facility.to. reducing. recommendations.Facilities.release.processes. releases.allow.promotes.on.of. other.198 Toxic Chemicals the.facility.by.planning.site. through. in.include. that. reported.Protection.in. business..reduction.instructions..2009b).for.reporting.in. industries.environmental.reduction. TUR. TURA.new.state.the. percent.for.workforce.submitting.R.Maine.available.toxics.environment. data.use.. identifying. plan.(Toxics.Law). 41. toxics.the.public. •.of.is.percent. Toxic Release Reduction:.hazardous. A.reporting.in. plan.

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adequate. of.and. Progress. in. and.will.components.If.1990.on.the.companies.progress. decrease. executive.substances.or.implemented..closed.assign.by.substance.techniques •.the. between.plan.complete.industries. waste. Liability.annual.generator.fails.decreases.due. user. containing.their.. management.least. notifies. report. an.the. complete.an..considered.of.planning.solicit. overall.in. submitted.waste.met. substances. have.advise.. the.waste.also.from.its.each.waste.processes.bring.due. by.processes. is.description.. Problems. identifying.containing..opportunity. of.includes. .Some.thresholds.consist.still.Most. Ecology..the.the.. 2003.of.report.in.that. generator..facilities.to.state.older.plan.. and.a.generator.program..annual. hazardous.progress.option •.products.facilities. reduced. Progress.modified. compliance.waste.inherently.waste.to. description. quantities.required. the.. of. the.or.on.the. specific. of.decreases.hazardous..reports... and..have.this. goal. any.department. the.depending.to.. products. deficiencies. of. percent.. Washington. progress.generated.employee.these. amount.1).whether.adequate. e growth.Part.to...summary.specified.process.has.have. performance.lb/yr. to.training. numeric. the.executive. of.hazardous.generation.on. penalty. Once.in. analysis.hazardous.of •.2003.of.reasons. (Figure 13.Each.must.to. waste..a.cost-effective. below.summary.days. on. hazardous.the.or.or.decreasing.This. information.prior.employees.waste.which.had.summary.substance. to. the. and. comments. and. hazardous. been. 17.write. of. and.of.complete.hazardous. performed. themselves. hazardous. •.document.economic.methods.implemented •.to.fit.plans.implementation. and.planning.. the.was.its.fees. an.programs.addressing.varying.encouraged.processes.to. facilities. waste. based.. provide. Different. or. and. that.an..or.costs. inadequacy. reduction.in.in. plan. the.or. able.their.to.Per. or.their.systems. purpose.not.measurement.to.of.from.situations. of.suggestions.on. a..modified. department.and.with.process Hazardous. by.each.progress.has.recurrent. to.a.or. of.accounting.any. indicated.P2.develop. to. reduced.waste. the. Part 4:. modify.output.experience.involvement. goals.annual.through. oversight.hazardous.is. .the..individual.be.personnel. An.capita. If.impact •. department. A.Washington.encountered. The. 1990.These.deficiencies.description.decreased.generation.continued.user.inadequate.progress.estimation. department. 50.of. is. plan.were. and.a. executive.. or.or. reports. Discussion. be.reduction.hazardous.plan. a.opportunities.have.their.report.These.report.The.to. may. of.factors..found.the.while. toward.of.period.the.the.their.52.then.or..industries.document.plan.success.a. review..opportunities.hazardous.processes.. quantities.in.must. Department. A.use. weight.specialized.recycling..at.lb/yr.with. is.treatment.is..were.more.P2... a.90.however. costs. description.of.four.of. must.hazardous.changes. the.employees.variety.materials. Some.generators. annually.determine.process.200 Toxic Chemicals use. conomic.Other. hazardous.substances.changes. the. draft.facility.. 12-mo. substances.

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ME.Statement.html..http://www.of.Toxics.(accessed..Prevention.Reduction.Code.(accessed.Use.Technical.Department..Evaluation.2009).Environmental. State.Massachusetts.of. Department..Subchapter.Department...of. Iowa.the.Jersey.gov/waste/p2/index..(January..Program..Policy. umn.Trenton.Department.2009.(HRA).Protection..TURI Overview. Title.prepared..State.Management.Environmental.of..Department. Prevention.Use.14.2009.2009.under.Jersey.NJ..December. Code.General..mass. Augusta.(accessed.http:// www..Department. Assembly.Trenton.Maine.Waste..State..of.gov/dep/toxics/tura/turaover.Amendments.Maine.No. Protection.15...Q... Toxics.of.Source.tceq.Toxics.2006.state.(accessed.2009).2009)..Reauthorization.on.htm. St.of.16.Prevention...Texas. Hazards.. Article 1.. Massachusetts.2008.Chapter 31.Industrial Pollution Prevention in New Jersey: A Trends Analysis of Materials Accounting Data from 1994 to 2001 and an Annual Report for 2001. Waste Minimization..of..of. .Resources.htm.Institute..Maine.December..Prevention..Reduction.Title 38.Act.NJ. Jersey.Environmental.Contract.. §67100..Washington.2009). http://www.Title.. of. Texas. New.Lowell:. Industrial Pollution Prevention Planning: Meeting Requirements under the New Jersey Pollution Prevention Act.Waste.Environmental.MA.of.Act..gov/dep/toxics/tura/plan2..of.Hazards.Program..Chapter.Legislature. Minnesota.DC.Senate..2009b..TX.2006). 2009...Effectiveness.1989.(accessed.for.212 Toxic Chemicals The.1.University. Number:.us/assistance/P2Recycle/wrpa/wrpa. and.335.Protection..of..Part.May.Island.gov/legis/laws/mgl/21i-1. New.Associates.Environmental.NJ:. State.ME:.of. December...2003.Protection.Commission.Environmental. U. State..nh.Act.. Overview...Use.Protection... Reduction.Planning.III. http://des.1989.ri.08 Progress Reports.Minnesota Statutes 115D. Massachusetts.Environmental..c.Legislature.. Environmental. of...of.21I. Toxics.Administrative.gov/organization/commissioner/p2au/pps/ppp/.Research..2009). About.CA:.16.of.Business.Waste.(c) Plan and Summary. The.Office.Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction Pollution Prevention (P2) Planning Guidebook. Working to Make Massachusetts Safer for Everyone. New.Bureau..Regulations.235. Toxics Use and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act..Use.Pollution.Trenton.Prevention:.edu/prevention/index.2004.Austin.Reduction. Boston.14.of.Pollution.Pollution.Protection.of...July.epa..S.the.Planning.California.Reduction.the.Paul. Pollution.2009).gov/opptintr/p2home/pubs/casestudies/azmandatoryp2. Hampshire.30). State. Appropriations.A..on..Act.Department.Department.Report.Laws.Office. Chapter 26.Department.P39724.December.About..16..2009..htm.Planning.Rhode...of. Toxics..Protection.Statutes. (accessed.16.Environmental.1991. Department.in..Pollution.of..tx.and.Trenton...New.CA:..Revisor... 1991.Congress. iowadnr. Augusta.14).mass..Office.December.California.Bill.Quality.Revisor.htm.4.New.. December.of.Massachusetts.2220-L.the.Toxics...Texas..MN.Office.State.of..Pollution.and.2006. Minnesota.2002...Prevention.Commission.Administrative. New. 2009a. Hazardous Waste Source Reduction and Management Review.2003.Assistance.Environmental.15... Sacramento.Reduction.Agency.(accessed.Quality.http://mntap. Waste.30.31..Prevention.1996. Assembly.http://www. Hazardous.2005. State.Arizona.of. Superfund...of.Secretary.2005.the.Reduction.of.Jersey.... Program.Natural.Pollution.(accessed.Quality.Jersey.mass.Law. http://www.2006.dem.2009).htm.Office..(SARA).New. December..2009).http://www.Review.Prevention.Statutes. Act.(Senate.Massachusetts. Environmental.htm.html..http://www.and. 1986..Protection.of.Section.. 2005 Toxics Use Reporting Instructions.Environmental. Committee.of. Massachusetts.of...313.. Sacramento. Services.Source.Lowell.and..Chapter.December.US. Pollution Prevention Act.gov/programs/ benviron/assist/pollut.Jersey. (accessed.Minimization. Hampshire.NJ.

Toxics.Ecology.of. Washington. Washington.2006). Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program.. http://www.Pollution.2006). State.gov/programs/hwtr/p2/p3.. TurboWaste. Washington.2006).Olympia.(accessed.2006).2006b.October. https://fortress.Number.. http://apps. 173-307. through..31.Hazardous.. State..Guide..aspx?cite=173–307.Ecology.May.State.State. Dangerous.October..State.ecy. Progress Report for 2001 through 2003.2000. 2000..Reduction.(accessed.. Washington.Department.Department.gov/programs/hwtr/P2/p3additional.Annual.leg.Ecology.Reducing Toxics in Washington.Planning.Program.(accessed.Washington. ecy.(accessed..2006a.of.2010)..Waste. 4.Department.State.gov/programs/hwtr/p2/whatisp2.31. Ecology.State.of.aspx.http://www. Chapter.. Form. Report.95-400..Pollution.... ... Pollution.EPA..Publication.gov/WAC/default. ecy...Department. Washington.6.2001... Publication. Washington. Legislature.Net.WA.Pollution Prevention Planning 213 Washington.Prevention.Number.Pollution.html. 2010.wa..WA.html.Olympia.wa.(accessed.Ecology Information Document: Cost Analysis for Pollution Prevention.of. Plans.Prevention. WAC.2005.November.html.gov/ecy/turbowaste/Login/ Splash.06-04-009.Prevention.31.. Department.Ecology.. of.State.wa.Waste.23..October.wa. Prevention.and..http://www.in. accessible..wa...

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CA.State...njme. Pollution.Olympia.Program..Hazardous Waste Shoptalk—A Publication for Hazardous Waste Generators.... May.1989.. Project.2003. Toxics Use and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act.... and..of. Findings.(c) Plan and Summary..ecy.. State.November.htm....WA:.rutgers.January. PowerPoint.Substances. and.1989..No. Protection.for..mass.MA.Technical. Washington..1991..Senate.2009).Publication..wa. Vicklund. Washington. 2006.Technology..Laws. Agency.2005.and..Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction Pollution Prevention (P2) Planning Guidebook.gov/lean/index.cees..21..Environmental.. 2006.Rossi. 2002.Institute. Revised. Augusta.2006.for.Environmental.PowerPoint.Ecology. http:// www. Guidance Manual for Complying with the Hazardous Waste Reduction and Management Review Act of 1989. Environmental.California. Environment. Manufacturing.Department. 2009.2. Olympia.. University. State. J. Sacramento.. Manufacturing.the.Protection.(enacted. Environment.Toxic.. Toxics..Chapter 31... Ecology.. Efficiency.and.of. Pollution Prevention Act.for..2006). Washington.Olympia. .21I. Excellence.... Manufacturing..Bureau.23.Statutes..WA:. Engineering. the... Committee. (TREE). Number.. of.no.No.Lowell.. Technical.org/default.Use. Augusta..2004.Ecology.. of.January.CA.State.(accessed.. of.Jersey. http://www. Services.. 1991. 2010. Department.Environmental.TREE. Hazard.Massachusetts. Act.(accessed. Reduction.edu/njtap/aboutp2.of.of.. Services..August.. http://www. Washington..(accessed. Advisory.Title 38.(accessed. Technology.1995.. 07-04-033. and.Assistance.2009).Prevention. New. Geiser.Value!..23. Use.P2.2006.of. Resources.of.. Recommendations.Olympia. Report..State.WA.21.Prevention.. Agency.. Manufacturing...November.htm. Assembly... http:// www. Final..Proposition 65 in Plain Language.M..for. Coleman. Solutions.of.CA..Maine.edu. Ecology.Washington..September. Massachusetts. Washington. Project.In-depth.Massachusetts.. December.2006. NJME. Publication..Department.2009)..May.Earth.amended..Maine. Sacramento. of.About.epa..2.c. Publication. of.Department.Revisor.Olympia. Ltd.Reduction. Toxics....2009). Environmental. Assembly.Publication. Resources.2006.State. http://www.. for. State.. Washington.2009).wamfg.... §67100.of. and.Prevention. Environment. Lean..2002. Center.Centre..presentation...11. Technical. for.Boston.. 2005 Toxics Use Reporting Instructions...University.2004.Summit.Great.the.Washington.gov/programs/hwtr/shoptalkonline/2006_spring_summer/free_lean_ mfg.S. Hazardous Waste Source Reduction and Management Review.235.for. Toxics.of...Sacramento. H. Jersey. Environmental.Pollution.Environmental.K. New...L. 2008..Agency. http://www.08-04-029. Efficiency.of..of.Pollution.Project:.Industrial.Brazilian.a.Protection.14. Massachusetts. Health...Waste.TURI Overview: Working to Make Massachusetts Safer for Everyone.Team..Ecology. Washington.gov/legis/laws/mgl/21i-1. Prevention.of.. Reduction. and.of.No.4. the.Team.Northwest. State.WA.. Department.Advanced. Appropriations.presentation.Lowell:. Assessment. California.Maine.Department... Energy. Article 1.No. U.Office.Design.of.the. Lowell:. for... Programs.2220-L. Office. Lean.html.. General.of.Olympia.WA. Systems.Protection.... Committee.. State. Lowell.Conservation.3.State..00-04-021. Service..Environment.WA..Focus on TREE.Waste Reduction Assessment for Encompass Materials Group. (accessed..Ecology.ME:..2005... Lean. Chapter 26..Department.1999.Statement.About.. Development.njit. State.Chapter.2003. Protection. for. Waste Minimization.Department.Control. (TREE).04-04-003. Engineering.ME.2008..Massachusetts.Toxics Chemical Management in Massachusetts: The Second Report on Further Chemical Restriction Policies.Lean.htm.(accessed..htm.Legislature..Department.Vol.226 Toxic Chemicals BiBliography California.2009).Office.

Engineering...Consulting.Department..State.September. Services..November. Efficiency.Environment.Manufacturing. Washington.http://www.Project.2006..06-04-024.ecy..Team.. Resources. Washington’s.Publication. (TREE).Ltd.. Resources.Point. . Department. Number.Environmental. Washington.Ecology.TREE.gov/programs/hwtr/TREE/index. for..WA.and.of. html.Center.Power.. and.2006.Olympia. 2006. State..(accessed.Services.7.. Technical. Ecology. Ecology.Associates. State.wa.11. of.2009).Lean and Environment Case Study: Canyon Creek Cabinet Company.. Prevention..Presentation.Washington.. Department.Technical Assistance 227 Washington. Manufacturing. Washington.Ross. Pollution.Team.and. of.Lean.and.and..

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permit.achieving.is.the.a..discharge.to. “command-andcontrol.administrative.that. to.of.achieve.how.these. the.. approach.were. ompared.discharger. approach.ozone-depleting..for.a.15 Market-Based Approaches to Environmental Protection introduction Initially.permitted..eliminating. is. attainment.This. discharger. of.others. to.banned.permit.criminal. .have.this. absorb. level.below.individual. and..accepted.no.permit.the.level.its.determine..approach. it.analysis. of.pollution. but. most.these.area. efficient.discharges. may. protection.recent.reviews.pollution.then.also.threaten.not.overall..equitably.the..been..each.was.level. on.local.to. determine. excessive.of.massive.reducing.penalty. requires.an.effort.Silent Spring.as.pollution. with.Carson’s. efficient.there.is.be.the.whereas. protection.on..the.discharge..they.among.discharge. environmental. command Without control In.approaches.a.may.important.book.there. programs.for.by.is.the..chemicals.toxic.chemical.limit.aimed.taken. level. goal.permits. harm.achieve.achieved. without.or.limit.of.raptors.resources.1962.use.barely. resources.This.of. what. the.with..acceptable.permit.strategy. limit. an.might.there.chemicals. Perversely.exceeding..missing.such.considerable. were.permitted.additional.how.subject.level.banning.as.to.market-based.. this..to.found.limit..utilization.of.any.Some. a.protection.of.of..is.for.to.environmental.is.dischargers. reproduction.was... limit.up. not. dischargers.likewise.pollutant.each.bioaccumulate.a. ollution.An.to..of. apply.dischargers.limit. assumes.penalty.the. can.a.through.bureaucracy. 229 . This. based.in. acceptable.considered.unacceptable. ” p the..first.may.approaches.evolved.much. .of.a. takes. considerable.reward.allocated.whereas.failure.once.publicized. c If..allocated.police.individual.little.program.no.the.were.or.and. first.There.alternative.a.to.the.achieve.Discharges.require. causing.violations. that.More.the..and.as.penalty.for.It.This.permit. In.lower. the.incentive.to.second.for.no.chlorofluorocarbons.to.use.. each.the. achieve. enacted.each. level. its.process.money.given. to.allocation.or.have.and... pollutants.command-and-control. lead.environmental. addition.various.and.a.determined. could.DDT.was.which.to.an.a.through. as. environment.years.regulations.permitted.performed. In.Rachel.. of.lowering.chapter. is.dischargers.was.at.effort.to. (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane).

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or.2-Tetrafluoroethane Ethylene Oxide Hexachlorobenzene Benzene Fomesafen Vinyl Chloride Hydrazine Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds Barium and Barium Compounds Chlorine Acetaldehyde Hydrochloric Acid 2-Nitropropane Propylene Oxide 0.threshold.hexavalent..0.g.1..dioxin. even.programs.than.[REACH]).in.For. is.In.order.1 1 10 100 2007 TRI Release Impacts (millions of effective toxic doses per capita) 239 figurE 16. establish.TRI. not. of.component.concentration.0001 0. to.European. relative.the.chemical.. factors.2007.in.by. report..and.be. It..need.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use Chromium and Chromium Compounds Cobalt and Cobalt Compounds Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds Lead and Lead Compounds Polychlorinated Biphenyls Mercury and Mercury Compounds Acrylamide Acrylonitrile 1.. hemicals.of.such.concentration.percent.it.lower. toxic.a. threshold.limit.(e.make.in. reporting.2-Tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.reporting.not.toxic....is.be.of.compounds. .less.to.1.Authorization.chromium.reported.sense. feasible. trace.would.Chemicals. concentrations.00001 0.Registration. if.or.does.3-Butadiene Acrolein Manganese and Manganese Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds Nickel and Nickel Compounds Aluminum Formaldehyde Tetrachloroethylene 1-Chloro-1. toxicity. .Evaluation. based.present.as.01 0. concentration.1.extremely.weight.2..other.releases. c . for.It. on. to.1.001 0.a.for.would..example.. the. and. necessary. on.1 Analysis..

relationships..relationships. a.relative.effect.10.ppm.(1..beyond.on. 0..of.any.and.the.report.are.proposed.need..are.a...of.in.structure-activity.have. with. concentration.product...be.(QSARs). used.to. reporting.01.that.1.or..changes.input.doses/capita-lb.statistical.(1.of. States.structure-activity.could.01. chemical.toxicity. which. between.an.data..data.After.set.percent).set.lower. that..on. a. One.. TCE.1.models.potential..higher.this.chemical..person.ETF. threshold..000.could.U. chEmical toxicity rating In.established. with.01 doses 3 total doses × × 306.a.a.to.reporting.000.chemical. issues.course.showed.the.mathematic.240 Toxic Chemicals Based.effect. t .relationships.concentration..of.that.00E-02.threshold.chemicals.there.so.in.is. as..predictive.exposed.year.equal. in.1.type.total.based.similar. shown.compound. reporting.use.other.to.was.capita.three..concentration.not.on. structure.persistence.that.for..time.be. lack..lb.and..information. than.the.per.doses.changes..total.(ppm). also.every.to.toxic.0.corresponding.which.million.be.taken.product.could.to. Specifically.on. Table  16.in.acceptable.or.ongoing.reporting.resulting. a. quantitatively.specifically.of.00E-02). ETFs.type. (1.by. the. 1..chemicals..chemical.desirable.on..01 doses/capita-lb.an. doses/capita-lb. as.as.that..that.the.developed.occur.and.is.ppm.with. chemical. ETFs.represent.the.of.significant.process.those.000 capita-lb yr .place.to.United.we.Jaworska.the.and.tools..the.toxicity. and.program.new.exposure.at.Chapter.ppm.the.in.use.evaluate. chemical.year.an.the.derived.have.a.processes.TCA.that.adverse.(TCA).toxicity.capita. doses/capita-lb.10.chemicals. vapor.of.some.ETFs.thresholds.application.is.not..ppm.threshold.quantitative.1.utilized.or..essence..be. ppm.if.toxic.book.the. trichloroethane.at.. 1.of.composition. ETFs.(TCE).ETFs. correlated.the.the. in.1.would.than.doses.00E-03.conversion.to.00E-02).toxicity.times.quantitative.currently. For.to.for.that.in. as.quantitative.306..was.at.to.the.could.were.and.trichloroethylene.in.the.. TCE.reporting.TRI.million. to.in.of..activity.for.was.people).with.limit.information.More.toxic.had.an.option.TCA.modify.to.10.total. will.issues.do.for.with.would.(on.there.this. higher.book.for.greater.chemicals.to. degreasers.biological.basis).to.will.was. in.in.concentration.Therefore.reporting.ETFs. defined.to.ETFs.toxicity.annual.There.data).for..developed..replace. is.correlating.than. replaced.000 capita = 1.due.individual.result. facilities. In.concentration.used. toxic.adverse.and.lower.a. contains.reactivity.Consequently.of..of.in.lb.per.new.set. .a.concentration.toxic.. bioconcentration.chemicals.in.has.on.structure-property.ETF.identified.the.those.S.1.000.set.developed.when.program.An..(represent.used.650-plus.analyze..values.chemical.ongoing.need.the.example.1.was.having.highest.available.ETF.effort.part.have.over. 0.single.or.chemicals.application. such.(Nikolova.(assuming.of.a.person.need.ETFs.of.2004).product..set..of.little.available.an.and.of.For.QSAR. process.a.doses/capita-lb. the..targeted.level.QSARs.list. particularly.00E-05.we..from..that.this. this.chemicals.1.the.had.an. hreshold. for. exposed. a.was.this.warrants.at.the.progressively.At.collect.data.less.we.be 1 lb toxic chemical 0.If.mobility.developed.an.limit.a.

10% 0.04E–08 3.ppm 1% 1% 1% 10.2-Dichlorobenzene 1.3-Dichloro-1.1-Dimethyl.10% 1% 1% 1% 0.1.2..2-Trichloroethane 1.2.ppm 100.2-Tetrachloro-2-fluoroethane.1.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.7-triaza-1-azoniaadamantane.10% 10.2′.64E–05 1.92E–02 6.07E–03 1.26E–05 — — 7.2-Tetrachloro-1-fluoroethane 1.1′-Biphenyl)-4.2-Dichloroethane 1.2-Butylene.3.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.1.5.1.1.(Hcfc-121a) 1.6.2-Dibromoethane 1.1-Trifluoro-2.2-trifluoroethane 1.1-Dichloroethylene 1.1.82E–10 6.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 10.1 proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical (1.71E–04 4.1.3-Dichloropropene.2.3-Butadiene 1.ppm 1% 1% 1% 0.21E–09 — — 5.3-Trichloropropane 1.ppm 1% 1% 0.(Dbcp) 1.ppm 0.34E–08 1.58E–04 — — 1.1-difluoroethane 1.2-Dichloroethylene 1.10% 10.3-pentafluoropropane 1.hydrazine 1.4-Dioxane 1-Bromo-1-(bromomethyl)-1.2-Dichloro-1.17E–06 4.chloride 1.oxide 1.2-Diphenylhydrazine 1.1.1-Trichloroethane 1.80E–05 6.2.2.4-Dichloro-2-butene 1.ppm 1% 1% 0.52E–05 2.51E–03 1.2.1′-Bi(ethylene.19E–05 1.75E–05 6.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.6′-Tetrabromo-4.12E–03 — — 3.10% 0.2-dichloroethane 1.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 241 taBlE 16.3′-dimethyl1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane 1.79E–05 — 2.1-difluoroethane 2.ppm 1% 100.1′-Methylenebis(4-isocyanatobenzene) 1.2.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.02E–06 8.58E–03 4.4-Dichlorobenzene 1.4′-isopropylidenediphenol 2.oxide) 1.3-propanedicarbonitrile 1-Chloro-1.10% 0.10% 1% 0.20E–05 2.2.ppm 1% 1% 1% continued .1.70E–05 4.1.1.59E–08 2.1-Dichloroethane 1.2-tetrafluoroethane 1-Chloro-1.3-Dichlorobenzene 1.2-Dichloropropane 1.4′-diamine.10% 1% 1.08E–06 3.(mixed.05E–08 7.2-Dichloro-1.43E–08 reporting threshold 100.51E–04 — — 7.3-Dichloropropene Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 5.isomers) 1.32E–08 2.49E–07 6.1.

10% 1% 1% 0.4-D.17E–09 2.ester 2.88E–07 1.33E–04 0.ppm 0.6-Trichlorophenol 2.56E–07 7.6-Trinitrophenol 2.78E–05 1.ester 2.23E–05 1.dihydrochloride 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene 3-Chloropropionitrile 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.Butoxyethyl.ester 2.4-D.56E–07 7.1.53E–06 1.4.09E–05 9.83E–05 — 1.Sodium.18E–03 5.2.salt 2.4-D 2.10% 1% 1% 0.68E–07 4.Butyl.3′-Dichlorobenzidine 3.09E–04 4.34E–08 8.10% 100.ppm 100.4-D.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% .2-Ethylhexyl.85E–09 9.00E+00 2.10% 10.62E–09 1.2-pentafluoropropane 3.3-Dichloro-1.4-Diaminoanisole 2.10% 1% 0.79E–03 1.3-butadiene 2-Chloro-1.49E–03 4.6-Xylidine 2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-Aminonaphthalene 2-Chlor-1.dihydrochloride 3.1-trifluoroethane 2-Chloroacetophenone 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 2-Methyllactonitrile 2-Methylpyridine 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitropropane 2-Phenylphenol 3.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 2.24E–05 3.ether 4.ppm 1% 1% 10.4-Dimethylphenol 2.5-Trichlorophenol 2.97E–08 1.4-Diaminotoluene 2.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.sulfate 3.4-Db 2.ppm 1% 100.1.ppm 1% 1% 0.67E–05 1.4-D.43E–05 7.10% 1% 1% 10.4.2-tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.4.10% 1% 10.1.49E–03 8.77E–08 5.1.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.242 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.05E–05 1.59E–09 1.4-Dichlorophenol 2.86E–08 9.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical 2.27E–10 reporting threshold 1% 0.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.13E–05 — 1.6-Dinitrotoluene 2.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.4-Dinitrophenol 2.16E–08 6.42E–07 — 1.45E–08 — 1.25E–06 1.butylcarbamate 4.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine 3.ppm 1% 0.10% 0.10% 1% 0.ppm 1% 1% 1% 0.77E–05 1.1.14E–04 2.

chloride alpha-Naphthylamine Aluminum Aluminum.ppm 1% 1% 10.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 4.4′-Methylenebis(N.49E–10 3.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.acid Acrylonitrile Alachlor Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl.N-dimethyl)benzenamine 4.86E–06 7.43E–05 1.40E–04 1.37E–03 4.nitrate.04E–06 6.(solution) Aniline Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 1.18E–04 9.(fibrous.ppm 0.75E–06 3.phosphide Ametryn Amitraz Amitrole Ammonia Ammonium.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical 4.10% 100.10% continued .28E–05 — 3.87E–06 1.48E–08 2.91E–05 reporting threshold 100.65E–08 2.ppm 1% 1% 0.00E–08 8.08E–04 1.81E–03 2.16E–06 1.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 10.6-Dinitro-O-cresol 4-Aminoazobenzene 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-Nitrophenol 5-Nitro-O-anisidine 5-Nitro-O-toluidine Abamectin Acephate Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acifluorfen.salt Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.96E–03 5.87E–10 — — 2.(solution) Ammonium.ppm 10..alcohol Allyl.24E–07 5.09E–04 2.25E–07 1.29E–05 2.ppm 1% 0.ppm 100.22E–03 1.71E–06 2.92E–04 1.33E–05 2.10E–07 1.10% 100.4′-Methylenedianiline 4.86E–08 4.62E–06 6.sulfate.72E–05 7.ppm 1% 1% 10.ppm 1% 100.forms) Aluminum.ppm 0.65E–07 2.54E–09 4.amine Allyl.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 243 taBlE 16.10% 1% 0.89E–06 3.09E–10 1.62E–07 7.sodium.oxide.

15E–10 1.benzyl.70E–12 2.10% 1% 100.and.adipate Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(chloromethyl).phthalate Butyraldehyde Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 6.13E–08 5.peroxide Benzyl.ether Bis(2-ethylhexyl).chloride Benzoyl.acrylate Butyl.40E–06 1.32E–04 1.antimony.ppm 1% 100.55E–05 1.30E–13 1.trichloride Boron.32E–09 1.244 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.08E–06 — 3.trichloride Benzoyl.and.21E–07 2.compounds Asbestos.octanoate Brucine Butyl.barium.arsenic.34E–10 1.04E–11 1.00E–11 reporting threshold 1% 1% 10.compounds Bifenthrin Biphenyl Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl).74E–06 — 4.trifluoride Bromacil Bromine Bromochlorodifluoromethane Bromotrifluoromethane Bromoxynil Bromoxynil.55E–11 7.19E–03 3.beryllium.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Anthracene Antimony.14E–08 6.40E–07 6.compounds Arsenic.76E–05 3.49E–08 3.18E–04 6.80E–10 1.67E–09 1.and.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.54E–08 3.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% .06E–10 2.compounds Bendiocarb Benfluralin Benomyl Benzal.chloride Beryllium.(friable) Atrazine Auramine Barium.60E–10 — 8.27E–02 2.ppm 1% 1% 0.10% 1.20E–05 1.13E–04 1.chloride Benzene Benzidine Benzo(Ghi)perylene Benzoic.ether Bis(tributyltin).10% 100.oxide Boron.34E–08 — 2.and.71E–07 — 1.13E–10 5.ppm 1% 1% 0.73E–11 6.06E–09 2.ether Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane Bis(2-chloroethyl).36E–02 2.ppm 1% 1% 1.

ppm 1% 1% continued .114 C.39E–07 1.63E–11 9.69E–06 1.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical C.15 C.72E–10 4.direct.83E–05 3..04E–11 reporting threshold 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 100..ppm 1% 1% 10.07E–08 1.10% 0.and.cyanamide Camphechlor Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Carbon.12E–07 1.I.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 100.I.96E–12 1.basic.red..58E–03 1.yellow.10% 1% 1% 0.22E–06 3.food.ether Chlorophenols Chloropicrin Chlorotetrafluoroethane Chlorothalonil Chlorotrifluoromethane Etf (doses/ capita-lb) — — — 2.28E–10 2.sulfide Carboxin Catechol Chloramben Chlordane Chlorendic.I..I.10% 1% 10.7 C.compounds Calcium.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 245 taBlE 16.methyl.56E–12 1.3 Cadmium.disperse..tetrachloride Carbonyl.15E–08 9.I.acid.ppm 1% 10.I.54E–10 2.11E–04 — 6.acid Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzilate Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane Chloromethyl.orange.green.I.10E–03 8.ethyl Chlorine Chlorine.blue.15E–08 9.I....3 C.yellow.14 C.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.26E–10 4.acid Chlorimuron.solvent.46E–12 7.dioxide Chloroacetic.red.basic.10% 1% 1% 0.21E–04 7.30E–05 2.solvent.88E–09 8.cadmium.12E–05 1.solvent.red.52E–05 2..61E–09 1.218 C.80E–03 1.disulfide Carbon.yellow.74E–09 1.1 C.41E–07 4.39E–14 — — — — — 5.4 C.I.

isomers) Crotonaldehyde Cumene Cumene.63E–05 3.ppm 1.19E–08 8.10% 1% .35E–07 — — 3.84E–13 7.salt Decabromodiphenyl.03E–08 1.28E–06 — 1.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Chlorpyrifos.36E–09 3.30E–08 1.phthalate Dicamba Dichloran Dichlorobenzene.87E–10 3.14E–04 1.sodium.32E–07 4.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.68E–12 9.03E–12 4.62E–09 — 1.2402) Dibutyl.78E–10 6.33E–13 1.isomers) Diazinon Dibenzofuran Dibromotetrafluoroethane.48E–05 — 1.ppm 1% 1% 1% 100.isomers) Dichlorobromomethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorofluoromethane Dichloromethane Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.47E–10 4.(mixed.copper.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0..or.33E–16 1.74E–08 2.(Halon.ppm 1% 1% 1% 0..methyl Chlorsulfuron Chromium.37E–02 3.hydroperoxide Cupferron Cyanazine Cyanide.17E–09 — 3.17E+00 6.26E–09 3.50E–09 3.compounds Creosotes Cresol.98E–05 4.(mixed.compounds.50E–06 1.87E–07 3.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.84E–13 3.(fumes.dust) Copper.54E–08 1.(mixed.oxide Desmedipham Diallate Diaminotoluene.(Cfc-114) Dichlorotrifluoroethane Dichlorpentafluoro-propane Dichlorvos Dicofol Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 1.55E–10 3.compounds Cycloate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyfluthrin Cyhalothrin Dazomet Dazomet.246 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.02E–05 — reporting threshold 1% 1% 1.hexavalent Cobalt.77E–05 1.and.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.cobalt.and.

01E–06 — 3.73E–09 2.11E–06 1.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 247 taBlE 16.isocinchomeronate Direct.chloroformate Ethyl.01E–09 reporting threshold 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.dioxin-like.dipropylthiocarbamate Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene.dicamba Dimethylcarbamoyl.19E–03 5.80E–02 3.50E–10 — 2.82E–12 — 5.ppm 1% 1% 1% 10.45E–10 4.monoethyl.compounds Diphenylamine Dipotassium.cyanodithioimidocarbonate Dithiobiuret Diuron Dodine D-trans-Allethrin Epichlorohydrin Ethoprop Ethyl.black.10E–06 — 5.phthalate Diethyl.chloride Dinitrobutyl.sulfate Dimethylamine Dimethylamine.13E–08 1.chlorothiophosphate Dimethyl.32E–09 1.28E–07 2.sulfate Diflubenzuron Diglycidyl.81E–09 1.acrylate Ethyl.glycol.(mixed.38 Disodium.isomers) Dinocap Di-N-propylnitrosamine Dioxin.15E–03 — — 7.and.28E–07 1.10% 1% 10.ppm 1.32E–09 2.90E–08 — 2.15E–10 — 4.60E–06 — 5.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% continued .ether Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 1.82E–05 — 1.(Dgre) Dihydrosafrole Diisocyanates Dimethipin Dimethoate Dimethyl.glycol Ethylene.resorcinol.18E–13 5.06E–07 — 1.phenol Dinitrotoluene.76E–08 — 2.74E–09 7.ether.endothall Dipropyl.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine Diethyl.phthalate Dimethyl.32E–12 1.99E–10 4.

65E–09 — — — 1.37E–10 8.75E–04 1.acid.79E–10 1.10% 1% 1% 100.cyanide Hydroquinone Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 1.ppm 10.ppm 0.06E–03 — 4.acid.(Hcp) Hexamethylphosphoramide Hexazinone Hydramethylnon Hydrazine Hydrazine.09E–03 2.esters Ethyleneimine Famphur Fenarimol Fenbutatin.salts.ppm 1% 1% 1% 0.113 gamma-Lindane Glycol.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 10.ppm 1% 0.00E+00 7.58E–06 1.ppm 1% 1.acid Hydrofluoric.67E–07 5.19E–03 7.23E–07 5..ether Ethylene.38E–09 7.oxide Ethylene.04E–07 9..acid Hydrogen.46E–07 6.3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethane Hexachlorophene.53E–03 3.sulfate Hydrochloric.46E–06 3.53E–05 5.19E–03 1.ppm 10.86E–02 3.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 10.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Ethylene.sodium.ppm 10.78E–03 0.ppm 1% 1% 1% 10.monomethyl.248 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.57E–03 4.acid Freon.47E–08 2.thiourea Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.and.oxide Fenoxycarb Fenpropathrin Fenthion Fenvalerate Fluazifop-butyl Fluometuron Fluorine Fluoroacetic.salt Fluorouracil Fluvalinate Folpet Fomesafen Formaldehyde Formic.34E–07 4.65E–09 1.81E–06 — 4.47E–05 1.77E–06 — — — 8.glycol.ethers Heptachlor Hexachloro-1..00E–12 7.10% 10.84E–08 1.65E–09 5.45E–04 4.10% .47E–05 reporting threshold 1% 100.

ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 10.39E–09 1.12E–08 reporting threshold 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 100.49E–02 2.12E–06 — 3.sodium Methanamine.and.36E–03 — 1.mercury.81E–07 1.pentacarbonyl Isobutyraldehyde Isodrin Isofenphos Isopropyl.and.ketone Methyl.alcohol Isosafrole Lactofen Lead.08E–09 4.isobutyl.and.acrylate Methyl.00E–06 2.51E–07 2.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 249 taBlE 16.compounds Linuron Lithium.anhydride Malononitrile Maneb Manganese.10E–09 2.lead.ketone Methyl.91E–08 8.96E–10 3.32E–08 1.79E–08 6.isothiocyanate Methyl.94E–09 5.67E–08 4.ether Methylene.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.ppm 1% 1% 0.compounds M-Cresol M-Dinitrobenzene Mecoprop Mercury.12E–07 2.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1.manganese.52E–07 2.carbonate Malathion Maleic.23E–05 1.iodide Methyl.tert-butyl.72E–07 5.55E–03 5..14E–06 — 3.chlorocarbonate Methyl.42E–10 1.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Iron.isocyanate Methyl.97E–09 4.76E–11 1.compounds Merphos Methacrylonitrile Metham.60E–04 2.77E–11 — 6.16E–10 3.47E–07 2.parathion Methyl.methacrylate Methyl.ethyl.bromide Methyl.10% 1% 1% 1% 10.15E–05 1.bromide Etf (doses/ capita-lb) — — — — 8.16E–09 9.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% continued .hydrazine Methyl.N-methyl-N-nitroso Methanol Methoxone Methoxychlor Methyl.

and.phthalate N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea N-Hexane Nickel.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% .18E–10 6.19E–10 — 2.ppm 1% 0.04E–03 2.68E–06 — 6.45E–07 3.64E–08 3.21E–06 — 2.18E–10 — 5.13E–09 0.or.65E–08 — 6.N-Dimethylaniline N.dust) Nicotine.nickel.alcohol N-Dioctyl.00E+00 — 7.81E–08 — — 3.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Metribuzin Michler’s.sodium Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 9.06E–08 5.15E–06 2.27E–03 6.66E–08 2.salts Nitrapyrin Nitrate.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 10.acid Nitrobenzene Nitrofen Nitroglycerin N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Methylolacrylamide N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosopiperidine Norflurazon O-Anisidine O-Cresol O-Dinitrobenzene O-Phenylenediamine O-Phenylphenate..compounds Nitric.ppm 1.acid Nitrilotriacetic.82E–10 1.98E–10 2.06E–02 7.250 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.71E–07 — 3.81E–02 3.52E–10 6.73E–04 2.01E–09 1.ppm 1% 1% 1.compounds.16E–06 6.22E–03 6.ppm 100.trioxide Monochloropentafluoroethane M-Phenylenediamine M-Xylene Myclobutanil N.84E–06 — reporting threshold 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 10.ppm 10.N-Dimethylformamide Nabam Naled Naphthalene N-Butyl.50E–05 — — 1.(fumes.ketone Molinate Molybdenum.and.

acid Phthalic.74E–08 2.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 251 taBlE 16.30E–07 2.methyl Oxydiazon Oxyfluorfen O-Xylene Ozone P-Anisidine Paraldehyde Paraquat Parathion P-Chloroaniline P-Cresidine P-Cresol P-Dinitrobenzene Pebulate Pendimethalin Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachlorophenol Peracetic.95E–05 6.97E–09 3.78E–08 9.10E–05 1.66E–09 — — 9.(T-4) O-Toluidine O-Toluidine.16E–08 3.58E–09 1.81E–06 6.(yellow.15E–06 — — 4.41E–08 5.03E–05 — 1.anhydride Picloram Piperonyl.69E–10 — 1.43E–05 — 8.hydrochloride Oxydemeton.white) Phospohoric.32E–09 — 2.oxide.31E–08 8.16E–06 reporting threshold 1% 1% 0.methyl P-Nitroaniline P-Nitrosodiphenylamine Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 2.32E–09 1.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.mercaptan Permethrin Phenanthrene Phenol Phenothrin Phenytoin Phosgene Phosphine Phosphorus.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Oryzalin Osmium.acid Perchloromethyl.10% 0.25E–05 9.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.butoxide Pirimiphos.27E–09 — 9.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% continued .15E–10 — 1.23E–05 — 1.39E–06 2.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.14E–08 4.Oso4.31E–08 2.05E–07 6.or.36E–09 6.10% 1% 1% 1% 0.

aromatic.dimethyldithiocarbamate Potassium.65E–10 3.alkanes.61E–10 3.compounds Sethoxydim Silver.alcohol Selenium.87E–09 1.10% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% .S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Saccharin Safrole sec-Butyl.10% 1% 0.bromate Potassium.ppm 1% 0.35E–10 4.alcohol Propetamphos Propiconazole Propionaldehyde Propoxur Propylene Propylene.biphenyls Polycyclic.252 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.azide Sodium.39E–09 — 1.18E–12 2.dicamba Sodium.ppm 1% 1% 1% 100.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Polychlorinated.56E–05 — 8.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 100.08E–07 6.49E–09 — 1.28E–08 2.S.and.silver.10E–07 2.53E–07 1.52E–05 1.04E–10 8.dimethyldithiocarbamate Etf (doses/ capita-lb) 9.sultone Propanil Propargite Propargyl.and.10% 1% 1% 0.68E–07 1.21E–05 7.43E–10 2.compounds Potassium.10E–10 — 1.N-methyldithiocarbamate P-Phenylenediamine Profenofos Prometryn Pronamide Propachlor Propane.selenium.23E–04 — 4.07E–08 — reporting threshold 1% 1.29E–09 4.oxide Propyleneimine P-Xylene Pyridine Quinoline Quinone Quintozene Quizalofop-ethyl Resmethrin S.40E–05 4.53E–07 1.58E–07 — 1.63E–07 — — — 4.(C10-C13) Polychlorinated.10% 1% 1% 0.compounds Simazine Sodium.56E–08 5.30E–02 9.00E–04 — 3.78E–08 3.

00E–05 2.99E–07 2.24E–04 9.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.alcohol Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachlorvinphos Tetracycline.acid Sulfuryl.10% 1% 0.(mixed.55E–10 6.08E–06 2.46E–10 1.16E–10 2.93E–09 1.dioxide Titanium.methyl Tribromomethane Tributyltin.and.10% 1% 1% 100.diisocyanate.nitrite Strychnine Styrene Styrene.hydroxide.thallium.32E–08 4.hydrochloride Tetramethrin Thallium.02E–07 — — 5.tetrachloride Toluene Toluene.68E–05 4.acid tert-Butyl.88E–10 — 1.4-Dichloro-2-Butene Triadimefon Triallate Tribenuron.compounds Thiabendazole Thioacetamide Thiobencarb Thiodicarb Thiophanate-methyl Thiosemicarbazide Thiourea Thiram Thorium.74E–10 — 5.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% continued .22E–06 3.81E–09 8.87E–08 1.10% 10.4-diisocyanate Toluene-2.29E–03 3.87E–09 1.3-Dichloropropene trans-1.6-diisocyanate trans-1.90E–04 9.28E–08 — 1.33E–10 3.methacrylate Etf (doses/ capita-lb) — — 2.51E–10 5.oxide Sulfuric.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals chemical Sodium.(solution) Sodium.87E–07 reporting threshold 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 100.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 253 taBlE 16.21E–10 — 2.83E–07 — — 4.fluoride Sulprofos Tebuthiuron Temephos Terbacil Terephthalic.42E–12 — — 5.ppm 1% 1% 0.35E–05 9.isomers) Toluene-2.

254

Toxic Chemicals

taBlE 16.1 (continued) proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for tri chemicals
chemical Trichlorfon Trichloroacetyl.chloride Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane Triclopyr.triethylammonium.salt Triethylamine Trifluralin Triforine Triphenyltin.chloride Triphenyltin.hydroxide Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl).phosphate Trypan.blue Urethane Vanadium.and.vanadium.compounds Vinclozolin Vinyl.acetate Vinyl.bromide Vinyl.chloride Warfarin.and.salts Xylene.(mixed.isomers) Zinc.and.zinc.compounds Zineb Etf (doses/ capita-lb) — — 6.38E–06 2.88E–08 1.45E–09 2.27E–07 3.02E–06 — — — — — — 6.39E–10 4.65E–09 3.48E–09 1.98E–05 3.36E–04 8.04E–09 1.99E–08 1.74E–08 2.32E–09 reporting threshold 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.10% 100.ppm 1% 1% 1% 1%

and.undesirable.biological.activity.of.chemicals.with.numerical.descriptors.representative.of.molecular.physiochemical.properties.or.structure..This.mathematical. expression. can. then. be. used. to. predict. the. biological. response. of. other. chemical. structures..QSARs.are.currently.being.applied.in.areas.that.include.. oxicity.predict tion,.risk.assessments,.and.regulatory.decision.making.(e.g.,.used.in.the.EU.REACH. program). in. addition. to. drug. discovery.. Obtaining. a. good-quality. QSAR. model. depends.on.numerous.factors,.such.as.the.quality.of.biological.data,.the.choice.of. descriptors.and.statistical.methods,.and.validation.of.the.models..QSAR.modeling. should.ultimately.lead.to.statistically.robust.models.capable.of.making.accurate.and. reliable.predictions.of.biological.activities.of.new.compounds. In.addition,.the.Office.of.Pollution.Prevention.and.Toxics.of.the.USEPA.released.a. tool.called.the.analog.identification.methodology.(AIM).in.the.interest.of.promoting. the.use.of.safer.chemical.alternatives.and.promoting.the.design.of.safer.chemicals. (EPA.2009a,.2009b)..Specifically,.AIM.was.developed.to.assist.in.identifying.closely. related.chemical.structures,.or.analogs,.for.which.experimental.toxicity.data.may.be. publicly.available.to.help.determine.the.hazards.of.select.input.chemicals.for.which. toxicity.data.are.not.available.

A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use

255

It.is.not.necessary.that.we.restrict.toxicity.data.to.that.generated.in.the.United. States.. Part. of. the. European. REACH. program. is. to. collect. toxicity. data. from. throughout. the. world. and. evaluate. and. determine. the. most. acceptable. values. for. toxicity.to.use.in.regulating.toxic.chemicals..The.current.U.S..toxicity.data.cover.a. range.of.over.12.orders.of.magnitude..It.is.better.to.have.toxicity.data.that.may.be. off.an.order.of.magnitude.than.to.have.no.values.at.all.and.assume.that.a.substance. is.not.toxic. Another. point. to. consider. is. that. the. existing. TRI. chemicals. list. combines. the. different.forms.of.chemicals.that.have.widely.varying.toxicities..For.instance,.the. category.chromium and chromium compounds.consists.of.three.forms.of.chromium:. hexavalent. chromium,. trivalent. chromium,. and. metallic. or. elemental. chromium.. Hexavalent.chromium.is.a.potent.carcinogen.and.is.made.from.trivalent.chromiumbearing. ores.. With. very. rare. exceptions,. metallic. or. trivalent. chromium. does. not. convert.to.hexavalent.in.the.environment..Trivalent.chromium.is.an.essential.nutrient. and.has.a.much.lower.toxicity..Elemental.chromium.is.nontoxic.and.is.used.in.stainless.steel.and.highly.inert.products..As.another.example,.nickel.and.cobalt.fumes. and. gases. are. carcinogens,. but. the. metal. salts. and. nonaerosolized. metallic. cobalt. and.nickel.are.much.less.toxic..It.would.make.sense.to.provide.use.reporting,.and. efforts.to.reduce.use,.on.hexavalent.chromium.and.gaseous.or.micronized.nickel.or. cadmium..Each.of.the.other.chemicals.that.are.categorized.as.highly.toxic.should. be.evaluated.to.ensure.that.the.toxic.forms,.or.forms.that.can.be.converted.to.toxic. forms,.are.the.forms.that.are.individually.reported.for.use. Lastly,.with.time,.an.additional.ecological.risk.factor.could.be.incorporated.into. our.relative.chemical-specific.toxicity.factors.to.adjust.for.impacts.on.other.species. or.other.associated.environmental.impacts.

chEmical usE rEporting
We.have.noted.that.the.existing.TRI.program.only.requires.reporting.on.releases.of. the.chemicals.to.the.environment,.and.that.this.does.not.account.for.the.exposure. of.workers.to.chemicals.or.inclusion.of.the.chemicals.in.products..Companies.that. report.on.a.chemical.under.the.TRI.program.are.required.to.calculate.use.to.determine.if.they.need.to.calculate.releases.for.each.of.many.potential.emission.points.. Use. calculation. is. inherently. much. easier. with. suppliers. providing. composition. information.on.chemicals.and.purchasing.agents.typically.keeping.extensive.information.on.amounts.of.chemicals.purchased..Use.is.a.simple.matter.of.multiplying. composition.data.by.the.annual.use.of.each.product..Release.calculations.add.to.the. complexity.of.tracking.each.chemical.to.its.point.of.use.and.calculating.release.using. emission.factors.for.each.chemical.and.use..Reporting.on.use.would.require.little. additional.effort.and.still.provide.a.measure.of.all.releases.and.worker.exposure.

puBlic disclosurE
Public. reporting. of. the. data. from. the. TRI. database. has. been. effective. in. spurring.reduction.in.the.release.of.the.reported.chemicals..It.notifies.neighbors.of.the. releases.and.therefore.puts.local.pressure.to.reduce.the.releases..Public.disclosure.

256

Toxic Chemicals

also.highlights.which.companies.are.nationally.known.to.release.toxic.chemicals,. resulting.in.an.unfavorable.image.of.the.products.of.these.companies..Public.disclosure.leads.to.accountability.to.the.public;.that.is,.the.public.can.identify.the.highest. emitters..This.provides.incentive.for.companies.to.reduce.toxic.chemical.use.to.avoid. being.among.the.top.emitters..Publishing.company.successes.of.reduced.releases.of. toxic.chemicals.would.also.generate.favorable.publicity.for.the.companies. Similarly,.if.toxic.chemical.use.or.the.concentrations.of.toxic.chemicals.in.products.are.reported,.there.will.be.pressure.to.reduce..Successful.reduction.efforts.would. generate.favorable.publicity.

toxic chEmical usE fEE
There.are.several.advantages.for.a.toxic.chemical.use.reduction.program.based.on. toxic.chemical.use.fees..First,.the.only.economic.reason.for.selecting.a.particular. chemical. is. the. purchase. price. of. the. chemical.. This. does. not. include. the. downstream.cost.of.the.adverse.health.effects.of.the.chemical.use..By.paying.a.fee.for. use. that. is. based. on. the. effective. toxicity. of. the. chemical,. the. economic. analysis. is.then.based.on.a.better.measure.of.the.total.cost.of.the.chemical,.and.less.costly. chemicals. will. be. favored.. Moreover,. a. fee. approach. will. discourage. the. use. of. chemicals.for.lower-value.uses.or.uses.for.which.there.is.a.less-costly.(purchase.plus. toxic.chemical.use.fee).alternative..This.also.allows.continued.high-value.uses.for. which.there.are.no.safer.alternatives.while.paying.for.the.downstream.impacts..The. result.is.a.free-market.reduction.in.overall.use.of.a.chemical.while.preserving.use. for.higher-value.uses,.that.is,.those.uses.that.are.associated.with.high.socioeconomic. benefits.coupled.with.a.current.lack.of.a.safer.chemical. Finally,. a. toxic. chemical. use. fee. would. have. the. effect. of. reducing. the. overall. exposure. of. the. chemicals. used. without. the. requirement. to. set. individual. limits.. A toxic.chemical.use.fee.is.easier.and.more.efficient.to.administer.than.a.commandand-control.type.of.regulatory.program..Can.you.imagine.the.complexity.of.a.regulatory.agency.determining.what.an.acceptable.level.of.use.would.be.for.each.chemical,. for.each.process,.for.each.company.in.the.United.States? As.the.cost.of.toxic.chemicals.will.be.increased.to.include.the.total.cost.of.using. the.chemicals,.there.will.be.an.economic.incentive.to.develop.lower-toxicity.alternatives.or.processes.that.do.not.require.the.use.of.higher-toxicity.chemicals. Any.toxic.chemical.use.fee.collection.program.should.be.revenue.neutral,.with. fees.collected.used.for.the.following: •. Administration.of.the.program •. Research.on.developing.alternative.chemicals.and.processes.to.reduce.the. use.of.highly.toxic.chemicals •. Grants.or.low-interest.loans.for.companies.to.implement.process.changes. needed.to.reduce.or.eliminate.use.of.toxic.chemicals •. Providing.technical.assistance.to.companies.in.evaluating.or.implementing. projects.to.reduce.use.of.toxic.chemicals •. Funding.of.medical.programs.aimed.at.those.adversely.impacted.by.toxic. chemical.use

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257

Typically,.when.toxic.chemicals.need.to.be.replaced,.not.only.does.the.chemical. need.to.be.replaced.but.also.the.processes.employing.the.chemicals.require.upgrading. to. accommodate. the. process. change.. By. ensuring. that. the. toxic. chemical. use. fee.collection.program.is.revenue.neutral.by.reinvesting.even.a.part.of.the.revenue. collected. into. the. more. proactive. companies,. those. companies. can. implement. the. necessary.upgrades.in.a.way.that.minimizes.the.impacts.of.U.S..competitiveness.in. the.world.market.(i.e.,.allows.for.the.necessary.upgrades.with.the.least.impact.on. additional.costs.having.to.be.passed.on.to.the.end.consumer). Table 16.2.is.a.list.of.one.possible.set.of.toxic.chemical.use.fees.based.on.setting.fees.proportional.to.the.ETFs.(i.e.,.higher.fee.per.pound.of.chemical.for.those. chemicals.with.relatively.higher.toxic.impacts)..We.made.the.following.assumptions,. solely.for.the.purpose.of.proposing.one.way.of.how.a.toxic.chemical.use.fee.system. could.be.established,.but.before.such.a.policy.is.adopted,.a.more.formal.and.rigorous. analysis.would.be.required: •. We.assumed.that.there.is.1/10.of.1.percent.(0.1.percent).of.actual.human. inhalation.or.ingestion.exposure.of.a.toxic.chemical.(with.the.remainder.of. the.chemical.released.into.the.environment.or.remaining.in.a.product.and. not.inhaled.or.ingested). •. We.assumed.that.50.percent.of.the.inhalation.or.ingestion.exposure.that.does. occur.causes.carcinogenic.effects.(vs..noncarcinogenic.effects),.with.carcinogenic.effects.posing.more.potential.adverse.effects.on.the.quality.of.human.life. (therefore,.we.based.the.toxic.chemical.use.fee.on.carcinogenic.effects). •. While.no.cancer.is.desirable,.there.is.a.threshold.of.cancer.risk.that.is.generally.acceptable,.and.according.to.the.USEPA,.this.is.usually.from.1 excess. cancer.case.per.100,000.people.to.1.excess.cancer.case.per.1.million.people. over.a.70-yr.lifetime..For.this.analysis,.we.factored.in.1.excess.cancer.risk. per.million.people. •. We. assumed. that. the. strict. monetary. impact. of. cancer. is. $1. million. per. individual.affected. Based.on.these.assumptions,.for.1.lb.of.a.toxic.chemical.(exposure.over.a.lifetime). that.has.an.ETF.of.1.dose/capita-lb.(assume.a.total.U.S..capita.of.306.million.people),. the.toxic.chemical.use.fee.per.pound.would.be
$1,000,000 1 1 cancer 306,000,000 capita 1 dose × × 1 lb chemical × × 0.1% × × cancer 2 1,000,000 capita-lb 70 doses/lifetime

.

=

$2,186 lb chemical

Based.on.this.rough.analysis,.the.toxic.chemical.use.fee.structure.could.be.based. on.multiplying.the.ETF.times.$2,000..We.also.assumed.that.the.maximum.fee.would. be.set.at.$100/lb..Fees.would.range.from.$0.01.to.$100/lb.and.would.be.levied.on. 153. of. the. TRI. chemicals. with. ETFs. greater. than. 2.0E-06.. ETFs. lower. than. this. threshold.are.relatively.innocuous.and.are.not.worth.the.additional.effort.to.collect.

258

Toxic Chemicals

taBlE 16.2 potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals
chemical (1,1′-Biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine,.3,3′-dimethyl1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3,5,7-triaza-1-azoniaadamantane.chloride 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2-fluoroethane.(Hcfc-121a) 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,1,1-Trifluoro-2,2-dichloroethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1-fluoroethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 1,1′-Bi(ethylene.oxide) 1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane 1,1-Dichloroethane 1,1-Dichloroethylene 1,1-Dimethyl.hydrazine 1,1′-Methylenebis(4-isocyanatobenzene) 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,2-Butylene.oxide 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.(Dbcp) 1,2-Dibromoethane 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethane 1,2-Dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethylene 1,2-Dichloropropane 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine 1,3-Butadiene 1,3-Dichloro-1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane 1,3-Dichlorobenzene 1,3-Dichloropropene.(mixed.isomers) 1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dioxane 1-Bromo-1-(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanedicarbonitrile 1-Chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane 2,2′,6,6′-Tetrabromo-4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol 2,3-Dichloropropene 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Etf (doses/ capita–lb) 5.51E–04 — — 7.64E–05 1.21E–09 — — 5.52E–05 2.26E–05 — — 7.17E–06 4.59E–08 2.51E–03 1.02E–06 8.71E–04 4.08E–06 3.49E–07 6.05E–08 7.58E–03 4.58E–04 — — 1.04E–08 3.80E–05 6.34E–08 1.75E–05 6.20E–05 2.12E–03 — — 3.70E–05 4.07E–03 1.19E–05 1.79E–05 — 2.92E–02 6.82E–10 6.32E–08 2.43E–08 2.97E–08 1.13E–05 fee ($/lb) $1.10 $0.00 $0.00 $0.15 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.11 $0.05 $0.00 $0.00 $0.01 $0.00 $5.02 $0.00 $1.74 $0.01 $0.00 $0.00 $15.15 $0.92 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.08 $0.00 $0.04 $0.12 $4.24 $0.00 $0.00 $0.07 $8.14 $0.02 $0.04 $0.00 $58.45 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.02

A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use

259

taBlE 16.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals
chemical 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol 2,4-D 2,4-D.2-Ethylhexyl.ester 2,4-D.Butoxyethyl.ester 2,4-D.Butyl.ester 2,4-D.Sodium.salt 2,4-Db 2,4-Diaminoanisole 2,4-Diaminotoluene 2,4-Dichlorophenol 2,4-Dimethylphenol 2,4-Dinitrophenol 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 2,6-Dinitrotoluene 2,6-Xylidine 2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-Aminonaphthalene 2-Chlor-1,3-butadiene 2-Chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane 2-Chloroacetophenone 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 2-Methyllactonitrile 2-Methylpyridine 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitropropane 2-Phenylphenol 3,3-Dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine.dihydrochloride 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine.sulfate 3,3′-Dimethoxybenzidine 3,3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.dihydrochloride 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene 3-Chloropropionitrile 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.butylcarbamate 4,4′-Diaminodiphenyl.ether 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol 4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 4,4′-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine Etf (doses/ capita–lb) — 1.85E–09 9.24E–05 3.77E–05 1.16E–08 6.67E–05 1.45E–08 — 1.18E–03 5.77E–08 5.62E–09 1.86E–08 9.09E–05 9.59E–09 1.23E–05 1.14E–04 2.09E–04 4.68E–07 4.33E–04 0.00E+00 2.05E–05 1.53E–06 1.56E–07 7.43E–05 7.25E–06 1.79E–03 1.42E–07 — 1.49E–03 4.78E–05 1.49E–03 8.34E–08 8.88E–07 1.83E–05 — 1.17E–09 2.56E–07 7.27E–10 1.92E–04 1.33E–05 fee ($/lb) $0.00 $0.00 $0.18 $0.08 $0.00 $0.13 $0.00 $0.00 $2.35 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.18 $0.00 $0.02 $0.23 $0.42 $0.00 $0.87 $0.00 $0.04 $0.00 $0.00 $0.15 $0.01 $3.57 $0.00 $0.00 $2.99 $0.10 $2.99 $0.00 $0.00 $0.04 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.38 $0.03 continued

00 $0.00 $0.91E–05 6.(friable) Atrazine Etf (doses/ capita–lb) 2.00 $0.25E–07 1.oxide.260 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.75 $0.81E–03 2.29E–05 2.00E–08 8.00 $6.09E–04 2.16E–06 1.chloride alpha-Naphthylamine Aluminum Aluminum.80E–10 1.00 $0.87E–06 1.00 $4.42 $0.93 $0.00 $0.01 $0.00 $3.00 $0.00 $0.nitrate.86E–06 7.08E–04 1.65E–08 2.24E–07 5.89E–06 3.00 $0.4′-Methylenedianiline 4.06 $0.87E–10 — — 2.40E–04 1.28E–05 — 3.alcohol Allyl.01 $0.03 $0.02 $0.00 .04E–06 6.09E–10 1.phosphide Ametryn Amitraz Amitrole Ammonia Ammonium.49E–10 3.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical 4.10E–07 1.49E–08 3.48 $0.00 $0.55E–11 7.19E–03 3.65E–07 2.amine Allyl.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.71E–06 2.00 $1.62E–07 7.00 $0.01 $0.96E–03 5.00 $11.43 $0.and.37E–03 4.07 $0.54E–09 4.compounds Arsenic.(fibrous.24 $0.acid Acrylonitrile Alachlor Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl.05 $0.82 $0.75E–06 3.00 $0.43E–05 1.61 $4.72E–05 7.antimony.00 $0.6-Dinitro-O-cresol 4-Aminoazobenzene 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-Nitrophenol 5-Nitro-O-anisidine 5-Nitro-O-toluidine Abamectin Acephate Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acifluorfen.00 $0.and.01 $0.08E–06 fee ($/lb) $0.05 $0.(solution) Aniline Anthracene Antimony.arsenic.62E–06 6..compounds Asbestos.38 $0.salt Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.(solution) Ammonium.sodium.18E–04 9.forms) Aluminum.sulfate.48E–08 2.86E–08 4.00 $0.22E–03 1.

.00 $0.00 $0.chloride Benzoyl.00 $0.30E–13 1.benzyl.red.55E–05 1.34E–08 — 2.phthalate Butyraldehyde C.yellow.I..15 Etf (doses/ capita–lb) — 3.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Auramine Barium.04 $65.acid.I.00E–11 — — — 2.04 $0.54E–08 3.00 $0.32E–09 1.13E–10 5.3 C.trifluoride Bromacil Bromine Bromochlorodifluoromethane Bromotrifluoromethane Bromoxynil Bromoxynil.00 $0.I.basic.00 $0.00 $0.24 $0.39E–14 — — fee ($/lb) $0.60E–10 — 8.00 $0.adipate Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(chloromethyl).00 $0.and.44 $0..71E–07 — 1.00 $0.red.14E–08 6.01 $0.peroxide Benzyl.00 $0.00 $100.00 $0.40E–06 1.26 $0.00 $0.27E–02 2.00 $0.34E–10 1.red.00 $0.76E–05 3.13E–04 1.00 $0.63 $0..01 $0.00 $0.20E–05 1.octanoate Brucine Butyl.chloride Benzene Benzidine Benzo(Ghi)perylene Benzoic.00 $0.disperse.00 continued .218 C.06E–09 2.I.basic.15E–10 1.74E–06 — 4.4 C.00 $0.trichloride Benzoyl.70E–12 2.compounds Bendiocarb Benfluralin Benomyl Benzal.00 $0..00 $0.blue.03 $0.00 $0.1 C.73E–11 6.04E–11 1.21E–07 2.green.ether Bis(2-ethylhexyl).36E–02 2.06E–10 2.direct.40E–07 6.00 $0.13E–08 5.chloride Beryllium.00 $0.barium.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.compounds Bifenthrin Biphenyl Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl).114 C.I..beryllium.00 $0.67E–09 1.and.I.ether Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane Bis(2-chloroethyl).trichloride Boron.32E–04 1.18E–04 6.oxide Boron.00 $0.00 $0.ether Bis(tributyltin).acrylate Butyl.food.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 261 taBlE 16.

.I.15 $0.88E–09 8.00 $0.19 $0.14 C.copper.00 $0.00 $0.63E–11 9.46E–12 7.00 $0.ether Chlorophenols Chloropicrin Chlorotetrafluoroethane Chlorothalonil Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorpyrifos.solvent.cyanamide Camphechlor Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Carbon.26E–09 3.solvent.00 $0.56E–12 1.03 $0.00 $0.and.80E–03 1.02 $0.3 Cadmium.39E–07 1.sulfide Carboxin Catechol Chloramben Chlordane Chlorendic.and.methyl Chlorsulfuron Chromium.and.15E–08 9.63 $0.00 $100.ethyl Chlorine Chlorine.28E–10 2.cobalt.11E–04 — 6.and.30E–05 2.00 $0.compounds Copper.00 $0.41E–07 4.00 $2.83E–05 3.00 $0.12E–07 1.60 $0.61E–09 1.74E–09 1.54E–08 1.00 $0.21E–04 7.26E–10 4.dioxide Chloroacetic.96E–12 1.cadmium.00 $0.disulfide Carbon.00 $100.00 $0.22E–06 3.03E–08 1.compounds Calcium.15E–08 9.acid Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzilate Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane Chloromethyl.00 $0.72E–10 4.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical C.52E–05 2.12E–05 1.chromium.I..00 .262 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.I.37E–02 3.00 $0.00 $0.isomers) Crotonaldehyde Cumene Etf (doses/ capita–lb) — — — 5.00 $0.00 $0.69E–06 1.10 $0.compounds Creosotes Cresol.04 $0.00 $0.yellow.compounds Cobalt.17E+00 6.24 $0.tetrachloride Carbonyl.orange.00 $0.00 $0.04E–11 1.acid Chlorimuron..01 $3.methyl.02 $0.33E–16 1.54E–10 2.solvent.00 $0.19 $0.50E–09 fee ($/lb) $0.58E–03 1.55E–10 3.00 $0.00 $0.(mixed.00 $0.00 $13.07E–08 1.10E–03 8.00 $1.7 C.14E–04 1.yellow.

08 $0.00 $0.87E–10 3.28E–07 2.50E–06 1.(Cfc-114) Dichlorotrifluoroethane Dichlorpentafluoro-propane Dichlorvos Dicofol Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine Diethyl.00 $0.oxide Desmedipham Diallate Diaminotoluene.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Cumene.sulfate Diflubenzuron Diglycidyl.00 $0.18E–13 5.06E–07 fee ($/lb) $0.78E–10 6.87E–07 3.phthalate Dicamba Dichloran Dichlorobenzene.00 $0.77E–05 1.00 $0.00 $0.74E–08 2.salt Decabromodiphenyl.84E–13 7.00 $0.17E–09 — 3.03E–12 4.00 $0.30E–08 1.13 $0.00 $0.isomers) Dichlorobromomethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorofluoromethane Dichloromethane Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.00 $0.(mixed.00 $0.00 $0.(Halon.phthalate Diethyl.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.19E–08 8.33E–13 1.00 $0.00 $0.81E–09 1.resorcinol.82E–12 — 5.28E–06 — 1.32E–12 1.98E–05 4.35E–07 — — 3.sodium.63E–05 3.00 $0.01 $0.00 $0.(mixed.62E–09 — 1..2402) Dibutyl.36E–09 3.84E–13 3.00 $0.isomers) Diazinon Dibenzofuran Dibromotetrafluoroethane.03 $0.00 $0.68E–12 9.hydroperoxide Cupferron Cyanazine Cyanide.00 $0.73E–09 2.00 $0.compounds Cycloate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyfluthrin Cyhalothrin Dazomet Dazomet.00 $0.00 $0.11E–06 1.00 $0.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 263 taBlE 16.47E–10 4.45E–10 4.32E–07 4.02E–05 — 1.ether.08 $0.00 $0.(Dgre) Dihydrosafrole Diisocyanates Dimethipin Dimethoate Etf (doses/ capita–lb) 3.00 $0.01 $0.48E–05 — 1.00 $0.00 continued .00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.18 $0.

00 .00 $0.00 $1.01E–09 1.00 $0.oxide Ethylene.00 $0.19E–03 5.15E–03 — — 7.phthalate Dimethyl.32E–09 1.46E–07 6.endothall Dipropyl.glycol.00 $0.phenol Dinitrotoluene.compounds Diphenylamine Dipotassium.00 $0.56 $0.00 $0.00E+00 7.00 $0.dioxin-like.and.ether Ethylene.76E–08 — 2.black.37 $100.01 $0.15E–10 — 4.dipropylthiocarbamate Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene.glycol.esters Ethyleneimine Famphur Fenarimol Fenbutatin.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.01 $0.82E–05 — 1.00 $0.glycol Ethylene.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Dimethyl.00 $0.00 $0.01 $0.00 $17.264 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.thiourea Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.60E–06 — 5.oxide Fenoxycarb Fenpropathrin Fenthion Fenvalerate Fluazifop-butyl Etf (doses/ capita–lb) — 1.13E–08 1.00 $0.00 $4.00 $0.65E–09 — — — fee ($/lb) $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2.(mixed.00 $0.00 $0.cyanodithioimidocarbonate Dithiobiuret Diuron Dodine D-trans-Allethrin Epichlorohydrin Ethoprop Ethyl.chloroformate Ethyl.34E–07 4.50E–10 — 2.90E–08 — 2.38 Disodium..29 $0.salts.00 $0.28E–07 1.00 $0.77E–06 — — — 8.acrylate Ethyl.32E–09 2.00 $0.and.80E–02 3.ether Ethylene.isocinchomeronate Direct.acid.30 $0.isomers) Dinocap Di-N-propylnitrosamine Dioxin.99E–10 4.01E–06 — 3.chlorothiophosphate Dimethyl.78E–03 0.00 $0.dicamba Dimethylcarbamoyl.45E–04 4.04 $0.00 $0.sulfate Dimethylamine Dimethylamine.00 $0.74E–09 7.chloride Dinitrobutyl.monomethyl.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.monoethyl..00 $0.10E–06 — 5.

00 $0.75E–04 1.00 $1.23 $7.00 $0.00 $0.91E–08 8.32E–08 fee ($/lb) $0.pentacarbonyl Isobutyraldehyde Isodrin Isofenphos Isopropyl.05 $0.salt Fluorouracil Fluvalinate Folpet Fomesafen Formaldehyde Formic.00E–12 7.65E–09 1.86E–02 3.00 $0.00 $0.03 $0.compounds Linuron Lithium.81E–06 — 4.38E–09 7.94E–09 5.carbonate Malathion Maleic.07 $2.37 $0.52 $0.67E–07 5.06E–03 — 4.13 $0.00 $0.53E–03 3.57E–03 4.113 gamma-Lindane Glycol.00 $0.(Hcp) Hexamethylphosphoramide Hexazinone Hydramethylnon Hydrazine Hydrazine.00 $0.75 $0.10E–09 2.00 $0.19 $0.00E–06 2.47E–05 — — — — 8.acid Hydrogen.19E–03 7.cyanide Hydroquinone Iron.00 $4.01 $0.79E–10 1.53E–05 5.00 $0.42E–10 1.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 265 taBlE 16.00 $0.04E–07 9.00 $0.23E–07 5.46E–06 3.01 $0.acid.84E–08 1.00 $0.19E–03 1.58E–06 1.05 $0.47E–08 2.00 $0.51E–07 2.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Fluometuron Fluorine Fluoroacetic.00 $0.00 $0.sodium.09E–03 2.60E–04 2.alcohol Isosafrole Lactofen Lead.00 $0.13 $9.acid Freon.38 $14.00 continued .ethers Heptachlor Hexachloro-1.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.and.sulfate Hydrochloric.lead.37E–10 8.00 $0.acid Hydrofluoric.00 $14.00 $0.anhydride Malononitrile Maneb Etf (doses/ capita–lb) 1..47E–05 1.65E–09 5.00 $37.3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethane Hexachlorophene.77E–11 — 6.

.12E–08 9.00 $0.00 $0.71 $0.08 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.89 $0.18E–10 — 5.09 $0.76E–11 1.12E–07 2.00 $0.01 $0.00 $0.00 $0.bromide Metribuzin Michler’s.96E–10 3.00 $0.00 $0.methacrylate Methyl.52E–07 2.18E–10 6.00 $5.02 $0.ketone Methyl.compounds M-Cresol M-Dinitrobenzene Mecoprop Mercury.16E–09 9.compounds Merphos Methacrylonitrile Metham.N-Dimethylformamide Nabam Naled Naphthalene N-Butyl.08E–09 4.00 $0.00 $0.and.bromide Methyl.39E–09 1.and.ketone Molinate Molybdenum.67E–08 4.sodium Methanamine.00 $0.97E–09 4.23E–05 1.65E–08 — 6.N-Dimethylaniline N.parathion Methyl.00 $69.16E–10 3.00 $0.mercury.hydrazine Methyl.49E–02 2.00 $0.00 $0.16E–06 6.00 $0.00 .00 $0.82E–10 1.iodide Methyl.isothiocyanate Methyl.81E–08 — — 3.19E–10 — 2.00 $0.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Manganese.isobutyl.chlorocarbonate Methyl.N-methyl-N-nitroso Methanol Methoxone Methoxychlor Methyl.36E–03 — 1.00 $0.06E–08 5.00 $0.27E–03 6.15E–05 1.ketone Methyl.81E–07 1.00 $4.alcohol N-Dioctyl.00 $0.00 $0.12E–06 — 3.trioxide Monochloropentafluoroethane M-Phenylenediamine M-Xylene Myclobutanil N.00 $0.ether Methylene.79E–08 6.00 $0.47E–07 2.66E–08 fee ($/lb) $0.manganese.00 $0.00 $0.54 $0.00 $6.72E–07 5.55E–03 5.98E–10 2.00 $0.64E–08 3.acrylate Methyl.tert-butyl.phthalate N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea N-Hexane Etf (doses/ capita–lb) 1.00 $0.00 $0.ethyl.14E–06 — 3.266 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.isocyanate Methyl.

A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 267 taBlE 16.23E–05 — 1.compounds Nicotine.78E–08 9.13E–09 0.84E–06 — 2.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Nickel.55 $0.32E–09 — 2.22E–03 6.58E–09 1.00 $0.03 $0.15E–06 2.00 $0.73E–04 2.00 $0.sodium Oryzalin Osmium.06E–02 7.45 $100.00 $0.00 $0.(T-4) O-Toluidine O-Toluidine.15E–10 — 1.00 $0.00 $0.45E–07 3.68E–06 — 6.acid Nitrobenzene Nitrofen Nitroglycerin N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Methylolacrylamide N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosopiperidine Norflurazon O-Anisidine O-Cresol O-Dinitrobenzene O-Phenylenediamine O-Phenylphenate.01 $0.00 $0.31E–08 8.00 $0.00E+00 — 7.31E–08 2.04E–03 2.04 $0.hydrochloride Oxydemeton.02 $0.00 $56.00 $0.and.salts Nitrapyrin Nitrate.05 $0.compounds Nitric.00 $0.oxide.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.52E–10 6.01E–09 1.00 $0.02 $0.00 $0.00 $1.00 continued .methyl Oxydiazon Oxyfluorfen O-Xylene Ozone P-Anisidine Paraldehyde Paraquat Parathion P-Chloroaniline P-Cresidine P-Cresol P-Dinitrobenzene Pebulate Etf (doses/ capita–lb) 2.50E–05 — — 1.00 $0.71E–07 — 3.08 $0.00 $0..81E–02 3.00 $0.10E–05 1.15 $6.00 $6.03E–05 — 1.00 $0.and.00 $0.nickel.00 $0.00 $0.acid Nitrilotriacetic.Oso4.74E–08 2.41E–08 5.00 $0.01 $0.00 $0.32E–09 fee ($/lb) $0.02 $0.43E–05 — 8.21E–06 — 2.

alcohol Propetamphos Propiconazole Propionaldehyde Propoxur Propylene Propylene.10E–10 — 1.58E–07 — 1.08E–07 6.00 $0.alkanes.bromate Potassium.dimethyldithiocarbamate Potassium.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.25 .(C10-C13) Polychlorinated.mercaptan Permethrin Phenanthrene Phenol Phenothrin Phenytoin Phosgene Phosphine Phosphorus.00 $45.00 $0.00 $0.05E–07 6.97E–09 3.16E–08 3.aromatic.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.18E–12 2.00 $0.23E–04 fee ($/lb) $0.15E–06 — — 4.anhydride Picloram Piperonyl.81E–06 6.95E–05 6.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.53E–07 1.00 $0.00 $0.91 $0.14E–08 4.00 $0.29E–09 4.01 $0.00 $0.30E–02 9.268 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.00 $0.28E–08 2.43E–10 2.27E–09 — 9.39E–09 — 1.methyl P-Nitroaniline P-Nitrosodiphenylamine Polychlorinated.N-methyldithiocarbamate P-Phenylenediamine Profenofos Prometryn Pronamide Propachlor Propane.00 $0.63E–07 — — — 4.oxide Etf (doses/ capita–lb) 1.sultone Propanil Propargite Propargyl.16E–06 9.00 $0.69E–10 — 1.00 $0.acid Phthalic.(yellow.39E–06 2.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Pendimethalin Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachlorophenol Peracetic.56E–08 5.01 $0.36E–09 6.02 $0.00 $0.30E–07 2.00 $0.00 $0.compounds Potassium.00 $0.00 $0.or.14 $0.00 $0.white) Phospohoric.49E–09 — 1.25E–05 9.biphenyls Polycyclic.00 $0.acid Perchloromethyl.butoxide Pirimiphos.00 $0.66E–09 — — 9.00 $0.00 $0.05 $0.

selenium.compounds Simazine Sodium.azide Sodium.46E–10 1.A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use 269 taBlE 16.00 $0.compounds Thiabendazole Thioacetamide Thiobencarb Thiodicarb Etf (doses/ capita–lb) — 4.(solution) Sodium.00 $0.25 $0.33E–10 3.51E–10 5.00 $0.00 continued .04E–10 8.hydroxide.00 $0.00 $0.02E–07 — — 5.00 $0.07 $0.dicamba Sodium.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.78E–08 3.00 $0.61E–10 3.00 $0.00 $0.04 $0.00 $0.and.65E–10 3.00 $0.S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Saccharin Safrole sec-Butyl.00 $0.83E–07 — — 4.hydrochloride Tetramethrin Thallium.00 $0.32E–08 4.00 $0.81E–09 8.00 $0.alcohol Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachlorvinphos Tetracycline.74E–10 — 5.00 $0.87E–09 1.dimethyldithiocarbamate Sodium.10E–07 2.fluoride Sulprofos Tebuthiuron Temephos Terbacil Terephthalic.24E–04 9.nitrite Strychnine Styrene Styrene.40E–05 4.16E–10 2.and.acid tert-Butyl.35E–10 4.00 $0.silver.00 $0.68E–07 1.thallium.00 $0.and.alcohol Selenium.56E–05 — 8.87E–08 fee ($/lb) $0.00 $0.03 $0.oxide Sulfuric.21E–05 7.00E–04 — 3.20 $0.00 $0.42E–12 — — 5.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Propyleneimine P-Xylene Pyridine Quinoline Quinone Quintozene Quizalofop-ethyl Resmethrin S.17 $0.53E–07 1.52E–05 1.00 $0.S.93E–09 1.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.acid Sulfuryl.07E–08 — — — 2.compounds Sethoxydim Silver.00 $0.00 $0.

00 $0.04E–09 1.88E–10 — 1.39E–10 4.00 $0.methyl Tribromomethane Tributyltin.isomers) Zinc.2 (continued) potential chemical usage fees for tri chemicals chemical Thiophanate-methyl Thiosemicarbazide Thiourea Thiram Thorium.00 $0.55E–10 6.00 $0.08E–06 2.67 $0.00 $0.00 $0.acetate Vinyl.00 $0.vanadium.35E–05 9.99E–07 2.00 $0.00 $0.87E–07 — — 6.hydroxide Tris(2.00 $0.59 $0.(mixed.bromide Vinyl.38E–06 2.00 $0.88E–08 1.chloride Triphenyltin.45E–09 2.salt Triethylamine Trifluralin Triforine Triphenyltin.chloride Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane Triclopyr.00E–05 2.68E–05 4.compounds Vinclozolin Vinyl.00 $0.00 $0.4-dichloro-2-butene Triadimefon Triallate Tribenuron.00 $0.isomers) Toluene-2.74E–08 2.27E–07 3.21E–10 — 2.00 $0.blue Urethane Vanadium.00 $0.phosphate Trypan.00 $0.3-dibromopropyl).22E–06 3.270 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 16.05 $8.00 $0.salts Xylene.zinc.triethylammonium.6-diisocyanate Trans-1.99E–08 1.4-diisocyanate Toluene-2.02E–06 — — — — — — 6.00 .chloride Warfarin.diisocyanate.00 $0.00 $0.58 $0.01 $0.00 $0.tetrachloride Toluene Toluene.3-dichloropropene Trans-1.36E–04 8.28E–08 — 1.dioxide Titanium.00 $0.04 $0.90E–04 9.and.32E–09 fee ($/lb) $0.compounds Zineb Etf (doses/ capita–lb) 1.and.03 $0.48E–09 1.29E–03 3.04 $0.98E–05 3.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.01 $0.(mixed.and.methacrylate Trichlorfon Trichloroacetyl.87E–09 1.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.65E–09 3.

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minimal. fees.. Toxic. chemical. use. fees. would. be. levied. for. use. of. the. toxic. form. of.the.compound..For.chromium,.this.would.be.hexavalent.chromium..For.cobalt,. it would.be.for.its.use.as.a.fine.grain.or.use.that.would.generate.a.fume.

incEntivEs
Changing.a.process.to.reduce.or.eliminate.use.of.a.toxic.chemical.can.be.expensive.. For. instance,. converting. a. typical. 275,000-ton/yr. chloralkali. plant,. a. producer. of. chlorine. and. sodium. hydroxide,. from. mercury. cells. to. the. newer. membrane. cells. that. do. not. use. mercury. cost. approximately. $112. million. in. 2006. dollars.. These. conversions.are.needed.but.are.hard.to.justify.when.competing.for.other.projects.that. could.expand.the.market.for.a.company..By.using.toxic.chemical.use.fees.to.provide. low-interest.loans,.the.fees.can.be.leveraged,.along.with.the.prospects.of.reducing. the.fees.to.provide.incentive.for.companies.to.invest.in.changes..Grants.associated. with.fee.revenue.to.cover.a.portion.of.conversion.costs.would.also.leverage.the.fees. Another.way.to.leverage.the.fees.and.provide.an.incentive.for.change.would.be. to. reward. companies. that. demonstrated. a. reduction. in. the. total. effective. toxicity. associated. with. their. toxic. chemical. use. from. year. to. year.. One. possible. method. would. be. to. establish. a. credit. to. be. earned. based. on. a. factor. multiplied. by. the. effective.toxicity.reduction.percentage..For.example,.if.the.factor.was.set.at.2,.then. a.company. that.reduced.its.effective.toxicity.by.50.percent.from.the.previous.year. . would.earn.a.100 percent.credit.multiplied.by.the.fees.that.would.be.imposed.for.the. year.or,.in this.example,.end.up.not.paying.fees.for.that.year..This.type.of.system,. which.would.be.reset.each.year,.rewards.reductions.in.toxic.chemical.use.each.year. based.on.the.ability.to.reduce.the.effective.toxicity.compared.to.the.previous.year,. e . ncouraging.an.ongoing.reduction.in.subsequent.years.

chEmical usE rEduction planning
Many.companies.are.not.aware.of.the.opportunities.they.have.to.reduce.use.of. toxic.chemicals..As.noted.in.this.book,.in.the.case.of.the.current.TRI.program,. the. established. program. chemical. use. thresholds. require. “behind-the-scene”. quantifications. of. chemical. uses. to. determine. if. reporting. requirements. on. releases.of.the.chemical.to.the.environment.are.triggered..In.our.proposed.toxic. chemical.use.reduction.program,.the.same.TRI.program.chemical.use.thresholds. would. remain;. however,. they. would. be. used. to. determine. when. chemical. use. reduction.planning.requirements.are.triggered..Requiring.that.companies.using. toxic.chemicals.above.use.thresholds.(the.same.use.thresholds.that.the.current. TRI. program. requires). evaluate. alternatives. to. reduce. use. and. perform. a. costbenefit.analysis.would.make.the.existing.costs.and.benefits.of.conversion.available.to.managers. In.one.case.example,.one.of.us.was.performing.a.pollution.prevention.analysis.of. the.missile.division.of.Martin.Marietta..The.plant.was.required.to.clean.the.missile. surface.with.a.virgin.cloth.and.TCE..Barrels.of.solvent-contaminated.cloth.were.disposed.by.incineration,.costing.thousands.of.dollars.per.week..When.this.was.pointed. out.to.the.plant.manager,.he.found.that.most.of.the.rags.were.being.produced.by.staff.

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using.the.convenient.solvent.and.cloths.for.operations.that.did.not.require.TCE,.and. he.directed.that.these.materials.only.be.used.for.the.specified.purpose..Just.1.wk. later,.production.of.waste.rags.had.dropped.by.over.80.percent. Pressure. to. reduce. mercury. releases. from. chloralkali. plants. has. provided. an. impetus. to. replace. mercury. cells. with. newer. mercury-free. membrane. cells.. This. has.resulted.in.110.plants.making.the.switch,.eliminating.over.50.tons/yr.in.mercury. releases..Much.of.the.cost.in.the.switch.has.been.recovered.in.improved.energy.efficiency.and.increased.capacity. Toxic. chemical. use. reduction. planning. consists. of. collecting. data. on. chemicals. used.and.processes.in.which.they.are.used;.evaluating.alternative,.less-toxic.chemicals. and.processes.that.could.reduce.higher-toxicity.chemical.use;.determining.technical. and.economic.feasibility.of.implementing.changes;.performing.a.cost-benefit.analysis;. and.funding.of.cost-effective.projects.that.will.reduce.use. As. part. of. planning,. a. chemical. use. reduction. plan. would. be. developed. and. include,.at.a.minimum,.the.following: •. •. •. •. Identification.of.reduction.opportunities Identification.of.cost-effective.projects Establishment.of.toxic.chemical.use.reduction.goals,.including.time.frames Documentation.of.the.progress.of.meeting.the.established.goals

Under.a.toxic.chemical.use.reduction.program,.a.full.plan.would.be.kept.on.site.at. the.company.headquarters.at.all.times,.and.a.summary.of.the.plan.would.be.submitted.to.a.regulatory.agency..The.purpose.of.submitting.the.plan.summary.and.having. the.plan.available.on.site.is.to.confirm.that.a.plan.is.developed.and.that.the.process. identified.in.the.plan.is.implemented,.not.for.technical.review.of.the.plan.

tEchnical assistancE
One.study.found.that.larger.firms.are.generally.more.successful.at.pollution.prevention.efforts.because.they.integrate.the.pollution.prevention.processes.into.other.existing.management.activities.(e.g.,.quality.teams)..Small.and.midsize.firms.generally. have. fewer. internal. resources. to. complete. pollution. prevention. activities. and. rely. more.“on.external.resources.for.identifying.pollution.prevention.options..They.tend. to.look.at.published.literature,.trade.associations,.vendors.and.technical.assistance. programs”.(McLees.1995). A.technical.assistance.program.should.include.three.components: . . . 1.. Compliance.assistance 2..Technology.clearinghouse 3..Plant-specific.technical.assistance

Compliance. assistance. would. focus. on. helping. companies. to. understand. and. c . omply. with. the. requirements. of. the. toxic. chemical. use. reduction. program.. As. part.of.this.assistance,.data.on.toxicity.of.chemicals.would.be.provided,.along.with.

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reporting. requirements. and. assistance. in. the. general. procedures. for. performing. a. pollution.prevention.opportunity.assessment. A. technology. clearinghouse. would. provide. information. on. toxic. chemical. use. reduction. methods. and. best. management. practices. in. an. industry. sector-by-sector. basis..These.efforts.would.be.based.on.the.most.toxic.chemicals,.similar.to.the.state. of.Washington.mercury.effort,.which.provided.best.management.practice.training.to. hospitals.and.dentists.on.methods.to.eliminate.mercury.use. Individual.company.technical.assistance.could.be.accomplished.by.similar.types. of. programs. successfully. implemented. in. New. Jersey. and. Massachusetts,. where. an. institute,. funded. by. fees. collected. from. the. regulated. community,. provides. company-specific. pollution. prevention. assessments. and. analysis. of. alternatives. to. reduce.toxic.chemical.use..These.have.been.most.useful.for.small.businesses.that. lack.specialized.technical.staff..By.having.technical.assistance.provided.by.an.entity. that. is. not. charged. with. enforcement. of. environmental. regulations,. the. technical. assistance.staff.can.have.access.to.the.information.needed.to.perform.toxic.chemical. use.reduction.analyses.without.compromising.a.regulatory.enforcement.imperative.

BiBliography
Mahan,.S.,.and.J..Savitz..2007..Cleaning.Up:.Taking.Mercury-Free.Chlorine.Production.to.the. Bank.. http://oceana.org/fileadmin/oceana/uploads/mercury/FINAL_Cleaning_Up.pdf. (accessed.January.24,.2010). McLees,. L.. 1995.. Pollution. Prevention:. People. Are. the. Key.. Georgia. Tech. Research. News.. http://gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/PREVENT.html.(accessed.January.24,.2010). Nikolova,.N.,.and.J..Jaworska..2004..Approaches.to.Measure.Chemical.Similarity—A.Review.. QSAR and Combinatorial Science,.22(9–10):.1006–1026. Regulation.(EC).No.1907/2006.Of.the.European.Parliament.and.of.the.Council.of.18.December. 2006.concerning.the.Registration,.Evaluation,.Authorisation.and.Restriction.of.Chemicals.(REACH),.Annex.VII,.p..167..Brussels,.BE:.Council.of.the.European.Union. U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..2009a..Analog.Identification.Methodology..http://aim. epa.gov./.(accessed.January.24,.2010). U.S..Environmental.Protection.Agency..2009b..The.Analog.Identification.Methodology,.a.Fact. Sheet..http://www.epa.gov/oppt/sf/pubs/aim_factsheet.pdf.(accessed.January.24,.2010). U.S.. Environmental. Protection. Agency.. 2009c.. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen.. Washington,. DC:. EPA/600/R-09/057.

17

Costs and Benefits

introduction
Implementing.a.program.to.reduce.the.usage.of.toxic.chemicals.will.entail.costs.to •. Set.up.and.administer.the.program.(by.federal.and.administrative.agencies) •. Analyze,.report.on,.and.pay.fees.for.usage.of.the.chemicals.(by.companies) Implementing.a.program.to.reduce.the.usage.of.toxic.chemicals.will.also.have. associated.economic.and.other.benefits,.consisting.of •. Health.benefits.and.reduced.costs.associated.with.reduced.toxic.chemical. usage.and,.hence,.exposure.via.direct.releases.and.through.use.of.products. themselves. •. Environmental. impacts.. The. ultimate. goal. of. a. toxic. chemical. reduction. p . rogram.is.to.have.a.positive.impact.on.human.health.and.the.environment. •. Direct. reduced. business. operating. costs. associated. with. the. purchase,. handling,.disposal,.and.cleanup.of.toxic.chemicals.and.reduced.need,.and. therefore.cost,.to.install.control.technologies.to.control.their.emissions. •. Human.capacity.building—development.or.growth.of.industries.that.. upport. s projects.related.to.toxic.chemical.reduction. •. Technology.transfer.and.productivity.enhancement—new.technologies.and. manufacturing.techniques.through.the.exploration.of.process.improvements. •. Positive.company.publicity.from.being.environmentally.conscientious.and. associated.increased.revenue. •. Reduced.regulatory.burden.(reduced.company.and.regulatory.agency.engineering. labor. hours. as. well. as. other. associated. savings). by. reducing. the. usage.of.toxic.chemicals. •. Other.benefits,.such.as.the.establishment.of.spin-off.or.demonstration.projects. In.this.chapter,.we.evaluate.these.costs.and.benefits.of.setting.up.a.market-based. toxic.chemical.usage.reduction.program.

costs of thE program
The. European. Commission. (2006). did. an. analysis. of. the. costs. for. setting. up. the. Registration,.Evaluation,.and.Authorization.of.Chemicals.(REACH).program..The. costs.of.running.the.REACH.program.were.estimated.at.0.4.billion.euros.over.11 yrs. (cost.of.establishing.and.running.the.program)..The.costs.of.registration,.. ncluding. i
275

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Toxic Chemicals

taBlE 17.1 Estimated costs for rEach registration and testing
cost items Registration Testing Safety.data.sheets Authorization.procedures Reduced.costs.for.new.substances.below.1.ton.and.so.on Total.testing.and.registration Agency.fees.(paid.by.chemicals.sector) Total.(including.agency.fees) costs (million Euros) €500 €1,250 €250 €100 (€100) €2,000 €300 €2,300

Source:. European.Commission,.Environment.Fact.Sheet:.REACH—A.New. Chemicals.Policy.for.the.EU,.2006.http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ pubs/pdf/factsheets/reach.pdf.

the. necessary. testing,. were. estimated. at. 2.3. billion. euros. over. the. 11. yrs. that. it. would.take.for.companies.to.register.all.the.substances.initially.covered.by.REACH. (Table 17.1). The. cost. to. downstream. users. at. the. introduction. of. the. REACH. program. is. assessed.to.be.in.the.range.of.2.8.to.5.2.billion.euros..These.costs.will.occur.in.the. form.of.higher.chemical.prices.resulting.from.the.passing.along.testing.and.registration.costs,.as.well.as.additional.substitution.costs.for.downstream.users.of.chemicals. finding. potentially. higher-cost. or. less-effective. replacements. for. those. substances. removed.from.the.market. The. REACH. program. is. a. command-and-control. approach. to. reducing. toxic. chemicals..Companies.are.required.to.apply.for.permission.to.use.each.of.the.regulated.chemicals.in.manufacturing.processes.and.need.to.demonstrate.that.there.is. no.reasonable.alternative.for.using.that.chemical..The.program.sets.up.an.agency. to.evaluate.the.requests.and.authorize.usage..This.is.much.more.expensive.than.the. market-based.approach.that.we.are.recommending. The.costs.for.implementing.the.original.Toxics.Release.Inventory.(TRI).program. were.considerable..Costs.included.the.cost.of.setting.up.programs.to.collect.and.analyze.information.on.chemical.usage.and.for.estimating.releases..Companies.had.to. develop.a.system.for.collecting.composition.information.on.each.product.they.used. and.keep.track.of.the.ever-changing.formulations.of.these.products. The.EPA.has.estimated.that.the.annual.cost.of.the.TRI.program.is.$650.million.per. year.(American.Chemistry.Council.2006)..The.Environmental.Protection.Agency. (EPA).has.traditionally.underestimated.the.costs.of.compliance,.so.it.is.likely.that. the.total.cost.for.the.program.exceeds.$1.billion.per.year..The.EPA.has.recognized. that.the.burden.was.excessive.and.has.been.trying.to.reduce.the.work.required.to. comply.with.the.program.without.reducing.the.value.of.the.program.(EPA.2006)..We. have.been.unable.to.find.a.good.estimate.of.the.original.cost.of.setting.up.the.TRI.

calculate. item.Table 17.. program.longer.the.to.be.have.setting.would. diseases.REACH.(and.the.in.is.to.in. reported.as.only.program.of.are.of. that.as.collected.annual.and.and.on.collection.Commission.and.to.factors. reported.we.fees.separately.be.exists.with.if.chemical-related.of.the. .usage.effects.TRI.factors.of.result. have.the. no.amounts. billion.If. limited.. are.. over.in.additional.the.cost.the.that.significant.be.a.of.be.reported.other.to. REACH.of. domestic.TRI.. expected. fraction.releases.these.that.order.a.releases.the.requires.example.this. database.is.also.for..no.not.is.assumed.quantities.be.program.fees.are.in.it.16.already.more. a.usage.metals.a.metals. hexavalent.existing. would.usage.burden.EPA.detailed.and. as. replace.trivalent.would. 30  yrs.chemicals.year. on.approximately.this. As.biphenyls.cost.addition.chromium. industry. releases.the.is.order.include.cost.to. existing.of.been.be.addition.TRI.structure.09.would..compounds.in.05–0.their.and.usage.a.of.and.to.such.since.on. A..on.is.were.based.competitiveness.of.likely.Costs and Benefits 277 program.and.toxicity. .does..usage.released.since. Since.the.and. percent.based.in.structure.for.the. be.aluminum..fee. and.compile.the..Polychlorinated.chromium.control.sales.it. gross. impact.up.for.the.reporting. of.This.these.as.the.6 billion.2.would.chromium.used.recommend. 10.to.Chapter.as.and. program..fees.TRI. ments. TRI.is.chemicals.given.costs.manufactured.include.rather..2007.but.chromium. be.build. the.most.based.of.electrical.would.the. higher.of. a..dust.fumes.the. of.associated.total.releases.health.reported..report.are.be.actual.from.cost.fee.data..the.while.of.This..by. additional.yield.the.was. would.fees.are.The. conducted.could.toxicity. The.that.that.these.REACH.program..calculating.highest.improve.sixth.release. (European.benefits.other. the. on.composition.TRI. benefits.of. hEalth BEnEfits of a succEssful toxic chEmical usagE rEduction program The.to. and.chemical.on. 50.percent.collect..on..data.proposed.lowest.the.2006)..addition.equipment.reporting.the.of.Since. detailed..TRI.initial.0.Rs.. euros. The.actual.manganese.based.the.the.based.for.workers’. costs.and..any.of.sixth.to..of.of.was.Chapter.the. product. in. prior. European.or.metallic.TRI. information.to.the. chromium.the.program. assessment.structure. releases.safety.likely.on..the.states.cobalt. that.compounds.than.of..on.business. that. an.not. toxic chEmical usE fEEs The... for.it.program. of. to.schedule. chromium.these.the. be.dollars..chromium.the.total.than. the.book. were.savings. recommended.would.here.incurred).(PCBs).number. hexavalent.of. we.in.used..chromium.vary..due.the. Commission.to.fees. by.In.billions.improved.associated.be.estimated.to.We.compounds.in.nickel. estimated. Effects..maintaining.estimating.based.were.be.and.would.forms.hexavalent.compounds.The.fee..releases.The.fraction.a.indicated.reported.regulated).the..EPA.the.fee.predicted.fees.on.toxic.In.Fees.forms. of.listed.line. extended.transformers.the.be.the.costs. this.usage.reported. in..data.. health.these.innovation.reduce.program.total.than.replacement.Form.with.. additional.expected.of.likely.. .of.a.and. (GDP).on. chromium.(chemicals.existing.companies.16.$2.be.

cadmium.029. $6.559 $250.901.367 69.biphenyls Mercury. $0.564 $289. $4.161.04.082 $6.237.084 1.compounds Lead. $6.485.628. $8.2-Dichloroethane 4.223 11.06.853 67.312. $0.23.873 $27.057 $205.018 8.and. $0.111.242 500 5. $100.08.546 706.compounds Nickel.129 $34.91.006.beryllium.864 21. $0.875.01.348 3.651 $1.643.188 $35.45.58.lead.278 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 17.201 $477. $1.966. $45. $0.788.521 $95.compounds Acrylamide Acrylonitrile 1.02. $0.02.727 18.864 8.729. $0.054 $83.391 37.667 $68. $0. $2.198 $53.876 $5.781 $102.935. $0.423 fee ($/lb) $100.manganese.358 305.57.and.373 $8.576 $53.38. $0.878 449.686 $3.379 $258.compounds Polychlorinated.24.516 $7.35. $0.24.2.180 $74.compounds Cadmium.4-Dichloro-2-butene 2. $100.309.38.03.1.01.48.082 6.and.52.43.606 5..902.293 97.580.874 $35.133 2.3-Butadiene Acrolein Manganese.1.1.708.992.14.850.and.195 $394.45.00.149 $32. $4.compounds Aluminum Formaldehyde Tetrachloroethylene 1-Chloro-1.arsenic.132.684 2. $0. $0.067.961 43.and.130 $1.333.115 372. $1.chloride Hydrazine Beryllium.compounds Chlorine Acetaldehyde 2-Nitropropane Propylene.01.475.489 $171.202 920. $0.24.oxide Hexachlorobenzene Benzene Fomesafen Vinyl. $0. $14. $9. $58. $37.357 123.05.626 551.836 1.mercury.817 $57.hexavalent Cobalt.00. $0.000 $46. $0.01. $0.05. $0.310 $622.25.622 6.oxide Carbon.87.819 $155.2-tetrafluoroethane Ethylene.601 $42.555 9.970.2 Estimated chemical usage fees Based on 2007 tri reporting chemical Chromium.09.876 245.cobalt.247 7.636 $71.973 $389.2-tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1. $0. $1.25.571 338.635 16.499 $297.220 1. $0.05.696.907.426 28. $3.00.and.888 $1.959 $504.nickel.19.078 5.24.157 $697. $0.353.4′-Methylenedianiline lb 10.174 $50.251 $59.759 867.61.tetrachloride Chloroform N-Methylolacrylamide Trichloroethylene Aniline Dichloromethane N-Nitrosodiethylamine 1.371 6. $5.827 $42.903. $3.276 4.401 .933.10.527 $241.67.4-Diaminotoluene Heptachlor Naphthalene 1.tetrachloride Titanium.29.581.819.564 2.077 39. $4.598 308.555 $554.05.and.894.090.160 495.059. fees ($) $1.312.compounds Arsenic.and.465.

216 39.13. $2.825 500 1.519 $2. $0.01.474 4.196 78.710 4.(mixed.3-Trichloropropane Crotonaldehyde 2. $0.3-butadiene 1. $0.291 1.02.15.472 $2.74.4-Dioxane Allyl. $0. $0. $13.658 $6. $0.44.methyl. $0.955 16.15.1. $65.dioxin-like.290 fee ($/lb) $100.152 $1.946 $15.38.2-Dibromoethane 1.4-diisocyanate O-Toluidine Benzyl.ether Hexachloro-1.03. $0.75.645 $6. $1.722 $2.04.01.782 $1.alcohol 2-Methylpyridine 1.826 $3.2-Trichloroethane Epichlorohydrin Chlorophenols Ethyl. $0.989 601.acrylate N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine Toluene-2.04.15.212 1.15.04.555 1. $0.02.367 155. $0. $0. $0.864 $3.2 (continued) Estimated chemical usage fees Based on 2007 tri reporting chemical Dioxin.457 $12.611 $1.(Hcp) Aluminum.00.and. $0. $0. $0.913 $23.isomers) 1.chloride N-Nitroso-N-methylurea 2-Nitrophenol 1.323 10 33. $0. $0.2-Tetrachloroethane Phosgene lb 319 545.1.07.469 $1.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.3-Dichloropropene. $0. $11. $0.453 1.132 526.07.816 $4.08.135 500 18.348 13.468 16 22.04.042 $2.249 15. $0. $1.677 $9. $0.052 $3.029 $1.399 $1.02.009 $809 $809 $797 $773 $760 $688 $587 $561 $482 $422 $344 $287 continued .600 934 185. $0.18.172 $5.233 79.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 1.1.15.02.19.229 $7.63.513 15.008 13. fees ($) $31.Costs and Benefits 279 taBlE 17.01.phosphide Benzidine 1.566 $2. $56. $2.128 430.892 $1. $0. $1.55.04.01.chloride Hexachlorophene.2-Dichloropropane 1.13.4-Dinitrotoluene 4.14.236 255 27.compounds Chlorine.92.dioxide Camphechlor Diisocyanates Aldrin Hydroquinone Nitrobenzene Chloromethyl.4-Dichlorobenzene Di-N-propylnitrosamine Allyl.05.813 49. $0. $0.120 3.180 $3.059 $13.188 690 15.879 $3.695 2. $15. $2.93.232 5. $0. $0. $7.20.138 115.(Dbcp) Pentachloroethane Quinoline N-Nitrosopiperidine gamma-Lindane 1.01.266 751 35.04. $6.472.05.594 6.2.37.095 $15.891 $6.

$0.01.17.01.05.isocyanate 1.08.02.26. $3.01.751 13.10.333 2.861 750 1.464 1. $0. $0.391 1.hydrazine Chlorotetrafluoroethane Dichlorobromomethane 4-Aminobiphenyl N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea Trifluralin Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Thiourea Pentachlorophenol 2.715 1.02. $0.259 7. $0.01.081 389 1.01.339 1.07. $0. $0.75.ester Quintozene 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 1. fees ($) $239 $218 $215 $214 $212 $209 $205 $172 $170 $170 $150 $150 $138 $121 $118 $106 $104 $99 $77 $55 $53 $52 $45 $44 $41 $36 $34 $25 $25 $23 $21 $20 $19 $16 $14 $13 $12 $11 $11 $8 $8 $7 .oxide O-Anisidine Diallate Alachlor lb 6.849 15 15 296 11 10 7..3′-Dichlorobenzidine. $0.01.08.01. $0. $0.02.4.01.253 12.001 638 255 373 fee ($/lb) $0.3-Dichloropropene Pentachlorobenzene Ethylene.115 256 1.23. $0. $0. $4.ether Chloropicrin trans-1. $0.2-Tetrachloroethane 2-Acetylaminofluorene Safrole Benzoic.82.10.03.08. $0.04.1-Dimethyl.dihydrochloride Dinitrotoluene.01. $0.18.trichloride 3. $0.158 3.4-D. $0. $0. $0.(mixed. $0.08. $0. $4.07.03.thiourea P-Chloroaniline Cyanazine Acephate 2.736 513 10 2. $5.02.01. $0.54. $0.280 Toxic Chemicals taBlE 17.4-D.01. $0. $0.ether 1. $0. $0.2. $0. $0.103 1.01.isomers) Dichlorvos Hexachloroethane Boron.2-Ethylhexyl.18. $0.1. $0.11.1′-Biphenyl)-4. $0.295 5.2 (continued) Estimated chemical usage fees Based on 2007 tri reporting chemical 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene Bis(2-chloroethyl).536 347 26.565 4.ester Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl). $1.2.Butoxyethyl. $0. $0.01.990 1.000 646 1.6-Trichlorophenol (1.3.4′-diamine.1-Dichloroethane O-Phenylenediamine 1.3′-dimethylBis(tributyltin).04.4-Trichlorobenzene 2.03. $0.63.trifluoride Methyl. $0.945 761 189 1.740 327 788 3.60.

A1).estimated. and.Jersey. assistance. plants. be.estimated.positive.resulting.and.. new.13. the.had. treatment. municipalities.chemical.of.time.impact. include. chemical.regulations. changes..the.reduction.lost.from. level.from.noted. $8.greater.include.the. v . to.In.. As.the.comparison.seven. without.have. in. toxic.2004.costs.are.2-Diphenylhydrazine 2. and.in..or.to.be. and.water. demonstrated.is.New.enforcing. potential. $0.emissions.decade. Although.a..productivity. cost. achieved. more.Federal Register. program.air. clean-air.during..resulting. $72.process..programs.United.social.addition.reduce. five.Reduction.some. industry.Although.one..13.air. with.were. and.which. the.cost.are.improved. . changes. at. reduction. Other.. benefits.Washington).new. energy.59. States. of.facility.than. billion. $23. health. implementation. $0.4-Dichloro-2-butene 1. estimated.1992.total.Inventory.the.2002.with. that.Benefit”. hospitalization.clean. environment.By. book. the.1. the. facility.in. deaths. studies. savings. the.. study.on.The.total. the.of.addition. Direct. to. and..the.the.and.health-threatening. was. $0..designed. standards. premature.Costs and Benefits 281 taBlE 17. human.only. to.. reviewed.expenditures.rules..Rule.2003. evidence. in.to. at.dioxide.elsewhere..Net.Protection.to.Agency. facilities.goals.States.Toxics.and. the.following: The. the. direct.chemical. other.from.impacts.4-D. (including.toxic.to.OMB.S.impacts.in.burden. emergency. be. usage. make.Environmental.past. water.economic.ultimate.improvements. in.Rules. EnvironmEntal impacts The. value. on.19.Finds.Sodium. detailed.pollutants. cost.. this.resulted. the. case. environmental.as.the. cancer.sulfur.a. b .between. quantified. Past.One.and. and.. consumption.Release. billion.complying. comply.quality.in. U.program.death.(“Study.$190.of. technical. points.billion. a. estimated. states. room. of.billion.here.In.workdays. United.. billion.to.Burden.particle.and.realized.in.were. of..terms.on.toxic.costs.in.economic. spent.tough.economic.. health.been.$193. fact. to.reduction.from.to.cancer. energy.have. $26.losses.increased.programs.billion.medical. retrofit. reductions.is.detailed.Gain.other.September. Final. arious.and.the.cancer..October.2006.study. social.have..reductions.indirect.positive.dramatic.71(246).sharply.these. cannot. In.fine. economic. of.component. from.result. and.may. to.2 (continued) Estimated chemical usage fees Based on 2007 tri reporting chemical Chlorobenzilate Cyfluthrin trans-1. 2004..Findings. an..cancer-related.can.12. environmental.. visits. a.were..of.times.illness. fees ($) $6 $5 $4 $1 $1 Source:..goal. and.environment.other. enefits.of.salt lb 32 34 1 10 9 fee ($/lb) $0.impact.76932.Overturns.. throughout.in.Pollution. of. and. many. $120. could.

.and.voluntarily.shown. between.. environmental. m .. cause.as.used..activities. annually.or.(P2). additional..pesticides.618.each.reductions.various.in. (Blus.For. respondents). Prevention.estimated. effects.residues.in. manufacturing.many.the.2007).Annual.Program..countries.implementation.The.. in.sevenfold..year.The. early.759. Examples.a.were.savings.have.nearly.declined.chlorine-containing.provided.$900.dross..by..and. in. (May.case. as. 2006).the.The..automobiles.few.almost. the. . $1.to.of.Corporation. of. project. Casting.cost.the. time. from. August.(TREE).a.that..here. pelicans.Lean. dirEct BEnEfits to BusinEssEs Companies. to.34. well.identified..has.makes. actions.company.cost.in.recover.yrs. airborne.gasoline.Indiana.there. toxic.. as.lb.reduced. savings.releases.its.was.090.pelican. became. Incorporated.years..savings.opportunities.a.the.material. and.that. cleanup.use.the.in.from.natural. 2005). links.. used.known. substance.percent. their.or.less.Annual.projects.amounted.1940s.the.reduced. of.populations.state. and.chemical.chemicals.this. past.noticed.eggshell.showed.Report.of.for.eliminated. with.energy.by. pelican/large-bird. uality.gas.within.identified.annually.reducing. 1970s. the.undertake.involve..estimated.cabinet.analyses.project..company. of.of.reviewed.of.Washington..of.thinning.Pollution. and.project.turn.started.have.2007. methyl.a.the.to.to. workshop.manufacturers.the.and.of.return. provides. other.example. to.period.and.prevention. q .the.Massachusetts. reduced.million.their.over.ethyl. including.the.(Office. populations.III.of.$1.southeast.a.2005.to.1950s.most.makes.most.located.(dross).Region.reduce.Efficiency. with.noted. on. s substantial.600.the.best.Environment.in.examples.September. the. use.or.2006.attendees.27.of. eggshell.reason.businesses.is. include.water.given.with.coated. received.units.frequent.number.because.Washington.actions..of.emissions.TRI. expected.chemical.be.of.000.reduced. per.ketone.savings.begin. Technical. the.of.the.States.program.2. the..a.by.a. tudies.and.emissions.reduction.loan.capital. In.as. during.payback.pollution.year. Ryobi.brown. pilot. was.the.reduction.282 Toxic Chemicals in.production.. p of.facility. as.in. United. while.. save.up..transmission.fabrics. Die.waste.DDT.that.had.implemented.in.waste.opportunities.1998.Resources. it. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.per.of. facility.first. in. improvement.of..representing.Technical..by. was.. In.manufacturing.productivity. expected. populations.. implemented.potential. DDT..the.of.automobile. $465.increased.are.Prevention. thinning.in.lead-free.the.been. (DDT).. Assistance.and.energy.processes.British.within.and.savings.in..production.Although. cost.Acton.for.results.gas.investment. known.aluminum. disposal..efficiency. nnually. an.year.have. the. in.million.Some.and.thermal. lead. purchase. aterial.as.greenhouse.a. The.immediately.to. operating. After.program.440. and.use.947.at. to..the.this.annually.for.000. Recommendations. reduction.Among. and. associated.to.company. reduction.usage.and.investment. reduction.were.pending.(BTUs). ban. environmental.This. handling. ban. Pollution..program. the.Haartz.. with.1997.other.also. the. large-bird. of.by. save.. to.potential. adverse.addition.since.may...including..(98 percent. a .of. Also. ayback.noted.a.EPA.varied.of..castings.toxic.$200.existence.typically. costs. implementation. Engineering.

and..include. of.conducted.pound.replacement)..in.consequence. and.organic.million.of.percent.levels.per.As.chemical.site). year.These. more. ompanies.have.Program. these.reduced. tons. c would.Technical.development.of. resin.Pilot. by. provide.26. savings. to. materials. of.businesses.Small.resulting. vibrant. Chemical.to..use.Pollution.. or.and. are.of.into.2005.live.incentive.can.to. and.. participants.good. potential.of.and. 2000..include.of. helped. In.to).Costs and Benefits 283 According.usage.attractive.toxic.services. the.disposal. Separately. lb.is.reduced.chemical..a.use. other.RETAP. of.Assistance.Massachusetts.recover. reported.existing.services.other. energy.Environmental.saving.from. Department.the. articipation..Toxic.growth.waste.savings.growth.the.. services.2007).that.market.of.(includes.play. $26.per.building. human capacity Building One. tons.pound.P2. Chapter.and.their. Cool.not.percent.for. toxics.Cooperation.retain. governor’s.good.Program.and.by.for.projects.The. part.on.percent. further. while.Environmental.need.Student. reported.Prevention.Loan. by.a.Engineer. reducing.in. landscaping.quality. in.19.Company.usage.facilities.than.in.to.from. as.are. Cities.Program.largest.Program.user.31.respondents.from.the. pollution.toxic.2005).Department.limited. 400.waste.000.516. output.emissions.waste.million.moved.Resources.program.(VOCs). cities.of..mercury.products. among.Quality.has. hazardous.chloride. industries.company.people..by.(DNR).output. equipment.of.percent.18. the.They. Reduction.development.and. could. savings.67.(Menomonie.these.industries.. designation.the.67. Michigan.Cities. over.of. savings.installed.have.make.pound.implemented.outcomes.volatile.54..implementing.long-term..access. growth.water.loans.of.cells.reuse..toxic.existing.reduction.. BTUs.. pollution.work.some. (Michigan. Cities. 2.resulting. and.annual.by.. prevented.Pays.projects.chemical. raw.usage. Reichhold.the.compounds. Reichhold.to.of. Incorporated.. have. also. nonprofit.a.further.first. in. chemical. as. Oxnard.603.(but.to. reduction.by.saw. jobs.or.for.pound.to.reduction.the..(October. support. pollution.Use.and.the. program.reformulation.and.program.the. well.use.of.promote.grants. providers. . beneficial.3M.the. emerging.per.2005. critical.mercury.and.planning. jobs.state.reduction.Cool.2007.Wisconsin.additional...Cool.enabled. (as.by.toxic.P2. Program.Progress. The.by. technical.a.$100. encourage.recycling.and. development.leakages. plan.priority.equipment. revitalize.of.(and. of.32.across.per.be. would.This. Internship.Natural. in.10..program...savings. the.500.cost.industry.toxic. p ..and.to.usage.reduced.that.addition.the.in. create.industries.of.and.jobs.Additional.the.14.the.$2.and. related..... of.. they. levels.Program:.reduction. attracting. Michigan. that.chloralkali.participating. of.methylene.away.tools..to. As. polyester.output. California.this. consulting.. new.Retired.their... the.Business.. helps. retaining. on. and.. 49.This.state.reduce.condense.releases..could..largest.create.good. of. the.opportunities..thereby.to.TRI..also. described.fueling.. from.anticipates.and.in. 19. 16).(RETAP). prevented. million.in..the. to.the.projects.output.P2. the. In.support.industry.membrane. of.places.and.resources..“green”. 1991. total.because.the. people.recycling.survey.. of).a.Communities. economies. economic.good.the. manufactures. assistance.percent.inventory.economic.chemical. 24.has. state.Report.market.

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.program.strong.operations.them.ARB.Award.toxic.toxic.the.motivated. of.reductions.it.their.required.and. pounds. program):.California.The.in.. plans.Air. South.and.can.type.60.up. these..chromium. industrial.hexavalent.their.Spots”.Spots”.cooperated.agencies. precise.next.Metal. toxic.for.the.trend.emission.report.industry.showing. and.ARB.industries.Air. that.that. . have. sample.. the. .program. Council.or..this.to.work. (1).this.look.rather.indicated.the..the..risk.modelers. Arlington. important.of.percent.compiled.air.other.. more.public.points.has.below.development.percent.Some.toxic. the. Massachusetts.with. workers.to.statewide..will.of.analyses. The. to.the.was.emission. is.reductions..a.in.in. the. of. improvements.to.limit.chromium.from.concern. toxics. technology.the.environment.Costs and Benefits 287 facility.emissions..reduced.companies. to.risk.their.of. voluntarily..advance. the.air.over.emissions.their.Spots”.lower. of. air.larger.companies.and.possibility.encouraging. that. Act.them.(2).is. analyze. the. owners.cases.motivated. getting.industrial.. Toxics.organizations.sophisticated.AB.process.. operations.received.can. suggests.ARB.enhancement. factors.addition.are.Quality.to. and.emissions.various. or.to.to.amounts. note.surveyed.cost..this.be.The. Chemistry.survey.Spots”.Spots”. California.of.of.“Hot. by.made. combined.overall.efficient.demonstration.project.air.community.1992.found.assessors.reductions. reductions.the.well. a. million.to. produce. to.worker..the. While.has.a.cancer.in.for. waste.preventing.70.processes.yrs. reduce.. the. 2006.of.individual.new.relations.chemicals.an. has.example.. to.to.emission.risk.used.of. progress.assessment. resulted.600. in.Reductions.are.reported.factors. Inherent.safety.“Hot. It. reduced.of.reductions.exposure. difficult. .and.helping. document.toxic.how. an..conduct. for.and. toxic. ACC Applauds EPA TRI Burden Reduction Measure.that. to.inventory.the.the. facility.while.improvements.been.there.in.of.technologies.and. An.of.companies.(as.the.2.California. production.toxic.risk. program. sources.processes.program.materials..100.emission.emissions. tool. to.the. emissions.pollution.project. both.Toxics. and.ways.“Hot.of..hexavalent.that. industry.but. This.not.Finishing.used. regulation.and.health. toxic.workers.VA.local. surrounding.control.emission.required. residents. emissions.P2. it. the.alerted.in.regulation. Reduction.of. use.Association.simple.control.performance.program.hexavalent.public.good.air.of.of.in.of.mandatory..two.and.the.District.successfully. processes.processes. chemicals.in. Individually.actual. powerful.to.by.their.benefit.the.emissions.varied. The. 90. thus.counties.that. reduction.preparation.consistently.chromium.to.two. that.significant..productivity. on.fewer. results.assessment/notification.cost-effective.“Hot. reported. air. the.substituting.the.the. facilities.chemicals.to.air.actual.of.public.the.company.the. allowed.Management.voluntarily.reduce.due.up.the.a.future. The.up.to.the..improve. in.a.led. .establishing.. toxic.that.streamlining.In.and..of.the.The.the.a.and.law.to. [TURA]. in. of.be.the. to.Coast.left.by.and. in.These. emissions.potential.component.business.that.21.Clean.state. 2588.disclosure. industry..to.with.required.equipment. see.those. skilled. almost.reduce.toxics.“Hot. 2.with. findings.from. changes.for.inventory. combined. Use.Southern. is.combined.with.or.risk. demonstrated.Air.under. BiBliography American. the.

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1-Trichloroethane 1.1.3-pentafluoropropane 1.1.3′-dimethyl1-(3-Chloroallyl)-3.1-Dimethyl.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.2.2-trifluoroethane 1.3.1.4-Dioxane cas 119-93-7 4080-31-3 354-11-0 630-20-6 71-55-6 306-83-2 354-14-3 79-34-5 79-00-5 1464-53-5 1717-00-6 75-34-3 75-35-4 57-14-7 101-68-8 96-18-4 120-82-1 95-63-6 106-88-7 96-12-8 106-93-4 354-23-4 1649-08-7 95-50-1 107-06-2 540-59-0 78-87-5 122-66-7 106-99-0 507-55-1 541-73-1 542-75-6 764-41-0 106-46-7 123-91-1 continued 289 .1′-Methylenebis(4-isocyanatobenzene) 1.2.7-triaza-1-azoniaadamantane.3-Dichloro-1.2-Diphenylhydrazine 1.1-difluoroethane 1.1-Dichloroethane 1.1′-Biphenyl)-4.2-Butylene.2-Dichloro-1.(Dbcp) 1.2.1.1.2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.4-Dichlorobenzene 1.2.2-Tetrachloro-1-fluoroethane 1..hydrazine 1.1.2-Tetrachloroethane 1.1.1′-Bi(ethylene.4-Dichloro-2-butene 1.2-Dichloroethane 1.1-Trifluoro-2.2-Dichloroethylene 1.2-Tetrachloro-2-fluoroethane.1.oxide) 1.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.isomers) 1.2-Dichloropropane 1.oxide 1.1.(Hcfc-121a) 1.1.2-Dichlorobenzene 1.1-Dichloroethylene 1.2.2-Dibromoethane 1.3-Dichloropropene.1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane 1.3-Trichloropropane 1.3-Butadiene 1.2-Dichloro-1.1.2.2-dichloroethane 1.chloride 1.2-Trichloroethane 1.4′-diamine.(mixed.5.2.3-Dichlorobenzene 1.Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers chemicals list with cas numbers chemical name (1.

1-trifluoroethane 2-Chloroacetophenone 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole 2-Methyllactonitrile 2-Methylpyridine 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitropropane 2-Phenylphenol 3.4-D 2.4-Dichlorophenol 2.Butoxyethyl.1.4-D.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine 3.2.4-Dinitrophenol 2.2-pentafluoropropane 3.sulfate 3.3-Dichloro-1.6-Xylidine 2-Acetylaminofluorene 2-Aminonaphthalene 2-Chlor-1.3′-Dichlorobenzidine 3.2-Ethylhexyl.2-tetrafluoroethane 1-Chloro-1.4-Dinitrotoluene 2.4-D.3-Dichloropropene 2.6-Dinitrotoluene 2.2-tetrafluoroethane 2-Chloro-1.6-Trichlorophenol 2.ester 2.1.1.1-difluoroethane 2.3′-Dichlorobenzidine.4′-isopropylidenediphenol 2.4-Diaminotoluene 2.4-D.4.2′.Sodium.1.Butyl.1.3-butadiene 2-Chloro-1.6′-Tetrabromo-4.4.2.1.dihydrochloride 3.6.3-propanedicarbonitrile 1-Chloro-1.3′-Dimethoxybenzidine.4-Dimethylphenol 2.salt 2.6-Trinitrophenol 2.4-D.5-Trichlorophenol 2.4-Diaminoanisole 2.ester 2.4.290 Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name 1-Bromo-1-(bromomethyl)-1.butylcarbamate cas 35691-65-7 354-25-6 75-68-3 79-94-7 78-88-6 95-95-4 88-06-2 88-89-1 94-75-7 1928-43-4 1929-73-3 94-80-4 2702-72-9 94-82-6 615-05-4 95-80-7 120-83-2 105-67-9 51-28-5 121-14-2 606-20-2 87-62-7 53-96-3 91-59-8 126-99-8 2837-89-0 75-88-7 532-27-4 149-30-4 75-86-5 109-06-8 88-75-5 79-46-9 90-43-7 422-56-0 91-94-1 612-83-9 64969-34-2 119-90-4 20325-40-0 563-47-3 542-76-7 55406-53-6 .dihydrochloride 3-Chloro-2-methyl-1-propene 3-Chloropropionitrile 3-Iodo-2-propynyl.ester 2.4-Db 2.

sulfate.amine Allyl.phosphide Ametryn Amitraz Amitrole Ammonia Ammonium.(solution) Ammonium.alcohol Allyl.sodium.chloride alpha-Naphthylamine Aluminum Aluminum.4′-Methylenebis(N.(fibrous.oxide.4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) 4.4′-Diaminodiphenyl.acid Acrylonitrile Alachlor Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl.N-dimethyl)benzenamine 4.forms) Aluminum.salt Acrolein Acrylamide Acrylic.(solution) Aniline Anthracene cas 101-80-4 80-05-7 101-14-4 101-61-1 101-77-9 534-52-1 60-09-3 92-67-1 60-11-7 100-02-7 99-59-2 99-55-8 71751-41-2 30560-19-1 75-07-0 60-35-5 67-64-1 75-05-8 98-86-2 62476-59-9 107-02-8 79-06-1 79-10-7 107-13-1 15972-60-8 116-06-3 309-00-2 107-18-6 107-11-9 107-05-1 134-32-7 7429-90-5 1344-28-1 20859-73-8 834-12-8 33089-61-1 61-82-5 7664-41-7 6484-52-2 7783-20-2 62-53-3 120-12-7 continued .6-Dinitro-O-cresol 4-Aminoazobenzene 4-Aminobiphenyl 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-Nitrophenol 5-Nitro-O-anisidine 5-Nitro-O-toluidine Abamectin Acephate Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acifluorfen.nitrate.ether 4..4′-Methylenedianiline 4.4′-Isopropylidenediphenol 4.Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers 291 chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name 4.

.I.antimony.218 C.I.beryllium.chloride Benzene Benzidine Benzo(Ghi)perylene Benzoic..red.I.ether Bis(2-Ethylhexyl).yellow.benzyl..4 C.and.ether Bis(Tributyltin).I.basic.3 cas 7440-36-0 7440-38-2 1332-21-4 1912-24-9 492-80-8 7440-39-3 22781-23-3 1861-40-1 17804-35-2 98-87-3 71-43-2 92-87-5 191-24-2 98-07-7 98-88-4 94-36-0 100-44-7 7440-41-7 82657-04-3 92-52-4 108-60-1 111-91-1 111-44-4 103-23-1 117-81-7 542-88-1 56-35-9 10294-34-5 7637-07-2 314-40-9 7726-95-6 353-59-3 75-63-8 1689-84-5 1689-99-2 357-57-3 141-32-2 85-68-7 123-72-8 6459-94-5 569-64-2 989-38-8 28407-37-6 2832-40-8 .114 C.arsenic.trifluoride Bromacil Bromine Bromochlorodifluoromethane Bromotrifluoromethane Bromoxynil Bromoxynil.oxide Boron.ether Bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane Bis(2-Chloroethyl).disperse.acrylate Butyl.and.compounds Asbestos.I.compounds Arsenic.chloride Beryllium.trichloride Benzoyl.blue.292 Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Antimony.trichloride Boron.barium.phthalate Butyraldehyde C.direct...and.red.(friable) Atrazine Auramine Barium.basic.compounds Bendiocarb Benfluralin Benomyl Benzal.and.peroxide Benzyl.compounds Bifenthrin Biphenyl Bis(2-Chloro-1-methylethyl).octanoate Brucine Butyl.chloride Benzoyl.acid.green.1 C.adipate Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate Bis(Chloromethyl).

ethyl Chlorine Chlorine.orange..3 Cadmium.Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers 293 chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name C.and.cobalt.15 C.acid Chlorobenzene Chlorobenzilate Chlorodifluoromethane Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane Chloromethyl.yellow.disulfide Carbon.I.solvent.cadmium.methyl.compounds Cobalt..food..and.compounds Creosotes Cresol.solvent.tetrachloride Carbonyl.red.cyanamide Camphechlor Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Carbon.acid Chlorimuron.solvent.dioxide Chloroacetic.compounds Copper.methyl Chlorsulfuron Chromium.7 C.ether Chlorophenols Chloropicrin Chlorotetrafluoroethane Chlorothalonil Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorpyrifos.I.(mixed.and.14 C.isomers) Crotonaldehyde Cumene cas 81-88-9 3118-97-6 842-07-9 97-56-3 7440-43-9 156-62-7 8001-35-2 133-06-2 63-25-2 1563-66-2 75-15-0 56-23-5 463-58-1 5234-68-4 120-80-9 133-90-4 57-74-9 115-28-6 90982-32-4 7782-50-5 10049-04-4 79-11-8 108-90-7 510-15-6 75-45-6 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 107-30-2 25167-80-0 76-06-2 63938-10-3 1897-45-6 75-72-9 5598-13-0 64902-72-3 7440-47-3 7440-48-4 7440-50-8 8001-58-9 1319-77-3 4170-30-3 98-82-8 continued .chromium.compounds Calcium.I..copper.and.yellow.sulfide Carboxin Catechol Chloramben Chlordane Chlorendic.I.

ether.oxide Desmedipham Diallate Diaminotoluene.(mixed.salt Decabromodiphenyl..compounds Cycloate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyfluthrin Cyhalothrin Dazomet Dazomet.[Halon.hydroperoxide Cupferron Cyanazine Cyanide.(Cfc-114) Dichlorotrifluoroethane Dichlorpentafluoro-propane Dichlorvos Dicofol Dicyclopentadiene Diethanolamine Diethyl.sulfate cas 80-15-9 135-20-6 21725-46-2 1-07-3 1134-23-2 110-82-7 108-93-0 68359-37-5 68085-85-8 533-74-4 53404-60-7 1163-19-5 13684-56-5 2303-16-4 25376-45-8 333-41-5 132-64-9 124-73-2 84-74-2 1918-00-9 99-30-9 25321-22-6 75-27-4 75-71-8 75-43-4 75-09-2 76-14-2 34077-87-7 127564-92-5 62-73-7 115-32-2 77-73-6 111-42-2 84-66-2 64-67-5 35367-38-5 101-90-6 94-58-6 EDF067 55290-64-7 60-51-5 2524-03-0 131-11-3 77-78-1 .phthalate Diethyl.phthalate Dicamba Dichloran Dichlorobenzene.2402] Dibutyl.isomers) Diazinon Dibenzofuran Dibromotetrafluoroethane.isomers) Dichlorobromomethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorofluoromethane Dichloromethane Dichlorotetrafluoroethane.resorcinol.phthalate Dimethyl.sulfate Diflubenzuron Diglycidyl.chlorothiophosphate Dimethyl.294 Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Cumene.(mixed.sodium.(Dgre) Dihydrosafrole Diisocyanates Dimethipin Dimethoate Dimethyl.

cyanodithioimidocarbonate Dithiobiuret Diuron Dodine Dodine D-trans-Allethrin Epichlorohydrin Ethoprop Ethyl.Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers 295 chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Dimethylamine Dimethylamine.black.isomers) Dinocap Di-N-propylnitrosamine Dioxin.chloroformate Ethyl.endothall Dipropyl.38 Disodium.glycol.and.thiourea Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic.acrylate Ethyl.isocinchomeronate Direct.chloride Dinitrobutyl..dioxin-like..salt cas 124-40-3 2300-66-5 79-44-7 88-85-7 25321-14-6 39300-45-3 621-64-7 EDF018 122-39-4 2164-07-0 136-45-8 1937-37-7 138-93-2 541-53-7 330-54-1 120-36-5 2439-10-3 28057-48-9 106-89-8 13194-48-4 140-88-5 541-41-3 759-94-4 100-41-4 74-85-1 107-21-1 110-80-5 109-86-4 75-21-8 96-45-7 111-54-6 151-56-4 52-85-7 60168-88-9 13356-08-6 72490-01-8 39515-41-8 55-38-9 51630-58-1 69806-50-4 2164-17-2 7782-41-4 62-74-8 continued ..monoethyl.compounds Diphenylamine Dipotassium.sodium.oxide Ethylene.ether Ethylene.phenol Dinitrotoluene.glycol Ethylene.acid.salts.monomethyl.acid.glycol.ether Ethylene.dipropylthiocarbamate Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene.(mixed.esters Ethyleneimine Famphur Fenarimol Fenbutatin.oxide Fenoxycarb Fenpropathrin Fenthion Fenvalerate Fluazifop-butyl Fluometuron Fluorine Fluoroacetic.dicamba Dimethylcarbamoyl.and.

and.acid Hydrogen.acid Hydrofluoric.mercury.and.anhydride Malononitrile Maneb Manganese.113 Gamma-lindane Glycol.and.sulfate Hydrochloric.alcohol Isosafrole Lactofen Lead.cyanide Hydroquinone Iron.compounds M-Cresol M-Dinitrobenzene Mecoprop Mercury.lead.carbonate Malathion Maleic.acid Freon.ethers Heptachlor Hexachloro-1.3-butadiene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloroethane Hexachlorophene.pentacarbonyl Isobutyraldehyde Isodrin Isofenphos Isopropyl.(Hcp) Hexamethylphosphoramide Hexazinone Hydramethylnon Hydrazine Hydrazine.compounds Linuron Lithium.compounds Merphos cas 51-21-8 69409-94-5 133-07-3 72178-02-0 50-00-0 64-18-6 76-13-1 58-89-9 EDF109 76-44-8 87-68-3 118-74-1 77-47-4 67-72-1 70-30-4 680-31-9 51235-04-2 67485-29-4 302-01-2 10034-93-2 7647-01-0 7664-39-3 74-90-8 123-31-9 13463-40-6 78-84-2 465-73-6 25311-71-1 67-63-0 120-58-1 77501-63-4 7439-92-1 330-55-2 554-13-2 121-75-5 108-31-6 109-77-3 12427-38-2 7439-96-5 108-39-4 99-65-0 93-65-2 7439-97-6 150-50-5 .296 Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Fluorouracil Fluvalinate Folpet Fomesafen Formaldehyde Formic.manganese.

N-Dimethylaniline N.isothiocyanate Methyl.and.ketone Methyl.acid cas 126-98-7 137-42-8 62-75-9 67-56-1 94-74-6 72-43-5 96-33-3 74-83-9 79-22-1 78-93-3 60-34-4 74-88-4 108-10-1 624-83-9 556-61-6 80-62-6 298-00-0 1634-04-4 74-95-3 21087-64-9 90-94-8 MIXTURE 2212-67-1 1313-27-5 76-15-3 108-45-2 108-38-3 88671-89-0 121-69-7 68-12-2 142-59-6 300-76-5 91-20-3 71-36-3 117-84-0 759-73-9 110-54-3 7440-02-0 54-11-5 1929-82-4 EDF038 7697-37-2 139-13-9 continued .trioxide Monochloropentafluoroethane M-Phenylenediamine M-Xylene Myclobutanil N.alcohol N-Dioctyl.iodide Methyl.bromide Methyl.ethyl.compounds Nicotine.and.isobutyl.isocyanate Methyl.phthalate N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea N-Hexane Nickel.sodium Methanamine.nickel.acid Nitrilotriacetic.hydrazine Methyl.ketone Methyl.N-Dimethylformamide Nabam Naled Naphthalene N-Butyl.parathion Methyl.bromide Metribuzin Michler’s.compounds Nitric.salts Nitrapyrin Nitrate.Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers 297 chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Methacrylonitrile Metham.methacrylate Methyl.tert-butyl.chlorocarbonate Methyl..ether Methylene.N-methyl-N-nitroso Methanol Methoxone Methoxychlor Methyl.ketone Mixture Molinate Molybdenum.acrylate Methyl.

mercaptan Permethrin Phenanthrene Phenol cas 98-95-3 1836-75-5 55-63-0 872-50-4 924-42-5 55-18-5 924-16-3 86-30-6 4549-40-0 684-93-5 100-75-4 27314-13-2 90-04-0 95-48-7 528-29-0 95-54-5 132-27-4 19044-88-3 20816-12-0 95-53-4 636-21-5 301-12-2 19666-30-9 42874-03-3 95-47-6 10028-15-6 104-94-9 123-63-7 1910-42-5 56-38-2 106-47-8 120-71-8 106-44-5 100-25-4 1114-71-2 40487-42-1 608-93-5 76-01-7 87-86-5 79-21-0 594-42-3 52645-53-1 85-01-8 108-95-2 .(T-4) O-Toluidine O-Toluidine.hydrochloride Oxydemeton.acid Perchloromethyl.298 Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Nitrobenzene Nitrofen Nitroglycerin N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone N-Methylolacrylamide N-Nitrosodiethylamine N-Nitrosodi-N-butylamine N-Nitrosodiphenylamine N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine N-Nitroso-N-methylurea N-Nitrosopiperidine Norflurazon O-Anisidine O-Cresol O-Dinitrobenzene O-Phenylenediamine O-Phenylphenate..Oso4.methyl Oxydiazon Oxyfluorfen O-Xylene Ozone P-Anisidine Paraldehyde Paraquat Parathion P-Chloroaniline P-Cresidine P-Cresol P-Dinitrobenzene Pebulate Pendimethalin Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachlorophenol Peracetic.oxide.sodium Oryzalin Osmium.

acid Phthalic.S.white) Phospohoric.biphenyls Polycyclic.methyl P-Nitroaniline P-Nitrosodiphenylamine Polychlorinated.S-Tributyltrithiophosphate Saccharin cas 26002-80-2 57-41-0 75-44-5 7803-51-2 7723-14-0 7664-38-2 85-44-9 1918-02-1 51-03-6 29232-93-7 100-01-6 156-10-5 EDF045 1336-36-3 65996-93-2 7758-01-2 128-03-0 137-41-7 106-50-3 41198-08-7 7287-19-6 23950-58-5 1918-16-7 1120-71-4 709-98-8 2312-35-8 107-19-7 31218-83-4 60207-90-1 123-38-6 114-26-1 115-07-1 75-56-9 75-55-8 106-42-3 110-86-1 91-22-5 106-51-4 82-68-8 76578-14-8 10453-86-8 78-48-8 81-07-2 continued .aromatic.oxide Propyleneimine P-Xylene Pyridine Quinoline Quinone Quintozene Quizalofop-ethyl Resmethrin S.alcohol Propetamphos Propiconazole Propionaldehyde Propoxur Propylene Propylene.N-methyldithiocarbamate P-Phenylenediamine Profenofos Prometryn Pronamide Propachlor Propane.(C10–C13) Polychlorinated.bromate Potassium.Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers 299 chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Phenothrin Phenytoin Phosgene Phosphine Phosphorus.(yellow.butoxide Pirimiphos.or.anhydride Picloram Piperonyl.sultone Propanil Propargite Propargyl.alkanes.dimethyldithiocarbamate Potassium.compounds Potassium.

oxide Sulfuric.dimethyldithiocarbamate Sodium.300 Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Safrole sec-Butyl.chemical trans-1.tetrachloride Toluene Toluene.3-Dichloropropene trans-1.azide Sodium.fluoride Sulprofos Tebuthiuron Temephos Terbacil Terephthalic.alcohol Tetrachloroethylene Tetrachlorvinphos Tetracycline.secret.alcohol Selenium.silver.6-diisocyanate Trade.compounds Simazine Sodium.dicamba Sodium.thallium.and.dioxide Titanium.compounds Sethoxydim Silver.and.SECRT 10061-02-6 110-57-6 .isomers) Toluene-2.compounds Thiabendazole Thioacetamide Thiobencarb Thiodicarb Thiophanate-methyl Thiosemicarbazide Thiourea Thiram Thorium.4-diisocyanate Toluene-2.(solution) Sodium.acid tert-Butyl.hydroxide.nitrite Strychnine Styrene Styrene.acid Sulfuryl.hydrochloride Tetramethrin Thallium.and.diisocyanate.4-Dichloro-2-butene cas 94-59-7 78-92-2 7782-49-2 74051-80-2 7440-22-4 122-34-9 26628-22-8 1982-69-0 128-04-1 1310-73-2 7632-00-0 57-24-9 100-42-5 96-09-3 7664-93-9 2699-79-8 35400-43-2 34014-18-1 3383-96-8 5902-51-2 100-21-0 75-65-0 127-18-4 961-11-5 64-75-5 7696-12-0 7440-28-0 148-79-8 62-55-5 28249-77-6 59669-26-0 23564-05-8 79-19-6 62-56-6 137-26-8 1314-20-1 7550-45-0 108-88-3 26471-62-5 584-84-9 91-08-7 TRD.(mixed.selenium.

bromide Vinyl.and.. http://www..isomers) Zinc.(version.Protection.methacrylate Trichlorfon Trichloroacetyl.May.vanadium.chloride Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane Triclopyr.2010).and. .epa.Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers 301 chemicals list with cas numbers (continued) chemical name Triadimefon Triallate Tribenuron.blue Urethane Vanadium.triethylammonium.compounds Zineb cas 43121-43-3 2303-17-5 101200-48-0 75-25-2 2155-70-6 52-68-6 76-02-8 79-01-6 75-69-4 57213-69-1 121-44-8 1582-09-8 26644-46-2 639-58-7 76-87-9 126-72-7 72-57-1 51-79-6 7440-62-2 50471-44-8 108-05-4 593-60-2 75-01-4 81-81-2 1330-20-7 7440-66-6 12122-67-7 Source:.compounds Vinclozolin Vinyl. U.phosphate Trypan.S..gov/triexplorer/.23.5).zinc.chloride Triphenyltin.hydroxide Tris(2.chloride Warfarin.(accessed.Agency.salts Xylene..Explorer.4.TRI.3-dibromopropyl).and.methyl Tribromomethane Tributyltin.(mixed.salt Triethylamine Trifluralin Triforine Triphenyltin.Environmental.acetate Vinyl.

187 TRI chemicals. see Costs and benefits Best management practice (BMP). see Best management practice C CAES. 1 nickel and cobalt fumes and gases. 119. see Air Resources Board Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ). 91 Air Resources Board (ARB). 8 technical assistance program. 231 Carbon tax. 173 Chlorofluorocarbons. 183-184 E-PRTR pollutants. persistence. 9 role of stakeholders. 1. see Assembly Bill Acid rain pollutants. 236 Analog identification methodology (AIM). 232 Carcinogen(s) category 1. 303-315 chemicals list with. 207 Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). see Automotive Recyclers of Washington Assembly Bill (AB). see American Society for Testing and Materials Australia. 237. 9-10 program requirements. 120 combined impact of toxicity. 273 Bhopal. 119-120. 225-226 Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). 210. 121-135 PBT substances. 182 category 2. 8 hexavalent chromium. 232 limits. 139-152 TRI chemicals. 230 USEPA approach. 254 ARB. 9 Office of Pollution Prevention and Technology and Development. 15 Bioconcentration. 204 Carcinogen Identification Committee (CIC). 229 B BAF. 236. 286 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 236. 286 317 . 7. mobility. 121-135 factor (BCF). 238-240 Chemical toxicity rating. 37. and. 10 financial impacts. 51 ADEQ. 178. 8 effectiveness of program. 48 Act on Special Measures against Dioxins. 286 ASTM. 178 Assembly Bill 2588 Air Toxics "Hot Spots" program. 237. see Bioconcentration factor Benefits. 255 long-term exposure to trace quantities. 232 programs. 9 Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act. 119-135 adjustment factor (BAF). 286 Air Toxics "Hot Spots'* Information and Assessment Act (California). 121-135 chemical-specific. see Chief financial officer Chemical composition reporting. 206. 225 Proposition 65. banning of. 286 Hazardous Waste Source Reduction and Management Review Act of 1989. 289-301 CEC. 255 Prop 65. see Arizona Department of Environmental Quality AIM. 48 guidelines identifying it as. 37 Cap and trade greenhouse gases. see Center for Advanced Energy Systems California Air Resources Board. 9 trend analysis. 45-47 Automotive Recyclers of Washington (AROW). 8-10 basis for program. see Commission for Environmental Cooperation Center for Advanced Energy Systems (CEAS). 240-255 Chemical usage reduction planning. 121-135 BMP. see Canadian Environmental Protection Act CFO. see Bioconcentration adjustment factor Baseline inventory. see Analog identification methodology Air mobility factor. 222 CEPA. 277 Chief financial officer (CFO). 212 AROW. 4. 271-272 Chemical usage reporting. 197 BCF. 8 CAS numbers with chemical names. National Pollutant Inventory.Index A AB.

persistence. 279 mobility factors. 178 Envirofacts. 286-287 positive publicity and associated increased revenue. 145 E-PRTR reporting threshold. 277 hazardous air pollutants. 51 Community Right-to-Know Act. 4 Command without control. 287 EMS. 264 proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for. 283 284 Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act. 283 cost reduction. 238-240 Concentration reporting threshold. 40 CAS number. 77 TRI releases ranked by toxicity unit. 255 Command-and-control. Hot Spots. 19 Chromium compounds. see Carcinogen Identification Committee Class I designated chemical substances (Japan). 286 Cool Cities Program. see End-of-Life Vehicle Solutions Corporation Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). 285 program costs. see Development and Reproductive Toxicant (Identification Committee) DDT. 281-282 estimated chemical usage fees. 286 Environmental management system (EMS). see Department of Natural Resources DOE. 283 COPR. 170 ELVS. see Department of Environmental Protection Department of Ecology (DOE). 44 Index Development and Reproductive Toxicant (Identification Committee) (DART). 20. 282-283 environmental impacts. 277 volatile organic compounds. 31 toxicity factors. see Environmental management system End-of-Life Vehicle Solutions Corporation (ELVS). 65. 164-167 by volume (2007). 161 DNR. 282 direct benefits to businesses. 1 Compliance assistance. 285-286 Retired Engineer Technical Assistance Program. 283 Criteria pollutant emissions.318 Chromite ore processing residue (COPR). 19 bioconcentration adjustment factors. persistence. 287 other benefits. 139-152 effective toxicity factor. 168 by toxicity units in doses/capita (2007). 315 combined impact of toxicity. 198 D DART. 295. 128 bioconcentration factor. 272 Composition reporting. see Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DEP. 91. 16 Environmental Cooperative Compliance Program. 229231 Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). 8 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). 50 estimated chemical usage fees. 231 Cobalt fumes and gases. 284-285 toxic chemical use fees. 48 Clean Air Act. 193. 283 . 137-170 bioconcentration adjustment factor. 47 Dioxin. 138 combined impact of toxicity. 277-281 human capacity building. 153-163 yearly TRI releases (pounds) and toxicity units from 1988 through 2007. 278-281 green building development. 229. 16. see Department of Ecology E Effective toxicity factors (ETFs). 275-288 Air Toxics "Hot Spots" Act. and bioaccumulation. 176 Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). 15 Emission inventory. 138-139 TRI release data ranked by total release in pounds (2007). 284 technology transfer and productivity enhancement. 236. 286 health benefits of successful toxic chemical usage reduction program. 283 social learning. 222. 57. 112 polychlorinated. 165 by volume. 282 DDT. 275-277 reduced regulatory burden. 98 persistence factors. 286 California Air Resources Board. 3. 47 potential chemical usage fees for. see Chromite ore processing residue Costs and benefits. 247 release amounts. 193 Department of Natural Resources (DNR). 241-254 Cool Cities Program. 138 toxicity impact. mobility. and bioaccumulation. 255 CIC. 128 Canadian on-site releases. 283 gross domestic product. 169 TRI releases ranked by toxicity unit (2007). 230. 282 Diffuse emissions. mobility.

and toxic substances. 224-225 Proposition 65. 171-190 Automotive Recyclers of Washington. Authorization. Evaluation. 9-10 Technical Resources for Engineering Efficiency program. 185 chemicals toxic to reproduction (category 1). Evaluation. 11-12. 210 penalty.20. 286 Health benefits. see European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register ETFs. 180 PBT substances. see European Pollutant Emission Register E-PRTR. 188 best management practice. 187 flame retardants. 1. 17. 180 evaluation. 173 Washington Department of Ecology. 49 Hexavalent chromium. 277-281 Heavy metals.20. 232-233 P2 planning.S. 176 MERA improvements in amount of mercury used and released. 176 Form A. 221 sewage. 47 GDP.21.S. bioaccumulative. 180 restriction. 7. 18. 181-183 basis for program. 278-281 attorney. 185 chemicals toxic to reproduction (category 2).Index EPA. 256. 105.47 European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR).S. 17. 200 permit. 277 319 H Half-life (HL). 193. 2. 182 category 2 carcinogens. 11-12. 47-48. 187 program requirements. 179 labeling requirements. 10 hazardous waste. 173 program requirements. 177 mercury-containing lamps. 221 New Jersey Technical Assistance Program. see Effective toxicity factors European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER). see U. see Hazardous air pollutants Hazardous air pollutants (H APs). 11. 174 U. 179 Flame re tarda Ms. 187 very persistent. highest priority. 237. 173 European Union Registration. see Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act EPER. 178 banned uses of chemicals in proposed REACH legislation. 1112 restriction. 186 chief financial officer. 187 Green products. and toxic substances. 48 . 197 Green building development. 19. usage reduction program. 255 WUsee Half-life Human capacity building. bioaccumulative.203 Form R. 187 program requirements. Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA. 180 PBT substances. and Restriction of Chemicals program. 194 toxic chemical use. 181-183 basis for program.277 Fugitive emissions. 178 category 1 carcinogens. 187 very persistent. Authorization. 171-176 basis for program. see Gross domestic product Goal setting. 180-188 authorization. EPA 33/50 program. 283-284 I Impact chemicals. 172 effectiveness of program. Environmental Protection Agency 33/50 program. 172-173 role of stakeholders. 203 pollution. 7 Gross domestic product (GDP).277 Financial impact lean and environment program. 173 publicly owned treatment works. 173-175 financial impacts. 180 registration. 183-184 category 2 mutagens. 180 evaluation. and Restriction of Chemicals program. 22. 217-218 U. 44. 236. 187 H APs. 180-188 authorization. 176 P2 Grants Program. 283 Greenhouse gases. 173 Fee. 203. 52 European Union Registration. 177 PBT chemical.

208 Worker and Community Right-to-Know Act of New Jersey. 229-233 cap and trade. 18. 221-222 financial impacts. 215 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). 229 pollution taxes or fees. 179 Incentives. 16 Proposition 65. 220-221 Legislation Act on Special Measures against Dioxins.42. 231 Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP). 176 reduction program. 193 Office of Innovation and Assistance. 15. see Mobility factor j Japan Class I designated chemical substances. 229 Clean Air Act. 119 chloral kali plants and. 230. 305 MF. 61 Inhalation unit risk (IUR). 197. 192-193 technical assistance. 99. 178 toxicity units. 177-178 role of stakeholders. 237. 177 violation of. 63 Inhalation carcinogenicity. 199 Waste Reduction Policy Act (Texas). 222 Omnibus Appropriations Act. 179 program requirements. 19 Pollution Prevention Act. 16. 230 carbon tax. 192 Mercury Education Reduction Act (MERA). 230 USEPA acid rain program. 221 program requirements. 179 Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). 232 chlorofluorocarbons. 179 labeling requirements. 215 Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA). 222 effectiveness of program. 48 pollutant release and transfer register. 202 . 176 improvements in amount of mercury used and released. 287 Minnesota Toxic Pollution Prevention Act. see Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 215 Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI). bioaccumulative toxins program and other targeted chemicals programs. 3. 215 toxics and hazardous waste reduction program. 249 absorption by algae. 11. see Mercury Education Reduction Act Mercury. 283 nonessential use of. 232-233 Progressive Policy Institute. 177 effectiveness of program. 177 switches. 58. 231 Community Right-to-Know Act. 232 programs. 231 command without control. 8 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 1 Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act. 23. 219-220 role of stakeholders. 197. 218-222 basis for program. see Manufacturing Extension Partnership MER A. 46. 287 case studies. 271 largest user of. 231-232 limits. 231 as priority pollutant. 193 Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP). 286 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. 229-231 DDT. 62-63 Inhalation noncarcinogenic toxicity. 230. 219 company examples. 176-179 basis for mercury reduction program. 63 Inhalation reference concentration (RfCi). 236 MEK. 215. 229 greenhouse gases. 62 Ingestion noncarcinogenic toxicity. 232 ozone-depleting chemicals. 208 New Jersey Pollution Prevention Act. see Methyl ethyl ketone Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs). 5. 192 Office of Technical Assistance. 179 financial impacts. 164. 48 L Lean and environment program. 191 use in raw materials. banning of. 194 reporting requirements. 60 IUR. 271 Ingestion carcinogenicity. 207. 8 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. 16 Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act. 51 Air Toxics "Hot Spots'* Information and Assessment Act (California). 193 Emergency Management Agency. 219 Market-based approach.320 Washington Department of Ecology persistent. 230 second-generation policy. 37 Clean Air Act. 177 MEP. 60. see Inhalation unit risk Index M MADEP. 48 specific Class I designated substances. 202. 192.

92-103 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. see Office of Pollution Prevention and Technology and Development Oral reference dose (RfDo). see Material Safety Data Sheet Mutagens. 106 118 Persistent. and toxic (PBT) chemicals. 8 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). and toxic chemicals PCB.229 P PAH. see National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIST. 60 Oral slope factor (SFO). 224-225 program requirements. 91 Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). see National Pollutant Release Inventory O Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 91 solubility. 225 Office of Technical Assistance (OTA). 3. 187 NPI. 92 MOUs. see New Jersey Program for Manufacturing Excellence NJTAP. 202 No observed effect concentration (NOEC). see Office of Technical Assistance Ozone-depleting substances. see Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Office of Innovation and Assistance (OIA). 222-225 basis for program. see Memorandums of Understanding MPCA. see Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PBDE. see National Pollutant Inventory NPO. 187 highest priority. see Office of Pollution Prevention OPPTD. 45-47 National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). 195 Pollution Prevention Act. 105 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). see Persistent. 16. 7 Organic TRI chemicals.Index Michigan. 193. bioaccumulative. 176 PF. 202 Program for Manufacturing Excellence (NJME). 37 New Jersey Center for Advanced Energy Systems. 222 effectiveness of program. 215 OIA. 219 National Pollutant Inventory (NPI). 225 financial impacts. see Polybrominated diphenyl ether PBT chemicals. 255 NIOSH. 176 Persistence. 60 Organic food. 105 basis of. 283 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). 48. 215 Office of Pollution Prevention (OPP). see National Institute of Standards and Technology NJDEP. Cool Cities Program. 1. 59 OECD. 193 Institute of Technology (NJIT). 19 OPP. 224 Worker and Community Right-to-Know Act. 202 Nickel fumes and gases. 105 bioconcentration factor. 202 Office of Pollution Prevention and Technology and Development (OPPTD). 193. see New Jersey Technical Assistance Program 321 NOEC. bioaccumulative. see Polychlorinated biphenyl PCT. 91-103 combined mobility factor. 222 Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). see Occupational Safety and Health Administration OTA. see Persistence factor PFOS. see New Jersey Institute of Technology NJME. 222 Technical Assistance Program (NJTAP). definition of. see New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection NJIT. 185 N National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 35 OSHA. 91-92 TRI chemicals. 208 Toxic Pollution Prevention Act (TPPAX 208 Mobility. 105-118 Persistence factor (PF). see Polychlorinated terphenyl Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 91 volatile substance. see Nonproduct output NPRI. see Perfluorooctane sulfonate . 181. 224 Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. see Minnesota Pollution Control Agency MSDS. 222-224 role of stakeholders. 92 factor (MF) air. 37. see Office of Innovation and Assistance Omnibus Appropriations Act. see No observed effect concentration Nonproduct output (NPO). see Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OEHHA. 105 TRI chemicals. 91 water mobility factor.

208-209 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. 91 solubility. 119 Quantifying mobility. 176 Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). 35 European. 284-285 Index Program to reduce toxic chemical use. 50. see Pollution Prevention Incentives for States Productivity enhancement. 48 North American data. 255 chromium compounds. 254 best management practice. 51 principles. 258-270 proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds forTRI chemicals. 239 Progressive Policy Institute (PPI). 236 nickel and cobalt fumes and gases. 271-272 chemical use reporting. 237. 49-51 international data. 15. 203 voluntary technical assistance programs. see Progressive Policy Institute PPIS. 209-211. 208 New Jersey Pollution Prevention Act. 45. 237. 199 Texas. 238-240 chemical toxicity rating. 92-103 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 119-120. 105-106 persistence factors of TRI chemicals. see Publicly owned treatment works PPA. see Pollutant release and transfer register Public disclosure. 1 core elements. 273 chemical composition reporting. 241-254 public disclosure. 197 unit of product. see Pollution Prevention Act PPI. 52-53 North American data. 272-273 toxic chemical use fee. 16 Pollution Prevention Incentives for States (PPIS). 208 Minnesota Toxic Pollution Prevention Act. 199-200 Waste Reduction Policy Act. 255-256 Public health risk. 207-208 toxics use reduction. 91-92 combined mobility factor. 91 water mobility factor. 232-233 Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE). 57 Publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). 256-271 TRI releases in 2007. state-certified planner. 237-238. 236 analog identification methodology. 237. 197-198 Minnesota. 207 Maine Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction program. 202-207 nonproduct output. 236 potential chemical usage fees forTRI chemicals. 272 Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR). 198-199 Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act. 188 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). 8 PRTR. 255 objectives. 92 mobility factors. 52 international PRTR data from OECD. 36 data access. 271 Material Safety Data Sheet. 176 POTWs. 92 Quantifying persistence. 174 Q QSARs. 240-255 chemical use reduction planning. 202 Pollution tax. 202 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. 91-103 air mobility factor. 255-256 quantitative structure-activity relationships. 255 incentives. 61-65 . 277 Polychlorinated terphenyl (PCT). 52 Japan. 173 Pollution prevention planning.322 Plant-specific technical assistance. see Quantitative structure-activity relationships Quantifying bioconcentration. 197-213 Arizona Department of Environmental Quality. TRI chemicals. definition of. 237. 121-135 bioconcentration adjustment factor. 238 technical assistance.212 best management practice. 236. 211 Washington State Department of Ecology pollution prevention program. 51-53 European data from E-PRTR. 236. 59-89 development of single toxicity factor. 237. 36 Pollution Prevention Act (PPA). 207. 91 volatile substance. 235-273 American Society for Testing and Materials. 206 California Hazardous Waste Source Reduction and Management Review Act of 1989. 208 Worker and Community Right-to-Know Act of New Jersey. 202 New Jersey pollution prevention program. 47. 240 target impact chemicals. 237. 230 Proposition 65. 106-118 Quantifying toxicity. 237. 121 bioconcentration factor. 119-135 BCFS and BAFs of TRI chemicals. 51-52 definition of. 105-118 persistence factor. analysis of.

91 maximum. 222 . 180 costs. 18. 3. 31 Japan. 60 ingestion noncarcinogenic toxicity. 16 RETAP. 66-88 Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). 286 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). 187 program requirements. see Standard Industrial Classification Silent Spring. see Oral slope factor Shareholder power. 284 Solubility definition of. 62 ingestion noncarcinogenic toxicity factor development. 238 TCE. Evaluation. 63 single combined relative toxicity factor development. 285-286 Regulatory discharge standards. 62-63 inhalation noncarcinogenic toxicity factor development. 215-227 California technical assistance program. 178 Regulatory human health risk assessments. 60 Occupational Safety and Health Administration. see South Coast Air Quality Management District SFO. 164 volume.Index ingestion carcinogenic toxicity factor development. 240 323 Regulatory tools. 172. 276 evaluation. 138 total pounds. 197 Registration. 40 dioxin. 231 South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Authorization. 199 T Target impact chemicals. 107 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 287 Specific Class I designated substances (Japan). 105. 176 Release. 181-183 banned uses of chemicals. 60 toxicity factors of TRI chemicals. 236. 188 basis for program. 16. 275. 60-61 inhalation carcinogenicity. and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) program Reduction opportunity assessment. 63 inhalation carcinogenic toxicity factor development. 55 release data. 179 Reporting. 17. Toxics Release Inventory Canadian on-site releases. see Oral reference dose R Rank benchmarking and. 64-65 ingestion carcinogenicity. 153 RCRA. see Resource Conservation and Recovery Act REACH program. 225-226 Center for Advanced Energy Systems. and toxic substances. 173 Regulatory burden. see also Toxic chemical release reporting. 2. see Inhalation reference concentration RfDo. 61 inhalation reference concentration. Evaluation. 61 toxicity unit. 60 inhalation noncarcinogenic toxicity. Toxic chemical release reporting. bioaccumulative. 192 Supcrfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). 59. 180 PBT substances. 55 SIC. Use versus release reporting Reporting burden. Authorization. 283 RfCi. 229 Social learning. 48 mercury. financial impact. see Super fund Amendments and Reauthorization Act SCAQMD. establishment of. 106 persistence factor. 92 mobility factor and. 9 SARA. 120 Regulatory innovation. 286 S Safe harbor numbers. 275. 187 very persistent. 18. 59 oral slope factor. 48 Spin-off. 195 Residual equation. 180 restriction. 57. 180-188 authorization. 187 Regulatory agency. 61 inhalation unit risk. 55. see Registration. see Trichloroethylcne Technical assistance.93 Source reduction. and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) program. see Retired Engineer Technical Assistance Program Retired Engineer Technical Assistance Program (RETAP). 2 toxic impact. see Toxic chemical composition reporting.

see Toxicity factor Toxic chemical composition reporting. 7-13 California (Proposition 65). 191 TRI releases by.91 . 18 Toxic chemical usage fee. 217 Technology clearinghouse. 66-88 Toxicity unit (TU). 224 New Jersey Pollution Prevention Act. Authorization. 218 financial impacts. 8-10 basis for program. 224 program to reduce toxic chemical use. 222-224 role of stakeholders. 222 effectiveness of program.324 lean and environment program (Washington state). 65 ingestion carcinogenicity. 9 safe harbor numbers. 18-19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 241-254 releases compiled in. 59 calculated. 16-17 refinements to TRI. 15. 121-135 bioconcentration factors. 11-12 Material Safety Data Sheet. 11-12 registration. 164-167 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). 216-218 basis for program. 222 effectiveness of program. 12 Toxic chemical release reporting. bioaccumulative. 222 New Jersey Program for Manufacturing Excellence. 137 chemical-specific. 217-218 program requirements. 9 toxicity factors. 20-34 Omnibus Appropriations Act. 219 company examples. 224-225 program requirements. see also Toxic chemical release reporting. 224 Office of Innovation and Assistance (Maine). 66-88 VPin. 216. 215 Pollution Prevention Fund. 215-216 Manufacturing Extension Partnership. 16 Pollution Prevention Act. 258-270 proposed chemical usage concentration reporting thresholds for. TRI programs in other countries chemicals bioconcentration adjustment factors. 221 program requirements. 215 New Jersey Institute of Technology. 220 Technical Resources for Engineering Efficiency (TREE) program. 216 effectiveness of program. 137 comparison of use and releases. see Quantifying toxicity Toxicity factor (TF). 15. 12. 16 role of stakeholders. 62 ingestion noncarcinogenic. 258-270 Toxic chemical usage reduction program. 15-34 basis for program. 222-225 basis for program. 19 persistent. 92-103 persistence factors. 217-218 program requirements. 221-222 financial impacts. 219-220 role of stakeholders. 63 TRI chemicals. 216-217 role of stakeholders. 9 role of stakeholders. Waste Reduction Policy Act. 208 TF.272-273 Technical Resources for Engineering Efficiency program. 11 program requirements. 9 Index European Union (Registration. 8 effectiveness of program. 9-10 program requirements. 222 New Jersey Technical Assistance Program. and toxic chemicals. 11-12 basis for program. 216 effectiveness of program. 218 financial impacts. 277-281 Toxicity. 272 Technology transfer.91. 19 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. 64 chemical-specific. 237-238. 220-221 Maine toxics and hazardous waste reduction program. 216-217 role of stakeholders. and Restriction of Chemicals program). 16 program requirements. Evaluation. 19 dioxin. 15-16 chromite ore processing residue. 219 Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act. 207. 19-20 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. 20 limitations of TRI program. 121-135 mobility factors. 11 reproductive toxicant. 16. 217 value stream mapping. 10 financial impacts. 106-118 potential chemical usage fees for. 282 basis for program. 284-285 Texas. 15 financial impacts. 225 financial impacts. 215 Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute. 218-222 basis for program. 9 Toxics Release Inventory.

278-281 impacts on reducing toxic chemical releases. 164-167 ranked by volume. 35 53. 51-53 European data from E-PRTR. 47-48 fugitive emissions. see Technical Resources for Engineering Efficiency program Trend analysis. 239 ranked by toxicity unit. 59 estimated chemical usage fees. 20 refinements. 48 heavy metals. 231 individual facilities. see Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute U Unit of product. 105 P2 Grants Program. see Program to reduce toxic chemical use reduction planning. 57 TRI top 10 chemicals. 170 releases (2007) analysis of. 172-173 role of stakeholders. 51-52 acid rain pollutants. 16 TRI programs in other countries. 37 Canadian on-site releases (2008). 120 cap and trade. 171-176 basis for program.Index chromium release data. 231 compliance costs. 172 effectiveness of program. 51 Australian National Pollutant Inventory. 238 costs. see U.S. 37. 173-175 financial impacts. 191 composition reporting. 276 criteria pollutant emissions. 15. 203 Usage concentration reporting thresholds for. 48-51 National Pollutant Release Inventory. 276 emphasis of. 35 ozone-depleting substances. 193 state-certified planner. 36 TU. 44 diffuse emissions.45-47 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 52 international PRTR data from OECD. 197 integrated approach to. 61 USEPA. 247 fees. see Toxicity unit TUR. 37-44 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. 49 Japan. 137 TRI. 58 survey. 47 greenhouse gases. Environmental Protection Agency . 15 limitations. 22-34 reporting requirements. 204 California. 153-163 United States. 38-44 criteria pollutant emissions. see Toxics Release Inventory Trichloroethylene (TCE). 287 environmental conditions. 92 Web site. 44-48 European Pollutant Emission Register. 231 bioconcentration. 48 Act on Special Measures against Dioxins. 137 water mobility factor. 173 toxicity factors. 37 325 Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory program. 55-58 information compiled into. 215 Toxics Use Reduction Act. 169 releases (1988 through 2007). 57 toxic impact index. 18-19 release data. 193 New Jersey. 48 PRTR principles. 47 European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. 52-53 North American data. 16 success stories. 197 technical assistance. 193 Maine. 60 PBT chemicals. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 277 U. 173 program requirements. see Minnesota Toxic Pollution Prevention Act TREE program. see also Toxics Release Inventory accessing PRTR data. 137 Toxics use reduction (TUR). see Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act TPPA. 52 funding decline. 240 TRI Explorer. 271-272 reporting. 16.S. 44 IUR number. 278-281 program to reduce.44 33/50 program. 237. 173 acid rain. 2 toxicity factors. see Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act TUR I. see Toxics use reduction TURA. 168. 47 European Union. 59 persistence factor. 12.

202 WRPA. 219 company examples. see Value stream mapping W Washington (state) Automotive Recyclers of Washington. 8 Index program requirements. Food and Drug Administration U. 177 effectiveness of program.S. 199-200 Technical Resources for Engineering Efficiency. 222 effectiveness of program. 283 Volatile substance. see Washington State Dental Association WSHA. 219-220 role of stakeholders. see Washington State Hospital Association Value stream mapping (VSM). 178 Washington State Hospital Association (WSHA). 191-195 comparison of use and releases. 192-193 New Jersey pollution prevention program. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). see U. see Volatile organic compounds Volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 193 Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act. 177-178 role of stakeholders. see Worker and Community Right-to-Know Act WMS. 179 . 91 VP. 221 program requirements. 217-218 program requirements. 176-179 basis for mercury reduction program.326 Use versus release reporting. see Washington Manufacturing Services Worker and Community Right-to-Know (WCRTK) Act. 282 basis for program. 178 Waste Reduction Policy Act (WRPA). 217 Washington Manufacturing Services (WMS). 220-221 State Department of Ecology pollution prevention program. 193-195 US FDA. 179 financial impacts. bioaccumulative toxins program and other targeted chemicals programs. 193 Maine toxics and hazardous waste reduction program. 208 Water mobility. 216-217 role of stakeholders. 218 financial impacts. see Vapor pressure VSM. 216 effectiveness of program. 219 Washington State Dental Association (WSDA).S. 221-222 financial impacts. 218-222 basis for program. 91 VOCs. 216. 179 lean and environment program. 191-192 Maine Emergency Management Agency. 220 Vapor pressure (VP). see Waste Reduction Policy Act WSDA. 92 WCRTK Act. 207. 178 Department of Ecology persistent.

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