A Project Report On


Sr. No. Chapter/Sub-chapter LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.3 Earth sun geometry Energy from the sun Photovoltaic energy Necessity Objectives Page No.


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6 2.6.1 2.7 Global Energy Resources Sun as the source of radiation solar radiation basics Types of solar photovoltaic Solar trackers Introduction to solar trackers Maintenance Tracker mounts types basic PV cell constructions Cell Module and Array OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.8 I-V Curve P-V Curve solar tracers

2.8.1 Sun Tracking System


Tracker Types 2.9.1 Single Axis Trackers a) Horizontal Single Axis Tracker (HSAT) b) Vertical Single Axis Tracker (VSAT) c) Tilted Single Axis Tracker (TSAT) d) Polar Aligned Single Axis Trackers (PASAT) 2.9.2 Dual Axis Trackers a)Tip – Tilt Dual Axis Tracker (TTDAT) b) Azimuth-Altitude Dual Axis Tracker (AADAT)

2.10 2.11

Tracker Type Selection Drive types
2.11.1 Active tracker 2.11.2 Passive tracker 2.11.3 Chronological tracker

HYBRID POWER GENERATION [WIND AND SOLAR] 5.4 5.1 3.4.2 5.1 4.3 3.3 4. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 3.6 3.4 3. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 4.4 System Operation Experimental setup with photographs Results at various stages may be compared with various inputs Output at various stages with same waveforms 4.3 5.7 Block Diagram Microcontroller Atmega8 Overall circuit design Software design Algorithm/flowcharts Descriptions Some mathematical treatment or related information is required 4.2 4.5 3.3.1 4.2 Wind speed Vs current Voltage Vs speed of generator .4.2 3.1 5.5.1 5.2 4.5.5 Comparison with fixed panel system Comparison with plc based solar tracking system Comparison of above results by at least two methods Justification for the differences or error 5.5 Block diagram Wind power generation Anemometer Observation Table For Variable Wind Speed Observation table for output of wind mill 5.

4 Conclusions Future Scope Applications Advantages .3 6.2 6.5. CONCLUSIONS 6.7 Calculation for efficiency Tariff calculation 6.1 6.6 5.

LIST OF FIGURES Figures 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Description Earth sun geometry Structure of solar cell Monocrystalline cell polycrystalline or multicrystalline cell Amorphous cells PV cell structure and operation schematic Basic PV cell construction Actual construction of a module in a frame Current versus voltage (i-v) characteristics of the PV module in sunlight and in dark Power versus voltage (p-v) characteristics of the PV module in sunlight Horizontal Single Axis Tracker (HSAT) Tilted Single Axis Tracker (TSAT) Azimuth-Altitude Dual Axis Passive trackers Tracking system of typical solar system LCD Display Panel 2 Line 16 Character Solar panel specifications Stepper motor specifications Working of stepper motor Page No 13 15 16 16 17 18 19 20 22 22 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 26 27 28 30 32 33 34 35 36 .

20 Coil magnetization of stepper motor 37 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Gear system Pin Configurations of Atmega8 Block diagram of microcontroller Atmega8 Flow chart of solar tracking program ULN 2003 Logic diagram of ULN 2003 Connection of stepper motor with driver IC-ULN 2003 Stepper Motor Connections Positive voltage regulators Negative voltage regulators Variable voltage regulators Overall circuit design of solar tracker system Experimental setup with photographs Wind power generation Block diagram of hybrid power generation Observation taken on Anemometer Graph for wind speed Vs current 40 42 45 46 48 49 50 51 55 55 56 57 58 59 62 64 65 .

Page NO 2 Power versus voltage (p-v) characteristics of the PV modue in sunlight 3 wind speed Vs current . 1 Description Current versus voltage (i-v) characteristics of the pv module in sunlight and in dark.List Of Graph Graph NO.

2. 8. 7. Description Technical performance of stepper motor Page No Results at various stages compared with various inputs Comparison with fixed panel system Comparison with plc based solar tracking system Justification for the differences or error Variable wind speed wind speed vs current Voltage Vs speed of generator 4.List Of Table Table No. 5. 3. . 1. 6.

1. Often these collector panels have automated machinery that keeps the facing the sun. the uses solar energy is currently applied to will be noted. They are arrays of solar panels arranged in simple plane. One such alternative is solar energy. These two components are collector and storage unit. Much of worlds required energy can be supplied directly by solar power. focusing and passive collectors. Even fossil fuels owe their origins to the sun. The radiation that does reach the earth is the indirect source of nearly every type of 0energy used today.000 tons of hydrogen to helium every second process creates heat and electromagnetic radiation. infrared-red light and ultraviolet radiation) streams out in to space in all directions. In practice. The collector simply collects radiation that falls on it and converts fraction of it in to other forms of energy (either electricity and heat or heat alone). The heat remains in sun and is instrumental in maintaining the thermonuclear reaction. two components are required to haw a fictional solar energy generator. The practicality of doing so will be examined as well as the benefits and drawbacks. Only a very small fraction of the total radiation produced reaches the earth. INTRODUCTION 1. and reels it when the productivity drops. The additional energy they take in due to the correction of facing more than compensates for the energy needed to drive the extra machinery. The exceptions are geothermal energy. too. At a night or during heavy cloud cover eg. facing and cleanliness.1 Introduction In today‟s climate growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern. 000. Due to the nature of solar energy. The storage unit can hold the excess energy produced during the period of maximum productivity. the electromagnetic radiation (including visible light. and have output that is directly related to a few variables including size. . The three types of collectors are flat plate. The sun creates its energy throw a thermonuclear process that converts about 650. the amount energy produced by the collector will be quite small. In addition. Methods of collecting and solar energy vary depending on the uses planed for the solar generator. Flat plate collectors are more commonly used type of collector today. These variables all affect the amount of radiation that falls on the collector. backup power supply is usually added. Solar furnaces are examples of this types of collector. The storage unit is required because of the non-constant nature of solar energy. at a certain times only a very small amount of radiation will be received. and nuclear fission and fusion. These are currently used only in a few scattered areas. Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced by directly by the sun and collected elsewhere. they were once living plants and animals whose life was dependant up on the sun. In general. alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. for the situation when the amount of energy required is greater than both what is being produced and what is soared in the container. Focusing collectors are essentially flat-plate collectors with optical devices arranged to maximize the radiation falling on focus of the collector. They can be of nearly any size. More still can be provided indirectly. there are three types of collectors and many forms of storage units. normally the earth.

the earth‟s axis is not right angles to this surface. One other problem with focusing collectors in general is due to temperature.1. and if they get too hot they can even be permanently damaged. Passive collectors are completely different from the other two types of collectors.2 Earth-Sun Geometry Our project is based on microcontroller system for solar tracking system. The passive collectors absorb radiation and convert it to heat naturally. All objects have this property to some extent. Radiation reflected off the ground will be used by flat-plane panels but usually will be ignored by focusing collectors (in snow covered regions. without being designed and built to do so. 1. and weather conditions. The focusing collectors by their very nature can create much higher temperatures and need more safe guards to protect their silicon components. time of day. Often their natural ability to convert radiation to heat enhanced in some way or another (by being painted black. But this is not always possible because of earth rotation. The fragile silicon components that absorb the incoming radiation lose efficiency at high temperatures.Although they can produce far greater amounts of energy at single point than the flatplane collectors can. time of year. We use solar panels to track the power from sun rays. Because of rotation the earth‟s surface moves at the equator at a seed of about 467m per second. The term earth rotation refers to the spinning of our planet on its axis. a large surface area is required to collect the energy at a useful rate. On this plane. Because the sun does not deliver that much energy to any one place at any one time. but only some objects (like walls) will be able to produce enough heat to make it worthwhile. It depends on location. The major disadvantages of solar energy are the amount of sun light that arrives at the earth surface is not constant. . Maximum power can get when sun is at 90 to panel. but inclined at an angle of about 23. for example) and a system for transferring the heat to a different location is generally added. they lose some of the radiation that the flat plane panels do not.5 from the perpendicular. The ecliptic plane can be defined as two-dimensional flat surface that geometrically intersects the earth‟s orbital path around the sun. this reflected radiation can be significant).

Today. the British astronomer John Herschel used a solar thermal collector box (a device that absorbs the sunlight to collect heat) to cook food during an expedition to Africa. When photons strike a photovoltaic cell. so the electrons naturally migrate to the surface. homes. The photovoltaic cell is the basic building block of a photovoltaic system.1. pass right through. holes are formed. calculator. people use the sun energy for lost things. No statistics are being collector on solar plants that produce less than 1 megawatt of electricity. they are also used to power watches. so there may be smaller solar plants in a number of other states. These photon contain various amount of energy corresponding to the different wave length of the solar spectrum. is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical energy. When the two surfaces are connected through an external load. and lighted road solar power plant indirectly generate electricity when the heat from solar thermal collector s is used to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power generator. 1) Heat water –for use in home. Solar energy can be converted in to thermal (or heat) energy and used to. Solar energy can be converted into other forms of energy. A photovoltaic cell is non-mechanical device usually made from silicon alloys. 1.inside greenhouses. A photovoltaic cell. When many electrons each carrying a negative charge. they may be reflected. Solar energy can be converted to electrical in two ways: Photovoltaic (PV device) or solar cells change sunlight directly in to electricity. swimming pools.3 Photovoltaic energy Photovoltaic energy is the conservation of sunlight into electricity. such as heat and electricity. 2) Heat space. However. one cell only . electricity flows. or particles of solar energy. Only the absorbed photons provide energy to generate electricity. Sunlight is composed of photons. Special treatment of the material surface during manufacturing make the front surface of the cell more respective to free electrons. or be absorbed.1. 10 of these are in California and 5 in Arizona. the resulting imbalance of charge between the cells front and back surface create a voltage potential like negative and positive terminals of a battery. commonly called a solar cell or PV cell. Structure of photovoltaic frame electron leave their positions. Solar energy is the sun‟s rays (solar radiation) that reach the earth. travel towards the surface of the cell.1. and other buildings. When enough sunlight (energy) is absorbed by the material (a semiconductor). electrons are dislodged from materials atoms. buildings.2 Energy from the Sun The sun has produced energy for billions of years. PV systems are often used in remote locations that are not connected to the electric grid. In 1830s. Individual cell can vary in size from about 1 centimetre (1/2 inches) to about 10 centimetres (4 inches) across. Out of the 15 known solar electric generating units operating in the United States at the end of 2006.

Historically. Further research is being conducted to raise this efficiency to 20 percent. like batteries. requiring no water for system cooling and generating no by-products. The term array refers to the entire generating plant. To increase power output. PV has been used at remote sites to provide electricity. Climate condition (e. solid state devices that convert DC power in to AC. could. Having developed maturity in the space applications. When DC from photovoltaic cells is used for commercial applications or sold to electric using the electric grid.g.S. in turn its performance. and are essential for concentration PV system. The performance of a photovoltaic array is dependent upon sunlight. The PV effect was discovered in 1839 by French physicist Becquerel. the PV technology is now spreading into the terrestrial applications ranging from powering remote sites to feeding the utility lines. cells are electrically connected into a package weather-tight module. 2) PV array environmental impact is minimal. It remained in the laboratory until 1954. fog) have a significant effect on the amount of solar energy received by a photovoltaic array and. Photovoltaic cell. converts light directly into electricity. The photovoltaic cell. whether it is made up of one or several thousand modules. it must be converted to alternating current (AC) using inverters. Some advantages of photovoltaic system are: 1) Conversion of sunlight to electricity is direct. The photovoltaic effect is the electrical potential developed between two dissimilar materials when their common junction is illuminated with radiation of photons. The number of modules connected together in an array depends on the amount of power output needed. when Bell Laboratories produced the first silicon solar cell. Modules can be further connected to from an array. space programs for its high power capacity per unit weight. so bulky mechanical generator systems are unnecessary. thus.produces 1 or 2 watts which isn‟t enough power for most applications. Since then it has been an important source of power for satellites. Most current technology photovoltaic modules are about 10 percent efficient in converting sunlight. In the future PV arrays may be located at sites that are also connected to the electrical grid enhancing the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. It soon found application in the U. generates direct current (DC) which is generally used for small loads (electronic equipment). The project discusses a light tracking servo model which has been built to simulate the movement of a pv array .

2 Necessity In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern. alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels is solar energy Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly by the sun and collected elsewhere. 1. The set of Light Intensify Sensors give the input to the and it operates Stepper motors with mechanism 1. infra-red light. The microcontroller give the input to the Stepper motor and operate with gear mechanism. 1. The existing system receives sun energy only for new hours.000. The radiation that does reach the Earth is the indirect source of nearly every type of energy used today. The solar panel will move as per the sun movement to collect maximum possible light energy from Morning 6.5 About the solar tracking The solar tracker is a device. Only a very small fraction of the total radiation produced reaches the Earth.000 tons of hydrogen to helium every second.00 PM .00 AM to Evening 6. The sun creates its energy through a thermonuclear process that converts about 650. This project operates a solar panel to constantly face sun at 90 degrees to produce maximum voltage.3 About the project This project is designed to improve existing solar collection system to provide higher efficiency for lower cost. Here the proposed system is designed to observe the sun light for the available maximum hours. which is really not economical when compare the cost. The process creates heat and electromagnetic radiation. which we are spending. The electromagnetic radiation (including visible light.4 Objectives This project operates a solar panel to constantly face sun at 90 degrees to produce maximum voltage. It will move the solar panel from east to west to correct for the durational movement of the Sun in the sky. It can move the solar panel from east to west also to correct for the durational movement of the Sun in the sky. normally the Earth. and ultra-violet radiation) streams out into space in all directions. The heat remains in the sun and is instrumental in maintaining the thermonuclear reaction. which points a solar panel at the brightest part of the sky in order to achieve maximum power output from the solar panel. for example – 12 hours a day.1.

The required fuel would the have to be mined from sea water or else breeder reactor technology would have to be developed and disseminated to countries wishing to meet their additional demand in this way. The needed levels are in excess of 10 TW. The three prominent options to meet this demand for carbon-neutral energy are fossil fuel use in conjunction with carbon sequestration. the terrestrial uranium resource base would be exhausted in 10 years. equal to the volume of lake superior. Hence to contribute significantly to global primary energy supply. the success of carbon sequestration on the required scale for sufficiently long time has not yet been demonstrated. LITERATURE SURVEY 2. this yearly global emission of CO2 would occupy 12500 km3. A 1%leak rate would nullified the sequestration effort in a century. Beyond finding storage volume carbon sequestration also must prevent leakage. Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 level at even twice their preanthropogenic value will require amounts of carbon-neutral energy by mid-century. Once that level of deployment was reached. The threat of climate change imposes a second requirement on prospective energy resource.000 times the amount of CO2 stored annually in Norway„s sleipner reservoir. increasing after 2050 to support economic growth for an expanding population. or 13 terawatts TW). it is 600 times the amount of CO2 injected every year into oil wells to super productions. Although many scientists are optimistic. a prospective resource has to be capable of providing at least 1-10TW of power for an extended period of time. The remaining global practically exploitable hydroelectric sources is less than 0.1 Global Energy resources Current global energy consumption is 4. even with aggressive conservation efforts.4. which is equivalent to an instantaneous yearly-averaged consumption rate of 13*1012 W (13 trillion watts. far too short a time to have lasting impact on climate change. The third option is to exploit renewable energy sources. Nuclear power is a second conceptually viable option. and solar power. .5TW. of which solar energy is by far the most prominent. Producing 10TW of nuclear power would required construction of a new 1 giga-wattelectric nuclear fission plant somewhere in the world every other day for the next 50 year. 100 times amount of natural gas the industry draws in and out of geologic storage in the united states each year to smooth seasonal demand. They must produce energy without the emission of additional greenhouse gases. and 20. The total geothermal energy at the surface of earth.1*1020J annually. nuclear power. The challenge for carbon sequestration is finding secure storage for the 25 billion metric tons of CO2 produced annually on earth. the cumulative energy in all the tides and ocean current in the world amounts to less than 2TW. Projected population and economic growth will more than double this global energy consumption rate by the mid -21st century and more than triple rate by 2100. At atmospheric pressure.

Solar energy storage and distribution are critical to match demand.7 to 1. is 12TW. The zone from 0. It is estimated that 90% of the energy is generated in the region 0 to 0.000TW.for comparison the solar constant at the top of the atmosphere is 170. A schematic representation of the structure of sun is shown in figure. the temperature drops to about 130000K & the density to 70 kg /m3. Within this zone the temperature drops to about 5000K & the density to about 10-5 kg/m3 . As seen from the earth the sun rotate on its axis once about every four weeks . which contains 40% of the mass of the sun. It is clear that solar energy can be exploited on the needed scale to meet global energy demand in a carbon.16% of the earth‟s land area with 10% efficient solar cell is equal to that produced by 20000 1-GWe nuclear fission plants. the temperature of innermost region. the equator takes about 27 days & the polar regions takes about 30 days for each rotation.23R (where R is the radius of the sun). 120.0R is known as convective zone. of which on average.2 Sun as the source of radiation The sun is a sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter with a diameter of 1. at the temperature of many million degrees. At a distance 0. the core estimated between 8*106 to 40*106 K & the density about 100 times of that of water. The sun.39*109 m & is about 1. However it does not rotate as a solid body.neutral fashion without significantly affecting the solar resource. of which only a small fraction could be practically extracted. some mass have been lost in the reaction & converted in to energy this energy is produced in the interior of the solar sphere. the one to be considered the most important is the process in which four hydrogen atoms combined to form one helium atom.5*1011 m away from the earth.integrated over all the land area of the continents. 2. the amount of globally extractable wind power has been estimated by the IPCC and others to be 2-4TWe.000TW strikes the earth. in effect is a continuous fusion reactor with its constituents gases as the –containing vessel retained by the gravitational forces. the mass of the helium nucleus is less than that of the four protons.7R from the centre. here convection process begin to become important. several fusion reactor have been suggested to be source of energy radiated by the sun. The sun has an effective black body temperature of 5762 K. The amount of produced by covering 0.

Other features of the solar surface are small dark areas called sun pores. We can capture and convert solar radiation into useful forms of energy. The outer layer of convective zone is called photosphere. which are of same order of magnitude as the convective cells. The age of the photosphere is sharply defined. 2. The photosphere is the source of the most of the solar radiation. .3. & larger dark areas called sun spots which vary in size. using a variety of technologies.1 Basic Principles Every location on Earth receives sunlight at least part of the year. even though it is of low density.3 Solar Radiation Basics Solar radiation is a general term for the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun. 2. such as heat and electricity.Fig-Earth sun geometry The sun surface appears to be composed of granules with the dimension of the cell varying from 1000 to 3000 m. & the lifetime of few minutes. The technical feasibility and economical operation of these technologies at a specific location depends on the available solar radiation or solar resource. The amount of solar radiation that reaches any one "spot" on the Earth's surface varies according to these factors:      Geographic location Time of day Season Local landscape Local weather. It is essentially opaque as the gaseous of which it is composed of strongly ionised & able to absorb & emit a continuous spectrum of radiation.

When the sun's rays are vertical.3. which occur each year on or around March 23 and September 22. The 23. The rotation of the Earth is responsible for hourly variations in sunlight.Because the Earth is round. which lie in the middle latitudes. However the presence of vast oceans moderates the hotter summers and colder winters one would expect to see in the southern hemisphere as a result of this difference. the longer they travel through the atmosphere. In the early morning and late afternoon.5º tilt in the Earth's axis of rotation is a more significant factor in determining the amount of sunlight striking the Earth at a particular location. but also because the sun is nearly overhead. becoming more scattered and diffuse. Because the Earth is round. When the sun is nearer the Earth. the greatest amount of solar energy reaches a solar collector around solar noon. The more slanted the sun's rays are. The Earth is nearer the sun when it's summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern hemisphere. scattered. Countries like the United States. (near 40º latitude) receive nearly three times more solar energy in June than they do in December. The Earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit and is closer to the sun during part of the year. The sun's rays are far more slanted during the shorter days of the winter months. the sun is low in the sky. and reflected by the following:        Air molecules Water vapour Clouds Dust Pollutants Forest fires Volcanoes. and because of the tilted axis of rotation. Days and nights are both exactly 12 hours long on the equinoxes. Tilting results in longer days in the northern hemisphere from the spring (vernal) equinox to the fall (autumnal) equinox and longer days in the southern hemisphere during the other six months. Colorado. 2. the Earth's surface receives a little more solar energy. some of it is absorbed. On a clear day. these areas receive no sun at all during part of the year. the Earth's surface gets all the energy possible. . the sun strikes the surface at different angles ranging from 0º (just above the horizon) to 90º (directly overhead).2 Diffuse and Direct Solar Radiation As sunlight passes through the atmosphere. Its rays travel further through the atmosphere than at noon when the sun is at its highest point. receive more solar energy in the summer not only because days are longer. Cities like Denver. the frigid Polar Regions never get a high sun.

some absorbing materials such as photovoltaic (PV) cells convert the incident photons into electrical energy. Scientists measure the amount of sunlight falling on specific locations at different times of the year. Typically. A PV panel has one or more PV modules. Figure 3 shows the schematic structure and operation of a PV cell. The top layer consists of a thin sheet of phosphorus-doped (negatively charged or n-type) silicon. which consist of connected PV cells. cloudy days. They then estimate the amount of sunlight falling on regions at the same latitude with similar climates. Measurements of solar energy are typically expressed as total radiation on a horizontal surface.This is called diffuse solar radiation. it may be reflected. Working of PV cells When light hits a surface. The solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface without being diffused is called direct beam solar radiation. The sum of the diffuse and direct solar radiation is called global solar radiation. Atmospheric conditions can reduce direct beam radiation by 10% on clear. this energy is in the form of heat. Direct estimates of solar energy may also be expressed as watts per square meter (W/m2). dry days and by 100% during thick. Absorption of light is simply the conversion of the energy contained in the incident photon to some other form of energy. transmitted. or absorbed. however. Radiation data for solar electric (photovoltaic) systems are often represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter (kWh/m2). Radiation data for solar water heating and space heating systems are usually represented in British thermal units per square foot (Btu/ft2). a silicon PV cell contains two layers. Fig-PV cell structure and operation schematic Typically. Underneath this sheet is a thicker . or as total radiation on a surface tracking the sun.

and its overall efficiency (FSEC 2005). The power of a PV cell depends on the intensity of the solar radiation. 2005).6 volts dc under opencircuit. Amorphous 2.they are effectively a slice from a crystal. A unique characteristic of these two layers is that a positive-negative (pn) junction is created when these two materials are in contact. no-load conditions. When sunlight hits the PV cell. it will have a smooth texture and you will be able to see the thickness of the slice.5 to A pn junction is actually an electric field that is capable of creating an electrical potential when sunlight shines on the PV cell. The voltage potential created by a typical silicon PV cell is about 0.layer of boron-doped (positively charged or p-type) silicon. They are also rigid and must be mounted in a rigid frame to protect them. Efficiency of commercially available PV panels is typically 7-17% (Green et al.4.4. 2. Monocrystalline Fig-Monocrystalline cell Monocrystalline cells are cut from a single crystal of silicon. These are the most efficient and the most expensive to produce. Polycrystalline (or Multicrystalline) 2. PV cells can be categorized into different types according to their component materials and structural features.4.4 Photovoltaic Panels There are 3 basic types of construction of PV panels though all use silicon 2. Monocrystalline 2.4. The efficiency of each individual PV cell directly determines the efficiency of the PV panel. the surface area of the PV cell. This creates an electric current flow when the PV cell is connected to a load. causing the p-type layer to have a higher voltage potential than the n-type layer. .1. some of the electrons in the p-type silicon layer will be stimulated to move across the pn junction to the ntype silicon layer. In appearance.

4. it is flexible. the whole solar panel can be flexible.4.These cells are slightly less efficient and slightly less expensive than monocrystalline cells and again need to be mounted in a rigid frame. consisting of a large number of crystals. 2. and if manufactured on a flexible surface. They have a speckled reflective appearance and again you can you see the thickness of the slice.2. Due to the amorphous nature of the thin layer.2 Polycrystalline (or Multicrystalline) Fig-polycrystalline or multicrystalline cell Polycrystalline (or Multicrystalline) cells are effectively a slice cut from a block of silicon. These are the least effient and least expensive to produce of the three types. .3 Amorphous Fig-Amorphous cells Amorphous cells are munufactured by placing a thin film of amorphous (non crystalline) silicon onto a wide choice of surfaces.

One characteristic of amorphous solar cels is that their power output reduces over time. based on solid-state inorganic semiconductors.5 Types of solar photovoltaic cells PV cells can be divided in to three categories 1. . & transferred to external wires for electrical power production. 2. The quoted output of an amorphous panel should be that produced after this stabilisation. PEC cells. one type has mobile free negative electrons (called an n type semiconductor ) & the second type mobile free positive holes (called a p type semiconductor). Organic cells . based on interfaces between semiconductors & molecules Fig-Structure of solar cell The figure shows the structure of an inorganic solar cells based on the sandwich structure of two types of semiconductor material.& 3. Inorganic cells. particularly during the first few months. called a p-n junction. The sandwich. allows the photo-generated electrons & holes to be separated. 2. PV cells have no moving parts & are silent. based on organic semiconductors. after which time they are basically stable.

2. The spacing of the conducting fibres in the mesh is a matter of compromise between maximizing the electrical conductance and minimizing the blockage of the light. several enhancement features are also included in the construction. Thin conducting mesh on the remaining top surface collects the current and lets the light through. In addition to the basic elements. the front face of the cell has anti-reflective coating to absorb as much light as possible by minimizing the reflection. For example.6 Basic PV cell construction Fig-Basic PV cell construction figure shows the basic cell construction. The mechanical protection is provided by the cover glass applied with a transparent adhesive. Conducting foil (solder) contact is provided over the bottom (dark) surface and on one edge of the top (illuminated) surface. For collecting the photocurrent. the metallic contacts are provided on both sides of the junction to collect electrical current induced by the impinging photons on one side. .

by ignoring the ground-leakage current. The short-circuit current is measured by shorting the output terminals. and measuring the terminal current under full illumination. 2. the short-circuit current under this condition is the photocurrent IL. Mounting of the modules can be in various configurations as seen in Figure .6. Ignoring the small diode and the ground-leakage currents under zeroterminal voltage.2. For obtaining high power. Typically. the pv sheets are made in shingles that can replace the traditional roof shingles on one-to-one basis. numerous such cells are connected in series and parallel circuits on a panel (module) area of several square feet The solar array or panel is defined as a group of several modules electrically connected in series-parallel combinations to generate the required current and voltage. the modules are in the form that can be laid directly on the roof. In the roof mounting. providing a better economy in the material and labour. In the newly developed amorphous silicon technology.1 Cell Module and Array Fig-Actual construction of a module in a frame The solar cell described above is the basic building block of the pv power system. Figure shows the actual construction of a module in a frame that can be mounted on a structure. it is a few square inches in size and produces about one watt of power. Again. the open-circuit voltage as the following: . The maximum photo voltage is produced under the open-circuit voltage.7 OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT The two most important parameters widely used for describing the cell electrical performance is the open-circuit voltage Voc and the short-circuit current Isc.

V) curve. . IL/ID is a sufficiently strong function of the cell temperature.7. in sunlight and in dark. the current drops rapidly with a small rise in voltage. In the left shaded region. This is the current we would measure with the output terminals shorted (zero voltage). 2. In the shaded region on the right. the curve has a knee point. the cell works like a constant voltage source with an internal resistance.1 I-V Curve: The electrical characteristic of the PV cell is generally represented by the current versus voltage (I. the top left of the I-V curve at zero voltage is called the short circuit current. In this region.The constant KT/Q is the absolute temperature expressed in voltage (300°K = 0. Therefore. In practical photocells. Under condition of constant illumination. In the first quadrant. the open-circuit voltage is many times the KT/Q value. the photocurrent is several orders of magnitude greater than the reverse saturation current. and the solar cell ordinarily shows a negative temperature coefficient of the open-circuit voltage. generating voltage to match with the load resistance. This is the voltage we would measure with the output terminals open (zero current). The bottom right of the curve at zero current is called the open-circuit voltage. Somewhere in the middle of the two shaded regions. Figure shows the I-V characteristic of a PV module under two conditions. the cell works like a constant current source.026 volt).

2.2 P-V Curve: Graph -Power versus voltage (p-v) characteristics of the PV module in sunlight. .7. the current remains flat and the power is absorbed by the cell. beyond a certain negative voltage. In the dark. the junction breaks down as in a diode and the current rises to a high value. If the voltage is externally applied in the reverse direction. However.Graph -Current versus voltage (i-v) characteristics of the pv module in sunlight and in dark. the current is zero for voltage up to the breakdown voltage which is the same as in the illuminated condition. say during a system fault transient.

Payloads can be photovoltaic panels.The power output of the panel is the product of the voltage and the current outputs. This is why PV power circuits are designed such that the modules operate closed to the knee point. reflectors. The optics in concentrated solar applications accept the direct component of sunlight light and therefore must be oriented appropriately to collect energy. the higher the output power we get under a given illumination. In standard photovoltaic (PV) applications trackers are used to minimize the angle of incidence between the incoming light and a photovoltaic panel. and produces the maximum power at voltage corresponding to the knee point of the i-v curve. We can generate the solar energy from the sunlight by using solar panels which is becoming the individual energy generator with less resources and more useful.8 Solar trackers A solar tracker is a generic term used to describe devices that orient various payloads toward the sun. 2. . This increases the amount of energy produced from a fixed amount of installed power generating capacity. it is estimated that trackers are used in at least 85% of commercial installations greater than 1MW from 2009 to 2012. lenses or other optical devices. In Figure. In concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) and concentrated solar thermal (CSP) applications trackers are used to enable the optical components in the CPV and CSP systems.8. the higher the efficiency. Notice that the cell produces no power at zero voltage or zero current. 2. the power is plotted against the voltage.1 Sun Tracking System From the various Electric Energy sources the solar now becoming more and more important for the human life. The PV modules are modelled approximately as a constant current source in the electrical analysis of the system. In standard photovoltaic applications. The photo conversion efficiency of the PV cell is defined as the following: Obviously. Tracking systems are found in all concentrator applications because such systems do not produce energy unless oriented closely toward the sun. slightly on the left hand side.

. As the system is a closed loop system. it keeps the track of the percentage of energy generation at various positions.Currently the solar panels are fixed on the roof of the building. which collects the sunlight and generates the electric energy. The system detects the ultimate position at which the maximum solar energy will be generated by the panel. The solar panel alignment to the maximum power generation is controlled by the means of stepper motor. But from sunrise to sunset the position of the sun is not fixed and therefore the generated solar energy varies with sunlight collected by the panel. Sun Tracking System is mainly designed to find out the actual position on sun at daytime.

3 Chronological tracker 2.2 Dual Axis Trackers a)Tip – Tilt Dual Axis Tracker (TTDAT) b) Azimuth-Altitude Dual Axis Tracker (AADAT) The axis of rotation of single axis trackers is typically aligned along a true North meridian. and a dual axis tracker an additional 6%.1 Single Axis Trackers Single axis trackers have one degree of freedom that acts as an axis of rotation. It is possible to align them in any cardinal direction with advanced tracking algorithms.9.11. The orientation of the module with respect to the tracker axis is important when modeling performance.1 Active tracker 2. and Tilted Single Axis Trackers. Vertical Single Axis Trackers.2.2 Passive tracker 2. Compared to a fixed mount.11 Drive types 2.11. 2. . a single axis tracker increases annual output by approximately 30%.10 Tracker Type Selection 2. These include Horizontal Single Axis Trackers. There are several common implementations of single axis trackers.9 Tracker Types Photovoltaic trackers can be grouped into classes by the number and orientation of the tracker‟s axes.1Single Axis Trackers a) Horizontal Single Axis Tracker (HSAT) b) Vertical Single Axis Tracker (VSAT) c) Tilted Single Axis Tracker (TSAT) d) Polar Aligned Single Axis Trackers (PASAT) 2.9 Tracker Types 2.

Several manufacturers can deliver single axis horizontal trackers. Ray Tracker. Such trackers are more effective at high latitudes than are horizontal axis trackers. Patriot Solar Group. Field layouts with Horizontal Single Axis Trackers are very flexible. . and the tube will rotate on its axis to track the apparent motion of the sun through the day. a long horizontal tube is supported on bearings mounted upon pylons or frames. As a module tracks. These trackers rotate from East to West over the course of the day. b) Vertical Single Axis Tracker (VSAT) The axis of rotation for Vertical Single Axis Trackers is vertical with respect to the ground. Appropriate spacing can maximize the ratio of energy production to cost. Manufacturers include Array Technologies. Sun Power. Field layouts must consider shading to avoid unnecessary energy losses and to optimize land utilization. The posts at either end of the axis of rotation of a Horizontal Single Axis Tracker can be shared between trackers to lower the installation cost.a) Horizontal Single Axis Tracker (HSAT) Fig-Horizontal Single Axis Tracker (HSAT) Ray Tracker GC200 Horizontal Single Axis Tracker in California Wattsun HZ-Series Linear Axis Tracker in South Korea. Also optimization for dense packing is limited due to the nature of the shading over the course of a year. this being dependent upon local terrain and shading conditions and the time-of-day value of the energy produced. it sweeps a cylinder that is rotationally symmetric around the axis of rotation. The simple geometry means that keeping all of the axis of rotation parallel to one another is all that is required for appropriately positioning the trackers with respect to one another. The axis of rotation for Horizontal Single Axis Tracker is horizontal with respect to the ground. These trackers use a horizontal axis. In these. Backtracking is one means of computing the disposition of panels. Horizontal Trackers typically have the face of the module oriented parallel to the axis of rotation. Panels are mounted upon the tube. The axis of the tube is on a North-South line.

As a module tracks. This aligns the tracker axis of rotation with the earth‟s axis of rotation.Vertical Single Axis Trackers typically have the face of the module oriented at an angle with respect to the axis of rotation. Tilted Single Axis Trackers typically have the face of the module oriented parallel to the axis of rotation. However. in Nevada. As a module tracks. These are rarely deployed because of their high wind profile. Tracker tilt angles are often limited to reduce the wind profile and decrease the elevated end‟s height off the ground. they can be packed without shading perpendicular to their axis of rotation at any density. Credit: U. The arrays form part of the Nellis Solar Power Plant and was designed and built by Sun Power corporation. . USA. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Larry E. the packing parallel to their axis of rotation is limited by the tilt angle and the latitude. at Nellis Air Force Base. Field layouts must consider shading to avoid unnecessary losses and to optimize land utilization. with roughly 20 degree tilt. it sweeps a cone that is rotationally symmetric around the axis of rotation. With backtracking. In this particular implementation of a Tilted Single Axis Tracker the tilt angle is equal to the latitude of the installation. it sweeps a cylinder that is rotationally symmetric around the axis of rotation.S. Reid Jr. All trackers with axes of rotation between horizontal and vertical are considered Tilted Single Axis Trackers. d) Polar Aligned Single Axis Trackers (PASAT) One scientifically interesting variation of a Tilted Single Axis Tracker is a Polar Aligned Single Axis Trackers (PASAT). c) Tilted Single Axis Tracker (TSAT) Fig-Vertical Single Axis Tracker (HSAT) Single axis Sun Power T20 trackers.

The posts at either end of the primary axis of rotation of a Tip – Tilt Dual Axis Tracker can be shared between trackers to lower installation costs. Dual Axis Trackers typically have modules oriented parallel to the secondary axis of rotation.9. Spain . The axes of rotation of Tip – Tilt Dual Axis Trackers are typically aligned either along a true North meridian or an east west line of latitude. The axis that is fixed with respect to the ground can be considered a primary axis. They are classified by the orientation of their primary axes with respect to the ground. Azimuth-Altitude Dual Axis Tracker . Toledo. It is possible to align them in any cardinal direction with advanced tracking algorithms. These axes are typically normal to one another. The orientation of the module with respect to the tracker axis is important when modeling performance. Two common implementations are Tip . Manufacturers include Patriot Solar Group.2 Dual Axis Trackers Dual axis trackers have two degrees of freedom that act as axes of rotation. Field layouts with Tip – Tilt Dual Axis Trackers are very flexible.Tilt trackers and Azimuth-Altitude trackers.2.2 axis solar tracker. The secondary axis is then typically normal to the primary axis. The simple geometry means that keeping the axes of rotation parallel to one another is all that is required for appropriately positioning the trackers with respect to one another. The axis that is referenced to the primary axis can be considered a secondary axis. a) Tip – Tilt Dual Axis Tracker (TTDAT) A Tip – Tilt Dual Axis Tracker has its primary axis horizontal to the ground. There are several common implementations of dual axis trackers.

2. The horizontally rotating azimuth table mounts the vertical frames on each side which hold the elevation trunnions for the dish and its integral engine/generator mount. The combination of energy improvement and lower product cost and lower installation complexity results in compelling economics in large deployments. but which leads to long days in summer. The inherent robustness of their supporting structure and the simplicity of the mechanism also result in high reliability which keeps maintenance costs low. where the apparent solar path is not especially high. at a fixed. In addition the strong afternoon performance is particularly desirable for large grid-tied photovoltaic systems so that production will match the peak demand time. The secondary axis is then typically normal to the primary axis. latitude. Field layouts must consider shading to avoid unnecessary energy losses and to optimize land utilization. This type of mount is also used to orient parabolic reflectors that mount a Stirling engine to produce electricity at the device.Point focus parabolic dish with Stirling system. they can be compactly placed on the axle tube without danger of self-shading and are also readily accessible for cleaning. that allows the device to be swung to a compass point. with the panels either vertical. adjustable. or tracked elevation angle. Also optimization for dense packing is limited due to the nature of the shading over the course of a year. Such trackers with fixed or (seasonably) adjustable angles are suitable for high latitudes. and local weather. land constraints. The second axis is a horizontal elevation pivot mounted upon the azimuth platform.10 Tracker Type Selection The selection of tracker type is dependent on many factors including installation size. government incentives. This mount is used as a large telescope mount owing to its structure and dimensions. One axis is a vertical pivot shaft or horizontal ring mount. or may use a tracking sensor to control motor drives that orient the panels toward the sun. Such systems may be operated under computer control according to the expected solar orientation. A vertical axis trackers pivots only about a vertical axle. Since the panels are horizontal. . Dual axis trackers are typically used in smaller residential installations and locations with very high government Feed In Tariffs. b) Azimuth-Altitude Dual Axis Tracker (AADAT) An Azimuth – Altitude Dual Axis Tracker has its primary axis vertical to the ground. any location in the upward hemisphere may be pointed. electric rates. with the sun travelling through a long arc. Horizontal single axis trackers also add a substantial amount of productivity during the spring and summer seasons when the sun is high in the sky. By using combinations of the two axis. Horizontal single axis trackers are typically used for large distributed generation projects and utility scale projects.

such as when clouds are passing overhead. This is also true when there is not enough difference in light level from one direction to another. which also allows the system to be shut down when necessary. one wants to use them only as necessary. 2. These will have viscous dampers to prevent excessive motion in response to wind gusts.2 Passive tracker Fig-Passive trackers Passive trackers use a low boiling point compressed gas fluid that is driven to one side or the other (by solar heat creating gas pressure) to cause the tracker to move in response to an imbalance. Shader/reflectors are used to reflect early morning sunlight to "wake up" the panel and tilt it . Since the motors consume energy. Active two-axis trackers are also used to orient heliostats . This will cause the steepest part of their cosine transfer functions to balance at the steepest part.movable mirrors that reflect sunlight toward the absorber of a central power station. As each mirror in a large field will have an individual orientation these are controlled programmatically through a central computer system. Consideration must be made to keep the tracker from wasting energy during cloudy periods. such as photodiodes. the heliostat is moved in discrete steps. Light-sensing trackers typically have two photo sensors.11 Drive types 2.1 Active tracker Active trackers use motors and gear trains to direct the tracker as commanded by a controller responding to the solar direction.2. they should be unidirectional (i. flat) and are aimed 90 degrees apart. As this is a non-precision orientation it is unsuitable for certain types of concentrating photovoltaic collectors but works fine for common PV panel types. Also.11. Mechanically. So instead of a continuous motion. configured differentially so that they output a null when receiving the same light flux.11.e. if the light is below some threshold there would not be enough power generated to warrant reorientation. which translates into maximum sensitivity.

assuming there is enough clearance for a complete rotation. (A slackpulling spring will prevent release in windy overnight conditions. That way. and assuming that twisting wires are not an issue. This allows sunlight to hit the cell from behind. Also.3 Chronological tracker A chronological tracker counteracts the Earth's rotation by turning at an equal rate as the earth.11. the module does not have to move since the hologram always reflects sunlight from the correct angle towards the cells. the position of the sun changes with respect to the earth by 360° every year or 365. The time to do this can be greatly reduced by adding a self-releasing tie down that positions the panel slightly past the zenith (so that the fluid does not have to overcome gravity) and using the tie down in the evening.) The term "passive tracker" is also used for photovoltaic modules that include a hologram behind stripes of photovoltaic cells.toward the sun. sunlight passes through the transparent part of the module and reflects on the hologram. but in the opposite direction. A chronological tracker is a very simple yet potentially a very accurate solar tracker specifically for use with a polar mount (see above). thereby increasing the module's efficiency. because as the earth goes around the sun.24 days. In theory the tracker may rotate completely. which can take nearly an hour. . The drive method may be as simple as a gear motor that rotates at a very slow average rate of one revolution per day (15 degrees per hour). 2. Actually the rates aren't quite equal.

It will process the input voltage from the Battery and control the direction in which the motor has to be rotated so that it will receive maximum intensity of light from the sun. When there is decrease in intensity of light. Here we are using the micro-controller for tracking and generating power from sunlight. This needs only maximum sunlight to generate power. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 3. this system automatically changes its direction to get maximum intensity of light. This project helps for power generation by setting the equipment to get maximum sunlight automatically. . Solar panel: Solar cells convert light energy into electrical energy either indirectly (by first converting it into heat) or through a direct process known as the photovoltaic effect. This method of power generation is simple and is taken from natural resource.3. This system is tracking for maximum intensity of light.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM Fir-Tracking system of typical solar system This is a solar tracking system which can be used as a power generating method from sunlight.

Fig-Solar panel specifications 20 Watt, 1.25A, 16V Length -63.5 CM Width- 35.56 CM Weight -3.2kg Cell material –silicon crystal

The most common types of solar cells are based on the photovoltaic effect. This happens when light falls on a two-layer semiconductor material and results in a potential difference, or voltage, between the two layers. The voltage produced in the cell is capable of driving a current through an external electrical circuit that can be utilised to power electrical devices. Solar cells are usually made from silicon, which is treated to release electrons-thereby generating an electric current-when light strikes it.

Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

Fig-LCD Display Panel 2 Line 16 Character An LCD is a small low cost display. It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller. This controller is standard across many displays which means many micro-controller have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. LCD Display Panel 2 Line 16 Character Wide Viewing Angle Wide viewing angle of standard 16 character, 2 line LCD displays. Specifications: Number of Characters: 16 characters x 2 lines Module Dimension: 85(W) x 30(H) x 13.2(T)mm Viewing Display Area: 65(W) x 16(H)mm Character Size: 2.78(W) x 4.89(H)mm Other Mechanical Data: Yellow Green, 1/16 Duty, 12 o‟clock Supply Voltage for Logic: VDD-VSS Min 4.5V, Typ: 5.0V, Max: 5.5V.

Stepper motor

Fig-Stepper motor specifications

Input- 12 V , 0.5 A Torque - 2 kg Half step - 0.9 deg Full step - 1.8 deg A bi-polar stepper motor is being used for rotation in both directions. The stepper motor covers an full step angle1.8 degree per step and half step angle 0.9 degree. The output of the microcontroller is given to this motor through motor driver circuit and hence the motor is rotated accordingly, pointing in the direction of maximum intensity of sunlight.

in response to a train of input pulses. There are many kind of stepper motors. coil correspond respectively. In rotary step motor. Single-phase stepper motor is often used for quartz watch. On this page. Fig-Working of stepper motor Principle of stepper motor. It is similar about and . and .. The rotor rotational speed and the direction of the turn can be controlled by this control. Unipolar type. .Working of stepper motor The stepping motor is an electromagnetic device which converts digital pulses into discrete mechanical rotational movements. the output shaft of motor rotates in equal increments. Bipolar type. As for four poles. coil. step angle of the rotor is 90 degrees.. The turn of the motor is controlled by the electric current which pours into . In the PM type stepper motor. Multi-phase type. coil and coil are put to the upper and lower pole. The stepper motor model which has 4-poles is shown in the figure on the left. In case of this motor. too. I will explain the operation principle of the 2-phase unipolar PM type stepper motor. For example. a permanent magnet is used for rotor and coils are put on stator. . coil and coil are rolled up for the direction of the pole to become opposite when applying an electric current to the coil and applying an electric current to the coil. coil and coil. the top and the bottom and either side are a pair. Single-phase type.

Fig-Coil magnetization of stepper motor In the above example. For example. called the rotor. To move the rotor clockwise (CW). In reality. with .is much higher than this. the upper electromagnet is deactivated and the right electromagnet is activated. and electromagnets on the stationary portion that surrounds the motor.the amount of degrees rotated per pulse -. thereby requiring 72 pulses (steps) to complete a full 360 degree rotation. This process is repeated in the same manner at the south and west electromagnets until we once again reach the starting position. Instead of switching the next electromagnet in the rotation on one at a time. this would not be a very practical motor for most applications. Figure 1 illustrates one complete rotation of a stepper motor. At position 1. we used a motor with a resolution of 90 degrees or demonstration purposes. You may double the resolution of some motors by a process known as "halfstepping". The average stepper motor's resolution -. called the stator. aligning itself with the active magnet.How stepper motors work Stepper motors consist of a permanent magnet rotating shaft. we can see that the rotor is beginning at the upper electromagnet. which is currently active (has voltage applied to it). causing the rotor to move 90 degrees CW. a motor with a resolution of 5 degrees would move its rotor 5 degrees per step.

4-wire stepper motors contain only two electromagnets. however the operation is more complicated than those with three or four magnets. thereby doubling the resolution. in the first position only the upper electromagnet is active. As you can see in Figure 2. the upper electromagnet is deactivated and the next one to its immediate left is activated. . In position 1. real-world motors employ a series of mini-poles on the stator and rotor to increase resolution.half stepping you turn on both electromagnets. There are several types of stepper motors. we will be using a 6-wire motor. In this example. because the driving circuit must be able to reverse the current after each step. Unlike our example motors which rotated 90 degrees per step. the top magnet is deactivated and the rotor is drawn all the way right. Note that multiple positions are alligned at once. In position 2. This process can then be repeated for the entire rotation. Finally. and the rotor is drawn completely to it. the operation is identical to the simple 90 degree motor we used in our example. causing the rotor to rotate a precise amount of degrees. in position 3. causing the rotor to position itself between the two active poles. In position 2. causing an equal attraction between. For our purposes. the north pole of the rotor's perminant magnet is aligned with the south pole of the stator's electromagnet. An example of a multipole motor can be seen in Figure 3. both the top and right electromagnets are active. Although this may seem to add more complexity to the process of driving the motors. after eight steps the sequence repeats.

you can make a resistance chart to decipher the mystery connections. the electrical equivalent of the stepper motor. and 26 ohms between the two end leads. 5 degrees per step) has 6 wires coming out of the casing. There is a 13 ohm reistance between the center-tap wire and each end lead. and that the coil windings are connected in pairs. we can see that 3 wires go to each half of the coils. and therefore would not read on the ohm meter. This is true for all four-phase stepper motors.The specific stepper motor we are using for our experiments (ST-02: 5VDC. . Wires originating from seperate coils are not connected. if you do not have an equivalent diagram for the motor you want to use. However. If we follow Figure 5.

The gear G2 is fitted on the shaft of the solar panel. The gear G1 is fitted on the shaft of the stepper motor. . No of teeth‟s of G1 are 10. No of teeth‟s of G2 are 100.Gear system Fig-Gear system • Gear ratio . G2= 100 We are used gear system for the purpose of movement of the solar panel from East to west and vice versa.10:1 G1=10.

ADC Noise Reduction. and . Microcontroller now days are becoming more popular because of several advantages over microprocessor.Microcontroller: This is the heart of the circuit which performs all commanding and controlling operations. the data which has to be read and controlled is directly fed to microcontroller and the software is designed in accordance with the requirement for controlling the circuit and action is taken by proper output device. one Compare Mode – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler. Microcontroller Atmega8 Features • High-performance. and Capture Mode – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator – Three PWM Channels – 8-channel ADC Eight Channels 10-bit Accuracy – 6-channel ADC in PDIP package Eight Channels 10-bit Accuracy – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface – Programmable Serial USART – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator – On-chip Analog Comparator • Special Microcontroller Features – Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection – Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator – External and Internal Interrupt Sources – Five Sleep Modes: Idle. Compare Mode. 8-bit Microcontroller • Advanced Architecture – 130 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers – Fully Static Operation – On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier • Nonvolatile Program and Data Memories – 8K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program True Read-While-Write Operation – 512 Bytes EPROM – 1K Byte Internal SRAM – Programming Lock for Software Security • Peripheral Features – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler. Power-save. Power-down. As it reduces the requirement of additional interfacing IC those are needed in microprocessor. Low-power .

5 μA Pin Configurations .5. and 32-pad QFN/MLF • Operating Voltages – 2.16 MHz (ATmega8) • Power Consumption at 4 Mhz.5 .7 .0 mA – Power-down Mode: 0.5.8 MHz (ATmega8L) – 0 . 3V.6 mA – Idle Mode: 1.5V (ATmega8L) – 4.Standby • I/O and Packages – 23 Programmable I/O Lines – 28-lead PDIP. 32-lead TQFP. 25°C – Active: 3.5V (ATmega8) • Speed Grades – 0 .

PB7 can be . The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings. Port B (PB7. even if the clock is not running. As inputs. GND Ground. PB6 can be used as input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings.Fig-Pin Configurations of Atmega8 Pin Descriptions VCC Digital supply voltage.. Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated.PB0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2 Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.

PC6 is used as an I/O pin. As inputs. ADC In the serve as inputs to the A/D converter. If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source. RESET Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset. Port D (PD7. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Port C (3.. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset.. VCC. . PC6 is used as a Reset input. even if the clock is not running. it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.6 is used as TOSC2... PC6/RESET If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed. and ADC (7. It should be externally connected to VCC.PC0) Port C is an 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a Reset. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 15 on page 38. The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.used as output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.0). Port C (PC5. AREF AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. If the ADC is used.6). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. Note that Port C (5. These pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels. Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. even if the clock is not running.. even if the clock is not running. even if the clock is not running. even if the ADC is not used.PD0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The minimum pulse length is given in Table 15 on page 38.4) use digital supply oltage. As inputs. ATmega8 2486Q–AVR–10/06 AVCC AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter. If the RSTDISBL Fuse is unprogrammed.1 input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. PB7..


Block diagram of microcontroller Atmega8 Fig-Block diagram of microcontroller Atmega8 .

Flow chart: Fig-Flow chart of solar tracking program .

b) If „NO‟ go to 13th step. a) If „YES‟ then go to 6th step. output. 16) Check time out accords for movement of motor. 14) Move motor to reverse by one step and go to the 4th step 15) Measure panel vtg and display it. peripheral and internal peripheral device Initialize 4 bit LCD Update LCD as pre condition continuously. 12) Move motor forward by one step and go to the 4th step. 18) END . a) If „YES‟ go to next step. b) If „NO‟ go to the 9th step. Check panel voltage is greater than 2 volt or not. b) If „NO‟ go to the 11th step. 8) Move motor to home position and go to 4th step. 10) Set current position of motor as home position and go then 4th step. 13) Check reversed key is pressed or not.Algorithm 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) START Initialization all input. 9) Check home key pressed or not a) If “YES” go to the 10th step. 6) Read the current position of the motor 7) Check it is at home position or not a) If „YES‟ go to the 4th step. a) If „YES‟ go to next step b) If „NO‟ go to 4th step. b) If „NO‟ go to the 15th step. b) If „NO‟ go to the 8th step. a) If „YES‟ go to the 14th step. 17) Move motor to forward position by one step. 11) Check forward key is pressed or not.

ULN 2003 Fig-ULN 2003 DESCRIPTION The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays. and logic buffers.7kW series base resistor for each darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices. Applications include relay drivers.display drivers(LED gas discharge). * Relay driver application . FEATURES * 500mA rated collector current(Single output) * High-voltage outputs: 50V * Inputs compatibale with various types of logic. The collector-current rating of a single darlington pair is 500mA.line drivers. The darlington pairs may be parrlleled for higher current capability.hammer drivers. It consists of seven NPN darlington pairs that features high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The ULN2003 has a 2. lampdrivers.

2004A/D) 30 V Ic Continuous Collector Current 500 mA Ib Continuous Base Current 25 mA Tamb Operating Ambient Temperature Range – 20 to 85 °C Tstg Storage Temperature Range – 55 to 150 °C .2003A/D .LOGIC DIAGRAM Fig-Logic diagram of ULN 2003 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Symbol Parameter Value Unit Vo Output Voltage 50 V Vin Input Voltage (for ULN2002A/D .

Stepper Motor Driver In able to move the rotor we will need a driver. With a stepper motor we can build a lot of interesting gadgets such as robots. etc. camera panning system. PCB drilling mill. four darlington transistors or four power transistors such as 2N3055. Driver can be built with IC such as ULN2003 (pictured on the circuit diagram). . Driver is a circuit that applies a voltage to any of the four stator coils. automatic fish feeder. elevator.Connection of stepper motor with driver IC-ULN 2003:- Fig-Connection of stepper motor with driver IC-ULN 2003 About this Circuit This is an easy to build stepper motor driver that will allow us to precisely control a unipolar stepper motor through our microcontroller parallel port.

Each pulse moves rotor by 7.the simplest mode turns one coil ON at a time. b1 (black).Stepper Motor Connections Fig-Stepper Motor Connections motor should have five or six connections depending on the model. Single Stepping . High Torque Stepping .5 degrees. you have to join pins 1 and 2 (red) together and connect them to a (+) 12-24V voltage supply. 48 pulses are needed to complete one revolution. Stepping Modes There are several stepping modes that you can use to drive the stepper motor. The remaining pins. Pulse 1 2 3 4 Coil a1 Coil b1 Coil a2 Coil b2 ON ON ON ON 2. 1. . a1 (yellow). a2 (orange). Each pulse moves rotor by 7. b2 (brown) should be connected to a driver (ULN2003) as shown on the schematic.5 degrees. If the motor has six connections like the one pictured above.high power / precision mode turns ON two coils on at a time. The following sequence has to be repeated 12 times for motor to complete one revolution. 48 pulses are needed to complete one revolution.

Coil a1 Coil b1 Coil a2 Coil b2 ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON stepping is doubled 96 pulses to revolution.The following sequence has to be repeated 12 times for motor to complete one revolution. single stepping green) and high (darker green). Pulse 1 2 3 4 3.75 degrees. Half Stepping and motor needs complete one pulse moves rotor 3. Each by approximately Notice the mix of mode (lighter torque mode Pulse Coil a1 Coil b1 Coil a2 Coil b2 ON 1 ON ON 2 ON 3 ON ON 4 ON 5 ON ON 6 ON 7 ON ON 8 .

...5. 12............01 Voltage regulators 7805....50 L mm 59 Component list Power supply 12 v dc ..6 ø mm 56..........Technical performance of stepper motor Type STM 601 Torque Kg cm 2 Voltage Volts 6..........01 Solar panel 20w... 24 Current Ampere/Phase 1......................) 0.. 0......01 Driver IC ULN 2003 Microcontroller At mega 8 ..........25 Weight in Kg..... 16v....................01 Stepper motor ............. 0.. (Appro....

we can see the voltage regulator . fixed voltage regulators(78xx. There are two types of voltage regulators 1.5V.. +ve voltage regulators 2. It can also used in circuits to get a low DC voltage from a high DC voltage (for example we use 7805 to get 5V from 12V).voltage regulators(7805) Voltage regulators produce fixed DC output voltage from variable DC. Normally we get fixed output by connecting the voltage regulator at the output of the filtered DC.20V).79xx) 2.8V. . line regulation etc. variable voltage regulators(LM317) In fixed voltage regulators there is another classification 1. Suppose if input is 6V then output may be 5V or 4. The most commonly used ones are 7805 and 7812. In following figure. 7805 gives fixed 5V DC voltage if input voltage is in (7. that parameters won't be proper. -ve voltage regulators POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATORS This include 78xx voltage regulators. but there are some parameters for the voltage regulators like maximum output current capability.

7812.7824 NEGATIVE VOLTAGE REGULATORS Mostly available -ve voltage regulators are of 79xx family. 7805 gives fixed -5V DC voltage if input voltage is in (-7V.Fig-Positive voltage regulators The above diagram show how to use 7805 voltage regulator. In this you can see that coupling capacitors are used for good regulation.7815. otherwise the noise in the output voltage will be high. even though in most circuits we use +15v and -15v.7809. But there is no need for it in normal case. You will use -ve voltage if you use IC741.-20V) Fig-Negative voltage regulators .The mainly available 78xx IC's are 7805. For IC741 +12v and -12v will be enough. But if we are using 7805 in analog circuit you should use capacitor.

The mainly available 79xx IC's are 7905. Fig-Variable voltage regulators .ripple rejection are the other features of 79xx and 78xx IC's VARIABLE VOLTAGE REGULATORS Most commonly variable voltage regulator is LM317 although other variable voltage regulators are available.7912 1.short circuit protection. The advantage of variable voltage regulator is that you can get a variable voltage supply by just varying the resistance only.5A output current.

Overall circuit design:- Fig-Overall circuit design of solar tracker system .

So authorized power supply used as option. using this concept we can obtain maximum power. 4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 4. We give high priority to renewable energy sources and then authorized power system.1 System Operation The main theme of our project is hybrid power generation and it is nothing but the combination of wind mill and solar tracker.4.2 Experimental setup with photographs Fig-Solar tracking system .

Fig: wind power generation .

00pm 19.00pm for one day.00pm 18.00pm 14.00pm 16. 4. The result obtained are tabulated in the above table.00am 9.00am 8.00pm 19.00pm 14.4 Comparison of above results by at least two methods:A) Comparison with fixed panel system:- Panel position In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane In east-west plane Time [Hrs] 7.00am 8.3 Results at various stages compared with various inputs Panel position Towards East Towards East Towards East Towards East Towards East Towards East In east-west plane In east-west plane Towards west Towards west Towards west Towards west Towards west Time 7.00am 12.00pm Voltage output (Volts) The model was analysed from 7.00pm 13.00am to19.00pm Voltage output [Volts] .00pm 17.00pm 16.00am 9.00pm 15.00pm 17.00am 11.00pm 18.00am 10.00am 12.00pm 13.4.00am 11.00am 10.00pm 15.

9 volts 13.00pm 14.0 volts 15.00am 8.7 volts 16.7 volts 16.5 volts 9.5 volts 7.7 volts 16.5 volts 12.00pm 15.8 volts 8.2 volts 14.6 volts 13.0volts 6.2 volts 12.8 volts 10.00pm Solar tracking system 11.1volts Fixed position system 4.00pm 16.B] Comparison with plc based solar tracking system:- Panel position Towards east Towards east Towards east Towards east Towards east Towards east In east-west plane In east-west plane Towards west Towards west Towards west Towards west Towards west Time [Hrs] Voltage output [Volts] 4.9 volts 3.5] justification for the differences or error:- Time [Hrs] 7.8 volts 16.1 volts 16.2 volts 15.00pm 18.2 volts 10.00am 12.8 volts 16.7 volts 16.00pm 19. So solar tracking system is better as compared to normal system.00pm 17.00am 9.00am 11.6 volts It is clear that output of solar tracking system is more than fixed panel system.00am 10. .5 volts 14.2 volts 12.3 volts 14.00pm 13.

Hybrid power generation .5 HYBRID POWER GENERATION [WIND AND SOLAR] :5.1 Block diagram:- Fig.

5. the irregularities of the earth surface and rotation of earth. Using this meter we can take varies reading of wind speed at roof of our college at different location up to the 15 day‟s. 5. schools. We know that wind is a form of solar energy.2 Wind power generation It is the one part of power generation in this system we are used gear system to obtaining maximum speed of rotor of alternator. Wind flows patterns are modified by the earth terrain. businesses. The terms wind energy or wind power described the process by which the wind is used to generate the mechanical power and it used to generate electricity. Wind turbines converts the kinetic energy in to mechanical power. 5. Wind is caused by the uneven heating of atmosphere by the sun.4 OBSERVATION TABLE FOE VARIALE WIND SPEED Sr no 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Wind velocity(m/s) 4m/s 4. Variable wind speed .5m/s 5m/s 6m/s 8m/s Revolution(rpm) 50rpm 70rpm 85rpm 100rpm 115rpm Table no. This mechanical power can be used for specific task (pumping water) or generator can converts mechanical power in to electricity to power houses. Using this meter we can measure wind speed at different location at different time.3 Anemometer This is measuring instrument which is help to measure wind speed in m/s or kmph or kph. surface of water and can be used to generate electricity.

5 5.0 5. no. 3.wind speed vs current .4 5.5 Observation table for output of wind mill: 5.6 8.2 2. 1.1 Wind speed Vs current Sr.5 Current(A) 4.5. 3.Fig-Observation taken on Anemometer 5. Wind speed (m/s) 2.7 7. 4.4 Table no.

5 2. no Speed in RPM of generator Volt(V) 1. 1470 12. 1680 Table no.3 4.8 . 1000 11.5.1 3.Graph for wind speed Vs current Graph-wind speed Vs current 5.2 Voltage Vs speed of generator Sr.Voltage Vs speed of generator 12. 1296 12.

08 Actual output = 7.6*12 =91.52*53*.11 . % efficiency = (91.2/293 08)*100 =31.2 So.6 Calculation for efficiency: Wind power= 1/2*ρ*A*V3*Cp Here.59 =293.14*1.5.125*3. ρ= air density in kg/m3 A=area sweft by rotor in m2 V=velocity of wind in m/s Cp=air coefficient Wind power=1/2*1.

55 = 136.3unit So if 1 unit =3.5.7 Tariff calculation : Observation Per hour wind mill output = 110W Average hours per day =10 hours So total output per day=10*110 =1100W Per hour solar tracking output=20W Average hour per day=10hours So total output per day=200W Total power obtained per day=1100+200 =1300W =1.3*3.5*12 =1638Rs .5Rs Per year cost=136.50 = 4.50Rs Total cost per day =1.55Rs So total cost per month=30*4.

The experiments done were implemented during three month. it is possible to get substantially more power from each PV panel and this increase in power results in lower cost per watt. • The efficiency of the tracking solar panel with respect to fixed panel was 23% at average intensity 1100 W/m2. • The designed solar tracker automatically controlled and follows the sun path preciously. • The use of software outside the mechanical part makes the tracker flexible for future development.CONCLUSIONS 6. With the designed Sun tracker. but still its software and hardware can be used to drive a real and very huge solar panel. This device does not need auxiliary power and may adjust automatically depending on the direction of the sun. Therefore by just replacing the sensing instrument. Low cost and material availability will make the designed tracking system more effective and acceptable in the market. Designed simplicity. A small portable battery can drive its control circuitry. allowing continuous operation under local conditions. From the result of the performance test of designed system the following conclusion can be drawn. This tracking system is more compact and easier than any other tracking system with minimum cost. its algorithm and control system can be used in RADAR and moveable Dish Antennas. It is necessary to test during other months and The future development of the tracker should include a new case containing the method and all moving parts with electronics circuit.6. Although due to resources constraints we just accomplished the tracking part of the system. . The original purpose of this project is the power generation by setting the equipment to get maximum sunlight automatically.1 conclusions To investigate the PV output power for tracking mode and fixed mode an experimental study is done under local climate. Although ASTS is a prototype towards a real system.

During the winter the sun has a low position .6. tracking angle from sunrise to sunset is shortened. Solar cars etc.2 Future scope 6. Water heater. tracking is interrupted. 6. solar energy saving at reduced cost. it may sinks under a predefined value for instance at dusk . Using this system to getting hot water. Max. Street lights. when the sky is cloudy. Home appliances. External power supply is not required.3 Applications       In Remote areas implementing a small power systems units at each home. . Depending on the radiation intensity.4 Advantages       The advantage of this unit is that to run the system it does not need computer Solar cells directly convert the solar radiation into electricity using photovoltaic effect without going through a thermal process.

report California institute of technology.com/rea/partner/conergy-inc. H. access date 2 Feb 2011 4.google.P.allenbradely.uk/technical /theory .2.gov/news/resources/releases/2004/ renew-energybatt/stirling.in/ . “wind & solar power systems” 1999 www.com 2.pp. access date:1 March 2011 10. http://www. Patel. Mukund R.References 1.btintrrnet. http://en. Prakash – solar energy . access date: 22 Jan 2011 8.sandia. http://images. Garg & J. http://energysavers.co.gov/renewable_energy/solar.6 march 2011 7.wikipedia.mstracey. http://www.html.co.3 .renewableenergyworld.access date: 24 Feb 2011 9. access date: 29 Jan 2011 6.crcpress. http://www. access date 29 Jan 2011 3.com. pp.fundamentals & application. Basic Research needs of solar energy utilization. http://www. .16 .org/wiki/solar_power . Tata McGraw hill. access date: 24 Jan 2011 5.

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