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Introduction

Measures of central tendency, or averages, are used in a variety of contexts and form the basis of statistics.

**Mean (Arithmetic Mean)
**

To calculate the arithmetic mean of a set of data we must ﬁrst add up (sum) all of the data values (x) and then divide the result by the number of values (n). Since is the symbol used to indicate that values are to be summed (see Sigma Notation) we obtain the following formula for the mean (¯). x x= ¯ Example Find the mean of: 6, 8, 11, 5, 2, 9, 7, 8 x= 6 + 8 + 11 + 5 + 2 + 9 + 7 + 8 56 x = = =7 n 8 8 x n

Median

The median value of a set of data is the middle value of the ordered data. That is, the data must be put in numerical order ﬁrst. Worked examples Find the median of the following: a) 11, 4, 9, 7, 10, 5, 6 Ordering the data gives and the middle value is 7. b) 1, 3, 0.5, 0.6, 2, 2.5, 3.1, 2.9 Ordering the data gives i.e. the mean of them 0.5, 0.6, 1, 2, 2.5 2.9, 3, 3.1

2+2.5 2

4, 5, 6, 7 , 9, 10, 11

**Here there is a middle pair 2 and 2.5. The median is between these 2 values = 2.25
**

(n+1) th 2

In general the median is at the

value.

business

www.mathcentre.ac.uk

c mathcentre June 9, 2003

82.50 5. 6. 49. 9.21 5. 7. 42. 108. 61. 5. 49. 12. 6. 52. 51.6064 mode = £5.14 2.mathcentre. 19. 5.5.10 4. 192. and mode of this data. 178 f) 76. 40. (There are 3 of these). 39. Exercises 1. mean = $1. 2.uk c mathcentre June 9. 6. 36.6080 1.6067 1. 6. Worked example Find the mode for: 2.29 5.00 5. 5.50 5. 17. 1.00 mode = $1. 90 g) 52. 10. 29. 6 It can be seen that the most frequently occurring value is 6. 11. Find the mode.50 5.00 4.6095 1.05 median = $1.6134 1. 159.5977 1. 250. 52. 58 2. median. 39.6 g) 52. 46. mean = £5. 7 b) 19.40 Calculate the mean. Calculate the mean. median and mean of the following: a) 3.00 5. 94.50 5.50 5. 41.75 c) 8. 52.6082 1. median and mode of this data. 86.05 business www.6072 3.50 5.6064 1.6108 1. 6 d) 39. 215.06 5. 3. 10 b) 16.Mode The modal value of a set of data is the most frequently occurring value.97 5.00 5. 5. 206. The exchange route for sterling against the US dollar for 15 days in January 2003 is given in the following table. 24.6098 1. 8 d) 28. 76.00 4.6179 1. 206.20 4.05 4. 5. 37 e) 206. The following data is the hourly pay in pounds oﬀered to shop assistants in a survey of job vacancies for June 2003 based in Reading. 78.ac. 181.6028 1. 4.6049 1. 2003 . 30 e) 133. 6. 5.6054 3. 83.6067 median = £5. 19. 8. a) 5.875 f) 76.5995 1. 82.6064 1.00 5. Answers 1. 19 c) 8. 39.79 5. 41. 2.

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