1

NCN@Purdue Summer School, July 20-24, 2009
Tony Low and Mark Lundstrom
Network for Computational Nanotechnology
Discovery Park, Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN
Graphene PN Junct i ons
2
acknowledgments
Supriyo Datta and Joerg Appenzeller
3
outline
1) Introduction
2) Electron optics in graphene
3) Transmission across NP junctions
4) Conductance of PN and NN junctions
5) Discussion
6) Summary
4
PN junctions: semiconductors vs. graphene
E
C
x ( )∝−qV x ( )
E
V
x ( )
x
E x ( )
E
F1
I
n
I
0
∝n
i
2
∝e
−E
G
k
b
T
q V
bi
−V
A
( )
+

I = I
0
e
qV
A
k
b
T
5
experimental observation
I
D
V
A
G
NP
G
N
+
N
G
NP
< G
N
+
N
B. Huard, J.A. Sulpizo, N. Stander, K. Todd, B. Yang, and D. Goldhaber-Gordon,
Transport measurements across a tunable potential barrier in graphene,” Phys.
Rev. Lett., 98, 236803, 2007.
electron “optics” in graphene
Semiclassical electron trajectories
are analogous to the rays in
geometrical optics.
If the mfp is long, one may be able
to realize graphene analogues of
optical devices.
Snell’s Law
θ
1
n
1
θ
2
n
2
n
1
sinθ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
sinθ
2
=
n
1
n
2
sinθ
1
y
x
negative index of refraction
θ
1
n
1
θ
2
< 0
n
2
< 0
n
1
sinθ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
sinθ
2
=
n
1
n
2
sinθ
1
y
x
Veselago lens
n
1
> 0
9
n
2
= −n
1
10
theoretical prediction
Science, 315, 1252, March 2007
N-type P-type
electron trajectories
making graphene PN junctions
From: N. Stander, B. Huard, and D. Goldhaber-Gordon, “Evidence for
Klein Tunneling in Graphene p-n Junctions,” PRL 102, 026807
(2009)
11
12
band diagrams: conventional PN junctions
N
+
P
E
V
x ( )
x
E x ( )
F
n
I
+
q V
bi
−V
A
( )
F
p
E
I
x ( )∝−qV x ( )
E
C
x ( )
13
band diagrams: graphene PN junctions
E
NP
x ( )∝−qV x ( )
x
E
E
F1
E
k
x
E
k
x
E
k
x
14
an abrupt graphene N
+
N junction
x
E x ( )
E
F1
E
NP
x ( )
Apply a low bias. Conduction occurs
through states near the Fermi level.
k
x
E
υ
x
= +υ
F
E
k
x
υ
x
= +υ
F
qV
J
< 0
15
an abrupt graphene PN junction
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F1
E
E
NP
x ( )
E
k
x
Apply a low bias. Conduction occurs
through states near the Fermi level.
υ
x
= +υ
F
υ
x
= +υ
F
Note that k
x
– k
x0
changes sign!
qV
J
I
D
V
A
G
N
+
N
16
conductance of graphene junctions
x
E x ( )
E
F1
E
NP
x ( )
k
x
E
υ
x
= +υ
F E
k
x
υ
x
= +υ
F
qV
J
N
+
N
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F1
E
E
NP
x ( )
E
k
x
υ
x
= +υ
F
υ
x
= +υ
F
qV
J
NP
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F1
E
E
NP
x ( )
E
k
x
υ
x
= +υ
F
υ
x
= +υ
F
qV
J
NI
G
NP
G
NI
17
objectives
To understand:
1) Electron “optics” in NP junctions
2) The conductance of NP and NN junctions
18
about graphene
k
x
E x ( )
E
F
g
V
= 2
“neutral point”
“Dirac point”
( )
2 2
F F x y
E k k k k υ υ = ± = ± +  
( )
1
F
E
k
k
υ υ

= =
∂ 
2 2
( ) 2
F
D E E π υ = 
υ
F
≈1×10
8
cm/s
( )
1
cos
x F
x
E
k
k
υ υ θ

= =
∂ 
( )
1
sin
y F
y
E
k
k
υ υ θ

= =
∂ 
( ) 2
F
M E W E π υ = 
k
y
electron wavefunction in graphene
y
x
ψ x, y ( )=
1
A
e
i k
x
x+k
y
y
( )
ψ x, y ( )=
1
se

|
\

|
.
|
e
i k
x
x+k
y
y
( )
s = sgn E ( )
θ = arctan k
y
k
x
( )
20
absence of backscattering
k
x
E x ( )
E
F
ψ x, y ( )=
1
se

|
\

|
.
|
e
i k
x
x+k
y
y
( )
s = sgn E ( ) θ = arctan k
y
k
x
( )
1
1
|
\

|
.
|
1
−1
|
\

|
.
|
k
x
k
y


k

′ k
21
outline
1) Introduction
2) Electron optics in graphene
3) Transmission across NP junctions
4) Conductance of PN and NN junctions
5) Discussion
6) Summary
a graphene PN junction
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F1
E
E
NP
x ( )
E
k
x
υ
x
= +υ
F
υ
x
= +υ
F
N-type P-type
k
x
k
y


υ
parallel to k υ


anti-parallel to k υ


k
x
k
y


υ
υ
x
= −υ
F
y
23
group velocity and wavevector
k
x
E x ( )
k
y
group velocity parallel to k
( )
1
g F
E k
k
k k
υ υ

= =



group velocity parallel to -k
( )
1
g F
E k
k
k k
υ υ

= = −



24
what happens for parabolic bands?
k
x
k
y
( ) ( )
1
g k
k E k υ = ∇

conduction band
( )
*
x
g x
k
k
m
υ = +

valence band
( )
*
x
g x
k
k
m
υ = −

E k ( )
25
optics
Snell’s Law
θ
1
1
θ
′ θ
2


k
i


k
r


k
t
n
1
n
2
n
1
sinθ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
θ
r
= θ
i
θ
1
′ θ
1
θ
2


υ
i


υ
r


υ
t
n
1
n
2
group velocity parallel to
wavevector
26
electron trajectories in graphene PN junctions
rays in geometrical optics are analogous to semiclassical electron trajectories
θ
1
1
θ′
θ
2


k
i


k
r


k
t
N-type P-type
( )
e
d k
F q
dt
= = −

 

E
x
y
1) k
y
is conserved
k
y
i
= k
y
r
= k
y
t
2) Energy is conserved
E
i
= E
r
= E
t
27
on the N-side…
θ
1
1
θ′
θ
2


k
i


k
r


k
t
N-type P-type
i r t
y y y
k k k = =
E
i
= E
r
= E
F
k
y
i
= k
F
sinθ
1
= k
y
i
= k
F
sin ′ θ
1
1 1
θ θ

=
angle of incidence =
angle of reflection
x
y
F F F
E k υ = 
28
a symmetrical PN junction
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F
E
E
NP
x ( )
E
k
x
υ
x
= +υ
F
υ
x
= +υ
F
N-type P-type
υ
x
= −υ
F
( )
F NP
F
F
E E x
k
υ

=

Symmetrical junction:
E
F
− E
NP
0 ( )= E
NP
L ( )− E
F
−qV
J
= 2 E
F
− E
NP
0 ( )
¸
(
¸
k
F
i
= k
F
t
ε
1
ε
2
One choice for k
y
,
but two choices
for k
x.
29
wavevectors
θ
1
′ θ
1


k
i


k
r
N-type P-type
1) transverse momentum (k
y
) is
conserved
2) transmitted electron must have a
positive x velocity
anti-parallel to k υ


k
x
k
y


υ k
y
i
= k
y
r
= k
y
t
k
x
i
= −k
x
r
= −k
x
t
The sign of the tangential
k-vector (k
y
) stays the
same, and the normal
component (k
x
) inverts.
x
y
θ
2


k
t
parallel to k υ


k
x


υ
k
y


υ
wavevectors and velocities
θ
1
′ θ
1
θ
2


k
i


k
r


k
t N-type P-type
x
y
k
y
i
= k
y
r
= k
y
t
k
x
i
= −k
x
r
= −k
x
t
θ
1
′ θ
1
θ
2


υ
i


υ
r


υ
t
N-type P-type
x
y
θ
2
= −θ
1
“negative index of refraction”
θ
1
= ′ θ
1
n
1
sinθ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
1 2
n n = −
more generally
θ
1
1
θ

θ
2


υ
i


υ
r


υ
t
N-type P-type
1) y-component of
momentum
conserved
2) energy conserved
31
ε
1
sinθ
1
= ε
2
sinθ
2
critical angle for total internal reflection
θ
C
= sin
−1
ε
2
ε
1
( )
ε
1
> ε
2
( )
ε = E
F
− E
NP
( )
1 1
θ θ

=
reflection and transmission
θ
1
1
θ

θ
2


υ
i


υ
r


υ
t
N-type P-type
32
We know the direction of the reflected and transmitted rays,
but what are their magnitudes?
33
outline
1) Introduction
2) Electron optics in graphene
3) Transmission across NP junctions
4) Conductance of PN and NN junctions
5) Discussion
6) Summary
reflection and transmission
N-type P-type
34
x
y
R θ
i
( )
∝ r
2
T θ
i
( )
∝ t
2
θ
1


k
i
1) incident wave:
ψ
i
x, y ( )=
1
se

|
\

|
.
|
e
i k
x
x+k
y
y
( )
1
θ


k
r
2) reflected wave:
ψ
r
x, y ( )= r
1
se

|
\

|
.
|
e
i −k
x
x+k
y
y
( )
θ
2


k
t
3) transmitted wave:
ψ x, y ( )= t
1
se

|
\

|
.
|
e
i −k
x
x+k
y
y
( )
s = sgn E ( )
θ = arctan k
y
k
x
( )
−90
−60
−30
1.00
transmission: abrupt, symmetrical NP junction
perfect transmission for \ = 0
k
x
k
y


υ
k
x
k
y


υ
incident
transmitted
T θ
i
( )
= cos
2
θ
i
conductance of abrupt NN and NP junctions
T θ
i
( )
= cos
2
θ
i
This transmission reduces the conductance of NP junctions
compared to NN junctions, but not nearly enough to explain
experimental observations.
37
a graded, symmetrical PN junction
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F
E
E
NP
x ( )
E
k
x
υ
x
= +υ
F
N-type P-type
ε
1
−ε
1
d
E
The Fermi level passes through the neutral point in the transition region of an NP
junction. This does not occur in an NN or PP junction, and we will see that this
lowers the conductance of an NP junction.
38
treat each ray (mode) separately
x
y
θ

k
i
k
y
= k
F
sinθ
sin
F F
E k υ θ = 
sin
F F
E k υ θ = −
2 2 2
sin
F x F
E k k υ θ = + 
k
y
E
k
x
= 0
k
x
E
2 sin
G F F
E k υ θ = 
39
for each k
y
(transverse mode)
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F
E
E
NP
x ( )
E
k
x
υ
x
= +υ
F
N-type P-type
ε
1
−ε
1
d
E
2 sin
G F F
E k υ θ = 
band to band tunneling (BTBT)
40
NEGF simulation
T. Low, et al., IEEE TED, 56,
1292, 2009
41
propagation across a symmetrical NP junction
x
E x ( )
E
F
E
NP
x ( )= ε
1
−ε
1
d
E
NP
x ( )= −ε
1
( )
2 2
F x y
x k k ε υ = + 
( )
2 2 2
sin
F x F
x k k ε υ θ = + 
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
sin
x F F
k x x k ε υ θ = − 
E
k
x
ε
1
k
x
> 0
k
x
E
k
x
< 0
k
x
2
< 0
E
k
x
42
WKB tunneling
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
sin
x F F
k x x k ε υ θ = − 
For normal incidence, k
x
is real
perfect transmission

ψ x ( ): e
ik
x
x
For any finite angle, there will a
region in the junction where k
x
is
imaginary evanescent

T : e
−2i k
x
x ( )dx
−l
+l

Slowly varying potential 
no reflections.
( )
2
sin
F
k d
T e
π θ
θ


2 sin
G F F
E k υ θ = 
1
2 2
F F
k
qd qd
ε υ
= =

E
( )
2
2
G F
E q
T e
π υ − 

E
43
transmission vs. angle
More generally, to include the
reflections for abrupt junctions
(small d):

T θ ( ): cos
2
θ e
−πk
F
d sin
2
θ
−30
−60
−90
T θ ( )= e
−πk
F
d sin
2
θ
T θ ( )= cos
2
θ
44
outline
1) Introduction
2) Electron optics in graphene
3) Transmission across NP junctions
4) Conductance of PN and NN junctions
5) Discussion
6) Summary
45
graphene junctions: NN, NP, PP, PN
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F
E
E
NP
= −qV
J
E
k
x
qV
J
< 0
two independent variables: 1) E
F
and 2) V
J

E
F
> 0
N
P
E
F
< 0


−qV
J
> E
F
P
N
−qV
J
< E
F

NN
qV
J
> E
F
, right side N-type
PN
NP
PP
qV
J
< E
F
, right side P-type
46
graphene junctions

E
F
qV
J

−qV
J
= E
F
0
E
F
> 0, left side N-type
E
F
< 0, left side P-type
47
conductance of graphene junctions
G =
2q
2
h
M E
F
( )
G W =
2q
2
h
1
W
min M
1
, M
2
( )
k
x
x
E x ( )
E
F
E
E
NP
= −qV
J
E
k
x
i) E
F
> 0, qV
J
< E
F
⇒ NP
M
2
< M
1
48
conductance vs. E
F
and V
J
x
E x ( ) E
F
= 0.3
E
PN
= −qV
J
x
E x ( )
E
F
E
PN
= 0.6
T. Low, et al., IEEE TED, 56,
1292, 2009
measured transport across a tunable barrier
B. Huard, J. A. Sulpizio, N. Stander, K. Todd, B. Yang, and D. Goldhaber-Gordon, “Transport
Measurements Across a Tunable Potential Barrier in Graphene, Phys. Rev. Lett., 98, 236803,
2007.
E
F
experimental resistance
B. Huard, J. A. Sulpizio, N. Stander, K. Todd, B. Yang, and D. Goldhaber-Gordon, “Transport
Measurements Across a Tunable Potential Barrier in Graphene, Phys. Rev. Lett., 98, 236803,
2007.
51
NEGF simulation of abrupt junctions
x
E x ( ) E
F
= 0.3
E
PN
= −qV
J
T. Low, et al., IEEE TED, 56,
1292, 2009
G
PN
G
NN
G
PN
< G
NN
52
conductance of abrupt graphene junctions
N-type P-type N-type
N
+
-type
G
NN
W =
2q
2
h
M E
F
( )
G
NP
W =
2
3
2q
2
h
M E
F
( )
|
\

|
.
|
( )
2
2
y
NP y
k
q
G T k
h
=

G
NN
G
PN
T θ ( )= cos
2
θ =
k
x
k
F
|
\

|
.
|
2
= 1−
k
y
k
F
|
\

|
.
|
2
G
NP
=
2
3
G
NN
E
F
= 0.3 E
F
= 0.3
G
NP
< G
NN
53
conductance of graded graphene junctions
N-type P-type N-type
N
+
-type
G
NN
W =
2q
2
h
M E
F
( )
G
NP
= G
NN
k
F
d
G
NP
=
2q
2
h
T k
y
( )
k
y

E
F
= 0.3 E
F
= 0.3
G
NP
<< G
NN
k
F
d >>1→ λ
F
<< d
T. Low, et al., IEEE TED, 56,
1292, 2009
T θ ( )= e
−πk
F
d sin
2
θ
= e
−πk
F
d k
y
k
F
( )
2
54
outline
1) Introduction
2) Electron optics in graphene
3) Transmission across NP junctions
4) Conductance of PN and NN junctions
5) Discussion
6) Summary
55
conductance vs. gate voltage measurements
Back gate
(doped Si)
graphene
SiO
2
L
V
G
either N-type or P-type
depending on the
metal workfunction
either N-type or P-type
depending on the back
gate voltage
G
′ V
G
B. Huard, N. Stander, J.A. Sulpizo, and D.
Goldhaber-Gordon, “Evidence of the role of
contacts on the observed electron-hole
asymmetry in graphene,” Pbys. Rev. B., 78,
121402(R), 2008.
56
outline
1) Introduction
2) Electron optics in graphene
3) Transmission across NP junctions
4) Conductance of PN and NN junctions
5) Discussion
6) Summary
57
conclusions
1) For abrupt graphene PN junctions transmission is
reduced due to wavefunction mismatch.
2) For graded junctions, tunneling reduces transmission
and sharply focuses it.
3) Normal incident rays transmit perfectly
4) The conductance of a graphene PN junction can be
considerably less than that of an NN junction.
5) Graphene PN junctions may affect measurements and
may be useful for focusing and guiding electrons.
questions
58

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