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Cabuliwallah - Rabindranath Tagore Setting: Calcutta, India Characters: 1.

Rahman “the Cabuliwallah”: the fruitseller from Kabul who comes to Calcutta to sell his wares in the streets. 2. Mini: a small girl who became a very good friend of the Cabuliwallah. 3. Mini's father (the narrator of the story) who learns at the end of the story that all fathers in the world are same like him (a scholar and a writer) and the Cabuliwallah (a poor uneducated fruit-vendor). Plot: The story starts when Mini, a talkative 5-year old girl, meets a Cabuliwallah. At first, the innocent child thought that the Cabuliwallah kidnaps kids. Mini's parents also have doubts about this Cabuliwallah. But as time goes on, the two, far apart in age, became very good friends. Mini felt closer to this unknown fellow who gave her lots of almonds and raisins. But everything changed when Rahman was sent to jail for murderous assault. Time passed by and Mini is now getting married. During the wedding night, Rahman paid a visit to see Mini only to find out that she has forgotten him a long time ago. The Cabuliwallah explains to Mini's father that he also has a daughter like Mini. Rahman misses his daughter so much and that's why he felt close to Mini. Touched by the Cabuliwallah's story, Mini's father realized that all fathers are the same-- whether you are a writer or a Cabuliwallah. Theme: A father‟s love for his child is one of the central themes of the story. Cabuliwallah always carried an imprint of his daughter‟s little hand close to his heart which reminds him of a loving touch, as he comes year after year to Calcutta to sell his wares in the streets. This description of action shows Rahman, the man from Kabul, as a loving father. Another theme of the story is friendship. The story shows how to establish a good relationship with the people you meet. We should stop judging by mere appearance and learn how to look on what‟s within. Point of view: The story is in the first person point of view because Mini‟s father is the narrator. He actually saw the events and took part in it.(The narrator explicitly refer to themselves using words and phrases involving "I" (referred to as the first-person singular) and/or "we" (the first-person plural)) Tone: Rabindranath Tagore uses a positive tone. Even though there were sad parts which shows the struggles of the characters, happiness still reigns in the story. It is because at the end, the characters had overcome all of the difficulties. Mood: story. The the story “Cabuliwallah” is heartwarming. The author showed us “a father‟s sacrificial love” through his

The Cask of Amontillado by Edgar Allan Poe

Setting: An underground catacomb, somewhere in Italy, during the carnival season Characters: 1)Montresor: our narrator, is Mr. Sinister. He‟s the guy you don‟t want to meet in an underground graveyard, or anywhere else. He‟s a cold and ruthless killer. He not only enjoys killing, but also thinks it‟s necessary. As the narrator, he‟s telling the story fifty years after it happened. This raises a whole host of complicated questions. We‟ll cover the main ones in a moment under “Bragging of Confessing,” but first, let‟s look at some other aspects of his character. 2)Fortunato: At first glance, Fortunato seems easier to identify with than Montresor. It‟s much simpler to relate to the victim than to the victimizer. But, in some ways, he seems even more foreign to the reader than Montresor. Part of this is because Montresor is telling us the story, and he doesn‟t give us much information on his prey. As you surely noticed, Montresor doesn‟t tell us how Fortunato hurt him, nor how he insulted him. So we can‟t really say whether Fortunato‟s punishment fits his crime. If we get hung up on trying to figure out if Fortunato deserved to die that way, we might miss out on one of the story‟s biggest riddles: just what are Fortunato‟s weak points? Montresor gives us his opinion − Fortunato‟s a little too conceited about his knowledge of wine − but that‟s not his only fatal flaw.

Luckily for us. The punishment must be permanent − Fortunato has to feel it. and a painful one at that. If we can see ourselves in Fortunato. Here are a few of them. this conclusion lets us know that Montresor has gotten away with his crime so far. so his weaknesses are easy to spot. Suspense Brick by brick by brick… Montresor is building a wall of suspense. Montresor never complains. Conflict How to make things right – forever For Montresor to revenge himself for Fortunato‟s insult. Fortunato goes too far: he insults Montresor. ghastly. then Montresor has lost. vindictive. waiting. Mood: suppress madness. especially if you are Fortunato. Fortunato seems to be weak points personified. and a vow of revenge Fortunato and Montresor have a history. Montresor baits him and plays with him. but Fortunato never considers turning back until it‟s way too late. on some level. and Montresor vows revenge. explosive moment. and he has to know it‟s coming from Montresor. they probably mirror our own. Denouement The final brick After Montresor puts in the final brick. Fortunato calls Luchesi an “ignoramus. but in the second to the last line of the story. But one day.Elegant and Funny Plot: Initial Situation An insult. Climax Trapped in a conveniently man-sized space! Montresor brings up Luchesi. So Montresor is probably pushing eighty when he‟s telling the story. and he wants us to know it.” and boom! He‟s chained inside an upright casket in the foulest depths of the catacomb! That‟s the story‟s big.Why would we want to identify Fortunato‟s weaknesses? Because. After a few carefully dropped hints from Montresor (think “Amontillado” and “Luchesi”). breathlessly to see if this is some kind of really creepy carnival joke. but we bet you can add to the list. Fortunato insists on following Montresor down into the underground graveyard of your worst nightmares. Conclusion Looking back It‟s impossible to know how old Montresor is when he kills Fortunato. As soon as the air is used up in the tiny brick casket. Complication It‟s almost too easy… There really isn‟t much complication. Fortunato‟s watching himself being bricked in. And he could be far more ancient. we learn that the murder happened fifty years ago. Fortunato will be dead. He‟s heard the pitiful jingle of Fortunato‟s bells. and it means nothing to him. THE JEWELRY By Guy De Maupassant SETTING: . More importantly. Fortunato has wounded Montresor a “thousand” times. Theme: 1)Freedom and Confinement 2)Betrayal 3)Drugs and Alcohol 4)Mortality 5)Foolishness and Folly Point of View: First Person (Central Narrator) Tone: Creepy. he has to get away with it – if Fortunato can revenge him back. His vengeance has been a success. the suspense is dissolved. maybe we can learn something from the story.

and how he immediately fell in love with this young innocent girl who "seemed to be the very ideal of that pure good woman to whom every young man dreams of entrusting his future". Lantin finds no other alternative but to sell his deceased wife's fake jewelry. On the next day. This was the first warning sign that struck us as a reader and got us to think more about Mr. WIFE (FIRST) – she was daughter of provincial tax collector who happened to passed away. CHARACTERS: The story revolves around two characters. Mr. right when the jeweler acknowledges and accepts the offer "one of the clerks rushed out to laugh at his ease while another kept blowing his nose as hard as he could" as in a way of hiding a laugh. his mind in a state of dreadful confusion. After going through her belongings he decides to take her favorite piece of jewelry. where Monsiuer Lantins had said that he inherited a four hundred thousand francs. Monsiuer Lantins SUPERVISOR where he announce his retirement for he inherited a money and an ARISTOCRATIC MAN. The story could have ended here and would have made a sad ending. This came as a huge shock to Mr. The part that interests the most was the "one morning that he happened to find himself without a cent in his pocket and that he had to wait a whole week before he could draw his monthly salary". He is the husband who spent his life with his wife happily but after some years the wife passed away resulting for his depression and being shorted with money. The writer first walks us through the six years of happiness they lived together and clearly notes Mr. the big pearl necklace that she use to tease him with and tries to sell it. Lantin receives a hundred and ninety six thousand francs for all his wife's jewelry. She was a beautiful and virtuous woman and a fan of watching operas and fake jewelries. Lantin returning back to the jewelry shop with all the jewelry the next day. The story's plot is very interesting and can be thought of as two different stories combined into one. We see Mr. Lantin's yearly salary was only three thousand and five hundred francs. So she and her mother moved to Paris. He was brought home by the person who helped him. Lantin's wife's passion for theaters and fake jewelry. Lantin was unable to continue living comfortably on his income. The jeweler looks up his register and affirms it by telling him that it was "sent to the address of Madame Lantin. The story ends by telling us that Mr. Lantin's wife. The other characters have their minor parts. The Jewelry Shop owners. This is another clue since the author clearly tells us that Mr. On one cold winter night. THEME .The story was taken place at Paris. That part struck readers and showed that the jeweler and his clerks were either on to his wife through research. He was extremely pleased with the financial security this fortune brought him and concordantly resigned from his job. She was a good housewife who maintained her household very well and provided her husband with a luxurious life style. PLOT: The story begins by telling us how M. Broke and in debt. Certainly not. Mr. his feet carries him back to the jeweler's to sell the necklace and collect the money. Lantin's. MONSIUER LANTIN – chief clerk at the Minister of the Interior. The story clearly makes the reader believe that Mr. 1876. even though the writer does not clarify that. on July 20th. Lantin wanders around the streets in grief and the thought of becoming rich begins to fiddle his mind. The author explains to us that Mr. Being broke and realizing he had not eaten since his shock at the jeweler's. a typical midlevel bureaucratic wage. Lantin remarried and that "his second wife was the most upright of spouses and had a terrible temper. Lantin has he thought that the jeweler's estimate was inept. To his surprise the jeweler tells him that the necklace is worth between twelve and fifteen thousand francs. The main character is Monsiuer Lantin while the other one is his wife. It becomes clear that Madam Lantin was a courtesan. 16 Rue des Martyrs. his wife went to the opera and came back home freezing. He wouldn't touch or change any of her belongings as they reminded him of her. the MOTHER who planned an acquaintance party when they have moved to Paris. or they knew all along about his wife's secret life. to understand. Lantin was oblivious to how his wife could acquire such expensive jewels and that his concern was basically on the money. and moved on to the next store. His wife could not afford to purchase such a costly ornament. He tried to reason. however the writer goes on describing the change in Mr. Lantin was heartbroken and spent endless nights remembering his good wife. hoping that her daughter can look for her future husband. Mr. Lantin's feelings as being betrayed by his love of his life and the suffering he went through. He wandered aimlessly through the streets. Lantin meet his wife at the house of the office-superintendent. He fall down and recovered his sense in front of pharmacy. This clearly shows the reader that the wife had some kind of income coming in besides the income from Mr. On his way out he turns back and tells the jeweler that he has some other jewelry to sell. Mr. The author had not given her name in the story. she had a "bad cough and died eight days later from pneumonia". Finding this very odd since his wife was able to manage the household for both of them and that they lived a very luxurious life. Lantin goes into the next store the jeweler confirms that the necklace is real by telling him that it was sold from his store for twenty five thousand francs and would buy it from him for eighteen thousand francs. but he begins to describe Mr." This is the complete opposite of his first wife. As Mr. He goes shamefully into a jewelry store to sell what he believes is an exquisitely well made fake pearl necklace. Lantin's life. That she had made his life very miserable. The jeweler welcomes him with a smile and offers him the money." The jeweler asks that he keep the necklace for a day for inspection.

because the author is the one who tells the story. he did not took part in the story. led by Gamba. CONCLUSION The story emphasized that looks can be deceiving and that sometimes we are blind to what really is going on. MOOD The mood of the story revolves around two things happiness and sadness. by enjoying the wealth that his wife accumulated through dishonest means made him as fortuneblinded as she was. We can question if being happy by dishonest values is worth the financial gains or if the unhappiness from honest values is worth the pain. and kills him with a single gunshot. unfaithfulness and selfishness have seen also in the story. Gamba. Ramachandran The husband of Mrs. Mood: Concentrated and allusive. Mr. the smuggler who was being helped by Fortunato. We read that Mr. The closing also makes one wonder what the author meant.. Mateo's wife. gendarmes] Plot: The boy Fortunato is outside of his family's house. Fleeing the police. They search the house and try to get information out of Fortunato. and custom and morality. The wife of Mr. meaning "the fortunate one. The themes of deceiving. Giuseppa. he asks Fortunato to hide him. Ramachandran. His father regards him as "the hope of the family. the smuggler. was he questioning morals versus happiness by saying that his presumably unfaithful first wife made him happy and his second upright wife made him miserable. Point of View: First Person. Sanpiero. and Sanpiero runs in. Lantin.The theme of the story is the direct moral lesson which is that looks can be deceiving.e. A few soldiers [i. a sergeant. The story may consider as disturbing and unforgettable. the father who killed his own son for the honor of the family. who resists with juvenile evasions until Gamba tempts the boy with an enamel-encased watch. savagery and civilization. After Gamba tells them of their son's help in capturing Sanpiero. Mateo and his wife return. wounded. We can say that Mr. Fortunato takes the bribe and reveals Sanpiero. Mateo has only one thing to do to preserve the honor of his family: he takes his son away from the house. Lantin turn from this upright man who was ashamed to sell a fake piece of jewelry. Shots ring out in the distance. mother of Fortunato. the wounded man curses the Falcone household for betrayal as he is carried away. Ramachandran and Sivasothie and Tamby are his children . vendetta and law. POINT OF VIEW The narrator tells the story in first person point of view because the narrator tells the story directly to the readers. A Question of Dowry by Siew Yue Killingley Elements of Literature Settings The story takes place on the Ramachandran‟s household. Fortunato asks for and gets some money in return. says prayers with him. Mateo's cousin." reflects his father's pride." The name Fortunato. Characters Mrs. Mateo Falcone by Prosper Mérimée Setting: Corsica. Happiness when Lantin is with his first wife and living happily while sadness as his wife died and the event that he married another woman where his life became miserable. to a man who sold his deceased wife's jewelry ignoring the fact that it could have been received by filthy means. who is a distant cousin of Mateo. Fortunato. The police arrive. TONE The story shows us a positive tone for it gives us readers a life learning values which can be seen in its theme. We saw Mr. Ramachandran A very noisy and boastful mother whose hobby is talking. Mateo's ten-year-old son. Theme: Betrayal and honor. playing a horn while his parents are away. Tone: Cruel and horrible. Lantin's wife whom everybody praised turned out to be unfaithful and obviously had done anything for precious jewelry. and hides Sanpiero. 1800s Characters:       Mateo Falcone.

and its two main characters live in a very unassuming flat. using third person pronouns such as "he" or "she. the problem arises when Sivasothie‟s father Mr. for she managed her husband well…” Another third person commentary : “From the mess of glitter. only now she has no hair for them. Jim smiles. He sold his watch to buy Della's combs. even with her small amount of money. he explains. Arranged marriage is a tradition that have being followed strictly by the Indians. In country India. Della opens it and cries out in joy. he Gift of the Magi Setting The narrator calls our attention almost immediately to the two most important details of the story's setting: it takes place on a Christmas Eve. Jim has given her the set of fancy combs she's wanted for ages. After that. There is nothing much information given about her physical appearance or education background. you are a very lucky girl. explaining that his reaction will make sense when she opens it. He sells his gold watch to buy a gift for Della. seems to keep up to the tradition of arranged marriages. Jim and Della wants to buy a gift to give to each other. only to burst into tears immediately afterward. The Gift of the Magi Plot It‟s Christmas Eve. dutifully. it ended up Thiruchelvam reject the marriages with his daughter because couldn‟t give the dowry promised.” Tone Siew Yue Killingley uses a bitter tone. The action of the story depends on the fact that Christmas is sufficiently close that Della needs to buy a present now. Jim arrives to find Della waiting by the door and stares fixedly at her. Mr. They did not ask her opinion about the bridegroom and said “„Sivasothie. the narrator brings the story to a close by pronouncing that Della and Jim are the wisest of everyone who gives gifts.Sivasothie Sivasothie is the one who is going to be engaged and soon to be married. Sivasothie portrayal in the story is very quite. It is also about the dowry that is promised by Ramachandran family for the bridegroom where dowry plays a major role in an Indian wedding. so instead the parents search for specific traits in a partner. After a little while. Ramachandran and Mrs. always obeying her parents and never go beyond the Indian community traditions. the money and necklace serves as o dowry for Thiruchelvam. Sivasothie feel sad and hurt because she has to forget him to become her husband after while she liked him so much. Indians believe that young people are unable to make such important decisions such as marriage on their own. Ramachandran choose a bridegroom named Thiruchelvam for their daughter Sivasothie. Ramachandran telephoned him to come.Mr. Plot „A Question of Dowry‟ is about an Indian girl named Sivasothie was going to be engaged and married to a young man named Thiruchelvam that is choosen by the family. she extracted a heavy gold chain carved rather much in detail. . Jim snaps out of it and gives Della her present. Mr. which given as dowry when she got married to Mr. He recommends they put away their presents and have dinner. Then. falling back on the couch. Ramachandran told him the truth about the dowry matters. The Gift of the Magi Characters Della Young: Pretty young woman who cuts off her beautiful long hair and sells it to buy a Christmas gift for her husband. Della can't understand quite what his reaction means. This practice turn to be a cruel action because if the bride's family fail to give the dowry that demand by the bridegroom‟s family. which happens to be modernized. They are the magi . Point of View The narrator tells the story in third-person point of view where he relates all action in third person. As they do so. Della sold her hair for $20 to buy Jim a watch chain for his watch.87. Dowry is a traditional practice where the father of the bride gives a part of his properties to his daughter and son in law as the gift of the wedding. whereby a sum of twenty thousand dollars and a necklace as to give it to the bridegroom‟s family. She went out dutifully.Sivasothie‟s parents were preparing dowry. Once she's recovered she gives Jim his present. As Thiruchelvam come. the future son in -law came to their house when Mr." Here is an example of the narrator's third person commentary: ”Just then. Ramachandran. then the wedding will be cancel off. Ramachandran came into the kitchen and beckoned to his wife. Thiruchelvam Thiruchelvam is chosen by the Ramachandran to be their daughter‟s to be. holding out the watch chain. Madame Sofronie: Shop owner who buys Della's hair. This shows that young women in the Indian society do not have freedom to choose their own life partner and also to decide their own future life. Then. In the beginning. Its $21 and she buys it. In the story. Theme It is about an situation of arrange marriage happening in India where the parents are the one choosing the partners of their daughter. Ramachandran told his wife that they cannot afford to give the dowry they agreed to give because of the disvalued of his wife‟s piece of land to sell. Left with only $1. James Dillingham Young: Husband of Della. Sivasothie agrees to the marriage because she has to follow whatever her family have decide for her life as she has no rights to voice out her opinion. Bitter tone in a way that Sivasothie as an usual Indian girl is controlled by her parents and she is just following whatever her family have decide for her life as she has no rights to voice out her opinion. Tamby Tamby is the youngest child of Ramachandran family. not able to understand that Della's hair is gone. You‟ll have a doctor for your husband”. Jim nurses Della out of her sobs. She sighed with contentment.

He absolves Emily of any tax burden after the death of her father. he wins many admirers in Jefferson because of his gregarious nature and good sense of humor. Wealth: In many ways. she also wanted to hold tight to the dream that she might have a normal life. they sick the cousins on her.A foreman from the North. She was finally able to break free when her father died. And if we do get to thinking about where Jim got the money to buy those combs. They wanted to hold her to the southern lady ideals her forbearers had mapped out for her. When she sees that everybody – the townspeople. Homer Barron. Sacrifice: The two main characters in "Gift of the Magi" are a husband and wife who give up their most precious possessions to be able to afford gifts for each other on Christmas Eve. This section is what complicates things for the town's conscience.The Gift of the Magi Themes Love: "Gift of the Magi" is the story of a poor. but the town won't let her do it. one which noble Miss Emily would have felt perfectly in the right to exterminate. In the complication stage it might be helpful to think of this story as the town's confession.Emily‟s servant. a booming voice. the climax is encapsulated in the image of the skull and crossbones on the arsenic package and the warning.A former mayor of Jefferson. He attempts to delicately handle the complaints about the smell emanating from the Grierson property. Mr. Plot: In the initial scene. because she stayed inside. He is the only lifeline that Emily has to the outside world. and light-colored eyes. she bought some poison and her boyfriend died. Emily Grierson – the main character in the story. Colonel Sartoris . Other than the painting lessons. Grierson . her cousins. and even Homer himself – is bent on messing up her plans. we learn a lot about Miss Emily: when her father died she refused to believe it for four days the summer after her father died. A gruff and demanding boss. She clings to the old ways even as she tries to break free. young couple whose love for each other is the most important thing in their lives. for us. Tobe . We move from a huge funeral attended by everybody in town. The Gift of the Magi Tone The Gift of the Magi Mood A Rose for Emily William Faulkner Settings: This story A Rose for Emily held only at the Grierson‟s House (Emily‟s House) in their town Jefferson. we might be able to guess what happens next. Theme: . we understand why Jim was so shocked. her life during that time is a mystery. looming presence even in death.A mayor of Jefferson. with love and a family. only to find the rotting corpse of Homer Barron. Such is their love that they're led to sacrifice their most valuable possessions to find Christmas gifts for each other. to this strange little story about taxes." he story winds down by filling us in on Miss Emily's goings on in the 40 years between Homer's disappearance and Emily's funeral.Emily's great-aunt. "Gift of the Magi" is a story about what it means for something to be valuable. The town was horrible to Miss Emily when she started dating Homer Barron. It also becomes clear now that he's not angry with Della. "For rats. The story seems to be all about sacrifice. That's why. she finally gets a boyfriend (she's in her thirties). Miss Emily is an old-school southern belle trapped in a society bent on forcing her to stay in her role. In Section II. Old Lady Wyatt. Yet. Homer probably was a bit of a rat. When they can't stop her from dating Homer themselves. Events in the story take place in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century. Characters: Ms. when worried that her boyfriend might leave her. And the conclusion of this story is the townspeople enter the bedroom that's been locked for 40 years. and he assures her he'll love her no matter how she looks.Emily‟s father. it is the first half of the twist. He is a controlling. she has an extreme reaction. The taxes seem tame compared to what comes next. but there was a bad smell around her house. the minister. Homer is a large gay man with a dark complexion. Does something's value lie in how much money it is worth? Or are other things more valuable than money? The Gift of the Magi Point-Of-View When Della opens Jim's present to find the combs. Although the climax doesn't fully "predict" the ending. According to Faulkner. and the community clearly sees his lasting influence over Emily. Judge Stevens . who went insane.

We remembered all the young men her father had driven away.The theme of this story A Rose for Emily is to let go of the past. But when they arrive at Abogin‟s house. Mood: The mood of Rose for Emily is nostalgic. . she would have to cling to that which had robbed her. They scream at one another and the doctor returns home. She has pretended to be ill so that her husband would leave the house allowing her to run away with her lover. Kirilov is fiercely angry that he has been dragged from his son‟s death-bed to hear Abogin‟s love troubles. Here is an example of the narrator's first-person commentary: We did not say she was crazy then. claiming that the doctor must know how terrible it is to witness the illness of a loved one and that his home is close-by. His six-year old son has just this moment died of diphtheria. Enemies (Anton Chekhov) Theme The theme of Enemies are responsibilities and betrayal Tone/ Mood Anxious Worried Foolish Depressing Characters Kirolov(Kirilov) – The Doctor who just lost his child Aboguin(Abogin) – A husband of a fake patient and left him alone Settings Russia Point of view First and Third Person Plot Kirilov is the district doctor. It is a wealthy stranger (Abogin) who begs the Doctor to come treat his wife who is in great pain. however. However. We believed she had to do that. Because Emily did bad things because she always remembers what her father told her and he is in prison in that. his wife is not home. using we. when reporting the community's reaction to developments involving Emily. what has happened previously in a persons life that they yearn for. Abogin is crushed and begins to complain to Kirilov. as people will. then suspenseful. Point of View: The narrator tells the story in third-person point of view. Kirilov relents. and then alarming. and we knew that with nothing left. Kirilov says that he cannot possibly leave his wife at this time. with a firm and undying conviction that all those with money deserve his hatred. he or she switches to first-person point of view. He stands watching his wife caress the body as the doorbell rings. Tone: Faulkner uses a tone that has a “sentimental longing” for the past. Abogin insists.

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