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Fluid Mechanic’s lab 02-01

Items 02-01-01 thru item 02-01-20

F1
issue 16

F1–16 Impact of a jet

F1–12 Hydrostatic pressure

F1–10 Hydraulics bench with F1-24 Hydraulic ram

ACCESSORIES COMPRISE ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ F1-11 Dead weight calibrator F1-12 Hydrostatic pressure F1-13 Flow over weirs F1-14 Metacentric height F1-15 Bernoulli's Theorem demonstration F1-16 Impact of a jet F1-17 Orifice & free jet flow F1-17a Orifice discharge F1-18 Energy losses in pipes F1-19 Flow channel F1-20 Osborne Reynolds' demonstration F1-21 Flow meter demonstration F1-22 Energy losses in bends F1-23 Free & forced vortices ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ F1-24 Hydraulic ram F1-25 Demonstration Pelton turbine F1-26 Series/Parallel pumps F1-27 Centrifugal pump characteristics F301 Computer aided learning software C6MkII-10 Fluid friction apparatus

F1-10 Basic Hydraulics Bench
DESCRIPTION This unit is designed as a portable and self-contained service module for the range of accessories described later in this data sheet. The bench is constructed from lightweight corrosion resistant plastic and is mounted on wheels for mobility. The bench top incorporates an open channel with side channels to support the accessory on test. Volumetric measurement is integral and has been chosen in preference to other methods of flow measurement for its ease of use, accuracy and safety in use (no heavy weights for students to drop). The volumetric measuring tank is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates. A stilling baffle reduces turbulence and a remote sight tube with scale gives an instantaneous indication of water level. A measuring cylinder is included in the supply for measurement of very small flow rates. A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator. Opening the dump valve returns the measured volume of water to the sump in the base of the bench for recycling. An overflow in the volumetric tank avoids flooding. Water is drawn from the sump tank by a centrifugal pump and a panel mounted control valve regulates the flow. An easy-to-use quick release pipe connector situated in the bench top allows for the rapid exchange of accessories without the need for hand tools. Each accessory is supplied as a complete piece of equipment needing no additional service items other than the Hydraulics Bench. When coupled to the bench they are immediately ready for use. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ...................................... centrifugal type max. head 21m H2O max. flow 1.35 litres/sec Motor rating: ............................ 0.37kW Sump tank capacity: ............... 250 litres High flow volumetric tank: ...... 40 litres Low flow volumetric tank: ....... 6 litres Height of working surface: ..... 1 metre above floor level

F1-11 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator
This calibrator functions on the same principle adopted in calibrating industrial pressure gauges. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES

calibrating a Bourdon type pressure gauge

DESCRIPTION This dead weight pressure gauge calibrator consists of a precision machined piston and cylinder assembly mounted on levelling screws. A Bourdon gauge is supplied for calibration. The weights supplied are added to the upper end of the piston rod which is rotated to minimise friction effects. The gauge is thus subject to known pressures which may be compared with the gauge readings and an error curve drawn. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pressure gauge: ................ Bourdon tube range 0 to 200 KN/m2 (KPa) Area of Piston: ................... 244.8 x 10–6 m2 Mass of piston: .................. 0.5kg Ancillary masses: .............. 0.5kg, 1.0kg and 2.5kg

120

Calibrated pressure KN/m

2

100 80 60 40 20 0

0

20

40

60

80

100
3

120

Indicated pressure KN/m

22 20 18

Head (metres of water)

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Flow (litres S )
Service pump characteristics curve (indicative) F1–11 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator

-1

F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure
The Hydrostatic Pressure accessory has been designed to determine the static thrust exerted by a fluid on a submerged surface and allow comparison of the measured magnitude and position of this force with simple theory. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the centre of pressure on both a submerged or partially submerged plane surface and comparison with the theoretical position DESCRIPTION A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. The knife edges coincide with the centre of arc of the quadrant. Thus, of the hydrostatic forces acting on the quadrant when immersed, only the force on the rectangular end face gives rise to a moment about the knife edges. The balance arm incorporates a balance pan for the weights supplied and an adjustable counterbalance. This assembly is mounted on top of an acrylic tank which may be levelled by adjusting screwed feet. Correct alignment is indicated on a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank. An indicator attached to the side of the tank shows when the balance arm is horizontal. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be drained through a cock in the side of the tank. The water level is indicated on a scale on the side of the quadrant. TECHNICAL DETAILS Tank capacity: ....................................................... 5.5 litres Distance between suspended mass and fulcrum: 275mm Cross-sectional area of quadrant (torroid): ... 7.5 x 10 – 3m2 Total depth of completely immersed quadrant: .... 160mm Height of fulcrum above quadrant: ........................ 100mm

F1-13 Flow over Weirs
Two weir plates of different shape are provided allowing familiarisation and comparison with theory. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ demonstrating the characteristics of flow over a rectangular notch ➤ demonstrating the characteristics of flow over a vee notch ➤ determining the coefficient of discharge DESCRIPTION The Flow over Weirs consists of five basic elements used in conjunction with the flow channel in the moulded bench top of the Hydraulics Bench. (i) A quick release connector in the base of the channel is unscrewed and a delivery nozzle screwed in its place. (ii) A stilling baffle locates into slots in the walls of the channel. The inlet nozzle and stilling baffle in combination promote smooth flow conditions in the channel. (iii) A Vernier hook and point gauge is mounted on an instrument carrier which is located on the side channels of the moulded top. The carrier may be moved along the channels to the required measurement position. (iv) The rectangular notch weir or (v) vee notch weir to be tested is clamped to the weir carrier in the channel by thumb nuts. The weir plates incorporate captive studs to aid assembly. TECHNICAL DETAILS Overall dimensions of weir plates: .... height 160mm width 230mm thickness 4mm Dimensions of rectangular notch: ..... height 82mm width 30mm Angle of vee notch weir: .................... 90 0 inclusive Hook & point gauge range: ................ 0 to 150mm Accuracy 0.1mm
(x10 -4 m 3/s)
5.0

(x10 -3 m 3/s)
1.5

FLOW RATE

200

FULLY SUBMERGED PLATE ONLY

0 0

H 5/2 (m 5/2)

FLOW RATE
0 0.001 0

H 3/2 (m 3/2)

0.03

r (mm)

Typical results obtained using F1–13 vee notch weir (left) and rectangular weir

PARTIALLY SUBMERGED BELOW THIS POINT
0 0

MASS (g)

500

Graph plotting r against mass using F1-12 (indicative)

F1–13 Flow over Weirs - vee notch weir

F1-14 Metacentric Height
This equipment allows a thorough investigation of the factors affecting the stability of a floating body. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the centre of gravity of the pontoon ➤ determining the metacentric height and from this the position of the metacentre for the pontoon ➤ varying the metacentric height with angle of heel DESCRIPTION On this item the position of the metacentre can be varied to produce stable and unstable equilibrium. The equipment consists of a plastic rectangular floating pontoon, the centre of gravity of which can be varied by an adjustable weight which slides and can be clamped in any position on a vertical mast. A single plumb-bob is suspended from the mast which indicates the angle of heel on a calibrated scale. A weight with lateral adjustment allows the degree of heel to be varied and hence the stability of the pontoon determined. The equipment does not require a separate water tank as it may be used on the Hydraulics Bench by filling the volumetric tank. TECHNICAL DETAILS Max. angle of heel: ........................ ±13o Corresponding linear dimension: . ±90mm Pontoon dimensions: .................... length 350mm width 200mm overall height

F1-15 Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration
The Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration accessory illustrates those circumstances to which Bernoulli's Theorem may be applied. Also, separately, why in other circumstances the theorem gives an inadequate description of the fluid behaviour. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ demonstrating Bernoulli's Theorem and its limitations ➤ directly measuring the static and total head distribution along a Venturi tube ➤ determining the meter coefficient at various flow rates DESCRIPTION The test section consists of a classical Venturi machined in clear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement of the static pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is provided to traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tappings are connected to a manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. The test section is arranged so that the characteristics of flow through both a converging and diverging section can be studied. Water is fed through a hose connector and is controlled by a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section. The Venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge coefficient can be determined. TECHNICAL DETAILS Manometer range: ........................ 0 to 300mm Number of manometer tubes: ...... 8 Throat diameter: ........................... 10.0mm Upstream diameter: ...................... 25.00mm Upstream taper: ............................ 14o Downstream taper: ....................... 21o

F1–14 Metacentric Height

F1–15 Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration

F1-16 Impact of a Jet
This equipment allows the force developed by a jet of water impinging upon a stationary object to be measured. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ measuring the force exerted on different targets and comparison with the forces predicted by momentum theory DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of a cylindrical clear acrylic fabrication with provision for levelling. Water is fed through a nozzle and discharged vertically to strike a target carried on a stem which extends through the cover. A weight carrier is mounted on the upper end of the stem. The dead weight of the moving parts is counter-balanced by a compression spring. The vertical force exerted on the target plate is measured by adding the weights supplied to the weight pan until the mark on the weight pan corresponds with the level gauge. A total of four targets are provided: a flat plate, a 120o cone and a hemispherical cup. TECHNICAL DETAILS Nozzle diameter: ............................................ 8mm Distance between nozzle & target plate: ...... 20mm Diameter of target plate: ................................ 36mm Target plates: .................... – 180o hemispherical target – 120o target (cone) – flat target - 30O target

F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow
This equipment permits calibration of two orifices of differing diameter. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ establishing the coefficient of velocity for a small orifice ➤ finding experimentally the coefficient of discharge for a small orifice with flow under constant head and flow under varying head ➤ comparing the measured trajectory of a jet with that predicted by simple theory of mechanics DESCRIPTION In the Orifice & Free Jet Flow accessory a constant head tank is fed with water from the Hydraulics Bench. The orifice is installed at the base of this tank by means of a special wall fitting which provides a flush inside surface. The head is maintained at a constant value by an adjustable overflow and is indicated by a level scale. A jet trajectory tracing device allows the path followed by the jet to be ascertained. Adjustable feet permit levelling. TECHNICAL DETAILS Orifice diameters: .............. 3.0mm and 6.0mm Jet trajectory probes: ....... 8 Max. constant head: ......... 410mm

10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10 10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10

F1–17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow

10

F A (N)
0 0 F T (N) 10

Typical results obtained using F1–16 with hemispherical plate (top), 1200 cone (centre) and flat plate (bottom)

15 20 . DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ demonstration of pipe surge determination of oscillatory characteristics of the surge shaft demonstration of frictional head loss between reservoir and surge shaft comparison between theoretical and measured pressure profiles produced by water hammer using a dual trace storage oscilloscope to record transient water hammer pressure profiles measuring the pressure profile characteristics determination of the velocity of sound through a fluid in a pipe demonstration of the effects of cavitation on subsequent cycles. The associated pressure transients can be damaging to pipework or components and systems must be designed to avoid or withstand them. Water hammer resulting from a rapid change in fluid velocity is clearly seen as large changes in pressure monitored using a pair of transducers and indicated using an oscilloscope. Effect of initial fluid velocity can also be investigated. The equipment designed by Armfield clearly demonstrates the different effects resulting from gradual or instantaneous changes in fluid velocity (created by slow and fast valve closure).Item 02-01-21 Pipe surge and water hammer are two related but independent phenomena which arise when fluid flowing in a pipe is accelerated or decelerated. Pipe surge resulting from a gradual change in fluid velocity is clearly seen as fluctuating changes in head in a surge shaft.

rather than a coiled arrangement. This allows the stored display to be transferred onto a suitable printer (C7-12) to provide a hard copy of the transient.0ms Amplitude 20mV/div Channel 1 only . The test pipe terminates with a lever operated gate valve and separate flow control valve. A metric scale on the shaft permits the height of the oscillations to be measured.0ms Amplitude 20mV/div Time Pressure-time diagram showing cyclic nature of pressure pulses with decay due to friction Using pressure-time diagrams to determine velocity of sound in the test pipe . with the water hammer (C7-11) being added at a later stage if required. Straight pipes are used. and a spring loaded plunger re-sets it for further use.Pressure transducer nearest fast acting valve Time Timebase 2. to reduce the distortion of the pressure wave. The water hammer test section uses a unique fast acting valve specifically designed by Armfield. Pressure transducers mounted at the fast acting valve itself and at a point along the test pipe provide analogue outputs which are fed into a signal conditioning module. The valve can easily be operated simply by pressing the valve release button. Water enters the two test pipes via the constant head tank and discharges into the volumetric tank. A service module provides the water supply to the head tank and also incorporates a volumetric tank for flow rate measurement.DESCRIPTION The equipment comprises two stainless steel pipes connected to a constant head tank. A dump valve in the volumetric tank returns the water to the sump tank. thereby enabling a very high closure rate to be obtained. sump tank.0ms Amplitude 20mV/div Observed oscillations in surge shaft Time Graph of pressure head against time following sudden closure of the valve Pressure Pressure Atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure Channel 1 Pressure transducer nearest fast acting valve Channel 2 Pressure transducer furthest from the fast acting valve Atmospheric pressure Timebase 2. mm Height of water Pressure Oscillations superimposed on waveform caused by vibration Average reading of Amplitude sec Time Atmospheric pressure Timebase 2. The pipe surge (C7-10) part of the apparatus may be ordered separately. The corresponding output voltage from the signal conditioning module can then be fed into a dual trace oscilloscope (C7-11A). circulating pump and flow control valve. A moving shuttle within the valve travels with the water flow. A Centronics printer output is available from the oscilloscope. The pipe surge test section incorporates a clear acrylic surge shaft to enable visualisation of its oscillatory characteristics to be demonstrated.

to reduce distortion of the pressure wave. rather than a coiled arrangement.TECHNICAL DETAILS stainless steel 22mm I/D x 3m long Surge shaft : clear acrylic 40mm I/D x 800mm H Service pump: centrifugal type. stepped 0-40 litre high flows 0-6 litre low flows Head tank: capacity 45 litres made from PVC. q The unit includes two separate test pipes. C7-11. C7-11: Water hammer test pipe: stainless steel 22mm I/D x 3m long Pressure transducers: 2 off range 1 to 69 bar. service module and constant head tank. delivering 1. ORDERING OPTIONS C7-10: C7-11: Self-contained pipe surge apparatus only Water hammer apparatus. (13. q Two pressure transducers provide electrical signals for connection to a dual trace storage oscilloscope with an integral printer output. q Straight pipes are used. additional to C7-10 C7-11A: Oscilloscope for C7-11 C7-12: Printer for C7-11A /4" BSP connections C7-11A: Oscilloscope C7-12: Printer dual trace storage oscilloscope with Centronics interface for use with C7-11A Fast acting valve and pressure transducer . C7-11A q A self-contained unit designed to demonstrate the phenomena of pipe surge and water hammer.5 bar max operating) 1 C7-10: Pipe surge test pipe: ORDERING SPECIFICATION C7-10.35 litres/sec at 3m H20 Flow rate measurement: volumetric tank.

SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply: C7-10-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz C7-10-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C7-10-G: 220-240V/1ph/60Hz C7-11-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz C7-11-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C7-11-G: 220-240V/1ph/60Hz C7-11A: 120-240V/1ph/50 or 60Hz C7-12-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz C7-12-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C7-12-G: 220-240V/1PH/60HZ OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Length: Depth: 1.1m3 10kg 0.865m 3.725m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION C7-10: Volume: Gross weight: C7-11: Volume: Gross weight: C7-11A: Volume: Gross weight: C7-12: Volume: Gross weight: 2.875m 0.5m3 300kg 0.1m3 10kg .5m3 20kg 0.

........................ 500mm Measuring cylinder capacity: ... In addition to the standard orifice.. 3... MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ investigating the variation of friction head along a circular pipe with the mean flow velocity in the pipe ➤ investigating the effects of laminar and turbulent flow regimes DESCRIPTION The Energy Losses in Pipes accessory consists of a test pipe........... Water discharging from the head tank is returned to the sump tank of the Hydraulics Bench...... TECHNICAL DETAILS Diameter of test pipe: ....0mm Length of test pipe: ...F1-17a Orifice Discharge The Orifice Discharge accessory enables full analysis of the flow through five different orifices over a range of flow rates. The pitot head and the total head across the orifice are shown on manometer tubes adjacent to the tank. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the contraction and velocity coefficients ➤ calculating the discharge coefficient DESCRIPTION The Orifice Discharge accessory consists of a cylindrical glass tank which has an orifice fitted in the base.... which may be fed directly from the Hydraulics Bench supply or...... head: ... 365mm Traverse mechanism: . Head loss between two tapping points in the test pipe is measured using two manometers... a water over mercury manometer for large pressure differentials and a press-urised water manometer for small pressure differentials.......... lead screw with adjusting nut calibrated 0... A label inside the lid gives dimensional details of each orifice.. These are supplied in an attractive storage case........ Attached to this pitot tube is a sharp blade which can be traversed across the jet to accurately measure the jet diameter and the vena contracta diameter and so determine the contraction coefficient. TECHNICAL DETAILS Standard orifice: ........ supply includes four additional orifices...1mm per division F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes This equipment allows the pressure drop of water passing through a hydraulically smooth circular pipe to be measured in detail and the pipe friction equation to be verified............... 1000ml F1–17a Orifice Discharge F1–18 Energy Losses in Pipes ...................... alternatively...... 500mm Range of water manometer: . These sources provide high or low flow rates which may be controlled by a valve at the discharge end of the test pipe......... 560mm Distance between pressure tapping points: .. from the internal constant head tank.... Mercury not supplied.. orientated vertically on the side of the equipment............. 510mm Range of mercury manometer: ...................... Adjustable feet permit levelling.. A traverse assembly is provided which enables a pitot tube to be positioned anywhere in the jet....... sharp-edged 30mm diameter Max......

.... 5 0........................ in conjunction with the inlet and discharge weirs........... TECHNICAL DETAILS Test pipe diameter: .... 0..... transitional..... Water is fed to the streamlined channel entry via a stilling tank to reduce turbulence. permit a varied range of open channel and flow visualisation demonstrations..F1-19 Flow Channel The Flow Channel introduces students to the characteristics of flow in an open channel at an elementary level..... Velocity of the water can therefore be determined to allow calculation of Reynolds' number...45 litres 15mm 615mm 150mm – broad crested weir – narrow crested weir – symmetrical aerofoil – asymmetrical aerofoil – small cylinder – large cylinder F1-20 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration This item is intended to reproduce the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning the nature of laminar and turbulent flow.. large and small diameter cylinders and symmetrical and asymmetrical aerofoils which.. DEMONSTRATION & VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES ➤ demonstrating basic phenomena associated with open channel flow ➤ visualisation of flow patterns over or around immersed objects DESCRIPTION The channel consists of a clear acrylic working section of large depth to width ratio incorporating undershot and overshot weirs at the inlet and discharge ends respectively....... Models supplied with the channel include broad and sharp crested weirs.......45 litres F1–19 Flow Channel F1–20 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration ...... Dye reservoir capacity: . VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES ➤ reproducing the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning fluid flow condition ➤ observing the laminar....... The equipment uses a similar dye injection technique to that of Reynolds' original apparatus to enable observation of flow conditions... Adjustable feet permit levelling TECHNICAL DETAILS Dye injection needles: ..... 700mm Dye reservoir capacity: . Length of channel: .. Width of channel: . Models: . A dye injection system incorporated at the inlet to the channel permits flow visualisation in conjunction with a graticule on the rear face of the channel. turbulent flow and velocity profile DESCRIPTION The equipment operates in a vertical mode...... Depth of channel: ....... Water discharging from the channel is collected in the volumetric tank of the Hydraulics Bench and returned to the sump for recirculation........... A header tank containing stilling media provides a constant head of water through a bellmouth entry to the flow visualisation pipe... Flow through this pipe is regulated using a control valve at the discharge end.. 10mm Length of test pipe: ........ The flow rate of water through the pipe can be measured using the volumetric tank (or measuring cylinder) of the Hydraulics Bench.

. a sudden contraction.. A separate gate valve is instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings which are connected to a differential gauge on the edge of the framework................... These tappings are connected to an eight tube manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve... (x10 -4 m 3/s) 7. TECHNICAL DETAILS Manometer range: .... 20mm Variable area meter: .... The following typical pipe fittings are incorporated for study: mitre bend........ 140 inclusive TECHNICAL DETAILS Pipe diameter: ... 0 to 440mm Number of manometer tubes: .......48mm Fittings: ....... A gate valve is used to control the flow rate. The unit stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench which is also used as the source of water supply.......... DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings This accessory permits losses in different bends.. variable area meter and orifice plate................ The bench is used as the source of water supply and for calibrating volumetrically each flow meter. sudden contraction and sudden enlargement..... – 450 mitre – elbow – short bend – large bend – enlargement – contraction Manometer range: .... 31.. The circuit and manometer are attached to a support framework which stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench............... installed in a series configuration to permit direct comparison...48mm Differential pressure gauge: ....... 19. mounted on the framework....... 2 to 20 litres/min Venturi dimensions: – Throat diameter ...3.... 26. variable area meter and orifice plate calibrating each flow meter using the volumetric measuring tank of the bench comparing pressure drops across each device ➤ measuring the losses in the devices related to flow rate and calculating loss coefficients related to velocity head comparing the pressure drop across each device DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION The equipment consists of a Venturi meter.. Pressure tappings are incorporated so that the head loss characteristics of each flow meter may be measured...... 900 elbow......... These tappings are connected to a bank of twelve water manometer tubes. 8 Orifice plate diameter: .....................7 7.. 0 to 1.. 210 inclusive – Downstream taper ...........0 Flow Rate 0 0 (x10 -4 m 3/s) / H12 / (m 1 2 ) 0.... 6 The equipment is mounted on a free-standing framework which supports the test pipework and instrumentation. 19......2mm Contraction diameter: . sweep bends (large and small radius)...... Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump.........F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration This accessory is designed to introduce students to three basic types of flow meter. sudden enlargement and a typical control valve to be demonstrated...... DEMONSTRATION & MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ directly comparing flow measurement using a Venturi meter...5bar Enlargement diameter: ..........0 Flow Rate 0 0 / H12 / (m 1 2 ) 0..75mm – Upstream taper . All are instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings..... 15mm – Upstream pipe diameter .........7 F1–22 Energy Losses in Bends Typical results obtained using F1–21 orifice meter (top) and venturi meter . Pressurisation of the manometers is facilititated by a hand pump............ A flow control valve permits var-iation of the flow rate through the circuit.......... 0 to 440mm Number of manometer tubes: 12 Differential manometers: ..

The forced vortex is induced by a paddle in the base of the cylinder which is rotated by jets of water.. 0.. 8..... 300 ..... An air vessel above the valve chamber smooths cyclic fluctuations from the ram delivery........ 50..F1-23 Free and Forced Vortex This equipment is designed to produce and measure the characteristics of free and forced vortices. 245mm Height to overflow point: ..1500mm variable DESCRIPTION The apparatus comprises a clear acrylic cylinder on a plinth designed to produce and measure free and forced vortices....... This principle is used in the hydraulic ram to pump water. 16 and 24mm Forced vortex measuring probes Distance from centre: .............. MEASUREMENT & VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ F1-24 Hydraulic Ram If flowing water is suddenly brought to rest in a long pipe............. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ understanding the difference between free and forced vortices determining the surface profile of a forced vortex determining the surface profile and total head distribution of a free vortex visualisation of secondary flow in free vortex establishing flow/pressure characteristics and determining efficiency of the hydraulic ram DESCRIPTION The Hydraulic Ram comprises an acrylic base incorporating pulse and non-return valves and a supply reservoir on a stand which is fed by the Hydraulics Bench. The free vortex is generated by water discharging through an interchangeable orifice in the base of the cylinder and the resulting profile is measured using a combined caliper and depth scale.. 30. TECHNICAL DETAILS Supply head: .............. 750 ... 70... The profile of the forced vortex is determined using a series of depth gauges... Dye crystals (not supplied ) may be used to demonstrate secondary flow at the base of the free vortex.. TECHNICAL DETAILS Tank diameter: .5mm diameter F1–23 Free and Forced Vortex F1–24 Hydraulic Ram ......... a phenomena known as water hammer occurs................ 15.. wherein a pressure wave travels along the pipe. 90 and 110mm Pitot tubes having measuring point (nose) at: ....... 9 and 12.. Velocity at any point in the free or forced vortices may be measured using the appropriate pitot tube supplied... 25 and 30mm radius Inlet tubes: .. 180mm Orifice diameters: .......... The weights supplied may be applied to the pulse valve to change the closing pressure and hence the operating characteristics..700mm variable Delivery head: ...

.......... flow 1... TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ........ TECHNICAL DETAILS Speed range: ......... –10 to + 45m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F1–10 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics.. 0 to 25m H2O Force balance range: ....... Mechanical output from the turbine is absorbed using a simple friction dynamometer. head 21m H2O max.... The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump.... 0 to 2000 r..... DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the operating characteristics....... 16 Diameter of Pelton wheel: .......... i... F1–26 Series/Parallel Pumps F1–25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine .... both in series and parallel operation..... 0...... efficiency and torque...... 0 to 10N x 0... 123mm F1-26 Series/Parallel Pumps The introduction of a second pump to the Hydraulic Bench system allows the study of two pump performance.F1-25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine The Demonstration Pelton Turbine provides a simple low cost introduction to turbine performance..p......... Pressure at the spear valve is indicated on a remote gauge.. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES Determining the head/flow rate characteristics of: ➤ a single centrifugal pump at a single speed ➤ two similar pumps operating in a parallel configuration at the same speed ➤ two similar pumps operating in a series configuration at the same speed DESCRIPTION This accessory comprises a fixed speed pump assembly and independent discharge manifold interconnected by flexible tubing with quick release connectors. centrifugal type max.......1N Number of Pelton buckets: .....35 litres/sec Motor rating: .... power produced and efficiency may be determined......... of a Pelton turbine at various speeds DESCRIPTION This accessory comprises a miniature Pelton wheel with spear valve arrangement mounted on a support frame which locates on the Hydraulics Bench top channel. A non-contacting tachometer (not supplied) may be used to determine the speed of the Pelton wheel.............. 0 to 45m H2O Compound gauge range: ...36kW Pressure gauge range: ......... Basic principles of the Pelton turbine may be demonstrated and.... with appropriate measurements...... power... This auxiliary pump is intended to be used in conjunction with the basic Hydraulics Bench......... 10 Watts Pressure gauge range: ....m..... Brake power: ......e....

.. 0 to 60 m H2O Compound gauge: ...... When operated independently or in parallel with the bench service pump.c......... motor.. flow rate 1...... the auxiliary pump is connected to the bench supply outlet in the bed of the channel... MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the relationship between head...35 l/sec Motor: ............................ 0.. head 21. F1-17a-301 F1-18-301 F1-19-301 F1-20-301 F1-21-301 F1-22-301 F1-23-301 F1-24-301 F1-25-301 F1-26-301 F1-27-301 F1–27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics F301 Computer Aided Learning Software F1-11-301 F1-12-301 F1-13-301 F1-14-301 F1-15-301 F1-16-301 F1-17-301 Windows Program for F1-11 Dead Weight Calibrator Windows Program for F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure Windows Program for F1-13 Flow over Weirs Windows Program for F1-14 Metacentric Height Windows Program for F1-15 Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Windows Program for F1-16 Impact of a Jet Windows Program for F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow Windows Program for F1-17a Orifice Discharge Windows Program for F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes Windows Program for F1-19 Flow Channel Windows Program for F1-20 Osborne Reynolds’ Demonstration Windows Program for F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration Windows Program for F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends Windows Program for F1-23 Free and Forced Vortices Windows Program for F1-24 Hydraulic Ram Windows Program for F1-25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine Windows Program for F1-26 Series/ Parallel Pumps Windows Program for F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics . A quick release connector incorporating a watertight valve permits operation of various other bench accessories when the flow control valve is closed..... The pump is driven by an a....... PWM inverter Speed range: ... the speed of which is varied by a compatible inverter drive. speed. with which it is intended to be used.... power and efficiency for a centrifugal pump at various speeds ➤ determining the head/flow rate characteristics of two similar pumps operating in either parallel or series configuration at the same speed DESCRIPTION The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump.. The motor speed.. centrifugal type max.... discharge... -10 to 32m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F1–10 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics... output voltage and motor current are easily monitored on the inverter display.. A compound pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump inlet and a pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump outlet... An independent discharge manifold incorporates a pressure gauge and flow control valve prior to a discharge pipe with diffuser......... 0 to 1500 rpm Pressure gauge: ... the auxiliary pump draws its water direct from the sump tank on the Hydraulics Bench.........36kW Speed controller: ....... When operated in series with the bench service pump...F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics This accessory offers similar features to those described for the item F1-26 but with enhanced capabilities provided by the inclusion of a variable speed pump rather than a fixed speed pump with inverter drive...........0m H2O max. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ......

1ph. corrosion resistant plastic ➤ an open channel incorporated in the bench top ➤ volumetric flow measurement for both high and low flow rates.00m Width: 1. Specifications may change without notice iss16/5k/0502/HH. 50Hz Alternative: 110V.ORDERING SPECIFICATION A self-contained mobile service module & accessories Special features: ➤ constructed from lightweight.5” High density disks Instruction manual The complete F1 software family is also available on a single CD-ROM (code F301-CD) for customers who use the full range of accessories.5m3 Gross Weight: 160kg Individual accessories on request COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS F301: Computer Aided Learning Software (Windows) The F1-xx-301 Software package comprises: 3. low flow 6 litres ➤ easy to use quick release pipe connector allows rapid exchange of accessories ➤ pump tank capacity 250 litres ➤ computer aided learning programs available for selected accessories ➤ eighteen accessories: Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator Hydrostatic Pressure Flow over Weirs Metacentric Height Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration Impact of a Jet Orifice and Free Jet Flow Orifice Discharge Energy Losses in Pipes Flow Channel Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration Flow Meter Demonstration Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings Free and Forced Vortex Hydraulic Ram Demonstration Pelton Turbine Series/Parallel Pumps Centrifugal Pump Characteristics ➤ when coupled to the bench. the accessories are immediately ready for use and require no additional service items A user instruction manual provides installation. . Capacities: high flow 40 litres. A Digital Pressure Meter: H12-8 is available as an alternative to Mercury manometers ask for data sheet H12: Manometers and Pressure Meter. F1–26 and F1–27 Electrical supply Standard: 220/240V. 60Hz available at extra cost OVERALL DIMENSIONS F1–10 Hydraulics Bench only: Height: 1. F4: Precision Pressure Gauge Calibrator F5: Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration F6: Air Flow Studies F9092: Fluid Properties and Hydrostatics Bench F10: Cavitation Demonstration F12: Particle Drag Coefficients Hydrogen Bubble Flow Visualisation System F14: C6MkII-10: Fluid Friction Apparatus TOXIC MATERIALS Due to international restrictions limiting the transport of toxic materials we do not include mercury in our supply.13m Depth: 0. RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Stop watch Vernier caliper Reference pressure gauge SERVICES REQUIRED F1–10. commissioning and maintenance data.73m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION F1–10 Hydraulics Bench only: Volume: 1. together with demonstration and measurement exercises. 1ph.

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES The provision of practical instruction exercises demonstrating the principles of fluid mechanics.Item 02-01-22 The Armfield Properties of Fluids and Hydrostatics Bench is designed to demonstrate the properties of fluids and their behaviour under hydrostatic conditions (fluid at rest). in particular: Understanding the properties of fluids: ➤ determining the density. specific gravity and viscosity of different liquids ➤ observing the effects of capillarity Understanding the effects of static pressure: ➤ demonstrating that the free surface of a static liquid is horizontal ➤ studying the effect of flow on a free surface ➤ measuring changes in liquid level ➤ studying the relationship between intensity of liquid pressure and depths ➤ determining the position of the centre of pressure on a plane surface Studying the operation and application of pressure gauges and manometers: ➤ using a direct reading Mercury barometer (Mercury not supplied) ➤ measuring air and water pressure using manometers ➤ comparing results obtained from various devices ➤ calibrating a Bourdon-type pressure gauge using a dead weight pressure gauge calibrator Investigating the buoyancy force and stability of floating bodies: ➤ verifying Archimedes' principle ➤ determining metacentric height . before studying fluids in motion. This allows students to develop an understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fundamental principles and techniques.

or to a plastic sink recessed into the working surface so that bench top experiments may be conducted without spillage. Water is stored in a polythene tank situated on the lower shelf of the bench. The water can be transferred by two positive displacement hand pumps either to an elevated open storage tank connected to a number of glass tubes for free surface studies. either fastened to the back of the bench or freestanding. bucket and cylinder metacentric height apparatus measuring cylinder thermometer air pump 600ml beaker stop clock Determining the stability of a floating body Calibration of a Bourdon guage using a dead weight calibrator Demonstration of the free surface of a static liquid Pressurising a manometer . The following experimental apparatus is included: ➤ universal hydrometer and hydrometer jars ➤ falling sphere viscometers ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ free surface tubes hook and point gauge Mercury barometer (Mercury not supplied) Bourdon gauge u-tube manometers deadweight pressure gauge calibrator and weights hydrostatic pressure apparatus Pascal's apparatus parallel plate capillary apparatus capillary tube apparatus lever balance with displacement vessel. A variety of measuring devices is incorporated. All excess water is returned to the storage tank via the sink drain.DESCRIPTION The equipment is mounted on a steel-framed bench fitted with castors.

00kg range -100C to +500C. double scale 0 to 0. hook for use in buoyancy experiments.TECHNICAL DETAILS Universal hydrometer: Falling sphere viscometer: Hydrostatic pressure apparatus: Direct reading barometer: range 0.00 sub-divided in 0. anti-parallax cursor.25kg and 0 to 1. 100mm dial pressure gauge: Dead weight pressure gauge calibrator: Lever balance: Thermometer: KN/m3 120 Calibrated pressure + + + + + + 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 KN/m3 Indicated pressure Demonstration of Archimedes' principle Calibration of a Bourdon gauge V1 V5 a b c PRESSURE GAUGE V9 VENT W V8 V10 TANK 2 A B V2 V6 V3 WATER PUMPS V4 SINK TANK 1 V7 U-TUBE MANOMETERS DEAD WEIGHT TESTER AIR PUMP Pressure and liquid level experiments are conducted using a built-in pipe system shown in outline in this diagram .01 intervals 40mm tube diameter comprises counter-balanced precision quadrant pivotted on knife edges at its centre of arc with compensated silvered metal scale range 585 to 790mm subdivided in 1mm intervals includes thermometer range 0 to 200 kN/m2 (kPa) and equivalent head of water in metres with 2 x 1/2 kg. 1kg and 21/2 kg weights 178mm diameter pan.70 to 2.

direct reading barometer range 585 to 790mm. A full description and ordering specification is provided in data sheet: H12: Manometers and Pressure Meters COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS F1: Hydraulics Bench & Accessories F1-301: Computer Aided Learning Programs (PC: Windows) F5: Osborne Reynolds Demonstration F6: Air Flow Studies F10: Cavitation Demonstration F12: Particle Drag Coefficients F14: Hydrogen Bubble Flow Visualisation System OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1450mm 1830mm 610mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross weight: 2. q A variety of measuring devices is incorporated in the unit including a universal hydrometer.70 to 2. q The equipment is mounted on a steelframed bench fitted with castors. hook and point gauge.thermometer range -100C to +500C. q These devices allow a full range of 16 experiments to be carried out. the operation and application of pressure gauges and manometers and the investigation of the stability of floating bodies. the effects of static pressure. dead weight pressure gauge calibrator with weights. q The bench top incorporates a recessed plastic sink. demonstrating the properties of fluids. metacentric height apparatus. In any case Armfield is unable to include it in the supply with the purchase of Mercury manometers due to shipping restrictions.Bourdon type Electronic top loading balance OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES Consequent to its hazardous nature many technicians prefer not to use Mercury or its use may be prohibited in the laboratory. RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Vernier caliper Reference pressure gauge .ORDERING SPECIFICATION q A self-contained and mobile unit for demonstration of the properties of fluids and hydrostatics.7m3 270kg Specifications may change without notice iss13/5k/0204/B&S. portable. double scale lever balance with displacement vessel. . hydrostatic pressure apparatus.00. range 0. battery operated pressure meter (H12-8) which is capable of measuring pressures of air or water from 0-2000mBar (0-1500mm Hg). Pascal's apparatus. falling sphere viscometer. With this in mind Armfield offers a hand held. q A comprehensive manual is included describing how the experiments are performed as well as how to commission the equipment. bucket and cylinder. dial pressure gauge range 0 to 200 kN/m2 (kPa).

DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ measurement of drag coefficients of spheres over several decades of particle Reynolds number exploration of dimensional analysis and dynamic similarity introduction to the effects of boundary layer separation on motion of spheres effect of particle shape on rate of fall and on drag coefficient .Item 02-01-23 PARTICLE DRAG COEFFICIENTS The apparatus has been designed to introduce students to the fundamental characteristics of the behaviour of particle/fluid systems. Particles covering a range of sizes and densities are supplied. The rate of fall of the particles is determined by timing their passage between two marks on the walls of the glass tubes. The experiments are conducted by allowing single particles to fall through a number of different liquids contained in vertical glass tubes. Blockage effects are reduced to a minimum as the largest particle used has a projected area of only 1% of the tube cross-section. in particular the relationship between the drag coefficients of falling particles and their Reynolds number value.

➤ Sliding valves to aid the removal of particles from the bottom of the tubes. VELOCITY PROFILES Streamlines ORDERING SPECIFICATION ➤ Compact. Observation of the particle movement is aided by a shielded fluorescent light mounted on the backboard between the glass tubes. ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT (not supplied) Stopwatch or stopclock Glass beaker SERVICES REQUIRED Velocity profiles Streamlines for potential flow past a sphere: observer stationary with respect to sphere Deformation flow around a falling sphere: streamlines and velocity profiles are shown for an observer at rest Electrical supply: F12-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz F12-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.5m long. back lit by a fluorescant lamp for ease of viewing. In addition to the range of spheres. ➤ Two transparent vertical glass tubes. ➤ Guide to aid the insertion of particles at the top of the tubes.DESCRIPTION The equipment consists of two precision glass tubes 1.5m long and 93mm inside diameter fixed vertically on a wall mounted backboard. ➤ The equipment is supplied with sets of spheres of different sizes and materials. .7m3 Gross weight: 120kg Specifications may change without notice iss11/5k/0402/AB. plus two streamlined shapes. ➤ Tube sizes 93mm inside diameter by 1.16m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0. marks on the tubes enable the rate of fall to be timed.57m 0. two streamlined shaped objects are supplied to allow comparison to be made between their drag coefficients and those of the spheres. wall mounted apparatus to study the behaviour of particles and shapes within fluids.60m 0. A guide is provided at the top of each tube to facilitate the introduction of particles with the minimum of disturbance to the liquid. A sliding valve device at the bottom of each tube allows the particles to be removed with minimum loss of liquid. with calibration marks for timing.

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ Observation of the phenomenon of cavitation Comparison of theoretical and actual pressures at cavitation conditions . It is possible to compare the pressure at which cavitation occurs relative to the vapour pressure of water.Item 02-01-24 CAVITATION APPARATUS The Armfield Cavitation Apparatus has been designed to demonstrate to students the phenomena of cavitation. Alternatively a laboratory water supply and suitable flow measuring device can be utilised. Fully comprehensive results can be achieved if used in conjunction with an Armfield Hydraulics Bench (F1-10).

wall mounted apparatus to demonstrate cavitation phenomena using an Armfield F1-10 Hydraulics Bench or laboratory water supply and drain. ● An instruction manual includes data sheets for student experiments. The complete assembly is mounted on a backboard arranged for wall mounting and requires the services of an Armfield Hydraulics Bench (F1-10) or laboratory water supply. RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS AND ACCESSORIES Stopwatch Thermometer } Not supplied by Armfield SERVICES REQUIRED Armfield Hydraulics Bench (F1-10) or Water supply at least 43 l/min at 14m head Flow measuring Device Laboratory drain OVERALL DIMENSIONS Length: Width: Height: 675mm 165mm 425mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0. the one on the upstream side incorporating a flow regulating valve. ORDERING SPECIFICATION ● Compact. ● The apparatus includes a black acrylic plastic venturi with window. flow measurement and drainage system. Bourdon pressure gauge 0-3bar. Bourdon vacuum gauge 0-1bar and control valve. as appropriate.1m3 Gross weight: 30kg . Pressure tappings are provided at the throat and inlet of the venturi and each is connected to a gauge mounted on the backboard.DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of a rectangular venturi section with a window allowing full visualisation. An instruction manual is supplied with the equipment. The venturi section is contained between two end fittings.

Item 02-01-25 thru 02-01-26 F1–16 Impact of a jet F1–10 Hydraulics bench with F1-24 Hydraulic ram .

The volumetric measuring tank is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates..5kg 120 Calibrated pressure KN/m 2 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 3 120 Indicated pressure KN/m 22 20 18 Head (metres of water) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0....3 1..7 0. accuracy and safety in use (no heavy weights for students to drop)........8 x 10–6 m2 Mass of piston: .. The gauge is thus subject to known pressures which may be compared with the gauge readings and an error curve drawn........ Volumetric measurement is integral and has been chosen in preference to other methods of flow measurement for its ease of use.. head 21m H2O max..... A stilling baffle reduces turbulence and a remote sight tube with scale gives an instantaneous indication of water level.. 6 litres Height of working surface: .......... A measuring cylinder is included in the supply for measurement of very small flow rates.0kg and 2..........1 1. flow 1.. The bench top incorporates an open channel with side channels to support the accessory on test.. 40 litres Low flow volumetric tank: .....F1-10 Basic Hydraulics Bench DESCRIPTION This unit is designed as a portable and self-contained service module for the range of accessories described later in this data sheet......4 0...... A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator..5 0...... When coupled to the bench they are immediately ready for use. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: .... Each accessory is supplied as a complete piece of equipment needing no additional service items other than the Hydraulics Bench..5kg........ The bench is constructed from lightweight corrosion resistant plastic and is mounted on wheels for mobility...... An easy-to-use quick release pipe connector situated in the bench top allows for the rapid exchange of accessories without the need for hand tools........... 244...... Bourdon tube range 0 to 200 KN/m2 (KPa) Area of Piston: . 0. Opening the dump valve returns the measured volume of water to the sump in the base of the bench for recycling..5kg Ancillary masses: ...... TECHNICAL DETAILS Pressure gauge: ... centrifugal type max... 0.. An overflow in the volumetric tank avoids flooding.....4 Flow (litres S ) Service pump characteristics curve (indicative) F1–11 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator -1 .. The weights supplied are added to the upper end of the piston rod which is rotated to minimise friction effects...8 0..37kW Sump tank capacity: .35 litres/sec Motor rating: ... Water is drawn from the sump tank by a centrifugal pump and a panel mounted control valve regulates the flow.. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ calibrating a Bourdon type pressure gauge DESCRIPTION This dead weight pressure gauge calibrator consists of a precision machined piston and cylinder assembly mounted on levelling screws...6 0..... 250 litres High flow volumetric tank: . 0.....2 0.1 0.. 1.....2 1. A Bourdon gauge is supplied for calibration.................. 1 metre above floor level F1-11 Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator This calibrator functions on the same principle adopted in calibrating industrial pressure gauges.0 1....3 0.9 1...

5.......... 0 to 150mm Accuracy 0...1mm (x10 -4 m 3/s) 5............... 7.. The knife edges coincide with the centre of arc of the quadrant... of the hydrostatic forces acting on the quadrant when immersed.... An indicator attached to the side of the tank shows when the balance arm is horizontal... This assembly is mounted on top of an acrylic tank which may be levelled by adjusting screwed feet..F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure The Hydrostatic Pressure accessory has been designed to determine the static thrust exerted by a fluid on a submerged surface and allow comparison of the measured magnitude and position of this force with simple theory.... (iv) The rectangular notch weir or (v) vee notch weir to be tested is clamped to the weir carrier in the channel by thumb nuts. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the centre of pressure on both a submerged or partially submerged plane surface and comparison with the theoretical position DESCRIPTION A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. height 160mm width 230mm thickness 4mm Dimensions of rectangular notch: . 90 0 inclusive Hook & point gauge range: .. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ demonstrating the characteristics of flow over a rectangular notch ➤ demonstrating the characteristics of flow over a vee notch ➤ determining the coefficient of discharge DESCRIPTION The Flow over Weirs consists of five basic elements used in conjunction with the flow channel in the moulded bench top of the Hydraulics Bench... (ii) A stilling baffle locates into slots in the walls of the channel.. Correct alignment is indicated on a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank... only the force on the rectangular end face gives rise to a moment about the knife edges.. Thus......... The inlet nozzle and stilling baffle in combination promote smooth flow conditions in the channel.....03 r (mm) Typical results obtained using F1–13 vee notch weir (left) and rectangular weir PARTIALLY SUBMERGED BELOW THIS POINT 0 0 MASS (g) 500 Graph plotting r against mass using F1-12 (indicative) F1–13 Flow over Weirs ..........vee notch weir .5 x 10 – 3m2 Total depth of completely immersed quadrant: ..5 litres Distance between suspended mass and fulcrum: 275mm Cross-sectional area of quadrant (torroid): . The carrier may be moved along the channels to the required measurement position....... (i) A quick release connector in the base of the channel is unscrewed and a delivery nozzle screwed in its place. 100mm F1-13 Flow over Weirs Two weir plates of different shape are provided allowing familiarisation and comparison with theory... height 82mm width 30mm Angle of vee notch weir: .. TECHNICAL DETAILS Overall dimensions of weir plates: ........... The water level is indicated on a scale on the side of the quadrant..... (iii) A Vernier hook and point gauge is mounted on an instrument carrier which is located on the side channels of the moulded top...... The weir plates incorporate captive studs to aid assembly.... The balance arm incorporates a balance pan for the weights supplied and an adjustable counterbalance.......001 0 H 3/2 (m 3/2) 0.... 160mm Height of fulcrum above quadrant: .............5 FLOW RATE 200 FULLY SUBMERGED PLATE ONLY 0 0 H 5/2 (m 5/2) FLOW RATE 0 0..0 (x10 -3 m 3/s) 1.. TECHNICAL DETAILS Tank capacity: .. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be drained through a cock in the side of the tank...

. Water is fed through a hose connector and is controlled by a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section...... 10................. 14o Downstream taper: ..... 0 to 300mm Number of manometer tubes: ...... ±90mm Pontoon dimensions: ...... DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the centre of gravity of the pontoon ➤ determining the metacentric height and from this the position of the metacentre for the pontoon ➤ varying the metacentric height with angle of heel DESCRIPTION On this item the position of the metacentre can be varied to produce stable and unstable equilibrium. angle of heel: ............. The Venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge coefficient can be determined............... TECHNICAL DETAILS Max. ±13o Corresponding linear dimension: ... why in other circumstances the theorem gives an inadequate description of the fluid behaviour.0mm Upstream diameter: . DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ demonstrating Bernoulli's Theorem and its limitations ➤ directly measuring the static and total head distribution along a Venturi tube ➤ determining the meter coefficient at various flow rates DESCRIPTION The test section consists of a classical Venturi machined in clear acrylic......... TECHNICAL DETAILS Manometer range: .... the centre of gravity of which can be varied by an adjustable weight which slides and can be clamped in any position on a vertical mast............. Also........ while a total head tube is provided to traverse along the centre line of the test section.. length 350mm width 200mm overall height F1-15 Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration The Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration accessory illustrates those circumstances to which Bernoulli's Theorem may be applied. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. A weight with lateral adjustment allows the degree of heel to be varied and hence the stability of the pontoon determined.. These tappings are connected to a manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve......................F1-14 Metacentric Height This equipment allows a thorough investigation of the factors affecting the stability of a floating body.. The equipment does not require a separate water tank as it may be used on the Hydraulics Bench by filling the volumetric tank.. 25. The test section is arranged so that the characteristics of flow through both a converging and diverging section can be studied... 8 Throat diameter: ...00mm Upstream taper: ..... A series of wall tappings allow measurement of the static pressure distribution along the converging duct....... separately... The equipment consists of a plastic rectangular floating pontoon......... A single plumb-bob is suspended from the mast which indicates the angle of heel on a calibrated scale. 21o F1–14 Metacentric Height F1–15 Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration ........................

MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ establishing the coefficient of velocity for a small orifice ➤ finding experimentally the coefficient of discharge for a small orifice with flow under constant head and flow under varying head ➤ comparing the measured trajectory of a jet with that predicted by simple theory of mechanics DESCRIPTION In the Orifice & Free Jet Flow accessory a constant head tank is fed with water from the Hydraulics Bench. 36mm Target plates: .............. The head is maintained at a constant value by an adjustable overflow and is indicated by a level scale............ The orifice is installed at the base of this tank by means of a special wall fitting which provides a flush inside surface....0mm Jet trajectory probes: . A total of four targets are provided: a flat plate......... Water is fed through a nozzle and discharged vertically to strike a target carried on a stem which extends through the cover......0mm and 6.... 410mm 10 F A (N) 0 0 F T (N) 10 10 F A (N) 0 0 F T (N) 10 F1–17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow 10 F A (N) 0 0 F T (N) 10 Typical results obtained using F1–16 with hemispherical plate (top).30O target F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow This equipment permits calibration of two orifices of differing diameter. – 180o hemispherical target – 120o target (cone) – flat target . 1200 cone (centre) and flat plate (bottom) .......... 8mm Distance between nozzle & target plate: . constant head: ........... 20mm Diameter of target plate: . TECHNICAL DETAILS Nozzle diameter: . TECHNICAL DETAILS Orifice diameters: .. A jet trajectory tracing device allows the path followed by the jet to be ascertained...F1-16 Impact of a Jet This equipment allows the force developed by a jet of water impinging upon a stationary object to be measured.... MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ measuring the force exerted on different targets and comparison with the forces predicted by momentum theory DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of a cylindrical clear acrylic fabrication with provision for levelling.. a 120o cone and a hemispherical cup..... The vertical force exerted on the target plate is measured by adding the weights supplied to the weight pan until the mark on the weight pan corresponds with the level gauge.. Adjustable feet permit levelling............................... A weight carrier is mounted on the upper end of the stem....... The dead weight of the moving parts is counter-balanced by a compression spring.......... 8 Max. 3.......

supply includes four additional orifices.. 500mm Measuring cylinder capacity: ........... 500mm Range of water manometer: ...........0mm Length of test pipe: ....... A label inside the lid gives dimensional details of each orifice....... 3. which may be fed directly from the Hydraulics Bench supply or........... MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ investigating the variation of friction head along a circular pipe with the mean flow velocity in the pipe ➤ investigating the effects of laminar and turbulent flow regimes DESCRIPTION The Energy Losses in Pipes accessory consists of a test pipe.... Adjustable feet permit levelling.. These are supplied in an attractive storage case........ Attached to this pitot tube is a sharp blade which can be traversed across the jet to accurately measure the jet diameter and the vena contracta diameter and so determine the contraction coefficient.F1-17a Orifice Discharge The Orifice Discharge accessory enables full analysis of the flow through five different orifices over a range of flow rates.1mm per division F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes This equipment allows the pressure drop of water passing through a hydraulically smooth circular pipe to be measured in detail and the pipe friction equation to be verified. orientated vertically on the side of the equipment........ Head loss between two tapping points in the test pipe is measured using two manometers.. These sources provide high or low flow rates which may be controlled by a valve at the discharge end of the test pipe.... Mercury not supplied... a water over mercury manometer for large pressure differentials and a press-urised water manometer for small pressure differentials........................... TECHNICAL DETAILS Standard orifice: ... The pitot head and the total head across the orifice are shown on manometer tubes adjacent to the tank.. A traverse assembly is provided which enables a pitot tube to be positioned anywhere in the jet.... TECHNICAL DETAILS Diameter of test pipe: ....... MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the contraction and velocity coefficients ➤ calculating the discharge coefficient DESCRIPTION The Orifice Discharge accessory consists of a cylindrical glass tank which has an orifice fitted in the base............ head: ... In addition to the standard orifice..... 365mm Traverse mechanism: ..... lead screw with adjusting nut calibrated 0... Water discharging from the head tank is returned to the sump tank of the Hydraulics Bench. 560mm Distance between pressure tapping points: .......... from the internal constant head tank................. alternatively........... 510mm Range of mercury manometer: . sharp-edged 30mm diameter Max..... 1000ml F1–17a Orifice Discharge F1–18 Energy Losses in Pipes .....................

. Dye reservoir capacity: . large and small diameter cylinders and symmetrical and asymmetrical aerofoils which................ DEMONSTRATION & VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES ➤ demonstrating basic phenomena associated with open channel flow ➤ visualisation of flow patterns over or around immersed objects DESCRIPTION The channel consists of a clear acrylic working section of large depth to width ratio incorporating undershot and overshot weirs at the inlet and discharge ends respectively.. transitional.. turbulent flow and velocity profile DESCRIPTION The equipment operates in a vertical mode....... A dye injection system incorporated at the inlet to the channel permits flow visualisation in conjunction with a graticule on the rear face of the channel............45 litres 15mm 615mm 150mm – broad crested weir – narrow crested weir – symmetrical aerofoil – asymmetrical aerofoil – small cylinder – large cylinder F1-20 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration This item is intended to reproduce the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning the nature of laminar and turbulent flow.......F1-19 Flow Channel The Flow Channel introduces students to the characteristics of flow in an open channel at an elementary level. 10mm Length of test pipe: . Width of channel: . Flow through this pipe is regulated using a control valve at the discharge end... Models: ... Depth of channel: ......... The flow rate of water through the pipe can be measured using the volumetric tank (or measuring cylinder) of the Hydraulics Bench......... VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES ➤ reproducing the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning fluid flow condition ➤ observing the laminar.. Water discharging from the channel is collected in the volumetric tank of the Hydraulics Bench and returned to the sump for recirculation... Velocity of the water can therefore be determined to allow calculation of Reynolds' number........45 litres F1–19 Flow Channel F1–20 Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration ............... Water is fed to the streamlined channel entry via a stilling tank to reduce turbulence. Length of channel: .. Adjustable feet permit levelling TECHNICAL DETAILS Dye injection needles: ..... 5 0.... 0. The equipment uses a similar dye injection technique to that of Reynolds' original apparatus to enable observation of flow conditions............. A header tank containing stilling media provides a constant head of water through a bellmouth entry to the flow visualisation pipe..... Models supplied with the channel include broad and sharp crested weirs.. permit a varied range of open channel and flow visualisation demonstrations. TECHNICAL DETAILS Test pipe diameter: .. in conjunction with the inlet and discharge weirs.. 700mm Dye reservoir capacity: .......

0 Flow Rate 0 0 (x10 -4 m 3/s) / H12 / (m 1 2 ) 0...... 140 inclusive TECHNICAL DETAILS Pipe diameter: .. 2 to 20 litres/min Venturi dimensions: – Throat diameter .. 31.................... 0 to 440mm Number of manometer tubes: 12 Differential manometers: .0 Flow Rate 0 0 / H12 / (m 1 2 ) 0....................... A gate valve is used to control the flow rate............... 19....5bar Enlargement diameter: .. 19.... a sudden contraction.. DEMONSTRATION & MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ directly comparing flow measurement using a Venturi meter.. (x10 -4 m 3/s) 7............ The bench is used as the source of water supply and for calibrating volumetrically each flow meter. installed in a series configuration to permit direct comparison.....F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration This accessory is designed to introduce students to three basic types of flow meter...48mm Fittings: .... sweep bends (large and small radius)...7 7..... 6 The equipment is mounted on a free-standing framework which supports the test pipework and instrumentation....................... 900 elbow.. A separate gate valve is instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings which are connected to a differential gauge on the edge of the framework......3.. 210 inclusive – Downstream taper ... The unit stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench which is also used as the source of water supply... variable area meter and orifice plate...... Pressurisation of the manometers is facilititated by a hand pump..... 0 to 440mm Number of manometer tubes: ...................48mm Differential pressure gauge: ......... The following typical pipe fittings are incorporated for study: mitre bend.... These tappings are connected to a bank of twelve water manometer tubes..... Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump.... mounted on the framework.. 26.. 8 Orifice plate diameter: .. All are instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings......... These tappings are connected to an eight tube manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings This accessory permits losses in different bends....... A flow control valve permits var-iation of the flow rate through the circuit.. The circuit and manometer are attached to a support framework which stands on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench. TECHNICAL DETAILS Manometer range: .75mm – Upstream taper .... variable area meter and orifice plate calibrating each flow meter using the volumetric measuring tank of the bench comparing pressure drops across each device ➤ measuring the losses in the devices related to flow rate and calculating loss coefficients related to velocity head comparing the pressure drop across each device DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION The equipment consists of a Venturi meter.......... sudden contraction and sudden enlargement. sudden enlargement and a typical control valve to be demonstrated......7 F1–22 Energy Losses in Bends Typical results obtained using F1–21 orifice meter (top) and venturi meter ...... 20mm Variable area meter: ..2mm Contraction diameter: . Pressure tappings are incorporated so that the head loss characteristics of each flow meter may be measured............... 15mm – Upstream pipe diameter . – 450 mitre – elbow – short bend – large bend – enlargement – contraction Manometer range: . 0 to 1...

. 9 and 12...F1-23 Free and Forced Vortex This equipment is designed to produce and measure the characteristics of free and forced vortices......... 245mm Height to overflow point: .. The forced vortex is induced by a paddle in the base of the cylinder which is rotated by jets of water...... 300 ... 180mm Orifice diameters: ..1500mm variable DESCRIPTION The apparatus comprises a clear acrylic cylinder on a plinth designed to produce and measure free and forced vortices...... 30..... Dye crystals (not supplied ) may be used to demonstrate secondary flow at the base of the free vortex........ 15....... wherein a pressure wave travels along the pipe... TECHNICAL DETAILS Supply head: . DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ understanding the difference between free and forced vortices determining the surface profile of a forced vortex determining the surface profile and total head distribution of a free vortex visualisation of secondary flow in free vortex establishing flow/pressure characteristics and determining efficiency of the hydraulic ram DESCRIPTION The Hydraulic Ram comprises an acrylic base incorporating pulse and non-return valves and a supply reservoir on a stand which is fed by the Hydraulics Bench..................... 0..... a phenomena known as water hammer occurs... MEASUREMENT & VISUALISATION CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ F1-24 Hydraulic Ram If flowing water is suddenly brought to rest in a long pipe. An air vessel above the valve chamber smooths cyclic fluctuations from the ram delivery.. Velocity at any point in the free or forced vortices may be measured using the appropriate pitot tube supplied....... The profile of the forced vortex is determined using a series of depth gauges.. 750 ... This principle is used in the hydraulic ram to pump water..700mm variable Delivery head: .... 50.. The free vortex is generated by water discharging through an interchangeable orifice in the base of the cylinder and the resulting profile is measured using a combined caliper and depth scale...... 25 and 30mm radius Inlet tubes: . 16 and 24mm Forced vortex measuring probes Distance from centre: .......5mm diameter F1–23 Free and Forced Vortex F1–24 Hydraulic Ram .... 90 and 110mm Pitot tubes having measuring point (nose) at: ..... 8... The weights supplied may be applied to the pulse valve to change the closing pressure and hence the operating characteristics...... 70.... TECHNICAL DETAILS Tank diameter: .....

........ Basic principles of the Pelton turbine may be demonstrated and. flow 1.. centrifugal type max....... DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the operating characteristics.F1-25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine The Demonstration Pelton Turbine provides a simple low cost introduction to turbine performance........ 123mm F1-26 Series/Parallel Pumps The introduction of a second pump to the Hydraulic Bench system allows the study of two pump performance.. efficiency and torque. 0 to 10N x 0....... –10 to + 45m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F1–10 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics. i. 0............ of a Pelton turbine at various speeds DESCRIPTION This accessory comprises a miniature Pelton wheel with spear valve arrangement mounted on a support frame which locates on the Hydraulics Bench top channel............. The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump..35 litres/sec Motor rating: ......... with appropriate measurements..........p............ power produced and efficiency may be determined.36kW Pressure gauge range: ..................... TECHNICAL DETAILS Speed range: ............... TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: . MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES Determining the head/flow rate characteristics of: ➤ a single centrifugal pump at a single speed ➤ two similar pumps operating in a parallel configuration at the same speed ➤ two similar pumps operating in a series configuration at the same speed DESCRIPTION This accessory comprises a fixed speed pump assembly and independent discharge manifold interconnected by flexible tubing with quick release connectors...... Mechanical output from the turbine is absorbed using a simple friction dynamometer... head 21m H2O max.. Pressure at the spear valve is indicated on a remote gauge....... both in series and parallel operation...1N Number of Pelton buckets: ..... Brake power: . 0 to 25m H2O Force balance range: ... A non-contacting tachometer (not supplied) may be used to determine the speed of the Pelton wheel. 10 Watts Pressure gauge range: .. F1–26 Series/Parallel Pumps F1–25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine ... This auxiliary pump is intended to be used in conjunction with the basic Hydraulics Bench....... 0 to 45m H2O Compound gauge range: ....... 16 Diameter of Pelton wheel: .. power..... 0 to 2000 r..e...m........

. A compound pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump inlet and a pressure gauge is mounted directly on the pump outlet....... -10 to 32m H2O See Hydraulics Bench F1–10 Technical Details for primary pump characteristics. 0 to 1500 rpm Pressure gauge: ..F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics This accessory offers similar features to those described for the item F1-26 but with enhanced capabilities provided by the inclusion of a variable speed pump rather than a fixed speed pump with inverter drive..c.. When operated independently or in parallel with the bench service pump.. An independent discharge manifold incorporates a pressure gauge and flow control valve prior to a discharge pipe with diffuser........ flow rate 1. The pump is driven by an a....35 l/sec Motor: ..36kW Speed controller: ........ 0........... head 21.. MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES ➤ determining the relationship between head... centrifugal type max...... F1-17a-301 F1-18-301 F1-19-301 F1-20-301 F1-21-301 F1-22-301 F1-23-301 F1-24-301 F1-25-301 F1-26-301 F1-27-301 F1–27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics F301 Computer Aided Learning Software F1-11-301 F1-12-301 F1-13-301 F1-14-301 F1-15-301 F1-16-301 F1-17-301 Windows Program for F1-11 Dead Weight Calibrator Windows Program for F1-12 Hydrostatic Pressure Windows Program for F1-13 Flow over Weirs Windows Program for F1-14 Metacentric Height Windows Program for F1-15 Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Windows Program for F1-16 Impact of a Jet Windows Program for F1-17 Orifice and Free Jet Flow Windows Program for F1-17a Orifice Discharge Windows Program for F1-18 Energy Losses in Pipes Windows Program for F1-19 Flow Channel Windows Program for F1-20 Osborne Reynolds’ Demonstration Windows Program for F1-21 Flow Meter Demonstration Windows Program for F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends Windows Program for F1-23 Free and Forced Vortices Windows Program for F1-24 Hydraulic Ram Windows Program for F1-25 Demonstration Pelton Turbine Windows Program for F1-26 Series/ Parallel Pumps Windows Program for F1-27 Centrifugal Pump Characteristics .......... the auxiliary pump is connected to the bench supply outlet in the bed of the channel....0m H2O max.......... The motor speed.. When operated in series with the bench service pump. 0 to 60 m H2O Compound gauge: ..................... power and efficiency for a centrifugal pump at various speeds ➤ determining the head/flow rate characteristics of two similar pumps operating in either parallel or series configuration at the same speed DESCRIPTION The auxiliary pump is mounted on a support plinth which stands adjacent to the Hydraulics Bench primary pump. motor. A quick release connector incorporating a watertight valve permits operation of various other bench accessories when the flow control valve is closed... discharge.... the speed of which is varied by a compatible inverter drive.. PWM inverter Speed range: ...... output voltage and motor current are easily monitored on the inverter display.. TECHNICAL DETAILS Pump: ..... with which it is intended to be used..... the auxiliary pump draws its water direct from the sump tank on the Hydraulics Bench............ speed..

Capacities: high flow 40 litres. 60Hz available at extra cost OVERALL DIMENSIONS F1–10 Hydraulics Bench only: Height: 1. .00m Width: 1. A Digital Pressure Meter: H12-8 is available as an alternative to Mercury manometers ask for data sheet H12: Manometers and Pressure Meter. low flow 6 litres ➤ easy to use quick release pipe connector allows rapid exchange of accessories ➤ pump tank capacity 250 litres ➤ computer aided learning programs available for selected accessories ➤ eighteen accessories: Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator Hydrostatic Pressure Flow over Weirs Metacentric Height Bernoulli's Theorem Demonstration Impact of a Jet Orifice and Free Jet Flow Orifice Discharge Energy Losses in Pipes Flow Channel Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration Flow Meter Demonstration Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings Free and Forced Vortex Hydraulic Ram Demonstration Pelton Turbine Series/Parallel Pumps Centrifugal Pump Characteristics ➤ when coupled to the bench. commissioning and maintenance data. 50Hz Alternative: 110V. Specifications may change without notice iss16/5k/0502/HH.13m Depth: 0. the accessories are immediately ready for use and require no additional service items A user instruction manual provides installation. 1ph. F1–26 and F1–27 Electrical supply Standard: 220/240V. together with demonstration and measurement exercises. corrosion resistant plastic ➤ an open channel incorporated in the bench top ➤ volumetric flow measurement for both high and low flow rates.5m3 Gross Weight: 160kg Individual accessories on request COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS F301: Computer Aided Learning Software (Windows) The F1-xx-301 Software package comprises: 3. RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Stop watch Vernier caliper Reference pressure gauge SERVICES REQUIRED F1–10.ORDERING SPECIFICATION A self-contained mobile service module & accessories Special features: ➤ constructed from lightweight. F4: Precision Pressure Gauge Calibrator F5: Osborne Reynolds' Demonstration F6: Air Flow Studies F9092: Fluid Properties and Hydrostatics Bench F10: Cavitation Demonstration F12: Particle Drag Coefficients Hydrogen Bubble Flow Visualisation System F14: C6MkII-10: Fluid Friction Apparatus TOXIC MATERIALS Due to international restrictions limiting the transport of toxic materials we do not include mercury in our supply.73m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION F1–10 Hydraulics Bench only: Volume: 1.5” High density disks Instruction manual The complete F1 software family is also available on a single CD-ROM (code F301-CD) for customers who use the full range of accessories. 1ph.

sluice gate Applying and understanding Manning’s formula Measurement of velocity profiles 15 20 .Items 02-01-27 thru 01-01-36 MULTI-PURPOSE TEACHING FLUME XX armfield C4 issue 10 The Armfield Multi-purpose Teaching Flume has been specifically designed to demonstrate the principles of fluid mechanics when applied to engineering structures in open channel flow.g. syphon spillways Understanding sub-and super-critical flow and the underlying characteristics of waves Hydraulic jump Using hydraulic structures for control of flow e. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Use of hook and point gauges to measure water level Use of a Pitot-static tube to measure flowrate Learning how to apply force-momentum and steady flow energy equations to simple flow situations Understanding the relationship between water level above the crest of a weir and flowrate over the weir Using hydraulic structures to control level. e.g.

5m and 5. The flume can be tilted by use of a calibrated screwjack which allows accurate slope adjustment of the channel.0m. A suitable stilling arrangement diffuses the water flow prior to entry into the channel. Flowrates can be measured either by using the volumetric tank (maximum flowrate 1. A longitudinal scale positioned at the top of the channel allows depth gauges and Pitot-static tubes to be positioned along the channel length. Basic models supplied are: ● Venturi flume ● Sharp and broad crested weirs ● 3 vernier level gauges ● Crump weir ● Adjustable undershot weir Crump Weir Sharp Crested Weir Broad Crested Weir Venturi Flume Adjustable Undershot Weir . The level in the working section of the flume may be controlled by an overshot weir arrangement. Bed pressure tappings and fixing points for models are provided. a set of notched weirs or by the direct reading flowmeter.2 l/sec). The flume is available in two standard lengths of 2.DESCRIPTION A small open channel comprising a clear acrylic working section with GRP inlet and disharge tanks mounted on a rigid framework. uniform flow. The water supply and flow measuring system is provided from a service module. ensuring smooth. Water is drawn from a sump tank by a submersible pump and delivered via a shunt type flowmeter and flow control valve into the inlet tank.

Optional models available: C4 .63: C4 .62: C4 .64: Pitot tube and manometer board Culvert fitting. central wall with various nose pieces Free overflow spillway section complete with ski jump. sloping apron and blended reverse curvature attachments Syphon spillway and air regulated syphon Model radial gate Wave generator and wave absorbing beach False floor sections for gradually varied profiles Artificially roughened bed 2.66: C4 .67: C4 .68: C4 . one rounded Flow splitters.61: C4 . one edge square.69: Hydraulic Jump Radial Gate .65: C4 .5m long section (2 required for a 5m flume) Air-Regulated Syphon Syphon Spillway C4 .

● 2.2.67 .1mm gauges: 2 x 300mm resolution 0. and water waves.40m Width: 0. A range of optional models are available that extend the capabilities.67 . ● Several types of weir. commission and maintain the equipment.B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C4 .8m Height: 1.A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz C4 .1mm SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply: C4 .5m .TECHNICAL DETAILS Acrylic channel: 2.5 litres/sec Vernier level 1 x 150mm resolution 0.5m Gross weight: 370kg Volume: 3.67 . Continuous duty.A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz C4 .5m .and subcritical velocity flow. which is supported on rigid pedestals. is included.2.5m Length: 3.B: 120V/1ph/60Hz C4 .55kW split capacitor start with built in overload protection.2.54m C4 .90m Width: 0.G: 220V/1ph/60Hz C4 .A: C4 . A moulded GRP service unit contains a submersible pump which supplies water to the inlet tank via a flowmeter and control valve.5m3 C4 .5 to 2.0m Gross weight: 520kg Volume: 4. Typical subjects which can be studied are super.5m .54m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION C4 .B: C4 . flow under a sluice gate. Flowmeter: Shunt orifice type.5m . syphon spillways.5 or 5m L x 76mm W x 250mm H Service module: made from glass rein forced plastic (GRP) Sump tank capacity:250 litres Volumetric tank capacity:40 litres Pump: Submersible type Motor: 0.2. hydraulic jump.G: Water supply: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz 120V/1ph/60Hz 220V/1ph/60Hz Initial fill ORDERING SPECIFICATION ● A small self-contained open channel with inlet and discharge tanks. OVERALL DIMENSIONS C4 . as well as how to install.5.4m3 . Class B insulation. Speed 2800rpm.2. range 0. flow measuring devices and hydraulic structures associated with open channel flow are included.5.G: 220V/1ph/60Hz C4 . A jacking arrangement permits the slope of the channel bed to be adjusted between -1 and +3%.8m Height: 1.5m . a stilling arrangement and profiled inlet ensures even flow through the working section.5 or 5m long versions are available with a working section of 76 x 250mm. ● An instruction booklet describing how to perform the flow measurements and to interpret the results.0m Length: 5.5m .

Item 02-01-37 thru 02-01-51 LABORATORY FLUMES AND CHANNELS FOR HYDRAULIC TEACHING/RESEARCH STUDIES ➤ ➤ ➤ Standard Flumes Special Flumes. Tanks and Basins Ancillary Equipment • Sediment Transport Facilities • Mono and Random Wave Makers • Instrumentation .

Introduction Armfield has been designing and supplying open channel facilities to hydraulic laboratories throughout the world for over 40 years. metal. velocity. level. from which research/teaching personnel may wish to request specific quotations depending on their field of interest. Depending on customer requirements. sediment sampling 2 . Usually channels are of rectangular prismatic section. etc. The dimensions of the working cross-section and length are the principal features which determine both the functional suitability and the cost of a channel. This brochure describes the range of channel designs available from Armfield. wood) inclusion of a wave generator and beach instrumentation systems for flow. channels can be designed to incorporate the following alternative features: • • • • • • • fixed bed or variable slope self-contained or laboratory supplied water open circuit or re-circulating sediment load choice of working section materials (glass.

thus providing an access walkway to the working section. All too often the turbulent entry conditions require a substantial portion of what would be described as the working section before suitable flow conditions prevail. it is easy to forget that a flume is an instrument and in many instances required to have a high level of integrity regarding both its working dimensions and ability to achieve repeatable results. wherever possible floor standing reservoir tanks run parallel to the flume and are covered. Armfield acknowledge the necessity for accuracy. Working length also means usable length.The Key Features of an Open Channel Facility Because of the physical size and the general heavy nature of the construction. Dimensions The critical dimensions of a flume are the working length and cross-section (width and depth). These are cornerstones of the design. precision and repeatability. manufacture and final installation. Armfield flumes are designed such that the working length is maximised. For example. The overall dimensions of the flume are also minimised through careful design of the inlet and outlet conditions and sensible use of the space underneath the flume and immediately adjacent. S6MkII flow channel complete with its own service system 3 .

Powered instrument carriages offering three way axes. and Armfield are happy to submit a quotation for installation.Materials of Construction The materials of construction are of paramount importance. Armfield incorporates many features to ease the life of the operator. This is why all Armfield flumes are constructed with toughened glass viewing panels. whether a standard product or customised. Even potable water will abrade a surface but water containing harsh particles. In such instances it is standard practice for Armfield to incorporate stainless steel on the bed of flumes. Wherever possible the more basic components in contact with water are made of non-corroding materials. Direct reading flow meter instrumentation. This allows them to be delivered to site in pre-fabricated. but also suitability for purpose. All controls on a single floor mounted console. not only for the durability and longevity required of an expensive piece of equipment. Clarity of flow visualisation is an essential ingredient. Where wood or a composite material is chosen for the base and/or sides of the flume. Electrical options for driving valves. It is at these times that the user appreciates equipment that has been carefully designed from an ergonomic viewpoint. with digital readout at the control console. Quite often long periods are required in order to gather sufficient meaningful data. clients are able to assemble and commission the equipment without the need for our skilled staff. In the unlikely event that a glass panel shatters. commissioning and. these are carefully treated to protect against water ingress. A sensible working height that provides comfortable access to the working section. particularly if laser doppler anemometry or sophisticated photography is involved. are built on a modular principle. where appropriate. S6MkII control console 4 . manageable sections. typically glass lined. such as plastic or GRP. basic training. whether these be small portholes or full length working sections. it will not break into dangerous sharp shards but into small relatively harmless cubes. However this is always an option. Toughened glass is also used as a safety feature. will quickly damage any soft material. Set-up and Assembly Armfield flumes. such as sediment. Pumps are usually steel but where sediment is involved we recommend the use of special pumps. Ease of Use Experimentation can be a time-consuming and tedious business. jacking systems and weirs. The designs are such that in most cases with help from the instruction manual. Many flumes are used for sediment transport studies and therefore the materials in contact with the sediment must have abrasion resistance.

valves and flow meters are incorporated. These can also be supplied. pipework. This is usually done through a weir at the discharge end. or as fully selfcontained facilities. Within the tank various stilling devices are incorporated. Many options exist but most frequently Armfield utilise either an adjustable overshot tilting weir or. able to supply flumes either in a non self-contained configuration.The Outlet Weir Of equal importance is the method of controlling the level within the flume. where they can be serviced from an existing header tank and discharge to a laboratory sump. where floor mounted reservoirs. pumps. Inlet Tank Design The inlet tank design generally adopted as standard by Armfield is the consequence of 40 years of experience coupled with comprehensive model test work. with profiling to both the side walls and base. however. a venetian blind weir with either vertical or horizontal slats. Armfield are. Occasionally flumes are required that meet both requirements. Level Control . for more complex flow conditions. Much hinges on the entry conditions and particularly the means used to settle and direct the flow as it enters the inlet tank and is re-directed into the working section. 5 . The result is a carefully shaped tank.Hydraulics: Performance and Systems Design Uniform Flow Within the limited confines of a laboratory flume it is critical that the best possible working conditions are achieved as quickly as possible after the flow enters the working section. including. whilst remaining compact in its length. an essential ingredient to minimise the waste of laboratory space. Modern laboratories rarely enjoy these facilities. where appropriate. re-circulating loops for sediment transport. Water Supply Traditionally hydraulic laboratories were constructed with underfloor sumps and elevated header tanks linked with a ring main.

instruments and models available Standard flumes have non-corroding durable GRP tanks throughout Transverse members have been eliminated throughout the working length Transparent sides are of toughened glass.Major Design Features There are numerous design features associated with Armfield channel facilities. abrasion resistant. many are unique. Adjustable instrument rails with positioning scales are fitted over the whole working length Fully profiled inlet tank fitted with stilling and smoothing devices Discharge tank with adjustable overshot weir and draft tube to avoid splashing and reduce noise Modular construction . The following list is not exhaustive. no user adjustments required to the flume bed Floor space requirements reduced to a minimum Fabricated high precision stainless steel channel bed (optional extra) Can be readily converted to closed-loop recirculation for sediment transport studies Precision screw jacks provide accurate slope adjustment with minimum effort (powered jacks available as an option) Designed for ease of visibility:. comfortable viewing height. etc.toughened glass sides. slimline side supports. does not discolour or scratch and is inherently safe Working section is fully adjustable. Not all features are appropriate to every channel. ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Accurate for education and research Extremely stable design.the end tanks acting as basins extending the working length Standard flumes have a comprehensive range of accessories. S6MkII Detail showing side support with instrument rail and side wall adjustment system ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ 6 . enabling extremely accurate setting Substantial underframes reduce load deflections to a minimum Close tolerances specified and achieved. both regular and random . dimensionally stable. which is extremely strong.supplied in pre-glazed sections for rapid and easy assembly on site Wave generation options.

S6MkII Slope adjustment 7 .

The length of a flume is dictated by many factors. Their reputation and expertise has developed through the evolution of standard products.Standard Flumes Armfield offer a design. manufacture and installation service for special channel facilities of all types and sizes. By this we mean high quality flumes offered to a standard design. space availability and cost. History and experience has shown that there is an optimum cross-section that will fill a great majority of educational and research needs. Common amongst them are experimental requirements. 8 . Standard Armfield flumes are therefore available as modular units. Those dimensions are a width of 300mm and a depth of 450mm (these are internal working dimensions).

The glass panels are sealed using a rubber “U” section compressed by an aluminium alloy clamping strip. Both end tanks are made from tough non-corroding GRP. The overall strength and rigidity of the design allows excellent stability figures to be achieved and eliminates the need to provide adjusting screws or to perform periodic setting up of the flume to maintain its specification. Longer lengths are available to special order in increments of 2. Also located on the console the emergency stop button and the pump controls.S6 MK II Glass Sided Tilting Flumes Description A glass sided tilting flume with fabricated all stainless steel bed. a jacking system and a control console. Instrument rails are provided along the entire working length of the flume and a continuous scale calibrated in millimetres is provided along the length of one of the rails. a series of sump tanks. Adjustable screws allow the track to be set level and true. 7. The control console is mounted on a pedestal and located in a convenient position for the installation. The channel section is fully glazed with large clear panels of toughened glass. An additional emergency stop button is provided on longer flumes. All interconnecting pipes and fittings are made of non-corroding materials.5m. A working crosssection of 300mm wide by 450mm deep and available in standard working lengths of 5m. This is coupled with careful design of the side support profiles to provide excellent visibility and allow flow visualisation of the full working height of the flume. Operating water levels are maintained by an overshot tilting weir located in the discharge tank. No underframe or support structure other than jacks is necessary. Rigid dowelled joints are used to connect the sections. Flow rate is measured using an electro-magnetic flow meter and displayed on a digital readout located on the control console. such that it is easily accessible and the flow rate can be read whilst adjusting the valve. 9 . a pump. The flow is regulated using a manually adjusted valve. The flume bed is manufactured to high tolerances and designed with an integral web support frame to give the flume a high degree of rigidity and stability. Excellent velocity profiles are achieved in the working section by careful shaping of the inlet tank and by the incorporation of stilling and smoothing devices. An isolation valve is included. moulded inlet and discharge tanks.5m. Water circulation is by a centrifugal pump mounted beneath the flume channel. an electronic flow meter. drawing water from a series of interconnected non-corroding sump tanks mounted on the floor and running alongside the flow channel. Completely self-contained and comprising the working section.5m. 10m and 12.

project work and research activities. Closed-loop recirculation is available as an option for sediment transport studies.28º) Electro-magnetic <0.5mm (typical) at 400mm water depth Ordering Specification S6 Flume A self-contained glass sided tilting flume for fluid mechanics laboratory experiments. Flumes up to 12. See back page for ordering options. The flume cross-section is 300mm wide by 450mm deep.8mm (typical) at 400mm water depth <0. Electrical jacking is available as an optional extra. An electro-magnetic flow meter is incorporated as standard.4º) 1:200 max (0. A comprehensive range of optional accessories and instruments is available to supplement the capabilities of the basic flume.25m longer than the working section defined Toughened glass Exclusively fabricated from stainless steel GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic) PVC (Polyvinylchloride) Close-coupled centrifugal Lever-operated butterfly Hand wheel operated wedge 1:40 max (1. No adjustments other than the jacking stations are necessary in order to set up and maintain the equipment. including a control box with up/down inch buttons plus an additional emergency stop button. Electronic limit switches disable the electrical device at the maximum and minimum extent of travel. A wide choice of standard lengths are available from 5m upwards.5m) Note: length overall is 3. The flume working channel is assembled from modular sections of 2. eliminating the need for a separate underframe. achieving typical bed deformations better than 1mm.5m length.The flume is tilted using a jacking system .a single jacking station on 5m flumes. A fabricated high precision stainless steel bed provides excellent strength and rigidity. Technical Details Width Depth Length Walls Bed End Tanks Sump Tanks and Pipework Pump Isolation Valve Flow Regulation Valve +ve Slope -ve Slope Flow Meter Bed Stability Side Wall Stability 300mm 450mm As ordered (multiples of 2. 10 . A slope indicator is provided. Each flume incorporates a discharge tank fitted with an adjustable overshot weir and draught tube to avoid splashing and noise.5m have two jacks interconnected by a geared drive.

(GRP) ➤ ➤ rectangular sharp cornered weir rectangular streamlined weir Aerated nappe Aeration pipe open Stable conditions are obtained for the rectangular weir by exposing both upper and lower surfaces of the nappe to atmosphere. air being admitted below and immediately downstream of the weir crest. instability of flow behaviour and is incompatible with accurate flow measurement (Fig.85 to 0.Experimental Models & Instrumentation A comprehensive range of experimental models and measuring instruments is available for selection. which may be compared with the crump weir.9 hd ha S6-21: Broad crested weir .in operation (above) and theory (right) Broad Crested Weir Q=1.67 hu ≥ 0.40 hu 11 . Shown is a traditional streamlined hump in operation. particularly where accuracy and reliability are required to be combined with ease of construction and maintenance. This condition is associated with an increase in discharge.in operation (above) and theory (right) This type of weir is commonly used in the gauging of discharge in open channels. S6-20: Plate Weirs . Wherever possible non-corroding materials have been used to reduce maintenance time and increase the working life of the models. Vent pipes are utilised to replenish lost air through entrainment with the falling water (Fig. 2) S6-20: Rectangular overshot weir . 1) Clinging nappe Aeration pipe blocked Should air loss occur then a vacuum will be created causing the nappe to adhere to the downstream face of the weir.(Stainless steel) ➤ ➤ ➤ screw operated adjustable undershot weir rectangular overshot weir plate `V´ notch weir S6-21: Broad Crested Weirs .704CdbH3/2 Cw ≈ 0. These provide the basis for a large number of practical experiments in open channel flow including the use and operation of regulating and gauging structures. ≥ 0.

(GRP) Eight pressure tappings (2 upstream. S6-24: Dam Spillway Models .(GRP) Two sections of different roughness.S6-20: ‘V’ notch weir S6-22 Venturi Flume . S6-23: Ogee Weir & Manometer Board . S6-30: Pitot Tube & Manometer Board .(GRP) Complete with the following interchangeable downstream sections: ➤ ➤ ➤ spillway toe roller bucket toe apron with removeable energy dissipator S6-26: Self-regulating Syphon (Acrylic) S6-27: Roughened Beds .(GRP) Three models . Each consists of three modules arranged to cover a 2.(GRP) A set of GRP mouldings for installation in the channel section to form a venturi flume.large and small diameter cylinders and an aerofoil section. 5 downstream. S6-29: Lift & Drag Balance & Models . S6-25: Syphon Spillway . and an inverted paraffin water manometer for magnification of small pressure differences.(GRP) Complete with traversing carriage and vernier height adjustment. S6-28: Vibrating Pile For the study of vortex shedding by piles and tall structures. 12 . 1 at apex) complete with multi-tube piezometer board.(Acrylic) Complete with adjustable breather tube.5m length.

S6-36: Beach S6-37: Zagni Flow Monitoring System Consists of a free standing manometer board and instrument carriage fitted with Pitot tube and interconnecting tubing. S6-33: WSC Flume . complete with mounting attachments to channel. surface profiles. regular. allows comparison of headflow characteristics with those published in the literature. this trapezoidal flume conforms more closely to natural channel sections and passes sediment even more freely than the Parshall Flume. complete with piezometer tube. pressure profiles and velocity profiles.6 to 3m/sec. S6-32: Parshall Flume . Range 0.(GRP) Developed by Washington State College.(GRP) One of the most widely used standing wave flumes.(GRP) Single pressure tapping at apex. H-1: Hook & Point Gauge Designed to be mounted on S6-40. This system may be used to establish the basic parameters of fluid flow in the channel including. flap-type generator designed to be mounted on the flume discharge tank. S6-42: Velocity Meter and Mountings Velocity probe and analogue meter. 13 . invert slope.S6-23: Ogee weir S6-25: Syphon spillway S6-31: Crump Weir . S6-35: Wave Generator Simple. S6-40: Instrument Carrier Both longitudinal and transverse movement and position lock.

When it is running. There are two cards for insertion into a PC. It is capable of running on any Windows compatible-PC fitted with the two interface cards supplied with the software. For more information on S6-45 request data sheet S6-45 provisional 14 . Irregular and Solitary waves. Wave generation software ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Regular waves Irregular waves . Additional hardware comprises a control box.S6-45 Random Wave Maker This machine utilises the base hinge weir in the discharge tank of the Armfield S6 Flume as the paddle.filtered white noise Irregular waves . It can generate Regular. The experimental transfer function can be entered and saved for a range of water depths. a filter box and a 50 way ribbon connector. Wave height and period requirements are entered at full (prototype) scale together with the model scale being used.Fourier series User defined wave generation techniques This is an advanced software package designed to simulate long crested sea conditions. the parameters of the generated sea state and a real time graphical display of the paddle movement are shown on screen. Installation is by means of an installation program. Following installation it allows all the relevant dimensional details of the paddle to be entered and saved in a file.

Long flumes need a series of jack stations carefully linked to avoid distortion of the main frame. electric drives (optional) and detection systems permitting operation only if all jacks move together. 15 . None. however. maintaining tolerances. soft “bearings” to limit noise. The general construction of such flumes is similar to the tilting flume described at S6 MKII. including chain drive and hydraulic lift. This mostly translates into positive slope but sometimes there is the requirement for negative slope. The Armfield choice. To achieve this requires an extremely rigid design which ensures almost no deflection regardless of load or tilt. Jacking Systems Tilting flumes need jacks to raise and lower them. Various options are available.e. The need for stability and the size and weight of the installation make this element of crucial importance.Special Tilting Flumes Many areas of study require or are enhanced by using flumes with a tilting capability. i. Dimensions can be modified to suit requirements. or where exceptional degrees of slope are involved. Other features include indicators for setting slope. On larger flumes. give the degree of repeatable accuracy achievable with screw jacks driven through shafting and gear boxes. Design of the jacking system is crucial in guaranteeing this.. a pivot mechanism at each station ensures a vertical aspect to the jacks at all times. The most important aspect of a tilting flume is retaining the integrity of the working section.

whilst the accuracy of the working section continues to be maintained at the same high levels prescribed for all other flow channels. The knock-down format is particularly suited for research facilities where future projects may require flow channels of different proportions. These sections are spaced at regular intervals and support the flume bed and side walls through adjustable jacking studs. service pumps and pipework. The knock-down design provides for optimum flexibility in the assembly of the flume. Steel Bed and Glass Wall Construction Similar in construction to the tilting flume described at S6 Mk II. seals the panels which are themselves supported by mild steel channel sections. Wood/Composite and Glass Panelled Construction Flumes of this type are invariably fixed bed.Fixed Bed Flumes. The walls are made of varnished plywood or composite materials and glass panels which are interchangeable. Instead. 16 . inlet and outlet tanks. It is therefore possible to level and align the flume with the utmost accuracy. Wave Tanks and Basins Not all applications require a flume to be tilting. In such cases the options for construction are increased. as the structure does not lend itself to the rigidity required for tilting. is watertight and bonds itself to the glass or wood/composite. these flumes do not require the sophisticated underframe or jacking system of a tilting flow channel. which remains plastic. In many cases it is sufficient for the unit to have a fixed horizontal position. A special jointing compound. The most flexible arrangement being a wood/composite and glass panelled knock-down form. they sit on simple ‘A’ frames.

Ancillary Hardware These typically include sediment feeders and sediment samplers. the pipework being designed to ensure the sediment stays in suspension and does not settle out within the system. Recirculating Sediment Systems Frequently in experimentation there is the need for erosion and/or deposition. 17 . This requires the circulation of sediment. Pumps are usually lined with glass. frequently based around environmental issues. For this configuration a flow channel requires a recirculating loop enabling the water containing sediment in suspension to be recirculated. Sediment is abrasive and this makes the selection of materials of particular importance. Armfield flow channels can be designed to incorporate such loops. A topic notoriously difficult to study in the field lends itself to detailed study using a flow channel in the controlled environment of a laboratory. either through a settling tank or hydro-cyclones. valves are reduced to a minimum and flow metering is via electro-magnetic flow meters that do not require any components within the flow. Armfield have in-depth experience of all these options and are happy to advise on supply. Non-Recirculating Systems These tend to be more complex and require that sediment be collected after discharge.Sediment Transport Studies involving bed movement are increasingly relevant. Flow visualisation areas must be of toughened glass and stainless steel is essential on the base and in tanks.

or for fundamental research. wedge type wave makers.Wave Generators Wave generation and the effects of waves are significant areas of study. For shallow water piston mechanism is the preferred mechanical option. Where larger flumes are involved hydraulic powered piston machines and for deeper water. Wave generators themselves can range from simple mechanical systems for regular waves through multi-paddle random generating systems that may be computer controlled. such as described in this brochure. Flumes may be used to study breakwaters. Many wave makers of this type have hinge-flap type paddles and are used. For small scale laboratory installations electrically driven piston machines are available. there are a number of different types of wave maker that are appropriate. Whatever the application Armfield can supply a complete system designed to suit your particular requirements. 18 . Multi-element wave makers recreate complex short crested waves. for example. in offshore sea basins where models of oil and gas rigs are tested. long crested and directional random waves are sufficient to model the sea state. For many applications. For offshore studies and some shallow water problems multi-directional components are required. sea walls and beach behaviour. In flumes or open channels. particularly coastal models and flume studies.

5m flumes S6 MkII .1 S6 MkII .0m or 7.SL S6 MkII .5m flumes Powered jacks for 10m or 12. Ordering options S6MkII S6 S6 S6 S6 S6 S6 S6 S6 MkII MkII MkII MkII MkII MkII MkII MkII 5.14 . pressurised.2 Shipping Specifications S6MkII Available on request 19 .5m 10m 12. Indicators and Recorders Wave Probe Systems Individual detailed catalogues available on request.Instrumentation A selection of instruments is available for use in flumes. water-mercury Portable Pressure Meters Pitot Tubes Turbulence/Velocity Meter Velocity Probes.Basic electrics comprising control console & pump 220V/3ph/60Hz .14 .0m 7.Basic electrics comprising control console & pump 380V/3ph/50Hz .Basic electrics comprising control console & pump Sediment loop for any of the above flumes Powered jacks for 5.Basic electrics comprising control console & pump 208V/3ph/60Hz .5m C D E F Basic Basic Basic Basic self self self self contained contained contained contained flume flume flume flume (no (no (no (no electrics) electrics) electrics) electrics) 415V/3ph/50Hz . channels and basins:H1-1 to H1-11 H12-1 to H12-7 H12-8 to H12-9 H30-1H to H30-3H H32 H33 to H33-8 H40-1-1 to H40-2-3 Vernier Hook & Point Gauges Manometers including water.

relevant deductions can be made as to how non-uniform flows occur and how these interact with the settling characteristics of particular suspensions.Item 02-01-52 MODEL SEDIMENTATION TANK This unit has been designed to demonstrate the hydraulic characteristics and settling efficiencies of a model settling basin. DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ measuring flow short-circuiting and dead space using a tracer comparison of real flow regimes with idealised flow models (fig. Although scale-up to industrial size sedimentation tanks is difficult. . 1) effect of flow rate and baffle position on dispersion measuring sediment removal efficiencies and relating these to the hydraulic characteristics.

. slurry flow meter range 0 .0 0.5 . The sump tank is continually agitated by a flow sparge device to prevent settling of solids during an experiment.5 1. Mains water flow meter range 0. long tank A 0 0.7 narrow band-pass filters covering wavelengths 450 to 700mm OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.9m3 Gross weight: 310kg Specifications may change without notice iss8/5k/0404/RG.55m 1. an accurate dye injection system is provided.5 Fig. ● Measurement of sediment removal efficiencies. This may be comparatively analysed by the Imhoff cone technique or more accurately by drying and weighing. ● Effect of variables such as flow rate and baffle position on flow regimes. a slurry is prepared in a sump tank and pumped via a specially designed flow meter to join the fresh water stream just before entry to the settling tank.60m SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply: W7-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz W7-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz W7-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz Water supply: 5 litres/min @ 1 bar SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 2. TECHNICAL DETAILS Settling tank: Sediment sump tank capacity: Water flow meter range: Sediment suspension flow meter range: Pump flow rate: Motor: 1000 x 400 x 200mm 120 litres 0. For hydraulic tracer and visualisation studies.5 Time (Q/V) 1.0 1. RECOMMENDED ACCESSORIES Armfield Sedimentation Studies Apparatus (W2) to characterise settling regimes of selected suspension Precipitated calcium carbonate Balances Colorimeter .DESCRIPTION Water is taken from the laboratory mains supply and is fed to the settling tank via a flow meter.0 1. For studies of sedimentation. 1 Typical dispersion curves ORDERING SPECIFICATION ● A rigid acrylic settling tank of 80L capacity can be fed by a mains water or a slurry supply. ● A dye injection system is incorporated to allow hydraulic tracer and flow visualisation studies. Slurry is pumped from a 120L sump tank via a centrifugal pump.5-5 l/min 0-2 l/min 25 l/min at 5m head 0. ● Both supplies are fitted with a flow meter.2 litres/min.5. A sparging device in the sump tank keeps the slurry in suspension. A known volume of dye solution is injected just before the entry to the settling tank.5 C B E F A = completely mixed model F = ideal ‘plug flow’ D Typical curves for real tanks: B: C: D: E: unbaffled tank wide shallow tank long narrow tank baffled.1kW Relative concentration 2. A well-mixed slurry of known concentration and flow enters the tank uniformly under an inlet weir.0 litres/ min.90m 0. ● Measuring flow regimes using a dye tracer and comparison of these with idealised flow models.

DEMONSTRATION CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ effect of initial concentration on sedimentation rates construction of settling rate curves from a single batch test effect of initial suspension height on sedimentation rates effect of particle size distribution use of flocculating additives. .Item 02-01-58 SEDIMENTATION STUDIES APPARATUS Clarified zone Discrete particle settling Hindered settling Transition zone Compression h∞ Fig 1: Settling regimes The Armfield Sedimentation Studies Apparatus provides a facility for studying the basic physical processes involved in sedimentation.

net SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply: W2-A: 220-240V/1ph/50Hz W2-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1. depending on the concentration of the suspension and the characteristics of the particles. filling and mixing of the solid particles. The simplest type of sedimentation is the settling of a dilute suspension of particles which have little or no tendency to flocculate. the prediction of clarification rates and their scale-up to plant design is relatively straightforward.70m 0. fig 2). specific gravity bottle. Five equal sized glass cylinders are mounted vertically on a backboard incorporating measuring scales. q Demonstration capabilities: ➤ effect of initial concentration on sedimentation rates ➤ construction of settling rate curves from a single batch test ➤ effect of initial suspension height on sedimentation rates ➤ effect of particle size distribution ➤ use of flocculating additives. q Supply includes stopclock. Solutions containing different amounts of suspension can be placed in the cylinders and the differences in sedimentation rate observed by measuring the changes in height of the various solid/liquid interfaces with respect to time (e. RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Triple Beam Top Loading Balance Capacity: 2610g Sensitivity: 0. 110 90 Sedimentation curves Top interface liquid/solid Height of interface (cm) 80 70 60 50 40 30 Sediment 20 layer thickness 10 0 15% 12. 1m long x 51mm bore cylinders mounted vertically on a backboard. q Cylinders are illuminated from behind and removable for cleaning. Information from batch tests for such systems forms a vital part of the search for the optimum design and operation of industrial sedimentation tanks.g. three plastic beakers of 2 litre capacity.uk URL: http://www. In these circumstances. Particles settle from suspension in different ways. The Armfield Sedimentation Studies Apparatus allows demonstration of these different characteristics for any chosen sediment/water system.co. three 2 litre capacity plastic beakers and a specific gravity bottle. The whole apparatus is bench-mounted and provided with back lighting.14m 0. known as ‘zone’ settling (fig 1).80m3 90kg Specifications may change without notice iss6/5k/0503/San.5% 10% 7.armfield. An accurate balance (not supplied) is required for weighing the solids. .1g Tare: 225g Armfield Limited Bridge House West Street Ringwood Hampshire England BH24 1DY Tel: +44 (0)1425 478781 Fax: +44 (0)1425 470916 E mail: sales@armfield.43m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross weight: 0. 436 West Commodore Blvd (#2) Jackson NJ 08527 Tel: (732) 928-3332 Fax: (732) 928-3542 E mail: armfield@optonline.co. The equipment includes the following accessories necessary for a self-contained facility: stop clock.uk USA Office: Armfield Inc. For higher concentrations where inter-particle effects become significant and where agglomeration may take place.DESCRIPTION Sedimentation is a process used widely in the clarification of water and wastewater. different regimes of settling rate occur.5% 5% 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Time (mins) Fig 2: Typical sedimentation curves ORDERING SPECIFICATION q Five graduated. Each of the cylinders may be removed from the board for washing.

scour and erosion . effect of reservoir storage and land drains Construction of draw-down curves for one or two well systems in a sand bed Hydraulic gradients in ground water flow Investigation of model stream flow in alluvial material Formation of river features and development over time Sediment transport. the formation of river features and effects of sediment transport. moving storms. the abstraction of ground water by wells. floor standing apparatus. including: rainfall hydrographs for catchment areas of varying permeability. Realistic results can be obtained from this small scale.Item 02-01-59 ADVANCED HYDROLOGY STUDY SYSTEM S12 MkII This apparatus demonstrates some of the major physical processes found in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology. bedload motion. which can be conveniently located and requires no special services. both with and without surface recharge from rainfall. INVESTIGATION CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Determination of run-off hydrographs from model catchments including multiple storms.

The water is output either from an outlet tank and flow measurement system located at the end of the main sand tank. a water stilling system and a flow measurement device. and displayed on a manometer bank. Each drain can be configured as an inlet or an outlet to permit a wide variety of hydrological demonstrations. A stepped height weir is used to adjust the outlet conditions.) The outlet tank comprises a sand trap. runoff and river formation demonstrations. using a direct reading inclined manometer. Eight stainless steel spray nozzles are mounted on a gantry above the sand tank. Each nozzle has an associated on/off valve. These French drains extend the full width of the tank. no need to change the sand Control and measurement of inlet flows Flexible configuration allows a wide range of simulations Flexible configuration allows a wide range of simulations Computer data logging option for sediment and water outlet flow measurement DESCRIPTION The unit comprises a sand tank. A large plastic sump tank is located under the sand tank. (When performing water table demonstrations this stepped weir is replaced with a sealing plate. Water may be input to the sand tank from spray nozzles located above the tank (simulating rainfall). The height of the gantry can be easily adjusted. minimising system disturbances. and is used for hydrographs. from one or both of the two wells located in the tank. or from one or both of the French drains. The flow measurement is performed by measuring the height of the water flowing over the outlet weir. further enhancing the flexibility of the overall system. buried in the sand at either end of the tank. Ground water table levels (phreatic surface) are measured using twenty tapping points in the sand tank. The two flowmeters have different ranges. Two variable area flowmeters with integral adjusting valves are used to control and measure the various flows into the tank. The outlet tank is located at the end of the sand tank. configured in a cruciform pattern. and a shaped channel section to provide formed flow conditions into the sand tank. The use of self-sealing quick release fittings allows the system to be configured in a variety of different ways. allowing the full length of the tank to be used for river simulations Novel outlet tank design for water flow and sediment flow measurement Stainless steel sand tank Dual jacks provide adjustable tilt Adjustable spray nozzle height Use of fine grade sand allows detailed feature development Single grade of sand for all defined demonstrations. made of stainless steel. measuring 2 metres by 1 metre. enabling a wide range of demonstrations. from an inlet tank simulating a river flow or from two french drains buried in the sand at either end of the tank. Pressure regulators and filters are incorporated in the water supply lines. In this way the amount of sediment collected over a period of time can be measured. The river inlet tank uses glass balls to still the flow.FEATURES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Stilled inlet tank provides developed river flow conditions. positioned to give an even distribution across the tank surface. The subsurface flow inputs are via two French drains. . The sand trap is configured to allow the sediment to be collected in a sieve. allowing a wide variety of moving rainfall patterns to be simulated.

An optional accessory is a set of shapes and models for use when investigating surface flow effects and run-off effects.. Cone of depression for a single well Longitude Transverse Tapping points array Elevation Equation of THIEM 600 400 200 0 200 400 600 Radial distance from well Use of well points to de-water an excavation 75 Excavation site Ground surface Elevation (mm) Well B 20 0 400 Well A 800 1200 1600 Longitude distance (mm) 2000 Example of a braided channel planform Well abstraction from a circular island 110 Island profile Elevation (mm) Rainfall only Well flows only Rainfall + wells Well B Well A 30 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 Example of scour in open channel flow Longitude distance (mm) . and calculating the sediment flow rate from the rate of change of the weight. It comes complete with educational software.The S12MkII-50 version includes additional instrumentation and a data logging system that is used to measure both the water flow and the sediment flow. help texts. and requires a user provided PC. This system works by measuring the weight of the sand and water collected in the outlet tank. graph plotting. etc.

A self contained floor standing apparatus for hydrology and fluvial geomorphology demonstrations. A version is available with instrumentation to measure both water and sediment run-off in real time. 60Hz OVERALL DIMENSIONS Length Width Depth 2700mm 1300mm 1700mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Packed Volume: Gross Weight: 7. two well points and 20 manometer tapping points linked to a manometer bank (g) A large plastic sump tank plus a recirculating pump 2.5m3 600Kg . tiltable using a dual linked jacking system 8 stainless steel spray nozzles mounted on an adjustable height gantry A stilled tank providing a formed flow river inlet Two flowmeters (3L/min & 5L/min) to measure and adjust the inlet flows An outlet tank allowing both water and sediment flow to be measured Two French drains. 60Hz 220V. (requires a customer provided PC). 60Hz 220V. scour and erosion 3. bedload motion. The package included data logging and educational software.ORDERING SPECIFICATION 1. 50Hz 110/120V. 50Hz 110/120V. 60Hz 220/240V. comprising: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) A 2m x 1m stainless steel tank. ORDERING INFORMATION S12-MKII-A S12-MKII-B S12-MKII-G S12-MKII-50-A S12-MKII-50-B S12-MKII-50-G S12-MODELS Advanced hydrology study system Advanced hydrology study system Advanced hydrology study system Hydrology system c/w instrumentation Hydrology system c/w instrumentation Hydrology system c/w instrumentation Surface models for use with S12-MkII 220/240V. Experimental capabilities include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Run-off hydrographs from model catchments Draw-down curves for one well and two well systems Ground water flow and hydraulic gradients Model stream flow in alluvial material Formation and development of river features over time Sediment transport.

A measurement sensor is included to monitor differential pressure across the orifice ( hence flow rate) The FM3SU includes program disks for the three associated turbine accessories. • Requires a single phase electrical supply. processing and displaying data graphically.Item 02-01-62 FM3SU TURBINE SERVICE UNIT The Armfield FM3 range of smallscale hydropower units consists of four prototypes of industrial machines. SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase electrical supply: FM3SU-A 220/240V/1ph/50Hz FM3SU-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Length: Width: 800mm 850mm 450mm 60Kg 0. • Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console. Full theoretical back-up is included together with a student questions and answers session. FM30. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION The FM3SU Service Unit is an essential accessory designed to allow self-contained operation of the three Armfield turbines. calibrating and performing the teaching exercises. which has a maximum flow of 0. bench top service module designed to accommodate three different water turbines: . • Software is supplied with the equipment providing full instructions for setting up.the low head propeller turbine unit FM33 .has a specially designed service system of its own to accommodate the necessary larger water flows.FM32 Pelton Turbine • Equipped with electronic measurement sensor for orifice differential pressure (flow-rate).33 litres/sec at a head of 29m. designed to demonstrate the principles of design and operation of impulse and reaction turbines in both axial and radial flow situations. The unit consists of a clear acrylic reservoir. Facilities are provided for logging. The unit requires a single phase electrical supply. FM31 and FM32. Three of the machines (shown opposite) may be separately mounted on the common Turbine Service Unit (FM3SU) for self-contained operation. The pump discharge pipework incorporates a throttle valve to allow adjustment of the water flow/pressure supplied to a turbine mounted on the unit.FM30 Axial Flow Impulse Turbine . The flow of water is measured using an orifice plate (installed in the pump inlet line). a circulating pump and associated pipework on a supporting base. Water circulation is provided by a single stage centrifugal pump. operating.50m 3 SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: Volume: . which is bench-mounted. whilst the fourth .FM31 Radial Flow Reaction Turbine . The FM3SU shown with an FM32 Pelton Turbine installed ORDERING SPECIFICATION • A self-contained.

40m 3 . The rotor is mounted on a stainless steel shaft running in corrosion resistant bearings with double shields to provide lifetime lubrication. whilst the impulse turbine has the opposite characteristic. In accepted turbine practice. reaction turbines are associated with considerable changes in pressure energy but little change in kinetic energy. rotational speed and brake force.Item 02-01-64 FM31 RADIAL FLOW REACTION TURBINE DEMONSTRATION UNIT TECHNICAL DETAILS The turbine rotor has an external diameter of 45mm. ORDERING SPECIFICATION • A small scale hydropower unit designed to demonstrate the principles of design and operation of a radial flow reaction turbine. Water enters the rotor through an adjustable PTFE/graphite face seal and is discharged tangentially through two passages. • One of a family of three turbines each capable of being mounted interchangeably on a common selfcontained service unit. an impulse machine has stationary nozzles whilst the reaction type has moving nozzles. • Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console (available as an accessory). The turbine develops approximately 32W at 6000rpm when supplied with 18 litres per minute of water at 270kPa. available as an essential accessory. Consequently. • Equipped with electronic measurement sensors for inlet pressure. • 45mm external diameter rotor. EESENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES FM3SU Turbine Service Unit (page 24) IFD6 Interface Console (page 35) OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 300mm Length: 650mm Width: 550mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: 30Kg Volume: 0. each having an area of approximately 8 square mm.

The inclusion of a spear valve allows comparison of turbine control using this device with that using a normal throttle valve. The spear valve has a nozzle of 4.Item 02-01-65 FM32 PELTON TURBINE DEMONSTRATION UNIT The industrially used Pelton turbine is the most visually obvious example of an impulse machine. to provide life-time lubrication. fitted with an adjustable valve stem to vary the jet diameter with minimum friction loss. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION The rotor carries 10 divided buckets on a pitch circle of 70mm diameter. The pressure sensor is installed in the pipework upstream of the spear valve. The kinetic energy of a jet leaving a high pressure nozzle is converted on impact with the turbine blades to rotational mechanical energy. The rotor is mounted on a horizontal stainless steel shaft carried in corrosion resistant ball bearings with double shields. The Pelton turbine can be demonstrated to be the optimal choice for power generation where high inlet pressure heads are available. A robust clear acrylic casing houses the rotor and spear valve.5mm diameter. The turbine develops approximately 33W at 2100rpm when supplied with 20 litres per minute of water at 270kPa. . This allows the flow rate to be varied with a constant exit jet velocity. no line feed required.

40m 3 . 10 bucket rotor.5mm diameter nozzle. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES FM3SU Turbine Service Unit (page 24) IFD6 Interface Console (page 35) OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 300mm Length: 650mm Width: 550mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: 30Kg Volume: 0. • 70mm diameter. rotational speed and brake force. • Equipped with electronic measurement sensors for inlet pressure. • One of a family of three turbines each capable of being mounted interchangeably on a common self-contained service unit available as an essential accessory. • Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console (available as an accessory). • Adjustable spear valve.ORDERING SPECIFICATION • A small-scale hydropower unit designed to demonstrate the principles of design and operation of a Pelton turbine. • 4.

matching the required duty point to the conditions of maximum energy efficiency may be explored as a creative student project. The pump is single-stage and is driven by a close coupled 180W ac induction motor. provides a framework of general applicability. For example. Manually operated valves at the pump inlet and outlet allow control of the flow and also facilitate study of suction effects. Flow rate is monitored by an orifice plate. They monitor: ➤ pressure head across the pump ➤ ∆ P across the orifice plate (hence flow rate) ➤ water temperature at the inlet ➤ rotational speed of the impeller A CD-ROM with data logging educational software is included in the supply of this Unit. Measurement sensors are included in the supply. Maximum pressure is 10mWG. As such. and maximum flow is l litre/s (at 50Hz). . Discovering the relationship between head. A reservoir and pipework for continuous water circulation is included. rotational speed and power. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION This bench-top unit is self-contained. it is a particularly instructive unit with which to introduce students to the whole subject of rotodynamic fluid machines. flow.Item 02-01-66 FM20 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP DEMONSTRATION UNIT The centrifugal pump is the machine most commonly used to move liquids from one place to another.

• Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console (available as an essential accessory). • Self-contained.pump total head .impeller speed . calibrating and performing the teaching exercises. OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 670mm Length: 850mm Width: 450mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: 36Kg Volume: 0. • Powered via the SWA1 power measurement unit (available as an essential accessory). ORDERING INFORMATION FM20-50 for 50Hz mains supply FM20-60 for 60Hz mains supply (Note: Voltage compensation takes place in the IFD6. processing and displaying data graphically. including production of characteristic curves of flow rate against: . bench-top machine.50m 3 ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD6 Interface Device (page 35) SWA1 Integrating Wattmeter (page 35) . • Equipped with electronic measurement sensors for pump differential pressure. Full theoretical back-up is included together with a student questions and answers session.INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES ➤ Demonstration of a single-stage centrifugal water pump in operation ➤ Measurement of inherent-speed pump performance.motor input power . operating. Facilities are provided for logging. see page 35).overall total efficiency ➤ Introduction to pump speed laws ➤ Comparison of student calculations with computer results ORDERING SPECIFICATION • A small-scale centrifugal pump demonstration unit. • Supplied with software providing full instructions for setting up. temperature and rotational speed. orifice differential pressure (flow-rate).

and maximum flow (each pump) is 1 litre/s (at 50Hz). all the practical exercise capabilities of the Single Centrifugal Pump Demonstration Unit FM20 can be performed. The two single-stage pumps are driven by close-coupled 180W ac induction motors. Maximum head (each pump) is 10mWG. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION This bench-top unit is self-contained and includes a reservoir and pipework for continuous water circulation. which is monitored by a single orifice plate. Note: If at least one power measurement sensor is ordered. The unit is designed to demonstrate the operational advantages of parallel or series operation.Item 02-01-67 FM21 SERIES AND PARALLEL PUMPS DEMONSTRATION UNIT Centrifugal pumps are often used together to enhance either the flow rate or the delivery pressure beyond that available from a single pump. . A manually operated valve controls the flow. to measure the consumption of each pump. Measurement sensors are included in the supply. depending on the required duty. Ball valves at the pump inlets and outlets allow the configuration to be selected. They monitor: ➤ pressure head across each of the pumps ➤ ∆ P across the orifice plates (hence flow-rate) ➤ water temperature at the inlet ➤ rotational speed of the impellers A CD-ROM with data logging educational software is included in the supply of this unit. Optional power measurement sensors are available.

calibrating and performing the teaching exercises. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD6 Interface Device (page 35) Two SWA1 Integrating Wattmeters (page 35) . • Self-contained.50m 3 ORDERING SPECIFICATION • A small-scale series/parallel pump demonstration unit. OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: 780mm Length: 850mm Width: 450mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Gross Weight: 50Kg Volume: 0. orifice differential pressure (flow-rate). • Supplied with software providing full instructions for setting up. • Equipped with electronic measurement sensors for pump differential pressure. • Capable of being linked to a PC (not supplied) via the IFD6 interface console (available as an essential accessory). • Powered via the SWA1 power measurement unit (available as an essential accessory).INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES ➤ Demonstration of either series. Facilities are provided for logging. operating. processing and displaying data graphically. at inherent speed ➤ Comparative measurement of power and overall efficiency at different speeds (with 2 SWA1) ➤ Comparison of student calculations with computer results ORDERING INFORMATION FM21-50 for 50Hz mains supply FM21-60 for 60Hz mains supply (Note: Voltage compensation takes place in the IFD6. see page 35). Full theoretical back-up is included together with a student questions and answers session. bench-top machine. parallel or single pump operation ➤ Comparison of head-flow characteristics with single pump operation. temperature and rotational speed.

Thermodynamics lab 02-02 .

FEATURES ➤ Small inexpensive bench top equipment ➤ Common service unit avoids unnecessary repeat costs for control and instrumentation ➤ Additional accessories and/or service units can be added later ➤ Investigates Conduction. Convection and Radiation including combined effects. The accessories may be individually connected to a common bench top service unit (HT10X) which provides the necessary electrical supplies and measurement facilities for investigation and comparison of the different heat transfer characteristics. non-steady state and measurement errors ➤ Accurate quantitative results can be taken ➤ Fast settling times ➤ Optional data logging facility allows recording and analysis of the results on a personal computer ➤ Educational software included with data logging package ➤ Results can be directly related to the theory provided . convection and radiation) which result from differences in temperature.T RMSOF ATEST A L TH THE OW WI L SOFTWARE N IONA EDUCAT GGER DATA LO & USB Item 02-02-01 HEAT TRANSFER TEACHING EQUIPMENT HT10X service unit shown with the HT11 Linear Heat Conduction Accessory installed q q q q Modular Accurate Fast settling Computer compatible The Armfield range of heat transfer laboratory teaching equipment comprises seven small scale accessories which demonstrate the three basic modes of heat transfer (conduction.

05 m3 15 kg . Standard connections on the enclosure for any of the seven interchangeable heat transfer accessories. Each of the heat transfer accessories may be separately connected to the common service unit which incorporates the following features:q All electrical/electronic components mounted in a robust steel enclosure and designed for bench mounting.00 A Radiation: R range 0-333 W/m2 Light: L range 0-234 Lux Air velocity: Ua range 0-10. SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase mains electrical supply: HT10X-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 6 Amps HT10X-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 10 Amps OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.0 C range: 4 . and is capable of being linked to a proprietary microcomputer via an optional interface device. q Temperature measurement of up to twelve type K thermocouples installed on the appropriate accessory. housed in a robust steel enclosure and designed for bench mounting. Multiway socket for all measured signals to be logged using a PC via an optional Data Logging Accessory. q Sockets provided on HT10X for mains supply to accessory (where appropriate) and variable low voltage DC supply to accessory (where appropriate). HT13.T12 range: 4. HT15. HT12.39 m SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS Volume: Gross Weight: 0. HT14. The service unit provides a stabilised.24 m 0. q Regulated low voltage DC power supply to provide safe. variable low voltage DC supply to the heat transfer accessory under evaluation. is essential equipment designed to allow operation of the seven Armfield small scale heat transfer accessories HT11. HT16 and HT17 which may be purchased singly.00 m/sec Cooling water flow rate: Fw range 0-1. q Electrical circuits protected by RCD and appropriate circuit breakers. A comprehensive instruction manual is included.50 l/min q Banana sockets provided on HT10X for any temperature measurement signal to be exported to a suitable chart recorder. It incorporates the necessary instrumentation to measure the variables associated with heat transfer.HT10X HEAT TRANSFER SERVICE UNIT Technical Details The service unit.00 VDC Current: I range 0-9. namely: ➤ temperatures ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ heater power (voltage and current) heat radiated light radiated air velocity cooling water flowrate q Other measurements indicated on digital panel meter via selector switch: Voltage: V range 0-24. The unit requires a single phase electrical supply. Variable over the range 0-24VDC and providing immunity from fluctuations in the mains electrical supply. variable but constant power to the heating elements on the various accessories and the circulating pump on the HT17. A cold water supply is also required for several of the accessories (connected directly to the appropriate accessory). construction and testing of alternative heat transfer experiments.T9 Temperature: T10 . Temperature readings indicated on a digital panel meter via selector switch: Temperature: T1 .600OC O ORDERING SPECIFICATION A bench top service unit designed to accommodate seven different heat transfer accessories:➤ Linear heat conduction ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Radial heat conduction Laws of radiant heat transfer and radiant heat exchange Combined convection and radiation Extended surface heat transfer Radiation errors in temperature measurement Unsteady state heat transfer A user provided heat transfer model may be accommodated in place of the above allowing student project work involving design.32 m 0.0-200.

The power supplied to the heating element can be varied and measured using the HT10X. The design allows the conductivity of thin samples of insulating material to be determined.Item 02-02-01 HT11 LINEAR HEAT CONDUCTION Heater T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Specimen position Filter Regulator Valve Cooling water inlet Cooling water outlet } Thermocouples Insulation The Armfield Linear Heat Conduction accessory has been designed to demonstrate the application of the Fourier Rate equation to simple steadystate conduction in one dimension. Four intermediate sections are supplied as follows: 30mm long brass section of the same diameter as the heating and cooling sections and fitted with two thermocouples at the same intervals. Schematic diagram showing construction of HT11 Quick-release connections allow rapid connection to a cold water supply. A pressure regulator is incorporated to minimise the effect of fluctuations in the supply pressure. Measurement of the heat flow and temperature gradient allows the thermal conductivity of the material to be calculated. The heating element is rated to produce 60 Watts nominally at 24VDC. TECHNICAL DETAILS The accessory comprises a heating section and cooling section which can be simply clamped together or clamped with interchangeable intermediate sections between them. over the operating range of 0-1. The heating section is manufactured from 25mm diameter cylindrical brass bar with a cartridge type electric heating element installed at one end.5 litres/min. if required. The unit can be configured as a simple plane wall of uniform material and constant cross sectional area or composite plane walls with different materials or changes in cross sectional area to allow the principles of heat flow by linear conduction to be investigated. The heat conducting properties of insulators may be found by simply inserting the paper or cork specimens supplied between the heating and cooling sections. When this section is clamped between the heating and cooling sections a long plane wall of uniform material and cross section is created with temperatures measured at eight positions. The heating element is operated at low voltage for increased operator safety and is protected by a thermostat to prevent damage by overheating. A tube of thermal paste is provided to demonstrate the difference between good and poor thermal contact between the sections. The optional flow sensor (Order code SFT2) connects directly to the HT10X to provide readings of cooling water flowrate directly in litres/min. Three thermocouples are positioned along the cooling section at uniform intervals of 15mm to measure the temperature gradient along the section. 30mm long brass section reduced in diameter to 13mm to demonstrate the effect of a change in cross sectional area. as required. A manual control valve allows the flow of cooling water to be varied. Aluminium section of the same dimensions as the brass section to demonstrate the effect of a change in thermal conductivity. Three thermocouples are positioned along the heated section at uniform intervals of 15mm to measure the temperature gradient along the section. The cooling section is manufactured from 25mm cylindrical brass bar to match the heating section and cooled at one end by water passing through galleries in the section. Measurement of the cooling water flowrate is not essential to the teaching exercises but an optional turbine type flow sensor can be fitted if required using the quick-release fittings. Stainless steel section of the same dimensions as the brass section to demonstrate the effect of a change in thermal conductivity. The temperature difference created by the application of heat to one end of the resulting wall and cooling at the other end results in the flow of heat linearly through the wall by conduction. .

A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out a range of laboratory teaching exercises in linear heat conduction and their analysis as well as assembly. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. Eight thermocouples in total are installed along the heated.5 litres/min @ 1 Barg OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Understanding the use of the Fourier Rate Equation in determining rate of heat flow through solid materials q Measuring the temperature distribution for steady-state conduction of energy through a uniform plane wall and a composite plane wall q Determining the constant of proportionality (thermal conductivity k) of different materials (conductors and insulators) q Measuring the temperature drop at the contact face between adjacent layers in a composite plane wall (contact resistance) q Measuring the temperature distribution for steady-state conduction of energy through a plane wall of reduced cross-sectional area q Understanding the application of poor conductors (insulators) q Observing unsteady-state conduction (qualitative only) ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to introduce students to the basic principles of linear heat conduction and to allow the thermal conductivity of various solid conductors and insulators to be determined. Four intermediate sections containing conductors and two samples of insulators are supplied. intermediate and cooling sections.43 m 0. each fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. Consists of a heated section with 60W element (operating at 24VDC maximum) and water cooled section with pressure regulator. cooling section and all intermediate sections are located co-axially inside plastic housings which provide an air gap and insulate the section to minimise heat loss to the surroundings and prevent burns to the operator.04 m3 5 kg . The linear heat conduction accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which stands on the bench top alongside the HT10X.21 m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume Gross weight: :0. A plane brass section can be created with eight thermocouples to measure the temperature gradient. The intermediate sections and samples of insulators are stored on the baseplate when not in use. installation and commissioning is included.The heating section. 110 90 Temperature OC 70 50 30 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thermocouple position 25W stainless steel specimen Temperature distribution for conduction through a composite wall 90 Temperature OC 70 50 30 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thermocouple position Temperature distribution for conduction though a plane wall (with and without thermal paste) 30W with paste 25W without paste ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT11-304 Educational Software for HT11 FT61 Chilled Water Circulating Unit (Required where a continuous source of cold water less than 20OC is not available) SERVICES REQUIRED Cold water supply: 1. All temperatures are measured using type K thermocouples.29 m 0.

The radial heat conduction accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which stands on the bench top alongside the HT10X.Item 02-02-02 HT12 RADIAL HEAT CONDUCTION The optional flow sensor (Order code SFT2) connects directly to the HT10X to provide readings of cooling water flowrate directly in litres/min.2 mm thick and 110 mm diameter with a central copper core 14 mm diameter. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Understanding the use of the Fourier Rate Equation in determining rate of heat flow through solid materials q Measuring the temperature distribution for steady-state conduction of energy through the wall of a cylinder (radial energy flow) q Determining the constant of proportionality (thermal conductivity k) of the disk material ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to introduce students to the basic principles of radial heat conduction and to allow the thermal conductivity of the solid metal disk to be determined. Cooling Water Outlet The Armfield Radial Heat Conduction accessory has been designed to demonstrate the application of the Fourier Rate equation to simple steady-state conduction radially through the wall of a tube. TECHNICAL DETAILS The accessory comprises a solid disk of material which is heated at the centre and cooled at the periphery to create a radial temperature difference with corresponding radial flow of heat by conduction. The entire radial specimen is located inside a plastic enclosure which provides an air gap and insulates the section to minimise heat loss to the surroundings and prevent burns to the operator. The periphery of the disk is cooled by cold water flowing through a copper tube which is attached to the circumference of the disk. using a solid metal disk with temperature measurements at different radii and heat flow radially outwards from the centre to the periphery. Quickrelease connections allow rapid connection of the cooling tube to a cold water supply. Six type K thermocouples measure the temperature gradient between the heated centre and cooled periphery. Consists of a thin brass disk with 100W heating element (operating at 24VDC maximum) mounted at the centre and cooling water tube attached to the periphery. Measurement of cooling water flowrate is not essential to the teaching exercise but an optional turbine type flow sensor can be fitted if required using the quick-release fittings. over the operating range of 0 1. The disk is manufactured from brass 3. Six type K thermocouples are positioned at different radii in the heated disk to indicate the temperature gradient from the central heated core to the periphery of the disk. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. installation and commissioning is included. Each thermocouple is fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X.5 litres/min. allows the temperature distribution and flow of heat by radial conduction to be investigated. The central core is heated by a cartridge type electric heating element which is operated at low voltage for increased operator safety and is protected by a thermostat to prevent damage from overheating. The arrangement. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercise in radial heat conduction and the analysis as well as assembly. A manual control valve allows the flow of cooling water to be varied. if required. Insulation Thermocouples T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Heater Metal disk Valve Regulator Filter Cooling water inlet Schematic diagram showing construction of HT12 . The power supplied to the heating element can be varied and measured using the HT10X. The heating element is rated to produce 100 Watts nominally at 24 VDC. The radial distance between each thermocouple in the disk is 10 mm. A pressure regulator is incorporated to minimise the effect of fluctuations in the supply pressure.

18 m HT12 graphical analysis SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.03 m3 5 kg .TOC T1 Increasing Q T1 T6 T6 Log n R Temperature distribution for radial conduction through the wall of a cylinder Educational software displaying Mimic diagram of HT12 ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT12-304 Educational Software for HT12 FT61 Chilled Water Circulating Unit.5 litres/min @ 1 barg OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.19 m 0.35 m 0. (Required where a continuous source of cold water less than 20OC is not available) SERVICES REQUIRED Cold water supply 1.

The power supplied to the heated plate can be varied and measured using the HT10X. Radiation from the light source is measured using a light meter which can be positioned along the graduated track on a carriage. one grey plate and one polished plate are supplied together with a track mounted carrier which positions the plates in front of the heat source. aperture and radiometer q Lamberts Cosine Law using the light source (rotated) and lightmeter q Lamberts Law of Absorption using the light source.Item 02-02-03 HT13 LAWS OF RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER AND RADIANT HEAT EXCHANGE This Armfield accessory has been designed to demonstrate the laws of radiant heat transfer and radiant heat exchange using light radiation to complement the heat demonstrations where the use of thermal radiation would be impractical. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Inverse square law using the heat source and radiometer or light source and lightmeter q Stefan Boltzmann Law using the heat source and radiometer q Emissivity using the heat source. metal plates and radiometer q Area factors using the heat source. The light meter is connected to the HT10X to provide readings of illumination calibrated directly in units of Lux. The surface temperature of the plate is measured by a thermocouple which is attached to the front of the plate. measuring instruments. The heat source consists of a flat copper plate which is heated from the rear by an insulated electric heating element which operates at low voltage for increased operator safety. filters and plates to be varied. in different combinations. filter plates and lightmeter . The power supplied to the lamp can be varied and measured on the HT10X. The track is designed to stand on the bench top alongside the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit. The light source consists of a lamp in a housing with a glass diffuser and operates at low voltage for increased operator safety. aperture plates. The heating element is rated to produce 216 watts nominally at 24VDC into the plate which is 100mm in diameter. metal plates and radiometer q Kirchoff Law using the heat source. The light source is mounted at one end of the calibrated track. Filter plates of varying opacity and thickness are supplied to demonstrate the laws of absorption. TECHNICAL DETAILS The track consists of a rigid aluminium frame with twin horizontal rails which incorporates sliding carriages to allow the positions of the instrumentation. The heated plate is mounted at one end of the calibrated track inside a protective cage which prevents inadvertent contact with the hot surface. The radiometer is connected to the HT10X to provide readings calibrated directly in units of W/m2. Surface temperatures of the heat source and metal plates are all measured using type K thermocouples. The position of the carriages relative to the energy source can be measured using a graduated scale attached to the side of the track. Metal plates with different surface finishes are supplied to demonstrate the effect of emissivity on radiation emitted and received. The source may be rotated through 180O and the angle measured using an integral scale. to suit the particular laboratory teaching exercise chosen. Each plate incorporates a thermocouple to indicate the surface temperature of the plate. Two black plates. The front of the plate is coated with a heat resistant matt black paint which provides a consistent emissivity close to unity. The equipment supplied comprises an arrangement of energy sources. filter plates and target plates which are mounted on a linear track. Two cork-coated metal plates are supplied that allow a vertical slot aperture of adjustable width to be created between the source and detector to demonstrate area factors. Radiation from the heated plate is measured using a heat radiation detector (radiometer) which can be positioned along the graduated track on a carriage. The lamp is rated to produce 40 Watts nominally at 24 VDC. each fitted with a plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X.

4 2. A heat source with radiometer and a light source with lightmeter are used where appropriate to demonstrate the principles.0 1. The heat and light sources.2 2.8 3.8 2.0 Typical result showing the inverse square law using the heat source and radiometer light meter reading (lux) Experimental Theoretical Angle (øO) HT13 accessories Typical result showing Lambert’s cosine law using the light source and lightmeter . The light source consists of a 40 Watt light bulb (operating at 24VDC maximum) mounted inside a housing with a glass diffuser. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit log10 (radiometer measurement) Light Plastic filter Light meter Scale Schematic diagram showing HT13 set up for exercises using light Heat Metal plate Aperture Radiometer T7 T10 Schematic diagram showing HT13 set up for exercises using heat OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT13-304 Educational Software for HT13 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.4 2.2 2.6 log10 (distance) 2.0 Average slope = -2 SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.6 1. filters and plates are mounted on an aluminium track with graduated scale which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. The heat source consiste of a flat circular plate 100mm in diameter which incorporates a 216 Watt electric heating element (operating at at 24VDC maximum).3 m3 12kg 2. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in radiant heat transfer/exchange and their analysis as well as assembly.44 m 1. installation and commissioning is included.30 m 2.ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to introduce students to the basic laws of radiant heat transfer and radiant heat exchange.23 m 0. instruments.

The heated surface studied is a horizontal cylinder which can be operated in free convection or forced convection when located in the stream of moving air. . a heated length of 70 mm and is internally heated throughout its length by an electric heating element which is operated at low voltage for increased operator safety. The heating element is rated to produce 100 Watts nominally at 24 VDC into the cylinder. The power supplied to the heated cylinder can be varied and measured on the HT10X. The thermocouple is fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. The mounting arrangement for the cylinder in the duct is designed to minimise loss of heat by conduction to the wall of the duct. A type K thermocouple attached to the wall of the cylinder. The heated cylinder has an outside diameter of 10 mm. A variable throttle plate at the inlet to the fan allows the velocity of the air through the outlet duct to be varied and a vane type anemometer within the fan outlet duct allows the air velocity in the duct to be measured over the range 0-7 metres/sec. The accessory is designed to be used in conjunction with the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit and is assembled on a mounting plate to allow it to stand on the bench alongside the HT10X. The surface of the cylinder is coated with heat resistant paint which provides a consistent emissivity close to unity.Item 02-02-04 HT14 COMBINED CONVECTION AND RADIATION T10 Heated zone Anemometer T9 Throttle plate Schematic diagram showing construction of HT14 A hot surface loses heat (heat is transferred) to its surroundings by the combined modes of convection and radiation. The dominance of convection at lower surface temperatures and the dominance of radiation at higher surface temperatures can be demonstrated as can the increase in heat transfer due to forced convection. The inside diameter of the outlet duct is 70 mm. Measurement of the surface temperature of the uniformly heated cylinder and the electrical power supplied to it allows the combined effects of radiation and convection to be compared with theoretical values. The thermocouple is fitted with a standard plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. at mid position. TECHNICAL DETAILS The equipment consists of a centrifugal fan with vertical outlet duct at the top of which is mounted a heated cylinder. Electrical connections to the cylinder incorporate temperature resistant insulation with plug connection to the variable 24 Volt DC supply socket on HT10X. A type K thermocouple located in the outlet duct allows the ambient air temperature to be measured upstream of the heated cylinder. In practice these modes are difficult to isolate and therefore an analysis of the combined effects at varying surface temperature and air velocity past the surface provides a meaningful teaching exercise. allows the surface temperature to be measured under the varying operating conditions.

A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in combined radiation and convection (free and forced) and their analysis as well as assembly.1 m3 9 kg .30 m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Determining the combined heat transfer (Qradiation + Qconvection ) from a horizontal cylinder in natural convection over a wide range of power inputs and corresponding surface temperatures. q Measuring the domination of the convective heat transfer coefficient Hc at low surface temperatures and the domination of the radiation heat transfer coefficient Hr at high surface temperatures q Determining the effect of forced convection on the heat transfer from the cylinder at varying air velocities ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to demonstrate combined convection (free and forced) and radiation from a horizontal heated cylinder. It consists of a centrifugal fan with vertical outlet duct at the top of which is mounted the heated cylinder. Air velocity can be varied by rotating a throttle plate at the inlet to the fan and measured by a vane type anemometer in the outlet duct. installation and commissioning is included. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools.5 Amp 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 3 Amps ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit Typical result showing the effect of changing the air velocity obtained using Armfield educational software. SERVICES REQUIRED HT14-A: HT14-B: 220/240 V /1ph/50Hz @ 1.35 m 0.20 m 0. Type K thermocouples measure the air temperature upstream and the surface temperature of the cylinder. OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT14-304 Educational Software for HT14 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.

The heating element is inserted coaxially into the end of the rod and is rated to produce 20 Watts nominally at 24 VDC into the rod. Each thermocouple is wrapped around the rod to minimise errors by conduction. The rod is heated by a cartridge type electric heating element which operates at low voltage for increased operator safety and is protected by a thermostat to prevent damage from overheating. The rod is mounted horizontally with support at both ends and positioned to avoid the influence of adjacent surfaces. Schematic diagram of HT15 construction EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Measuring the temperature distribution along an extended surface (pin) and comparing the result with a theoretical analysis q Calculating the heat transfer from an extended surface resulting from the combined modes of free convection and radiation heat transfer and comparing the result with a theoretical analysis. The measurements obtained can be compared with a theoretical analysis of thermal conduction along the bar combined with heat loss (heat transferred) to the surroundings by the modes of free convection and radiation simultaneously. One thermocouple is mounted adjacent to the heated rod to measure the ambient air temperature. provides an extended surface (pin) for heat transfer measurements. . Eight thermocouples are attached to the surface of rod at equal intervals of 50 mm giving an overall instrumented length of 350 mm. The power supplied to the heated rod can be varied and measured on the HT10X. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. TECHNICAL DETAILS The rod is manufactured from a solid cylindrical brass bar with a constant diameter of 10 mm. Insulation T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T9 (Ambient) T6 T7 T8 Thermocouples Heater A long horizontal rod. installation and commissioning is included. The rod is coated with a heat resistant matt black paint which provides a consistent emissivity close to unity The heated end of the rod is mounted co-axially inside a plastic housing which provides an air gap and insulates the area occupied by the heater to minimise heat loss and prevent burns to the operator. thermal conduction along the rod can be assumed to be one-dimensional and heat loss from the tip can be ignored. By making the diameter of the rod small in relation to its length. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercise in combined radiation and free convection from an extended surface and analysis as well as assembly. Thermocouples at regular intervals along the rod allow the surface temperature profile to be measured.Item 02-02-05 HT15 EXTENDED SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER The accessory is designed to be used in conjunction with the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit and is assembled on a mounting plate to stand on the bench top alongside the HT10X. The extended surface comprises a long solid rod mounted horizontally and heated at one end with thermocouples at eight positions along the rod to provide the temperature distribution. which is heated at one end. ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to demonstrate the temperature profiles and heat transfer characteristics for an extended surface (cylindrical pin) when heat flows along the rod by conduction and heat is lost along the rod by combined convection and radiation to the surroundings. each fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. Temperature of the ambient air is measured by an independent thermocouple. All temperatures are measured using type K thermocouples.

90 Temperature OC 70 50 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thermocouple position Typical Help window showing description of apparatus Typical result showing temperature profile along the extended surface ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT15-304 Educational Software for HT15 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.01 m3 5 kg .15 m 0.50 m 0.15 m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.

The effect of air velocity past the test thermocouples can be demonstrated by rotating a throttle plate at the inlet to the fan. each fitted with a plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. The temperature of the heated wall can be changed by varying the power supplied to the heater using the power control on the HT10X. can be raised or lowered over the thermocouples to demonstrate the change in readings when a radiation shield is used. The HT16 provides a means of demonstrating these sources of error and suitable methods by which the errors can be reduced or eliminated. Each thermocouple gains heat by radiation from the heated wall and loses heat by convection to the air stream and conduction along the wire. The net result is an increase in the temperature of the thermocouple above the temperature of the air stream which it is supposed to measure. the physical size of the thermometer and the emissivity of the thermometer body. A thermocouple is installed upstream of the heated section to measure the temperature of the ambient air passing over the thermocouples at the core of the duct. which remains close to the gas temperature. at ambient temperature. A radiation shield. especially when the temperature of a gas is to be measured while the thermometer ‘sees’ surrounding surfaces at a higher or lower temperature than the gas.HT16 RADIATION ERRORS IN TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT Item 02-02-06 T10 Shield T7 T8 T9 Heater Anemometer T6 Throttle plate Schematic diagram showing construction of HT16 TECHNICAL DETAILS The equipment comprises a tubular metal duct through which air. The heater is insulated on the outside and operates at low voltage for increased operator safety. The actual temperature of the heated surface is measured using a type K thermocouple which is attached to it. In this equipment a group of thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of a stream of air.7 m/s. The power output from the heater is 216 Watts nominally at 24 VDC. Three thermocouples with different styles of bead are installed in the duct to demonstrate the differences in readings obtained. is blown vertically upwards by an electric fan. . The error in the reading from the thermometer is also affected by other factors such as the gas velocity past the thermometer. A section of the duct wall is heated from the outside by an electric band heater and provides the source of radiation to the test thermocouples which are located on the centreline of the duct adjacent to the heated section. A vane type anemometer within the fan outlet duct allows the air velocity through the heated section to be measured over the operating range 0 . All temperatures are measured using type K thermocouples. passing through the centre of a duct while the wall of the duct is elevated in temperature to subject the thermocouples to a source of thermal radiation. Radiative heat transfer between a thermometer and its surroundings may significantly affect the temperature reading obtained from the thermometer. The result is an error in the reading from the thermocouple. at ambient temperature. The effect of the duct wall temperature on the measurement thermocouples can be demonstrated.

SERVICES REQUIRED HT16-A: HT16-B: 220/240 V /1ph/50Hz @ 1. Shield Test thermocouple EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Errors associated with radiative heat transfer: .30 m 0.The accessory is designed to be used in conjunction with the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit and is assembled on a mounting plate to stand on the bench top alongside the HT10X. Three type K thermocouples with different styles of bead are mounted on the centreline of the duct adjacent to the heated section of wall. installation and commissioning is included.22 m 0. The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises concerning radiation errors in temperature measurement and their analysis as well as assembly.1 m3 Gross Weight: 9 kg . Measurement of the air temperature using the thermocouples demonstrates the errors due to radiation from the heated wall.35 m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.5 Amp 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 3 Amps Shield Heater Ambient air Ambient air Schematic diagram showing function of the radiation shield Tabulated results from HT16 ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT16-304 Educational Software for HT16 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1. A radiation shield can be lowered over the thermocouples to demonstrate the improvement in reading accuracy when the thermocouples are shielded from the source of radiation. A type K thermocouple measures the air temperature upstream of the heated section. It consists of a centrifugal fan with vertical outlet duct incorporating a heated section of duct wall.Effect of air velocity on measurement error .Effect of wall temperature on measurement error .Effect of thermocouple style on measurement error q Methods for reducing errors due to radiation: . Air velocity can be varied by rotating a throttle plate at the inlet to the fan and measured by a vane type anemometer in the outlet duct.Use of a radiation shield to surround the thermometer ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to demonstrate how temperature measurements can be influenced by sources of thermal radiation which can ‘see’ the temperature sensor.Design of a radiation resistant thermometer .

An independent thermocouple mounted alongside the shape indicates the temperature of the water adjacent to the shape and provides an accurate datum for measurement of the time since immersion in the hot water. The circulating pump operates from the variable 24 VDC supply on the HT10X. Monitoring of the temperature at the centre of the shape allows analysis of heat flow using the appropriate transient-temperature/heat flow charts provided. is minimal.Item 02-02-07 HT17 UNSTEADY STATE HEAT TRANSFER Analytical solutions are available for temperature distribution and heat flow as a function of time and position for simple solid shapes which are suddenly subjected to convection with a fluid at a constant temperature.0 kW. TECHNICAL DETAILS The equipment consists of a heated water bath together with set of instrumented shapes. The accessory is designed to be used in conjunction with the HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit and is assembled on a mounting plate to stand on the bench top alongside the HT10X. The upward flow of water at constant velocity past the shape ensures that the heat transfer characteristic remains constant and also ensures that the water surrounding the shape remains at a constant temperature. All temperatures are measured using type K thermocouples. A thermocouple mounted on the shape holder contacts the hot water at the same instant as the solid shape and provides an accurate datum for temperature/time measurements. Carrier Water bath Shape Circulating pump Drain Heating element Schematic diagram showing operation of the HT17 . A thermostat allows the water to be heated to a predetermined temperature before taking measurements. each fitted with a miniature plug for direct connection to the service unit HT10X. Measurements taken on a shape in one material can be used to confirm the conductivity of a similar shape constructed from a different material. Transienttemperature/heat flow charts are supplied for each of the shapes. Each of the shapes is duplicated in brass and stainless steel which have different thermal conductivities. A circulating pump mounted alongside the water bath draws water from the bath and returns it at the base of a vertical cylindrical duct which is located inside the water bath at the centre. Each of the shapes incorporates a thermocouple to measure the temperature at the centre of the shape. as the measurements are taken. Three simple shapes are supplied. Each shape is allowed to stabilise at room temperature then suddenly immersed in a bath of hot water at a steady temperature. A thermocouple located in the water bath allows the temperature of the water to be monitored and adjusted to the required temperature before immersing the shapes. A holder ensures that each of the shapes is quickly and correctly positioned within the vertical duct for measurements to be taken. Each of the shapes can be attached to a holder which eliminates the need to touch the shape when its temperature has stabilised in air and accurately positions the shape inside the water bath while transient measurements are taken. a long solid cylinder and a solid sphere. The electrical supply to the heating element is protected by a combined RCD/circuit breaker for operator safety. The large volume of water in the bath ensures that any change in the temperature of the water. The water heating bath has a capacity of 30 litres and is heated by an electric heating element having a rating of 3. The velocity of the water can be varied by adjusting the voltage supplied to the pump. a rectangular slab. namely. Simple shapes are provided together with appropriate classical transient-temperature/heat flow charts which allow a fast analysis of the response from actual transient measurements.

The accessory is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to stand on the bench top and connect to the Heat Transfer Service Unit without the need for tools. shape and material are allowed to stabilise at room temperature then dropped into the hot water bath. A heated water bath with integral flow duct and external circulating pump ensures that hot water flows past the solid shape under evaluation at constant velocity and constant temperature. The change in temperature of each body is monitored using HT17-304 Educational Software or suitable chart recorder connected to the HT10X q Using analytical temperature/heat flow charts to analyse the results obtained from different solid shapes q Using the results obtained from one shape to determine the conductivity of a similar shape constructed from a different material q Investigating the effect of shape. A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in non-steady state heat transfer and their analysis as well as assembly.60 m 0. A set of solid shapes are supplied comprising a rectangular slab. size and material properties on unsteady heat flow ORDERING SPECIFICATION A small scale accessory designed to allow exercises to be performed in unsteady state heat transfer.17 m3 14 kg Shape holder and solid shapes supplied with HT17 . long cylinder and sphere.67 m 0. Supplied complete with analytical transient-temperature/heat flow charts for each of the shapes.40 m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0. each shape manufactured from brass and stainless steel and instrumented with a thermocouple to monitor the temperature at the centre of the shape.EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES q Bodies of different size. SERVICES REQUIRED Electrical supply HT17-A: 220/240 V /1ph/50Hz @ 13 Amps HT17-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 26 Amps ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD EQUIPMENT Typical Mimic diagram showing spherical shape immersed in the hot water bath HT10X Heat Transfer Service Unit OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES IFD5 USB Interface Device HT17-304 Educational Software for HT17 OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0. installation and commissioning is included.

experimental errors. but still requires the student to demonstrate an understanding of the mathematical background concepts q Allows the student to process all his results during the laboratory session. q Reduces Lecturer and Technician support time in the laboratory. this provides a comprehensive educational software environment within which the heat transfer investigations can be performed. providing them with a good understanding of the principles involved. units of measurement. Suggested laboratory investigations and further questions for the student to answer are included in the Software.Educational Software and Data Logging Accessory Mimic diagram showing temperature distribution with the HT15 HT15 graphical analysis showing temperature profiles with varying heater power Educational and Data Logging Software is available for all the HT10X range of Heat Transfer equipment. q Reinforces understanding of the theoretical concepts involved q Eliminates the need for repetitive calculations. by leading the student logically through the use of the equipment and the experimental procedures q Can be used outside the laboratory to familiarise the student with the equipment and procedures. Comprehensive Help screens guide the student through both the theoretical background and the practical investigation of the topic being studied. The familiar Windows environment allows the students to explore the principles of each Heat Transfer accessory quickly and easily. together with all the information required to set up and run the experiment. prior to performing the practical training exercise. and has been designed for maximum flexibility and ease of use. etc. q Reinforces understanding of practical concepts such as taking readings. thus giving immediate feedback on the success or otherwise of the investigation whilst he still has access to the equipment. The Software runs under the Windows 98 or Windows 2000 operating systems. It offers a complete teaching package of coursework and laboratory investigation. . Used in conjunction with the Armfield IFD5 USB interface device.

the procedure and associated theory q Detailed ‘Help’ facilities giving in depth guidance q Automatic data logging of sensor values into a spreadsheet format q Control over sampling intervals q Student questions and answers. including comparisons taken under different conditions q Export of data to Microsoft Excel or other spreadsheets q Links to user defined word processor q Calibration facility for sensors q Real time bar graph display of sensor outputs q Recent history graphical display . and also to enhance student understanding of the subjects being covered. It includes: q Diagrammatic representation of the equipment. complete with real time display of the various sensor outputs q Presentation screens. including a layered ‘Hint’ facility q Processing of sampled values (this may be linked to the questions and answers to ensure student understanding) q Sophisticated graph plotting facilities of both measured and calculated values. the equipment.Typical question presented HT15 tabular analysis SOFTWARE CAPABILITIES This software includes a range of functions and capabilities designed to make the operation of the equipment and processing of the results more straightforward. giving an overview of the software.

(appropriate . such as Labview. Educational Educational Educational Educational Educational Educational Educational Software Software Software Software Software Software Software for for for for for for for HT11 HT12 HT13 HT14 HT15 HT16 HT17 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 (IFD5 required) required) required) required) required) required) required) HT11-304 HT12-304 HT13-304 HT14-304 HT15-304 HT16-304 HT17-304 IFD5 USB Interface Device. and does not require any internal access to the computer. the IFD5 interface. . The equipment is supplied complete with a USB lead for connection to the computer. including Notebooks.1 and Windows 95. and all cables required to link to a PC. running Windows 98 or Windows 2000. complete with data logger. This data logger uses the parallel (printer) port on the computer. which allows any standard modern Windows computer to be used.304 software required) Note: All Software is provided on CDROM unless Floppy Disks are specifically requested. which digitises the analogue output data from the HT10X and transfers the data to a computer. This is a complete package. an alternative data logger is available for Windows 3. Also included is a Software driver that allows the outputs from the HT10X to be read in other software programs. including all cables required to link an HT10X to a Personal Computer. ORDERING INFORMATION HT10X-304IFD ESSENTIAL ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT The user must have access to a computer with an unused USB port. The computer interface uses the standard USB (Universal Serial Bus) for communication. containing the Software for all seven Heat Transfer accessories.The IFD5 USB Interface TECHNICAL DETAILS The system uses the Armfield IFD5 interface device. (Note. Order code HT10X-303IFD) This computer does not form part of the Armfield supplied equipment Educational Software for HT11 to HT17 on a single CDROM.

which allows for safe operation from a remote computer. graph plotting. which serves as the operator interface. The equipment is controlled by a user supplied personal computer. control. The service bench provides facilities for evaluating in-house heat exchanger designs .Items 02-02-08 thru 02-02-12 COMPUTER CONTROLLED HEAT EXCHANGER SERVICE MODULE HT30XC Service Unit fitted with HT37 Plate Heat Exchanger A range of small scale heat exchangers. the equipment has been fitted with failsafe systems. Full data logging. control and educational software is supplied with the equipment. Small scale versions of commonly used industrial heat exchangers are available (including plate. bench top equipment Fast response times allow in depth investigations in a short time Representative of industrial heat exchangers Multiple. including reversing of one of the fluid streams for co-current and counter-current investigations Standard USB interface Safety functions implemented to allow for remote operation by computer Full educational software with data logging. In addition. designed to illustrate the principles and techniques of indirect heat transfer between fluid streams. and detailed ‘Help’ Suitable for project work. tubular and ‘shell and tube’) for analysis and comparison. including a watchdog circuit. Different types of heat exchanger can be mounted on a common bench-top service unit. industrially representative heat exchangers available All functions computer controlled. KEY FEATURES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Small scale.

through the heat exchanger and back into the heater vessel. again under software control. allowing for co-current and counter-current investigations over a wide range of flow rates. all other functions can be performed under computer control. Appropriate measures have been implemented so that in the case of a computer failure or communications breakdown. The interface to this computer is USB. A manually adjustable pressure regulator is used to minimise the effect of mains pressure fluctuations. allowing for simple interfacing and setting up. A gear pump circulates water from the vessel. The HT30XC requires a user supplied personal computer for the operator interface. and protected by a Residual Current Device for operator safety. This ensures that unless the control software is running. Both the pump speed and direction are under software control. the pump and the cold water control valve cannot be switched on. the heaters. bi-directional hot water flow and the instrumentation required to do a series of in-depth investigations into heat exchanger performance. The individual heat exchangers can be quickly changed over. The flow through the heat exchanger is adjusted by a variable flow valve. The heater is switched on and off by a solid state relay (SSR) which is under software control. A thermostat limits the maximum water temperature to 850C for operator safety. (the thermocouples themselves are supplied with the heat exchangers). Once the appropriate heat exchanger has been installed and setup. The ABS base includes a drip tray and drain tap in case of water spillage or leakage. to allow comparisons between different types of heat exchanger to be made. The cold water stream is generated from a mains water supply. The hot water stream is heated in a vessel fitted with an electric heater. The instrumentation also includes flowmeters to measure the flow rates of the two fluid streams. to allow the operation of one of the Armfield range of small scale heat exchanger systems. The unit also includes an emergency stop switch. All electrical circuits are located in a bench mounted ABS supporting base. Hardware Description The service unit provides two fluid streams to the heat exchanger. the system shuts itself down in a safe manner. . a hot water stream and a cold water stream.HT30XC Service Unit DESCRIPTION The HT30XC is a service unit. Switching on the unit puts it into ‘Standby’ mode. It provides controlled cold water flow. Conditioning circuits for up to 10 K-type thermocouples are included. From this mode it is necessary for a regular series of pulses to be received from the software (via the built in USB interface) to fully power up the unit.

Software Description Full educational software is provided with the HT30XC for all the Armfield heat exchangers. Separate programs are provided for each exchanger, and each program contains a selection of separate exercises that can be performed. The actual details are exercise specific, but typically the following interfaces are available: ■ All the temperatures and flow rates are displayed on a diagrammatic representation of the equipment. ■ A software ‘button’ switches the equipment from ‘standby’ mode to fully on. ■ The cold water flow control valve is operated by using up/down arrows or typing in a value between 0 and 100%. The actual flow rate can be read directly in L/min. ■ The hot water flow rate is set by entering a required set point into a PID control function. This use of PID control ensures the flow is stable despite changes in the viscosity of the water due to heating. ■ The heater is again controlled in a PID loop, by setting a required temperature set point. ■ Data from the sensors is logged into a spreadsheet format, under operator control. ■ Sophisticated graph plotting facilities are provided. Comparisons between data taken on different runs can be displayed. ■ Student questions and answers, including a layered ‘Hint’ facility. ■ Processing of measured values to obtain calculated values (this can be linked to the questions and answers to ensure student understanding). ■ The data samples (measured and calculated) can be saved, or exported directly in Microsoft Excel format.

Typical co-current results from HT36

Typical counter-current results from HT36

■ Data from the sensors can be displayed independently from the data logging. This can be in bar graph format, or a recent history graphical display (useful to check for temperature stability prior to taking a sample). ■ Presentation screens are available, giving an overview of the software, the equipment, the procedure and the associated theory. This is backed up by a detailed ‘Help’ facility giving in-depth guidance and background information.

User Defined Software and/or Remote Operation Included separately on the software CD are the ‘drivers’ required to allow other software applications to communicate with the HT30XC via the USB interface. This allows users to write their own software instead of using the Armfield provided software. This software can be written in many different systems. Typically LabView, MatLab, ‘C’, ‘C++’, Visual Basic, Delphi, and any other software environment which allows calls to external drivers can be used. In this way the user can write software to suit their specific requirements, in an environment which they are fully familiar with and which is compatible with their other equipment. An extension of this methodology allows the equipment to be operated remotely, such as over a Local Area Network (LAN) or even over the internet. The HT30XC is ideal for this remote operation as it has been designed to ensure that the unit shuts down safely in the event of a communications failure. It has also been designed so that once the heat exchanger has been installed and configured, all the controls to perform a series of investigations are under software control, and so the student does not need to be present with the equipment. In a typical installation, the HT30XC would be connected to a local PC via the USB bus. The local PC would be connected to the users’ PC’s via the LAN. The operator interface software would be run on the remote (users) PC and communicate to the control software on the local PC. (Armfield do not provide the software to implement this type of system). For remote use, the appropriate heat exchanger would be installed onto the service unit, and the cold water pressure regulator adjusted to match the heat exchanger to the cold water supply. The unit is then switched on and remains in ‘Standby’ mode until appropriate software is run requesting the unit to power up fully. With the HT31, HT32 and HT33, Heat Exchangers, all functions can

then be operated remotely. The HT34, HT36 and HT37 Heat Exchangers can be configured in different ways, and so the required configuration has to be manually implemented locally. However once this has been done, a full set of investigations can be performed for that configuration, including co-current and counter-current flows.

Mimic diagram of HT31

Mimic diagram of HT32

Mimic diagram of HT37

HEAT EXCHANGER OPTIONS

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITY Training exercises which are common to each of the heat exchangers when used with the HT30XC: ■ Demonstration of indirect heating/ cooling by transfer of heat from one fluid stream to another when separated by a solid wall. ■ Energy balance determination (heat balance) and calculation of efficiencies by measuring the flow rates and temperature changes in the hot and cold fluid streams. ■ Introduction to different styles of heat exchanger and comparison of the differences in operation and performance. ■ Using the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) in heat transfer calculations. ■ Definition and measurement of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U). ■ Demonstration of the differences between counter-current and co-current operation, (not relevant for some HT34 configurations). ■ Demonstration of the transition from linear to turbulent flow. ■ Effect of hot and cold fluid flow rate on the heat transfer coefficient. ■ Effect of driving force (temperature differential) on the heat transfer coefficient. ■ Investigation of heat loss and reduction in heat transfer coefficient due to fouling of the heat transfer surfaces (suitable student project using user induced. fouling).

HT36 connections

A wide selection of heat exchanger options are available for use with the HT30XC, ranging from simple exchangers to demonstrate co-current and countercurrent flow, to reconfigurable systems with interim temperature measurements, capable of being used for in-depth heat exchanger analysis. The heat exchangers are easily interchanged, with quick release fittings on the flexible interconnecting tubes, and a simple location system using thumbscews to secure the exchangers onto the service unit.

Mimic diagram of HT36

■ The use of a regeneration stage for energy efficiency. giving series. The service unit will support evaluation of experimental heat exchangers constructed as design exercises by students. where appropriate. dimensions and fittings. ■ Demonstration of temperature overlaps between fluid streams in counter-current operation. ■ Project work to implement a wide variety of plate configurations. parallel and combined fluid passes. Additional training exercises using a user provided heat exchanger: ■ Any of the above exercises can be performed. using a user provided heat exchanger having appropriate characteristics. ■ Temperature profiles along the effective length of the heat exchanger in both counter-current and co-current operation ■ Comparing the effect of different heat transfer areas.Additional training exercises using the HT36 Extended Tubular Heat Exchanger: ■ Demonstration of temperature overlaps between fluid streams in countercurrent operation. when heating and subsequently cooling a product stream. . ■ Comparing the effect of different heat transfer areas. Additional training exercises using the HT34 Jacketed Vessel: ■ Introduction to heat exchange in a batch or continuously fed stirred vessel and comparison of the differences in operation and performance when using a heating jacket or heating coil. ■ Effects of stirring and vessel contents (volume) on the heat transfer characteristics. ■ Use of LMTD correction factor when calculating the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. Additional training exercises using the HT37 Extended Reconfigurable Plate Heat Exchanger: ■ Temperature profiles along the effective length of the heat exchanger in both counter-current and co-current operation.

hot water recirculation pump.2 to 5 L/min ● All data is available to a (user supplied) Windows PC. cold water control system. 2000. computer interface and all necessary instrumentation. hot water temperature.ORDERING SPECIFICATION .5m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0. calibrated from 0. ● Two flow meters are included.33m3 Gross Weight: 33kg ESSENTIAL/OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT The user must have access to a PC with a free USB port.g. ● Full software for educational use is included. 60Hz. via a USB interface. ● Flow rates for both fluid streams in excess of 4L/min are achievable.10C. At least one heat exchanger module is required. Range. installation and commissioning is included. 0-1330C. ● The hot water vessel is made from clear acrylic (for visibility) and includes a 2kW heater with thermostatic over-temperature cut-out and low water level detection. 60Hz. SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase electricity supply: HT30XC-A: 230V.45m (service unit only) 1. resolution 0. ME or XP. ● The hot water pump is bi-directional (to allow co-current and countercurrent investigations without re-configuring the hardware) and the flow rate is under computer control. but this may be restricted by some designs of heat exchanger (e. ● A comprehensive instruction manual describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in combined radiation and convection (free and forced) and their analysis as well as assembly. 50Hz. 10Amp Cold water supply and drain: 4. HT32 & HT36 Plate Heat Exchangers).HT30XC ● Bench top service unit. 10Amp HT30XC-B: 115V. and hot water direction. additional heat exchangers are optional.5 Litres/minute at 1bar Gauge OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0. This computer is also used to control the flow rates. running Windows 98. designed to accommodate a range of different small scale heat exchangers.0m 0. ● Up to 10 temperatures (K-type thermocouples) can be monitored using the service unit. . ● The cold water system includes a manually adjustable pressure regulator and a flow control valve which is under computer control. ● Comprises hot water vessel. 20Amp HT30XC-G: 230V.

The HT36 is a more sophisticated unit with four longer tube sections.1m3 Gross Weight: 10kg HT36 10 off: ● Hot fluid inlet ● Hot fluid interim positions (3) ● Hot fluid outlet ● Cold fluid inlet ● Cold fluid interim positions (3) ● Cold fluid outlet 4 (can also be configured for 1.Tubular Heat Exchanger HT36 .2m Width: 0. HT31 Temperature measurement points 6 off: ● Hot fluid inlet ORDERING SPECIFICATIONS ● A small scale Tubular Heat Exchanger system for use with an Armfield Heat Exchange Service Unit to teach the fundamental concepts of heat exchangers.95m Depth: 0. Two versions are available.05m3 Gross weight: 4kg HT36: Volume: 0.HT31/HT36 TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS HT31 .16m Width: 0. providing visualisation of the heat exchanger construction and minimising thermal losses. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION On both heat exchangers the inner tube is used for the hot fluid and the outer annulus for cold fluid. Computer Controlled Heat Exchanger Service Unit.4m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION HT31: Volume: 0.08m2 max . The inner tubes are constructed from stainless steel and the outer annulus from clear acrylic.Extended Tubular Heat Exchanger The tubular heat exchanger is the simplest form of heat exchanger and consists of two concentric (coaxial) tubes carrying the hot and cold fluids. OVERALL DIMENSIONS HT31: Height: 0. HT31 can be used with either the HT30XC or the HT30X Heat Exchanger Service Unit. the HT31 is a basic version with two sections and a single interim temperature measurement point.02m2 0. The tubes can be dismantled for cleaning.51m Depth: 0. This minimises heat loss from the exchanger without the need for additional insulation. In these miniature versions the tubes are separated into sections to reduce the overall length and to allow the temperature at points along both fluid streams to be measured. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES HT36 requires the Armfield HT30XC. ● Comprises a number of sections of concentric tubes. The HT36 has sufficient heat transfer area to demonstrate the classic counter current flow conditions where the outlet of the heated stream is hotter than the outlet of the cooled stream. giving four times the overall heat transfer area and three interim temperature measurement points in each fluid stream. ● The tubes are easily dismantled for cleaning. ● A comprehensive instruction manual is included. 2 or 3 sections) ● Hot fluid mid-position ● Hot fluid outlet ● Cold fluid inlet ● Cold fluid mid-position ● Cold fluid outlet Number of tube sections Heat transfer area 2 0.39m HT36: Height: 0. the outer section constructed from clear acrylic for visibility and the inner tube from stainless steel.

g. for project work) a further twelve loose plates are supplied HT32 Plate Heat Exchanger HT37 with four heating sections installed with the HT37. Also supplied is a pre-assembled regeneration section to demonstrate this important energy efficient method of heating.Plate Heat Exchanger HT37 . these sections are supplied as preassembled groups of plates complete with an intermediate plate (containing the temperature measurement points). A quick release clamp system allows the different arrangements to be changed quickly and easily without using tools. It comprises seven individual plates. serial passes. (e. It is possible to dismantle and reassemble the heat exchanger using only three plates to demonstrate a single pass. with parallel passes. In order to make the unit easy to reconfigure. These can be used in conjunction with the plates from the preassembled modules to investigate these other configurations. . The regeneration section can be used in conjunction with one. The HT32 has a single heating section configured for multi-pass operation with passes in series. Using the four heating sections provided. For more advanced investigations into these effects. Hot and cold fluids flow between channels on alternate sides of the plates to promote heat transfer. students can compare heat exchangers of different heat transfer area and different numbers of passes.Extended Reconfigurable Plate Heat Exchanger The plate heat exchanger is extremely versatile and commonly used in the food and chemical processing industries where different combinations of plates and gaskets can be arranged to suit a particular application.HT32/HT37 PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS HT32 . which are clamped together using two stainless steel threaded bars and nuts. Plate heat exchangers can be implemented in a wide variety of configurations. The miniature exchanger supplied consists of a pack of plates with sealing gaskets held together in a frame between end plates. or combinations of both. and can accommodate up to four sections of heating. two or three of the standard heating sections in different configurations. The HT37 is designed to be reconfigurable by the student. each section providing an additional temperature measurement point for each fluid stream.

18m Depth: 0.39m HT37: Height: 0. Plate details: Plate overall dimensions: 75mm x 115mm Effective diameter: 3. ● A comprehensive instruction manual is included.5kg HT37 Reconfigurable up to 20 plates (12 effective plates) 0. hand operated. ● Easily dismantled for cleaning. mounted in a frame. with a pressed chevron pattern to promote turbulence and provide multiple support points. Computer Controlled Heat Exchanger Service Unit. OVERALL DIMENSIONS HT32: Height: 0.096m2 (max) Configurable sections.TECHNICAL DETAILS The plates used in these heat exchangers have been specifically developed by Armfield for use in miniature heat exchanger systems.04m2 Single heating stage HT37: Volume: 0. no tools required 12 additional plates (supplied loose) give the option of exploring many different configurations . each with a pressed chevron pattern and a food grade silicon rubber sealing gasket.17m Width: 0. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES HT37 requires the Armfield HT30XC. They are fabricated from 316 stainless steel.39m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION HT32: Volume: 0.18m Depth: 0. HT32 can be used with either the HT30XC or the HT30X Heat Exchanger Service Unit. with a separate regeneration section Up to 10 off: ● Hot fluid inlet ● Hot fluid interim positions (up to 3) ● Hot fluid outlet ● Cold fluid inlet ● Cold fluid interim positions (up to 3) ● Cold fluid outlet Clamping mechanism Project work Dual screw threads with nuts Quick release. Silicone rubber gaskets are used on each plate to seal the adjacent flow channels from each other.17m Width: 0.03m3 Gross weight: 6kg HT32 Number of plates Heat transfer area Heat exchanger configuration Temperature measurement points 4 off: ● Hot fluid inlet ● Hot fluid outlet ● Cold fluid inlet ● Cold fluid outlet 7 (5 effective plates) 0. The exchangers are easily dismantled for inspection of the heat transfer surfaces. ORDERING SPECIFICATION ● A small scale plate heat exchanger system for use with an Armfield Heat Exchange Service Unit to teach the fundamental concepts of heat exchangers. ● Comprises a number of stainless steel plates.03m3 Gross Weight: 9.5mm Wetted perimeter: 153.008m2 per transmission area: plate The plates are mounted in a frame incorporating fixed and moving end plates with connections for hot and cold fluids.0mm Plate thickness: 0.0mm Projected heat 0.

OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0. The miniature exchanger supplied is designed to demonstrate liquid to liquid heat transfer in a 1-7 shell and tube heat exchanger (one shell and 7 tubes with two transverse baffles in the shell).SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER The shell and tube heat exchanger is commonly used in the food and chemical process industries. ● Comprises an outer shell and 7 internal tubes. ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES HT30XC or HT30X Heat Exchanger Service Unit.000mm2. ■ Thermocouples are installed at the following 4 locations: ❏ Hot fluid ❏ Hot fluid outlet ❏ Cold fluid inlet ❏ Cold fluid ORDERING SPECIFICATION ● A miniature shell and tube heat exchanger for use with an Armfield Heat Exchanger Service Unit.39m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0. ■ Seven stainless steel tubes. It is mounted on a PVC baseplate which is designed to be installed on the plinth of the Heat Exchanger Service Unit without the need for tools.06m3 Gross Weight: 5kg .HT33 .43m 0. There are two transverse baffles inside the shell. ■ The outer annulus. ■ Cold fluid (cold water) enters one end of the shell at the bottom and exits at the opposite end at the top having flowed over and under two transverse baffles inside the shell. ● The stainless steel tubes can be removed from the heat exchanger for cleaning. ■ Nominal combined heat transfer area of 20. TECHNICAL DETAILS The accessory consists of a miniature shell and tube heat exchanger with the following features: ■ Hot fluid in the inner tubes and cold fluid in outer shell to minimise heat loss from the exchanger without the need for additional insulation. (equivalent to that of the HT31 Tubular Heat Exchanger for direct comparison). ● A comprehensive instruction manual is included. ● Four temperature sensors are supplied in tappings at fluid inlets and outlets.19m 0. Heat is transferred between one fluid flowing through the tubes and another fluid flowing through the cylindrical shell around the tubes. end caps and baffles constructed from clear acrylic to allow visualisation of the heat exchanger construction and minimise thermal losses. This type of exchanger consists of a number of tubes in parallel enclosed in a cylindrical shell. ● The heat exchanger is constructed from stainless steel tube and clear acrylic.35mm OD. 6.

either batchwise or with continuous product feed. ■ The vessel incorporates a variable speed stirrer and baffle arrangement to allow thorough mixing of the vessel contents when required. ● A comprehensive instruction manual describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises in combined radiation and convection (free and forced) and their analysis as well as assembly. ● K-Type thermocouples measure the vessel contents and the inlet and outlet temperature of both fluid streams (6 in total). ■ An adjustable overflow allows the volume of liquid inside the vessel to be varied with a maximum capacity of 2 litres and a minimum of 1 litre. A glass outer jacket allows the wall of the vessel to be surrounded with hot fluid for indirect heating from the outside.10m3 Gross Weight: 9kg Specifications may change without notice. Alternatively. variable speed stirrer and baffle. . ESSENTIAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES HT30XC or HT30X Heat Exchanger Service Unit. is common practice throughout industry. a stainless steel coil inside the vessel allows the cold fluid contained within the vessel to be indirectly heated from inside. ■ The vessel can be operated batchwise by simply filling to the overflow or with continuous feed of cold liquid to the base of the vessel. installation and commissioning is included.JACKETED VESSEL WITH COIL & STIRRER Vessel Heating or cooling of a process liquid in a tank. ■ Thermocouples are installed at the following six locations: ❏ Vessel contents (cold fluid) ❏ Hot fluid inlet to jacket ❏ Hot fluid outlet from jacket ❏ Hot fluid inlet to coil ❏ Hot fluid outlet from coil ❏ Cold fluid inlet to vessel ■ Quick release hot and cold fluid connections allow rapid connection to HT30X and conversion from heating jacket to heating coil. inner coil. TECHNICAL DETAILS The accessory consists of a jacketed vessel with the following features: ■ The vessel consists of a stainless steel wall with PVC base and clear acrylic top. The characteristics of the heat transfer using an external jacket or internal coil can be demonstrated together with the effect of stirring the vessel contents.40m 0.39m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.18m 0. ● The Heat Exchanger is designed to be installed on the service unit without the need for tools. iss1/5k/0804/B&S. the excess liquid flowing from the overflow to drain.HT34 . ORDERING SPECIFICATION ● Miniature jacketed vessel heat exchanger system for use with an Armfield Heat Exchanger Service unit ● Comprises processing vessel with outer jacket. OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0.

The thermometric properties and characteristics of temperature measuring devices can be investigated and the devices calibrated using precisely generated fixed points and an accurate reference thermometer.Item 02-02-13 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND CALIBRATION The Armfield Temperature Measurement and Calibration unit is designed to introduce students to temperature and how different techniques can be employed to measure this variable. INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Concepts of measurement and temperature scales Thermometric properties and characteristic behaviour of different sensors Structure of the International Temperature Scale (ITS90) Calibration and the use of fixed points Sources of error in measurement and calibration KEY FEATURES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Thermometric properties (physical changes due to temperature) of different sensors are investigated Condensing vapour (using a hypsometer) provides an accurate fixed point for calibration Stirred hot water bath provides variable temperatures Reference PRT with NAMAS calibration supplied All electrical sensors can be logged using a PC (optional teaching software available) .

An accurate platinum resistance thermometer (PT100) with five point NAMAS calibration certificate and temperature indicated directly in OC. .use of saturation temperature tables ➤ establishment of accurate fixed points ➤ ice point or triple point ➤ primary calibration of a PRT using fixed points and ITS90 ➤ secondary calibration of a thermocouple or other sensor against a PRT at several water bath temperatures Sources of error: ➤ static and dynamic errors ➤ thermal linking and the effects of the sensor on the target temperature ➤ conduction error ➤ connecting lead effects ➤ self heating effects ➤ manufacturing tolerances ➤ signal conditioning ➤ display accuracy and resolution ➤ cold junction compensation (for thermocouples) Project work: ➤ calibration of alternative temperature sensors/thermometers ➤ properties of alternative temperature sensors ➤ ageing and drift DESCRIPTION A bench top unit designed to introduce students to temperature.correlating equations ➤ zero error ➤ scale error ➤ non-linearity Properties and characteristic behaviour of different sensors: ➤ thermoelectric properties of platinum resistance thermometer (PRT). thermocouple and thermistor ➤ pressure thermometer (vapour pressure) ➤ expansion (liquid in glass) ➤ speed of response and the effect of a sheath Structure of the International Temperature Scale (ITS90): ➤ the reference PRT equation and the standard temperatures ➤ correction equations Calibration: ➤ boiling point/condensation point . temperature scales and commonly available devices to measure temperature. The equpment comprises a hypsometer/hot water bath and ice flask to generate accurate fixed points (the condensation point and triple point of water) and variable temperatures.DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES Teaching exercises will enable students to become familiar with the following topics: Concepts of measurement and calibration: ➤ Celsius (Fahrenheit) and absolute temperature scales ➤ conversion of arbitrary scale into engineering units . is included for reference. Temperature sensors having different thermometric principles and characteristics are supplied.

All thermometric properties and temperatures measured are displayed on a digital meter with selector switch and all corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using an optional interface device with educational software package (TH-304IFD). All power supplies. An additional conditioning circuit with user adjustable zero and span controls allows the output to be displayed as a direct reading thermometer calibrated in OC Thermistor with constant current through the sensor to measure the resistance in Ohms In addition to the thermoelectric sensors a liquid in glass and vapour pressure thermometer are also supplied. The following sensors/signal conditioning circuits are included: Accurate reference PRT with linearised output in OC Industrial PRT with a bridge circuit to measure the resistance in Ohms. A radiation shield surrounds the sensors to be calibrated to minimise measurement errors. signal conditioning circuitry etc are contained in an electrical console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. The water level is simply raised to change the hypsometer into a variable temperature water bath. A common carrier allows all sensors to be transferred simultaneously from ice flask to the hypsometer/water bath. The unit is designed for safe operation with insulation surrounding the vessel and a protected steam vent.The temperature of the condensing water vapour in the hypsometer can be determined accurately using steam tables (included in the teaching manual and educational software). Higher current can be passed through the sensor to show the effect of self-heating Type K thermocouple using a precision preamplifier to measure the thermoelectric voltage with cold junction compensation or a second thermocouple in ice as required. provided that an accurate barometer (not supplied) is available. Additional thermocouples allow errors due to response and conduction to be demonstrated. Filler/vent Temperature sensors Stirrer Water level: heated bath Vapour pressure thermometer Insulation Level gauge Radiation shield Heating element TH1: Schematic diagram of hypsometer/heated water bath Sensor output Time TH1: Response curves for different temperature sensors .

q The hypsometer is heated by a pair of 1kW electric heating elements with variable power control and over-temperature protection.680m 0. A digital meter with selector switch displays all thermometric properties and temperatures measured. q An optional interface device and educational software package is available. type K thermocouple. . SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross weight: 0. thermistor. q A comprehensive instruction manual with a range of fully detailed laboratory teaching exercises is included in the supply.2m3 15kg The TH range for the study of thermodynamics TH1: TH2: TH3: TH4: TH5: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Pressure Measurement and Calibration Saturation Pressure Recycle Loops Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas Specifications may change without notice iss3/5k/1102/B&S. Corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using the Windows™ operating system. q Other temperature sensors include: Platinum resistance sensor. An accurate platinum resistance thermometer (PT100) with five point NAMAS calibration certificate and temperature indicated directly in OC is included for reference. vapour pressure and liquid in glass thermometers.ORDERING SPECIFICATION OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES TH-304IFD: Educational software for TH1-TH5 on a single CD-ROM complete with Data-logger RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Barometer: (to determine absolute pressure) Stop clock: (when not using the optional interface device/educational software) DC calibrator/thermocouple simulator: (to demonstrate calibration of instrumentation) Resistance box/PRT simulator: (to demonstrate calibration of instrumentation/ lead errors) SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase electrical supply: TH1-A: 220v/1ph/50Hz @ 13A TH1-B: 120v/1ph/60Hz @ 20A TH1-G: 220v/1ph/60Hz @ 13A Fill with pure water: Hypsometer: 1 litre Water bath: 4 litres Source of ice shavings made from pure water OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0. via an interface device. q The electrical console houses all the necessary electronics with appropriate protection devices and an RCD.700m 0.325m q A bench top unit comprising a hypsometer/hot water bath and ice flask which generate accurate fixed points and variable temperatures.

The quality of steam exiting the apparatus can be determined using a throttling calorimeter connected at the point of discharge. Saturation curves can be obtained by the student and compared with published steam tables. INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES ➤ ➤ ➤ Understanding saturation curves and the characteristics of a two phase fluid Understanding the origin and use of steam tables Using a throttling calorimeter to determine the quality of wet steam KEY FEATURES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Measurement of the relationship between temperature and pressure of the saturated vapour in the loop Convenient control of heat input to the boiler using variable power control Sight glass in the boiler allows observation of the boiling patterns in the water Safe operation with pressure relief valve and permanent indication of system pressure Pressure and temperatures measured can be logged using a PC (optional teaching software available) .Item 02-02-14 SATURATION PRESSURE TH3 issue 3 The Armfield Saturation Pressure Apparatus has been designed to introduce students to how the temperature of water behaves at its boiling point with variation in the absolute pressure.

The steam expands to atmospheric pressure as it is throttled and a second PRT temperature sensor measures the temperature of the steam following expansion. The apparatus consists of a rectangular pipe loop incorporating a cylindrical boiler in one vertical limb. ➤ the concept of a saturation line ➤ the describing equation and linearisation ➤ gauge and absolute pressures ➤ temperature scales ➤ the characteristic behaviour of a two phase fluid ➤ the effect of rate of response on the accuracy of measurement Throttling Calorimeter: ➤ determination of the condition of the wet steam (quality of the steam) produced by the Saturation Pressure Apparatus at different operating pressures. allows steam from within the loop to be passed through a throttling calorimeter. and also allows the water level in the boiler to be monitored.DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES Teaching exercises will enable students to become familiar with the following topics: Saturation Loop: ➤ observation of the patterns of boiling at the surface of the water ➤ measurement of the temperature of saturated steam over the range of pressures 0 to 7 bar gauge and comparison of the saturation curves obtained with those published in steam tables. . Pure water in the boiler is heated to its boiling point using a pair of cartridge heaters with variable power control. A sight glass on the front of the boiler allows the internal processes to be observed. A filling point on the top limb allows the loop to be filled with pure water and allows all air to be vented safely before sealing the loop for pressurised measurements. the purpose of which is to demonstrate how the dryness fraction of the saturated steam in the loop can be determined. namely boiling patterns at the surface of the water. with isolating valve. The apparatus is designed for safe operation with a pressure relief valve set to operate if the pressure rises above the working pressure and a Bourdon gauge that remains operational when power is disconnected from the electrical console. All power supplies. ➤ use of the steady flow energy equation ➤ the two property rule ➤ use of steam tables ➤ the difference in enthalpy between phases . circuitry etc are contained in an electrical console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. signal conditioning. Saturated steam leaving the top of the boiler passes around the pipe loop before condensing and returning to the base of the boiler for re-heating. The top limb of the pipe loop incorporates a PRT temperature sensor and an electronic pressure sensor to measure the properties of the saturated steam. A vapour offtake. The operating range of the boiler and loop is 0 to 7 bar gauge. Readings from the sensors are displayed on a common digital meter with selector switch and all corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using an optional parallel interface/ educational software package (TH-304IFD).enthalpy of vaporisation DESCRIPTION A bench top unit designed to introduce students to the characteristics of saturated water vapour.

OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES TH-304IFD: Educational software for TH1-TH5 on a single CD-ROM complete with Data-logger q An electrical console houses the necessary electronics with current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. .Pressure relief valve ORDERING SPECIFICATION q A bench top unit comprising a boiler T1 Filling point Saturated vapour P Viewing port Boiler Throttling calorimeter vessel and pipe loop with a pressure relief valve to limit the operating pressure to 8 bar gauge. Temperatures in the pipe loop and inside the throttling calorimeter are measured using PRT sensors and pressure in the loop is measured using an electronic pressure sensor. An optional interface device and educational software package is available. RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Accurate barometer: (to determine the absolute pressure) q The boiler is heated by a pair of 500 W electric heating elements with variable power control and over-temperature protection. A digital meter with selector switch displays all sensor measurements. Corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC. A sight glass on the front of the boiler allows the boiling patterns to be observed and a Bourdon type gauge indicates the pressure in the apparatus at all times for safe operation. q A comprehensive instruction manual is included with a range of fully detailed laboratory teaching exercises. q A throttling calorimeter mounted T2 Heating elements TH3: Schematic diagram of apparatus adjacent to the pipe loop allows the condition of the saturated steam to be determined by measuring the temperature of the steam following throttling to atmospheric pressure.

.26m3 20kg The TH range for the study of thermodynamics TH1: TH2: TH3: TH4: TH5: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Pressure Measurement and Calibration Saturation Pressure Recycle Loops Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas Specifications may change without notice iss3/5k/1102/B&S.215m 0.580m Width: 0.290m Electrical Console Height: Width: Depth: 0.670m Depth: 0.SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase mains electrical supply: TH3-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 10A TH3-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 15A TH3-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 10A Initial fill with pure water (3 litres) and replenish as consumed OVERALL DIMENSIONS Saturation Loop/Throttling Calorimeter Height: 0.290m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.225m 0.

Item 02-02-15

RECYCLE LOOPS

TH4
issue 3

Recycle is a simple phenomenon which occurs in many aspects of everyday life but a concept that can lead to confusion in engineering applications when combined with other principles such as mass and energy balances and the use of the steady flow energy equation. The Armfield Recycle Loops apparatus has been designed to demonstrate clearly, both visually and experimentally, what recyle is and to allow mass and energy balances to be performed under steady state and unsteady state conditions. The application modelled is typical of a heating arrangement in the chemical, food or pharmaceutical industries whereby the temperature of a product is raised or lowered offline by recirculating some of the product through a heat exchanger. The practical training exercises are appropriate to heat transfer and thermodynamics courses and the training of technicians and engineers in those disciplines.

INSTRUCTIONAL CAPABILITIES
➤ ➤ ➤ ➤

Understanding the meaning of recycle Steady state heat and mass balances Unsteady state responses to step changes in through flow rate, heat input to the loop or recycle rate The effect of residence time can be demonstrated by changing the volume of the loop

KEY FEATURES
➤ ➤ ➤

The small scale of the loop ensures that responses can be fully evaluated in a normal laboratory session Water is used as the working fluid for safety and ease of use All electrical sensors can be logged using a PC (optional teaching software available)

DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES
Teaching exercises are included to enable students to become familiar with the following topics: Understanding the meaning of recycle. Steady state mass balances: ➤ demonstrating that whatever the recycle rate, the inlet flow rate always equals the outlet flow rate Steady state heat balances: ➤ with the heater switched on and at fixed input water flow rate the outlet temperature is independent of the recycle rate ➤ with the heater switched on the temperature rise between inlet and outlet can be used to determine the combined heat input of the heater and pump at different input water flow rates Unsteady state heat balances: ➤ determining the response when the heater is switched on at different through flow rates ➤ determining the response when the heater is switched off at different through flow rates ➤ determining the effect of a step change in the input flow ➤ determining the effect of recycle with no through flow Use of the steady flow energy equation: ➤ for the overall system

for the mixing process

Effects on response rates to parameter changes: ➤ in heater power ➤ in through flow ➤ in recycle flow ➤ in loop volume Comparison of test results with simulations: ➤ using analytical methods

using finite difference simulations

DESCRIPTION A bench top unit designed to introduce students to the characteristics of a recyle loop and the typical responses under steady state and unsteady state conditions. The apparatus consists of a through pipe conveying water from a cold water supply to a suitable drain with a loop of pipework connected between the supply and drain connections. This recycle loop incorporates a circulating pump and a heater to raise the temperature of the water in the loop. The heater can be switched on or off to generate step changes when investigating the transient responses of the recycle loop. A pair of self-sealing fittings allows a short length of pipe or a reservoir to be connected in series with the recyle loop to change the volume of the loop and demonstrate the effect of residence time. The arrangement also allows different lengths of flexible tubing to be connected in series with the loop if it is required to create further changes in residence time. Water temperatures at the inlet, outlet and within the recycle loop are measured using type K thermocouples. Water flowrates at the corresponding locations are measured using miniature turbine type flow sensors. Flow sensors are included at

the outlet as well as the inlet to show that these two flow rates are always equal (a simple principle that is often confusing when water is flowing through the recycle loop). All power supplies, signal conditioning circuitry etc are contained inside the moulded ABS support and integral console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. Readings from the sensors are displayed on a digital meter with selector switch and all corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using an optional interface device with educational software package (TH-304IFD).

OPTIONAL ARMFIELD ACCESSORIES
TH-304IFD: Educational software for TH1-TH5 on a single CD-ROM complete with Data-logger
Pressure regulator Cold water supply To drain

w

Water heater

v

Gear pump

T2 F1
w w

Additional volume

v

F2
v
w

F3

T1

T3

TH4: schematic diagram of the loop

30 25
Temperature

T2

20 15 10 5 0
Elapsed time

T3

T1

TH4: Typical response when the heater in the recycle loop is switched on

q A bench top unit comprising a vacuum formed ABS plastic plinth with integral electrical console on to which is mounted a through pipe with a recycle loop which incorporates a circulating pump and heater. . q The console incorporates a digital meter with selector switch. at the exit from the system and inside the recycle loop are measured using type K thermocouples. q An optional interface device and educational software package is available. q Temperatures at the entry to the system. The through flow of water can be varied from 0 to 1.000m 0. Corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC.500m q A pressure regulator with filter at the inlet to the apparatus minimises the effect of fluctuations in the cold water supply pressure.5 litres/min. SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase mains electrical supply: TH4-A: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 13A TH4-B: 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 20A TH4-G: 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 13A Mains cold water supply 3 litres/min @ 2 bar gauge Drain connection for hot water at 3 litres/min maximum OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 0. Water in the recycle loop is heated by a 2 kW electric heater with over-temperature protection. which displays the temperatures and flowrates measured. The TH range for the study of thermodynamics TH1: TH2: TH3: TH4: TH5: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Pressure Measurement and Calibration Saturation Pressure Recycle Loops Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas Specifications may change without notice iss3/5k/1102/B&S. Flow rates at corresponding locations are measured using turbine type flow sensors.ORDERING SPECIFICATION q A comprehensive instruction manual is included with a range of fully detailed laboratory teaching exercises.32m3 30kg q All electrical circuits are protected by appropriate protection devices. Flow in the loop can be varied from 0 (no recycle) to 3 litres/min. SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: Gross Weight: 0.400m 1. A reservoir with self-sealing fittings allows the volume of the loop to be changed.

Item 02-02-16 .

Each vessel incorporates the following features: ➤ interconnected vessels operating under pressure and under vacuum are supplied complete with electric air pump and appropriate instrumentation ready for use. this modern version of a classic experiment (attributed to Clément and Désormes) allows pressure and temperature changes to be monitored continuously using a PC. An electrically operate air pump mounted on top of the vessels. with the limiting case of n = γ conversion of pressure units gauge and absolute pressures the unsteady-flow energy equation (in vacuum mode) connection to the air pump via an isolating valve to allow the vessel to be pressurised/evacuated connection to a piezo-resistive sensor to measure the pressure/ vacuum inside the vessel (range of both sensors ±34. one equipped for operation under pressure and the second under vacuum. The vessels can be used independently or together to allow different thermodynamic processes to be evaluated.KEY FEATURES ➤ DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of two floorstanding interconnected rigid vessels. A pressure sensor connected to each vessel and a temperature sensor inside each vessel allow the changes in the properties of the air contained within the vessels to be monitored continuously. Both vessels are constructed from clear rigid plastic which affords light insulation between the air inside the vessel and the surroundings to reduce heating/cooling but allows each vessel and its contents to return to ambient temperature reasonably quickly. The capacity of the evacuated vessel is approximately 11 litres. together with valves and tappings allows the appropriate vessel to be pressurised or evacuated as required to suit the teaching exercise. The capacity of the pressurised vessel is approximately 23 litres.5kN/m2 connection to a large bore pipe and valve to allow depressurisation/ pressurisation of the vessel to/from the atmosphere (the valve is rapidly opened and closed to provide a small step change in pressure) interconnection between the two vessels via a large bore pipe and valve (fast change) and small bore pipe and needle valve (gradual change). ➤ ➤ DETAILED CAPABILITIES Teaching exercises will enable students to become familiar with the following topics: ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ the non-flow energy equation the behaviour of a perfect gas and its describing equations an adiabatic reversible process (isentropic expansion) a constant volume process an adiabatic irreversible process conversion of pressure units a constant internal energy process polytropic processes. from atmosphere to an evacuated vessel or from a pressurised vessel to an evacuated vessel. (optional teaching software available) the vessels can be operated singly or in combination allowing processes whereby air flows from a pressurised vessel to atmosphere. ➤ ➤ ➤ .

All signals are simultaneously connected to an I/O Port for connection to a PC with USB port using an optional interface device and educational software package (TH-304IFD) or a user supplied chart recorder as required. Readings from the pressure sensors and thermistors are displayed on a common digital meter with selector switch on the front of the console.➤ ➤ fast response thermistor to monitor air temperature inside the vessel relief valve to prevent over-pressurisation All power supplies. The console is designed to stand on a bench top above the pressure and vacuum vessels and incorporates electrical connections for the air pump and sensors. qqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qq qq q q q vvvvvvvvvvv v v v vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv v v v PRESSURE (kNm -2) TEMPERATURE ( 0C) (from thermistor resistance) v v v v Elapsed time Response of the pressurised vessel following a brief depressurisation qqqqqqqqqqqq q q q qqqqq q q q q q q qq q q q q q qqqq q qqqqqq qq q q q q qqqqqqqqq qq q q q PRESSURE (kNm -2) Elapsed time Response of the pressurised vessel following stepwise depressurisation . signal conditioning circuitry etc are contained in a simple electrical console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. As the teaching exercises require the transient pressure and temperature responses to be observed and recorded one of these recording options is necessary.

Readings from the pressure sensors and thermistors are displayed on a common digital meter with selector switch and corresponding signals are routed to an I/O port for connection to a PC using an optional interface device/educational software package or a user supplied chart recorder as required.34m 3 Gross Weight: 22kg The TH range for the study of thermodynamics TH1: TH2: TH3: TH4: TH5: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Pressure Measurement and Calibration Saturation Pressure Recycle Loops Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas Specifications may change without notice iss3/5k/1102/B&S. q A comprehensive instruction booklet describing how to carry out the laboratory teaching exercises is included. . signal conditioning circuitry etc are contained in a simple electrical console with appropriate current protection devices and an RCD for operator protection. An electric air pump is supplied to allow pressurisation or evacuation of the vessels as required for the different exercises. q All power supplies. Each vessel incorporates a fast response thermistor sensor to monitor the temperature of the air and connection to a piezo electric pressure sensor. q The hardware consists of two floorstanding interconnected rigid vessels. Appropriate valves and tappings are fitted to allow different thermodynamic processes to be evaluated.ORDERING SPECIFICATION q A small scale unit designed to introduce students to the properties of a perfect gas using air to demonstrate basic thermodynamic processes. one equipped for operation under pressure and the second under vacuum. OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES TH-304IFD: Educational software for TH1-TH5 on a single CD-ROM complete with Data-logger RECOMMENDED INSTRUMENTS Barometer to determine the atmospheric pressure SERVICES REQUIRED Single phase mains electrical supply:TH5-A: TH5-B: TH5-G: 220/240V/1ph/50Hz @ 3 Amps 120V/1ph/60Hz @ 5 Amps 220V/1ph/60Hz @ 3 Amps OVERALL DIMENSIONS Vessel Assembly: Height: Width: Depth: 800mm 460mm 280mm Electrical Console: Height: 220mm Width: 220mm Depth: 300mm SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 0.

and is supplied with sophisticated educational data acquisition software. and facility for safety interlocks Optional operation on LPG as well as gasoline Optional mea surement of cylinder pressure. also displays ignition timing and injection characteristics Measurement of exhaust oxygen content by Lambda sensor Remote emergency stop. and plotting this on a p-v diagram Option to allow ignition and injection characteristics to be varied .Items 02-02-17 thru 02-02-20 GASOLINE ENGINE CM11 issue 1 The Armfield CM11 Gasoline Engine provides a self contained engine test rig which allows students to investigate a range of engine performance characteristics. with measurement of temperature change and flow rate Engine manufacturer’s diagnostic software. The unit is designed to be linked to a computer. FEATURES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Four cylinder automotive engine Eddy current dynamometer to vary engine load Plotting of characteristic torque and power curves against engine speed Full software control of system. including load and throttle settings Closed loop software control of brake loading to maintain constant engine speed during measurements Secondary water cooling by heat exchanger.

A further advantage of the computer control is that stable rpm readings can be easily achieved using the closed loop control function on the dynamometer drive.Software Mimic diagram . including rpm measurement. A safety ‘watchdog’ facility ensures the system shuts down safely in the event of computer failure or software lock-ups. Also included in the supply is the Volkswagen diagnostic software. the engine manufacturers’ software is replaced by alternative software that does not include the diagnostic function). It is based on a 1-litre 4-cylinder automotive engine as used in the Volkswagen Polo car. and allows for remote computer operation. or can be run on a separate computer. A closed loop primary water-cooling system is incorporated. dynamometer and instrumentation system. pressures and flows (see Technical Specification). with a wide range of data logging and graphical display options. This communicates to a PC.6 mm Cylinders: 4 Nominal power: 37kW @ 5000 rpm (running on gasoline with the engine manufacturer’s ECU) Nominal torque: 86Nm @ 3400 rpm (running on gasoline with the engine manufacturer’s ECU) Dynamometer data Dynamometer type: Eddy current Cooling: Air cooled Max Power: 55kW for 20 minutes CM11 . complete with a heat exchanger for connecting into a secondary cold water supply. In particular the injector opening times can be used to calculate an accurate fuel consumption figure for the engine. This provides real time monitoring of the various sensors. injector opening times. The whole system is designed to be linked to a computer using the software provided.DESCRIPTION CM11 is a self-contained integrated multi-cylinder engine. according to user preference. The system comes complete with extensive instrumentation. The ECU software can either be run on the same computer as is used for control and data logging. and many more.1 mm Stroke: 70. torque (from which power can be calculated). The ECU also records any engine faults and these are accessible by this software. and gives the user direct access to view the current parameters used by the engine control unit (ECU). allowing the characteristic power and torque curves to be reproduced in the laboratory. (Note if the CM11-14 option is specified. This engine is a modern design. The interfaces are compatible with packages such as LabView and MatLab for users who wish to provide their own control and monitoring software. TECHNICAL DATA Engine Data Engine model: Volkswagen AER Displacement: 999cc Bore: 67. The dynamometer and throttle can both be controlled electronically from the software. which makes installation into a closed test cell very straightforward. such as ignition timing. plus various temperatures. with electronic engine management of ignition and fuel injection settings. An eddy current dynamometer provides a variable load on the engine.

These must be ordered with the CM11. CM11-14 Ignition and Injection Control (Cannot be fitted together with CM11-13) The CM11-14 option replaces the VW ECU with an aftermarket unit which allows the ignition timing and the fuel injection characteristics of the engine to be changed by the user. allowing the engine to be installed in a dedicated test cell. Note: The spark plug used in this arrangement is not identical to the other sparkplugs. CM11-12 Engine Indicator Set The engine indicator set comprises a high temperature pressure sensor integrated into a spark plug. This sensor is a high precision unit and is physically delicate. 10 Amp Cooling water: 6 L/min at 3 bar pressure. and the cooling water. these can be removed and the unit bolted to the floor for permanent installation. injectors and an LPG control unit to allow the engine to be run on Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) as well as gasoline. They cannot be fitted retrospectively.Software graphical display The CM11 can be ordered with a number of optional accessories. The following services are required: Electricity: 220-240V. The students can produce their own characteristic maps and compare the engine performance with the manufacturer’s data. OPTIONS CM11 . can be switched to run under LPG by software request. A special routine in the Armfield software allows for high speed data acquisition of this signal. in particular the ignition timing and fuel injector opening times. INSTALLATION AND SERVICES The CM11 should be installed in a well ventilated area with exhaust gas extraction facilities. single phase. <200C . The user must supply a liquid offtake LPG bottle. The engine is started on gasoline. solenoid valves. It is supplied with a 5 metre USB lead. and if necessary a suitable fitting to the feed pipe. The injection characteristics can be used to establish the gasoline consumption rate. and when hot enough. The equipment is supplied with a flexible feed pipe terminating in a 6mm OD copper tube and a self sealing quick release connector suitable for fitting to the LPG bottles available in many countries. CM11-13 LPG Fuel System The LPG option includes the pipework. The unit is supplied on wheels for ease of movement. everything can be controlled by computer. giving a maximum distance between the unit and the controlling computer of approx 4m.Instrumentation and Sensors Engine speed counter Load cell to measure torque Inlet air flow measured by orifice plate Inlet air temperature Secondary cooling water flow and temperatures (inlet and outlet) Lambda sensor Also the VW diagnostic software can be used to monitor a wide variety of internal engine functions. A separate charge amplifier provides signal conditioning to generate a voltage which can be logged on the computer. Apart from the master on/off switch. and automatically plots the results on a p-v diagram. and operated from outside the cell.

ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENT The user must have access to one or two PCs (according to preference). ME or XP. ● Optional LPG System allows engine to run on LPG fuel. eddy current dynamometer which acts as a brake. using sophisticated educational software.50m 1. and incorporates detailed teaching material. water cooled. etc. allowing direct measurement of engine torque. ● Throttle and brake load can be controlled from a computer. ● Optional Engine Indicator set allows production of real time P-V diagram. The software includes full data logging and analysis functions. One free USB port is required to run the Armfield data logging and control software. ● Optional Ignition and Injection Control system allows user to investigate the effects of alterations to fuel injection and ignition timing. 2000.00m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 3. ORDERING SPECIFICATION ● A four cylinder. ● Supported on strong tubular steel framework via flexible mounts. and one serial COM port is required to run the VW diagnostic software or the alternative ECU software as appropriate. iss1/5k/0404/San.0 litre. . and around key hot surfaces. The operating system requirements are Windows 98. normally aspirated engine complete with all services and ancillaries required to run the engine in a laboratory environment. Safety interlock switches are incorporated to prevent operation with guards removed. ● Protected by guards around all moving parts.00m3 Weight: 500kg Specifications may change without notice. ● Standard instrumentation includes sensors for: ■ Engine speed ■ Torque ■ Air flow ■ Cooling water temperature (inlet and outlet of heat exchanger) ■ Cooling water flow ■ Exhaust gas Lambda sensor ● Sensor variables are logged in real time on a customer supplied computer via a USB interface. 1. battery. OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.50m 1. electrical enclosures. Frame houses fuel tanks. ● Variable load.

with an option to measure real time cylinder pressure FEATURES ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ ➤ Computer linkable for data capture and analysis Water cooled three cylinder engine Variable load dynamometer Comprehensive instrumentation Easy to install. data logging educational software. it is a true multi-cylinder water cooled engine with a characteristic and representative performance. EDUCATIONAL CAPABILITIES ➤ Multiple Cylinder Engine Training System. can be linked to a computer. and is supplied with sophisticated. water cooled internal combustion engine system specifically developed for engineering education purposes. While small enough to be easily accommodated in a teaching laboratory. It is equipped with an eddy current dynamometer. power and fuel consumption curves under different conditions ➤ Thermodynamic investigations of internal combustion engines. three cylinder. portable unit . generating characteristic torque.Item 02-02-21 DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEM The Armfield CM2 is a diesel fuelled.

engine block. single phase electricity supply CM2-G: 220V. A comprehensive range of instrumentation is provided as standard including: engine speed. An operator control box contains the controls required to start the engine and to enable and vary the load. The complete engine and dynamometer are enclosed underneath a safety cover which protects the users. The engine is loaded by the electrical dynamometer. Multiple thermocouples are provided to measure the temperature of the cooling water. in Labview or C. The fuel tanks are installed under the frame with a diesel fuel tank. The educational software supplied with the equipment provides a fully flexible data logging and graph plotting facility. An electric starter motor. inlet and exhaust manifolds.a fan assisted duct is recommended. The engine throttle is cable driven with a Vernier control located adjacent to the control box. It includes presentation screens describing how the software works. This is backed up by comprehensive and detailed Help facilities in all areas. battery and alternator are also included. For exhaust ducts of greater than 6m (20ft). The package also includes a software driver to allow the equipment to be interfaced to software produced by the user. The dynamometer is capable of providing a completely variable load on the engine. which is mounted on the same frame as the engine and directly coupled to it. while still providing a view of the components. The following services are required: CM2-A: 230V. oil. The torque produced is measured by a load cell connected to the dynamometer. 60Hz. From the torque measurement and the engine speed the power produced by the engine can be calculated and displayed on a computer. Also located under the frame are enclosures for the electrical and electronics systems. All the relevant sensor information is displayed on the computer screen in a mimic diagram format. The engine exhaust may be connected to a duct pipe and vented external to the building. The software includes facilities for the calibration of sensors. The system includes a USB computer interface and software for displaying and logging the data on a Windows PC (computer not supplied). fan and water pump for cooling purposes. The cover is safety interlocked with the engine electrical system. 50Hz. SERVICES AND INSTALLATION The equipment should be installed in a well ventilated area. how to do the demonstrations and the theory required for the demonstrations.DESCRIPTION The system is based on a three cylinder water cooled engine. The engine assembly includes a radiator. (The engine incorporates an adjustable exhaust back pressure valve and sensor to allow variations in installations to be compensated for).g. e. single phase electricity supply . etc. mounted on a painted steel frame. cooling water flow. torque. exhaust back pressure.

● The software supplied includes extensive data logging. ● The engine.0kW Alternator: 40A OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES CM2-12: Engine Indicator Set for CM2. An optional engine indicator set allows cylinder pressure to be displayed in real time against crank position.5m3 Gross Weight: 350kg . CM3: Exhaust Gas Analyser.5 ft. rotational speed. The parameters are displayed in real time on a (customer supplied) personal computer. dynamometer. A Lambda sensor is available to measure the oxygen content of the exhaust gasses. NOTE: This option must be ordered at the same time as CM2. which directly measures the power and torque produced by the engine. exhaust back pressure and temperature. ORDERING SPECIFICATION ● A water-cooled. complete with all services and instrumentation to allow the engine to be evaluated in a laboratory environment. torque.lbs) Electric Starter: 1. are all mounted on a selfcontained steel frame of painted and welded construction. diesel-fuelled internal combustion engine. cooling water inlet and outlet temperature and cooling water flow rate.ENGINE PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION No of Cylinders: 3 Bore x Stroke: 68mm x 64mm Displacement: 697cc Gross Power (nominal): 13. three-cylinder.0HP) Gross Torque (nominal): 44Nm (32.8m SHIPPING SPECIFICATION Volume: 3. fuel tank. OVERALL DIMENSIONS Height: Width: Depth: 1.5kW (18. The frame is designed to be easily moved. This option provides a real time electrical output related to cylinder pressure. NOTE: This option must be ordered at the same time as CM2. ● The standard instrumentation package monitors: inlet air flow and temperature. plus full instructions on operating the equipment and performing the investigations.5m 1. ● The unit includes a variable load dynamometer. analysis and graph plotting facilities. battery etc.4m 0.

Specifications may change without notice. and a closed loop control which varies the load in order to maintain a pre-set speed. RECOMMENDED ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT It is recommended that the user has access to a barometer for measuring air pressure. In closed loop control the operator has full access to the PID control parameters.ESSENTIAL ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT The user must have access to a PC running Windows 98 or Windows 2000 or XP with an unused USB port.From which the power is calculated Fuel fuel flow rate Inlet manifold pressure for estimating the air flow Exhaust back pressure (not available for data logging) Real time cylinder pressure display (with CM2-12) CONTROLS Throttle: Cable controlled Exhaust back pressure valve: Manually controlled Brake load: On/Off controls at the control box. a manual control which applies a percentage of full load. Braking load then controlled from computer NOTE: Two methods of brake load control are available via the computer. prov/0404/AL. INSTRUMENTATION INCLUDED Inlet manifold temperatures (x3) Exhaust manifold temperatures (x3) Cooling water inlet temperature Cooling water outlet temperature Cooling water flow Oil pressure Oil temperature Measured torque .From which the power is calculated Engine speed . .

Welding 02-04 .

reducing noise. Quick Specs Construction Shipbuilding Railroad Truck/Trailer Manufacturing Fabrication Repair Shops Rental Fleets 304: Net: 79. .or 1-Phase Power 456: Requires 3-Phase Power 304: 10 – 35 V. dual digital meters are easy to view and are presettable to ease setting weld output. Lightweight. Process selector switch reduces the number of control setup combinations without reducing any features. and provides potential reduction of fume particle emission. Lift-Arc™ allows TIG starting without the use of high-frequency. 5 – 425 A 456: 10 – 38 V. Fan-On-Demand™ cooling system operates only when needed. aerospace-grade aluminum case offers protection with the benefit of reduced weight.2 kg) 350: Net: 80 lb (36.4 kg) 456: Net: 118 lb (53. Power source is warranted for 3 years. etc.5 kg) The Power of Blue . Large. Line voltage compensation keeps power constant even if power input varies by ±10%. 115 VAC auxiliary power provides 10 amps of circuit-breaker-protected power for water circulators. page 4 for additional XMT 456 features. ® XMT 304 CC/CV with Auto-Link® XMT 456 CC/CV with Manual Link XMT 350 CC/CV with Wind Tunnel Technology ™ protects electrical components and PC boards from contamination. Please see: page 2 for additional XMT 304 features. DC/18. Inverter arc control technology provides greater puddle control for superior 6010 Stick electrode performance. 5 – 400 A 350: 10 – 38 V.XMT Series Heavy Industrial Applications ® Item 02-04-01 Issued June 2004 • Index No.6 lb (40. parts and labor.5 lb (36. optional on XMT 304 and XMT 350 CC/CV models only.8 Multiprocess Welding Power Source Input Power Output Power Weight 304/350: Requires 3. Pulsed MIG capabilities with optional Optima control reduces spatter and distortion.1 kg) Ship: 88.95 power factor! See page 3 for details and additional features of the XMT 350. Standard on XMT 456. allows better out-of-position puddle control. NEW! XMT 350 provides more welding output with superior electrical efficiency and an amazing . Starts the arc without contaminating the weld with tungsten. eliminating electrode sticking. 5 – 600 A Processes MIG (GMAW)/Pulsed MIG (GMAW-P)* Stick (SMAW) TIG (GTAW)/Pulsed TIG (GTAW-P)* Flux Cored (FCAW) Air Carbon Arc Cutting and Gouging (CAC-A) *With optional controls only — not available with XMT 350 VS model. Adaptive Hot Start™ increases the output amperage at the start of a weld if necessary. Original main power rectified parts are warranted for 5 years. energy use and the amount of contaminants pulled through machine.5 kg) Ship: 129 lb (58.1 lb (40.3 kg) Ship: 89.

International-style weld disconnects provide high-quality weld cable connections.2 11. Voltage/Amperage Control Switch XMT 304 CC/CV Performance Data ® DUTY CYCLE CHART 500 400 3-PHASE AND 460 VAC 1-PHASE OPERATION CC VOLT/AMP CURVE 100 80 SMAW-MAX CV VOLT/AMP CURVE 100 80 60 40 20 MAX WELDING AMPERES 300 VOLTS 250 225 200 150 230 VAC 1-PHASE OPERATION GTAW-MAX 40 20 0 GTAW-MIN SMAW-MIN 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% VOLTS 60 MIN 100 0 400 500 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300 400 500 DUTY CYCLE AMPS AMPS 2 . 60 Hz.3 7. 208 V 230 V 400 V 460 V 575 V KVA KW 33.) Amps Input at Rated Load Output.1 kg) 10 – 35 V 5 – 400 A 90 VDC 52.5 — 11.9 15. Voltmeter 2. Inductance/Dig Control 4.6 Input Power ThreePhase SinglePhase Rated Output at 60% Duty Cycle 300 A at 32 VDC 225 A at 29 VDC Voltage Range in CV Mode 10 – 35 V Amperage Range in CC Mode 5 – 400 A Max.4 — 24.2 12.) 2 3 4 7 1. XMT 304 CC/CV Control Panel ® 1 5 6 Additional Features Auto-Link® circuit automatically links the power source to primary voltage being applied (230/460 or 460/575 VAC. single.4 47. Ammeter 6.or three-phase). polycarbonate-blended cover for control panel protects front controls from damage. Voltage/Amperage Adjustment Control 7. (Two connectors supplied with each unit. Standards for welding equipment.7 30. Process Selector Switch (Rotary Switch) 5.6 Certified to both the Canadian and U. Ultra-tough.5 lb (36. Power On/Off Switch 3.5 17 18. OpenCircuit Voltage 90 VDC Dimensions H: 17 in (432 mm) W: 12-1/2 in (318 mm) D: 24 in (610 mm) Weight 79.XMT 304 CC/CV Specifications ® (Subject to change without notice.S.

One simple and easy control for setting weld parameters. You can select and adjust any parameter within the weld sequence — preflow. 2000 Single and Dual. Easy-to-set and view all welding parameters and selectable features. No setup card required for the Invision 456P or XMT 304. as required. Quick and easy selection of the right pulse program based on your wire and gas. Eight programs each for the Invision 456P and XMT 304. Applications S-60M Model Metal fabrication Heavy manufacturing Construction Light manufacturing D-60M Model Features New! New! SharpArc™ Technology Start/Crater Ramp Benefits An arc control that offers a simple way to tailor factory weld programs to accommodate a variety of welding applications.60M Series Processes MIG (GMAW) and Pulsed MIG (GMAW-P) Welding Flux Cored (FCAW) Welding (Gas and Self-shielded) Item 02-04-05 Index No. adjustable weld sequence control . run-in. burnback and postflow. Constant-Speed Wire Feeders The 60M Series of semiautomatic wire feeders offers the ultimate in versatility and performance. or one can be used for conventional MIG. Allows easy field modification of pulse programs to meet your specific application. Programmable.4 Issued Oct. Allows the output power to be tapered from start to weld and from weld to crater. and the other used for pulsed MIG welding. Microprocessor-based design Digital control User-friendly front panel Two back-lit liquid crystal displays 16 built-in synergic pulse programs New! Power source selectable Teach mode for pulse programs Full-featured. Flexible system with many standard features that can be customized for a variety of applications. Designed for pulse MIG and semiautomatic welding. Offers precise control and regulation of the welding arc not found in conventional systems. M/2. crater. The dual models can perform the same process on both sides. weld time. all 60M models are equipped with eight synergic pulse programs. 16 programs are stored in the software. Just select either power source and do a system reset.

8 m/min. See page 2 for additional features and benefits.9 V Peak Current Range* 100–600 A Background Pulses per Current Range* Second* 0–200 A 20–400 PPS Heavy Industrial Pulse Width* 1.) Model S-60M (Single) Input Power 24 VAC 50/60 Hz Electrode Wire Diameter Capacity .6–3.3–19. .0–5. Specifications (Subject to change without notice.) Net Weight 58 lb (26 kg) H: 14 in (356 mm) W: 14 in (356 mm) D: 26-1/2 in (673 mm) H: 14-3/4 in (375 mm) W: 18 in (457 mm) D: 32 in (813 mm) D-60M (Dual) 82 lb (37 kg) *Applies only when 60M feeders are used with the Invision® 456 and Phoenix ™ 456 power sources.2 mm) Wire Speed 50–780 IPM (1.023–1/8 in (0.) Peak Voltage Range* 0–99.0 Milliseconds Dimensions (Use with CC/CV Power Sources.

) • Dual Schedule Mode. Jog Button. or MIG. Handy feature for conducting job studies and maintenance schedules. Purge Button. 0–0. (Bench models only. 4. 2. Links two weld programs when two different welding conditions are required for one wire. and also SharpArc™. Eliminates sharp bends in the gun cable. Feeds wire without energizing the power source contactor and gas valve. thus improving wire feed performance and extending the service life of the gun liner. displayed parameters. Gun Trigger Receptacle. positive and accurate wire feed offers long. No tools required. Mode Displays.9 sec.) Smooth. Allows two separate welding conditions to be programmed for one wire.9 sec. (Refer to Sequence Chart. Selects parameter to be changed. Eliminates inadvertent changes of preset parameters. • Sequence Mode. program number. Allows variety of sequences in weld program. Parameter Select. 5 4 5 1 1 6 2 3 2.5 sec. 5. Parameter Decrease Button 2 6 7 3 4 60M Series Front Panel 1. Sequence Chart Wire Feed Speed not active during preflow adjustable adjustable adjustable adjustable not active during burnback not active during postflow Voltage or Trim not active during preflow not active during run-in adjustable adjustable adjustable adjustable (voltage only) not active during postflow *Inductance is adjustable in the MIG process mode only when using the Invision or Phoenix 456 power source. Receptacle will accommodate a variety of dual schedule switches. wire feed speed. Controls the selection of voltage or arc length. Display Control. 0–2. Parameter Select Button. Writes programs to optional Data Card or reads programs from the Data Card. (Pulse.and dual-schedule operation. not active during run-in 0–2. Provides choice of four modes: • Process Mode.5 sec. • Card Mode. Four drive roll provides excellent feeding of welding wire. Trigger Hold Button and Light. Single-knob control for setting all adjustable. all-gear driven system Posifeed™ wire drive system Benefits Consistent results are possible by programming limits to the range of parameter adjustments. 0–9. System remains energized when operator releases gun trigger—ideal when making extended welds. Parameter Display 5. Allows the operator to make long extended welds without holding gun trigger.) Also used to teach customized pulse programs. Digital Display 6. Control Panels 60M Series Side Panel 1. uninterrupted service life. 3.Additional Features Programmable security system Dual schedule capabilities Arc time totalizer and cycle counter Electronic trigger hold control Gas purge and wire jog control Quick-change drive rolls Rotatable wire drive assembly Sealed ball bearing. Sequence Preflow Run-in Start Weld* Crater Burnback Postflow Time 0–9. 2 . 4. Prewired for single. (Independent control) 7.25 sec. 0–25 sec. adaptive pulse. Parameter Increase Button 6. 3. Mode Select Button. Purge gas line and feed wire without energizing system. Purges gas line and gun without energizing feeder. Gear-driven drive rolls are easy to change.

Description of Pulsed MIG Welding Process
When pulsed MIG welding, the power source rapidly switches the output from high peak current to low background current in precisely regulated intervals. The peak current pinches off a spray-transfer droplet while the low background current “cools” the arc with little or no metal transfer. With proper adjustment of the pulse parameters, the pulsed MIG welding process can produce high-quality welds when using a broad range of material types, thicknesses, and joint configurations. Requires use of a Miller inverter power source. Advantages of Pulsed MIG Process over MIG Spray Transfer and Short Arc Welding • Can use larger, more economical wire diameters • Reduces or eliminates spatter • Lower heat input; therefore, reduced distortion • Better out-of-position puddle control • Optimum bead shape and penetration • Potential reduction in fume particulate emission
Note: For additional pulsed MIG information, order Miller Electric’s GMAW-P Pulsed Spray Transfer Process Guide (#168 336). A 4-volume video training package (#175 773) is also available.
Peak Amperage (Current)

Pulses Per Second

Amperage

Pulse Width (milliseconds)

• • • •

What is Pulsed MIG Welding? Pulsed MIG Process Variables Pulsed MIG Equipment and Set-Up Pulsed MIG Operator Techniques

Time

Includes Pulsed Spray Transfer Process Guide (#168 336)
Background Amperage (Current)

Pulsed MIG Wave Form

60M Design Features
Can be used with a variety of Miller power sources : For pulsed MIG/conventional MIG welding use the 60M with the Invision™ 456, Phoenix™ 456 CC/CV, or the XMT ® 304 CC/CV inverter power source. For conventional MIG welding only, the 60M can also be used with the Deltaweld® or Dimension™ Series power source.

Programming Features
Eight Synergic Pulsed MIG Programs factory-set for use with the XMT® 304 welding power source: Mild steel wire with Argon/CO2 shielding gas (1) .030 in (0.8 mm) (2) .035 in (0.9 mm) (3) .045 in (1.1 mm) Stainless steel wire with Argon/Helium/CO2 shielding gas (4) .030 in (0.8 mm) (5) .035 in (0.9 mm) (6) .045 in (1.2 mm) Nickel alloy wire with Argon/Helium shielding gas (7) .035 in (0.9 mm) Metal core wire with Argon/CO2 shielding gas (8) .045 in (1.2 mm) Eight Synergic Pulsed MIG Programs factoryset for use with the Invision™ 456 welding power source: Mild steel wire with Argon/CO2 shielding gas (1) .035 in (0.9 mm) (2) .045 in (1.2 mm) (3) .052 in (1.3 mm) (4) .062 in (1.6 mm) Stainless steel wire with Argon/Helium/CO2 shielding gas (5) .035 in (0.9 mm) (6) .045 in (1.2 mm) Metal core wire with Argon/CO2 shielding gas (7) .045 in (1.2 mm) (8) .052 in (1.3 mm) On-Board Programming and Diagnostics: • All factory-set synergic pulse programs can be modified to meet specific welding applications • Feeder can be manually programmed for the voltage and/or amperage range of the power source being used • Automatic shutdown if arc voltage is not detected when gun trigger is depressed • Automatic shutdown if no wire feed speed is present when the gun trigger is pressed • Drops out contactor and gas valve if arc is not sensed after 3 seconds Selectable Operating Features: • Feeder will compensate for variations in tip-to-work distance and provide a constant arc length (in Adaptive Pulse mode) • Arc voltage can be regulated at the power source output studs or at the welding gun • Gun trigger can be used to make program selection • Arc time counter accumulates and displays actual arc time (up to 9,999.99 hours) and weld cycles (up to 999,999 cycles). Counter can be reset to 0 (zero) as required. Ideal for job time studies, shift output, maintenance, etc. Security Capabilities: • Feeder can be programmed to limit the range of parameter control, the number of programs available, and the selectable parameters that are available to the operator • A three-digit code can be programmed to restrict unauthorized access to the set-up screen

3

ITEM 02-04-16

HF-251D-1 High-Frequency Arc Starter and Stabilizer Portable 115 Volt, 250 amp unit , 60% duty cycle unit adds high-frequency to the welding circuit to help start the arc when using the TIG process. (requires Secondary Contactor and RMLS-14 Switch).

ITEM 02-04-17

Item 02-04-22

HF-251 and HF-20
HF-20

Index No. AY/5.0 Issued June 1996

High-Frequency Arc Starters and Stabilizers
Increase the flexibility and performance of most AC, DC or AC/DC constant current welding machines with these portable high-frequency arc starters and stabilizers. The unit impresses high frequency on the welding circuit and provides the arc control needed for TIG welding. With the addition of an HF unit, your constant current power source can handle welds on aluminum, magnesium, thin stainless steel, brass, copper and a wide variety of both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. The HF unit expands the capability of existing equipment and offers the stamina to handle tough industrial usage. An excellent performer in general manufacturing, tool and die, repair shops and for all-purpose maintenance. Four versions meet most single-phase power configurations, and all are rated at 60% duty cycle. Start, off and continuous control Gas solenoid valve High frequency intensity control Built-in postflow eliminates contamination Protected secondary terminal Convenient, portable design 14-pin receptacle on front panel for remote controls

HF-251

HF-20 Features
The HF-20 is for use with welding power sources having 50 to 100 Volts OCV (open-circuit voltage).

Process
Gas Tungsten Arc (TIG) Welding

Description

HF-251 Features
The HF-251 is compatible with power sources made by other manufacturers.

Ordering Information
HF-251D-1 115 V 50/60/100 Hz HF-251-2 230 V 50/60 Hz HF-20-1WG 115 V 50/60 Hz HF-20-2WG 230 V 50/60 Hz #042 388 #042 387 #900 356 #900 359

250 A output at 60% duty cycle For use with power source with 14-socket receptacle (5-socket adapter available) Power on/off switch with pilot light

1000 A output at 60% duty cycle Power on/off switch AC/DC process selector switch High frequency intensity control Start selector switch—in Touch position, gas flow, water flow and high frequency are initiated when the electrode makes contact with the workpiece. In High Frequency position, initiation takes place via a remote switch Adjustable time delay—when the arc is broken, the gas, water and high frequency are shut off after an adjustable time delay. Gas and water valves RHS-11A remote hand switch with 20 ft (6 m) cord Lt. Industrial, Industrial
Dimensions H: 13 in (330 mm) W: 9-1/4 in (235 mm) D: 16 in (406 mm) H: 13 in (330 mm) W: 9-1/4 in (235 mm) D: 16 in (406 mm) H: 13-1/2 in (343 mm) W: 19-3/4 in (502 mm) D: 16-1/2 in (419 mm) H: 13-1/2 in (343 mm) W: 19-3/4 in (502 mm) D: 16-1/2 in (419 mm) Net Weight 34 lb (15 kg) 36 lb (16 kg) 92 lb (42 kg) 98 lb (44 kg)

Specifications
Model HF-251D-1

(Subject to change without notice.) Rated Output at 60% Duty Cycle 250 A

Input Volts 115 VAC, 50/60/100 Hz

HF-251-2

230 VAC, 50/60 Hz

250 A

HF-20-1WG

115 VAC, 50/60 Hz

1000 A

HF-20-2WG

230 VAC, 50/60 Hz

1000 A

HF-251 Control Panel
1

2

4

3 5 1. Pilot Light 2. Power Switch 3. High Frequency Switch 4. High Frequency Selector Switch 5. High Frequency Intensity Control

RFC-14 #129 339 Remote foot current and contactor control. Adapter Cord #129 341 1 ft (305 mm) cord with 5-pin and 14-pin plugs for use between 5-socket receptacle power source and HF-251.and maintained-contact rocker switch. RMLS-14 #129 337 Momentary. Water Coolant Systems Watermate 1A Secondary Contactor Kit For HF-251D-1 model #041 969 Field only For HF-251-2 model #041 906 Field only Mounts inside HF-251 cabinet.8 m) cord for direct connection to new Miller CC power sources. An adapter cord will be required for older Miller equipment with 5-socket receptacles.Options and Accessories Remote Controls and Switches Controls listed below are for use with Miller constant current power sources with solid-state output control. Extension Cords #122 973 25 ft (7. Includes 20 ft (6 m) cord and 14-pin plug.8 m) Cord Supplied with HF-251 (not installed) Work HF-251 Work AC Input Power Cord Remote Gas In Coolant In HF-251 HF-20 Litho in USA . RHC-14 #129 340 Miniature remote hand current and contactor control. Typical Connections 1 ft (305 mm) Adapter Cord (#129 341) Optional Extension Cords (See Options and Accessories for Lengths Available. Includes 20 ft (6 m) cord and 14-pin plug.2 for additional coolant system information.8 m) Cord Supplied with HF-251 (not installed) Remote TIG Torch Electrode Cable Work Cable To 115 Volt Supply (10 ft/3 m) Miller Power Source Remote TIG Torch Electrode Cable Work Cable To 115 Volt Supply (10 ft/3 m) Denotes Plug (Threaded Collar) Denotes Receptacle (External Threads) TIG Torch Electrode Cable Miller Power Source with 5-Socket Receptacle HF-251 Work Work Cable HF-20 Optional Extension Cords (See Options and Accessories for Lengths Available.) Miller Power Source with 14-Socket Receptacle 6 ft (1. For use with a power source that does not have its own contactor. Adapter Cord #041 947 1 ft (305 mm) cord with 14-pin plug and 5-socket receptacle for use between HF-251 and 5-pin remote controls. Refer to Literature Index No.5 m) cord and 14-pin plug prewired. Includes 28 ft (8.) 6 ft (1. AY/7. RCC-14 #151 086 Attachs to the TIG torch handle to provide contactor and current control. The HF-251 is equipped with a 14-pin plug on a 6 ft (1.6 m) #122 974 50 ft (15 m) #122 975 75 ft (23 m) Extends HF-251 farther from power source or extends remote control farther from HF-251. 20 ft (6 m) cord with 14-pin plug. The controls are used when remote current control is desired. Coolmate 3 Coolmate 4 Coolmate™ 3 #043 007 115 VAC Coolmate™ 3 #043 008 230 VAC Watermate™ 1A #042 495 115 VAC Coolmate™ 4 #042 288 115 VAC For use with water-cooled guns.

) Sever Quality Description Rated 1-1/4 in (32 mm)* Rated Cutting Capacity 10 inches per minute (minimum speed at which an operator achieves a smooth. Power source is warranted for three years. No other manufacturer offers a better warranty than Miller. 1-3/4 in (44 mm)* Sever Cut Capacity Maximum cut achieved in ideal conditions. Ordering Information Spectrum® 1250 with 100 Amp Torch Voltage 200/230/460 230/460/575 220/380/415 With 30 ft (9 m) Hand-Held Torch #903 450* #903 451* #903 452 With 50 ft (15 m) Hand-Held Torch #903 450-01-1* #903 451-01-1* #903 452-01-1** With 50 ft (15 m) Machine Torch #903 450-01-2* #903 451-01-2* #903 452-01-2 . Miller’s rugged ICE torches include an epoxy cup that outlives typical ceramic parts and is virtually unbreakable. *Using shielded consumables. steady cut using a hand-held torch).Item 04-02-25 Spectrum 1250 ® Index No. Features Gouging and piercing ICE-100 Torch Postflow cooling circuit Miller’s True Blue® Warranty Benefits The 1250 offers a long powerful gouging arc for those heavy duty metal displacement jobs plus piercing capabilities up to 1 in steel. parts and labor. PC/11. Hand-held and machine-held torch models available. 1-1/2 in (38 mm)* Maximum Quality Cutting Capacity Good-quality cut achieved at lower speeds. Original rectifier parts have a five-year warranty and the ICE torches have a one-year parts and labor warranty.0 Issued April 1999 Heavy Industrial Air Plasma Cutting and Gouging Systems Processes Air Plasma Cutting Air Plasma Gouging Cutting Capability MILD STEEL (Thickness to scale. A postflow circuit cools the consumables and torch with postflow air after you release the trigger. This feature extends life of torch and consumables.

CUTOFF SPEED VS.7) 1. A standard air connection is also provided on the back panel for easy gas or air hookup. Set/Run Switch 6. chain link fence. in/min (m/min) SPECTRUM 1250 Note: The rating is based on 10 IPM because this is the minimum speed at which the operator achieves a smooth.2 mm) off of the workpiece. This permits the operator to drag the torch on the workpiece while cutting at full output. Pilot Light 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cutting Performance To determine the maximum rated cutting thickness. Pilot Arc Control Switch 2. 60 (1. in (mm) Additional Features Drag shield Benefits The ICE torch includes a drag shield that attaches to the cup and holds the tip 1/8 in (3. Provides convenience and comfort by enabling operator to keep clear of extremely hot areas while gouging or cutting for long periods of time. and other perforated metals without retriggering the gun. 50/60 Hz 3-Phase.Specifications Input Power 3-Phase.5) 30 (0. 80% Duty Cycle Control Panel 1. Trouble Lights 4. 230/460/575 V. Allows operator to control cutting arc without triggering. Power Switch 8. Output Control 7.0 CFM (170 L/min) at 70 PSI (442 kPa) Dimensions H: 38 in (965 mm) W: 22-1/2 in (571 mm) D: 20 in (508 mm) Net Weight 410 lb (185 kg) Ship Weight 470 lb (212 kg) Rated Output 100 A at 120 VDC. Spectrum units are easy to use because the control panels are easy to understand.0) 1. OpenCircuit Voltage 270 VDC Amps Input at Rated Output. The point at which this line intersects the cutting curve determines the maximum recommended production cutting thickness of the unit. The expanded metal mode allows operator to cut grates.8) 0 0 1/4 3/4 1-1/4 1-1/2 . 50/60 Hz 3-Phase. Spectrums also include diagnostic lights to help troubleshoot for quick setup. 50/60 Hz (Subject to change without notice. steady cut when using a hand-held torch.25 (6.75 (19.) Max.7) Plate Thickness. 200/230/460 V. Ready Light 5.4) . User-friendly control panel Built-in gas/air filter/regulator Portability Trigger hold switch Pilot arc switch 2 . MATERIAL THICKNESS MATERIAL: MILD STEEL 90 (2. Trigger Hold Switch 3. follow the dashed line from the 10 IPM (inches per minute) point on the cutting chart.3) Cutting Speed. Order the optional running gear for in-shop portability. 50/60 Hz 200 V 220 V 230 V 380 V 415 V 460 V 575 V 85 – – – – 77 74 74 – – – 45 – – 41 37 37 – – 30 – Heavy Industrial KVA/KW 30/16 Plasma Gas Flow/Pressure 7.5 (36.25 (31. which increases operator comfort and makes template cutting easier. 220/380/415 V. The Spectrum Series has its regulator housed inside the power source to protect it from transportation damage.

Pendant Control #042 585 For ICE-70M or ICE-100M torch. one gouging tip. one deflector. one gouging tip. and two swivel casters. Shielded Hand/Machine-Held Cutting O-Ring #169 233 Electrode #169 217 Non-Shielded Cutting O-Ring #169 233 Electrode #169 217 Swirl Ring #169 222 Tip #169 220 (70 A) #169 227 (100 A) Retaining Cup #169 223 Extended Cutting O-Ring #169 233 Electrode #173 816 Swirl Ring #169 222 Tip #173 815 (70 A) #173 814 (100 A) Retaining Cup #169 223 Gouging O-Ring #169 233 Electrode #169 218 (70 A) #169 217 (100 A) Swirl Ring #169 222 Tip #169 221 (70 A) #169 228 (100 A) Retaining Cup #169 223 Swirl Ring #169 222 Tip #169 219 (70 A) #169 226 (100 A) Retaining Cup #169 223 #169 236 For ICE-100 Includes four electrodes. two tips for non-shielded. one retaining cup. optional remote pendant control (#042 585) must be ordered. 3 . five tips for shielded. one deflector. Standoff Guide #132 657 Attaches to torch cup while using non-shielded or extended electrode to create 1/8 in (3 mm) standoff.5 m) *If hand-held torch is being replaced by machine-held. one retaining cup. one gouging shield. two tips for non-shielded. one gouging electrode. one retaining cup. Provides remote start and stop control of the arc and remote amperage control. Motor Guard Air Filter #042 306 This filter is equipped with a mounting bracket that allows installation on the top. one wrench and silicone grease. one swirl ring. The filter is equipped with a 1/4 in NPT port to match the fittings on most plasma systems. two machine shields.Replacement Torches ICE-100M Machine-held Torch* #169 247 50 ft (15.2 m) ICE-100 Hand-held Torch #169 207 30 ft (9 m) #169 246 50 ft (15. #170 559 For ICE-70M #170 560 For ICE-100M Kits include five electrodes (70 and 100 amp). Replacement Filter Element #042 312 Carton of four filters for use with motor guard air filter #042 306. or rear panel of most plasma cutters. one Oring. Shield Drag #169 224 Machine Shield #169 230 Deflector #169 225 Deflector #169 225 Deflector (100 A) #169 225 Gouge Shield (70 A) #170 995 Options and Accessories Silicone Grease #169 231 Cable Covers #118 677 15 ft (4. Adjusts to over 18 in (457 mm) diameter. one O-ring. it has a rated airflow of over 45 SCFM. Running Gear #042 989 Includes two rubber tires. one wrench and silicone grease. four tips for shielded. four tips for shielded. one drag shield. Torch Consumables Torch Consumable Kits #169 235 For ICE-70 Includes four electrodes.5 m) torch #118 678 30 ft (9 m) torch Protect hose and cables. one drag shield. side.2 m) ICE-70/100 Machine-held Torch* #174 572 75 ft (22. two swirl rings (70 and 100 amp). one wrench and silicone grease. Circle Cutting Guide #173 404 Attaches to torch to cut even circles. Feature nonconductive zipper and are easily removed if necessary. one O-ring. Extractor Dryer #171 517 Two-stage filter/dryer drains excess water out of air supply to extend consumable and torch life. one swirl ring.

® 14-pin receptacle provides quick. Enclosed circuit boards provide additional protection from contaminants resulting in longer service life. Original main power rectified parts are warranted for 5 years.2 m). Dimension 452/562 Thermal overload protection light indicates power shutdown.Item 02-04-28 Dimension Series ™ Issued April 2003 • Index No. . Fan-On-Demand™ operates only when needed reducing noise. An electrode compensation circuit ensures consistent arc control performance regardless of the electrode size. Remote voltage control allows operator to change voltage from feeder. 100% Duty Cycle 302: 361 lb (164 kg) 452/562: 424 lb (192 kg) 652/812: 545 lb (247 kg) 1000/1250: 644 lb (292 kg) Heavy Industrial Applications Processes MIG (GMAW) Stick (SMAW) TIG (GTAW) Flux Cored (FCAW) Air Carbon Arc (CAC-A) Cutting and Gouging Submerged Arc (SAW) Quick Specs Fabrication and Construction Heavy Manufacturing MRO — Maintenance/Repair Pressure Tank/Vessel Fabrication Pipe Welding Shipbuilding Refineries and Foundries Railcar Manufacturing Earth-Moving Equipment Manufacturing Weight The Power of Blue . Line voltage compensation ensures consistent weld performance by keeping output power constant even if primary input power varies by ±10%. power consumption. efficient operation. 100% Duty Cycle 452/562: 450 A at 38 VDC. parts and labor. Remote on/off capabilities allow operator to turn power source on/off from a distance.2 Multiprocess Welding Power Source Input Power Rated Output 3-Phase Power on all models 302: 300 A at 32 VDC. Internal digital voltage control (DVC) enables operator to preset weld voltage in the CV mode before striking an arc. 115 V duplex receptacle provides 15 amps of auxiliary power. TIG). and the amount of airborne contaminants pulled through the machine. Simple control panel features single range amperage/voltage adjustment. Provides easy. Helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. 100% Duty Cycle 1250: 900 A at 44 VDC. Power efficient for exceptional value and return on your investment. Digital voltmeter and ammeter are easy to read. DC multiprocess capability provides versatility and outstanding arc performance in CV (MIG) and CC (Stick. DC/19. 100% Duty Cycle 652/812: 650 A at 44 VDC. PC board protection prevents the wire feeder power or other stray voltages (less than 115 VAC) from harming the power source PC board. 100% Duty Cycle 1000: 1000 A at 44 VDC. direct connection to Miller 14-pin wire feeders and accessories. Built-in arc control lets you get in tight without sticking the electrode. Hot Start™ makes it easier to start difficult-to-start Stick electrodes such as E-6010 and E-7018. Power cord strain relief provided for your convenience at installation. Power source is warranted for 3 years. even at 30 ft (9.

Power Switch with Indicator Light Performance Data DUTY CYCLE CHART 1000 800 RATED OUTPUT 80 70 MAX.Dimension 652/812 Specifications ™ (Subject to change without notice. Process Selector Switch 5. Amperage/Voltage Adjustment Control 7.S. DC VOLTS 50 50 40 30 20 SMAW ARC FORCE SMAW ARC FORCE 400 MIN.8 Dimensions H: 30 in (762 mm) including lift eye W: 23 in (585 mm) D: 38 in (966 mm) including strain relief Net Weight 545 lb (247 kg) *Open-circuit voltages in CV mode are factory set at values less than indicated for CC.4 50 34. High Temperature Shutdown Light 8. ® NRTL/C Dimension 652 and 812 (without CE) certified by Canadian Standards Association to both Canadian and U. 50/60 Hz models with CE Specifications are manufactured according to the Standards IEC-974-1 and EN-60974-1. 10 0 MIN. VOLT/AMP CURVE CV 80 GMAW FCAW VOLT/AMP CURVE CC 70 60 SMAW 60 WELDING AMPS DC VOLTS 600 40 30 20 10 MED. Standards. Remote Amperage/Voltage Control Switch 3. Arc Force (DIG) Control 2. Control Panel 4 1 5 6 7 8 2 3 1. MAX. Output Switch (Contactor) 4. OpenCircuit Voltage* 72 VDC Amps Input at Rated Output. MAX. Digital Meters 6. 100% Duty Cycle Amperage/Voltage Range 50–815 A in CC mode 10–65 V in CV mode Max. MIN.) Rated Output 650 A at 44 VDC. 50/60 Hz 230 V 380 V 400 V 440 V 460 V 520 V 575 V KVA KW 126 77 73 66 63 54 50. 300 40 0 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 % DUTY CYCLE DC AMPS DC AMPS 4 .

Control Panel 4 SMAW DIG V VOLTS CV SUB-ARC A AMPS 1 GTAW 600 500 700 800 900 CC 400 0 100 FCAW (For SUB-ARCwire 1/16" dia. Arc Force (DIG) Control 2.9** 4.9** 2.5** — — — 66. 100% Duty Cycle Amperage/ Voltage Range 100 – 1250 A in CC mode 10 – 60 A in CV mode Max. Remote Amperage/Voltage Control Switch 3.2** 0. Standards. Process Selector Switch 5. MIN MAX DIG MAX DIG 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 % DUTY CYCLE AMPS AMPS 5 . OpenCircuit Voltage* 66 VDC Amps Input at Rated Output.S.) Model 1000 A 1250 A Rated Output 1000 A at 44 VDC. **While idling.0** 4.4** 0. Digital Meters 6.2** 5. 50/60 Hz models with CE Specifications are manufactured according to the Standards IEC-974-1 and EN-60974-1. 50/60 Hz 230 V 380 V 400 V 440 V 460 V 575 V KVA KW 180 111 105 96 90 72 73 53 5. Output Switch (Contactor) 4. Power Switch with Indicator Light Performance Data DUTY CYCLE CHART 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 80 DIMENSION 1000 VOLT/AMP CURVE CV Dimension 1000-CV 190 973 70 MAX.Dimension 1000/1250 Specifications ™ (Subject to change without notice.2** 2.8** 4.5** — 101 96 87 — 5.7** 4.4** 3. High Temperature Shutdown Light 8. Amperage/Voltage Adjustment Control 7.56** Dimensions H: 30 in (762 mm) including lift eye W: 23 in (585 mm) D: 38 in (966 mm) including strain relief Net Weight 644 lb (292 kg) *Open-circuit voltages in CV mode are factory set at values less than indicated for CC. 60 60 VOLT/AMP CURVE CC 70 MAX 50 WELDING AMPS DIMENSION 1250 50 VOLTS VOLTS 40 30 20 10 0 700 600 40 30 20 10 MIN. 100% Duty Cycle 900 A at 44 VDC. ® NRTL/C Dimension 1000 and 1250 (without CE) certified by Canadian Standards Association to both Canadian and U.3 48. or smaller) CV 1000 300 1100 200 ARC FORCE PROCESS PANEL 100 MIN 2 3 5 6 HIGH TEMP SHUTDOWN ON V A 1200 MAX 7 ON REMOTE REMOTE 8 A/V ADJUST POWER OFF OUTPUT CONTROL 1.4 3.

3/8” steel top is reinforced to prevent warping.STL SMALL ARC WELDING TABLES All welded construction of heavy 11 gauge steel with a one piece replaceable steel grate top.A. Overall height: 34” All models include a slag tray. Safety Blue & Steel Gray. Safety Blue & Steel Gray. Add removable side shields for multiple table installation.TC (Ex: GT-673. Available in Safety Green. Hose Guard Table Size (W X D) 36” X 24” 48” X 24” Part Number GT-673 GT-673.SSHG *For optional torch clips add the suffix . Torch clips available* Available in Safety Green. Work surface height: 34” Grouted firebrick work surface includes grounding rails. All models include floor anchor pads. Available in Safety Green.SS GT-674. Tables can be bolted together at the sides to form a row.TC) 6 .A Shield Size (D X H) 25” X 24” 25” X 24” Description Side shield Side shield with hose guard Part Number GT-673.STL GT-4. Item 02-04-32 Table Size (W X D) 30” X 24” 36” X 24” 48” X 24” Steel Grate Top Part Number GT-774 GT-776 GT-778 WALL MOUNTED ARC & GAS TABLES Constructed of heavy 7 & 11 gauge steel with a one piece replaceable steel grate top. Safety Blue & Steel Gray.ARC & GAS WELDING TABLES Continuous welded construction of heavy 11 gauge steel. floor anchor pads & 11 gauge support rails. Table Size (W X D) 30” X 25” 50” X 25” Grouted Firebrick Part Number GT-2 GT-4 3/8” Steel Top Part Number GT-2. Tables come standard with an arc spatter shield.

STL (Ex: GB-73.S GB-7256.S GB-74.* A #10 shade observation window on front panel allows safe viewing from outside the booth.02.STL) DEMONSTRATION BOOTHS Constructed of heavy gauge tubular steel with nonconductive.S GB-7266. Safety Blue & Steel Gray. fire resistant panels.A Type Starter Add-On Starter Add-On Starter Add-On Starter Add-On Starter Add-On *For steel reinforced panels add the suffix .Item 02-04-33 WINDOW FRONT BOOTHS Constructed of heavy gauge tubular steel with nonconducting. Available in Safety Green.A GB-7256. Safety Blue & Steel Gray.* Booths come in either starter or add-on units. Overall height: 76” Booths measure 60”W x 60”D with a 26”W door opening.STL (Ex: GB-74.S GB-74. One starter unit per row.02.S GB-73.S. One starter unit per row.02. Safety Blue & Steel Gray.S GB-725.A GB-7266.C . fire resistant panels.02 Free Standing GB-1075 Portable GB-1075.02. Booths come in either starter or add-on units.A GB-725. Booth Size (W X D) 48” X 48” Door Size (W) 43” Type Starter Add-On Free Standing Part Number GB-73.A GB-724.S GB-7266.04. Available in Safety Green. asbestos-free. Available in Safety Green. Booth Size (W X D) 48” X 48” 48” X 60” 60” X 60” 60” X 72” 72” X 72” Door Size (W) 32” 32” 26” 26” 39” Window Size (W X H) 12” X 24” 12” X 24” 30” X 24” 30” X 24” 30” X 24” Wall Mounted Part Number GB-74.02.S GB-724.S GB-724.04.A GB-724.S GB-7256. fire resistant panels.STL) OPEN FRONT BOOTHS Constructed of heavy gauge tubular steel with nonconductive.02.A GB-725.A GB-7256. 4 Wall Mounted GB-1075. Portable units include 3” swivel locking casters.02. Overall height: 76” Available with steel reinforcement sheets inserted between the fire resistant panels.S GB-725. Overall Height: 76” Available with steel reinforcement sheets inserted between the fire resistant panels.A GB-7266. Observation windows on front & side allow safe viewing from outside the booth.S.A Starter Add-On *For steel reinforced panels add the suffix .02. asbestos-free. asbestos-free.A Free Standing Part Number GB-74.

& 18 gauge steel construction Aluminumized steel interior chamber Baked enamel.ITEM 02-04-46 Type 400BT Electrode Oven • • • • • • • • • • Digital electronic indicating temperature controls High temperature limit device (see specifications for models) High capacity centrifugal. recirculating blower with balanced airflow / heat inputs provide even heat throughout chamber (blowers are OSHA safe) Fresh air intake with adjustable exhaust Vertical airflow Spring loaded door latches. 16. chemical-resistant exterior coating Shipped Completely Assembled Following Thorough Factory Testing Including: • • • Air circulation adjustment Temperature control adjustment Operation at maximum temperature . explosion-venting type Resilient door gaskets prevent heat loss Structurally reinforced 14.

5 H cm) .Three Phase Only Wiring Manual Controls Recirculating System Centrifugal Blower Motor Exterior Dimensions Net Weight Shipping Weight Dimensions Type 400BT (2-NM) 18" (45. (54.P. thermafiber 3/60/240 or 3/60/480 Volt AC (convertible) Wired for 480V (factory) .Specifications Electrode Capacity Temperature Range Chamber Size / Volume Shelves Exterior (Welded) Aluminumized Steel Chamber Heating Elements Insulation Voltage . 150 CFM (4.6cm dia x 50.sheathed elements 5" (12."5 W x 43.400lbs (181 Kg) 100° to 800°F (38° to 427°C) 21.5" D x 43" H (90.convertible to 240V in field Digital Electronic Indicating Controller with High Temp Limit Device Calculated. 31.0 KW .7 cm) avg.8cm deep / .. ft.2 W x 124.7cm) max.5 D x 109.1 W x 110. .2 H cm) 430 lbs (195 Kg) 580 lbs (263 Kg) 43"W x 49"D x 51"H (109.5 D x 129.2 m3 / M) 1/2 H.104m3 7 metal compartments #16 gauge #18 Gauge 6.7 cu.5" dia x 20" deep / 3.

D to any table (Ex: GOA-4. Work surface height: 34” One piece. cutting tips. #2. Work surface height: 34” Gas distribution tower meets safety regulations & includes two each: 1/2” ball valves and one way check valves on inlet. & #4 welding tips. goggles.ARC WELDING CENTER All welded construction of heavy 11 gauge steel with a 26” X 30” fire resistant non-asbestos fiber back shield. Optional welding package includes four each: oxygen and acetylene regulators. A removable/adjustable curtain hanger holds 2 fire resistant. Includes floor anchor pads & slag pan. Part Number GT-9 FOUR STATION WELDING TABLE Item 02-04-51 All welded construction of heavy 7 gauge steel. replaceable steel grate top measures 29”W X 24”D. All models have a grouted firebrick work surface. strikers. #0. Safety Blue & Steel Gray. smoke gray curtains.WPD) 8 .WP GOA-5. cutting attachment.VR N/A *For drawers add the suffix . four torch holders & floor anchor pads. welding torches.WP Table with Regulators GOA-4. transparent. Safety Blue & Steel Gray. hoses. Available in Safety Green. Optional drawers measure 3”H X 12”W X 16”D* Available in Safety Green. Drawer measures 4”H X 12”W X 18”D. Table Size (W X D) 50” X 50” 60” X 60” Standard Table Part Number GOA-4 GOA-5 OPTIONS & ACCESSORIES Table Size (W X D) 50” X 50” 60” X 60” Table with Welding Package GOA-4. Overall size: 30”W X 25”D X 64”H.

an easily accessible seat assembly. • RV Series regulators incorporate a durable stainless steel diaphragm.5 Heating Tip Oxygen* Regulator 5-125 PSIG Acetylene* Regulator 2-15 PSIG Twin Hose 25' .1/4" "B" Lighter Goggles . As Supplied: ½". • Our CA780 Cutting Attachment with its unique one piece copper mixer sets the industry standard for all fuel gases 3 PSIG and above with the proper tip. As Supplied: 0/80 CFH acet. With Optional Tips: 8" Capacity: Welding range. heating and welding. • The WH360 Welding Handle has O-ring sealed tube within a tube construction for long life and easy maintenance.000 BTU/HR. Capacity: Cutting range. 324. With Optional Tips: 3" Capacity: Heating range. As Supplied: 3/4". brazing. *Dual scale gauges and other regulator connections available upon request. 118. and easy to read single scale brass cased 2-½" gauges. Torch Handle Instructions Included Cutting Attachments Cutting Tip Weld/Braze Type 4 Sizes 1..000 BTU/HR With Optional Tips: 90/220 CFH acet.3.Roughneck V Style ITEM 02-04-52 • The Roughneck is a complete heavy duty outfit with all the necessary components for industrial and commercial applications including cutting.