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Simulink Simulation of a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Differential Phase Shift Keying SAWCorrelator

s. M. Nabritt,

M. Qahwash, M.A. Belkerdid

Electrical and Compo Engr. Dept, University of Central Florida, Orlando FL 32816 smn 12713 @pegasus.cc.ucf.edu

ABSTRACT This paper presents the simulation results of a differential phase shift keying (DPSK) The DPSK

single SAW based correlator for direct sequence spread spectrum applications.

modulation format allows for noncoherent data demodulation while the SAW device correlator acts as the despreader. The simulator will be using two parallel correlators and a one data bit When implemented on

delay element, while the saw based system uses two in-line correlators.

SAW devices, this in-line structure has the advantage of an inherent one data bit delay, lower insertion loss, and less signal distortion than the parallel structure. The DPSK correlator was fabricated first on LiTa03 substrate, and on a (100) cut GaAs substrate with SAW propagation in the <110> direction. The device autocorrelation function was measured from the LiTa03,

and the peak to sidelobe ratio was somewhat lower than expected, and the system performance was not measured. The GaAs system offered good results in terms of despreading This simulation generates autocorrelation

(autocorrelation) and in terms of data demodulation. predictions as well as data demodulation.

This paper presents computer simulation predictions

and compares them to experimental results from the devices built on the GaAs substrate. The computer simulation predictions were in good agreement with experimental results.

INTRODUCTION

Direct sequence spread spectrum DSSS) has become the modulation method of choice for wireless local area networks (WLAN's), and personal communication systems (PCS), because of its numerous advantages, such as jammer suppression, code division multiple access (COMA), and ease of implementation. Spread spectrum systems are most favorable for indoor

communication needs [1] and digital radio links [2], where most of the applications are found.

This work was funded in part by a grant from the Florida Department of Transportation , Contract NO BB-534

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This paper presents the simulation of a DSSS DPSK data modulator and despreader. the SAW correlator used two in-line correlators. The output of the mixer gives the difference of the incoming data bit and the delayed data bit [2].. DPSK TRANSMITTER SIMULATION When differentially encoding an incoming message.The DPSK modulation format allows noncoherent data demodulation device correlator acts as the despreader.A t> 0r D'" Q 13 l1liHz nr Figure 1. each input data bit must be delayed until the next one arrives. The 63-bit pseudonoise sequences (PN) used in this papers are generated by a 6th order maximal length sequence shown in equation one. "_. while the SAW The simulink simulation w. The delayed data bit is then mixed with the next incoming data bit. The results from the simulations are then compared to the experimental data obtained from the SAW DSSS DPSK data modulator and despreader fabricated on GaAs substrate.. This spreading process assigns each data bit its own unique code. using the Where as conventional technique of two parallel correlators with a one data bit delay element.. The differentially encoded data is then spread by a high-speed pseudonoise sequence (PN).as modeled. (1) The implementation of the 6th order polynomial using d flip-flops is shown in Figure 1. Implementation of 6th Order Polynomial 256 . /'__. allowing only a receiver with the same spreading sequence to despread the encoded data [3]. ([_ '-- o lET Q f--- o lOT Q I-- o 'ET Q f-- o ser Q I-- o •er Q '--- o lET Q t-- t> CLO tQ "A > Q CLA t> Q C'A t> Q rD..

A baseband DPSK transmitter is depicted in Figure 2. Figure 3 consists of a hierarchical system where blocks represent subsystems and oscilloscopes are placed along the path for display purposes.. DPSK Output -1 Input Data One Bit Delay Generator PN Figure 2. The designed model for the transmitter is shown in Figure 3. and c(t) is the 63 chip PN spreading code [4]. 257 . The next step was to simulate the DPSK DSSS transmitter using Simulink. 1---- .. DPSK Encoder Model The transmitted signal is then given by x(t) = met) e(t) (2) Where m (t) is the differentially encoded data. which causes the spread sequence to have a much lower power spectral density [2].'The maximal length spreading sequence uses a much wider bandwidth than the encoded data bit stream.

differential_out Rb Pseudorandom . Simulink Model of DPSK DSSS Transmitter The message data.F Pseudorandom sequence generator PN sequence Spread_message PN_Generator Figure 3. and the differentially spread waveforms are displayed in Figure 4. Output Waveforms of Simulink DPSK DSSS Transmitter 258 . its differentially encoded version. " Figure 4.Fsequence generator Message sequence1 t------1I1i.

periodic with T b so function of the 63 chip Since there are exactly 63 chips per data bit the PN sequence is R(t) (5) The two outputs of the matched filters are then mixed and then low pass filtered and the original message is recovered. A detailed Simulink system is shown in Figure 6. This design was then modeled using Simulink. A block diagram for this receiver is shown in Figure 5. The outputs of the two matched filters are denoted by Xl (t) and X2 (t) and are given by xlt) = d(t-to) Rlt) (3) (4) where T b is the data bit period. 259 . and Re(t) is the autocorrelation pseudorandom sequence.DPSK RECEIVER SIMULATION To demodulate the message the incoming signal is split into two parallel paths [2]. The two paths are then fed into two identical matched filters with the input to one having a delay of 63 chips.

DPSK Input One Bit Delay 63 Chip Matched Filter xr 63 Chip Matched Fi Iter LPF Demodulated Data Figure 5. 260 . encoded spread data.. and the autocorrelation of the second 63-chip FIR filter [6].. encoded data. differentially encoded data. the autocorrelation of the first 63-chip FIR filter.. Simulink Model of DPSK DSSS Receiver The simulation results of the DPSK receiver are depicted in Figure 7 and 8. Figure 8 displays the data. Figure 7 displays the data.. and the demodulated data.Inl 0ut1 MATCH64 MatCh2_outPut Figure 6. Block Diagram of DPSK DSSS Receiver Trammittad_Data Outll---r--~ MatCh1_output OPSK_DSSS Transnittar Demodulated_Data L....

Output Waveforms for Simulink DPSK DSSS Receiver 261 .Figure 7.

I ~ I I ~ I I L • I ~ __ • I· I _ t Figure 8. Each matched filter is 63 chips long which generates a one data bit ·262 . The reduction in the number of SAW devices dramatically reduces the insertion loss while also reducing packaging requirements and packaging parasitics. Haartsen [5] proposed a SAW device design which combines all the necessary functions into one SAW device in order to overcome problems such as high insertion loss. limited bandwidth. (one SAW device for the match filters for each of the parallel paths and one SAW device to generate the one bit delay for one of the parallel branches). The layout of this new structure involving the use of two in-line-coded transducers driven by a wideband input transducer totally eliminates the need for a delay line [6]. Output Waveforms for Simulink DPSK DSSS Receiver SAW IMPLEMENTATION The implementation of the SAW DPSK DSSS can be implemented using the conventional method shown in Figure 10.------ . ~_~ ~ I I . .I • I I I I • I I r-------.--------r-------. and temperature effects which are encountered when using three separate SAW devices.

Figure 9 depicts the structure of the in-line sAw based DSSS DPSK receiver.28 mm.8 2. The SAW in-line correlators were built on {100} GaAs with the SAW propagating in the <110> direction [7]. By structuring all functions of the DSSS DPSK receiver in one device the temperature effec!s will also be reduced [6]. Demodulated Data DPSK Input _-+I Input IDT 1--_-+1 PSK Output IDT #1 1--_+1 PSK Output IDT #2 Figure 9. Conventional SAW Implementation on DPSK DSSS Receiver cb I 263 . A chip length of 8 wavelengths was used and the chip pattern was repeated 63 times. Each structure was laid out adjacent to the next one without any extra spacing. The 63 chip m-sequence PN code was applied to each chip by changing the center of transduction to the appropriate weight. Experimental SAW device in-line correlator design parameters. Wavelength (urn) Center frequency (MHz) Electrode width (urn) Beam aperture (wavelengths) Metal Metal thickness (~) 20 142.time delay between the output of the two in-line coded matched filters. The total SAW device length was 25. either "+ 1 or "-1". thus II providing the positive and negative polarity required for a binary PN code. Figure 10 shows the principal layout of the SAW in-line correlator structure and Table 1 contains the design specifications. Gratings which were used at both ends of the SAW devices in order to reduce electromagnetic feed-through were 64 wavelengths long and the input transducers were 8 wavelengths long [8].5 90 CrlAu 201600 Table l .

.· . An elaborate RF test bed was set up and the outputs of both SAW filters were measured.. .._. 1:-. I J .. The autocorrelation of the two 63 chip SAW filters are depicted in Figure 11. In-Line SAW Implementation of DPSK DSSS Receiver EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS An RF The DPSK signal was generated and fed to the GaAs saw correlator...1. ..~ IDTI [i] PSKI PSK2 63 Chips I 63 Chips II I Gratings Gratings Figure 10. 40 . I 1 Output of conolalionll2 . I > II ~ ~ Q. ~ . ~. I L 2 3 4 5 Tune .. Outputs of 63-Chip SAW Filters 264 . - -c 40 > "U !) s a:r E 20 0 ~ < -20 -40 . . 0uIput0l correJafiDn #1 . ' " .~1.:.!v.. EE 20 0 -20 -40 '. These outputs display the autocorrelation of the modulated. set:} 6 7 B 9 10 Figure 11. differential encode and spread waveforms.

Chill a. Proc. pp. F. Sept. 1995.E. 123-130.M. Tsubouchi. Richie. Namba. 5. Berlin. R. H. 750. Vol. Masu. in terms of au. Webster and P.CONCLUSION This paper presented the simulation results of a SAW based Correlator/demodulator of a direct sequence spread spectrum differential Phase shift keying system. Enderlein. "Rayleigh waves on GaAs. Ch. UFFC. Kavehrad. Carr." Springer Verlag.-I. A. wireless communications.A.C.tocorrelation functions of the matched filter agreed well with experimental results obtained "With a SAW correlator receiver built ona GaAs substrate. pp.M. 40. G. Belkerdid. "Full Duplex Transmission Operation of a 2. Haartsen. pp.. 1993. S. SAC. pp. p. Froehlich. 328-353. Vol." IEEE Trans. E. M. 189-193. IEEE." IEEE 1.C.9." Sensors and Actuators B.T. pp.L. K. Vol. "Introduction to spread-spectrum antimultipath techniques and their application to urban digital radio. 213-222. I. R.L.E. pp. 478-482." IEEE Trans. "Design and experimental results for a direct-sequence for spread-spectrum radio using DPSK modulation in indoor. A.5. pp." IEEE Ultras on. The simulation results. Rabah. Makarov.E. G. I. Vol. 1980. 569ft. Turin. 3. S. Nakase. 1985.chip FIR filters wee used as matched filters in both arms of the DPSK receiver. 68. Ziemer. Malocha. Bodeep. on Commun. Moeller. Sept. "Digital Communications and Spread Spectrum Systems." Proc. D. 815-823. 1993. No. 1994. Peterson. 65-68. Symp. REFERENCES [1] K. Rayleigh wave theory and application. 1985." Macmillan Publishing Company. H. New York. 41. "Differential Phase Shift Keying Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Single SAW Based Correlator Receiver. Two 63 . [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] I I I 1 I 265 . 1987.45 GHz Asynchronous Spread Spectrum Modem Using a SAW Convolver.. No. R. "A Differential-Delay SAW Correlator for Combined DSSS Despreading and DPSK Demodulation. "Mass sensitivity of temperature stabilized surface acoustic wave delay lines on GaAs. 24-25. 1278-1280.