The Entire 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination and Key

~ ~

Advanced Placement Program® THE COLLEGE BOARD

The Entire 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination and Key

~ ~

Advanced Placement Proqram" THE COLLEGE BOARD

The Entire 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination and Key

~ ~

Advanced Placement Program" THE COLLEGE BOARD

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Advanced Placement Calculus AB Examination

1988

CONTENTS
Introduc tion The 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination Section I: Multiple-Choice Section II: Free-Response Answer Key and Distribution Sheet Section 11 of Responses, Section I 5 7 33 47 49 50 57 58 59 Section 11 60 61

Sample Answer Solutions

and Scoring Guides, in Calculus

How the AP Grades Reliability

AB Are Determined

of Classification

Scoring Worksheet Distribution of Scores,

Multiple-Choice

Scores and AP Grades

INTRODUCTION

All Advanced Placement Examinations, except portfolio evaluations in Studio Art, have both multiple-choice and free-response sections. The complete 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination is reproduced in this booklet. (Copies of the examination are also available in sets of 10 for classroom use, $20 per set; see ordering information on page 6.) The number of questions and the time allowed for the administration of each section of the examination are: Multiple-choice, Section I: 45 questions 1 hour and 30 minutes 6 problems 1 hour and 30 minutes

Free-response,

Section

II:

The free-respons~ and multiple-choice sections are designed to complement each other and, as a complete examination, to meet the overall course objectives and examination specifications given in the AP Course Description: Mathematics (Calculus AB, Calculus BC). The multiple-choice questions (Section I) cover a wide range of content within the examination specifications and vary in difficulty and complexity. Thus, the breadth of a student's knowledge and skills can be measured by the complete array of multiple-choice questions, with no question bearing undue weight in the total Section I score. The free-response questions (Section II) are designed to measure a student's ability to recall and apply calculus and other mathematical principles in a more extensive way at greater depth. The mUltiplechoice and the free-response questions are analyzed individually and collectively after each administration, and the conclusions are used in the setting of the grades as well as in improving future examinations. In addition to a copy of the 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination, this booklet contains data concerning the performance of AP candidates on the examination, solutions and grading standards for the free-response questions, and specific information about the scoring of both sections of the examination. The 1988 examination is comparable in content and difficulty to other Calculus AB examinations in recent years. Because it is not possible to predict accurately the performance on each question, there is some variation in the difficulty of the examinations from year to year. However, this variation is considered in determining the reported grades in order to avoid penalizing candidates who may have taken the examination in a year in which a more difficult version was given. It should be,noted that although Calculus AB and Calculus BC are different courses, they cover some of the same topics. However, since 1986 the two examinations have not contained any questions common to both examinations. The entire 1988 AP Calculus BC Examination with a key and data is availabla in a separate booklet.

5

,

.,

Additional multiple-choice questions from previous AP Examinations are in AP Course Descripcion: Machemacics ($5). The free-response portion (Section ~ of the examination is available annually, and a complete set of the free-respon, questions for the past five years also may be ordered ($2). To order any of tht above materials (prepaid), write to AP Program, P.O. Box 6670, Princeton, NJ 08541-6670.

~;~~;:
'~~' .

.

'.'

.

~.' ..-

~
."

l
~.

6

1988
MATHEMATICS: CALCULATORS AND REFERENCE MATERIALS ROOM DURING THE TESTING PERIOD. CALCULUS AB IN THE EXAMINATION MAY NOT BE USED

Three hours are allotted for this examination: I hour and 30 minutes for Section I, which consists of multiple-choice questions; and I hour and 30 minutes for Section II, which consists of longer problems. In determining your grade, the two sections are given equal weight. Section I is printed in this examination booklet; Section II, in a separate booklet. SECTION Time-I I

hour and 30 minutes

Number of questions-45 Percent of total grade-50

This examination contains 45 multiple-choice questions. Therefore, please be careful to fill in only the ovals that are preceded by numbers 1 through 45 on your answer sheet.
General Instructions DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL YOU ARE INSTRUCTED TO DO SO.

INDICATE ALL YOUR ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN SECTION I ON THE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET ENCLOSED. No credit will be given for anything written in this examination booklet, but you may use the booklet for notes or scratchwork. After you have decided which of the suggested answers is best, COMPLETELY fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Give only one answer to each question. If you change an answer, be sure that the previous mark is erased completely. Example: What is the arithmetic mean of the numbers I, 3, and 6? (A) I (D) 10 (B) ~ (E) (C) 3 Sample Answer

®®®.CD

3

1
2

Many candidates wonder whether or not to guess the answers to questions about which they are not certain. In this section of the examination, as a correction for haphazard guessing, one-fourth of the number of questions you answer incorrectly will be subtracted from the number of questions you answer correctly. It is improbable, therefore, that mere guessing will improve your score significantly; it may even lower your score, and it does take time. If, however, you are not sure of the best answer but have some knowledge of the question and are able to eliminate one or more of the answer choices as wrong, your chance of answering correctly is improved, and it may be to your advantage to answer such a question. Use your time effectively, working as rapidly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on questions that are too difficult. Go-on to other-questions and come back to the difficult ones later if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will be able to answer all the multiple-choice questions.

Copyright © 1988 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.

7

CALCULUS AB SECTION I Time-l hour and 30 minutes Number of questions-45 Percent of total grade-50 Directions: Solve each of the following problems, using the available space for scratchwork. Then decide which is the best ofthe choices given and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. No credit will be given for anything written in this examination booklet. Do not spend too much time on anyone problem. Notes: (1) In this examination, In x denotes the natural logarithm of x (that is, logarithm to the base e). (2) Unless otherwise specified, the domain of a function f is assumed to be the set of all real numbers x for which f(x) is a real number.

t:- ..
~: _~.

:

(A) 2xex

(B) x(x+2eX) (E) 2x +e

(D) 2x +ex

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
8

2. What is the domain of the function f given by f (x) =
(A) {x:
x

Jxx - -34
2

? (C) {x: [x] ~ 2}

=I 3}

(B) {x:

Ixl;£
x~

2}

(D) {x:

[x] ~ 2 and x =I 3}

(E) {x:

2 and x =I 3}

3. A particle with velocity at any time t given by vet) = e' moves in a straight line. How far does the particle move from t= 0 to t = 2 ?
(A) e2
-

I

(B) e - I

(C) 2e

(E) ~ 3

3

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
9

4. The graph of y = x _ 2 is concave downward for all values of x such that
(A) x < 0 (B) x < 2 (C) x < 5 (D) x > 0 (E) x >

-5

(A) tan x (D) se~ x
3

+

C

(B) csc/x

+

C

+C

(E) 2 sec-x tan x + C

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
10

6. If y =

ln x x'

then dx

dy

=

(C) In x - I

x2

(D) }"- In x

x2

(E) I

+

x2

In x

7.
3 3 1

(A) ~ (3x2 (D) ~ (3x2

+ +

5)2
1

+ +

C C

(B) ~ (3x2 (E) ~ (3x2

+ +

5)2
1

+ +

C C

(C) 112 (3x2

+

5)2

+

C

5)2

5)2

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
11

y

'0{~
~-

:~

8. The graph of y
2

=

f (x) is shown in the figure above. On which of the following intervals are

1.
X

>0

and d y < O?
dx2

II. III.

I. a<x<b b<x <c c<x<d

(A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and II

(E) II and III

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
12

2 • dy . 9. If x + 2xy - y = 2, then at the pomt (1, 1), dx IS

(A) ~

(C) 0

(D)

-"23

(E) nonexistent

10. If

1
o

(2kx - x2)dx = 18, then k =
(B) - 3 (C) 3

(A) -9

(D) 9

(E) 18

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
13

"

,

.

11. An equation of the line tangent to the graph of / (x) = x (1 - 2x)3 at the point (1, - 1) is
(A) y = -7x

+

6

(B) y = -6x

+

5

(C) y

(D) y = 2x - 3

(E) y

=

=

-2x

-

7x - 8

\;:_(:;
1: .. ,

. ,
t

12. If/(x)

= sin x, thenf'(j)=
1 (C)

(A) - 2

1

(D) ~

2

(E)

vG

,

,

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
14

13. If the function

I

has a continuous derivative on [0, c], then
(B) I/(c) - 1(0)1 (C) I(c)

c II' (x) o

dx =

(A) I(c) - 1(0)

(D) I(x)

+c

(E)

I" (c)

- 1"(0)

14.

12
It

o JI

cos 0 dO + sin 0 - I)

=

(A) -2(ft

(B) -2~

(C) 2ft

(D) 2(ft - I)

(E) 2(ft

+

I)

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 15

15. If I(x)

=.jh,

then 1'(2) =

(C)

4

(D) 1

(E) v

T;X~Z
1

,.

{.

~

~: ~-.-.-

..

..

"

t"

16. A particle moves along the x-axis so that at any time t ~ 0 its position is given by
x(t)
= t3
-

3t2

-

9t

+

1. For what values of t is the particle at rest? (B) I only (C) 3 only (D) 5 only (E) 1 and 3

(A) No values

-

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
16

17.
(A)

Jo

I

(3x -

2)2 dx

=
(B)

7 -"3

-"97

(D) 1

(E) 3

18. If y = 2 cos

"2 (x) ' then

d2y dx2

=

(A) - 8 cos (

1 )

(B) - 2 cos (

1 )

(C) -sin

(1)

(D)

-COS(1)

(E) - ~ cos (

1)

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
17

19.

J

3_X_ 2 X2 1

+

dx =
1 (E) lin

I 3 (A) -In2 2

(B) ~ In 2

(C) In 2

(0) 21n 2

20. Let I be a polynomial function with degree greater than 2. If a #- band the following must be true for at least one value of x between a and b? I. f(x) = 0 II. I'(x) = 0 III. I" (x) = 0 (A) None (B) I only (C) II only

I(a) = I (b) = I, which of

(0) I and II only

(E) I, II, and III

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
18

21. The area of the region enclosed by the graphs of y (A) ~ 3 (B) 1

=x

and y

= x2

-

3x + 3 is
(D) 2 (E) 14 3

22. If In x - In (~)

= 2, then x

=

(C) e

(D) 2e

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
19

','

.~ ".

23. If /'(x)
th en

=

cos x and g'(x)
IS

=

1 for all x, and if /(0) = g(O) = 0,

· /(x). 11m x ...o g(x)

(A) ~ 2

(B) 1

(C) 0

(D) -1

(E) nonexistent

\
24. (A) xln x (B) (In x)X (D) (lnx)(x1nx-1)

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
20

25. For all x > 1, if f (x) = (
(A) 1

1

dt, then f'(x)

=

(C) In x-I

(0) In x

26.

12 x cos x dx o
(A)
1t

7t

=
(B) -1 (C) 1 - 2
1t

2

(D) 1

(E)

1t "2 -

1

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
21

27. At x = 3, the function given by f(x) (A) undefined (B) continuous but not differentiable (C) differentiable but not continuous

=

{:x

2 _

9: ~ ~ ~ is

(D) neither continuous nor differentiable (E) both continuous and differentiable

i;if)
r
'j; •

28.

J 1x
4 I

- 31 dx = 3 2
(B) ~ (C) ~ (D) ~ (E) 5

(A) -

GO ON"10 THE NEXT PAGE
22

29. Th e I 1m
h--+o

· tan 3(x

+

h) -

h

tan(3x) .

IS

(A) 0

(B) 3 sec2 (3x)

(D) 3 cot (3x)

(E) nonexistent

30. A region in the first quadrant is enclosed by the graphs of y = e2X, x = 1, and the coordinate axes. If the region is rotated about the y-axis, the volume of the solid that is generated is represented by which of the following integrals?
(A) 21t

Ixe o
1

2X

dx

(B) 21t

Ie o
1 1

2X

dx

(C)

1t

Ie o
e

4X

dx

(D)

1t

Iy In y dy o

(E)

1t 4

r
0

In y dy

2

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
23

31. If

I (x) =
x

x ~ 1 ' then the inverse function, (B) x + 1

I -I,

is given by

I -I(X) =
(D) x + 1

(A) x-I

x

(C) 1 : x

x

(E) ~

32. Which of the following does NOT have a period of TC?

(A) (D)

I (x) = I (x) =

sin (~x ) tan x

(B) I(x) (E)

=

[sin x]

(C)

I (x)

= sin2 x

I (x)

= tan? x

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
24

33. The absolute maximum value of f (x) = x3 occurs at x =
(A) 4 (B) 2

-

3x2

+ 12 on the closed interval [- 2, 4}
(0)0
(E) -2

(C) I

y

y

= f(x)

34. The area of the shaded region in the figure above is represented by which of the following integrals?
(A) (B) (C) (0) (E)

Jc (If
a

(x)1 - Ig(x)l}dx c Ja g(x)dx

c If(x)dx b

Jc (g(x)
a

- f(x»dx - g(x»dx - f(x»dx

Jc (f(x)

L
a

a

(g(x)

+

r
b

(f(x)

- g(x»dx

GO ON TO THE NEXT

PAGE

25

35.

4 cos (A) 2j3 (D) 2j3

(x

+ ~)

=

cos x - 2 sin x cos x + 2 sin x

(B) 2 cos x - 2j3 (E) 4 cos x + 2

sin x

(C) 2 cos x

+ 2j3

Sl

36. What is the average value of y for the part of the curve y = 3x - x2 which is in the first quadrant?
(A) -6 (B) -2 (C) ~ (D) ~ (E) ~

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
26

37. If

f

(A)

°

(x) = eX sin x, then the number of zeros of (B) 1

f

on the closed interval

[0,2n]

is (E) 4

(C) 2

(0) 3

38. For x > 0, (A) ~ x

J (~ ( ~)
+

dx =
(B) -

+

C C

X4

8 - -2 + C 2
x

(C) lnt ln x)

+C

In (x2) (D) -2

(E) (In x)2 2

+

C

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 27

39. If

S

10 1

f(x)dx

=

4 and

J

3

10

f(x)dx

=

7, then

J

3

-::.-

_'_-.

1

f(x)dx

=

'j~t~~
~::'

(A) -3

(B) 0

(C) 3

(0) 10

(E) 11

\"
~-,

·r·

.

y x

40. The sides of the rectangle above increase in such a way that ~~ when x = 4 and y = 3, what is the value of ~~ ?
(B) 1 (C) 2

=

1 and ~~ = 3

t.

At the instant

(0)

ft

(E) 5

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 28

41. If lim
X-+3

f f f f

(x)

= 7, which of the following must be true?

I.
II.

III.

is continuous at x = 3. is differentiable at x = 3.
(3) = 7

(A) None (D) I and III only

(B) II only (E) I, II, and III

(C) III only

42. The graph of which of the following equations has y (A) y = In x (B) y = sin x
(C) y

=

1 as an asymptote?
(E) y
=

=--

x x+1

e-x

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
29

..

";
)

43. The volume of the solid obtained by revolving the region enclosed by the ellipse x2 + 9y2 = 9 abou, the x -axis is (A) 21t
(B) 41t (C) 61t (D) 91t (E) 121t t~:
,_l_::_._

.,0,"

.

\~-.

44. Let f and g be odd functions. If p, r, and s are nonzero functions defined as follows, which must be odd? I. p (x) = f(g(x» II. r(x) = f (x) + g(x) III. s(x) = f (x)g (x) (A) I only (D) II and III only (B) II only (E) I, II, and III (C) I and II only

\

1

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
30

45. The volume of a cylindrical tin can with a top and a bottom is to be 16n cubic inches. If a minimum amount of tin is to be used to construct the can, what must be the height, in inches, of the can?
(A) 2J'2 (B)

2ft

(D) 4

(E) 8

END OF SECTION I IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION. DO NOT GO ON TO SECTION II UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

31

1988
MATHEMATICS: Time-l CALCULUS AB SECTION II hour and 30 minutes .Number of problems-6 Percent of total grade-50
It may be worthwhile for you to look through the problems before starting to work on them. It is not expected that everyone will be able to complete all parts of all questions. The questions are printed in the booklet and on the green insert. It will be easier for you to look over all the problems on the insert; however, you should write all work for each problem in the space provided for that particular problem in the pink booklet. You may work the problems in any order. Do not spend too much time on anyone problem.

Write all your answers in pencil only. Be sure to write CLEARLY and LEGIBLY. If you make an error, you may save time by crossing it out rather than trying to erase it. Show all your work. Indicate clearly the methods you use because you will be graded on the correctness of your methods as well as on the accuracy of your final answers. All questions are given equal weight, but the parts of a particular question are not necessarily given equal weight. Credit for partial solutions will be given. When you are told to begin, open your booklet, carefully tear out the green insert, and start work.

Copyright © 1988 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.

33

CALCULUS AB SECTION II Time-I hour and 30 minutes 50 Number of problems-6 Percent of total grade-

SHOW ALL YOUR WORK. INDICATE CLEARLY THE METHODS YOU USE BECAUSE YOU WILL BE GRADED ON THE CORRECTNESS OF YOUR METHODS AS WELL AS ON THE ACCURACY OF YOUR FINAL ANSWERS. Notes: (I) In this examination In x denotes the natural logarithm of x (that is, logarithm to the base e). (2) Unless otherwise specified, the domain of a function f is assumed to be the set of all real numbers x for which f(x) is a real number. I. Let f be the function given by f (x) = (a) Find the domain of f.

J

X4 -

16x2

(b) Describe the symmetry, if any, of the graph of f.

Continue problem I on next page.

34

(c) Find f'(x).

(d) Find the slope of the line normal to the graph of f at x = 5.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
35

2. A particle moves along the x-axis so that its velocity at any time t ~ 0 is given by v(t) = I - sin (2m). (a) Find the acceleration a(t) of the particle at any time t.

(b) Find all values of t, 0 ~ t ~ 2, for which the particle is at rest.

Continue problem 2 on next page.
36

(c) Find the position x(t) of the particle at any time t, if x(O) = O.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

37

3. Let R be the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the hyperbola the line x = 5.

x2

-

y2 =

9, the x-axis, and

(a) Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving R about the x-axis.

Continue problem 3 on next page.
38

(b) Set up, but do not integrate, an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the line x = - 1.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
39

4. Let

I be the function

defined by I(x)

= 2xe - x for all real numbers x.

(a) Write an equation of the horizontal asymptote for the graph of f.

(b) Find the x-coordinate of each critical point of f. For each such x, determine whether I(x) is a relative maximum, a relative minimum, or neither.

Continue problem 4 on next page.
40

(c) For what values of x is the graph of

I

concave down?

(d) Using the results found in parts (a), (b), and (c), sketch the graph of y = I(x) provided below.

in the xy-plane

y

3 2

-3

-2

-)

0 -)

2

3

4

x

-2 -3

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
41

5. Let R be the region in the first quadrant under the graph of y (a) Find the area of R.

x x2 + 2

for 0

sx

~~.

(b) If the line x

=

k divides R into two regions of equal area, what is the value of k?

Continue problem 5 on next page.
42

(c) What is the average value of y

= x2 x 2 on the interval +

0~ x ~

vf£ ? 6

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
43

6. Let f be a differentiable function, defined for all real numbers x, with the following properties.
(i) f'(x)
=

ax2 + bx
6 and f"(l)

(ii) f'(I) (iii) Find f(x).

=

=

18

J f(x
I

2

)dx = 18

Show your work.

If more space is needed, continue problem 6 on next page. 44

END OF EXAMINATION

45

ANSWER KEY AND DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES SECTION I 1988 AP CALCULUS AB EXAMINATION
Percentage Selecting Each Option1 (*indicates correct answer} Item No. l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 2l. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Correct Answer C
D

_ A_ 6% 21 *83 3 *89 2 7 10 2 2 *61 4 *70 5 17 11 2 3 9 15 7 3 1 4 1 5 1 18 21 *57

_B _

_C _ *88% 1 2 1 0 4 7 4 7 *80 3 2 8 7 12 *74 8 6 5 *41 *63 *64 9 *21 6 7 11 *34 7 11

_

D _

_E _ 1% 15 2 *60 6 7 2 4 *81 1 5 1 2 3 3 6 10 *73 18 7 7 6 10 5 1 *59 *53 3 10 3 (continued

Percent Omitting Question 1% 1 4 10 2 2 4 14 7 10 16 1 7 15 1 4 2 7 9 30 17 19 4 26 7 20 11 13 16 13 on next page)

A E A
D D

4% 1 1 23 1 2 1 *59 3 3 9 *76 8 2 *65 5 5 9 *58 3 3 3 *73 2 *64 4 19 28 *45 13

1% *60 8 3 2 *83 *79 9 1 3 6 15 4 *67 2 1 *72 3 1 4 3 5 4 42 20 4 5 4 1 3

B E

C A
B

A
D

B

C
D

E B

C C C
B

C
B E E

C
B

A

lFor each multiple-choice question, the percentages are based on the total number of candidates presumed to have attempted the question, that is, those candidates who either marked a response to the question or left it blank but marked a response to at least one later question.

47

ANSWER KEY AND DISTRIBUTION

OF RESPONSES

(continued)

Percentage Selecting Each Option (*indicates correct answer} Item No. 3l. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 4l. 42. 43. 44. 45. Correct Answer C A A
D B

_A _ 7% *46 *48 15 6 1 6 1 37 9 *30 5 11 19 18

_ B_

_C _ *50% 10 3 2 7 *60 25 13 12 3 11 *56 11 *37 13

_ D_

_E _ 2% 9 5 14 18 9 4 *47 *34 4 21 6 7 7 8

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SOLUTIONS AND SCORING GUIDES SECTION II 1988 AP CALCULUS AB EXAMINATION
The solutions to the free-response questions that follow are intended to illustrate the general level of detail expected of candidates, and the scoring standards indicate how points were awarded to the main aspects of the answers. However, approaches to a problem may vary and, even with the same approach, the written solutions may vary in the way that the different steps are presented. Within the framework of points indicated, the Readers exercise latitude in interpreting the correctness of the solutions. For example, credit is sometimes awarded for steps not written down, if it is clear that the candidate must have taken those steps to arrive at the result indicated. However, candidates are advised to show their work in order to minimize the risk of not receiving credit for it. Further, if one part of a problem depends on a value obtained in a previous part, and that value is incorrect, full credit is awarded for the latter part if it is done correctly, even though an incorrect result may have been obtained. Readers often worked with scoring guides more detailed than those presented here in order to award points for correct approaches or to subtract points for calculus or other mathematical errors. In addition, Readers sometimes had scoring guides available for common incorrect approaches that nevertheless revealed some understanding of the calculus involved. In this way, a high degree of consistency in grading is obtained.

50

1988 Calculus AS 1. Let f be the function given by f(x) - j X!+ (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the domain of f. Describe the symmetry, if any, of the graph of f. Find f' (x) . Find the slope of the line normal to the graph of f at x - 5.
16XZ.

Solution
(a)

Distribution of Points
(a)

x4 x2(x2

16x2
-

>0

16) ~ 0 or

x2 > 16 or x - 0

3: 1: for

Ixl ~ 4
(b)

x-

0
(b)

!

1' for radicand>

0

Ixl ~ 4

1: for x - 0

Symmetric about the y-axis

1: for correct answer

(c)

(c)

3·:for correct derivative

2x(X2-8)

Ixlj x2-16
(d)

f' (5) -

2(5)(25-8)

(d)

5j 25 - 16
10(17)

2:
34

5./9 -15 - 3"

170

!

l:for evaluating f' (x)

found in (c) at x - 5

1: for slope of normal

slope of normal line is

3 34

51

2.

A particle moves along the x-axis so that its velocity t > 0 is given by vet) - 1 - sin(2~t). (a) (b) (c) Find the acceleration Find the position x(t)

at any time

aCt) of the particle at any time t. is at rest. of the particle at any time t if x(O) - O.

Find all values of t, 0 < t < 2, for which the particle

Solution
(a)

Distribution (a)

of Points

a(t) - v' (t) - -211' cos(211't)

2: for correct differentiation of velocity

(b)

vet) - 0 1 - sin(2~t) 211't- !!: + 2k1l'
2 '

o
±

or 1 - sin(2~t)

(b)

1 3: 1: for t - 4
5 1: for t - 4

where k - 0, and 0 < t < 2
..

1, 5

±

2, .,.

r

for 1 - sin(2~t) - 0

.

t - 2; an

1

d

t - 2;

(c)

x(t)

- IV(t)dt - J[l- sin(211't)]dt
-t

(c)

2: for correct antiderivative of v(t) 4: 1: for x(O) - 0 1: for finding value of C

+ 211' cos(211't)+ C

1

x(O) - 0 - 0 + cos(O) + C 211' x(t) 1 - t + 211' cos(2~t) 1 211'

52

3.

Let R be the region in the first quadrant enclosed by the hyperbola x2 - y2 - 9, the x-axis, and the line x - 5. (a) (b) Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving R about the x-axis. Set up, but do not integrate, an integral expression in terms of a single variable for the volume of the solid generated when R is revolved about the line x - -1.

Solution (a) Discs:
(a)

Distribution of Points

V-~

1:(X

2-9) dx
5:

2: for a correct integrand
1: for appropriate limits and k1f 1: for correct antiderivative 1: for substitution and/or evaluation

- ~[~x3- 9XJ:
or Shells:
V-

21f

1>5
[~Y2

J

9+yZ)ydy

2w

_ 21f(40 _
(b) Shells:

125 + 27) _ 44 ~ 333
(b) dx

V - 21fJ:<X+1)y 21fJ:(X+1)J
or Washers:

4:

xZ-9 dx

r

for a correct integrand

1: for appropriate limits
and k~

V - 1fJ:[36 - (x+1)2]gy

- 1fJ:[36
53

4.

Let f be the function defined by f(x) - 2xe-x for all real numbers x. (a) Write an equation of the horizontal asymptote for the graph of f. (b) Find the x-coordinate of each critical point of f. For each such x, determine whether f(x) is a relative maximum, a relative minimum, or neither. For what values of x is the graph of f concave down?

(c)

(d) Using the results found in parts (a), (b), and (c), sketch the graph of y - f(x) in the xy-p1ane provided below. Solution
(a)

Distribution of Points (a)
(b)

y- 0
f' (x) - 2(-xe-X + e-X)

1: for correct equation

(b)

- 2e-X(1 - x) critical point at x - 1 relative maximum at x - 1

1: for correct derivative 3: 1: for critical value for f' 1: for identifying critical point as relative maximum

(c)

f"

(x)

2e-X(-1) + (-2e-X)(1-x) - 2e-X(x - 2)

(c)

2:

I: for correct f"(x)

found in (b)

for f'(x)

Concave down when 2e-X(x - 2) < 0
(x - 2)

{1: for correct interval

<0

x<2 y
(d)

(d)

3: for graph consistent with information found in (a), (b). and (c)

-4

-3

4

54

5.

Let R be the region for 0 (a) (b) (c)

in the first quadrant

under

the graph

of y

x

<x<)6 .
Find the area of

R.
R into two regions
of equal area, 0 what is

If the line x - k divides the value of k? What is the average value

of y ~ x2 : 2 on the

interval

< x < )6 ?

Solution

Distribution

of Points

(a)

A-

J~x':
1
In(x2 2

2

dx

(a)

-2:

+ 2)

16
10

3:

r

for correct

integral

1: for antiderivative

1: for evaluation

1 1 ln8 - ln2
2

ln2

(b)

1

2 ln2 -

J:
1
2

x2

x

+2

dx

In(x2

+ 2) + 2) 1
2

I:
1
2 ln2 ln2 + - ln2 2

(b) 4:

1: for a correct equation
involving integral(s)

1: for antiderivative 1: for evaluation
of integral(s)

1: for finding the value of k

1
2

lnCk2

1
2 or

lnCk2 lnCk2

+ 2)

1

+ 2) - ln4
=

..
(c)

k2 + 2

4 and k

=

n

Average

value

1

/6
-

0
ln2

('X
o

x2 +

2 dx

(c) 2:

/6

1

{l:

for correct

integral

.

1: for evaluation

55

6.

Let f be a differentiable function, defined for all real numbers x, with the following properties.
(i) (U)

f'(x) - ax2 + bx f'(l)

(iii) Find f(x).

f,f(x)dx - 18

6 and f" (1) - 18

Show your work. Distribution of Points 1: 4: 1: 1: 1: for a + b - 6 for f" (x) for 2a + b - 18 for a ~ 12, b ~ - 6

Solution a+b- 6
f"

(x)

-

2ax

+b

2a + b - 18 . ". a 12, b - - 6 and f' (x) - 12x2 - 6x

f(x) - J(12x2 - 6x)dx 4x3
-

3x2 + C 5:

1: for an antiderivative of f' 1: for including C 1: for antiderivative of f 1: for evaluating integral and equating it to 18 1: for finding value of C

I~(4x3- 3x2 + C)dx - x4 - x3 + Cxl2
1

(16 - 8 + 2C) - (1 - 1 + C) 8 + C - 18 or C - 10 •..f(x) - 4x3 - 3x2 + 10

56

HOW THE AP GRADES IN CALCULUS AB ARE DETERMINED
Grades for the Advanced Placement Examinations are reported on a five-point scale, ranging from 1 to 5. Before these grades are determined, a number of intermediate scoring steps take place. First, the answer sheet for the multiple-choice section is machine-scored. This score is the number of correct answers minus a fraction of the number of incorrect answers; negative scores are set equal to zero. Second, scores are assigned to individual problem sets in the free-response section by Readers at the AP Reading. These scores are based on detailed scoring standards established by the Chief Reader and the Readers. Third, the scores on the free-response questions and the multiple-choice section are weighted according to formulas determined in advance by the AP Mathematics Development Committee to yield a single composite score for each candidate. In Calculus AB, the six problems that constitute the free-response section are weighted equally to form the total free-response score. The total free-response score and the total multiple-choice score are then weighted equally in forming the composite score, for which the maximum value was 108 in 1988. Finally, the conversion from the composite scores to the reported grades is determined by setting four cut-points on the composite score scale which are used to determine the ranges of composite scores that make up the five possible grades. The setting of these cut-points for each examination is based on the judgment of the Chief Reader in consultation with ETS professional staff. A variety of information is available to assist the Chief Reader in judging which papers have scored high enough to receive each of the grades. Computer printouts with complete distributions of scores on each portion of the multiplechoice and free-response sections of the examination are provided along with totals for each section and the composite score total. With these figures and special statistical tables presenting score distributions from previous years, the Chief Reader can calibrate the examination against the results of other years and can evaluate the section-by-section performance on the current examination. Assessments are also made of the examination itself as well as the reliability of the grading. Finally, computer rosters containing the complete breakdown of scores for thousands of candidates enable the Chief Reader to analyze patterns of performance. On the basis of professional judgment regarding the quality of performance represented by the achieved scores, the Chief Reader determines the candidates' final AP grades. The grade distributions for the 1988 AP Mathematics Examination: Calculus AB are shown below, with the percentage indicated at each grade level, together with the mean and standard deviation.

Examination Grade Extremely well qualified Well qualified Qualified Possibly qualified No recommendation Total Number of Students* Mean Grade Standard Deviation 5 4 3 2 1

Number of Students 9,666 12,295 15,003 8,547 ~,724 54,235 3.10 1.31

Percent at Grade 17.8 22.7 27.7 15~8 16.1

*This total differs from the total number of candidates given on pages 60 and 61 because the statistical summaries were produced at different times and hence different candidate data were available.

57

RELIABILITY OF CLASSIFICATION 1988 AP CALCULUS AB EXAMINATION The classification reliability of AP grades can be examined by using a recently developed statistical technique that makes it possible to estimate the consistency and accuracy of decisions based on those grades. The consistency of the decisions is the extent to which they would agree with the decisions that would have been made if the candidate had taken a different form of the AP Calculus AB Exam, equal in difficulty and covering the same content as the form the candidate actually took. The accuracy of the decisions is the extent to which they would agree with the decisions that would be made if each candidate could somehow be tested with all possible forms of the exam. The table below shows the decision consistency and accuracy of the 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination. Each number in the table indicates the estimated percentage of candidates who would be consistently classified as above or below the 2 to 3 and the 3 to 4 grade boundaries. Estimated Consistency and Accuracy of Decisions Based on AP Grades for the 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination

Estimated Percentage of Candidates Who Would Be Reclassified the Same Way on the Basis of: Another 2-3 boundary 93% Form 3-4 boundary 92% Average 2-3 boundary 95% of All Forms 3-4 boundary 94%

The percentages in the table are estimates--candidates never actually took more than one form of the exam--and are based on data from a representative sample of the total group of candidates who took the 1988 AP Calculus AB Exam. Research results indicate that these estimates are biased in an upward direction and, therefore, overestimate the actual consistency and accuracy of decisions based on AP grades.

58

SCORING WORKSHEET 1988 AP CALCULUS AB EXAMINATION SECTION I:
___

MULTIPLE-CHOICE (TOTAL):
- (1/4 x
)_

Number correct SECTION II:

Number wrong FREE-RESPONSE:

Multiple-choice score (Round to nearest whole number. If less than zero, enter zero.)

Scores for individual questions Question 1
2

(Out of 9) (Out of 9) (Out of 9) (Out of 9) (Out of 9) (Out of 9)
_

3
4
5

6

Sum

=

Free-response score COMPOSITE SCORE:
1. 200 x ---------------

Multiple-choice score

Weighted mu1tip1echoice score Composite score

~~~-----------+ ------------Weighted mu1tip1eFree-response choice score score AP GRADE: Composite Score Range*
68 48 -

AP Grade
5

83 - 108 32 82 67 47

o-

4 3 2
1

31

*This composite score range is for the 1988 examination only.
59

DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES SECTION II 1988 AP CALCULUS AB EXAMINATION

Score 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Total Number of Candidates** Mean Standard Deviation Mean as % of Max. Possible Score *Maximum possible

1 (9*) 3,364 9,108 11,382 10,626 7,938 5,421 3,323 1,384 1,016 928 54,490 5.90 2.00 65.56

2 (9*) 8,926 9,725 7,406 5,900 4,447 3,94i5 3,351 3,508 2,514 4,767 54,490 5.56 2.90 61.78

Free-Resnonse Questions 5 4 3 (9*) (9*) (9*) 6,783 3,421 4,643 5,894 7,904 5,146 4,189 3,707 3,567 9,236 54,490 4.40 2.99 48.89 7,048 3,878 6,502 5,320 5,713 5,437 4,756 4,679 3,677 7,480 54,490 4.58 2.97 50.89 11,050 5,721 4,101 2,704 7,411 3,611 5,539 4,565 4,219 5,569 54,490 4.98 3.09 55.33

6 (9*) 21,138 5,596 2,333 4,156 6,997 3,407 2,456 2,387 2,235 3,785 54,490 6.23 2.98 69.22

score

**This total differs from the total number of candidates given on pages 57 and 61 because the statistical summaries were produced at different times and hence different candidate data were available.

60

MULTIPLE-CHOICE SCORES AND AP GRADES 1988 AP CALCULUS AB EXAMINATION

MultipleChoice Score 32 to 45 26 to 31 18 to 25 12 to 17

AP Grade

1 0 0.0% 0 0.0%

2 0 0.0% 28 0.2%

3 56 0.5% 2,380 20.3%

4

5

Total (19.1%) (21.5%) (28.6%) (15.3%) (15.4%)

1,975 8,411 10,442 18.9% 80.5% 100.0% 8,030 1,294 11,732 68.4% 11.0% 100.0% 2,344 15.0% 3 0.0% 0 0.0% 4 15,604 0.0% 100.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 8,364 100.0% 8,415 100.0%

52 2,278 10,926 0.3% 14.6% 70.0% 1,514 5,162 18.1% 61.7% 7,252 1,132 86.2% 13.5% 1,685 20.1% 31 0.4%

o

to 11 Total

8,818 8,600 15,078 12,352 9,709 54,557* 27.6% 22.6% 17.8% 100.0% (100.0%) 16.2% 15.8%

This table shows the statistical relationship between candidates' AP grades on the 1988 AP Calculus AB Examination and their scores on the multiple-choice portion of the examination. The multiple-choice scores have been divided into five categories, corresponding to the five AP grade levels. Each multiple-choice score category contains approximately the same percentage of the scores as the corresponding AP grade level. The table shows the number and the percentage of the students in each multiple-choice score category who received each AP grade. For example, there were 10,442 students with multiple-choice scores of 32 to 45, and 8,411 of these students, or 80.5 percent, received an AP grade of 5. The percentages shown in parentheses at the far right of the table indicate the percentage of all the candidates who had multiple-choice scores in that category. For example, 19.1 percent of all the candidates had multiple-choice scores of 32 to 45. Of the candidates with multiple-choice scores of 32 or higher (corrected for guessing), all but 0.5 percent earned AP grades of 40r 5, and the majority earned a 5. Of those with multiple-choice scores of 26 to 31, the majority earned a 4, while most others earned a 3 or a 5. Of those with multiple-choice scores of 18 to 25, the majority earned a 3, while most others earned a 2 or a 4. Of those with multiple-choice scores of 12 to 17, most earned a 2, while most others earned a 1 or a 3. Of the candidates with multiple-choice scores of 11 or less, the majority earned a 1, while most others earned a 2. .

*This total includes only those candidates who requested that their AP grades be reported. It also differs from the total number of candidates given on pages 57 and 60 because the statistical summaries were produced at different times and hence different candidate data were available. 61

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