# Problem Set 1 MATH-25a, Fall 2011 due 9/8/2011, in class The homework consists of three parts, which

will be graded by diﬀerent CAs. You should do all three parts and hand them in by the date above. Please staple the three parts separately, and hand them in during class. (0) Read the handout on quantiﬁers and negation, posted in the Handouts Section of the course website. Martin: (1) In any vector space V , show that (a + b)(x + y) = ax + ay + bx + by for any x, y ∈ V and any a, b ∈ F . (2) Let V denote the set of ordered pairs of real numbers. If (a1 , a2 ) and (b1 , b2 ) are elements of V and c ∈ R, deﬁne (a1 , a2 ) + (b1 , b2 ) = (a1 + b1 , a2 b2 ) and c(a1 , a2 ) = (ca1 , a2 ). Is V a vector space over R with these operations? Justify your answer. (3) Is C a vector space over R (with the usual operations of addition and multiplication)? Is R a vector space over C (with the usual operations of addition and multiplication)? Justify your answers. (4) Axler, p19-20, problem 2 Felix: (5) Consider the set S = {f : R → R : f is continuous}. With respect to pointwise addition (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) and pointwise multiplication (f · g)(x) = f (x)g(x), is S a ﬁeld? WHY, WHY NOT? (6) Axler, p19-20, problem 6 (7) Axler, p19-20, problem 7 (8) Axler, p19-20, problem 9 Neal: (9) Axler, p19-20, problem 10 (10) Prove that if W is a subspace of a vector space V and w1 , . . . , wn are in W , then the vector a1 w1 + · · · + an wn is in W for any scalars a1 , . . . , an . (11) Axler, p19-20, problem 13 (12) Axler, p19-20, problem 15 The notion of a vector can be traced to Bolzano (1781-1848). It was not until the late 1800s that mathematicians realized that abstract vector spaces are ubiquitous in modern mathematics. According to Harrell and Herod, the modern deﬁnition of vector space is due to the Italian mathematician Peano (1858-1932). thanks Peano!