Chapter 1 Stress
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Normal Stress Under Axial Loading
1.3 Direct Shear Stress
1.4 Bearing Stress
1.5 Stresses on Inclined Sections
1.6 Equality of Shear Stresses on Perpendicular Planes
Chapter 2 Strain
2.1 Displacement, Deformation, and the Concept of Strain
2.2 Normal Strain
2.3 Shear Strain
2.4 Thermal Strain
Chapter 3 Mechanical Properties of Materials
3.1 The Tension Test
3.2 The Stress‐Strain Diagram
3.3 Hooke’s Law
3.4 Poisson’s Ratio
Chapter 4 Design Concepts
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Types of Loads
4.3 Safety
4.4 Allowable Stress Design
4.5 Load and Resistance Factor Design
Chapter 5 Axial Deformation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Saint‐Venant’s Principle
5.3 Deformations in Axially Loaded Bars
5.4 Deformations in a System of Axially Loaded Bars
5.5 Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members
5.6 Thermal Effects on Axial Deformation
5.7 Stress Concentrations
Chapter 6 Torsion
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Torsional Shear Strain
6.3 Torsional Shear Stress
6.4 Stresses on Oblique Planes
6.5 Torsional Deformations
6.6 Torsion Sign Conventions
6.7 Gears in Torsion Assemblies
6.8 Power Transmission
6.9 Statically Indeterminate Torsion Members
6.10 Stress Concentrations in Circular Shafts Under Torsional Loadings
6.11 Torsion of Noncircular Sections
6.12 Torsion of Thin‐Walled Tubes: Shear Flow
Chapter 7 Equilibrium of Beams
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Shear and Moment in Beams
7.3 Graphical Method for Constructing Shear and Moment Diagrams
7.4 Discontinuity Functions to Represent Load, Shear, and Moment
Chapter 8 Bending
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Flexural Strains
8.3 Normal Strains in Beams
8.4 Analysis of Bending Stresses in Beams
8.5 Introductory Beam Design for Strength
8.6 Flexural Stresses in Beams of Two Materials
8.7 Bending Due to Eccentric Axial Load
8.8 Unsymmetric Bending
8.9 Stress Concentrations Under Flexural Loadings
Chapter 9 Shear Stress in Beams
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Resultant Forces Produced by Bending Stresses
9.3 The Shear Stress Formula
9 .4 The First Moment of Area Q
9.5 Shear Stresses in Beams of Rectangular Cross Section
9.6 Shear Stresses in Beams of Circular Cross Section
9.7 Shear Stresses in Webs of Flanged Beams
9.8 Shear Flow in Built‐Up Members
Chapter 10 Beam Deflections
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Moment‐Curvature Relationship
10.3 The Differential Equation of the Elastic Curve
10.4 Deflections by Integration of a Moment Equation
10.5 Deflections by Integration of Shear‐Force or Load Equations
10.6 Deflections Using Discontinuity Functions
10.7 Method of Superposition
Chapter 11 Statically Indeterminate Beams
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Types of Statically Indeterminate Beams
11.3 The Integration Method
11.4 Use of Discontinuity Functions for Statically Indeterminate Beams
11.5 The Superposition Method
Chapter 12 Stress Transformations
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Stress at a General Point in an Arbitrarily Loaded Body
12.3 Equilibrium of the Stress Element
12.4 Two‐Dimensional or Plane Stress
12.5 Generating the Stress Element
12.6 Equilibrium Method for Plane Stress Transformation
12.7General Equations of Plane Stress Transformation
12.8 Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stress
12.9 Presentation of Stress Transformation Results
12.10 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress
12.11 General State of Stress at a Point
Chapter 13 Strain Transformations
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Two‐Dimensional or Plane Strain
13.3 Transformation Equations for Plane Strain
13.4 Principal Strains and Maximum Shearing Strain
13.5 Presentation of Strain Transformation Results
13.6 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Strain
13.7 Strain Measurement and Strain Rosettes
13.8 Generalized Hooke’s Law for Isotropic Materials
Chapter 14 Thin‐Walled Pressure Vessels
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Spherical Pressure Vessels
14.3 Cylindrical Pressure Vessels
14.4 Strains in Pressure Vessels
Chapter 15 Combined Loads
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Combined Axial and Torsional Loads
15.3 Principal Stresses in a Flexural Member
15.4 General Combined Loadings
15.5 Theories of Failure
Chapter 16 Columns
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Buckling of Pin‐Ended Columns
16.3 The Effect of End Conditions on Column Buckling
16.4 The Secant Formula
16.5 Empirical Column Formulas & Centric Loading
16.6 Eccentrically Loaded Columns
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1.1 A stainless steel tube with an outside diameter of 60 mm and a wall thickness of 5 mm is used as a
compression member. If the normal stress in the member must be limited to 200 MPa, determine the
maximum load P that the member can support.
Solution
The crosssectional area of the stainless steel tube is
2 2 2 2 2
( ) [(60 mm) (50 mm) ] 863.938 mm
4 4
A D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
The normal stress in the tube can be expressed as
P
A
o =
The maximum normal stress in the tube must be limited to 200 MPa. Using 200 MPa as the allowable
normal stress, rearrange this expression to solve for the maximum load P
2 2
max allow
(200 N/mm )(863.938 mm ) 172, 788 172.8 k N N P A o s = = = Ans.
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1.2 A 2024T4 aluminum tube with an outside diameter of 2.50 in. will be used to support a 27kip
load. If the normal stress in the member must be limited to 18 ksi, determine the wall thickness
required for the tube.
Solution
From the definition of normal stress, solve for the minimum area required to support a 27kip load
without exceeding a stress of 18 ksi
2
min
27 kips
1.500 in.
18 ksi
P P
A
A
o
o
= > = =
The crosssectional area of the aluminum tube is given by
2 2
( )
4
A D d
t
= ÷
Set this expression equal to the minimum area and solve for the maximum inside diameter d
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
max
[(2.50 in.) ] 1.500 in.
4
4
(2.50 in.) (1.500 in. )
4
(2.50 in.) (1.500 in. )
2.08330 in.
d
d
d
d
t
t
t
÷ >
÷ >
÷ >
s
The outside diameter D, the inside diameter d, and the wall thickness t are related by
2 D d t = +
Therefore, the minimum wall thickness required for the aluminum tube is
min
2.50 in. 2.08330 in.
0.20835 in. 0.208 in.
2 2
D d
t
÷ ÷
> = = = Ans.
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1.3 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are
joined together at flange B and loaded, as shown in
Fig. P1.3. The diameter of rod (1) is d
1
= 24 mm
and the diameter of rod (2) is d
2
= 42 mm.
Determine the normal stresses in rods (1) and (2).
Fig. P1.3
Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1) that includes the free end of the rod at A.
Assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension. From equilibrium,
1 1
80 kN 0 80 kN (T)
x
F F F E = ÷ = =
Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free
end of the rod A. Assume that the internal force in rod
(2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the
internal force in rod (2):
2 2
140 kN 140 kN 80 kN 0 200 kN 200 kN (C)
x
F F F E = + + ÷ = = ÷ =
From the given diameter of rod (1), the crosssectional area of rod (1) is
2 2
1
(24 mm) 452.3893 mm
4
A
t
= =
and thus, the normal stress in rod (1) is
1
1 2
1
(80 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
176.8388 MPa
452.389
176
3 m
.8 M )
m
Pa (T
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
From the given diameter of rod (2), the crosssectional area of rod (2) is
2 2
2
(42 mm) 1, 385.4424 mm
4
A
t
= =
Accordingly, the normal stress in rod (2) is
2
2 2
2
( 200 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
144.3582 MPa
1, 385.4
144.4 MPa (
424
C)
mm
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
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1.4 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are
joined together at flange B and loaded, as shown in
Fig. P1.4. If the normal stress in each rod must be
limited to 120 MPa, determine the minimum
diameter required for each rod.
Fig. P1.4
Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1) that includes the free end of the rod at A.
Assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension. From equilibrium,
1 1
80 kN 0 80 kN (T)
x
F F F E = ÷ = =
Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free
end of the rod A. Assume that the internal force in rod
(2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the
internal force in rod (2):
2 2
140 kN 140 kN 80 kN 0 200 kN 200 kN (C)
x
F F F E = + + ÷ = = ÷ =
If the normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 120 MPa, then the minimum crosssectional area that
can be used for rod (1) is
2 1
1,min 2
(80 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
666.6667 mm
120 N/mm
F
A
o
> = =
The minimum rod diameter is therefore
2 2
1,min 1 1
666.6667 mm 29.1346 mm 29. mm
4
1 A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
Similarly, the normal stress in rod (2) must be limited to 120 MPa. Notice that rod (2) is in
compression. In this situation, we are concerned only with the magnitude of the stress; therefore, we
will use the magnitude of F
2
in the calculations for the minimum required crosssectional area.
2 2
2,min 2
(200 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
1, 666.6667 mm
120 N/mm
F
A
o
> = =
The minimum diameter for rod (2) is therefore
2 2
2,min 2 2
1, 666.6667 mm 46.0659 mm 46. mm
4
1 A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
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1.5 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are
joined together at flange B and loaded, as
shown in Fig. P1.5. If the normal stress in
each rod must be limited to 40 ksi,
determine the minimum diameter required
for each rod.
Fig. P1.5
Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end of the rod at A. As a
matter of course, we will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even
though it obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,
1
1
15 kips 0
15 kips 15 kips (C)
y
F F
F
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ =
Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end of the rod at A. Again, we
will assume that the internal force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals
the internal force in rod (2):
2
2
30 kips 30 kips 15 kips 0
75 kips 75 kips (C)
y
F F
F
E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ =
Notice that rods (1) and (2) are in compression. In this situation, we are
concerned only with the stress magnitude; therefore, we will use the force
magnitudes to determine the minimum required crosssectional areas. If the
normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 40 ksi, then the minimum cross
sectional area that can be used for rod (1) is
2 1
1,min
15 kips
0.375 in.
40 ksi
F
A
o
> = =
The minimum rod diameter is therefore
2 2
1,min 1 1
0.375 in. 0.6909 0.691 9 i
4
in n. . A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
Similarly, the normal stress in rod (2) must be limited to 40 ksi, which requires a minimum area of
2 2
2,min
75 kips
1.875 in.
40 ksi
F
A
o
> = =
The minimum diameter for rod (2) is therefore
2 2
2, min 2 2
1.875 in. 1.54509 1.545 in. 7 in.
4
A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
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1.6 Two solid cylindrical rods (1) and (2) are joined
together at flange B and loaded, as shown in Fig.
P1.6. The diameter of rod (1) is 1.75 in. and the
diameter of rod (2) is 2.50 in. Determine the normal
stresses in rods (1) and (2).
Fig. P1.6
Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end of the rod at A. We
will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even though it obviously will
be in compression). From equilibrium,
1
1
15 kips 0
15 kips 15 kips (C)
y
F F
F
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ =
Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end of the rod at A. Again, we
will assume that the internal force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD
reveals the internal force in rod (2):
2
2
30 kips 30 kips 15 kips 0
75 kips 75 kips (C)
y
F F
F
E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ =
From the given diameter of rod (1), the crosssectional area of rod (1) is
2 2
1
(1.75 in.) 2.4053 in.
4
A
t
= =
and thus, the normal stress in rod (1) is
1
1
2
1
15 kips
6.23627 ksi
2.4053 in
6.24 ksi )
.
(C
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
From the given diameter of rod (2), the crosssectional area of rod (2) is
2 2
2
(2.50 in.) 4.9087 in.
4
A
t
= =
Accordingly, the normal stress in rod (2) is
2
2
2
2
75 kips
15.2789 ksi
2.4053 in.
15.28 ksi (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
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1.7 Axial loads are applied with rigid bearing plates to the
solid cylindrical rods shown in Fig. P1.7. The diameter of
aluminum rod (1) is 2.00 in., the diameter of brass rod (2) is
1.50 in., and the diameter of steel rod (3) is 3.00 in.
Determine the normal stress in each of the three rods.
Fig. P1.7
Solution
Cut a FBD through rod (1). The FBD should include the free end A. We will assume that the internal
force in rod (1) is tension (even though it obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,
1 1
8 kips 4 kips 4 kips 0 16 kips 16 kips (C)
y
F F F E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = = ÷ =
FBD through rod (1)
FBD through rod (2)
FBD through rod (3)
Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end A. Again, we will assume that the internal
force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the internal force in rod (2):
2 2
8 kips 4 kips 4 kips 15 kips 15 kips 0 14 kips 14 kips (T)
y
F F F E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + = = =
Similarly, cut a FBD through rod (3) that includes the free end A. From this FBD, the internal force in
rod (3) is:
3
3
8 kips 4 kips 4 kips 15 kips 15 kips 20 kips 20 kips 0
26 kips 26 kips (C)
y
F F
F
E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ =
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From the given diameter of rod (1), the crosssectional area of rod (1) is
2 2
1
(2.00 in.) 3.1416 in.
4
A
t
= =
and thus, the normal stress in aluminum rod (1) is
1
1
2
1
16 kips
5.0930 ksi
3.1416 in
5.09 ksi (C)
.
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
From the given diameter of rod (2), the crosssectional area of rod (2) is
2 2
2
(1.50 in.) 1.7671 in.
4
A
t
= =
Accordingly, the normal stress in brass rod (2) is
2
2
2
2
14 kips
7.9224 ksi
1.7671 in.
7.92 ksi (T)
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
Finally, the crosssectional area of rod (3) is
2 2
3
(3.00 in.) 7.0686 in.
4
A
t
= =
and the normal stress in the steel rod is
3
3
2
3
26 kips
3.6782 ksi
7.0686 in
3.68 ksi (C)
.
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
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1.8 Axial loads are applied with rigid bearing plates to the solid
cylindrical rods shown in Fig. P1.8. The normal stress in
aluminum rod (1) must be limited to 18 ksi, the normal stress in
brass rod (2) must be limited to 25 ksi, and the normal stress in
steel rod (3) must be limited to 15 ksi. Determine the minimum
diameter required for each of the three rods.
Fig. P1.8
Solution
The internal forces in the three rods must be determined. Begin with a FBD cut through rod (1) that
includes the free end A. We will assume that the internal force in rod (1) is tension (even though it
obviously will be in compression). From equilibrium,
1 1
8 kips 4 kips 4 kips 0 16 kips 16 kips (C)
y
F F F E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = = ÷ =
FBD through rod (1)
FBD through rod (2)
FBD through rod (3)
Next, cut a FBD through rod (2) that includes the free end A. Again, we will assume that the internal
force in rod (2) is tension. Equilibrium of this FBD reveals the internal force in rod (2):
2 2
8 kips 4 kips 4 kips 15 kips 15 kips 0 14 kips 14 kips (T)
y
F F F E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + = = =
Similarly, cut a FBD through rod (3) that includes the free end A. From this FBD, the internal force in
rod (3) is:
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3
3
8 kips 4 kips 4 kips 15 kips 15 kips 20 kips 20 kips 0
26 kips 26 kips (C)
y
F F
F
E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ =
Notice that two of the three rods are in compression. In these situations, we are concerned only with the
stress magnitude; therefore, we will use the force magnitudes to determine the minimum required cross
sectional areas, and in turn, the minimum rod diameters. The normal stress in aluminum rod (1) must be
limited to 18 ksi; therefore, the minimum crosssectional area required for rod (1) is
2 1
1, min
1
16 kips
0.8889 in.
18 ksi
F
A
o
> = =
The minimum rod diameter is therefore
2 2
1,min 1 1
0.8889 in. 1.0638 in 1.064 in. .
4
A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
The normal stress in brass rod (2) must be limited to 25 ksi, which requires a minimum area of
2 2
2, min
2
14 kips
0.5600 in.
25 ksi
F
A
o
> = =
which requires a minimum diameter for rod (2) of
2 2
2,min 2 2
0.5600 in. 0.8444 in 0.844 in. .
4
A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
The normal stress in steel rod (3) must be limited to 15 ksi. The minimum crosssectional area required
for this rod is:
2 3
3, min
3
26 kips
1.7333 in.
15 ksi
F
A
o
> = =
which requires a minimum diameter for rod (3) of
2 2
3,min 3 3
1.7333 in. 1.4856 in 1.486 in. .
4
A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1.9 Two solid cylindrical rods support
a load of P = 50 kN, as shown in Fig.
P1.9. If the normal stress in each rod
must be limited to 130 MPa, determine
the minimum diameter required for
each rod.
Fig. P1.10
Solution
Consider a FBD of joint B. Determine the angle o between
rod (1) and the horizontal axis:
4.0 m
tan 1.600 57.9946
2.5 m
o o = = = °
and the angle  between rod (2) and the horizontal axis:
2.3 m
tan 0.7188 35.7067
3.2 m
  = = = °
Write equilibrium equations for the sum of forces in the
horizontal and vertical directions. Note: Rods (1) and (2)
are twoforce members.
2 1
cos(35.7067 ) cos(57.9946 ) 0
x
F F F E = ° ÷ ° = (a)
2 1
sin(35.7067 ) sin(57.9946 ) 0
y
F F F P E = ° + ° ÷ = (b)
Unknown forces F
1
and F
2
can be found from the simultaneous solution of Eqs. (a) and (b). Using the
substitution method, Eq. (b) can be solved for F
2
in terms of F
1
:
2 1
cos(57.9946 )
cos(35.7067 )
F F
°
=
°
(c)
Substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (b) gives
 
1 1
1
1
cos(57.9946 )
sin(35.7067 ) sin(57.9946 )
cos(35.6553 )
cos(57.9946 ) tan(35.7067 ) sin(57.9946 )
cos(57.9946 ) tan(35.7067 ) sin(57.9946 ) 1.2289
F F P
F P
P P
F
°
° + ° =
°
° ° + ° =
= =
° ° + °
For the given load of P = 50 kN, the internal force in rod (1) is therefore:
1
50 kN
40.6856 kN
1.2289
F = =
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Backsubstituting this result into Eq. (c) gives force F
2
:
2 1
cos(57.9946 ) cos(57.9946 )
(40.6856 kN) 26.5553 kN
cos(35.7067 ) cos(35.7067 )
F F
° °
= = =
° °
The normal stress in rod (1) must be limited to 130 MPa; therefore, the minimum crosssectional area
required for rod (1) is
2 1
1, min
2
1
(40.6856 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
312.9664 mm
130 N/mm
F
A
o
> = =
The minimum rod diameter is therefore
2 2
1, min 1 1
312.9664 mm 19.9620 19.
4
96 mm mm A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
The minimum area required for rod (2) is
2 2
2, min
2
2
(26.5553 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
204.2718 mm
130 N/mm
F
A
o
> = =
which requires a minimum diameter for rod (2) of
2 2
2,min 2 2
204.2718 mm 16.1272 16.
4
13 mm mm A d d
t
= > > = Ans.
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1.10 Two solid cylindrical rods
support a load of P = 27 kN, as
shown in Fig. P1.10. Rod (1) has a
diameter of 16 mm and the diameter
of rod (2) is 12 mm. Determine the
normal stress in each rod.
Fig. P1.10
Solution
Consider a FBD of joint B. Determine the angle o between
rod (1) and the horizontal axis:
4.0 m
tan 1.600 57.9946
2.5 m
o o = = = °
and the angle  between rod (2) and the horizontal axis:
2.3 m
tan 0.7188 35.7067
3.2 m
  = = = °
Write equilibrium equations for the sum of forces in the
horizontal and vertical directions. Note: Rods (1) and (2)
are twoforce members.
2 1
cos(35.7067 ) cos(57.9946 ) 0
x
F F F E = ° ÷ ° = (a)
2 1
sin(35.7067 ) sin(57.9946 ) 0
y
F F F P E = ° + ° ÷ = (b)
Unknown forces F
1
and F
2
can be found from the simultaneous solution of Eqs. (a) and (b). Using the
substitution method, Eq. (b) can be solved for F
2
in terms of F
1
:
2 1
cos(57.9946 )
cos(35.7067 )
F F
°
=
°
(c)
Substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (b) gives
 
1 1
1
1
cos(57.9946 )
sin(35.7067 ) sin(57.9946 )
cos(35.6553 )
cos(57.9946 ) tan(35.7067 ) sin(57.9946 )
cos(57.9946 ) tan(35.7067 ) sin(57.9946 ) 1.2289
F F P
F P
P P
F
°
° + ° =
°
° ° + ° =
= =
° ° + °
For the given load of P = 27 kN, the internal force in rod (1) is therefore:
1
27 kN
21.9702 kN
1.2289
F = =
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Backsubstituting this result into Eq. (c) gives force F
2
:
2 1
cos(57.9946 ) cos(57.9946 )
(21.9702 kN) 14.3399 kN
cos(35.7067 ) cos(35.7067 )
F F
° °
= = =
° °
The diameter of rod (1) is 16 mm; therefore, its crosssectional area is:
2 2
1
(16 mm) 201.0619 mm
4
A
t
= =
and the normal stress in rod (1) is:
2 1
1
2
1
(21.9702 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
109.2710 N/mm
201.0
109.3 MPa (T)
619 mm
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
The diameter of rod (2) is 12 mm; therefore, its crosssectional area is:
2 2
2
(12 mm) 113.0973 mm
4
A
t
= =
and the normal stress in rod (2) is:
2 2
2
2
2
(14.3399 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
126.7924 N/mm
113.0
126.8 MPa (T)
973 mm
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
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1.11 A simple pinconnected truss is loaded
and supported as shown in Fig. P1.11. All
members of the truss are aluminum pipes that
have an outside diameter of 4.00 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.226 in. Determine the normal
stress in each truss member.
Fig. P1.11
Solution
Overall equilibrium:
Begin the solution by determining the
external reaction forces acting on the
truss at supports A and B. Write
equilibrium equations that include all
external forces. Note that only the
external forces (i.e., loads and
reaction forces) are considered at this
time. The internal forces acting in the
truss members will be considered
after the external reactions have been
computed. The freebody diagram
(FBD) of the entire truss is shown.
The following equilibrium equations
can be written for this structure:
2 kips
2 ki
0
ps
x
x
x
F A
A
E = + =
= ÷
(6 ft) (5 kips)(14 ft) (2 kips)(7 ft)
14 kips
0
y
A y
B
B
M E = ÷ ÷
=
=
5 kips 0
9 kips
y y y
y
F A B
A = ÷
E = + ÷ =
Method of joints:
Before beginning the process of determining the internal forces in the axial members, the geometry of
the truss will be used to determine the magnitude of the inclination angles of members AC and BC. Use
the definition of the tangent function to determine u
AC
and u
BC
:
7 ft
tan 0.50 26.565
14 ft
7 ft
tan 0.875 41.186
8 ft
AC AC
BC BC
u u
u u
= = = °
= = = °
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Joint A:
Begin the solution process by considering a FBD of joint A. Consider
only those forces acting directly on joint A. In this instance, two axial
members, AB and AC, are connected at joint A. Additionally, two
reaction forces, A
x
and A
y
, act at joint A. Tension forces will be
assumed in each truss member.
cos(26.565 ) 0
x AC AB x
F F F A E = ° + + = (a)
sin(26.565 ) 0
y AC y
F F A E = ° + = (b)
Solve Eq. (b) for F
AC
:
9 kips
sin(26.565 ) sin(26.5
20.125 kip
65 )
s
y
AC
A
F
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
° °
and then compute F
AB
using Eq. (a):
cos(26.565 )
(20.125 kips) cos(26.5 16.000 kips 65 ) ( 2 kips)
AB AC x
F F A = ÷ ° ÷
= ÷ ° ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Joint B:
Next, consider a FBD of joint B. In this instance, the equilibrium
equations associated with joint B seem easier to solve than those that
would pertain to joint C. As before, tension forces will be assumed in
each truss member.
cos(41.186 ) 0
x AB BC
F F F E = ÷ + ° = (c)
sin(41.186 ) 0
y BC y
F F B E = ° + = (d)
Solve Eq. (d) for F
BC
:
14 kips
sin(41.186 ) sin(41.18
21.260 kip
6
s
)
y
BC
B
F = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
° °
Eq. (c) can be used as a check on our calculations:
cos(41.186 )
( 16.000 kips) ( 21.260 kips) cos(41.186 ) 0
x AB BC
F F F E = ÷ + °
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ° = Checks!
Section properties:
For each of the three truss members:
2 2 2
4.00 in. 2(0.226 in.) 3.548 in. (4.00 in.) (3.548 in.) 2.67954 in.
4
d A
t
= ÷ = = ÷ =
Normal stress in each truss member:
2
16.000 kips
5.971 ksi
2.67954
5.97 ksi (C)
in.
AB
AB
AB
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
2
20.125 kips
7.510 ksi
2.67954
7.51 ksi (T)
in.
AC
AC
AC
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
2
21.260 kips
7.934 ksi
2.67954
7.93 ksi (C)
in.
BC
BC
BC
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1.12 A simple pinconnected truss is loaded
and supported as shown in Fig. P1.12. All
members of the truss are aluminum pipes that
have an outside diameter of 60 mm and a wall
thickness of 4 mm. Determine the normal
stress in each truss member.
Fig. P1.12
Solution
Overall equilibrium:
Begin the solution by determining the
external reaction forces acting on the truss at
supports A and B. Write equilibrium
equations that include all external forces.
Note that only the external forces (i.e., loads
and reaction forces) are considered at this
time. The internal forces acting in the truss
members will be considered after the external
reactions have been computed. The free
body diagram (FBD) of the entire truss is
shown. The following equilibrium equations
can be written for this structure:
12 k
12
N 0
kN
x
x x
F A
A
E = + =
= ÷
(1 m) (15 kN)(4.3 m) 0
64.5 kN
y
A y
B
B
M E = ÷ =
=
15 kN
49.5 kN
0
y
y y y
F
A
A B
= ÷
E = + ÷ =
Method of joints:
Before beginning the process of determining the internal forces in the axial members, the geometry of
the truss will be used to determine the magnitude of the inclination angles of members AB and BC. Use
the definition of the tangent function to determine u
AB
and u
BC
:
1.5 m
tan 1.50 56.310
1.0 m
1.5 m
tan 0.454545 24.444
3.3 m
AB AB
BC BC
u u
u u
= = = °
= = = °
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Joint A:
Begin the solution process by considering a FBD of joint A. Consider
only those forces acting directly on joint A. In this instance, two axial
members, AB and AC, are connected at joint A. Additionally, two
reaction forces, A
x
and A
y
, act at joint A. Tension forces will be assumed
in each truss member.
cos(56.310 ) 0
x AC AB x
F F F A E = + ° + = (a)
sin(56.310 ) 0
y y AB
F A F E = ÷ ° = (b)
Solve Eq. (b) for F
AB
:
49.5 kN
sin(56.310 ) sin(56.310 )
59.492 kN
y
AB
A
F
÷
= = = ÷
° °
and then compute F
AC
using Eq. (a):
cos(56.310 )
( 59.492 kN)cos(56.3 45.000 10 ) ( 12 kN) kN
AC AB x
F F A = ÷ ° ÷
= ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ÷ =
Joint C:
Next, consider a FBD of joint C. In this instance, the equilibrium
equations associated with joint C seem easier to solve than those that
would pertain to joint B. As before, tension forces will be assumed in
each truss member.
cos(24.444 ) 12 kN 0
x AC BC
F F F E = ÷ ÷ ° + = (c)
sin(24.444 ) 15 kN 0
y BC
F F E = ÷ ° ÷ = (d)
Solve Eq. (d) for F
BC
:
15 kN
sin(24.444 )
36.249 kN
BC
F
÷
= = ÷
°
Eq. (c) can be used as a check on our calculations:
cos(24.444 ) 12 kN 0
(45.000 kN) ( 36.249 kN) cos(24.444 ) 12 kN 0
x AC BC
F F F E = ÷ ÷ ° + =
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ° + = Checks!
Section properties:
For each of the three truss members:
2 2 2
60 mm 2(4 mm) 52 mm (60 mm) (52 mm) 703.7168 mm
4
d A
t
= ÷ = = ÷ =
Normal stress in each truss member:
2
( 59.492 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
84.539 MPa
70
84.5 MPa (C)
3.7168 mm
AB
AB
AB
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
2
(45.000 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
63.946 MPa
70
63.9 MPa
3.7168
)
mm
(T
AC
AC
AC
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
2
( 36.249 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
51.511 MPa
70
51.5 MPa (C)
3.7168 mm
BC
BC
BC
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1.13 A simple pinconnected truss is loaded
and supported as shown in Fig. P1.13. All
members of the truss are aluminum pipes that
have an outside diameter of 42 mm and a wall
thickness of 3.5 mm. Determine the normal
stress in each truss member.
Fig. P1.13
Solution
Overall equilibrium:
Begin the solution by determining the external
reaction forces acting on the truss at supports A
and B. Write equilibrium equations that include all
external forces. Note that only the external forces
(i.e., loads and reaction forces) are considered at
this time. The internal forces acting in the truss
members will be considered after the external
reactions have been computed. The freebody
diagram (FBD) of the entire truss is shown. The
following equilibrium equations can be written for
this structure:
30 kN
30 kN
0
y
y
y
F A
A =
E = ÷ =
(30 kN)(4.5 m) (15 kN)(1.6 m) (5.6 m)
19.821 kN
0
x
A x
B
M B E = ÷ =
÷
+
=
15 kN 0
15 kN 15 kN ( 19.821 kN 34.821 ) kN
x x
x x
x
x
F A B
A A B
E = + ÷ =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
Method of joints:
Before beginning the process of determining the internal forces in the axial members, the geometry of
the truss will be used to determine the magnitude of the inclination angles of members AC and BC. Use
the definition of the tangent function to determine u
AC
and u
BC
:
1.6 m
tan 0.355556 19.573
4.5 m
4 m
tan 0.888889 41.634
4.5 m
AC AC
BC BC
u u
u u
= = = °
= = = °
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Joint A:
Begin the solution process by considering a FBD of joint A. Consider
only those forces acting directly on joint A. In this instance, two axial
members, AB and AC, are connected at joint A. Additionally, two
reaction forces, A
x
and A
y
, act at joint A. Tension forces will be
assumed in each truss member.
cos(19.573 ) 0
x x AC
F A F E = ÷ ° = (a)
sin(19.573 ) 0
y y AC AB
F A F F E = ÷ ° ÷ = (b)
Solve Eq. (a) for F
AC
:
34.821 kN
cos(19.573 ) cos(19.573 )
36.957 kN
x
AC
A
F = = =
° °
and then compute F
AB
using Eq. (b):
sin(19.573 )
(30.000 kN) (36.957 kN)sin(19. 17.619 573 ) kN
AB y AC
F A F = ÷ °
= ÷ ° =
Joint B:
Next, consider a FBD of joint B. In this instance, the equilibrium
equations associated with joint B seem easier to solve than those that
would pertain to joint C. As before, tension forces will be assumed in
each truss member.
cos(41.634 ) 0
x x BC
F B F E = ÷ ° = (c)
sin(41.634 ) 0
y BC AB
F F F E = ° + = (d)
Solve Eq. (c) for F
BC
:
( 19.821 kN)
cos(41.634 ) cos(41.634 )
26.520 kN
x
BC
B
F
÷
= = = ÷
° °
Eq. (d) can be used as a check on our calculations:
sin(41.634 )
( 26.520 kN)sin(41.634 ) (17.619 kN) 0
y BC AB
F F F E = ° +
= ÷ ° + = Checks!
Section properties:
For each of the three truss members:
2 2 2
42 mm 2(3.5 mm) 35 mm (42 mm) (35 mm) 423.3296 mm
4
d A
t
= ÷ = = ÷ =
Normal stress in each truss member:
2
(17.619 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
41.620 MPa
42
41.6 MPa
3.3296
)
mm
(T
AB
AB
AB
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
2
(36.957 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
87.301 MPa
42
87.3 MPa
3.3296
)
mm
(T
AC
AC
AC
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
2
( 26.520 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
62.647 MPa
42
62.6 MPa (C)
3.3296 mm
BC
BC
BC
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1.14 The members of the truss shown in Fig.
P1.14 are aluminum pipes that have an outside
diameter of 4.50 in. and a wall thickness of
0.237 in. Determine the normal stress in each
truss member.
Fig. P1.14
Solution
Overall equilibrium:
Begin the solution by determining the
external reaction forces acting on the truss at
supports A and B. Write equilibrium
equations that include all external forces.
Note that only the external forces (i.e., loads
and reaction forces) are considered at this
time. The internal forces acting in the truss
members will be considered after the
external reactions have been computed. The
freebody diagram (FBD) of the entire truss
is shown. The following equilibrium
equations can be written for this structure:
(15 kips)cos5
9.642 k
0
ip
0
s
x
x x
F A
A
E = + ° =
= ÷
(4 ft) (15 kips)(4 ft)cos50 (15 kips)(18 ft)sin50 0
61.350 kips
(15 kips)sin50
49.859 kips
0
A y
y y y
y
y
M B
F A B
B
A
=
=
E = ÷ ° ÷ ° =
E = + ÷ °
÷
=
Method of joints:
Before beginning the process of determining the internal forces in the axial members, the geometry of
the truss will be used to determine the magnitude of the inclination angles of members AB, AC, and BC.
Use the definition of the tangent function to determine u
AB
, u
AC
, and u
BC
:
6 ft
tan 1.5 56.3099
4 ft
4 ft
tan 0.222222 12.5288
18 ft
10 ft
tan 0.714286 35.5377
14 ft
AB AB
AC AC
BC BC
u u
u u
u u
= = = °
= = = °
= = = °
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Joint A:
Begin the solution process by considering a FBD of joint A. Consider
only those forces acting directly on joint A. In this instance, two axial
members, AB and AC, are connected at joint A. Additionally, two
reaction forces, A
x
and A
y
, act at joint A. Tension forces will be
assumed in each truss member.
cos(12.5288 ) cos(56.3099 ) 0
x AC AB x
F F F A E = ° + ° + = (a)
sin(12.5288 ) sin(56.3099 ) 0
y AC AB y
F F F A E = ° ÷ ° + = (b)
Solve Eqs. (a) and (b) simultaneously to obtain:
49.948 kips
38.259 kips
AB
AC
F
F
÷ =
=
Joint B:
Next, consider a FBD of joint B. In this instance, the equilibrium
equations associated with joint B seem easier to solve than those that
would pertain to joint C. As before, tension forces will be assumed in
each truss member.
cos(35.5377 ) cos(56.3099 ) 0
x BC AB
F F F E = ° ÷ ° = (c)
sin(35.5377 ) sin(56.3099 ) 0
y BC AB y
F F F B E = ° + ° + = (d)
Solve Eq. (c) for F
BC
:
cos(56.3099 ) cos(56.3099 )
( 49.9484)
cos(35.5377 ) cos(35.5377
34.048 k s
)
ip
BC AB
F F
° °
= = ÷ =
° °
÷
Eq. (d) can be used as a check on our calculations:
sin(35.5377 ) sin(56.3099 )
( 34.0485 kips)sin(35.5377 ) ( 49.9484 kips)sin(56.3099 ) 61.350 kips 0
y BC AB y
F F F B E = ° + ° +
= ÷ ° + ÷ ° + = Checks!
Section properties:
For each of the three truss members:
2 2 2
4.50 in. 2(0.237 in.) 4.026 in. (4.50 in.) (4.026 in.) 3.17405 in.
4
d A
t
= ÷ = = ÷ =
Normal stress in each truss member:
2
49.948 kips
15.736 ksi
3.17405
15.74 ksi (C
in
)
.
AB
AB
AB
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
2
38.259 kips
12.054 ksi
3.17405
12.05 ksi (T
n
)
i .
AC
AC
AC
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
2
34.048 kips
10.727 ksi
3.17405
10.73 ksi (C
in
)
.
BC
BC
BC
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1.15 Bar (1) in Fig. P1.15 has a cross
sectional area of 0.75 in.
2
. If the stress in bar
(1) must be limited to 30 ksi, determine the
maximum load P that may be supported by
the structure.
Fig. P1.15
Solution
Given that the crosssectional area of bar (1) is 0.75 in.
2
and its normal stress must be limited to 30 ksi,
the maximum force that may be carried by bar (1) is
2
1,max 1 1
(30 ksi)(0.75 in. ) 22.5 kips F A o = = =
Consider a FBD of ABC. From the moment equilibrium
equation about joint A, the relationship between the force in
bar (1) and the load P is:
1
1
(6 ft) (10 ft) 0
6 ft
10 ft
A
M F P
P F
E = ÷ =
=
Substitute the maximum force F
1,max
= 22.5 kips into this relationship to obtain the maximum load that
may be applied to the structure:
1
6 ft 6 ft
(22.5 kips)
10 ft 10 ft
13.50 kips P F = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1.16 Two 6 in. wide wooden boards are to
be joined by splice plates that will be fully
glued on the contact surfaces. The glue to
be used can safely provide a shear strength
of 120 psi. Determine the smallest
allowable length L that can be used for the
splice plates for an applied load of P =
10,000 lb. Note that a gap of 0.5 in. is
required between boards (1) and (2).
Fig. P1.16
Solution
Consider a FBD of board (2). The glue on the splice plates provides resistance to the 10,000 lb applied
load on both the top and bottom surfaces of board (2). Denoting the shear resistance on a glue surface as
V, equilibrium in the horizontal direction requires
0
10, 000 lb
5, 000 lb
2
x
F P V V
V
E = ÷ ÷ =
= =
In other words, each glue surface must be large enough so that 5,000 lb of shear resistance can be
provided to board (2). Since the glue has a shear strength of 120 psi, the area of each glue surface on
board (2) must be at least
2
min
5, 000 lb
41.6667 in.
120 psi
A > =
The boards are 6in. wide; therefore, glue must be spread along board (2) for a length of at least
2
glue joint
41.6667 in.
6.9444 in.
6 in.
L > =
Although we’ve discussed only board (2), the same rationale applies to board (1). For both boards (1)
and (2), the glue must be applied along a length of at least 6.9444 in. on both the top and bottom of the
boards in order to resist the 10,000 lb applied load.
The glue applied to boards (1) and (2) must be matched by glue applied to the splice plates. Therefore,
the splice plates must be at least 6.9444 in. + 6.9444 in. = 13.8889 in. long. However, we are told that a
0.5in. gap is required between boards (1) and (2); therefore, the splice plates must be 0.5in. longer.
Altogether, the length of the splice plates must be at least
min
6.9444 in. 6.9444 in. 0.5 in 14.39 in. . L = + + = Ans.
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1.17 For the clevis connection shown in Fig. P1.17,
determine the shear stress in the 22mm diameter bolt
for an applied load of P = 90 kN.
Fig. P1.17
Solution
Consider a FBD of the bar that is connected by the clevis,
including a portion of the bolt. If the shear force acting on each
exposed surface of the bolt is denoted by V, then the shear force
on each bolt surface is
90 kN
0 45 kN
2
x
F P V V V E = ÷ ÷ = = =
The area of the bolt surface exposed by the FBD is simply the crosssectional area of the bolt:
2 2 2
bolt bolt
(22 mm) 380.1327 mm
4 4
A d
t t
= = =
Therefore, the shear stress in the bolt is
2
2
bolt
(45 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
118.3797 N/mm
380.1
118.4 MPa
327 mm
V
A
t = = = = Ans.
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1.18 For the clevis connection shown in Fig.
P1.18, the shear stress in the 3/8 in. diameter
bolt must be limited to 36 ksi. Determine the
maximum load P that may be applied to the
connection.
Fig. P1.18
Solution
Consider a FBD of the bar that is connected by the clevis,
including a portion of the bolt. If the shear force acting on each
exposed surface of the bolt is denoted by V, then the shear force
on each bolt surface is related to the load P by:
0 2
x
F P V V P V E = ÷ ÷ = =
The area of the bolt surface exposed by the FBD is simply the crosssectional area of the bolt:
2 2 2 2
bolt bolt
(3 / 8 in.) (0.3750 in.) 0.1104466 in.
4 4 4
A d
t t t
= = = =
If the shear stress in the bolt must be limited to 36 ksi, the maximum shear force V on a single cross
sectional surface must be limited to
2
bolt
(36 ksi)(0.1104466 in. ) 3.976078 kips V A t = = =
Therefore, the maximum load P that may be applied to the connection is
2 2(3.976078 kips) 7.952156 k 7 ips .95 kips P V = = = = Ans.
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1.19 For the connection shown in Fig. P1.19,
determine the average shear stress in the 7/8in.
diameter bolts if the load is P = 45 kips.
Fig. P1.19
Solution
The bolts in this connection act in single shear. The crosssectional area of a single bolt is
2 2 2 2
bolt bolt
(7 / 8 in.) (0.875 in.) 0.6013205 in.
4 4 4
A d
t t t
= = = =
Since there are five bolts, the total area that carries shear stress is
2 2
bolt
5 5(0.6013205 in. ) 3.006602 in.
V
A A = = =
Therefore, the shear stress in each bolt is
2
45 kips
14.96706 ksi
3.006602 in.
14.97 ksi
V
P
A
t = = = = Ans.
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1.20 The fivebolt connection shown in Fig.
P1.20 must support an applied load of P = 300
kN. If the average shear stress in the bolts must
be limited to 225 MPa, determine the minimum
bolt diameter that may be used in the connection.
Fig P1.20
Solution
To support a load of 300 kN while not exceeding an average shear stress of 225 MPa, the total shear
area provided by the bolts must be at least
2
2
(300 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
1,333.3333 mm
225 N/mm
V
P
A
t
> = =
Since there are five singleshear bolts in this connection, five crosssectional surfaces carry shear stress.
Consequently, each bolt must provide a minimum area of
2
2
bolt
1,333.3333 mm
266.6667 mm
5 5
V
A
A > = =
The minimum bolt diameter is therefore
2 2
bolt bolt bolt
18.43 266.6667 mm 18.42 mm 64 mm
4
A d d
t
> = > = Ans.
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1.21 The threebolt connection shown in Fig. P1.21
must support an applied load of P = 40 kips. If the
average shear stress in the bolts must be limited to
24 ksi, determine the minimum bolt diameter that
may be used in the connection.
Fig. P1.21
Solution
The shear force V that must be provided by the bolts equals the applied load of P = 40 kips. The total
shear area required is thus
2
40 kips
1.66667 in.
24 ksi
V
V
A
t
> = =
The three bolts in this connection act in double shear; therefore, six crosssectional bolt surfaces are
available to transmit shear stress.
2
2
bolt
1.66667 in.
0.27778 in. per surface
(2 surfaces per bolt)(3 bolts) 6 surfaces
V
A
A = = =
The minimum bolt diameter must be
2 2
bolt bolt
0.27778 in. 0.59471 in. 0.595 i .
4
n d d
t
> > = Ans.
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1.22 For the connection shown in Fig. P1.22,
the average shear stress in the 12mmdiameter
bolts must be limited to 160 MPa. Determine
the maximum load P that may be applied to the
connection.
Fig. P1.22
Solution
The crosssectional area of a 12mmdiameter bolt is
2 2 2
bolt bolt
(12 mm) 113.097355 mm
4 4
A d
t t
= = =
This is a doubleshear connection. Therefore, the three bolts provide a total shear area of
2 2
bolt
2(3 bolts) 2(3 bolts)(113.097355 mm ) 678.58401 mm
V
A A = = =
Since the shear stress must be limited to 160 MPa, the total shear force that can be resisted by the three
bolts is
2 2
max
(160 N/mm )(678.58401 mm ) 108,573.442 N
V
V A t = = =
In this connection, the shear force in the bolts is equal to the applied load P; therefore,
max
108.6 kN P = Ans.
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1.23 A hydraulic punch press is used to
punch a slot in a 0.50in. thick plate, as
illustrated in Fig. P1.23. If the plate shears
at a stress of 30 ksi, determine the
minimum force P required to punch the
slot.
Fig. P1.23
Solution
The shear stress associated with removal of the slug exists on its perimeter. The perimeter of the slug is
given by
perimeter 2(3.00 in.) + (0.75 in.) 8.35619 in. t = =
Thus, the area subjected to shear stress is
2
perimeter plate thickness (8.35619 in.)(0.50 in.) 4.17810 in.
V
A = × = =
Given that the plate shears at t = 30 ksi, the force required to remove the slug is therefore
2
min
(30 ksi)(4.17810 in. ) 125.343 kips 125.3 kips
V
P A t = = = = Ans.
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1.24 A coupling is used to connect a 2 in. diameter
plastic pipe (1) to a 1.5 in. diameter pipe (2), as
shown in Fig. P1.24. If the average shear stress in
the adhesive must be limited to 400 psi, determine
the minimum lengths L
1
and L
2
required for the joint
if the applied load P is 5,000 lb.
Fig. P1.24
Solution
To resist a shear force of 5,000 lb, the area of adhesive required on each pipe is
2
adhesive
5, 000 lb
12.5 in.
400 psi
V
V
A
t
= = =
Consider the coupling on pipe (1). The adhesive is applied to the circumference of the pipe, and the
circumference C
1
of pipe (1) is
1 1
(2.0 in.) 6.2832 in. C D t t = = =
The minimum length L
1
is therefore
2
1
1
12.5 in.
1.9894 in.
6.2832 i
1.989 i
n
n.
.
V
A
L
C
> = = = Ans.
Consider the coupling on pipe (2). The circumference C
2
of pipe (2) is
2 2
(1.5 in.) 4.7124 in. C D t t = = =
The minimum length L
2
is therefore
2
2
2
12.5 in.
2.6526 in.
4.7124
2.65 in.
in.
V
A
L
C
> = = = Ans.
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1.25 A lever is attached to a shaft with a
square shear key, as shown in Fig. P1.25.
The force applied to the lever is P = 400 N.
If the shear stress in the key must not exceed
90 MPa, determine the minimum dimension
“a” that must be used if the key is 15 mm
long.
Fig. P1.25
Solution
To determine the shear force V that must be resisted by the shear key, sum moments about the center of
the shaft (which will be denoted O):
50 mm
(400 N)(750 mm) 0 12, 000 N
2
O
M V V
 
E = ÷ + = =

\ .
Since the shear stress in the key must not exceed 90 MPa, the shear area required is
2
2
12, 000 N
133.3333 mm
90 N/mm
V
V
A
t
> = =
The shear area in the key is given by the product of its length L (i.e., 15 mm) and its width a. Therefore,
the minimum key width a is
2
133.3333 mm
8.8889 mm
15
8.89 mm
mm
V
A
a
L
> = = = Ans.
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1.26 A common trailer hitch connection is shown in
Fig. P1.26. The shear stress in the pin must be limited
to 30,000 psi. If the applied load is P = 4,000 lb,
determine the minimum diameter that must be used
for the pin.
Fig. P1.26
Solution
The shear force V acting in the hitch pin is equal to the applied load; therefore, V = P = 4,000 lb. The
shear area required to support a 4,000 lb shear force is
2
4, 000 lb
0.1333 in.
30, 000 psi
V
V
A
t
> = =
The hitch pin is used in a doubleshear connection; therefore, two crosssectional areas of the pin are
subjected to shear stress. Thus, the crosssectional area of the pin is given by
2
2
pin pin
0.1333 in.
2 0.0667 in.
2 2
V
V
A
A A A = = = =
and the minimum pin diameter is
2 2
pin pin
0.0667 in. 0.2913 in. 0.291 n.
4
i d d
t
> > = Ans.
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1.27 An axial load P is supported by a short steel
column, which has a crosssectional area of
11,400 mm
2
. If the average normal stress in the steel
column must not exceed 110 MPa, determine the
minimum required dimension “a” so that the bearing
stress between the base plate and the concrete slab does
not exceed 8 MPa.
Fig. P1.27
Solution
Since the normal stress in the steel column must not exceed 110 MPa, the maximum column load is
2 2
max
(110 N/mm )(11, 400 mm ) 1, 254, 000 N P A o = = =
The maximum column load must be distributed over a large enough area so that the bearing stress
between the base plate and the concrete slab does not exceed 8 MPa; therefore, the minimum plate area
is
2
min 2
1, 254, 000 N
156, 750 mm
8 N/mm
b
P
A
o
= = =
Since the plate is square, the minimum plate dimension a must be
2
min
396
156,
mm
750 mm
395.9167 mm
A a a
a
= = ×
> = Ans.
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1.28 The steel pipe column shown in Fig. P1.28 has an
outside diameter of 8.625 in. and a wall thickness of 0.25
in. The timber beam is 10.75 in wide, and the upper plate
has the same width. The load imposed on the column by
the timber beam is 80 kips. Determine
(a) The average bearing stress at the surfaces between the
pipe column and the upper and lower steel bearing
plates.
(b) The length L of the rectangular upper bearing plate if
its width is 10.75 in. and the average bearing stress
between the steel plate and the wood beam is not to
exceed 500 psi.
(c) The dimension “a” of the square lower bearing plate if
the average bearing stress between the lower bearing
plate and the concrete slab is not to exceed 900 psi.
Fig. P1.28
Solution
(a) The area of contact between the pipe column and one of the bearing plates is simply the cross
sectional area of the pipe. To calculate the pipe area, we must first calculate the pipe inside diameter d:
2 2 8.625 in. 2(0.25 in.) 8.125 in. D d t d D t = + = ÷ = ÷ =
The pipe crosssectional area is
2 2 2 2 2
pipe
(8.625 in.) (8.125 in.) 6.5777 in.
4 4
A D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
Therefore, the bearing stress between the pipe and one of the bearing plates is
2
80 kips
12.1623 ksi
6.5777 in.
12.16 ksi
b
b
P
A
o = = = = Ans.
(b) The bearing stress between the timber beam and the upper bearing plate must not exceed 500 psi
(i.e., 0.5 ksi). To support a load of 80 kips, the contact area must be at least
2
80 kips
160 in.
0.5 ksi
b
b
P
A
o
> = =
If the width of the timber beam is 10.75 in., then the length L of the upper bearing plate must be
2
160 in.
14.8837 in.
beam width 10.75
14.88 in
.
in.
b
A
L > = = = Ans.
(c) The bearing stress between the concrete slab and the lower bearing plate must not exceed 900 psi
(i.e., 0.9 ksi). To support the 80kip pipe load, the contact area must be at least
2
80 kips
88.8889 in.
0.9 ksi
b
b
P
A
o
> = =
Since the lower bearing plate is square, its dimension a must be
2
88.8889 in. 9.4 9.43 in 281 n. . i
b
A a a a = × = > = Ans.
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1.29 A vertical shaft is supported by a thrust
collar and bearing plate, as shown in Fig.
P1.29. The average shear stress in the collar
must be limited to 18 ksi. The average bearing
stress between the collar and the plate must be
limited to 24 ksi. Based on these limits,
determine the maximum axial load P that can
be applied to the shaft.
Fig. P1.29
Solution
Consider collar shear stress: The area subjected to shear stress in the collar is equal to the product of
the shaft circumference and the collar thickness; therefore,
2
shaft circumference collar thickness (1.0 in.)(0.5 in.) 1.5708 in.
V
A t = × = =
If the shear stress must not exceed 18 ksi, the maximum load that can be supported by the vertical shaft
is:
2
(18 ksi)(1.5708 in. ) 28.2743 kips
V
P A t s = =
Consider collar bearing stress: We must determine the area of contact between the collar and the
plate. The overall crosssectional area of the collar is
2 2
collar
(1.5 in.) 1.7671 in.
4
A
t
= =
is reduced by the area taken up by the shaft
2 2
shaft
(1.0 in.) 0.7854 in.
4
A
t
= =
Therefore, the area of the collar that actually contacts the plate is
2 2 2
collar shaft
1.7671 in. 0.7854 in. 0.9817 in.
b
A A A = ÷ = ÷ =
If the bearing stress must not exceed 24 ksi, the maximum load that can be supported by the vertical
shaft is:
2
(24 ksi)(0.9817 in. ) 23.5619 kips
b b
P A o s = =
Controlling P: Considering both shear stress in the collar and bearing stress between the collar and the
plate, the maximum load that can be supported by the shaft is
max
23.6 kips P = Ans.
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1.30 A structural steel bar with a 25 mm × 75 mm rectangular cross section is subjected to an axial
load of 150 kN. Determine the maximum normal and shear stresses in the bar.
Solution
The maximum normal stress in the steel bar is
max
(150 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
(25 mm)(75 mm)
80 MPa
F
A
o = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress is onehalf of the maximum normal stress
max
max
2
40 MPa
o
t = = Ans.
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1.31 A steel rod of circular cross section will be used to carry an axial load of 92 kips. The maximum
stresses in the rod must be limited to 30 ksi in tension and 12 ksi in shear. Determine the required
diameter for the rod.
Solution
Based on the allowable 30 ksi tension stress limit, the minimum crosssectional area of the rod is
2
min
max
92 kips
3.0667 in.
30 ksi
F
A
o
= = =
For the 12ksi shear stress limit, the minimum crosssectional area of the rod must be
2
min
max
92 kips
3.8333 in.
2 2(12 ksi)
F
A
t
= = =
Therefore, the rod must have a crosssectional area of at least 3.8333 in.
2
in order to satisfy both the
normal and shear stress limits.
The minimum rod diameter D is therefore
2 2
min min
3.8333 in. 2.2092 in. 2.21 in.
4
d d
t
> = = Ans.
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1.32 An axial load P is applied to the
rectangular bar shown in Fig. P1.32. The
crosssectional area of the bar is 400 mm
2
.
Determine the normal stress perpendicular to
plane AB and the shear stress parallel to
plane AB if the bar is subjected to an axial
load of P = 70 kN.
Fig. P1.32
Solution
The angle u for the inclined plane is 35°. The
normal force N perpendicular to plane AB is
found from
cos (40 kN)cos35 57.3406 kN N P u = = ° =
and the shear force V parallel to plane AB is
sin (70 kN)sin35 40.1504 kN V P u = = ° =
The crosssectional area of the bar is 400 mm
2
, but the area along inclined plane AB is
2
2
400 mm
488.3098 mm
cos cos35
n
A
A
u
= = =
°
The normal stress o
n
perpendicular to plane AB is
2
(57.3406 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
117.4268 MPa
488
117.4 MP
.3098 mm
a
n
n
N
A
o = = = = Ans.
The shear stress t
nt
parallel to plane AB is
2
(40.1504 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
82.2231 MPa
4
82.2 MP
88.309
a
8 mm
nt
n
V
A
t = = = = Ans.
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1.33 An axial load P is applied to the 1.75 in.
by 0.75 in. rectangular bar shown in Fig.
P1.33. Determine the normal stress
perpendicular to plane AB and the shear stress
parallel to plane AB if the bar is subjected to
an axial load of P = 18 kips.
Fig. P1.33
Solution
The angle u for the inclined plane is 60°. The
normal force N perpendicular to plane AB is
found from
cos (18 kips)cos60 9.0 kips N P u = = ° =
and the shear force V parallel to plane AB is
sin (18 kips)sin60 15.5885 kips V P u = = ° =
The crosssectional area of the bar is (1.75 in.)(0.75 in.) = 1.3125 in.
2
, but the area along inclined plane
AB is
2
2
1.3125 in.
/ cos 2.6250 in.
cos60
n
A A u = = =
°
The normal stress o
n
perpendicular to plane AB is
2
9.0 kips
3.4286 ksi
2.6250 in
3.43 ks
.
i
n
n
N
A
o = = = = Ans.
The shear stress t
nt
parallel to plane AB is
2
15.5885 kips
5.9385 ksi
2.6250
5.94 ks
i
i
n.
nt
n
V
A
t = = = = Ans.
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1.34 A compression load of P = 80 kips is applied to a 4 in.
by 4 in. square post, as shown in Fig. P1.34. Determine the
normal stress perpendicular to plane AB and the shear stress
parallel to plane AB.
Fig. P1.34
Solution
The angle u for the inclined plane is 55°. The normal force N
perpendicular to plane AB is found from
cos (80 kips)cos55 45.8861 kips N P u = = ° =
and the shear force V parallel to plane AB is
sin (80 kips)sin55 65.5322 kips V P u = = ° =
The crosssectional area of the post is (4 in.)(4 in.) = 16 in.
2
, but the area
along inclined plane AB is
2
2
16 in.
/ cos 27.8951 in.
cos55
n
A A u = = =
°
The normal stress o
n
perpendicular to plane AB is
2
45.8861 kips
1.6449 ksi
27.8951
1.645 ksi
in.
n
n
N
A
o = = = = Ans.
The shear stress t
nt
parallel to plane AB is
2
65.5322 kips
2.3492 ksi
27.8951
2.35 ks
i
i
n.
nt
n
V
A
t = = = = Ans.
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1.35 Specifications for the 50 mm × 50 mm square bar
shown in Fig. P1.35 require that the normal and shear
stresses on plane AB not exceed 120 MPa and 90 MPa,
respectively. Determine the maximum load P that can be
applied without exceeding the specifications.
Fig. P1.35
Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u are
(1 cos 2 )
2
n
P
A
o u = + (a)
and
sin 2
2
nt
P
A
t u = (b)
The crosssectional area of the square bar is A = (50 mm)
2
= 2,500 mm
2
, and the angle u for plane AB is
55°.
The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 120 MPa; therefore, the maximum load P that can be
supported by the square bar is found from Eq. (a):
2 2
2 2(2,500 mm )(120 N/mm )
911,882 N
1 cos 2 1 cos 2(55 )
n
A
P
o
u
s = =
+ + °
The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 90 MPa. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear
stress limit is
2 2
2 2(2,500 mm )(90 N/mm )
478,880 N
sin 2 sin 2(55 )
nt
A
P
t
u
s = =
°
Thus, the maximum load that can be supported by the bar is
max
479 kN P = Ans.
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1.36 Specifications for the 6 in. × 6 in. square post shown in
Fig. P1.36 require that the normal and shear stresses on plane
AB not exceed 800 psi and 400 psi, respectively. Determine
the maximum load P that can be applied without exceeding
the specifications.
Fig. P1.36
Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u are
(1 cos 2 )
2
n
P
A
o u = + (a)
and
sin 2
2
nt
P
A
t u = (b)
The crosssectional area of the square post is A = (6 in.)
2
= 36 in.
2
, and the angle u for plane AB is 40°.
The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 800 psi; therefore, the maximum load P that can be
supported by the square post is found from Eq. (a):
2
2 2(36 in. )(800 psi)
49, 078 lb
1 cos2 1 cos2(40 )
n
A
P
o
u
s = =
+ + °
The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 400 psi. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear
stress limit is
2
2 2(36 in. )(400 psi)
29, 244 lb
sin2 sin2(40 )
nt
A
P
t
u
s = =
°
Thus, the maximum load that can be supported by the post is
max
29, 200 l 29.2 ip b k s P = = Ans.
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1.37 A 90 mm wide bar will be used to carry an axial
tension load of 280 kN. The normal and shear stresses
on plane AB must be limited to 150 MPa and 100 MPa,
respectively. Determine the minimum thickness t
required for the bar.
Fig. P1.37
Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u are
(1 cos 2 )
2
n
P
A
o u = + (a)
and
sin 2
2
nt
P
A
t u = (b)
The angle u for plane AB is 50°.
The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 150 MPa; therefore, the minimum crosssectional area A
required to support P = 280 kN can be found from Eq. (a):
2
2
(280 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
(1 cos 2 ) (1 cos 2(50 )) 771.2617 mm
2 2(150 N/mm )
n
P
A u
o
> + = + ° =
The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 100 MPa; therefore, the minimum crosssectional area A
required to support P = 280 kN can be found from Eq. (b):
2
2
(280 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
sin 2 sin 2(50 ) 1, 378.7309 mm
2 2(100 N/mm )
nt
P
A u
t
> = ° =
To satisfy both the normal and shear stress requirements, the crosssectional area must be at least A
min
=
1,379.7309 mm
2
. Since the bar width is 90 mm, the minimum bar thickness t must be
2
min
1,378.7309 mm
15.3192 mm
90 m
15.3
m
2 mm t = = = Ans.
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1.38 A rectangular bar having width w = 6.00
in. and thickness t = 1.50 in. is subjected to a
tension load P. The normal and shear stresses
on plane AB must not exceed 16 ksi and 8 ksi,
respectively. Determine the maximum load P
that can be applied without exceeding either
stress limit.
Fig. P1.38
Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u are
(1 cos 2 )
2
n
P
A
o u = + (a)
and
sin 2
2
nt
P
A
t u = (b)
The angle u for inclined plane AB is calculated from
3
tan 3 71.5651
1
u u = = = °
The crosssectional area of the bar is A = w×t = (6.00 in.)(1.50 in.) = 9.0 in.
2
.
The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 16 ksi; therefore, the maximum load P can be found from
Eq. (a):
2
2 2(9.0 in. )(16 ksi)
1, 440 ksi
1 cos 2 1 cos 2(71.5651 )
n
A
P
o
u
s = =
+ + °
The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 8 ksi. From Eq. (b), the maximum load P based the shear
stress limit is
2
2 2(9.0 in. )(8 ksi)
240 kips
sin2 sin2(71.5651 )
nt
A
P
t
u
s = =
°
Thus, the maximum load that can be supported by the bar is
max
240 kips P = Ans.
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1.39 In Fig. P1.39, a rectangular bar having width
w = 1.25 in. and thickness t is subjected to a
tension load of P = 30 kips. The normal and shear
stresses on plane AB must not exceed 12 ksi and 8
ksi, respectively. Determine the minimum bar
thickness t required for the bar.
Fig. P1.39
Solution
The general equations for normal and shear stresses on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u are
(1 cos 2 )
2
n
P
A
o u = + (a)
and
sin 2
2
nt
P
A
t u = (b)
The angle u for inclined plane AB is calculated from
3
tan 3 71.5651
1
u u = = = °
The normal stress on plane AB is limited to 12 ksi; therefore, the minimum crosssectional area A
required to support P = 30 kips can be found from Eq. (a):
2
30 kips
(1 cos 2 ) (1 cos 2(71.5651 )) 0.2500 in.
2 2(12 ksi)
n
P
A u
o
> + = + ° =
The shear stress on plane AB is limited to 8 ksi; therefore, the minimum crosssectional area A required
to support P = 30 kips can be found from Eq. (b):
2
30 kips
sin 2 sin 2(71.5651 ) 1.1250 in.
2 2(8 ksi)
nt
P
A u
t
> = ° =
To satisfy both the normal and shear stress requirements, the crosssectional area must be at least A
min
=
1.1250 in.
2
. Since the bar width is 1.25 in., the minimum bar thickness t must be
2
min
1.1250 in.
0.900 in.
1.25 in
0.900 .
.
in t = = = Ans.
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1.40 The rectangular bar has a width of w = 3.00
in. and a thickness of t = 2.00 in. The normal
stress on plane AB of the rectangular block
shown in Fig. P1.40 is 6 ksi (C) when the load P
is applied. Determine:
(a) the magnitude of load P.
(b) the shear stress on plane AB.
(c) the maximum normal and shear stresses in
the block at any possible orientation.
Fig. P1.40
Solution
The general equation for normal stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u is
(1 cos 2 )
2
n
P
A
o u = + (a)
and the angle u for inclined plane AB is
3
tan 0.75 36.8699
4
u u = = = °
The crosssectional area of the rectangular bar is A = (3.00 in.)(2.00 in.) = 6.00 in.
2
.
(a) Since the normal stress on plane AB is given as 6 ksi, the magnitude of load P can be calculated from
Eq. (a):
2
2 2(6.0 in. )(6 ksi)
56.25 kips
1 cos 2 1 co
56.3 kip
s 2(36.8699 )
s
n
A
P
o
u
= = = =
+ + °
Ans.
(b) The general equation for shear stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u is
sin 2
2
nt
P
A
t u =
therefore, the shear stress on plane AB is
2
56.25 kips
sin2(36.8699 )
2(6.00 in. )
4.50 ksi
nt
t = ° = Ans.
(c) The maximum normal stress at any possible orientation is
max 2
56.25 kips
9.3750 ksi
6.00 i
9.38 k
n
si
.
P
A
o = = = = Ans.
and the maximum shear stress at any possible orientation in the block is
max 2
56.25 kips
4.6875 ksi
2 2(6.00
4.69 ksi
in. )
P
A
t = = = = Ans.
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1.41 The rectangular bar has a width of w = 100
mm and a thickness of t = 75 mm. The shear stress
on plane AB of the rectangular block shown in
Fig. P1.41 is 12 MPa when the load P is applied.
Determine:
(a) the magnitude of load P.
(b) the normal stress on plane AB.
(c) the maximum normal and shear stresses in the
block at any possible orientation.
Fig. P1.41
Solution
The general equation for shear stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u is
sin 2
2
nt
P
A
t u = (a)
and the angle u for inclined plane AB is
3
tan 0.75 36.8699
4
u u = = = °
The crosssectional area of the rectangular bar is A = (100 mm)(75 mm) = 7,500 mm
2
.
(a) Since the shear stress on plane AB is given as 12 MPa, the magnitude of load P can be calculated
from Eq. (a):
2 2
2 2(7,500 mm )(12 N/mm )
187,500 N
sin 2 sin 2(36.869
187.5 k
9
N
)
nt
A
P
t
u
= = = =
°
Ans.
(b) The general equation for normal stress on an inclined plane in terms of the angle u is
(1 cos 2 )
2
n
P
A
o u = +
therefore, the normal stress on plane AB is
2
187,500 N
(1 cos 2(36.8699 ))
2(7,500 mm
16.00 MPa
)
n
o = + ° = Ans.
(c) The maximum normal stress at any possible orientation is
max 2
187,500 N
7,500 mm
25.0 MPa
P
A
o = = = Ans.
and the maximum shear stress at any possible orientation in the block is
max 2
187,500 N
2 2(7,500 mm
12.50 MPa
)
P
A
t = = = Ans.
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2.1 When an axial load is applied to the
ends of the bar shown in Fig. P2.1, the total
elongation of the bar between joints A and C
is 0.15 in. In segment (2), the normal strain
is measured as 1,300 in./in. Determine:
(a) the elongation of segment (2).
(b) the normal strain in segment (1) of
the bar.
Fig. P2.1
Solution
(a) From the definition of normal strain, the elongation in segment (2) can be computed as
6
2 2 2
(1,300 10 )(90 in. 0.1170 i ) n. L Ans.
(b) The combined elongations of segments (1) and (2) is given as 0.15 in. Therefore, the elongation that
occurs in segment (1) must be
1 total 2
0.15 in. 0.1170 in. 0.0330 in.
The strain in segment (1) can now be computed:
1
1
1
0.0330 in.
0.000825 in./in.
40 in.
825 μin./in.
L
Ans.
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2.2 A rigid steel bar is supported by three rods, as
shown in Fig. P2.2. There is no strain in the rods before
the load P is applied. After load P is applied, the
normal strain in rod (2) is 1,080 in./in. Assume initial
rod lengths of L
1
= 130 in. and L
2
= 75 in. Determine:
(a) the normal strain in rods (1).
(b) the normal strain in rods (1) if there is a 1/32in. gap
in the connections between the rigid bar and rods
(1) at joints A and C before the load is applied.
(c) the normal strain in rods (1) if there is a 1/32in. gap
in the connection between the rigid bar and rod (2)
at joint B before the load is applied.
Fig. P2.2
Solution
(a) From the normal strain in rod (2) and its length, the deformation of rod (2) can be calculated:
6
2 2 2
(1, 080 10 )(75 in.) 0.0810 in. L
Since rod (2) is assumed to be connected to the rigid bar with a perfect connection, the rigid bar must
move downward by an amount equal to the deformation of rod (2); therefore,
2
0.0810 in. (downward)
B
v
By symmetry, the rigid bar must remain horizontal as it moves downward, and thus, v
B
= v
A
= v
C
. Rods
(1) are connected to the rigid bar at A and C, and again, perfect connections are assumed. The
deformation of rod (1) must be equal to the deflection of joint A (or C); thus,
1
= 0.0810 in. The normal
strain in rods (1) can now be calculated as:
1
1
1
0.0810 in.
0.0006231 in./in.
130 in.
623 μin./in.
L
Ans.
(b) We can assume that the bolted connection at B is
perfect; therefore, v
B
= 0.0810 in. (downward).
Further, the rigid bar must remain horizontal as it
deflects downward by virtue of symmetry.
Therefore, the deflection downward of joints A and C
is still equal to 0.0810 in.
What effect is caused by the gap at A and C? When
joint A (or C) moves downward by 0.0810 in., the
first 1/32in. of this downward movement does not
stretch rod (1)—it just closes the gap. Therefore, rod
(1) only gets elongated by the amount
1
0.03125 in.
0.0810 in. 0.03125 in.
0.04975 in.
A
v
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This deformation creates a strain in rod (1) of:
1
1
1
0.04975 in.
0.0003827 in./in.
130
383 μin./in.
in. L
Ans.
(c) The gap is now at joint B. We know the strain
in rod (2); hence, we know its deformation must
be 0.0810 in. However, the first 1/32in. of
downward movement by the rigid bar does not
elongate the rod—it simply closes the gap. To
elongate rod (2) by 0.0810 in., joint B must move
down:
2
0.03125 in.
0.0810 in. 0.03125 in.
0.11225 in.
B
v
Again, since the rigid bar remains horizontal, v
B
=
v
A
= v
C
. The joints at A and C are assumed to be
perfect; thus,
1
0.11225 in.
A
v
and the normal strain in rod (1) is:
1
1
1
0.11225 in.
0.00086346 in./in.
130 i
863 μin./i
.
n.
n L
Ans.
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2.3 A rigid steel bar is supported by three rods, as
shown in Fig. P2.3. There is no strain in the rods
before the load P is applied. After load P is
applied, the normal strain in rods (1) is 860 m/m.
Assume initial rod lengths of L
1
= 2,400 mm and L
2
= 1,800 mm. Determine:
(a) the normal strain in rod (2).
(b) the normal strain in rod (2) if there is a 2
mm gap in the connections between the rigid
bar and rods (1) at joints A and C before the
load is applied.
(c) the normal strain in rod (2) if there is a 2
mm gap in the connection between the rigid bar
and rod (2) at joint B before the load is applied.
Fig. P2.3
Solution
(a) From the normal strain in rod (1) and its length, the deformation of rod (1) can be calculated:
6
1 1 1
(860 10 )(2, 400 mm) 2.064 mm L
Since rod (1) is assumed to be connected to the rigid bar with a perfect connection, the rigid bar must
move downward by an amount equal to the deformation of rod (1); therefore,
1
2.064 mm (downward)
A C
v v
By symmetry, the rigid bar must remain horizontal as it moves downward, and thus, v
B
= v
A
= v
C
. Rod
(2) is connected to the rigid bar at B, and again, a perfect connection is assumed. The deformation of
rod (2) must be equal to the deflection of joint B; thus,
2
= 2.064 mm. The normal strain in rod (2) can
now be calculated as:
2
2
2
2.064 mm
0.0011467 mm/mm 1,147 μmm/m
1,800 m
m
m L
Ans.
(b) We know the strain in rod (1); hence, we know its
deformation must be 2.064 mm. However, the joints
at A and C are not perfect connections. The first 2
mm of downward movement by the rigid bar does not
elongate rod (1)—it simply closes the gap. To
elongate rod (1) by 2.064 mm, joint A must move
down:
1
2 mm 2.064 mm 2 mm 4.064 mm
A
v
By symmetry, the rigid bar remains horizontal;
therefore, v
B
= v
A
= v
C
. The joint at B is assumed to be
perfect; thus, any downward movement of the rigid
bar also elongates rod (2) by the same amount:
2
4.064 mm
B
v
and the normal strain in rod (2) is:
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2
2
2
4.064 mm
0.0022578 mm/mm 2, 260 μmm/m
1,800 m
m
m L
Ans.
(c) We now assume that the bolted connection at A
(or C) is perfect; therefore, the rigid bar deflection
as calculated in part (a) must be v
A
= 2.064 mm
(downward). Further, the rigid bar must remain
horizontal as it deflects downward by virtue of
symmetry; thus, v
B
= v
A
= v
C
. Therefore, the
deflection downward of joint B is v
B
= 2.064 mm
What effect is caused by the gap at B? When joint
B moves downward by 2.064 mm, the first 2 mm
of this downward movement does not stretch rod
(2)—it just closes the gap. Therefore, rod (2) only
gets elongated by the amount
2
2 mm
2.064 mm 2 mm
0.064 mm
B
v
This deformation creates a strain in rod (2) of:
2
2
2
0.064 mm
0.0000356 mm/mm
1,800 m
35.6 μmm/mm
m L
Ans.
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2.4 A rigid bar ABCD is supported by two bars as
shown in Fig. P2.4. There is no strain in the
vertical bars before load P is applied. After load P
is applied, the normal strain in rod (1) is −570
m/m. Determine:
(a) the normal strain in rod (2).
(b) the normal strain in rod (2) if there is a 1mm
gap in the connection at pin C before the load is
applied.
(c) the normal strain in rod (2) if there is a 1mm
gap in the connection at pin B before the load is
applied.
Fig. P2.4
Solution
(a) From the strain given for rod (1)
1 1 1
6
( 570 10 )(900 mm)
0.5130 mm
L
Therefore, v
B
= 0.5130 mm (downward).
From the deformation diagram of rigid bar ABCD
240 mm (240 mm 360 mm)
600 mm
(0.5130 mm) 1.2825 mm
240 mm
B C
C
v v
v
Therefore,
2
= 1.2825 mm (elongation), and thus, from the definition of strain:
6 2
2
2
1.2825 mm
855 10 mm/mm
1,500 m
855 με
m L
Ans.
(b) The 1mm gap at C doesn’t affect rod (1);
therefore,
1
= −0.5130 mm. The rigid bar
deformation diagram is unaffected; thus, v
B
=
0.5130 mm (downward) and v
C
= 1.2825 mm
(downward).
The rigid bar must move downward 1 mm at C
before it begins to elongate member (2).
Therefore, the elongation of member (2) is
2
1 mm
1.2825 mm 1 mm
0.2825 mm
C
v
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and so the strain in member (2) is
6 2
2
2
0.2825 mm
188.3 10 mm/mm
1,500 mm
188.3 με
L
Ans.
(c) From the strain given for rod (1),
1
=
−0.5130 mm. In order to contract rod (1) by this
amount, the rigid bar must move downward at B
by
0.5130 mm 1 mm 1.5130 mm
B
v
From deformation diagram of rigid bar ABCD
240 mm (240 mm 360 mm)
600 mm
(1.5130 mm) 3.7825 mm
240 mm
B C
C
v v
v
and so
6 2
2
2
3.7825 mm
2,521.7 10 mm/mm
1,500
2,520 ε
μ
mm L
Ans.
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2.5 In Fig. P2.5, rigid bar ABC is supported by a
pin connection at B and two axial members. A slot
in member (1) allows the pin at A to slide 0.25in.
before it contacts the axial member. If the load P
produces a compression normal strain in member
(1) of −1,300 in./in., determine the normal strain
in member (2).
Fig. P2.5
Solution
From the strain given for member (1)
1 1 1
6
( 1,300 10 )(32 in.)
0.0416 in.
L
Pin A has to move 0.25 in. before it
contacts member (1); therefore, v
A
=
1.080 mm (downward).
0.0416 in. 0.25 in.
0.2916 in.
0.2916 in. (to the left)
A
v
From the deformation diagram of
rigid bar ABC
12 in. 20 in.
20 in.
(0.2916 in.) 0.4860 in. (downward)
12 in.
A C
C
v v
v
Therefore,
2
= 0.4860 in. (elongation). From the definition of strain,
6 2
2
2
0.4860 in.
3, 037.5 10 in./in.
160 in
3, 040 με
. L
Ans.
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2.6 The sandingdrum mandrel shown in Fig.
P2.6 is made for use with a hand drill. The
mandrel is made from a rubberlike material that
expands when the nut is tightened to secure the
sanding sleeve placed over the outside surface. If
the diameter D of the mandrel increases from 2.00
in. to 2.15 in. as the nut is tightened, determine
(a) the average normal strain along a diameter of
the mandrel.
(b) the circumferential strain at the outside surface
of the mandrel.
Fig. P2.6
Solution
(a) The change in strain along a diameter is found from
2.15 in. 2.00 in.
2.00 in.
0.075 in./in.
D
D
D
Ans.
(b) Note that the circumference of a circle is given by D. The change in strain around the
circumference of the mandrel is found from
(2.15 in.) (2.00 in.)
(2.00 in.)
0.075 in./in.
C
C
C
Ans.
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2.7 The normal strain in a suspended bar of material of varying cross section due to its own weight is
given by the expression y/3E where is the specific weight of the material, y is the distance from the
free (i.e., bottom) end of the bar, and E is a material constant. Determine, in terms of , L, and E,
(a) the change in length of the bar due to its own weight.
(b) the average normal strain over the length L of the bar.
(c) the maximum normal strain in the bar.
Solution
(a) The strain of the suspended bar due to its own weight is given as
3
y
E
Consider a slice of the bar having length dy. In general, = L.
Applying this definition to the bar slice, the deformation of slice dy is
given by
3
y
d dy dy
E
Since this strain expression varies with y, the total deformation of the bar must be found by integrating
d over the bar length:
2 2
0 0
6 3 3 2
L
L
L
E
y y
dy
E E
Ans.
(b) The average normal strain is found by dividing the expression above for by the bar length L
2
avg
/ 6
6
L E
L
L
E
Ans.
(c) Since the given strain expression varies with y, the maximum normal strain occurs at the maximum
value of y, that is, at y = L:
max
3 3
y L
y L
y
E
L
E
Ans.
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2.8 A steel cable is used to support an elevator cage at the bottom of a 2,000ft deep mineshaft. A
uniform normal strain of 250 in./in. is produced in the cable by the weight of the cage. At each point,
the weight of the cable produces an additional normal strain that is proportional to the length of the cable
below the point. If the total normal strain in the cable at the cable drum (upper end of the cable) is 700
in./in., determine
(a) the strain in the cable at a depth of 500 ft.
(b) the total elongation of the cable.
Solution
Call the vertical coordinate y and establish the origin of the y
axis at the lower end of the steel cable. The strain in the cable
has a constant term (i.e., = 250 ) and a term (we will call it
k) that varies with the vertical coordinate y.
6
250 10 k y
The problem states that the normal strain at the cable drum (i.e.,
y = 2,000 ft) is 700 in./in. Knowing this value, the constant k
can be determined
6 6
6 6
6
700 10 250 10 (2, 000 ft)
700 10 250 10
0.225 10 /ft
2, 000 ft
k
k
Substituting this value for k in the strain expression gives
6 6
250 10 (0.225 10 /ft) y
(a) At a depth of 500 ft, the y coordinate is y = 1,500 ft. Therefore, the cable strain at a depth of 500 ft
is
6 6 6
250 10 (0.225 10 /ft)(1,500 ft) 587.5 1 588 0 με Ans.
(b) The total elongation is found by integrating the strain expression over the cable length; thus,
2000
6 6
0
2000
6
6 2
0
250 10 (0.225 10 /ft)
0.225 10
(250 1
0.950 ft 11.40 in.
0 )
2
dy y dy
y y
Ans.
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2.9 The 16 × 22 × 25mm rubber blocks shown
in Fig. P2.9 are used in a double U shear mount
to isolate the vibration of a machine from its
supports. An applied load of P = 690 N causes
the upper frame to be deflected downward by 7
mm. Determine the average shear strain and the
shear stress in the rubber blocks.
Fig. P2.9
Solution
Consider the deformation of one block. After a downward
deflection of 7 mm:
7 mm
tan 0.4375 0.412410 rad
16 mm
and thus, the shear strain in the block is
0.412 rad 412,000 μrad Ans.
Note that the small angle approximation most definitely does not
apply here!
The applied load of 690 N is
carried by two blocks; therefore,
the shear force applied to one
block is V = 345 N. The area
subjected to shear stress is the area
that is parallel to the direction of
the shear force; that is, the 22 mm
by 25 mm surface of the block.
The shear stress is
345 N
(22 mm)(25 mm)
0.627 M
62
Pa
7 kPa Ans.
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2.10 A thin polymer plate PQR is
deformed such that corner Q is displaced
downward 1/16in. to new position Q’ as
shown in Fig. P2.10. Determine the shear
strain at Q’ associated with the two edges
(PQ and QR).
Fig. P2.10
Solution
Before deformation, the angle of the plate at
Q was 90° or /2 radians. We must now
determine the plate angle at Q′ after
deformation. The difference between these
angles is the shear strain.
After point Q displaces downward by 1/16
in., the angle ′ is
25 in. 25 in.
tan
(10 in. 1/ 16in.) 10.0625 in.
68.075215
and the angle ′ is
4 in. 4 in.
tan
(10 in. 1/ 16in.) 10.0625 in.
21.678589
After deformation, the angle of the plate at Q′ is
68.075215 21.678589 89.753804 1.566499 rad
The difference in the plate angle at Q before and after deformation is the shear strain:
1.566499 rad 0.004297 ra 4,300 μra d d
2
Ans.
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2.11 A thin polymer plate PQR is
deformed so that corner Q is displaced
downward 1.0 mm to new position Q’ as
shown in Fig. P2.11. Determine the
shear strain at Q’ associated with the two
edges (PQ and QR).
Fig. P2.11
Solution
Before deformation, the angle of the plate
at Q was 90° or /2 radians. We must
now determine the plate angle at Q′ after
deformation. The difference between
these angles is the shear strain.
After deformation, the angle ′ is
120 mm 120 mm
tan
(300 mm 1 mm) 301 mm
21.735741
and the angle ′ is
750 mm 750 mm
tan
(300 mm 1 mm) 301 mm
68.132764
Therefore, after deformation, the angle of the plate at Q′ is
21.735741 68.132764 89.868505 1.568501 rad
The difference in the angle at Q before and after deformation is the shear strain:
1.568501 rad 0.002295 ra 2,300 μra d d
2
Ans.
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2.12 A thin rectangular plate is uniformly
deformed as shown in Fig. P2.12.
Determine the shear strain
xy
at P.
Fig. P2.12
Solution
Before deformation, the angle of the plate at P
was 90° or /2 radians. We must now
determine the plate angle at P after deformation.
The difference between these angles is the shear
strain.
After deformation, the angle that side PQ makes
with the horizontal axis is
1.4 mm
tan
1,100 mm
0.072922
and the angle that side PR makes with the
vertical axis is
0.7 mm
tan
600 mm
0.066845
Therefore, the angle of the plate at P that was initially 90° has been reduced by the sum of and :
0.072922 0.066845 0.139767 0.002439 rad
Since shear strain is defined as the change in angle between two initially perpendicular lines, the shear
strain in the plate at P is
0.002439 ra 2, 440 rad d μ
P
Ans.
Note: Since these angles are small, we could have just as well used tan ≈ and tan ≈ and saved
the extra steps involved in using the inverse tangent function. Thus,
1.4 mm
tan 0.001273 rad
1,100 mm
0.7 mm
tan 0.001167 rad
600 mm
0.001273 rad 0.001167 rad 0.002439 ra 2, 440 μra d d
P
Ans.
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2.13 A thin rectangular plate is uniformly
deformed as shown in Fig. P2.13.
Determine the shear strain
xy
at P.
Fig. P2.13
Solution
Before deformation, the angle of the plate at P was 90° or /2
radians. We must now determine the plate angle at P after
deformation. The difference between these angles is the shear strain.
After deformation, the angle that side PQ makes with the horizontal
axis is
0.125 in.
tan 0.397881
18 in.
and the angle that side PR makes with the vertical axis is
0.125 in.
tan 0.286477
25 in.
By inspection, the angle of the plate at P has been increased by
and decreased by ; thus, the angle at P after deformation is:
90 90 0.397881 0.286477 90.111404
The angle in the plate at P that was initially 90° has been increased to 90.111404° = 1.572741 rad. The
shear strain in the plate at P is thus
1.572741 rad 0.001944 ra 1,944 μr d d
2
a
P
Ans.
Note: Since these angles are small, we could have just as well used tan ≈ and tan ≈ and saved
the extra steps involved in using the inverse tangent functions. Thus,
0.125 in.
tan 0.006944 rad
18 in.
0.125 in.
tan 0.005000 rad
25 in.
By inspection, the angle of the plate at P has been increased by and decreased by ; thus, the angle at
P after deformation is:
0.006944 rad 0.005000 rad 0.001944 rad
2 2 2
Therefore, the shear strain in the plate at P is
P
= −0.001944 rad = −1,944 rad. Ans.
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2.14 A thin polymer plate PQR is deformed
so that corner Q is displaced downward 1.0
mm to new position Q’ as shown in Fig.
P2.14. Determine the shear strain at Q’
associated with the two edges (PQ and QR).
Fig. P2.14
Solution
Before deformation, the angle of the plate at Q was 90° or
/2 radians. We must now determine the plate angle at Q′
after deformation. The difference between these angles is
the shear strain.
After deformation, the angle ′ is
180 mm 1.0 mm 181 mm
tan
300 mm 300 mm
31.103981
and the angle ′ is
500 mm 1.0 mm 499 mm
tan
300 mm 300 mm
58.985614
Therefore, after deformation, the angle of the plate at Q′ is
31.103981 58.985614 90.089595 1.572360 rad
The difference in plate angle before and after deformation is the shear strain:
1.572360 rad 0.001564 ra 1 d ,56
2
4 μrad Ans.
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2.15 An airplane has a halfwingspan of 33 m. Determine the change in length of the aluminum
alloy [
A
= 22.5×10
6
/°C] wing spar if the plane leaves the ground at a temperature of 15°C and
climbs to an altitude where the temperature is –55°C.
Solution
The change in temperature between the ground and the altitude in flight is
final initial
55°C 15°C 70°C T T T
The thermal strain is given by
6
(22.5 10 /°C)( 70°C) 0.001575 mm/mm
T
T
and thus the deformation in the 33m wing is
( 0.001575 mm/mm)(33 m) 0.0520 m 52.0 mm
T
L Ans.
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2.16 A large cement kiln has a length of 400 ft and a diameter of 20 ft. Determine the change in
length and diameter of the structural steel [
S
= 6.5×10
6
/°F] shell caused by an increase in
temperature of 350°F.
Solution
The thermal strain is given by
6
(6.5 10 /°F)( 350°F) 0.002275 in./in.
T
T
The change in length of the 225ft kiln length is
( 0.002275 in./in.)(400 ft) 0.9100 ft 10.92 in.
T
L L Ans.
The change in diameter of the 20ft diameter is
( 0.002275 in./in.)(20 ft) 0.004550 ft 0.546 in.
T
D L Ans.
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2.17 A cast iron pipe has an inside diameter of d = 208 mm and an outside diameter of D = 236 mm. The
length of the pipe is L = 3.0 m. The coefficient of thermal expansion for cast iron is
I
= 12.1×10
6
/°C.
Determine the dimension changes caused by an increase in temperature of 70°C.
Solution
The thermal strain caused by a temperature increase of 70°C is given by
6
(12.1 10 /°C)(70°C) 0.000847 mm/mm
T
T
The dimension changes caused by a temperature increase of 70°C are
(0.000847 mm/mm)(236 mm) 0.1999 mm
T
D D Ans.
(0.000847 mm/mm)(208 mm) 0.1762 mm
T
d d Ans.
(0.000847 mm/mm)(3.0 m) 0.002541 m 2.54 mm
T
L L Ans.
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2.18 At a temperature of 40°F, a 0.08in.
gap exists between the ends of the two
bars shown in Fig. P2.18. Bar (1) is an
aluminum alloy [ = 12.5 × 10
−6
/°F] and
bar (2) is stainless steel [ = 9.6 ×
10
−6
/°F]. The supports at A and C are
rigid. Determine the lowest temperature
at which the two bars contact each other.
Fig. P2.18
Solution
Write expressions for the temperatureinduced deformations and set this equal to the 0.08in. gap:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
6 6
1 1 2 2
0.08 in.
0.08 in.
0.08 in. 0.08 in.
77.821°F
(12.5 10 / °F)(40 in.) (9.6 10 / °F)(55 in.)
T L T L
T L L
T
L L
Since the initial temperature is 40°F, the temperature at which the gap is closed is 117.8°F. Ans.
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2.19 At a temperature of 5°C, a 3mm gap
exists between two polymer bars and a rigid
support, as shown in Fig. P2.19. Bars (1) and
(2) have coefficients of thermal expansion of
= 140 × 10
−6
/°C and = 67 × 10
−6
/°C,
respectively. The supports at A and C are rigid.
Determine the lowest temperature at which the
3mm gap is closed.
Fig. P2.19
Solution
Write expressions for the temperatureinduced deformations and set this equal to the 3mm gap:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
6 6
1 1 2 2
3 mm
3 mm
3 mm 3 mm
30.084°C
(140 10 / °C)(540 mm) (67 10 / °C)(360 mm)
T L T L
T L L
T
L L
Since the initial temperature is 5°C, the temperature at which the gap is closed is 35.084°C = 35.1°C. Ans.
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2.20 An aluminum pipe has a length of 60 m at a temperature of 10°C. An adjacent steel pipe at
the same temperature is 5 mm longer. At what temperature will the aluminum pipe be 15 mm
longer than the steel pipe? Assume that the coefficient of thermal expansion for the aluminum is
22.5×10
6
/°C and that the coefficient of thermal expansion for the steel is 12.5×10
6
/°C.
Solution
The length of the aluminum pipe after a change in temperature can be expressed as
final initial
initial initial
A A A
A
A A
L L L
L T L (a)
Similarly, the length of the steel pipe after the same change in temperature is given by
final initial
initial initial
S S S
S
S S
L L L
L T L (b)
From the problem statement, we are trying to determine the temperature change that will cause the final
length of the aluminum pipe to be 15 mm longer than the steel pipe. This requirement can be expressed
as
final final
15 mm
A S
L L (c)
Substitute Eqs. (a) and (b) into Eq. (c) to obtain the following relationship
initial initial initial initial
15 mm
A S
A A S S
L T L L T L
Collect the terms with T on the lefthand side of the equation
initial initial initial initial
15 mm
A S
A S S A
T L T L L L
Factor out T
initial initial initial initial
15 mm
A S
A S S A
T L L L L
and thus, T can be expressed as
initial initial
initial initial
15 mm
S A
A S
A S
L L
T
L L
Convert all length dimensions to units of millimeters and solve
6 6
60, 005 mm 60, 000 mm 15 mm
(22.5 10 /°C)(60, 000 mm) (12.5 10 /°C)(60, 005 mm)
20 mm 20 mm
1.35 mm/°C 0.75 mm/°C 0.60 mm/°C
33.3°C
T
Initially, the pipes were at a temperature of 10°C. With the temperature change determined above, the
temperature at which the aluminum pipe is 15 mm longer than the steel pipe is
final initial
43 10°C 3 .3°C 3.3°C T T T Ans.
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2.21 Determine the movement of the pointer
of Fig. P2.21 with respect to the scale zero in
response to a temperature increase of 60°F.
The coefficients of thermal expansion are
6.6×10
6
/°F for the steel and 12.5×10
6
/°F for
the aluminum.
Fig. P2.21
Solution
In response to the 60°F temperature increase, the steel pieces elongate by the amount
6
Steel Steel Steel
(6.6 10 /°F)(60°F)(12 in.) 0.004752 in. T L
and the aluminum piece elongates by
6
Alum Alum Alum
(12.5 10 /°F)(60°F)(12 in.) 0.009000 in. T L
From the deformation diagram of the pointer, the scale reading can be determined from similar triangles
pointer
Alum Steel
pointer Alum Steel
1.5 in. 8.5 in.
8.5 in.
5.6667 0.009000 in. 0.004752 in.
1.5
0.0241 in. (upward)
in.
v
v Ans.
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2.22 Determine the horizontal movement of
point A of Fig. P2.22 due to a temperature
increase of 75°C. Assume that member AE
has a negligible coefficient of thermal
expansion. The coefficients of thermal
expansion are 11.9×10
6
/°C for the steel and
22.5×10
6
/°C for the aluminum alloy.
Fig. P2.22
Solution
In response to the 75°C temperature increase, the steel piece elongates by the amount
6
Steel Steel Steel
(11.9 10 /°C)(75°C)(300 mm) 0.267750 mm T L
Thus, joint C moves to the right by 0.267750 mm.
Next, calculate the deformation of the aluminum piece:
6
Alum Alum Alum
(22.5 10 /°C)(75°C)(300 mm) 0.50625 mm T L
Joint E moves to the right by 0.50625 mm.
Take the initial position of E as the origin. The coordinates of E in the deflected position are (0.50625
mm, 0) and the coordinates of C are (0.267750 mm, 25 mm). Use the deflectedposition coordinates of
E and C to determine the slope of the pointer.
25 mm 0 25 mm
104.821803
0.267750 mm 0.50625 mm 0.2385 mm
C E
C E
y y
slope
x x
A general equation for the deflected pointer can be expressed as
104.821803 y mx b x b
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Use the known coordinates of point E to determine b:
0 104.821803(0.50625 mm)
53.066038 mm
b
b
Thus, the deflected pointer can be described by the line
104.821803 53.066038 mm y x
or rearranging to solve for x
(53.066038 mm)
104.821803
y
x
At pointer tip A, y = 275 mm; therefore, the x coordinate of the pointer tip is
(53.066038 mm 275 mm) 221.933962 mm
2.11725 mm
104.821803 104.82
2.1
18
m
0
m
3
2 x Ans.
The x coordinate is the same as the horizontal movement since we took the initial position of joint E as
the origin.
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2.23 At a temperature of 25°C, a coldrolled red brass [
B
= 17.6×10
6
/°C] sleeve has an inside
diameter of d
B
= 299.75 mm and an outside diameter of D
B
= 310 mm. The sleeve is to be placed
on a steel [
S
= 11.9×10
6
/°C] shaft with an outside diameter of D
S
= 300 mm. If the temperatures
of the sleeve and the shaft remain the same, determine the temperature at which the sleeve will slip
over the shaft with a gap of 0.05 mm.
Solution
The inside diameter of the brass sleeve after a change in temperature can be expressed as
final initial
initial initial
B B B
B
B B
d d d
d T d (a)
Similarly, the outside diameter of the steel shaft after the same change in temperature is given by
final initial
initial initial
S S S
S
S S
D D D
D T D (b)
From the problem statement, we are trying to determine the temperature change that will cause the
inside diameter of the brass sleeve to be 0.05 mm greater than the outside diameter of the steel shaft.
This requirement can be expressed as
final final
0.05 mm
B S
d D (c)
Substitute Eqs. (a) and (b) into Eq. (c) to obtain the following relationship
initial initial initial initial
0.05 mm
B S
B B S S
d T d D T D
Collect the terms with T on the lefthand side of the equation
initial initial initial initial
0.05 mm
B S
B S S B
T d T D D d
Factor out T
initial initial initial initial
0.05 mm
B S
B S S B
T d D D d
and thus, T can be expressed as
initial initial
initial initial
0.05 mm
S B
B S
B S
D d
T
d D
Solve for the temperature change
6 6
300 mm 299.75 mm 0.05 mm
(17.6 10 /°C)(299.75 mm) (11.9 10 /°C)(300 mm)
0.30 mm 0.30 mm
0.005276 mm/°C 0.003570 mm/°C 0.001706 mm/°C
175.9°C
T
Initially, the shaft and sleeve were at a temperature of 25°C. With the temperature change determined
above, the temperature at which the sleeve fits over the shaft with a gap of 0.05 mm is
final initial
2 25° 01°C C 175.9°C T T T Ans.
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3.1 At the proportional limit, a 2inch gage length of a 0.375in.diameter alloy bar has elongated 0.0083
in. and the diameter has been reduced 0.0005 in. The total tension force on the bar was 4.75 kips.
Determine the following properties of the material:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) Poisson’s ratio.
(c) the proportional limit.
Solution
(a) The bar crosssectional area is
2 2 2
(0.375 in.) 0.110447 in.
4 4
A D
t t
= = =
and thus, the normal stress corresponding to the 4.75kip force is
2
4.75 kips
43.007204 ksi
0.110447 in.
o = =
The longitudinal strain in the bar is
long
0.0083 in.
0.004150 in./in.
2 in. L
o
c = = =
The modulus of elasticity is therefore
long
43.007204 ksi
10, 363.2 ksi
0.004150 i
10, 360 k
n. .
s
n
i
/i
E
o
c
= = = = Ans.
(b) The longitudinal strain in the bar was calculated previously as
long
0.004150 in./in. c =
The lateral strain can be determined from the reduction of the diameter:
lat
0.0005 in.
0.001333 in./in.
0.375 in.
D
D
c
A ÷
= = = ÷
Poisson’s ratio for this specimen is therefore
lat
long
0.001333 in./in.
0.321285
0.004150 in./in.
0.321
c
v
c
÷
= ÷ = ÷ = = Ans.
(c) Based on the problem statement, the stress in the bar is equal to the proportional limit; therefore,
43.0 ksi
PL
o = Ans.
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3.2 At the proportional limit, a 30 mm wide × 12 mm thick bar elongates 2.0 mm under an axial load of
41.5 kN. The bar is 1.5m long. If Poisson’s ratio is 0.33 for the material, determine:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) the proportional limit.
(c) the change in each lateral dimension.
Solution
(a) The bar crosssectional area is
2
(30 mm)(12 mm) 360 mm A = =
and thus, the normal stress corresponding to the 41.5kN axial load is
2
(41.5 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
115.2778 MPa
360 mm
o = =
The longitudinal strain in the bar is
long
2.0 mm
0.001333 mm/mm
(1.5 m)(1,000 mm/m) L
o
c = = =
The modulus of elasticity is therefore
long
115.2778 MPa
86, 458 MPa
0.001333
86.5 GP
mm/mm
a E
o
c
= = = = Ans.
(b) Based on the problem statement, the stress in the bar is equal to the proportional limit; therefore,
115.3 MPa
PL
o = Ans.
(c) Poisson’s ratio is given as v = 0.33. The longitudinal strain in the bar was calculated previously as
long
0.001333 mm/mm c =
The corresponding lateral strain can be determined from Poisson’s ratio:
lat long
(0.33)(0.001333 mm/mm) 0.000440 mm/mm c vc = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
Using this lateral strain, the change in bar width is
lat
width (width) ( 0.000440 mm/mm)(30 0 mm) .01320 mm c A = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.
and the change in bar thickness is
lat
thickness (thickness) ( 0.000440 mm/mm)(12 mm 0.00528 ) mm c ÷ A = = ÷ = Ans.
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3.3 At an axial load of 22 kN, a 45mmwide × 15mmthick polyimide polymer bar elongates 3.0 mm
while the bar width contracts 0.25 mm. The bar is 200 mm long. At the 22kN load, the stress in the
polymer bar is less than its proportional limit. Determine:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) Poisson’s ratio.
(c) the change in the bar thickness.
Solution
(a) The bar crosssectional area is
2
(15 mm)(45 mm) 675 mm A = =
and thus, the normal stress corresponding to the 22kN axial load is
2
(22 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
32.592593 MPa
675 mm
o = =
The longitudinal strain in the bar is
long
3.0 mm
0.0150 mm/mm
200 mm L
o
c = = =
The modulus of elasticity is therefore
long
32.592593 MPa
2,173 MPa
0.0150
2.17 GP
m m
a
m / m
E
o
c
= = = = Ans.
(b) The longitudinal strain in the bar was calculated previously as
long
0.0150 mm/mm c =
The lateral strain can be determined from the reduction of the bar width:
lat
width 0.25 mm
0.005556 mm/mm
width 45 mm
c
A ÷
= = = ÷
Poisson’s ratio for this specimen is therefore
lat
long
0.005556 mm/mm
0.370370
0.0150 mm/mm
0.370
c
v
c
÷
= ÷ = ÷ = = Ans.
(c) The change in bar thickness can be found from the lateral strain:
lat
thickness (thickness) ( 0.005556 mm/mm)(15 mm) 0.0833 mm c A = = ÷ = ÷ Ans.
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3.4 A 0.75in.thick rectangular alloy bar is subjected to a tensile load P by pins at A and B. The width
of the bar is w = 3.0 in. Strain gages bonded to the specimen measure the following strains in the
longitudinal (x) and transverse (y) directions: c
x
= 840 uc and c
y
= −250 uc.
(a) Determine Poisson’s ratio for this
specimen.
(b) If the measured strains were produced
by an axial load of P = 32 kips, what is the
modulus of elasticity for this specimen?
Fig. P3.4
Solution
(a) Poisson’s ratio for this specimen is
lat
long
0.29
250 με
840 με
8
y
x
c
c
v
c c
÷
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.
(b) The bar crosssectional area is
2
(3.0 in.)(0.75 in.) 2.25 in. A = =
and so the normal stress for an axial load of P = 32 kips is
2
32 kips
14.222222 ksi
2.25 in.
o = =
The modulus of elasticity is thus
long
14.222222 ksi
16, 931.2 ksi
1 in./in.
(840 με)
1,000,000
16, 930 ks
με
i E
o
c
= = = =
 

\ .
Ans.
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3.5 A 6mmthick rectangular alloy bar is subjected to a tensile load P by pins at A and B. The width
of the bar is w = 30 mm. Strain gages bonded to the specimen measure the following strains in the
longitudinal (x) and transverse (y) directions: c
x
= 900 uc and c
y
= −275 uc.
(a) Determine Poisson’s ratio for this
specimen.
(b) If the measured strains were produced
by an axial load of P = 19 kN, what is the
modulus of elasticity for this specimen?
Fig. P3.5
Solution
(a) Poisson’s ratio for this specimen is
lat
long
0.30
275 με
900 με
6
y
x
c
c
v
c c
÷
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.
(b) The bar crosssectional area is
2
(30 mm)(6 mm) 180 mm A = =
and so the normal stress for an axial load of P = 19 kN is
2
(19 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
105.556 MPa
180 mm
o = =
The modulus of elasticity is thus
long
105.556 MPa
117, 284.0 MPa
1 mm/mm
(900 με)
1,000,000 μ
117.3 GPa
ε
E
o
c
= = = =
 

\ .
Ans.
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3.6 A copper rod [E = 110 GPa] originally 350mm long is pulled in tension with a normal stress of 180
MPa. If the deformation is entirely elastic, what is the resulting elongation?
Solution
Since the deformation is elastic, the strain in the rod can be determined from Hooke’s Law,
180 MPa
0.0016364 mm/mm
110, 000 MPa E
o
c = = =
The elongation in the rod is thus
(0.0016364 mm/mm)(350 m 0 m) .573 mm L o c = = = Ans.
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3.7 A 6061T6 aluminum tube [E = 10,000 ksi; v = 0.33] has an outside diameter of 4.000 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.065 in.
(a) Determine the tension force that must be applied to the tube to cause its outside diameter to contract
by 0.005 in.
(b) If the tube is 84in. long, what is the overall elongation?
Solution
(a) The lateral strain associated with the given diameter contraction is
lat
0.005 in.
0.001250 in./in.
4.000 in.
c
÷
= = ÷
From the given Poisson’s ratio, the longitudinal strain in the tube must be
lat
long
0.001250 in./in.
0.003788 in./in.
0.33
c
c
v
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
and from Hooke’s Law, the normal stress can be calculated as
long
(10, 000 ksi)(0.003788 in./in.) 37.878788 ksi E o c = = =
The crosssectional area of the tube is needed to determine the tension force. Given that the outside
diameter of the tube is 4.000 in. and the wall thickness is 0.065 in., the inside diameter of the tube is
3.870 in. The tube crosssectional area is thus
2 2 2
(4.000 in.) (3.870 in.) 0.803541 in.
4
A
t
= ÷ =
and the force applied to the tube is
2
(37.878788 ksi)(0.803541 in. ) 30.437154 kips 30.4 kips F A o = = = = Ans.
(b) The longitudinal strain was calculated previously. Use the longitudinal strain to determine the
overall elongation:
long
(0.003788 in./in.)(84 i 0 n.) .318 in. L o c = = = Ans.
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3.8 A metal specimen with an original diameter of 0.500 in. and a gage length of 2.000 in. is tested in
tension until fracture occurs. At the point of fracture, the diameter of the specimen is 0.260 in. and the
fractured gage length is 3.08 in. Calculate the ductility in terms of percent elongation and percent
reduction in area.
Solution
Percent elongation is simply the longitudinal strain at fracture:
(3.08 in. 2.000 in.) 1.08 in.
0.54 in./in.
2.000 in. 2.000 in.
percent elonga 54% tion
L
o
c
÷
= = = =
= Ans.
The initial crosssectional area of the specimen is
2 2
0
(0.500 in.) 0.196350 in.
4
A
t
= =
The final crosssectional area at the fracture location is
2 2
(0.260 in.) 0.053093 in.
4
f
A
t
= =
The percent reduction in area is
0
0
2 2
2
percent reduction of area (100%)
(0.196350 in. 0.053093 in. )
(100%)
0.196350 in
73.0%
.
f
A A
A
÷
=
÷
= = Ans.
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3.9 A portion of the stressstrain curve for a
stainless steel alloy is shown in Fig. P3.9. A 350
mmlong bar is loaded in tension until it elongates
2.0 mm and then the load is removed.
(a) What is the permanent set in the bar?
(b) What is the length of the unloaded bar?
(c) If the bar is reloaded, what will be the
proportional limit?
Fig. P3.9
Solution
(a) The normal strain in the specimen is
2.0 mm
0.005714 mm/mm
350 mm L
o
c = = =
Construct a line parallel to the elastic modulus line that passes through the data curve at a strain of c =
0.005714 mm/mm. The strain value at which this modulus line intersects the strain axis is the
permanent set:
permanent set 0.0035 mm/mm = Ans.
(b) The length of the unloaded bar is therefore:
(0.0035 mm/mm)(350 mm) 1.225 mm
350 mm 1.225 mm 351.225 mm
f
L
L
o c = = =
= + = Ans.
(c) From the stressstrain curve, the reload proportional limit is 444 MPa . Ans.
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3.10 The 16 by 22 by 25mm rubber blocks
shown in Fig. P3.10 are used in a double U
shear mount to isolate the vibration of a
machine from its supports. An applied load of
P = 285 N causes the upper frame to be
deflected downward by 5 mm. Determine the
shear modulus G of the rubber blocks.
Fig. P3.10
Solution
Consider a FBD of the upper U frame. The
downward force P is resisted by two upward shear
forces V; therefore, V = 285 N / 2 = 142.5 N.
Next, consider a FBD of one of the rubber blocks.
The shear force acting on one rubber block is V =
142.5 N. The area of the rubber block that is
parallel to the direction of V is
2
(22 mm)(25 mm) 550 mm
V
A = =
Consequently, the shear stress in one rubber block is
2
142.5 N
0.259091 MPa
550 mm
V
V
A
t = = =
The shear strain associated with the 5mm downward displacement of the rubber blocks is given by:
5 mm
tan 0.312500 0.302885 rad
16 mm
¸ ¸ = = =
From Hooke’s Law for shear stress and shear strain, the shear modulus G can be computed:
0.259091 MPa
0.855411 MPa
0.30288
0.855 M
5 a
Pa
r d
G G
t
t ¸
¸
= = = = = Ans.
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3.11 Two hard rubber blocks are used in an antivibration
mount to support a small machine, as shown in Fig. P3.11.
An applied load of P = 150 lb causes a downward deflection
of 0.25 in. Determine the shear modulus of the rubber blocks.
Assume a = 0.5 in., b = 1.0 in., and c = 2.5 in.
Fig. P3.11
Solution
Determine the shear strain from the angle formed by the
downward deflection and the block thickness a:
0.250 in.
tan 0.500 0.463648 rad
0.50 in.
¸ ¸ = = =
Note: The small angle approximation tan ¸ ~ ¸ is not applicable in this instance.
Determine the shear stress from the applied load P and the block area.
Note that this is a double shear configuration; therefore, the shear force V acting on a single rubber block
is half of the total load: V = P/2 = 75 lb.
To determine the area needed here, consider the surface that is bonded to the plate. This area has
dimensions of b×c. The shear stress acting on a single block is therefore:
75 lb
30 psi
(1.0 in.)(2.5 in.)
V
A
t = = =
The shear modulus G can be calculated from Hooke’s law for shear stress and strain:
30 psi
64.704 psi
0.463648
64.7 psi
rad
G G
t
t ¸
¸
= = = = = Ans.
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3.12 Two hard rubber blocks [G = 350 kPa] are used in an anti
vibration mount to support a small machine, as shown in Fig.
P3.12. Determine the downward deflection that will occur for an
applied load of P = 900 N. Assume a = 20 mm, b = 50 mm, and
c = 80 mm.
Fig. P3.12
Solution
Note that this is a double shear configuration; therefore, the shear force V acting on a single rubber block
is half of the total load: V = P/2 = 450 N.
Determine the shear stress from the shear force V and the block area. To determine the area needed
here, consider the surface that is bonded to the plate. This area has dimensions of b×c. The shear stress
acting on a single block is therefore:
450 N
0.112500 MPa
(50 mm)(80 mm)
V
A
t = = =
Since the shear modulus G is given, the shear strain can be calculated from Hooke’s law for shear stress
and shear strain:
0.112500 MPa
0.321429 rad
0.350 MPa
G
G
t
t ¸ ¸ = = = =
From the angle ¸ and the block thickness a, the downward deflection o of the block can be determined
from:
tan tan (20 mm) tan(0.321429 rad) 6.65951 6.66 2 mm m m a
a
o
¸ o ¸ = = = = = Ans.
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3.13 A load test on a 6 mm diameter by 225 mm long aluminum alloy rod found that a tension load of
4,800 N caused an elastic elongation of 0.52 mm in the rod. Using this result, determine the elastic
elongation that would be expected for a 24mmdiameter rod of the same material if the rod were 1.2 m
long and subjected to a tension force of 37 kN.
Solution
The crosssectional area of the 6mmdiameter rod is
2 2
(6 mm) 28.274334 mm
4
A
t
= =
Thus, the normal stress in the rod due to a 4,800N load is
2
4,800 N
169.76527 MPa
28.274334 mm
F
A
o = = =
The strain in the 225mm long rod associated with a 0.52mm elongation is
0.52 mm
0.0023111 mm/mm
225 mm L
o
c = = =
Therefore, the elastic modulus of the aluminum alloy is
169.76527 MPa
73, 456.128 MPa
0.0023111 mm/mm
E
o
c
= = =
The crosssectional area of the 24mmdiameter rod is
2 2
(24 mm) 252.389342 mm
4
A
t
= =
Thus, the normal stress in the 24mmdiameter rod due to a 37kN load is
2
(37 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
81.787957 MPa
452.389342 mm
F
A
o = = =
From Hooke’s Law, the strain that would be expected is
81.787957 MPa
0.0011134 mm/mm
73, 456.128 MPa E
o
c = = =
Since the 42mmdiameter rod is 1.2m long, the expected elongation is
(0.0011134 mm/mm)(1.2 m)(1,000 mm/m) 1.336111 mm 1.336 mm L o c = = = = Ans.
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3.14 The stressstrain diagram for a
particular stainless steel alloy is shown in
Fig. P3.14. A rod made from this material is
initially 800 mm long at a temperature of
20°C. After a tension force is applied to the
rod and the temperature is increased by
200°C, the length of the rod is 804 mm.
Determine the stress in the rod and state
whether the elongation in the rod is elastic
or inelastic. Assume the coefficient of
thermal expansion for this material is 18 ×
10
−6
/°C.
Fig. P3.14
Solution
The 4mm total elongation of the rod is due to a combination of load and temperature increase. The
200°C temperature increase causes a normal strain of:
6
(18 10 / )(200 ) 0.003600 mm/mm
T
T C C c o
÷
= A = × ° ° =
which means that the rod elongates
(0.003600 mm/mm)(800 mm) 2.8800 mm
T T
L o c = = =
The portion of the 4mm total elongation due to load is therefore
4 mm 2.8800 mm 1.1200 mm
T o
o o o = ÷ = ÷ =
The strain corresponding to this elongation is
1.1200 mm
0.001400 mm/mm
800 mm L
o
o
o
c = = =
By inspection of the stressstrain curve, this strain is clearly in the linear region. Therefore, the rod is
elastic in this instance.
For the linear region, the elastic modulus can be determined from the lower scale plot:
(400 MPa 0)
200, 000 MPa
(0.002 mm/mm 0)
E
o
c
A ÷
= = =
A ÷
Using Hooke’s Law (or directly from the oc diagram), the stress corresponding to the 0.001400
mm/mm strain is
(200,000 MPa)(0.001400 mm/mm 280 MP ) a E
o
o c = = = Ans.
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3.15 In Fig. P3.15, rigid bar ABC is supported by
axial member (1), which has a crosssectional area
of 400 mm
2
, an elastic modulus of E = 70 GPa, and
a coefficient of thermal expansion of o = 22.5 ×
10
−6
/°C. After load P is applied to the rigid bar
and the temperature rises 40°C, a strain gage
affixed to member (1) measures a strain increase of
2,150 uc. Determine:
(a) the normal stress in member (1).
(b) the magnitude of applied load P.
(c) the deflection of the rigid bar at C.
Fig. P3.15
Solution
(a) The strain measured in member (1) is due to both the internal force in the member and the
temperature change. The strain caused by the temperature change is
6
(22.5 10 / °C)(40°C) 0.000900 mm/mm
T
T c o
÷
= A = × =
Since the total strain is c = 2,150 uc = 0.002150 mm/mm, the strain caused by the internal force in
member (1) must be
0.002150 mm/mm 0.000900 mm/mm 0.001250 mm/mm
T o
c c c = ÷ = ÷ =
The elastic modulus of member (1) is E = 70 GPa; thus, from Hooke’s Law, the stress in the member is:
1
(70,000 MPa)(0.001250 mm/mm) 87.5 MPa E
o
o c = = = Ans.
(b) If the normal stress in member (1) is 87.5 MPa, the axial force in the member is
2 2
1 1 1
(87.5 N/mm )(400 mm ) 35, 000 N F A o = = =
Consider moment equilibrium of rigid bar ABC about joint
A to determine the magnitude of P:
(1.75 m)(35,000 N) (3.0 m) 0
20, 417 N 20.4 kN
A
M P
P
E = ÷ =
= = Ans.
(c) The strain in member (1) was measured as c = 2,150 uc = 0.002150 mm/mm; therefore, the total
elongation of member (1) is
1 1 1
(0.002150 mm/mm)(3,750 mm) 8.0625 mm L o c = = =
The deflection of the rigid bar at B is equal to this elongation; therefore, v
B
= o
1
= 8.0625 mm
(downward). By similar triangles, the deflection of the rigid bar at C is given by:
1.75 m 3.0 m
3.0 m 3.0
(8.0625 mm) 13.821429 mm
1.75 m 1.
13.82
7
m
5
m
B C
C B
v v
v v
=
= = = =  Ans.
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3.16 A tensile test specimen of 1045 hotrolled
steel having a diameter of 0.505 in. and a gage
length of 2.00 in. was tested to fracture. Stress
and strain data obtained during the test are
shown in Fig. P3.16. Determine
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) the proportional limit.
(c) the ultimate strength.
(d) the yield strength (0.20% offset).
(e) the fracture stress.
(f) the true fracture stress if the final diameter of
the specimen at the location of the fracture was
0.392 in.
Fig. P3.16
Solution
From the stressstrain curve, the proportional limit will be taken as o = 60 ksi at a strain of c = 0.0019.
(Obviously, there can be quite a bit of leeway in pulling numbers from such a limited plot.)
(a) The modulus of elasticity is
60 ksi
0.0019 in./in.
31, 600 ksi E
o
c
= = = Ans.
(b) From the diagram, the proportional limit is taken as
60 ksi
PL
o = Ans.
(c) The ultimate strength is
105 ksi
U
o = Ans.
(d) The yield strength is
68 ksi
Y
o = Ans.
(e) The fracture stress is
fracture
98 ksi o = Ans.
(f) The original crosssectional area of the specimen is
2 2
0
(0.505 in.) 0.200296 in.
4
A
t
= =
The crosssectional area of the specimen at the fracture location is
2 2
(0.392 in.) 0.120687 in.
4
f
A
t
= =
The true fracture stress is therefore
2
fracture 2
0.200296 in.
true (98 ksi)
0.120687 in.
162.6 ksi o = = Ans.
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3.17 A tensile test specimen of stainless
steel alloy having a diameter of 0.495 in.
and a gage length of 2.00 in. was tested to
fracture. Stress and strain data obtained
during the test are shown in Fig. P3.17.
Determine:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) the proportional limit.
(c) the ultimate strength.
(d) the yield strength (0.20% offset).
(e) the fracture stress.
(f) the true fracture stress if the final
diameter of the specimen at the location of
the fracture was 0.350 in.
Fig. P3.17
Solution
From the stressstrain curve, the proportional limit will be taken as o = 60 ksi at a strain of c = 0.002.
(Obviously, there can be quite a bit of leeway in pulling numbers from such a limited plot.)
(a) The modulus of elasticity is
60 ksi
0.002 in./in.
30, 000 ksi E
o
c
= = = Ans.
(b) From the diagram, the proportional limit is taken as
60 ksi
PL
o = Ans.
(c) The ultimate strength is
159 ksi
U
o = Ans.
(d) The yield strength is
80 ksi
Y
o = Ans.
(e) The fracture stress is
fracture
135 ksi o = Ans.
(f) The original crosssectional area of the specimen is
2 2
0
(0.495 in.) 0.192442 in.
4
A
t
= =
The crosssectional area of the specimen at the fracture location is
2 2
(0.350 in.) 0.096211 in.
4
f
A
t
= =
The true fracture stress is therefore
2
fracture 2
0.192442 in.
true (135 ksi)
0.096211 in
270 i
.
ks o = = Ans.
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3.18 A bronze alloy specimen having a
diameter of 12.8 mm and a gage length
of 50 mm was tested to fracture. Stress
and strain data obtained during the test
are shown in Fig. P3.18. Determine:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) the proportional limit.
(c) the ultimate strength.
(d) the yield strength (0.20% offset).
(e) the fracture stress.
(f) the true fracture stress if the final
diameter of the specimen at the location
of the fracture was 10.5 mm.
Fig. P3.18
Solution
From the stressstrain curve, the proportional limit will be taken as o = 210 MPa at a strain of c = 0.002.
(Obviously, there can be quite a bit of leeway in pulling numbers from such a limited plot.)
(a) The modulus of elasticity is
210 MPa
0.002 in./in.
105, 000 MPa E
o
c
= = = Ans.
(b) From the diagram, the proportional limit is taken as
210 MPa
PL
o = Ans.
(c) The ultimate strength is
380 MPa
U
o = Ans.
(d) The yield strength is
290 MPa
Y
o = Ans.
(e) The fracture stress is
fracture
320 MPa o = Ans.
(f) The original crosssectional area of the specimen is
2 2
0
(12.8 mm) 128.679635 mm
4
A
t
= =
The crosssectional area of the specimen at the fracture location is
2 2
(10.5 mm) 86.590148 mm
4
f
A
t
= =
The true fracture stress is therefore
2
fracture 2
128.679635 mm
true (320 MPa)
86.590148 mm
476 MPa o = = Ans.
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3.19 An alloy specimen having a diameter of 12.8
mm and a gage length of 50 mm was tested to
fracture. Load and deformation data obtained
during the test are given. Determine:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) the proportional limit.
(c) the ultimate strength.
(d) the yield strength (0.05% offset).
(e) the yield strength (0.20% offset).
(f) the fracture stress.
(g) the true fracture stress if the final diameter of
the specimen at the location of the fracture was
11.3 mm.
Load
Change in
Length
Load
Change in
Length
(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0
7.6 0.02 43.8 1.50
14.9 0.04 45.8 2.00
22.2 0.06 48.3 3.00
28.5 0.08 49.7 4.00
29.9 0.10 50.4 5.00
30.6 0.12 50.7 6.00
32.0 0.16 50.4 7.00
33.0 0.20 50.0 8.00
33.3 0.24 49.7 9.00
36.8 0.50 47.9 10.00
41.0 1.00 45.1 fracture
Solution
The plot of the stressstrain data is shown below.
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(a) Using the data point for 28.5 kN load and 0.08 mm elongation, the modulus of elasticity can be
calculated as
221.48 MPa
0.0016 mm/mm
138, 400 MPa E
o
c
= = = Ans.
(b) From the diagram, the proportional limit is taken as
234 MPa
PL
o = Ans.
(c) The ultimate strength is
2
(50.7 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
(12.8 mm)
4
394 MPa
U
o
t
= = Ans.
(d) The yield strength by the 0.05% offset method is
239 MPa
Y
o = Ans.
(e) The yield strength by the 0.2% offset method is
259 MPa
Y
o = Ans.
(f) The fracture stress is
fracture
2
(45.1 kN)(1,000 N/kN
350 MP
)
350.48 a MPa
(12.8 mm)
4
o
t
= = = Ans.
(f) The original crosssectional area of the specimen is
2 2
0
(12.8 mm) 128.679635 mm
4
A
t
= =
The crosssectional area of the specimen at the fracture location is
2 2
(11.3 mm) 100.287492 mm
4
f
A
t
= =
The true fracture stress is therefore
2
fracture 2
128.679635 mm
true (356 MPa)
100.287492 m
457 a
m
MP o = = Ans.
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3.20 A 1035 hotrolled steel specimen with a
diameter of 0.500 in. and a 2.0in. gage length was
tested to fracture. Load and deformation data
obtained during the test are given. Determine:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) the proportional limit.
(c) the ultimate strength.
(d) the yield strength (0.05% offset).
(e) the yield strength (0.20% offset).
(f) the fracture stress.
(g) the true fracture stress if the final diameter of
the specimen at the location of the fracture was
0.387 in.
Load
Change in
Length
Load
Change
in Length
(lb) (in.) (lb) (in.)
0 0 12,540 0.0209
2,690 0.0009 12,540 0.0255
5,670 0.0018 14,930 0.0487
8,360 0.0028 17,020 0.0835
11,050 0.0037 18,220 0.1252
12,540 0.0042 18,820 0.1809
13,150 0.0046 19,110 0.2551
13,140 0.0060 19,110 0.2968
12,530 0.0079 18,520 0.3107
12,540 0.0098 17,620 0.3246
12,840 0.0121 16,730 0.3339
12,840 0.0139 16,130 0.3385
15,900 fracture
Solution
The plot of the stressstrain data is shown below.
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(a) Using the data point for 12,540 lb load and 0.0042 in. elongation, the modulus of elasticity can be
calculated as
63.866 ksi
0.0021 in./in.
30, 400 ksi E
o
c
= = = Ans.
(b) From the diagram, the proportional limit is taken as
63.8 ksi
PL
o = Ans.
(c) The ultimate strength is
97.3 ksi
U
o = Ans.
(d) The yield strength using the 0.05% offset method is
65.4 ksi
Y
o = Ans.
(e) The yield strength using the 0.2% offset method is
63.8 ksi
Y
o = Ans.
(f) The fracture stress is
fracture
2
15, 900 lb
80, 978 psi
(0.500 in.)
4
81.0 ksi o
t
= = = Ans.
(g) The original crosssectional area of the specimen is
2 2
0
(0.500 in.) 0.196350 in.
4
A
t
= =
The crosssectional area of the specimen at the fracture location is
2 2
(0.387 in.) 0.117628 in.
4
f
A
t
= =
The true fracture stress is therefore
2
fracture 2
0.196350 in.
true (80, 978 psi) 135,172 psi
0.117628
135
in
.2 ksi
.
o = = = Ans.
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3.21 A 2024T4 aluminum test specimen with a
diameter of 0.505 in. and a 2.0in. gage length was
tested to fracture. Load and deformation data
obtained during the test are given. Determine:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) the proportional limit.
(c) the ultimate strength.
(d) the yield strength (0.05% offset).
(e) the yield strength (0.20% offset).
(f) the fracture stress.
(g) the true fracture stress if the final diameter of
the specimen at the location of the fracture was
0.452 in.
Load
Change in
Length
Load
Change in
Length
(lb) (in.) (lb) (in.)
0 0.0000 11,060 0.0139
1,300 0.0014 11,500 0.0162
2,390 0.0023 12,360 0.0278
3,470 0.0032 12,580 0.0394
4,560 0.0042 12,800 0.0603
5,640 0.0051 13,020 0.0788
6,720 0.0060 13,230 0.0974
7,380 0.0070 13,450 0.1159
8,240 0.0079 13,670 0.1391
8,890 0.0088 13,880 0.1623
9,330 0.0097 14,100 0.1994
9,980 0.0107 14,100 0.2551
10,200 0.0116 14,100 0.3200
10,630 0.0125 14,100 0.3246
14,100 fracture
Solution
The plot of the stressstrain data is shown below.
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(a) Using the data point for 6,720 lb load and 0.0060 in. elongation, the modulus of elasticity can be
calculated as
33.55 ksi
0.003 in./in.
11,180 ksi E
o
c
= = = Ans.
(b) From the diagram, the proportional limit is taken as
33.6 ksi
PL
o = Ans.
(c) The ultimate strength is
70.4 ksi
U
o = Ans.
(d) The yield strength using the 0.05% offset method is
44.4 ksi
Y
o = Ans.
(e) The yield strength using the 0.2% offset method is
54.5 ksi
Y
o = Ans.
(f) The fracture stress is
fracture
70.4 ksi o = Ans.
(g) The original crosssectional area of the specimen is
2 2
0
(0.505 in.) 0.200296 in.
4
A
t
= =
The crosssectional area of the specimen at the fracture location is
2 2
(0.452 in.) 0.160460 in.
4
f
A
t
= =
The true fracture stress is therefore
2
fracture 2
0.200296 in.
true (70.4 ksi)
0.160460 in.
87.9 ksi o = = Ans.
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3.22 A 1045 hotrolled steel tension test specimen
has a diameter of 6.00 mm and a gage length of 25
mm. In a test to fracture, the stress and strain data
below were obtained. Determine:
(a) the modulus of elasticity.
(b) the proportional limit.
(c) the ultimate strength.
(d) the yield strength (0.05% offset).
(e) the yield strength (0.20% offset).
(f) the fracture stress.
(g) the true fracture stress if the final diameter of
the specimen at the location of the fracture was
4.65 mm.
Load
Change in
Length
Load
Change in
Length
(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0.00 0.00 13.22 0.29
2.94 0.01 16.15 0.61
5.58 0.02 18.50 1.04
8.52 0.03 20.27 1.80
11.16 0.05 20.56 2.26
12.63 0.05 20.67 2.78
13.02 0.06 20.72 3.36
13.16 0.08 20.61 3.83
13.22 0.08 20.27 3.94
13.22 0.10 19.97 4.00
13.25 0.14 19.68 4.06
13.22 0.17 19.09 4.12
18.72 fracture
Solution
The plot of the stressstrain data is shown below.
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(a) Using the data point for 8.52 kN load and 0.03 mm elongation, the modulus of elasticity can be
calculated as
301.3 MPa
0.0012 mm/mm
251, 000 MPa E
o
c
= = = Ans.
(b) From the diagram, the proportional limit is taken as
400 MPa
PL
o = Ans.
(c) The ultimate strength is
2
(20.72 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
732.82MPa
(6
733
.00 mm
4
P
)
M a
U
o
t
= = = Ans.
(d) The yield strength by the 0.05% offset method is
465 MPa
Y
o = Ans.
(e) The yield strength by the 0.2% offset method is
465 MPa
Y
o = Ans.
(f) The fracture stress is
fracture
2
(18.72 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
662.08 MPa
(6.00
662 MP
m )
a
m
4
o
t
= = = Ans.
(f) The original crosssectional area of the specimen is
2 2
0
(6 mm) 28.274334 mm
4
A
t
= =
The crosssectional area of the specimen at the fracture location is
2 2
(4.65 mm) 16.982272 mm
4
f
A
t
= =
The true fracture stress is therefore
2
fracture 2
28.274334 mm
true (662.08 MPa)
16.98
1,102 MP
m
a
2272 m
o = = Ans.
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3.23 Rigid bar BCD in Fig. P3.23 is
supported by a pin at C and by aluminum
rod (1). A concentrated load P is applied to
the lower end of aluminum rod (2), which is
attached to the rigid bar at D. The cross
sectional area of each rod is A = 0.20 in.
2
and the elastic modulus of the aluminum
material is E = 10,000 ksi. After the load P
is applied at E, the strain in rod (1) is
measured as 1,350 uc (tension).
(a) Determine the magnitude of load P.
(b) Determine the total deflection of point E
relative to its initial position.
Fig. P3.23
Solution
(a) From the measured strain, the stress in rod (1) is
6
1 1 1
(10, 000 ksi)(1,350 10 in./in.) 13.5 ksi E o c
÷
= = × =
and thus, the force in rod (1) is
2
1 1 1
(13.5 ksi)(0.20 in. ) 2.70 kips (T) F A o = = =
Consider the equilibrium of the rigid bar, and write a
moment equilibrium equation about C to determine the
magnitude of load P:
(20 in.)(2.70 kips) (30 in.) 0
1.8 kips
C
M P
P
E = ÷ =
= Ans.
(b) From the measured strain, the elongation of rod (1) is
6
1 1 1
(1,350 10 in./in.)(50 in.) 0.0675 in. L o c
÷
= = × =
From similar triangles, the deflection of the rigid bar at D can
be expressed in terms of the deflection at B:
20 in. 30 in.
30 in. 30 in.
(0.0675 in.) 0.10125 in.
20 in. 20 in.
B D
D B
v v
v v
=
= = =
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The elongation of rod (2) due to the 1.8kip load must be determined, also. The stress in rod (2) is
2
2 2
2
1.8 kips
9 ksi
0.2 in.
F
A
o = = =
and consequently, the strain in rod (2) is
2
2
2
9 ksi
0.000900 in./in.
10,000 ksi E
o
c = = =
From the strain, the elongation in rod (2) can be computed:
2 2 2
(0.000900 in./in.)(100 in.) 0.0900 in. L o c = = =
The deflection of joint E is the sum of the rigid bar deflection at D and the elongation in rod (2):
2
0.10125 in. 0.09 in. 0.19125 in. 0.1913 in.
E D
v v o = + = + = =  Ans.
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3.24 Rigid bar ABC is supported by pinconnected axial member (1) and by a 0.75in.diameter double
shear pin connection at C as shown in Fig. P3.24. Member (1) is a 2.75 in. wide by 1.25 in. thick
rectangular bar made of aluminum with an elastic modulus of 10,000 ksi. When a concentrated load P is
applied to the rigid bar at A, the normal strain in member (1) is measured as –880 uc.
(a) Determine the magnitude of
applied load P.
(b) Determine the average shear
stress in the pin at C.
Fig. P3.24
Solution
Member (1) is a twoforce member that is oriented at u
with respect to the horizontal axis:
30 in.
tan 0.75 36.870
40 in.
u u = = = °
From a FBD of rigid structure ABC, the following
equilibrium equations can be written:
1
cos36.870 0
x x
F F C E = ÷ ° + = (a)
1
sin36.870 0
y y
F P F C E = ÷ ÷ ° + = (b)
1
(80 in.) ( sin36.870 )(56 in.) 0
C
M P F E = + ° = (c)
(a) The force in member (1) can be determined from the measured strain of –880 uc. From Hooke’s
law, the stress in member (1) is:
1 1 6
1 in./in.
(10, 000 ksi)( 880 με) 8.800 ksi
1 10 με
E o c = = ÷ = ÷
×
and thus, the force in member (1) is:
1 1 1
( 8.800 ksi)(2.75 in.)(1.25 in.) 30.250 kips F A o = = ÷ = ÷
Substitute this value into Eq. (c) to compute P:
1
( sin36.870 )(56 in.) ( 30.250 kips)(sin36.870 )(56 in.)
80 in. 80 in.
12.705 kips 12.71 kips
F
P
° ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷
= = Ans.
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(b) Substitute the values for P and F
1
into Eqs. (a) and (b) to obtain C
x
and C
y
:
1
cos36.870 ( 30.250 kips)cos36.870 24.200 kips
x
C F = ° = ÷ ° = ÷
1
sin36.870 12.705 kips ( 30.250 kips)sin36.870 5.445 kips
y
C P F = + ° = + ÷ ° = ÷
The resultant pin force at C is found from C
x
and C
y
:
2 2 2 2
( 24.200 kips) ( 5.445 kips) 24.805 kips
x y
C C C = + = ÷ + ÷ =
The pin at C is supported in a doubleshear connection. The crosssectional area of the 0.75in.
diameter pin is:
2 2
pin
(0.75 in.) 0.4421786 in.
4
A
t
= =
The average shear stress in the pin is thus:
2
24.805 kips
28.074 ksi
(2 surfaces)(0.441786 in. /surfa
28.1 ks
)
i
ce
V
C
A
t = = = = Ans.
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3.25 A concentrated load P is supported by two
bars as shown in Fig. P3.25. Bar (1) is made of
coldrolled red brass [E = 16,700 ksi; o = 10.4 ×
10
−6
/°F] and has a crosssectional area of 0.225
in.
2
. Bar (2) is made of 6061T6 aluminum [E =
10,000 ksi; o = 13.1 × 10
−6
/°F] and has a cross
sectional area of 0.375 in.
2
. After load P has been
applied and the temperature of the entire assembly
has increased by 50°F, the total strain in bar (1) is
measured as 1,400 uc (elongation). Determine:
(a) the magnitude of load P.
(b) the total strain in bar (2).
Fig. P3.25
Solution
Consider a FBD of joint B. Members (1) and (2) are twoforce members; therefore,
the equilibrium equations can be written as:
2 1
cos55 cos 40 0
x
F F F E = ° ÷ ° = (a)
2 1
sin55 sin40 0
y
F F F P E = ° + ° ÷ = (b)
From Eq. (a):
2 1
cos 40
cos55
F F
°
=
°
(c)
Substitute this expression into Eq. (b) to obtain:
 
 
1 1
1
1
cos40
sin55 sin40
cos55
cos40 tan55 sin40
1.736812
F F P
F P
P F
°
° + ° =
°
° ° + ° =
= (d)
(a) The total strain in bar (1) is measured as 1,400 uc (elongation). Part of this strain is due to the stress
acting in the bar and part of this strain is due to the temperature increase. The strain caused by the
temperature change is
6 6
(10.4 10 / °F)(50°F) 520 10 in./in.
T
T c o
÷ ÷
= A = × = ×
Since the total strain is c = 1,400 uc = 0.001400 in./in., the strain caused by the stress in bar (1) must be:
0.001400 in./in. 0.000520 in./in. 0.000880 in./in.
T o
c c c = ÷ = ÷ =
From Hooke’s law, the stress in bar (1) is therefore:
1 1
(16, 700 ksi)(0.000880 in./in.) 14.696 ksi E o c = = =
and thus, the force in bar (1) is:
2
1 1 1
(14.696 ksi)(0.225 in. ) 3.3066 kips F A o = = =
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From Eq. (d), the applied load P is:
 
1
1.736812 (3.3066 kips)(1.736812) 5.7429 kips 5.74 kips P F = = = = Ans.
(b) From Eq. (c), the force in bar (2) is:
2 1
cos40
(3.3066 kips)(1.335558) 4.4162 kips
cos55
F F
°
= = =
°
The normal stress in bar (2) is therefore:
2
2 2
2
4.4162 kips
11.7764 ksi
0.375 in.
F
A
o = = =
The normal strain due to this stress is:
6 2
2
2
11.7764 ksi
1,177.64 10 in./in.
10,000 ksi E
o
c
÷
= = = ×
The strain caused in bar (2) by the temperature change is:
6 6
(13.1 10 / °F)(50°F) 655 10 in./in.
T
T c o
÷ ÷
= A = × = ×
and thus, the total strain in bar (2) is:
6 6
6
1,177.64 10 in./in. 655 10 in./in.
1,832.64 10 in./in 1,833 με .
T o
c c c
÷ ÷
÷
= + = × + ×
= × = Ans.
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3.26 The rigid bar AC in Fig. P3.26 is
supported by two axial bars (1) and (2).
Both axial bars are made of bronze [E =
100 GPa; o = 18 × 10
−6
/°C]. The cross
sectional area of bar (1) is A
1
= 240 mm
2
and the crosssectional area of bar (2) is A
2
= 360 mm
2
. After load P has been applied
and the temperature of the entire assembly
has increased by 30°C, the total strain in
bar (2) is measured as 1,220 uc
(elongation). Determine:
(a) the magnitude of load P.
(b) the vertical displacement of pin A.
Fig. P3.26
Solution
(a) The total strain in bar (2) is caused partly by the axial force in the bar and partly by the increase in
temperature. The strain caused by the 30°C temperature increase is:
6
(18 10 / C)(30 C) 0.000540 mm/mm
T
T c o
÷
= A = × ° ° =
The strain caused by the axial force in the bar is thus:
2, 2 2,
0.001220 mm/mm 0.000540 mm/mm 0.000680 mm/mm
T o
c c c = ÷ = ÷ =
The stress in bar (2) is
2 2 2,
(100, 000 MPa)(0.000680 mm/mm) 68 MPa E
o
o c = = =
and the force in bar (2) is
2 2
2 2 2
(68 N/mm )(360 mm ) 24, 480 N F A o = = =
Next, consider a FBD of the rigid bar AC. Equilibrium
equations for this FBD are:
1 2
2
0
(1, 400 mm) (500 mm) 0
y
A
F F F P
M F P
E = + ÷ =
E = ÷ =
which can be solve simultaneously to give:
2
500 mm
0.357143
1,400 mm
F P P = =
and
1
0.642857 F P =
The applied load P can be expressed in terms of F
2
as
2 2
1
2.8
0.357143
P F F = =
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and so the magnitude of load P is
2
2.8 2.8(24, 480 N) 68,544 N 68.5 kN P F = = = = Ans.
(b) The force in bar (1) is
1
0.642857 (0.642857)(68,544 N) 44, 064 N F P = = =
Thus, the stress in bar (1) is
1
1 2
1
44, 064 N
183.60 MPa
240 mm
F
A
o = = =
The normal strain due to the axial force in bar (1) is
1
1,
1
183.60 MPa
0.001836 mm/mm
100, 000 MPa E
o
o
c = = =
The normal strain caused by the 30°C temperature increase is:
6
1,
(18 10 / C)(30 C) 0.000540 mm/mm
T
T c o
÷
= A = × ° ° =
Therefore, the total strain in bar (1) is
1 1, 1,
0.001836 mm/mm 0.000540 mm/mm 0.002376 mm/mm
T o
c c c = + = + =
and the elongation in bar (1) is
1 1, 1
(0.002376 mm/mm)(1,300 mm) 3.0888 mm L
o
o c = = =
Since rigid bar ABC is connected to bar (1) (with a perfect connection), joint A displaces downward by
an amount equal to the elongation of bar (1); therefore,
1
3.09 mm
A
v o = =  Ans.
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3.27 The rigid bar in Fig. P3.27 is supported
by axial bar (1) and by a pin connection at
C. Axial bar (1) has a crosssectional area of
A
1
= 275 mm
2
, an elastic modulus of E =
200 GPa, and a coefficient of thermal
expansion of o = 11.9 × 10
−6
/°C. The pin at
C has a diameter of 25 mm. After load P has
been applied and the temperature of the
entire assembly has been increased by 20°C,
the total strain in bar (1) is measured as 925
uc (elongation). Determine:
(a) the magnitude of load P.
(b) the average shear stress in pin C.
Fig. P3.27
Solution
The total strain in bar (1) consists of thermal strain as well as normal strain caused by normal stress:
T o
c c c = +
The normal strain due to the increase in temperature is:
6
(11.9 10 / C)(20 C) 0.000238 mm/mm
T
T c o
÷
= A = × ° ° =
Therefore, the normal stress in bar (1) causes a normal strain of:
0.000925 mm/mm 0.000238 mm/mm 0.000687 mm/mm
T o
c c c = ÷ = ÷ =
From Hooke’s law, the normal stress in bar (1) can be calculated as:
1
(200, 000 MPa)(0.000687 mm/mm) 137.4 MPa E
o
o c = = =
and thus the axial force in bar (1) must be:
2 2
1 1 1
(137.4 N/mm )(275 mm ) 37, 785 N F A o = = =
Next, consider a freebody diagram of the rigid bar. Write
a moment equilibrium equation about pin C:
1
(260 mm) (540 mm)
(260 mm)(37, 785 N) (540 mm) 0
18,192 18 . .19 k 8 N N
C
M F P
P
P
E = ÷
= ÷ =
= = Ans.
Now that P is known, the horizontal and vertical reactions
at C can be calculated:
1 1
0 37, 785 N
0 19,192.8 N
x x x
y y y
F C F C F
F C P C P
E = ÷ = = =
E = ÷ = = =
The resultant force acting on pin C is:
2 2 2 2
(37, 785 N) (18,192.8 N) 41,936.659 N
x y
C C C = + = + =
Since the pin at C is a double shear connection, the shear force acting on one shear plane is half of the
resultant force: V = 20,968.330 N. The area of one shear plane of the 25mmdiameter pin at C (in
other words, the crosssectional area of the pin) is:
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2 2
pin
(25 mm) 490.874 mm
4
A
t
= =
and thus the average shear stress in pin C is:
2
2
20,968.330 N
42.716 N/mm
490.874
42.7 MPa
mm
C
V
V
A
t = = = = Ans.
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3.28 The rigid bar in Fig. P3.28 is
supported by axial bar (1) and by a pin
connection at C. Axial bar (1) has a cross
sectional area of A
1
= 275 mm
2
, an elastic
modulus of E = 200 GPa, and a coefficient
of thermal expansion of o = 11.9 × 10
−6
/°C. The pin at C has a diameter of 25 mm.
After load P has been applied and the
temperature of the entire assembly has
been decreased by 30°C, the total strain in
bar (1) is measured as 925 uc (elongation).
Determine:
(a) the magnitude of load P.
(b) the average shear stress in pin C.
Fig. P3.28
Solution
The total strain in bar (1) consists of thermal strain as well as normal strain caused by normal stress:
T o
c c c = +
The normal strain due to the decrease in temperature is:
6
(11.9 10 / C)( 30 C) 0.000357 mm/mm
T
T c o
÷
= A = × ° ÷ ° = ÷
Therefore, the normal stress in bar (1) causes a normal strain of:
0.000925 mm/mm ( 0.000357 mm/mm) 0.001282 mm/mm
T o
c c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
From Hooke’s law, the normal stress in bar (1) can be calculated as:
1
(200, 000 MPa)(0.001282 mm/mm) 256.4 MPa E
o
o c = = =
and thus the axial force in bar (1) must be:
2 2
1 1 1
(256.4 N/mm )(275 mm ) 70,510 N F A o = = =
Next, consider a freebody diagram of the rigid bar. Write
a moment equilibrium equation about pin C:
1
(260 mm) (540 mm)
(260 mm)(70,510 N) (540 mm)
33.9 k
0
33,949.3 N N
C
M F P
P
P
E = ÷
= ÷ =
= = Ans.
Now that P is known, the horizontal and vertical reactions
at C can be calculated:
1 1
0 70,510 N
0 33,949.3 N
x x x
y y y
F C F C F
F C P C P
E = ÷ = = =
E = ÷ = = =
The resultant force acting on pin C is:
2 2 2 2
(70,510 N) (33,949.3 N) 78, 257.3 N
x y
C C C = + = + =
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Since the pin at C is a double shear connection, the shear force acting on one shear plane is half of the
resultant force: V = 39,128.7 N. The area of one shear plane of the 25mmdiameter pin at C (in other
words, the crosssectional area of the pin) is:
2 2
pin
(25 mm) 490.874 mm
4
A
t
= =
and thus the average shear stress in pin C is:
2
2
39,128.7 N
79.712 N/mm
490.874 m
79.7 MP
m
a
C
V
V
A
t = = = = Ans.
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4.1 A stainless steel alloy bar 25 mm wide by
16 mm thick is subjected to an axial load of
P = 145 kN. Using the stressstrain diagram
given in Fig. P4.1, determine:
(a) the factor of safety with respect to the
yield strength defined by the 0.20% offset
method.
(b) the factor of safety with respect to the
ultimate strength.
Fig. P4.1
Solution
(a) From the stressstrain curve, the yield strength defined by the 0.20% offset method is
550 MPa
Y
o =
The normal stress in the bar is
(145 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
362.5 MPa
(25 mm)(16 mm)
F
A
o = = =
Therefore, the factor of safety with respect to yield is
actual
550 MPa
FS
362.5 MPa
1.517
Y
o
o
= = = Ans.
(b) From the stressstrain curve, the ultimate strength is
1,100 MPa
U
o =
Therefore, the factor of safety with respect to the ultimate strength is
actual
1,100 MPa
FS
362.5 MPa
3.03
U
o
o
= = = Ans.
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4.2 Six bolts are used in the connection between the
axial member and the support, as shown in Fig.
P4.2. The ultimate shear strength of the bolts is 300
MPa, and a factor of safety of 4.0 is required with
respect to fracture. Determine the minimum
allowable bolt diameter required to support an
applied load of P = 475 kN.
Fig. P4.2
Solution
The allowable shear stress for the bolts is
allow
300 MPa
75 MPa
FS 4
U
t
t = = =
To support a load of P = 350 kN, the total area subjected to shear stress must equal or exceed:
2
2
allow
475, 000 N
6,333.333 mm
75 N/mm
V
P
A
t
> = =
There are six bolts, and each bolt acts in double shear; therefore, the total area subjected to shear stress
is
2
bolt
(6 bolts)(2 surfaces per bolt)
4
V
A d
t
=
The minimum bolt diameter can be found be equating the two expressions for A
V
:
2 2
bolt
bolt
(12 surfaces) 6,333.333 mm
4
25.923 m 25.9 m m m
d
d
t
>
> = Ans.
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4.3 A 14kip load is supported by two bars as
shown in Fig. P4.3. Bar (1) is made of coldrolled
red brass (o
Y
= 60 ksi) and has a crosssectional
area of 0.225 in.
2
. Bar (2) is made of 6061T6
aluminum (o
Y
= 40 ksi) and has a crosssectional
area of 0.375 in.
2
. Determine the factor of safety
with respect to yielding for each of the bars.
Fig. P4.3
Solution
Consider a FBD of joint B. Members (1) and (2) are twoforce members; therefore,
the equilibrium equations can be written as:
2 1
cos50 cos35 0
x
F F F E = ° ÷ ° = (a)
2 1
sin50 sin35 14 kips 0
y
F F F E = ° + ° ÷ = (b)
From Eq. (a):
2 1
cos35
cos50
F F
°
=
°
Substitute this expression into Eq. (b) to obtain:
 
 
1 1
1
1
1
cos35
sin50 sin35 14 kips
cos50
cos35 tan50 sin35 14 kips
1.549804 14 kips
9.033401 kips
F F
F
F
F
°
° + ° =
°
° ° + ° =
=
=
Backsubstitute to obtain F
2
:
2 1
cos35
(9.033401 kips)(1.274374) 11.511935 kips
cos50
F F
°
= = =
°
The normal stress in bar (1) is
1
1 2
1
9.033401 kips
40.148452 ksi
0.225 in.
F
A
o = = =
Therefore, the factor of safety in bar (1) is
1
1
60 ksi
FS 1.494454
40.148452 ks
1
i
.494
Y
o
o
= = = = Ans.
The normal stress in bar (2) is
2
2 2
2
11.511935 kips
30.698495 ksi
0.375 in.
F
A
o = = =
and thus, the factor of safety in bar (2) is
2
2
40 ksi
FS 1.302995
30.698495 ks
1
i
.303
Y
o
o
= = = = Ans.
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4.4 A steel plate is to be attached to a support with three bolts as
shown in Fig. P4.4. The crosssectional area of the plate is 560
mm
2
and the yield strength of the steel is 250 MPa. The ultimate
shear strength of the bolts is 425 MPa. A factor of safety of 1.67
with respect to yield is required for the plate. A factor of safety of
4.0 with respect to the ultimate shear strength is required for the
bolts. Determine the minimum bolt diameter required to develop
the full strength of the plate. (Note: consider only the gross cross
sectional area of the plate—not the net area.)
Fig. P4.4
Solution
The allowable normal stress is
allow
250 MPa
149.7006 MPa
FS 1.67
Y
o
o = = =
The full strength of the plate (based on the gross crosssectional area) is therefore:
2
max allow
(149.7006 MPa)(560 mm ) 83,832.3353 N P A o = = =
The allowable shear stress of the bolts is
allow
425 MPa
106.25 MPa
FS 4.0
U
t
t = = =
The minimum shear area required to support the maximum load P is
2 max
2
allow
83,832.3353 N
789.0102 mm
106.25 N/mm
V
P
A
t
> = =
There are three bolts, each acting in single shear, which provide a shear area of
2 2
bolt bolt
(3 bolts)(1 surface per bolt) (3 surfaces)
4 4
V
A d d
t t
= =
Equating the two expressions for the shear area, the minimum bolt diameter can be computed:
2 2
bolt
bolt
(3 surfaces) 789.0102 mm
4
18.2994 mm 18.30 mm
d
d
t
>
> = Ans.
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4.5 In Fig. P4.5, member (1) is a steel bar with a cross
sectional area of 1.35 in.
2
and a yield strength of 50 ksi.
Member (2) is a pair of 6061T6 aluminum bars having a
combined crosssectional area of 3.50 in.
2
and a yield
strength of 40 ksi. A factor of safety of 1.6 with respect to
yield is required for both members. Determine the
maximum allowable load P that may be applied to the
structure. Report the factors of safety for both members at
the allowable load.
Fig. P4.5
Solution
Consider a FBD of joint B and write the following equilibrium equations:
2 1
cos65 0
x
F F F E = ° ÷ = (a)
2
sin65 0
y
F F P E = ° ÷ = (b)
From Eq. (b):
2
sin65
P
F =
°
(c)
Substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (a) gives an expression for P in terms of F
1
:
2 1
1
1
cos65 0
cos65 0
sin65
tan65
F F
P
F
P F
° ÷ =
 
° ÷ =

\ .
°
= ° (d)
and rearranging Eq. (c) gives an expression for P in terms of F
2
:
2
sin65 P F = ° (e)
The allowable normal stress in member (1) is
,1
allow,1
1
50 ksi
31.25 ksi
FS 1.6
Y
o
o = = =
and the allowable force in member (1) is
2
allow,1 allow,1 1
(31.25 ksi)(1.35 in. ) 42.1875 kips F A o = = = (f)
The allowable normal stress in member (2) is
,2
allow,2
2
40 ksi
25.00 ksi
FS 1.6
Y
o
o = = =
and the allowable force in member (2) is
2
allow,2 allow,2 2
(25.00 ksi)(3.50 in. ) 87.50 kips F A o = = = (g)
Substitute the allowable force in member (1) from Eq. (f) into Eq. (d) to obtain the maximum load P
based on the capacity of member (1):
allow,1
tan65 (42.1875 kips) tan65 90.471386 kips P F s ° = ° = (h)
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Repeat with the allowable force in member (2) from Eq. (g) substituted into Eq. (e) to obtain the
maximum load P based on the capacity of member (2):
allow,2
sin65 (87.50 kips)sin65 79.301931 kips P F s ° = ° = (i)
Compare the results in Eqs. (h) and (i) to find that the maximum load P that may be applied is controlled
by the capacity of member (2):
max
79.3 kips P = Ans.
The factor of safety in member (2) is thus:
2
FS 1.6 = Ans.
For an applied load of P = 79.3 kips, the force in member (1) can be computed from Eq. (d):
1
79.301931 kips
36.979096 kips
tan65 tan65
P
F = = =
° °
which results in a normal stress of
1
1 2
1
36.979096 kips
27.391924 ksi
1.350 in.
F
A
o = = =
and thus, its factor of safety is:
,1
1
1
50 ksi
FS
27.391924 ksi
1.825
Y
o
o
= = = Ans.
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4.6 The rigid structure ABD in Fig. P4.6 is supported at B by a 35mmdiameter tie rod (1) and at A by a
30mmdiameter pin used in a single shear connection. The tie rod is connected at B and C by 24mm
diameter pins used in double shear connections. Tie rod (1) has a yield strength of 250 MPa, and each of
the pins has an ultimate shear strength of 330 MPa. A concentrated load of P = 50 kN acts as shown at
D. Determine:
(a) the normal stress in rod (1).
(b) the shearing stress in the pins at A and B.
(c) the factor of safety with respect to the yield
strength for tie rod (1).
(d) the factor of safety with respect to the
ultimate strength for the pins at A and B.
Fig. P4.6
Solution
Member (1) is a twoforce member that is
oriented at u with respect to the horizontal axis:
8 m
tan 1.509434
5.3 m
56.4755
u
u
= =
= °
From a FBD of rigid structure ABD, the following equilibrium equations can be written:
1
cos60 cos56.4755 0
x x
F P F A E = ° ÷ ° + = (a)
1
sin60 sin56.4755 0
y y
F P F A E = ÷ ° ÷ ° + = (b)
1
( cos56.4755 )(8 m) ( cos60 )(3.4 m) ( sin60 )(7.5 m) 0
A
M F P P E = ° ÷ ° ÷ ° = (c)
From Eq. (c):
1
(3.4 m)cos60 (7.5 m)sin60 (3.4 m)cos60 (7.5 m)sin60
(50 kN) 92.7405 kN
(8 m)cos56.4755 (8 m)cos56.4755
F P
° + ° ° + °
= = =
° °
Substitute F
1
into Eq. (a) to obtain A
x
:
1
cos56.4755 cos60 (92.7405 kN)cos56.4755 (50 kN)cos60 26.2199 kN
x
A F P = ° ÷ ° = ° ÷ ° =
and substitute F
1
into Eq. (b) to obtain A
y
:
1
sin56.4755 sin60 (92.7405 kN)sin56.4755 (50 kN)sin60 120.6144 kN
y
A F P = ° + ° = ° + ° =
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The resultant pin force at A is found from A
x
and A
y
:
2 2 2 2
(26.2199 kN) (120.6144 kN) 123.4314 kN
x y
A A A = + = + =
(a) The crosssectional area of the 35mmdiameter tie rod is:
2 2
1
(35 mm) 962.112750 mm
4
A
t
= =
and thus, the normal stress in rod (1) is:
1
1 2
1
92, 740.5 N
96.3925 MPa
962.11275
96.4 MPa
0 mm
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
(b) The 30mmdiameter single shear pin at A has a shear area of
2 2
,
(30 mm) 706.858347 mm
4
V A
A
t
= =
Consequently, the shear stress in pin A is
2
123, 431.4 N
174.6197 MPa
706.858347 m
174. M a
m
6 P
A
t = = = Ans.
The 24mmdiameter double shear pins at B and C have a shear area of
2 2
,
(2 surfaces) (24 mm) 904.778685 mm
4
V B
A
t
= =
The shear stress in pins B and C is
2
92,740.5 N
102.5008 MPa
904.778685 mm
102.5 MPa
B
t = = = Ans.
(c) The factor of safety for tie rod (1) is
1
1
250 MPa
FS
96.3925 MPa
2.59
Y
o
o
= = = Ans.
(d) The factor of safety with respect to the ultimate strength for the pin at A is
330 MPa
FS
174.6197 MPa
1.890
U
A
A
t
t
= = = Ans.
and the factor of safety for pin B is
330 MPa
FS
102.5008 MP
3.2
a
2
U
B
B
t
t
= = = Ans.
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4.7 Rigid bar ABD in Fig. P4.7 is supported by a pin
connection at A and a tension link BC. The 8mm
diameter pin at A is supported in a double shear
connection, and the 12mmdiameter pins at B and C are
both used in single shear connections. Link BC is 30mm
wide and 6mm thick. The ultimate shear strength of the
pins is 330 MPa and the yield strength of link BC is 250
MPa.
(a) Determine the factor of safety in pins A and B with
respect to the ultimate shear strength.
(b) Determine the factor of safety in link BC with respect
to the yield strength.
Fig. P4.7
Solution
Consider a freebody diagram of the rigid bar. Link BC is a
twoforce member that is oriented at an angle of u with
respect to the horizontal axis:
0.6 m
tan 53.1301
0.45 m
u u = = °
The equilibrium equations for the rigid bar can be written as:
cos53.1301 (8.2 kN)cos70 0
sin53.1301 (8.2 kN)sin70 0
(0.75 m) cos53.1301 (0.45 m) sin53.1301
(1.85 m)(8.2 kN)sin70 (0.75 m)(8.2 kN)cos70 0
x BC x
y BC y
A BC BC
F F A
F F A
M F F
E = ÷ ° + ° + =
E = ° ÷ ° + =
E = ° + °
÷ ° ÷ ° =
Solving these three equations simultaneously gives:
20.1958 kN 9.3129 kN 8.4511 kN
BC x y
F A A = = = ÷
The resultant force at pin A is:
2 2 2 2
(9.3129 kN) ( 8.4511 kN) 12.5758 kN
x y
A A A = + = + ÷ =
Before the factors of safety can be determined, we must compute the shear stresses in pins A and B as
well as the normal stress in link BC.
Pin shear stresses:
The 8mmdiameter pin at A is supported in a double shear connection; therefore, the shear force acting
on one shear plane (which is simply equal to the crosssectional area of the pin) is half of the resultant
force at pin A: V
A
= 6.2879 kN. The crosssectional area of the pin at A is:
2 2
(8 mm) 50.265 mm
4
pin A
A
t
= =
and therefore, the shear stress in pin A is:
2
2
(6.2879 kN)(1000 N/kN)
125.0940 N/mm 125.0940 MPa
50.265 mm
A
A
V
V
A
t = = = =
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The 12mmdiameter pin at B and C is supported in a single shear connection and so the shear force
acting on one shear plane is the entire force in link BC: V
B
= 20.1958 kN. The crosssectional area of
the pin at B is:
2 2
(12 mm) 113.097 mm
4
pin B
A
t
= =
and therefore, the shear stress in pin B is:
2
2
(20.1958 kN)(1000 N/kN)
178.5697 N/mm 178.5697 MPa
113.097 mm
B
B
V
V
A
t = = = =
Normal stress in link:
The normal stress in link BC is:
2
(20.1958 kN)(1000 N/kN)
112.1986 N/mm 112.1986 MPa
(30 mm)(6 mm)
BC
BC
BC
F
A
o = = = =
Factors of safety:
For pin A, the factor of safety is:
330 MPa
FS
125.0940 MP
2.6
a
4
U
A
A
t
t
= = = Ans.
For pin B, the factor of safety is:
330 MPa
FS
178.5697 MPa
1.848
U
B
B
t
t
= = = Ans.
The factor of safety in link BC is:
250 MPa
FS
112.1986 M
2.23
Pa
Y
BC
BC
o
o
= = = Ans.
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4.8 In Fig. P4.8, davit ABD is supported at A by a single
shear pin connection and at B by a tie rod (1). The pin at
A has a diameter of 1.25 in. and the pins at B and C are
each 0.75in.diameter pins. Tie rod (1) has an area of
1.50 in.
2
. The ultimate shear strength in each pin is 80 ksi,
and the yield strength of the tie rod is 36 ksi. A
concentrated load of 25 kips is applied as shown to the
davit structure at D. Determine:
(a) the normal stress in rod (1).
(b) the shearing stress in the pins at A and B.
(c) the factor of safety with respect to the yield strength
for tie rod (1).
(d) the factor of safety with respect to the ultimate
strength for the pins at A and B.
Fig. P4.8
Solution
Member (1) is a twoforce member that is oriented at u with
respect to the horizontal axis:
9 ft
tan 0.75 36.870
12 ft
u u = = = °
From a FBD of rigid structure ABD, the following equilibrium
equations can be written:
1
(25 kips) cos60 cos36.870 0
x x
F F A E = ° ÷ ° + = (a)
1
(25 kips)sin 60 sin36.870 0
y y
F F A E = ÷ ° ÷ ° + = (b)
1
( cos36.870 )(9 ft) (25 kips) cos 60 (11 ft)
(25 kips) sin 60 (7 ft) 0
A
M F E = ° ÷ °
÷ ° = (c)
From Eq. (c):
1
(11 ft) cos 60 (7 ft)sin60
(25 kips) 40.1465 kips
(9 ft) cos36.870
F
° + °
= =
°
Substitute F
1
into Eq. (a) to obtain A
x
:
1
cos36.870 (25 kips) cos60 (40.1465 kips) cos36.870 (25 kips) cos60 19.6172 kips
x
A F = ° ÷ ° = ° ÷ ° =
and substitute F
1
into Eq. (b) to obtain A
y
:
1
sin36.870 (25 kips)sin60 (40.1465 kips)sin 36.870 (25 kips)sin 60 45.7386 kips
y
A F = ° + ° = ° + ° =
The resultant pin force at A is found from A
x
and A
y
:
2 2 2 2
(19.6172 kips) (45.7386 kips) 49.7680 kips
x y
A A A = + = + =
(a) The normal stress in tie rod (1) is:
1
1 2
1
40.1465 kips
26.7643 ksi
1.50 i
26.8 k
n
si
.
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
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(b) The 1.25in.diameter single shear pin at A has a shear area of
2 2
,
(1.25 in.) 1.2272 in.
4
V A
A
t
= =
Consequently, the shear stress in pin A is
2
49.7680 kips
40.5541 ksi
1.2272 in
40.6 i
.
ks
A
t = = = Ans.
The 0.75in.diameter double shear pins at B and C have a shear area of
2 2
,
(2 surfaces) (0.75 in.) 0.8836 in.
4
V B
A
t
= =
The shear stress in pins B and C is
2
40.1465 kips
45.4352 ksi
0.8836 in
45.4 i
.
ks
B
t = = = Ans.
(c) The factor of safety for tie rod (1) is
1
1
36 ksi
FS
26.7643 ksi
1.345
Y
o
o
= = = Ans.
(d) The factor of safety with respect to the ultimate strength for the pin at A is
80 ksi
FS
40.5541 ksi
1.973
U
A
A
t
t
= = = Ans.
and the factor of safety for pin B is
80 ksi
FS
45.4352 ksi
1.761
U
B
B
t
t
= = = Ans.
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4.9 The pinconnected structure is subjected to a load P
as shown in Fig. P4.9. Inclined member (1) has a cross
sectional area of 250 mm
2
and has a yield strength of
255 MPa. It is connected to rigid member ABC with a
16mmdiameter pin in a double shear connection at B.
The ultimate shear strength of the pin material is 300
MPa. For inclined member (1), the minimum factor of
safety with respect to the yield strength is FS
min
= 1.5.
For the pin connections, the minimum factor of safety
with respect to the ultimate strength is FS
min
= 3.0.
(a) Based on the capacity of member (1) and pin B,
determine the maximum allowable load P that may be
applied to the structure.
(b) Rigid member ABC is supported by a double shear
pin connection at A. Using FS
min
= 3.0, determine the
minimum pin diameter that may be used at support A.
Fig. P4.9
Solution
The allowable normal stress for inclined member (1) is
allow
255 MPa
170.00 MPa
FS 1.50
Y
o
o = = =
and the allowable shear stress for the pins is
allow
300 MPa
100.0 MPa
FS 3.00
U
t
t = = =
(a) The allowable axial force in member (1) based on normal stress is
2
allow allow 1
(170.00 MPa)(250 mm ) 42,500 N F A o s = = (a)
Member (1) is connected with a 16mmdiameter double shear pin. The shear area of this pin is:
2 2
(2 surfaces) (16 mm) 402.1239 mm
4
V
A
t
= =
Consequently, the shear force V (which is applied by the inclined member) that can be applied to the pin
is limited to
2
allow allow
(100.0 MPa)(402.1239 mm ) 40, 212.4 N
V
V A t s = = (b)
Comparing the two values given in Eq. (a) and Eq. (b), the maximum allowable force in member (1) is
1
40, 212.4 N F = (c)
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Member (1) is a twoforce member that is oriented at u
with respect to the horizontal axis:
1.4 m
tan 0.6087 31.3287
2.3 m
u u = = = °
From a FBD of rigid structure ABC, the following
equilibrium equations can be written:
1
cos31.3287 0
x x
F A F P E = + ° ÷ = (d)
1
sin31.3287 0
y y
F A F E = ÷ ° = (e)
1
(3.2 m) ( cos31.3287 )(1.4 m) 0
A
M P F E = ÷ ° = (f)
Substitute the value of F
1
from Eq. (c) into Eq. (f) to obtain
the maximum load P:
1
(1.4 m)cos31.3287
3.2 m
(1.4 m)cos31.3287
(40, 212.4 N)
3.2 m
15, 027.8 N 15.03 kN
P F
°
=
°
=
= = Ans.
Substitute F
1
and P into Eq. (d) to obtain A
x
:
1
cos31.3287 (15, 027.8 N) (40, 212.4 N)cos31.3287 19,321.5 N
x
A P F = ÷ ° = ÷ ° = ÷
and substitute F
1
into Eq. (e) to obtain A
y
:
1
sin31.3287 (40, 212.4 N)sin31.3287 20,908.3 N
y
A F = ° = ° =
The resultant pin force at A is found from A
x
and A
y
:
2 2 2 2
( 19,321.5 N) (20,908.3 N) 28, 468.9 N
x y
A A A = + = ÷ + =
The total shear area required to support the resultant pin force is
2
2
allow
28, 468.9 N
284.689 mm
100 N/mm
V
A
A
t
> = =
Since the pin at A is in a double shear connection, the shear area provided by the pin is
2
pin
(2 surfaces)
4
V
A d
t
=
Equate these two expressions and solve for the required minimum pin diameter:
2 2
pin
pin
(2 surfaces) 284.689 mm
4
13.46 mm
d
d
t
>
> Ans.
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4.10 After load P is applied to the pinconnected structure shown in Fig. P4.10, a normal strain of
c = +550 uc is measured in the longitudinal direction of member (1). The crosssectional area of
member (1) is A
1
= 0.60 in.
2
, its elastic modulus is E
1
= 29,000 ksi, and its yield strength is 36 ksi.
(a) Determine the axial force in
member (1), the applied load P, and the
resultant force at pin B.
(b) The ultimate shear strength of the
steel pins is 54 ksi. Determine the
minimum diameter for the pin at B if a
factor of safety of 2.5 with respect to
the ultimate shear strength is required.
(c) Compute the factor of safety for
member (1) with respect to its yield
strength.
Fig. P4.10
Solution
(a) Given the strain in member (1), its stress can be computed from Hooke’s law:
1 1 1
(29, 000 ksi)(0.000550 in./in.) 15.9500 ksi E o c = = =
The force in member (1) is the product of the normal stress and the crosssectional area:
2
1 1 1
(15.9500 ksi)(0.60 in 9.57 kip . ) s F A o = = = Ans.
Next, consider a freebody diagram of
horizontal member ABC. Member (1) makes
an angle of u with respect to the horizontal
axis:
3.50 ft
tan 36.3844
4.75 ft
u u = = °
Note that member (1) is a twoforce member.
Equilibrium equations for horizontal member
ABC can be written as:
1
1
1
cos36.3844 0
sin36.3844 0
(6.50 ft) sin36.3844 (9.50 ft) 0
x x
y y
B
F B F
F B F P
M F P
E = + ° =
E = ÷ ° ÷ =
E = ° ÷ =
Substituting the value F
1
= 14.79 kips into these equations gives:
7.7044 kips 9.5611 kips 3.8842 kips 3.88 kips
x y
B B P = ÷ = = = Ans.
The resultant force at pin B is:
2 2 2 2
( 7.7044 kips) (9.5611 kips) 12.2789 kips 12.28 kips
x y
B B B = + = ÷ + = = Ans.
(b) The pin at B is supported in a double shear connection. Therefore, the shear force acting on one
shear plane of the pin is half of the resultant force: V
B
= 6.1395 kips. The allowable shear stress for the
pin is computed from the ultimate shear strength and the factor of safety:
54 ksi
21.6 ksi
2.5
U
a
FS
t
t = = =
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Next, the crosssectional area required for a single shear plane can be determined:
2
6.1395 kips
0.2842 in.
21.6 ksi
B B
a B
B a
V V
A
A
t t
t
= s > = =
To provide A
B
, the pin at B must have a diameter of at least:
2 2
0.2842 in. 0.602 in.
4
B B
d d
t
> > Ans.
(c) The factor of safety for member (1) with respect to its yield strength is:
1
1
36 ksi
FS
15.9500 ksi
2.26
Y
o
o
= = = Ans.
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4.11 The simple pinconnected structure carries a
concentrated load P as shown in Fig. P4.11. The
rigid bar is supported by strut AB and by a pin
support at C. The steel strut AB has a cross
sectional area of 0.25 in.
2
and
a yield strength of
60 ksi. The diameter of the steel pin at C is 0.375
in., and the ultimate shear strength is 54 ksi. If a
factor of safety of 2.0 is required in both the strut
and the pin at C, determine the maximum load P
that can be supported by the structure.
Fig. P4.11
Solution
From a FBD of the rigid bar, the following equilibrium
equations can be written:
1
0
x x
F F C E = ÷ + = (a)
0
y y
F C P E = ÷ = (b)
1
(10 in.) (22 in.) 0
C
M F P E = ÷ = (c)
From Eq. (c), express F
1
in terms of the unknown load P:
1
22 in.
2.2
10 in.
F P P = = (d)
Substitute this result into Eq. (a) to express C
x
in terms of P:
1
2.2
x
C F P = =
The resultant reaction force at pin C can now be expressed as a function of P:
2 2 2 2
(2.2 ) ( ) 2.41661
x y
C C C P P P = + = + = (e)
Strut AB:
The allowable normal stress for strut AB is
allow
60 ksi
30 ksi
FS 2.0
Y
o
o = = =
Therefore, the allowable axial force for strut AB is
2
allow,1 allow 1
(30 ksi)(0.25 in. ) 7.50 kips F A o = = =
From Eq. (d), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations on the strut
normal stress is
allow,1
max
7.50 kips
3.4091 kips
2.2 2.2
F
P s = = (f)
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Pin C:
The allowable shear stress for the pin at C is
allow
54 ksi
27 ksi
FS 2.0
U
t
t = = =
The 0.375in.diameter double shear pin at C has a shear area of
2 2
(2 surfaces) (0.375 in.) 0.2209 in.
4
V
A
t
= =
thus, the allowable reaction force at C is
2
allow
allow
(27 ksi)(0.2209 in. ) 5.9641 kips
V
C A t = = =
From Eq. (e), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations on the pin
shear stress is
allow
max
5.9641 kips
2.4680 kips
2.41661 2.41661
C
P s = = (g)
Maximum load P:
Comparing the results in Eqs. (f) and (g), the maximum load P that may be applied to the rigid bar is
max
2.4680 ki 2.47 ips ps k P = = Ans.
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4.12 In Fig. P4.12, rigid teebeam ABC is supported at
A by a single shear pin connection and at B by a strut,
which consists of two 30 mm wide by 8 mm thick steel
bars. The pins at A, B, and D are each 12 mm in
diameter. The yield strength of the steel bars in strut (1)
is 250 MPa, and the ultimate shear strength of each pin
is 500 MPa. Determine the allowable load P that may
be applied to the rigid bar at C if an overall factor of
safety of 3.0 is required. Use L
1
= 1.1 m and L
2
= 1.3 m.
Fig. P4.12
Solution
From a FBD of the rigid beam ABC, the following
equilibrium equations can be written:
0
x x
F A E = = (a)
1
0
y y
F A F P E = ÷ ÷ = (b)
1 1 1 2
( ) 0
A
M L F L L P E = ÷ ÷ + = (c)
From Eq. (c), express F
1
in terms of the unknown load P:
1 2
1
1
1.1 m 1.3 m
2.181818
1.1 m
L L
F P P P
L
+ +
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ (d)
Substitute this result into Eq. (b) to express A
y
in terms of P:
1
( 2.181818 ) 1.181818
y
A P F P P P = + = + ÷ = ÷
The resultant reaction force at pin A can now be expressed as a function of P:
2 2 2 2
(0) ( 1.181818 ) 1.181818
x y
A A A P P = + = + ÷ = (e)
The allowable normal stress for strut (1) is
allow
250 MPa
83.333333 MPa
FS 3.0
Y
o
o = = =
Therefore, the allowable axial force for strut (1) is
allow,1 allow 1
(83.333333 MPa)(2 30 mm 8 mm) 40, 000 N F A o = = × × =
From Eq. (d), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the strut normal stress
limitation is
allow,1
max
40, 000 N
18,333 N
2.181818 2.181818
F
P s = = (f)
The allowable shear stress for the pins at A, B, and D is
allow
500 MPa
166.666667 MPa
FS 3.0
U
t
t = = =
The crosssectional area of a 12mmdiameter pin is
2 2
pin
(12 mm) 113.097336 mm
4
A
t
= =
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The pin at A is a single shear connection; therefore, A
V,A
= A
pin
. The allowable reaction force at A is
2
allow ,
allow
(166.666667 MPa)(113.097336 mm ) 18,849.5560 N
V A
A A t = = =
From Eq. (e), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations of pin A is
allow
max
18,849.5560 N
15,949.627 N
1.181818 1.181818
A
P s = = (g)
The pins at B and D are in double shear connections; therefore, A
V,B
= 2A
pin
. The allowable force in strut
(1) based on the capacity of the pins at B and D is
2
allow,1 allow ,
(166.666667 MPa)(2)(113.097336 mm ) 37,699.1121 N
V B
F A t = = =
From Eq. (d), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations of the pins
at B and D is
allow,1
max
37, 699.1121 N
17, 278.7611 N
2.181818 2.181818
F
P s = = (h)
Comparing the results in Eqs. (f), (g), and (h), the maximum load P that may be applied to the rigid bar
is
max
15,949.62 15. 7 9 N 5 kN P = = Ans.
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4.13 In Fig. P4.13, rigid bar ABC is supported at A by a
single shear pin connection and at B by a strut, which
consists of two 2 in. wide by 0.25 in. thick steel bars.
The pins at A, B, and D each have a diameter of 0.5 in.
The yield strength of the steel bars in strut (1) is 36 ksi,
and the ultimate shear strength of each pin is 72 ksi.
Determine the allowable load P that may be applied to
the rigid bar at C if an overall factor of safety of 3.0 is
required. Use L
1
= 36 in. and L
2
= 24 in.
Fig. P4.13
Solution
From a FBD of the rigid beam ABC, the following
equilibrium equations can be written:
0
x x
F A E = = (a)
1
0
y y
F A F P E = ÷ ÷ = (b)
1 1 1 2
( ) 0
A
M L F L L P E = ÷ ÷ + = (c)
From Eq. (c), express F
1
in terms of the unknown load P:
1 2
1
1
36 in. 24 in.
1.666667
36 in.
L L
F P P P
L
+ +
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ (d)
Substitute this result into Eq. (b) to express A
y
in terms of P:
1
( 1.666667 ) 0.666667
y
A P F P P P = + = + ÷ = ÷
The resultant reaction force at pin A can now be expressed as a function of P:
2 2 2 2
(0) ( 0.666667 ) 0.666667
x y
A A A P P = + = + ÷ = (e)
Strut (1):
The allowable normal stress for strut (1) is
allow
36 ksi
12.0 ksi
FS 3.0
Y
o
o = = =
Therefore, the allowable axial force for strut (1) is
allow,1 allow 1
(12.0 ksi)(2 2 in. 0.25 in.) 12.0 kips F A o = = × × =
From Eq. (d), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the strut normal stress
limitation is
allow,1
max
12.0 kips
7.20 kips
1.666667 1.666667
F
P s = = (f)
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Pins:
The allowable shear stress for the pins at A, B, and D is
allow
72 ksi
24.0 ksi
FS 3.0
U
t
t = = =
The crosssectional area of a 0.5in.diameter pin is
2 2
pin
(0.5 in.) 0.196350 in.
4
A
t
= =
Pin A:
The pin at A is a single shear connection; therefore, A
V,A
= A
pin
. The allowable reaction force at A is
2
allow ,
allow
(24.0 ksi)(0.196350 in. ) 4.7124 kips
V A
A A t = = =
From Eq. (e), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations of pin A is
allow
max
4.7124 kips
7.0686 kips
0.666667 0.666667
A
P s = = (g)
Pin B and D:
The pins at B and D are in double shear connections; therefore, A
V,B
= 2A
pin
. The allowable force in strut
(1) based on the capacity of the pins at B and D is
2
allow,1 allow ,
(24.0 ksi)(2)(0.196350 in. ) 9.4248 kips
V B
F A t = = =
From Eq. (d), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations of the pins
at B and D is
allow,1
max
9.4248 kips
5.6549 kips
1.666667 1.666667
F
P s = = (h)
Maximum load P:
Comparing the results in Eqs. (f), (g), and (h), the maximum load P that may be applied to the rigid bar
is
max
5.6549 ki 5.65 ips ps k P = = Ans.
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4.14 A concentrated load of P = 70 kips is applied to
beam AB as shown in Fig. P4.14. Rod (1) has a
diameter of 1.50 in., and its yield strength is 60 ksi. Pin
A is supported in a double shear connection, and the
ultimate shear strength of pin A is 80 ksi.
(a) Determine the normal stress in rod (1).
(b) Determine the factor of safety with respect to the
yield strength for rod (1).
(c) If a factor of safety of 3.0 with respect to the
ultimate strength is specified for pin A, determine the
minimum required pin diameter.
Fig. P4.14
Solution
Tie rod (1) is a twoforce member that is oriented at u
with respect to the horizontal axis:
8.5 ft
tan 0.7083 35.3112
12 ft
u u = = = °
From a FBD of beam AB, the following equilibrium
equations can be written:
1
cos35.3112 0
x x
F A F E = + ° = (a)
1
sin35.3112 0
y y
F A F P E = + ° ÷ = (b)
1
1
10 in.
( cos35.3112 )
12 in./ft
( sin35.3112 )(12 ft) (8 ft) 0
A
M F
F P
 
E = ÷ °

\ .
÷ ° + = (c)
From Eq. (c):
( )
1
(70 kips)(8 ft)
73.5272 kips
(cos35.3112 ) 0.833333 ft (sin35.3112 )(12 ft)
F = =
° + °
Substitute F
1
into Eq. (a) to obtain A
x
:
1
cos35.3112 (73.5272 kips)cos35.3112 60.0 kips
x
A F = ÷ ° = ÷ ° = ÷
and substitute F
1
into Eq. (b) to obtain A
y
:
1
sin35.3112 70 kips (73.5272 kips)sin35.3112 27.50 kips
y
A P F = ÷ ° = ÷ ° =
The resultant pin force at A is found from A
x
and A
y
:
2 2 2 2
(60.0 kips) (27.5 kips) 66.0019 kips
x y
A A A = + = + =
(a) The crosssectional area of the 1.5in.diameter tie rod (1) is
2 2
1
(1.5 in.) 1.7671 in.
4
A
t
= =
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The normal stress in tie rod (1) is:
1
1 2
1
73.5272 kips
41.6079 ksi
1.7671
41.6 ks
i
i
n.
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
(b) The factor of safety for tie rod (1) is
1
1
60 ksi
FS
41.6079 ksi
1.442
Y
o
o
= = = Ans.
(c) The allowable shear stress is:
allow
80 ksi
26.6667 ksi
FS 3.0
U
t
t = = =
The shear area required for pin A is thus
2
ult
66.0019 kips
2.4751 in.
26.6667 ksi
V
A
A
t
> = =
Since pin A is in a double shear connection, the minimum required pin area is
2
2
pin
2.4751 in.
1.2375 in.
2 shear surfaces 2
V
A
A > = =
Thus, the diameter of pin A must be
2 2
1.2375 in.
1.255 in.
4
A
A
d
d
t
>
> Ans.
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4.15 Beam AB is supported as shown in Fig. P4.15. Tie
rod (1) is attached at B and C with double shear pin
connections while the pin at A is attached with a single
shear connection. The pins at A, B, and C each have an
ultimate shear strength of 54 ksi, and tie rod (1) has a
yield strength of 36 ksi. A concentrated load of P = 16
kips is applied to the beam as shown. A factor of safety
of 3.0 is required for all components. Determine:
(a) the minimum required diameter for tie rod (1).
(b) the minimum required diameter for the double shear
pins at B and C.
(c) the minimum required diameter for the single shear
pin at A.
Fig. P4.15
Solution
Tie rod (1) is a twoforce member that is oriented at u
with respect to the horizontal axis:
8.5 ft
tan 0.7083 35.3112
12 ft
u u = = = °
From a FBD of beam AB, the following equilibrium
equations can be written:
1
cos35.3112 0
x x
F A F E = + ° = (a)
1
sin35.3112 0
y y
F A F P E = + ° ÷ = (b)
1
1
10 in.
( cos35.3112 )
12 in./ft
( sin35.3112 )(12 ft) (8 ft) 0
A
M F
F P
 
E = ÷ °

\ .
÷ ° + = (c)
From Eq. (c):
( )
1
(16 kips)(8 ft)
16.8062 kips
(cos35.3112 ) 0.833333 ft (sin35.3112 )(12 ft)
F = =
° + °
Substitute F
1
into Eq. (a) to obtain A
x
:
1
cos35.3112 (16.8062 kips)cos35.3112 13.7143 kips
x
A F = ÷ ° = ÷ ° = ÷
and substitute F
1
into Eq. (b) to obtain A
y
:
1
sin35.3112 16 kips (16.8062 kips)sin35.3112 6.2857 kips
y
A P F = ÷ ° = ÷ ° =
The resultant pin force at A is found from A
x
and A
y
:
2 2 2 2
(13.7143 kips) (6.2857 kips) 15.0861 kips
x y
A A A = + = + =
(a) The allowable normal stress for tie rod (1) is
allow
36 ksi
12.0 ksi
FS 3.0
Y
o
o = = =
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The minimum crosssectional area required for the tie rod is
2 1
min
allow
16.8062 kips
1.400518 in.
12 ksi
F
A
o
> = =
Therefore, the minimum tie rod diameter is
2 2
1 1
1.400518 in. 1.335363 in 1.335 in. .
4
d d
t
> > = Ans.
(b) The allowable shear stress for the pins at A, B, and C is
allow
54 ksi
18 ksi
FS 3.0
U
t
t = = =
The doubleshear pin connection at B and C must support a load of F
1
=16.8062 kips . The shear area
A
V
required for these pins is
2 1
allow
16.8062 kips
0.933679 in.
18 ksi
V
F
A
t
> = =
The pin diameter can be computed from
2 2
pin pin
(2 surfaces) 0.933679 in. 0.7710 in. 0.771 in.
4
d d
t
> > = Ans.
(c) The pin at A is a single shear connection; therefore, A
V
= A
pin
. The shear area A
V
required for this pin
is
2
allow
15.0861 kips
0.838119 in.
18 ksi
V
A
A
t
> = =
The pin diameter can be computed from
2 2
pin pin
(1 surface) 0.838119 in. 1.0330 in. 1.033 .
4
in d d
t
> > = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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4.16 In Fig. P4.16, the rigid member ABDE is supported at A by a
single shear pin connection and at B by a tie rod (1). The tie rod is
attached at B and C with double shear pin connections. The pins at
A, B, and C each have an ultimate shear strength of 80 ksi, and tie
rod (1) has a yield strength of 60 ksi. A concentrated load of
P = 24 kips is applied perpendicular to DE, as shown. A factor of
safety of 2.0 is required for all components. Determine:
(a) the minimum required diameter for the tie rod.
(b) the minimum required diameter for the pin at B.
(c) the minimum required diameter for the pin at A.
Fig. P4.16
Solution
Member (1) is a twoforce member that is oriented at u with respect to
the horizontal axis:
9 ft
tan 1.5 56.310
6 ft
u u = = = °
From a FBD of rigid structure ABDE, the following equilibrium
equations can be written:
1
cos70 cos56.310 0
x x
F P F A E = ° ÷ ° + = (a)
1
sin 70 sin56.310 0
y y
F P F A E = ÷ ° ÷ ° + = (b)
1
( cos56.310 )(9 ft) ( cos 70 )[13 ft (8 ft) sin 20 ]
( sin 70 )[(8 ft) cos 20 ] 0
A
M F P
P
E = ° ÷ ° + °
÷ ° ° = (c)
From Eq. (c):
1
(cos70 )[13 ft (8 ft)sin20 ] (sin70 )[(8 ft)cos20 ]
(cos56.310 )(9 ft)
5.382084 ft 7.064178 ft
(24 kips) 59.834286 kips
4.992293 ft
F P
° + ° + ° °
=
°
+
= = (d)
Substitute F
1
into Eq. (a) to obtain A
x
:
1
cos56.310 cos70
(59.834286 kips) cos56.310 (24 kips) cos70
24.981548 kips
x
A F P = ° ÷ °
= ° ÷ °
=
and substitute F
1
into Eq. (b) to obtain A
y
:
1
sin56.310 sin70
(59.834286 kips)sin56.310 (24 kips)sin70
72.337797 kips
y
A F P = ° + °
= ° + °
=
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The resultant pin force at A is found from A
x
and A
y
:
2 2 2 2
(24.981548 kips) (72.337797 kips) 76.529959 kips
x y
A A A = + = + = (e)
(a) The allowable normal stress for tie rod (1) is
allow
60 ksi
30.0 ksi
FS 2.0
Y
o
o = = =
The minimum crosssectional area required for the tie rod is
2 1
min
allow
59.834286 kips
1.994476 in.
30.0 ksi
F
A
o
> = =
Therefore, the minimum tie rod diameter is
2 2
1 1
1.994476 in. 1.593564 in 1.594 in. .
4
d d
t
> > = Ans.
(b) The allowable shear stress for the pins at A, B, and C is
allow
80 ksi
40.0 ksi
FS 2.0
U
t
t = = =
The doubleshear pin connection at B and C must support a load of F
1
= 59.834286 kips . The shear
area A
V
required for these pins is
2 1
allow
59.834286 kips
1.495857 in.
40.0 ksi
V
F
A
t
> = =
The pin diameter can be computed from
2 2
pin pin
(2 surfaces) 1.495857 in. 0.975855 in. 0.976 in.
4
d d
t
> > = Ans.
(c) The pin at A is a single shear connection; therefore, A
V
= A
pin
. The shear area A
V
required for this pin
is
2
allow
76.529959 kips
1.913249 in.
40.0 ksi
V
A
A
t
> = =
The pin diameter can be computed from
2 2
pin pin
(1 surface) 1.913249 in. 1.560777 in. 1.561 in.
4
d d
t
> > = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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4.17 Rigid bar ABC is subjected to a concentrated load P as
shown in Fig. P4.17. Inclined member (1) has a cross
sectional area of A
1
= 2.250 in.
2
and is connected at ends B
and D by 1.00in.diameter pins in double shear
connections. The rigid bar is supported at C by a 1.00in.
diameter pin in a single shear connection. The yield
strength of inclined member (1) is 36 ksi, and the ultimate
strength of each pin is 60 ksi. For inclined member (1), the
minimum factor of safety with respect to the yield strength
is FS
min
= 1.5. For the pin connections, the minimum factor
of safety with respect to the ultimate strength is FS
min
= 2.0.
Determine the maximum load P that can be supported by
the structure.
Fig. P4.17
Solution
Member (1) is a twoforce member that is oriented at u with
respect to the horizontal axis:
40 in.
tan 0.8 38.6598
50 in.
u u = = = °
From a FBD of rigid bar ABC, the following equilibrium
equations can be written:
1
cos38.6598 0
x x
F F C E = ° ÷ = (a)
1
sin38.6598 0
y y
F P F C E = ÷ ÷ ° + = (b)
1
(80 in.) ( sin38.6598 )(50 in.) 0
C
M P F E = + ° = (c)
From Eq. (c), express F
1
in terms of the unknown load P:
1
(80 in.)
2.561250
(50 in.)sin38.6598
P
F P = ÷ = ÷
°
(d)
Substitute this result into Eq. (a) to express C
x
in terms of P:
1
cos38.6598 ( 2.561250 )cos38.6598 2.0
x
C F P P = ° = ÷ ° = ÷
And similarly, express C
y
in terms of P from Eq. (b):
1
sin38.6598 ( 2.561250 )sin38.6598 0.60
y
C P F P P P = + ° = + ÷ ° = ÷
The resultant reaction force at pin C can now be expressed as a function of P:
2 2 2 2
(2.0 ) (0.60 ) 2.088061
x y
C C C P P P = + = + = (e)
Inclined member (1):
The allowable normal stress for inclined member (1) is
allow
36 ksi
24 ksi
FS 1.5
Y
o
o = = =
Therefore, the allowable axial force for inclined member (1) is
2
allow,1 allow 1
(24 ksi)(2.25 in. ) 54 kips F A o = = =
From Eq. (d), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations on the
inclined member normal stress is
allow,1
max
54 kips
21.083455 kips
2.561250 2.561250
F
P s = = (f)
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Pin B:
The allowable shear stress for the pins is
allow
60 ksi
30 ksi
FS 2.0
U
t
t = = =
A 1.0in.diameter pin has a crosssectional area of
2 2
pin
(1.0 in.) 0.785398 in.
4
A
t
= =
For a double shear connection, the corresponding shear area is
2 2
pin
2 2(0.785398 in. ) 1.570796 in.
V
A A = = =
Thus, the maximum allowable force in member (1) based on the pin at B is:
2
allow,1 allow
(30 ksi)(1.570796 in. ) 47.123880 kips
V
F A t = = =
From Eq. (d), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations on the pin
at B is
allow,1
max
47.123880 kips
18.398782 kips
2.561250 2.561250
F
P s = = (g)
Pin C:
The pin at C is in a single shear connection; therefore, the shear area of pin C is equal to the cross
sectional area of the 1.0in.diameter pin. The maximum allowable shear force in this pin is thus
2
allow,C allow
(30 ksi)(0.785398 in. ) 23.561940 kips
V
F A t = = =
From Eq. (e), the maximum load that may be applied to the rigid bar based on the limitations on the pin
shear stress is
allow
max
23.561940 kips
11.284125 kips
2.088061 2.088061
C
P s = = (h)
Maximum load P:
Comparing the results in Eqs. (f), (g), and (h), the maximum load P that may be applied to the rigid bar
is
max
11.284125 k 11.28 ips kips P = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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4.18 Rigid bar ABC is supported by pinconnected axial member (1) and by a pin connection at C as
shown in Fig. P4.18. A 6,300lb concentrated load is applied to the rigid bar at A. Member (1) is a 2.75
in. wide by 1.25 in. thick rectangular bar made of steel with a yield strength of o
Y
= 36,000 psi. The pin
at C has an ultimate shear strength of t
U
= 60,000 psi.
(a) Determine the axial force in
member (1).
(b) Determine the factor of safety in
member (1) with respect to its yield
strength.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the
resultant reaction force acting at pin C.
(d) If a minimum factor of safety of FS
= 3.0 with respect to the ultimate shear
strength is required, determine the
minimum diameter that may be used
for the pin at C.
Fig. P4.18
Solution
Member (1) is a twoforce member that is oriented at u
with respect to the horizontal axis:
30 in.
tan 0.75 36.870
40 in.
u u = = = °
From a FBD of rigid structure ABC, the following
equilibrium equations can be written:
1
cos36.870 0
x x
F F C E = ÷ ° + = (a)
1
6, 300 lb sin36.870 0
y y
F F C E = ÷ ÷ ° + = (b)
1
(6, 300 lb)(80 in.)
( sin36.870 )(56 in.) 0
C
M
F
E =
+ ° = (c)
(a) From Eq. (c), the axial force in member (1) is:
1
(6,300 lb)(80 in.)
15, 000 lb
(56 in.)sin
15, 000 lb
36.
(C)
870
F = ÷ = ÷ =
°
Ans.
(b) The normal stress magnitude in member (1) is
1
1
1
15, 000 lb
4, 363.6364 psi
(2.75 in.)(1.25 in.)
F
A
o = = =
Therefore, its factor of safety with respect to the 36,000 psi yield stress is
1
1
36, 000 psi
FS
4,363.6364 psi
8.25
Y
o
o
= = = Ans.
(c) Substitute F
1
into Eq. (a) to obtain C
x
:
1
cos36.870 ( 15, 000 lb) cos36.870 12, 000 lb
x
C F = ° = ÷ ° = ÷
and substitute F
1
into Eq. (b) to obtain an expression for A
y
in terms of the unknown load P:
1
6, 300 lb sin36.870 6, 300 lb ( 15, 000 lb)sin36.870 2, 700 lb
y
C F = + ° = + ÷ ° = ÷
The resultant pin force at C is found from C
x
and C
y
:
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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2 2 2 2
( 12, 000 lb) ( 2, 700 lb 12,300 ) lb
x y
C C C = + = ÷ + ÷ = Ans.
(d) The allowable shear stress for the pins at C is
allow
60, 000 psi
20, 000 psi
FS 3.0
U
t
t = = =
The doubleshear pin connection at C must support a load of 12,300 lb. The minimum shear area A
V
required to support this load is
2
allow
12,300 lb
0.6150 in.
20,000 psi
V
C
A
t
> = =
The pin diameter can be computed from
2 2
pin pin
(2 surfaces) 0.6150 in. 0.625717 in. 0.626 in.
4
d d
t
> > = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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4.19 A rectangular steel plate is used as an axial member to support a dead load of 70 kips and a live
load of 110 kips. The yield strength of the steel is 50 ksi.
(a) Use the ASD method to determine the minimum crosssectional area required for the axial member if
a factor of safety of 1.67 with respect to yielding is required.
(b) Use the LRFD method to determine the minimum crosssectional area required for the axial member
based on yielding of the gross section using the LRFD method. Use a resistance factor of o
t
= 0.9 and
load factors of 1.2 and 1.6 for the dead and live loads, respectively.
Solution
(a) The service load on the axial member is
70 kips 110 kips 180 kips P D L = + = + =
The allowable normal stress is
allow
50 ksi
29.940 ksi
FS 1.67
Y
o
o = = =
The minimum crosssectional area required to support the service load is
min
allow
2
180 kips
29.940 ks
6.01 in
i
.
P
A
o
> = = Ans.
(b) The ultimate load for LRFD is
1.2 1.6 1.2(70 kips) 1.6(110 kips) 260 kips U D L = + = + =
The design equation for an axial member subjected to tension can be written in LRFD as
t Y
A U o o >
Consequently, the minimum crosssectional area required for the tension member is
2
min
260 kips
0.9(50 ks
5.78 i .
i)
n
t Y
U
A
o o
> = = Ans.
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4.20 A 20mmthick steel plate will be used as an axial member to support a dead load of 150 kN and a
live load of 220 kN. The yield strength of the steel is 250 MPa.
(a) Use the ASD method to determine the minimum plate width b required for the axial member if a
factor of safety of 1.67 with respect to yielding is required.
(b) Use the LRFD method to determine the minimum plate width b required for the axial member based
on yielding of the gross section using the LRFD method. Use a resistance factor of o
t
= 0.9 and load
factors of 1.2 and 1.6 for the dead and live loads, respectively.
Solution
(a) The service load on the axial member is
150 kN 220 kN 370 kN P D L = + = + =
The allowable normal stress is
allow
250 MPa
149.70 MPa
FS 1.67
Y
o
o = = =
The minimum crosssectional area required to support the service load is
2
min 2
allow
(370 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
2, 471.61 mm
149.70 N/mm
P
A
o
> = =
Since the plate is 20mmthick, the minimum plate width is therefore:
2
min
min
2, 471.61 mm
20 m
12 . mm
m
3 6
A
b
t
> = = Ans.
(b) The ultimate load for LRFD is
1.2 1.6 1.2(150 kN) 1.6(220 kN) 532 kN U D L = + = + =
The design equation for an axial member subjected to tension can be written in LRFD as
t Y
A U o o >
Consequently, the minimum crosssectional area required for the tension member is
2
min 2
(532 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
2, 364.44 mm
0.9(250 N/mm )
t Y
U
A
o o
> = =
Since the plate is 20mmthick, the minimum plate width is therefore:
2
min
min
2,364.44 mm
20 m
11 . mm
m
8 2
A
b
t
> = = Ans.
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4.21 A round steel tie rod is used as a tension member to support a dead load of 30 kips and a live load
of 15 kips. The yield strength of the steel is 46 ksi.
(a) Use the ASD method to determine the minimum diameter required for the tie rod if a factor of safety
of 2.0 with respect to yielding is required.
(b) Use the LRFD method to determine the minimum diameter required for the tie rod based on yielding
of the gross section using the LRFD method. Use a resistance factor of o
t
= 0.9 and load factors of 1.2
and 1.6 for the dead and live loads, respectively.
Solution
(a) The service load on the axial member is
30 kips 15 kips 45 kips P D L = + = + =
The allowable normal stress is
allow
46 ksi
23.0 ksi
FS 2.0
Y
o
o = = =
The minimum crosssectional area required to support the service load is
2
min
allow
45 kips
1.956522 in.
23.0 ksi
P
A
o
> = =
and thus, the minimum tie rod diameter is
2 2
min min
1.956522 in 1.578 in .
4
. d d
t
> > Ans.
(b) The ultimate load for LRFD is
1.2 1.6 1.2(30 kips) 1.6(15 kips) 60 kips U D L = + = + =
The design equation for an axial member subjected to tension can be written in LRFD as
t Y
A U o o >
Consequently, the minimum crosssectional area required for the tension member is
2
min
60 kips
1.449275 in.
0.9(46 ksi)
t Y
U
A
o o
> = =
and thus, the minimum tie rod diameter is
2 2
min min
1.449275 in 1.358 in .
4
. d d
t
> > Ans.
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4.22 A round steel tie rod is used as a tension member to support a dead load of 190 kN and a live load
of 220 kN. The yield strength of the steel is 320 MPa.
(a) Use the ASD method to determine the minimum diameter D required for the tie rod if a factor of
safety of 2.0 with respect to yielding is required.
(b) Use the LRFD method to determine the minimum diameter D required for the tie rod based on
yielding of the gross section using the LRFD method. Use a resistance factor of o
t
= 0.9 and load factors
of 1.2 and 1.6 for the dead and live loads, respectively.
Solution
(a) The service load on the axial member is
190 kN 220 kN 410 kN P D L = + = + =
The allowable normal stress is
allow
320 MPa
160 MPa
FS 2.0
Y
o
o = = =
The minimum crosssectional area required to support the service load is
2
min 2
allow
(410 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
2, 562.500 mm
160 N/mm
P
A
o
> = =
and thus, the minimum tie rod diameter is
2 2
min min
2,562.500 mm
4
57.1 mm d d
t
> > Ans.
(b) The ultimate load for LRFD is
1.2 1.6 1.2(190 kN) 1.6(220 kN) 580 kN U D L = + = + =
The design equation for an axial member subjected to tension can be written in LRFD as
t Y
A U o o >
Consequently, the minimum crosssectional area required for the tension member is
2
min 2
(580 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
2, 013.889 mm
0.9(320 N/mm )
t Y
U
A
o o
> = =
and thus, the minimum tie rod diameter is
2 2
min min
2, 013.889 mm
4
50.6 mm d d
t
> > Ans.
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5.1 A steel [E = 200 GPa] rod with a circular cross section is 7.5m long. Determine the minimum
diameter required if the rod must transmit a tensile force of 50 kN without exceeding an allowable stress
of 180 MPa or stretching more than 5 mm.
Solution
If the normal stress in the rod cannot exceed 180 MPa, the crosssectional area must equal or exceed
2
2
(50 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
277.7778 mm
180 N/mm
P
A
o
> = =
If the elongation must not exceed 5 mm, the crosssectional area must equal or exceed
2
2
(50 kN)(1,000 N/kN)(7,500 mm)
375.0000 mm
(200,000 N/mm )(5 mm)
PL
A
Eo
> = =
Therefore, the minimum crosssectional area that may be used for the rod is A
min
= 375 mm
2
. The
corresponding rod diameter is
2 2
rod rod
375 mm 21.8510 mm 2 m
4
1.9 m d d
t
> > = Ans.
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5.2 An aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] control rod with a circular cross section must not stretch more than
0.25 in. when the tension in the rod is 2,200 lb. If the maximum allowable normal stress in the rod is 12
ksi, determine:
(a) the smallest diameter that can be used for the rod.
(b) the corresponding maximum length of the rod.
Solution
(a) If the normal stress in the rod cannot exceed 20 ksi, the crosssectional area must equal or exceed
2
2.20 kips
0.1833 in.
12 ksi
P
A
o
> = =
The corresponding rod diameter is
2 2
rod rod
0.1833 in. 0.483
4
in. d d
t
> > Ans.
(b) If the elongation must not exceed 0.25 in., the aluminum control rod having a crosssectional area of
A = 0.1833 in.
2
can have a length no greater than
2
(0.1833 in. )(10,000 ksi)(0.25 in.)
208.3333 in.
2.20 kips
208 in.
AE
L
P
o
s = = = Ans.
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5.3 A 12mmdiameter steel [E = 200 GPa] rod (2)
is connected to a 30mmwide by 8mmthick
rectangular aluminum [E = 70 GPa] bar (1), as
shown in Fig. P5.3. Determine the force P required
to stretch the assembly 10.0 mm.
Fig. P5.3
Solution
The elongations in the two axial members are expressed by
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
and
F L F L
A E A E
o o = =
The total elongation of the assembly is thus
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
C
F L F L
u
A E A E
o o = + = +
Since the internal forces F
1
and F
2
are equal to external load P, this expression can be simplified to
1 2
1 1 2 2
C
L L
u P
AE A E
= +
For rectangular aluminum bar (1), the crosssectional area is
2
1
(30 mm)(8 mm) 240 mm A = =
and the crosssectional area of steel rod (2) is
2 2
2
(12 mm) 113.0973 mm
4
A
t
= =
The force P required to stretch the assembly 10.0 mm is thus
1 2
1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2
10.0 mm
450 mm 1,300 mm
(240 mm )(70, 000 N/mm ) (113.09739 mm )(200, 000 N/mm )
118, 682.6 N
=118.7 kN
C
u
P
L L
AE A E
=
+
=
+
=
Ans.
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5.4 Two polymer bars are connected to
a rigid plate at B, as shown in Fig. P5.4.
Bar (1) has a crosssectional area of
1.65 in.
2
and an elastic modulus of
2,400 ksi. Bar (2) has a crosssectional
area of 0.975 in.
2
and an elastic modulus
of 4,000 ksi. Determine the total
deformation of the bar.
Fig. P5.4
Solution
Draw a FBD that cuts through member (1) to find
that the internal axial force in member (1) is
1
8 kips (T) F =
Similarly, draw a FBD that cuts through member (2)
to find that the internal axial force in member (2) is
2
14 kips (T) F =
The elongation in bar (1) can be computed as
1 1
1 2
1 1
(8 kips)(20 in.)
0.040404 in.
(1.65 in. )(2, 400 ksi)
FL
AE
o = = =
and the elongation in bar (2) can be computed as
2 2
2 2
2 2
(14 kips)(30 in.)
0.107692 in.
(0.975 in. )(4, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
o = = =
The total elongation of the bar is thus
1 2
0.040404 in. 0.107692 in 0.14 1 . 8 in. o o + = + = Ans.
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5.5 An axial member consisting of two polymer
bars is supported at C as shown in Fig. P5.5. Bar
(1) has a crosssectional area of 540 mm
2
and an
elastic modulus of 28 GPa. Bar (2) has a cross
sectional area of 880 mm
2
and an elastic
modulus of 16.5 GPa. Determine the deflection
of point A relative to support C.
Fig. P5.5
Solution
Draw a FBD that cuts through member (1) to find that the internal
axial force in member (1) is
1
35 kN (T) F =
Similarly, draw a FBD that cuts through member
(2) and includes the free end of the axial member.
From this FBD, the equilibrium equation is
2
35 kN 50 kN 50 kN 0
x
F F E = ÷ + + + =
Therefore, the internal axial force in member (2) is
2
65 kN 65 kN (C) F = ÷ =
The deformation in bar (1) can be computed as
1 1
1 2 2
1 1
(35 kN)(1,000 N/kN)(850 mm)
1.9676 mm
(540 mm )(28, 000 N/mm )
FL
AE
o = = =
and the deformation in bar (2) can be computed as
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
( 65 kN)(1,000 N/kN)(1,150 mm)
5.1481 mm
(880 mm )(16, 500 N/mm )
F L
A E
o
÷
= = = ÷
The deflection of point A relative to the support at C is the sum of these two deformations:
1 2
1.9676 mm ( 5.1481 mm) 3.18 mm 3.18 mm
A
u o o ÷ = = + = + ÷ = ÷ Ans.
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5.6 The roof and second floor of a building are supported
by the column shown in Fig. P5.6. The column is a
structural steel W10 × 60 wideflange section [E = 29,000
ksi; A = 17.6 in
2
]. The roof and floor subject the column to
the axial forces shown. Determine:
(a) the amount that the first floor will settle.
(b) the amount that the roof will settle.
Fig. P5.6
Solution
(a) Draw a FBD that cuts through member (1) and includes the free
end of the column. From this FBD, the sum of forces in the
vertical direction can be written as
1
110 kips 155 kips 0
y
F F E = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Therefore, the internal axial force in member (1) is
1
270 kips 270 kips (C) F = ÷ =
The settlement of the first floor is determined by the deformation
(i.e., contraction in this case) that occurs in member (1).
1 1
1
1 1
2
( 270 kips)(16 ft)(12 in./ft)
(17.6 in. )(29, 000 ksi)
0.101567 in. 0.1016 in.
B
FL
u
AE
o = =
÷
=
= ÷ =  Ans.
(b) Draw a FBD that cuts through member (2) and includes the free
end of the column. From this FBD, the equilibrium equation is
2
115 kips 0
x
F F E = ÷ ÷ =
Therefore, the internal axial force in member (2) is
2
115 kips 115 kips (C) F = ÷ =
The deformation in member (2) (which will be contraction in this
instance) can be computed as
2 2
2 2
2 2
( 115 kips)(14 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.037853 in.
(17.6 in. )(29, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
o
÷
= = = ÷
The settlement of the roof is found from the sum of the contractions in the two members:
1 2
0.101567 in. ( 0.037853 0.139420 in. 0.1394 in. in .)
C
u o o = + = ÷ ÷ = + ÷ =  Ans.
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5.7 Aluminum [E = 70 GPa] member ABC supports a
load of 28 kN, as shown in Fig. P5.7. Determine:
(a) the value of load P such that the deflection of joint C
is zero.
(b) the corresponding deflection of joint B.
Fig. P5.7
Solution
Cut a FBD that exposes the internal axial force in member (2):
2 2
28 kN 0 28 kN
y
F F F E = ÷ = =
Similarly, cut a FBD that exposes the internal axial force in
member (1):
1 1
28 kN 0 28 kN
y
F P F F P E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷
The deflection at joint C, which must ultimately equal zero, can be
expressed in terms of the member deformations o
1
and o
2
:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
0
C
FL F L
u
AE A E
o o = + = + =
or
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2
(28, 000 N )(1,000 mm) (28, 000 N)(1,300 mm)
0
(50 mm) (70, 000 N/mm ) (32 mm) (70, 000 N/mm )
4 4
C
FL F L
u
AE A E
P
t t
= +
÷
= + =
The only unknown in this equation is P, which can be computed as
80.5841 k 80. kN N 6 P = = Ans.
The corresponding deflection at joint B can be found from the deformation in member (1):
1 1
1
2 2
1 1
(28, 000 N 80, 584 N)(1,300 mm)
(50 mm) (70, 000 N/m
0.497
m
mm 0.497 mm
)
4
B
FL
u
AE
o
t
÷ =
÷
= = = =  Ans.
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5.8 A solid brass [E = 100 GPa] axial member is loaded and
supported as shown in Fig. P5.8. Segments (1) and (2) each have a
diameter of 25 mm and segment (3) has a diameter of 14 mm.
Determine:
(a) the deformation of segment (2).
(b) the deflection of joint D with respect to the fixed support at A.
(c) the maximum normal stress in the entire axial member.
Fig. P5.8
Solution
(a) Draw a FBD that cuts through segment (2) and includes the free
end of the axial member. From this FBD, the sum of forces in the
vertical direction reveals the internal force in the segment:
2 2
14 kN 28 kN 0 42 kN (T)
y
F F F E = ÷ ÷ = =
The crosssectional area of the 25mmdiameter segment is
2 2
2
(25 mm) 490.8739 mm
4
A
t
= =
The deformation in segment (2) is thus
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
(42,000 N)(1,200 mm)
(490.8739 mm )(100, 000 N/mm )
1.026740 1.027 mm mm
F L
A E
o = =
= = Ans.
(b) The internal forces in segments (1) and (3) must be determined at
the outset. From a FBD that cuts through segment (1) and includes
the free end of the axial member:
1 1
40 kN 14 kN 28 kN 0 82 kN (T)
y
F F F E = ÷ ÷ ÷ = =
The deformation in segment (1) can be computed as
1 1
1 2 2
1 1
(82,000 N)(1,800 mm)
3.006883 mm
(490.8739 mm )(100, 000 N/mm )
FL
AE
o = = =
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Similarly, consider a FBD that cuts through segment (3) and includes the free end of
the axial member:
3 3
28 kN 0 28 kN (T)
y
F F F E = ÷ = =
The crosssectional area of the 14mmdiameter segment is
2 2
3
(164 mm) 153.9380 mm
4
A
t
= =
The deformation in segment (3) can be computed as
3 3
3 2 2
3 3
(28,000 N)(1,600 mm)
2.810262 mm
(153.9380 mm )(100, 000 N/mm )
F L
A E
o = = =
The deflection of joint D with respect to the fixed support at A is found from the sum of the three
segment deformations:
1 2 3
3.006883 mm 1.026740 mm 2.810262 mm
6.943885 6.94 mm mm
D
u o o o = + +
= + +
= = Ans.
(c) Since segments (1) and (2) have the same crosssectional area, the maximum normal stress in these
two segments occurs where the axial force is greater; that is, in segment (1):
1
1 2
1
82, 000 N
167.0490 MPa (T)
490.8739 mm
F
A
o = = =
The normal stress in segment (3) is
3
3 2
3
28, 000 N
181.8914 MPa (T)
153.9380 mm
F
A
o = = =
Therefore, the maximum normal stress in the axial member occurs in segment (3):
max
181.9 MPa (T) o = Ans.
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5.9 A hollow steel [E = 30,000 ksi] tube (1) with
an outside diameter of 2.75 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.25 in. is fastened to a solid
aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] rod (2) that has a 2
in.diameter and a solid 1.375in.diameter
aluminum rod (3). The bar is loaded as shown in
Fig. P5.9. Determine:
(a) the change in length of steel tube (1).
(b) the deflection of joint D with respect to the
fixed support at A.
(c) the maximum normal stress in the entire axial
assembly.
Fig. P5.9
Solution
Before proceeding, it is convenient to determine the internal forces in each of the three axial segments.
Segment (1): Draw a FBD that cuts through
segment (1) and includes the free end of the axial
member. From this FBD, the sum of forces in the
horizontal direction gives the force in segment (1):
1
1
2(34 kips) 2(18 kips) 25 kips 0
57 kips
x
F F
F
E = ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
= ÷
Segment (2): Draw a FBD that cuts through
segment (2) and includes the free end of the axial
member. From this FBD, the sum of forces in the
horizontal direction gives the force in segment (2):
2
2
2(18 kips) 25 kips 0
11 kips
x
F F
F
E = ÷ + ÷ =
=
Segment (3): Draw a FBD that cuts through
segment (3) and includes the free end of the axial
member. From this FBD, the sum of forces in the
horizontal direction gives the force in segment (3):
3
3
25 kips 0
25 kips
x
F F
F
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
(a) The crosssectional area of the hollow steel tube (inside diameter = 2.25 in.) is
2 2 2
1
(2.75 in.) (2.25 in.) 1.963495 in.
4
A
t
= ÷ =
The deformation in segment (1) is thus
1 1
1 2
1 1
( 57 kips)(60 in.)
0.058060 in.
(1.963495 in. )
0.0581
(30
in
, 000 ks
.
i)
FL
AE
o
÷
= = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.
(b) For segment (2), the crosssectional area of the 2in.diameter aluminum rod is
2 2
2
(2 in.) 3.141593 in.
4
A
t
= =
The deformation in segment (2) can be computed as
2 2
2 2
2 2
(11 kips)(40 in.)
0.014006 in.
(3.141593 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
o = = =
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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For segment (3), the crosssectional area of the 1.375in.diameter aluminum rod is
2 2
3
(1.375 in.) 1.484893 in.
4
A
t
= =
The deformation in segment (3) can be computed as
3 3
3 2
3 3
( 25 kips)(30 in.)
0.050509 in.
(1.484893 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
o
÷
= = = ÷
The deflection of joint D with respect to the fixed support at A is found from the sum of the three
segment deformations:
1 2 3
0.058060 in. 0.014006 in. 0.050509 in.
0.094563 0.0946 i in. n. 0.0946 in.
D
u o o o = + + = ÷ + ÷
= = ÷ ÷ = ÷ Ans.
(c) Compute the normal stress in each of the three segments:
1
1 2
1
2
2 2
2
3
3 2
3
57 kips
29.0299 ksi (C)
1.963495 in.
11 kips
3.5014 ksi (T)
3.141593 in.
25 kips
16.8362 ksi (C)
1.484893 in.
F
A
F
A
F
A
o
o
o
= = =
= = =
= = =
Therefore, the maximum normal stress in the axial member occurs in segment (1):
max
29.0 ksi (C) o = Ans.
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5.10 A solid 5/8in. steel [E = 29,000 ksi] rod
(1) supports beam AB, as shown in Fig. P5.10.
If the stress in the rod must not exceed 30 ksi
and the maximum deformation in the rod must
not exceed 0.25 in., determine the maximum
load P that may be supported.
Fig. P5.10
Solution
The area of the 5/8in.diameter rod is
2 2
1
(0.625 in.) 0.306796 in.
4
A
t
= =
If the stress in the rod must not exceed 30 ksi, then the maximum force that can be applied to rod (1) is
2
1 allow,1 1
(30 ksi)(0.306796 in. ) 9.203880 kips F A o s = =
The length of rod (1) is
2 2
1
(20 ft) (16 ft) 25.612497 ft 307.35 in. L = + = =
If the maximum deformation in the rod must not exceed 0.25 in., the maximum internal force in the rod
must be limited to
2
1 1 1
1
1
(0.25 in.)(0.306796 in. )(29, 000 ksi)
7.236932 kips
307.35 in.
AE
F
L
o
s = =
Therefore, the maximum internal force in rod (1) must not exceed 7.237 kips.
Consider a FBD of the rigid beam. Rod (1) is a two
force member at an orientation u defined by:
16 ft
tan 0.8 38.660
20 ft
u u = = = °
Write the equilibrium equation for the sum of moments
about A to find the relationship between F
1
and P:
1
(20 ft)( sin38.660 ) (8 ft) 0
(20 ft)(7.236932 kips)sin38.660
11. 11 302236 kips
8 ft
.30 kips
A
M F P
P
E = ° ÷ =
°
= = = Ans.
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5.11 A 1in.diameter by 16ftlong coldrolled bronze bar [E = 15,000 ksi and ¸ = 0.320 lb/in
3
] hangs
vertically while suspended from one end. Determine the change in length of the bar due to its own
weight.
Solution
An incremental length dy of the bar has an incremental deformation given by
( ) F y
d dy
AE
o =
The force in the bar can be expressed as the product of the unit density of the bronze (¸
bronze
) and the
volume of the bar below the incremental slice dy:
( )
bronze
F y A y ¸ =
Therefore, the incremental deformation can be expressed as
bronze bronze
A y y
d dy dy
AE E
¸ ¸
o = =
Integrate this expression over the entire length L of the bar:
2
2 bronze bronze bronze bronze
0 0 0
1
2 2
L L L y L
dy y dy y
E E E E
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
o = = = =
í í
The change in length of the bar due to its own weight is therefore:
2 3 2
bronze
(0.320 lb/in. )(16 ft 12 in./ft)
0.000393216 in.
2 2(1
0.000393 in
5, 000, 000 ps
.
i)
L
E
¸
o
×
= = = = Ans.
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5.12 A homogenous rod of length L and elastic modulus E is a truncated cone with diameter that varies
linearly from d
0
at one end to 2d
0
at the other end. A concentrated axial load P is applied to the ends of
the rod, as shown in Fig. P5.12. Assume that the taper of the cone is slight enough for the assumption of
a uniform axial stress distribution over a cross section to be valid.
(a) Determine an expression for the stress distribution on an arbitrary cross section at x.
(b) Determine an expression for the elongation of the rod.
P5.12
Solution
(a) Determine an expression for the diameter of the
truncated cone through the use of the similar triangles
concept:
0 0 0
0
2 ( )
( ) 1
d d d x d
L x
x
d x d
L
÷ ÷
=
 
= +

\ .
(a)
Next, consider equilibrium of the truncated cone:
( ) 0 ( )
x
F F x P F x P = ÷ = =
¯
The internal force F(x) can be expressed in terms of stress and area:
( ) ( ) ( )
A
F x dA x A x o o = =
í
Equating this expression to the equilibrium equation gives:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
F x x A x P
P
x
A x
o
o
= =
=
From Eq. (a), the area of the cone at any location x is expressed as
2
2
2 0
1
( )
( )
4 4
x
d
d x L
A x
t
t
 
+

\ .
= =
Therefore, the stress can be written as
2
2
0
4
1
( )
( )
P
x
d
L
P
x
A x
t
o = =
 
+

\ .
Ans.
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(b) The elongation in the axial member is found from Eq. (5.5):
0 0
( )
( )
L L
F x
d dx
A x E
o o = =
í í
For the truncated cone axial member:
2 2 2
0 0
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
4 4
1 1
4 2
1
L L
L
P P dx
dx
Ed
x x
Ed
L L
P L
x
L
d E E
L
P
d t
o
t
t
t
= =
   
+ +

\ .
\ .
÷
= =
+
í í
Ans.
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5.13 Determine the extension, due to its own weight, of
the conical bar shown in Fig. P5.13. The bar is made of
aluminum alloy [E = 10,600 ksi and ¸ = 0.100 lb/in.
3
].
The bar has a 2in. radius at its upper end and a length of
L = 20 ft. Assume the taper of the bar is slight enough for
the assumption of a uniform axial stress distribution over
a cross section to be valid.
Fig. P5.13
Solution
An incremental length dy of the bar has an incremental deformation given by
( ) F y
d dy
AE
o =
The force in the bar can be expressed as the product of the unit density of the aluminum (¸
alum
) and the
volume of the bar below the incremental slice dy. The volume below the slice dy is a cone. At y, the
crosssectional area of the base of the cone is:
2
y
y
A r
L
t
 
=

\ .
and the volume of a cone is given by:
1
(area of base)(altitude)
3
V =
The internal force at y can be expressed as
alum
1
( )
3
y
F y A y ¸ = ×
The incremental deformation can be expressed as
alum
alum
3 3
y
y
A y
y
d dy dy
A E E
¸
¸
o = =
Integrate this expression over the entire length L of the bar:
2
2 alum alum alum alum
0 0 0
1
3 3 3 2 6
L L L y L
dy y dx y
E E E E
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
o = = = =
í í
The change in length of the bar due to its own weight is therefore:
2 3
6
2
5 alum
(0.100 lb/in. )(20 ft 12 in./ft)
9.0566 10 in.
6 6(
90.6 10 in
10, 600, 000 psi)
.
L
E
¸
o
÷ ÷
×
× = = = × = Ans.
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5.14 Rigid bar ABCD is loaded and supported as
shown in Fig. P5.14. Steel [E = 30,000 ksi] bars
(1) and (2) are unstressed before the load P is
applied. Bar (1) has a crosssectional area of
0.75 in.
2
and bar (2) has a crosssectional area of
0.425 in.
2
. After load P is applied, the strain in
bar (1) is found to be 780 . Determine:
(a) the stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the vertical deflection of point D.
(c) the load P.
Fig. P5.14
Solution
From the strain in bar (1), the deformation in bar (1) is
6
1 1 1
(780 10 in./in.)(60 in.) 0.0468 in. L
Since the joint at B is a perfect connection, the rigid bar deflection at B must equal the deformation of
bar (1):
1
0.0468 in.
B
v
From a deformation diagram of the rigid bar,
the vertical deflection of joint C is related to B
by similar triangles:
40 in. 80 in.
80 in.
2
40 in.
2(0.0468 in.) 0.0936 in.
B C
C B B
v v
v v v
The joint at C is also a perfect connection; therefore, the downward displacement of C also causes an
equal deformation in bar (2):
2
0.0936 in.
C
v
(a) Now that the deformations in both bars are known, the normal stresses in each can be computed.
The normal stress in bar (1) is
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
(0.0468 in.)(30,000 ksi)
60
23.4 ks T
i .
i ( )
n
FL L E
AE E L
Ans.
and the normal stress in bar (2) is
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
(0.0936 in.)(30,000 ksi)
90
31.2 ks T
i .
i ( )
n
F L L E
A E E L
Ans.
Alternatively, the stress in (1) could be calculated from Hooke’s Law:
6
1 1 1
(30,000 ksi)(780 10 in./in.) 23.4 ksi (T) E
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(b) From a deformation diagram of the rigid bar, the vertical deflection of joint D is related to B and C
by similar triangles:
40 in. 80 in. 110 in.
110 in.
2.75(0.0 0.1287 in. 468 in.)
40 in.
B C D
D B
v v v
v v Ans.
(c) The force in each bar can be determined from the stresses computed previously:
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
(23.4 ksi)(0.75 in. ) 17.55 kips
(31.2 ksi)(0.425 in. ) 13.26 kips
F A
F A
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. The
equilibrium equation for the sum of moments
about A can be used to determine the load P:
1 2
(40 in.) (80 in.) (110 in.) 0
(40 in.)(17.55 kips) (80 in.)(13.26 kips)
16.0255 kips
110 in.
16.03 kips
A
M F F P
P Ans.
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5.15 Rigid bar ABCD is loaded and supported as
shown in Fig. P5.15. Bars (1) and (2) are
unstressed before the load P is applied. Bar (1) is
made of bronze [E = 100 GPa] and has a cross
sectional area of 520 mm
2
. Bar (2) is made of
aluminum [E = 70 GPa] and has a crosssectional
area of 960 mm
2
. After the load P is applied, the
force in bar (2) is found to be 25 kN (in tension).
Determine:
(a) the stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the vertical deflection of point A.
(c) the load P.
Fig. P5.15
Solution
Given that the axial force in bar (2) is 25 kN (in tension), the deformation can be computed as:
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
(25, 000 N)(800 mm)
0.297619 mm
(960 mm )(70, 000 N/mm )
F L
A E
Since the pin at C is a perfect connection, the deflection of the rigid bar at C is equal to the deformation
of bar (2):
2
0.297619 mm
C
v
From a deformation diagram of the rigid bar, the
vertical deflection of joint C is related to B by
similar triangles:
1.6 m 0.5 m
1.6 m
3.2
0.5 m
3.2(0.297619 mm) 1.116071 mm
B C
B C C
v v
v v v
The joint at B is also a perfect connection; therefore, the downward displacement of B also causes an
equal contraction in bar (1):
1
1.116071 mm
B
v
Note that a downward displacement at B causes contraction (and hence, compression) in bar (1).
(a) The normal stress in aluminum bar (2) can be computed from the known force in the bar:
2
2 2
2
25, 000 N
26.041667 MPa
960 mm
26.0 MPa (T)
F
A
Ans.
The normal stress in bronze bar (1) can be computed from its contraction:
1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1
2
1 1
1
1
( 1.116071 mm)(100,000 N/mm )
186.011905 MPa
600 m
186.0 M
m
Pa (C)
FL L
AE E
E
L
Ans.
(b) From a deformation diagram of the rigid bar, the vertical deflection of joint A is related to joint B by
similar triangles:
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2.0 m 0.5 m
2.0 m
4 4(0.297619 mm) 1.488 m 1.488095 mm
0.5 m
m
A C
A C C
v v
v v v Ans.
(c) The force in bar (2) is given as F
2
= 25 kN. The force in bar (1) can be determined from the stress
computed previously:
2 2
1 1 1
( 186.011905 N/mm )(520 mm ) 96, 726.1905 N 96.7262 kN F A
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. The
equilibrium equation for the sum of moments
about D can be used to determine the load P:
1 2
(1.6 m) (0.5 m) (2.0 m) 0
(0.5 m)(25 kN) (1.6 m)( 96.7262 kN)
2.0 m
77. 77.5 5446 kN kN
D
M F F P
P
Ans.
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5.16 In Fig. P5.16, aluminum [E = 70
GPa] links (1) and (2) support rigid beam
ABC. Link (1) has a crosssectional area
of 300 mm
2
and link (2) has a cross
sectional area of 450 mm
2
. For an
applied load of P = 55 kN, determine the
rigid beam deflection at point B.
Fig. P5.16
Solution
From a FBD of the rigid beam, write two equilibrium
equations:
1 2
55 kN 0
y
F F F (a)
2
(2, 200 mm) (1, 400 mm)(55 kN) 0
A
M F (b)
Solve Eq. (b) for F
2
:
2
(1, 400 mm)(55 kN)
35 kN
2, 200 mm
F
and backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to obtain F
1
:
1 2
55 kN 55 kN 35 kN 20 kN F F
Next, determine the deformations in links (1) and (2):
1 1
1 2 2
1 1
(20, 000 N)(2,500 mm)
2.380952 mm
(300 mm )(70, 000 N/mm )
FL
AE
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
(35, 000 N)(4,000 mm)
4.444444 mm
(450 mm )(70, 000 N/mm )
F L
A E
Since the connections at A and C are perfect, the rigid beam deflections at these joints are equal to the
deformations of links (1) and (2), respectively:
1 2
2.380952 mm and 4.444444 mm
A C
v v
The deflection at B can be determined
from similar triangles:
2, 200 mm 1, 400 mm
C A B A
v v v v
Solve this expression for v
B
:
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1, 400 mm
( )
2,200 mm
1, 400 mm
(4.444444 mm 2.380952 mm) 2.380952 mm
2,200 mm
(0.636364)(2.053492 mm) 2.3
3.6
80952 mm
= 9 mm
B C A A
v v v v
Ans.
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5.17 Rigid bar ABC is supported by bronze rod (1) and aluminum
rod (2), as shown in Fig P517. A concentrated load P is applied
to the free end of aluminum rod (3). Bronze rod (1) has an elastic
modulus of E
1
= 15,000 ksi and a diameter of d
1
= 0.50 in.
Aluminum rod (2) has an elastic modulus of E
2
= 10,000 ksi and
a diameter of d
2
= 0.75 in. Aluminum rod (3) has a diameter of d
3
= 1.0 in. The yield strength of the bronze is 48 ksi and the yield
strength of the aluminum is 40 ksi.
(a) Determine the magnitude of load P that can safely be applied
to the structure if a minimum factor of safety of 1.67 is required.
(b) Determine the deflection of point D for the load determined
in part (a).
(c) The pin used at B has an ultimate shear strength of 54 ksi. If a
factor of safety of 3.0 is required for this double shear pin
connection, determine the minimum pin diameter that can be
used at B.
Fig. P5.17
Solution
Before beginning, the crosssectional areas of the three rods can be calculated from the specified
diameters:
2 2 2
1 2 3
0.196350 in. 0.441786 in. 0.785398 in. A A A
The allowable stress of the bronze is
, bronze
allow,1
48 ksi
28.742515 ksi
FS 1.67
Y
and the allowable stress of the aluminum is
,alum
allow,2 allow,3
40 ksi
23.952096 ksi
FS 1.67
Y
(a) From a FBD cut through rod (3), equilibrium requires that the internal force in rod (3) is F
3
= P.
From a FBD of the rigid bar, write two equilibrium equations:
1 2 3 1 2
0
y
F F F F F F P (a)
2 3 2
(4 ft) (2.5 ft) (4 ft) (2.5 ft) 0
A
M F F F P (b)
Solve Eq. (b) for F
2
in terms of the unknown load P:
2
2.5 ft
0.6250
4 ft
F P P (c)
Backsubstitute this expression into Eq. (a) to obtain F
1
in terms of
the unknown load P:
1 2
0.6250 0.3750 F P F P P P (d)
Rearrange Eqs. (c) and (d) to express P in terms of F
2
and F
1
, respectively:
2
1.6000 P F (e)
1
2.6667 P F (f)
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Based on the allowable stress for the bronze, the maximum allowable force that can be supported by rod
(1) is:
2
1 allow,1 1
(28.742515 ksi)(0.196350 in. ) 5.643579 kips F A
Thus, from Eq. (f), the corresponding maximum load P is:
1
2.6667 2.6667(5.643579 kips) 15.049545 kips P F (g)
Next, the maximum allowable force that can be supported by rod (2) based on the allowable stress for
the aluminum is:
2
2 allow,2 2
(23.952096 ksi)(0.441786 in. ) 10.581711 kips F A
which leads to a corresponding maximum load P from Eq. (e):
2
1.6000 1.6000(10.581711 kips) 16.930738 kips P F (h)
Finally, we should also check the capacity of rod (3):
2
3 allow,3 3
(23.952096 ksi)(0.785398 in. ) 18.811931 kips F A
which means that
18.811931 kips P (i)
From a comparison of Eqs. (g), (h), and (i), the maximum load that may be applied to the structure is
max
15.049545 k 15.05 ips kips P Ans.
Based on this maximum load P, the internal forces in the three rods are:
1
2
3
0.3750 0.3750(15.049545 kips) 5.643579 kips
0.6250 0.6250(15.049545 kips) 9.405966 kips
15.049545 kips
F P
F P
F P
(b) Next, determine the deformations in rods (1), (2), and (3):
1 1
1 2
1 1
(5.643579 kips)(6 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.137964 in.
(0.196350 in. )(15, 000 ksi)
FL
AE
2 2
2 2
2 2
(9.405966 kips)(8 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.204391 in.
(0.441786 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
3 3
3 2
3 3
(15.049545 kips)(3 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.068982 in.
(0.785398 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
Since the connections at A and C are perfect, the rigid bar deflections at these joints are equal to the
deformations of rods (1) and (2), respectively:
1 2
0.137964 in. and 0.204391 in.
A C
v v
The rigid bar deflection at B can be
determined from similar triangles:
4 ft 2.5 ft
C A B A
v v v v
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Solve this expression for v
B
:
2.5 ft
( )
4 ft
2.5 ft
(0.204391 in. 0.137964 in.) 0.137964 in.
4 ft
(0.6250)(0.066427 in.) 0.137964 in.
0.179481 in.
B C A A
v v v v
The deflection of joint D is equal to the deflection of the rigid bar at B plus the deformation in rod (3):
3
0.179481 in. 0.068982 in. 0.248463 in. 0.248 in.
D B
v v Ans.
(c) The pin at B has an allowable shear stress of
allow
54 ksi
18 ksi
FS 3.0
U
The force tending to shear this pin is equal to the load P = 15.049545 kips. The shear area A
V
required
for this pin is thus
2
allow
15.049545 kips
0.836086 in.
18 ksi
V
V
A
Since the pin is used in a double shear connection, the shear area is equal to twice the crosssectional
area of the pin:
2
pin pin
2 2
4
V
A A d
and so the minimum pin diameter is
2 2
pin pin
2 0.836086 in. 0.729568 in.
4
0.730 in. d d Ans.
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5.18 Solve problem 5.14 when there is a
clearance of 0.05 in. in the pin connection at C.
5.14 (Repeated here for convenience). Rigid
bar ABCD is loaded and supported as shown in
Fig. P5.14. Steel [E = 30,000 ksi] bars (1) and (2)
are unstressed before the load P is applied. Bar
(1) has a crosssectional area of 0.75 in.
2
and bar
(2) has a crosssectional area of 0.425 in.
2
. After
load P is applied, the strain in bar (1) is found to
be 780 . Determine:
(a) the stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the vertical deflection of point D.
(c) the load P.
Fig. P5.14 (repeated)
Solution
From the strain in bar (1), the deformation in bar (1) is
6
1 1 1
(780 10 in./in.)(60 in.) 0.0468 in. L
Since the joint at B is a perfect connection, the rigid bar deflection at B must equal the deformation of
bar (1):
1
0.0468 in.
B
v
From a deformation diagram of the rigid bar,
the vertical deflection of joint C is related to B
by similar triangles:
40 in. 80 in.
80 in.
2
40 in.
2(0.0468 in.) 0.0936 in.
B C
C B B
v v
v v v
There is a 0.05in. clearance in the connection at C; therefore,
2
2
0.05 in.
0.05 in. 0.0936 in. 0.05 in. 0.0436 in.
C
C
v
v
(a) Now that the deformations in both bars are known, the normal stresses in each can be computed.
The normal stress in bar (1) is
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
(0.0468 in.)(30,000 ksi)
60
23.4 ks T
i .
i ( )
n
FL L E
AE E L
Ans.
and the normal stress in bar (2) is
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
(0.0436 in.)(30,000 ksi)
14.5333 ksi
90
14.53 ksi
in.
(T)
F L L E
A E E L
Ans.
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(b) From a deformation diagram of the rigid bar, the vertical deflection of joint D is related to B and C
by similar triangles:
40 in. 80 in. 110 in.
110 in.
2.75(0.0 0.1287 in. 468 in.)
40 in.
B C D
D B
v v v
v v Ans.
(c) The force in each bar can be determined from the stresses computed previously:
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
(23.4 ksi)(0.75 in. ) 17.55 kips
(14.5333 ksi)(0.425 in. ) 6.1767 kips
F A
F A
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. The
equilibrium equation for the sum of moments
about A can be used to determine the load P:
1 2
(40 in.) (80 in.) (110 in.) 0
(40 in.)(17.55 kips) (80 in.)(6.1767 kips)
10.8739 kips
110 in.
10.87 kips
A
M F F P
P Ans.
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5.19 The rigid beam in Fig. P5.19 is supported by
links (1) and (2), which are made from a polymer
material [E = 16 GPa]. Link (1) has a cross
sectional area of 400 mm
2
and link (2) has a cross
sectional area of 800 mm
2
. Determine the
maximum load P that may by applied if the
deflection of the rigid beam is not to exceed 20
mm at point C.
Fig. P5.19
Solution
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of the rigid beam
and assume tension in each link.
1 2
0
y
F F F P (a)
2
(600 mm) (900 mm) 0
A
M F P (b)
From Eq. (b):
2
900 mm
1.5
600 mm
F P P (c)
Backsubstituting into Eq. (a):
1 2
1.5 0.5 F F P P P P (d)
Forcedeformation relationships: The relationship between internal force and member deformation
for links (1) and (2) can be expressed as:
1 1
1
1 1
FL
AE
and
2 2
2
2 2
F L
A E
(e)
Geometry of deformations:
Consider a deformation diagram of
the rigid beam. Using similar
triangles, one way to express the
relationships between v
A
, v
B
, and v
C
is:
900 mm 300 mm
A C C B
v v v v
(f)
Note: Here, v
A
, v
B
, and v
C
are
treated as unsigned magnitudes in
the directions shown on the
deformation diagram.
The rigid beam deflection at A will equal the deformation that occurs in link (1):
1 A
v
and similarly at B:
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2 B
v
Equation (f) can now be rewritten in terms of e
1
and e
2
as:
1 2
900 mm 300 mm
C C
v v
or
1 2 2
900 mm
( ) 3 3
300 mm
C C C
v v v
Solving for v
C
gives:
1 2 1 2
2 3 0.5 1.5
C C
v v
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships from Eq. (e) to obtain:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
0.5 1.5
0.5 1.5
C
FL F L
v
AE A E
and then substitute Eqs. (c) and (d) to derive an expression for v
C
in terms of the unknown load P:
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
0.5(0.5 ) 1.5(1.5 ) 0.25 2.25
C
P L P L L L
v P
AE A E AE A E
The unknown load P is thus related to the rigid beam deflection at C by:
1 2
1 1 2 2
0.25 2.25
C
v
P
L L
A E A E
Substituting the appropriate values into this relationship gives the maximum load P that may be applied
to the rigid beam at C without causing more than 20 mm deflection:
2 2 2 2
20 mm
(0.25)(1,000 mm) (2.25)(1, 250 mm)
(400 mm )(16, 000 N/mm ) (800 mm )(16, 000 N/mm )
77, 283 N 77.3 kN
P
Ans.
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5.20 Three aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] bars are
used to support the loads shown in Fig. P5.20. The
elongation in each bar must be limited to 0.25 in.
Determine the minimum crosssectional area
required for each bar.
Fig. P5.20
Solution
Determine the inclination angles for bars (1), (2), and (3):
1 1
2 2
3 1
7 ft
tan 34.992
10 ft
3 ft
tan 18.435
9 ft
8 ft
tan 57.995
5 ft
The bar lengths are:
2 2
1
2 2
2
2 2
3
(7 ft) (10 ft) 12.206556 ft 146.4787 in.
(3 ft) (9 ft) 9.486833 ft 113.8420 in.
(8 ft) (5 ft) 9.433981 ft 113.2078 in.
L
L
L
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of joint B and write two equilibrium
equations:
1 2
1 2
cos34.992 cos18.435 0
sin34.992 sin18.435 31 kips 0
x
y
F F F
F F F
Solve these two equations simultaneously to obtain F
1
= 36.61967 kips
and F
2
= 31.62278 kips.
Next, consider a FBD of joint C and write two additional equilibrium
equations:
2 3
2 3
cos18.435 cos57.995 0
sin18.435 sin57.995 38 kips 0
x
y
F F F
F F F
From this, the internal force in bar (3) is F
3
= 56.60389 kips.
The minimum crosssectional area required for each bar is:
1
1
2 1
1 1
(36.61967 kips)(146.4787 in.)
(0.25 in.)(10,000 ks
2.15 in.
i)
FL
A
e E
Ans.
2
2
2 2
2 2
(31.62278 kips)(113.8420 in.)
(0.25 in.)(10,000 ksi
1.440 in.
)
F L
A
e E
Ans.
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3
3
2 3
3 3
(56.60389 kips)(113.2078 in.)
(0.25 in.)(10,000 ks
2.56 in.
i)
F L
A
e E
Ans.
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5.21 A tie rod (1) and a pipe strut (2) are used to
support an 80kip load as shown in Fig. P5.21. Pipe
strut (2) has an outside diameter of 6.625 in. and a
wall thickness of 0.280 in. Both the tie rod and the
pipe strut are made of structural steel with a modulus
of elasticity of E = 29,000 ksi and a yield strength of
Y
= 36 ksi. For the tie rod, the minimum factor of
safety with respect to yield is 1.5 and the maximum
allowable axial elongation is 0.20 in.
(a) Determine the minimum diameter required to
satisfy both constraints for tie rod (1).
(b) Draw a deformation diagram showing the final
position of joint B.
Fig. P5.21
Solution
The angles of inclination for members (1) and (2) are:
1 1
2 2
12 ft
tan 26.565
24 ft
30 ft
tan 51.340
24 ft
The member lengths are:
2 2
1
2 2
2
(12 ft) (24 ft) 26.8328 ft 321.9938 in.
(30 ft) (24 ft) 38.4187 ft 461.0249 in.
L
L
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of joint B and write two equilibrium
equations:
1 2
1 2
cos 26.565 cos51.340 0
sin 26.565 sin51.340 80 kips 0
x
y
F F F
F F F
Solve these two equations simultaneously to obtain F
1
= 51.1103 kips and
F
2
= −73.1786 kips.
The allowable normal stress for tie rod (1) is
allow
36 ksi
24 ksi
FS 1.5
Y
The minimum crosssectional area required to satisfy the normal stress requirement is
2 1
allow
51.1103 kips
2.1296 in.
24 ksi
F
A
The maximum allowable axial deformation for the tie rod is 0.20 in. The minimum crosssectional area
required to satisfy the deformation requirement is
2 1 1
1 1
(51.1103 kips)(321.9938 in.)
2.8374 in.
(0.20 in.)(29,000 ksi)
FL
A
E
To satisfy both the stress and deformation requirements, the tie rod must have a minimum cross
sectional area of A = 2.8374 in.
2
. The corresponding rod diameter is
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2 2
rod rod
2.8374 in 1.901 in . .
4
d d Ans.
(b) The pipe has a crosssectional area of A
2
= 5.5814 in.
2
. The pipe deformation is
2 2
2 2
2 2
( 73.1786 kips)(461.0249 in.)
0.2084 in.
(5.5814 in. )(29, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
Rod (1) elongates 0.20 in. and pipe (2) contracts
0.2084 in. Therefore, the deformation diagram
showing the final position of joint B is shown.
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5.22 Two axial members are used to support a load of P = 72
kips as shown in Fig. P5.22. Member (1) is 12ft long, it has a
crosssectional area of A
1
= 1.75 in.
2
, and it is made of structural
steel [E = 29,000 ksi]. Member (2) is 16ft long, it has a cross
sectional area of A
2
= 4.50 in.
2
, and it is made of an aluminum
alloy [E = 10,000 ksi].
(a) Compute the normal stress in each axial member.
(b) Compute the deformation of each axial member.
(c) Draw a deformation diagram showing the final position of
joint B.
(d) Compute the horizontal and vertical displacements of joint B.
Fig. P5.22
Solution
(a) Consider a FBD of joint B and write two equilibrium equations:
1 2
2
cos55 0
sin55 72 kips 0
x
y
F F F
F F
Solve these two equations simultaneously to obtain F
1
= 50.4149 kips
and F
2
= 87.8958 kips.
The normal stress in member (1) is:
1
1 2
1
50.4149 kips
1.75 in.
28.8 ksi
F
A
Ans.
and the normal stress in member (2) is:
2
2 2
2
87.8958 kips
4.50 in.
19.53 ksi
F
A
Ans.
(b) The member deformations are
1 1
1 2
1 1
(50.4149 kips)(12 ft)(12 in./ft)
(1.75 in. )(29, 000 ks
0.1430 in.
i)
FL
AE
Ans.
2 2
2 2
2 2
(87.8958 kips)(16 ft)(12 in./ft)
(4.50 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
0.375 in.
F L
A E
Ans.
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(c) Member (1) elongates 0.1430 in.
and member (2) elongates 0.375 in.
Therefore, the deformation diagram
showing the final position of joint B is
shown.
(d) The horizontal displacement of B is
0.1430 in. x Ans.
The vertical displacement is found from
0.375 in. 0.1430cos55
sin55
0.375 in. 0.1430cos55 0.375 in. 0.0820 in.
sin55 sin
0.558 i .
5
n
5
y
y Ans.
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5.23 The 200 × 200 × 1,200mm oak [E = 12 GPa] block (2)
shown in Fig. P5.23 was reinforced by bolting two 6 × 200 × 1,200
mm steel [E = 200 GPa] plates (1) to opposite sides of the block. A
concentrated load of 360 kN is applied to a rigid cap. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the steel plates (1) and the oak block (2).
(b) the shortening of the block when the load is applied.
Fig. P5.23
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid cap. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
1 2
2 360 kN 0
y
F F F (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
For this configuration, the deformations of both members will be equal;
therefore,
1 2
(b)
ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (c) into the geometry of deformation relationship (b) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (d) for F
2
, recognizing that steel plates (1) and oak block (2) have the same length:
1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
2 1 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1
L A E L A E A E
F F F F
A E L L A E A E
(e)
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F
1
:
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 360 kN
y
A E A E
F F F F F F
A E A E
(f)
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For this structure, the areas and elastic moduli are given below:
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
(6 mm)(200 mm) 1, 200 mm (200 mm) 40, 000 mm
200 GPa 12 GPa
A A
E E
Substitute these values into Eq. (f) and calculate F
1
= −90 kN. Backsubstitute into Eq. (e) to calculate
F
2
= −180 kN.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
( 90 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
75 MPa
1
75 MPa (C)
,200 mm
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
( 180 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
4.50 MPa
40,
4.50 M
000
a (
m
P C)
m
F
A
Ans.
(b) The shortening of the block is equal to the deformation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of member
(2):
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
( 180, 000 N)(1,200 mm)
0.450 mm
(40,000 mm )(12, 000 N/mm )
0.450 mm
B
F L
u
A E
Ans.
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5.24 Two identical steel [E = 200 GPa] pipes, each with a
crosssectional area of 1,475 mm
2
, are attached to
unyielding supports at the top and bottom, as shown in
Fig. P5.24. At flange B, a concentrated downward load of
120 kN is applied. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the upper and lower pipes.
(b) the deflection of flange B.
Fig. P5.24
Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical
direction to obtain:
1 2
120 kN 0
y
F F F (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
0 (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
F L F L
A E A E
(d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F
2
:
1 2 2 1 2 2
2 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1
L A E L A E
F F F
A E L L A E
(e)
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F
1
:
1 2 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 1 1
1 120 kN
y
L A E L A E
F F F F F F
L A E L A E
(f)
Notice that A
1
= A
2
and E
1
= E
2
for this structure. Therefore, F
1
can be computed as:
1
1 2 2
2 1 1
120 kN 120 kN 120 kN
66.268657 kN
3.0 m
1.810811
1 1+
3.7 m
F
L A E
L A E
and from Eq. (e), F
2
has a value of
1 2 2
2 1
2 1 1
3.0 m
(66.268657 kN) 53.731343 kN
3.7 m
L A E
F F
L A E
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Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
66.268657 N
44.927903 MPa
1,475 mm
44.9 MPa (T)
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
53, 731.343 N
36.428029 MPa
1,475 m
36.4 MPa (C)
m
F
A
Ans.
(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the deformation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of member
(2):
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
( 53.731343 N)(3,700 mm)
0.673919 mm
(1,475 mm )(200, 000 N/m
0.674
m
mm
)
B
F L
u
A E
Ans.
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5.25 Solve Problem 5.24 if the lower support in Fig. P5.24 yields
and displaces downward 1.0 mm as the load P is applied.
5.24 (Repeated here for convenience) Two identical steel [E =
200 GPa] pipes, each with a crosssectional area of 1,475 mm
2
,
are attached to unyielding supports at the top and bottom, as
shown in Fig. P5.24. At flange B, a concentrated downward load
of 120 kN is applied. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the upper and lower pipes.
(b) the deflection of flange B.
Fig. P5.24 (repeated)
Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical
direction to obtain:
1 2
120 kN 0
y
F F F (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
1.0 mm (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1.0 mm
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F
2
:
1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
2 1
1 1 2 2 2 1 1
(1.0 mm)
1.0 mm
FL A E A E L A E
F F
AE L L L A E
(e)
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F
1
:
2 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
(1.0 mm)
120 kN
y
A E L A E
F F F F F
L L A E
(f)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Simplify this expression, gathering terms with F
1
on the lefthand side of the equation:
2 2 1 2 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
1 2 2 2 2
1
2 1 1 2
(1.0 mm)
120 kN
(1.0 mm)
1 120 kN
A E L A E
F F
L L A E
L A E A E
F
L A E L
Notice that A
1
= A
2
and E
1
= E
2
for this structure. Therefore, F
1
can be computed as:
2 2
1
(1.0 mm)(1,475 mm )(200, 000 N/mm )
120, 000 N
199, 729.7297 N
3, 700 mm
110, 298.5075 N
3,000 mm
1.810811
1
3,700 mm
F
and from Eq. (a), F
2
has a value of
2 1
120 kN 110, 298.507 N 120, 000 N 9, 701.493 N F F
Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
110, 298.507 N
74.778649 MPa
1,475 mm
74.8 MPa (T)
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
9, 701.493 N
6.577283 MPa
1,475 m
6.58 MPa (C)
m
F
A
Ans.
(b) The downward deflection of flange B is equal to the deformation of member (1):
1 1
1 2 2
1 1
(110, 298.507 N)(3,000 mm)
1.121680 mm
(1,475 mm )(200, 000 N/mm
1.122 mm
)
B
FL
u
AE
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.26 A load P is supported by a structure consisting of
rigid bar ABC, two identical solid bronze [E = 15,000
ksi] rods, and a solid steel [E = 30,000 ksi] rod, as
shown in Fig. P5.26. The bronze rods (1) each have a
diameter of 0.75 in. and they are symmetrically
positioned relative to the center rod (2) and the
applied load P. Steel rod (2) has a diameter of 0.50 in.
If all bars are unstressed before the load P is applied,
determine the normal stresses in the bronze and steel
rods after a load of P = 20 kips is applied.
Fig. P5.26
Solution
Equilibrium
By virtue of symmetry, the forces in the two bronze rods (1) are
identical. Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Sum forces in the
vertical direction to obtain:
1 2
2 0
y
F F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
For this configuration, the deformations of all rods will be equal;
therefore,
1 2
(b)
ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (c) into the geometry of deformation relationship (b) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (d) for F
2
:
1 2 2 1 2 2
2 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1
L A E L A E
F F F
AE L L A E
(e)
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F
1
:
1 2 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 1 1
2 2 2
y
L A E L A E
F F F F F F P
L A E L A E
(f)
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For this structure, P = 20 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2
50 in. 90 in.
(0.75 in.) 0.441786 in. (0.50 in.) 0.196350 in.
4 4
15, 000 ksi 30, 000 ksi
L L
A A
E E
Substitute these values into Eq. (f) and calculate F
1
= 8.019802 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (e) to
calculate F
2
= 3.960396 kips.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
8.019802 kips
0.441786 in
18. 5
.
1 ksi
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
3.960396 kips
0.196350 i
20.2 ks
.
i
n
F
A
Ans.
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5.27 An aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi] pipe
with a crosssectional area of A
1
= 4.50 in.
2
is
connected at flange B to a steel [E = 30,000 ksi]
pipe with a crosssectional area of A
2
= 3.20 in.
2
.
The assembly (shown in Fig. P5.27) is connected
to rigid supports at A and C. For the loading
shown, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in aluminum pipe (1) and
steel pipe (2).
(b) the deflection of flange B.
Fig. P5.27
Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces
in the horizontal direction to obtain:
1 2
90 kips 0
x
F F F (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
0 (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
F L F L
A E A E
(d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F
2
:
1 2 2 1 2 2
2 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1
L A E L A E
F F F
A E L L A E
(e)
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F
1
:
1 2 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 1 1
1 90 kips
x
L A E L A E
F F F F F F
L A E L A E
(f)
F
1
can be computed as:
1
2
1 2 2
2
2 1 1
90 kips 90 kips 90 kips
35.273159 kips
2.551515 160 in. 3.20 in. 30, 000 ksi
1
1+
220 in. 4.50 in. 10, 000 ksi
F
L A E
L A E
and from Eq. (a), F
2
has a value of
2 1
90 kips 35.273159 kips 90 kips 54.726841 kips F F
Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
35.273159 kips
7.838480 ksi
4.50 in
7.84
.
ksi (T)
F
A
Ans.
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2
2 2
2
54.726841 kips
17.102138 ksi
3.20 in.
17.10 ksi (C)
F
A
Ans.
(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the deformation of member (1):
1 1
1 2
1 1
(35.273159 kips)(160 in.)
0.125416 in.
(4.50 in. )(10
0.1254 in
, 000 )
.
ksi
B
FL
u
AE
Ans.
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5.28 The concrete [E = 29 GPa] pier shown in
Fig. P5.28 is reinforced using four steel [E =
200 GPa] reinforcing rods, each having a
diameter of 19 mm. If the pier is subjected to an
axial load of 670 kN, determine:
(a) the normal stress in the concrete and in the
steel reinforcing rods.
(b) the shortening of the pier.
Fig. P5.28
Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of the pier, cut around the upper end.
The concrete will be designated member (1) and the reinforcing steel bars
will be designated member (2). Sum forces in the vertical direction to
obtain:
1 2
670 kN 0
y
F F F (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
(b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
F L F L
A E A E
(d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F
2
:
1 2 2 1 2 2
2 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1
L A E L A E
F F F
A E L L A E
(e)
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F
1
:
1 2 2 1 2 2
1 2 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 1 1
1 670 kN
y
L A E L A E
F F F F F F
L A E L A E
(f)
Since L
1
= L
2
, the term L
1
/L
2
= 1 can be eliminated and Eq. (f) simplified to
2 2
1
1 1
1 670 kN
A E
F
A E
(g)
The gross crosssectional area of the pier is (250 mm)
2
= 62,500 mm
2
; however, the reinforcing bars
take up a portion of this area. The crosssectional area of four 19mmdiameter reinforcing bars is
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2 2
2
(4 bars) (19 mm) 1,134.115 mm
4
A
and thus the area of the concrete is
2 2 2
1
62, 500 mm 1,134.115 mm 61, 365.885 mm A
F
1
can now be computed as:
2
1 2
1
1,134.115 mm 200 GPa
1 670 kN
61, 365.885 mm 29 GPa
670 kN
594.258 kN
1.127457
F
F
and from Eq. (a), F
2
has a value of
2 1
670 kN ( 594.248 kN) 670 kN 75.742 kN F F
Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated. In the concrete, the
normal stress is:
1
1 2
1
594, 258 N
9.68 MPa
61,365.885
9
mm
.68 MPa (C)
F
A
Ans.
and the normal stress in the reinforcing bars is
2
2 2
2
75, 742 N
66.8 MPa
1,134.115
66.8 MPa (C)
mm
F
A
Ans.
(b) The shortening of the 1.5mlong pier is equal to the deformation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of
member (1) or member (2):
1 1
1 2 2
1 1
( 594, 258 N)(1,500 mm)
0.501 mm
(61,365.885 mm )(29, 000 N/mm )
0.501 mm
FL
u
AE
Ans.
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5.29 The concrete [E = 29 GPa] pier
shown in Fig. P5.29 is reinforced using
four steel [E = 200 GPa] reinforcing rods.
If the pier is subjected to an axial force of
670 kN, determine the required diameter D
of each rod so that 20% of the total load is
carried by the steel.
Fig. P5.29
Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of the pier, cut around the upper end. The
concrete will be designated member (1) and the reinforcing steel bars will be
designated member (2). Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
1 2
670 kN 0
y
F F F (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
(b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
F L F L
A E A E
(d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F
1
:
2 1 1 2 1 1
1 2 2
2 2 1 1 2 2
L A E L A E
F F F
A E L L A E
(e)
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F
2
:
2 1 1 2 1 2
1 2 2 2 2
1 2 2 1 2 2
1 670 kN
y
L A E L A E
F F F F F F
L A E L A E
(f)
Since L
1
= L
2
, the term L
1
/L
2
= 1 can be eliminated and Eq. (f) simplified to
1 1
2
2 2
1 670 kN
A E
F
A E
(g)
From the problem statement, 20% of the total load must be carried by the reinforcing steel; therefore,
2
0.20( 670 kN) 134 kN F
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The gross crosssectional area of the pier is A
gross
= (250 mm)
2
= 62,500 mm
2
; however, the reinforcing
bars take up a portion of this area. Therefore, the areas of the concrete (1) and steel (2) are related by:
gross 1 2
A A A
and thus, the area of the concrete can be expressed as A
1
= A
gross
− A
2
. Equation (g) can now be restated
and solved for the area of the reinforcing steel bars:
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
62, 500 mm 29 GPa
( 134 kN) 1 670 kN
200 GPa
62, 500 mm
27.586207
2,186.369 mm
A
A
A
A
A
Knowing the area required from four bars, the diameter of each bar can be computed:
2 2
bar bar
(4 bars) 2,186.369 mm
4
26.4 mm d d Ans.
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5.30 A load of P = 100 kN is supported by a structure
consisting of rigid bar ABC, two identical solid bronze
[E = 100 GPa] rods, and a solid steel [E = 200 GPa]
rod, as shown in Fig. P5.30. The bronze rods (1) each
have a diameter of 20 mm and they are symmetrically
positioned relative to the center rod (2) and the applied
load P. Steel rod (2) has a diameter of 24 mm. All bars
are unstressed before the load P is applied; however,
there is a 3mm clearance in the bolted connection at
B. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the bronze and steel rods.
(b) the downward deflection of rigid bar ABC.
Fig. P5.30
Solution
(a) Equilibrium: By virtue of symmetry, the forces in the
two bronze rods (1) are identical. Consider a FBD of the rigid
bar. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
1 2
2 0
y
F F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations: For this configuration, the
deflections of joints A, B, and C are equal:
A B C
v v v (b)
The pin connections at A and C are ideal; therefore, the deflection of joints A and C will cause an
identical deformation of rods (1):
1 A
v (c)
The pin at B has a 3mm clearance; thus, the deformation of rod (2) is related to rigid bar deflection v
B
by:
2
3 mm
B
v (d)
Substitute Eqs. (c) and (d) into Eq. (b) to obtain the geometry of deformation equation:
1 2
3 mm (e)
ForceDeformation Relationships: The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of
an axial member can be stated for members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(f)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (f) into the geometry of
deformation relationship (e) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
3 mm
F L F L
A E A E
(g)
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Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (g) for F
1
:
2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
1 2
2 2 1 1 2 2 1
(3 mm)
3 mm
F L AE L A E AE
F F
A E L L A E L
Substitute this expression into Eq. (a)
2 1 1 1 1
1 2 2 2
1 2 2 1
(3 mm)
2 2
y
L A E AE
F F F F F P
L A E L
and derive an expression for F
2
:
2 1 1 1 1
2
1 2 2 1
1 1
1
2
2 1 1
1 2 2
(3 mm)
2 1 2
(3 mm)
2
2 1
L A E A E
F P
L A E L
A E
P
L
F
L A E
L A E
(h)
For this structure, P = 100 kN = 100,000 N, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2
3, 000 mm 1,500 mm
(20 mm) 314.159265 mm (24 mm) 452.389342 mm
4 4
100, 000 MPa 200, 000 MPa
L L
A A
E E
Substitute these values into Eq. (h) and calculate F
2
= 27,588.728 N. Backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to
calculate F
1
= 36,205.636 N.
Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
36, 205.636 N
314.1593 mm
115.2 MPa
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
27,588.728 N
452.3893 m
61. a
m
0 MP
F
A
Ans.
(b) The downward deflection of the rigid bar can be determined from the deformation of rods (1):
1 1
1 2
1 1
(36, 205.636 N)(3,000 mm)
(314.1593 mm )(100, 00
3.46 mm
0 MPa)
A B C
FL
v v v
AE
Ans.
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5.31 Two steel [E = 30,000 ksi] pipes (1) and (2) are
connected at flange B, as shown in Fig. P5.31. Pipe (1)
has an outside diameter of 6.625 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.28 in. Pipe (2) has an outside diameter of
4.00 in. and a wall thickness of 0.226 in. If the normal
stress in each steel pipe must be limited to 18 ksi,
determine:
(a) the maximum downward load P that may be applied
at flange B.
(b) the deflection of flange B at the load determined in
part (a).
Fig. P5.31
Solution
(a) Pipe section properties: The pipe crosssectional areas are:
1 1
2 2 2
1
2 2
2 2 2
2
6.625 in. 6.625 in. 2(0.28 in.) 6.0650 in.
(6.625 in.) (6.0650 in.) 5.5814 in.
4
4.00 in. 4.00 in. 2(0.226 in.) 3.5480 in.
(4.00 in.) (3.5480 in.) 2.6795 in.
4
D d
A
D d
A
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical
direction to obtain:
2 1
0
y
F F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
0 (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
F L F L
A E A E
(d)
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For this problem, it is convenient to express the compatibility equation in terms of the normal stress
1
and
2
:
1 1 2 2
1 2
0
L L
E E
(e)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (e) for
1
:
2 1
1 2
1 2
L E
L E
(f)
The elastic moduli of the two pipes are equal; therefore, E
1
/E
2
= 1. The normal stresses in pipes (1) and
(2) are limited to 18 ksi. Assume that the normal stress in pipe (2) controls, meaning that
2
= 18 ksi.
Calculate the corresponding stress in pipe (1):
2 1
1 2
1 2
16 ft
(18 ksi) 28.80 ksi
10 ft
L E
L E
Since this stress magnitude is greater than 18 ksi, our assumption is proven incorrect. We now know
that the normal stress in pipe (1) actually controls; thus,
1
= −18 ksi (negative by inspection). The
normal stress in pipe (1) can be found from Eq. (f)
1 2
2 1
2 1
10 ft
( 18 ksi) 11.250 ksi
16 ft
L E
L E
(f)
Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F
1
and F
2
can be computed:
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
( 18 ksi)(5.5814 in. ) 100.4652 kips
(11.250 ksi)(2.6795 in. ) 30.1444 kips
F A
F A
Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:
max 2 1
30.1444 kips ( 100.4652 kips) 130.6 kips P F F Ans.
(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the deformation of pipe (2):
2 2
2
2
(11.250 ksi)(16 ft)(12 in./ft)
30,000 ksi
0.0720 in.
B
L
u
E
Ans.
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5.32 A solid aluminum [E = 70 GPa] rod (1) is connected to a solid
bronze [E = 100 GPa] rod at flange B, as shown in Fig P5.32. Aluminum
rod (1) has an outside diameter of 35 mm and bronze rod (2) has an
outside diameter of 20 mm. The normal stress in the aluminum rod must
be limited to 160 MPa, and the normal stress in the bronze rod must be
limited to 110 MPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum downward load P that may be applied at flange B.
(b) the deflection of flange B at the load determined in part (a).
Fig. P5.32
Solution
(a) Rod section properties: The rod crosssectional areas are:
2 2 2 2
1 2
(35 mm) 962.1128 mm (20 mm) 314.1593 mm
4 4
A A
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical direction to
obtain:
2 1
0
y
F F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
0 (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
F L F L
A E A E
(d)
For this problem, it is convenient to express the compatibility equation in terms of the normal stress
1
and
2
:
1 1 2 2
1 2
0
L L
E E
(e)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (e) for
1
:
2 1
1 2
1 2
L E
L E
(f)
The normal stress in aluminum rod (1) is limited to 160 MPa. We will assume that the aluminum rod
controls, and then, we will calculate the corresponding stress in bronze rod (2):
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1 2
2 1
2 1
175 mm100 GPa
(160 MPa) 117.647 MPa
340 mm 70 GPa
L E
L E
This stress magnitude is greater than the 110 MPa allowable stress for the bronze rod; therefore, this
calculation shows that the stress in the bronze rod actually controls. If the stress in the bronze rod is
limited to 110 MPa, the normal stress in aluminum rod (1) can be found from Eq. (f)
2 1
1 2
1 2
340 mm 70 GPa
(110 MPa) 149.600 MPa
175 mm100 GPa
L E
L E
(f)
Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F
1
and F
2
can be computed:
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
( 149.600 MPa)(962.1128 mm ) 143,932.1 N 143.9321 kN
(110 MPa)(314.1593 mm ) 34,557.5 N 34.5575 kN
F A
F A
Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:
max 2 1
34.5575 kN ( 143.9321 kN) 178.5 kN P F F Ans.
(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the deformation of rod (2):
2 2
2
2
(110 MPa)(340 mm)
100,000 MPa
0.374 mm
B
L
u
E
Ans.
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5.33 A pinconnected structure is supported and
loaded as shown in Fig. P5.33. Member ABCD
is rigid and is horizontal before the load P is
applied. Bars (1) and (2) are both made from
steel [E = 30,000 ksi] and both have a cross
sectional area of 1.25 in.
2
. A concentrated load
of P = 25 kips acts on the structure at D.
Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).
(b) the downward deflection of point D on the
rigid bar.
Fig. P5.33
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in
members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin A gives
the best information for this situation:
1 2
(66 in.) (168 in.) (212 in.) 0
A
M F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The deflections
of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
66 in. 168 in.
B C
v v
(b)
Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins B
and C, the deformation of member (1) will equal the
deflection of the rigid bar at B and the deformation of member
(2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C. Therefore,
Eq. (b) can be rewritten in terms of the member deformations
as:
1 2
66 in. 168 in.
(c)
ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
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1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
66 in. 168 in.
FL F L
AE A E
(e)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (e) for F
1
:
2 1 1 2 1 1
1 2 2
2 2 1 1 2 2
66 in. 66 in.
168 in. 168 in.
L AE L A E
F F F
A E L L A E
(f)
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F
2
:
1 2
2 1 1
2 2
1 2 2
2 1 1
2
1 2 2
(66 in.) (168 in.) (212 in.) 0
66 in.
(66 in.) (168 in.) (212 in.)
168 in.
66 in.
(66 in.) (168 in.) (212 in.)
168 in.
A
M F F P
L A E
F F P
L A E
L A E
F P
L A E
(g)
For this structure, P = 20 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
80 in. 120 in.
1.25 in. 1.25 in.
30, 000 ksi 30, 000 ksi
L L
A A
E E
Substitute these values into Eq. (g) and calculate F
2
= 25.617124 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to
calculate F
1
= 15.095805 kips.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
15.095805 kips
1.25 in.
12.08 ksi
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
25.617124 kips
1.25 in
20. i
.
5 ks
F
A
Ans.
Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of one of the axial members, say member (1):
1 1
1 2
1 1
(15.095805 kips)(80 in.)
0.032204 in.
(1.25 in. )(30, 000 ksi)
FL
AE
(h)
Since there are no gaps at pin B, the rigid bar deflection at B is equal to the deformation of member (1);
therefore, v
B
=
1
= 0.032204 in. (downward). From similar triangles, the deflection of the rigid bar at D
is related to v
B
by:
66 in. 212 in.
B D
v v
(i)
From Eq. (i), the deflection of the rigid bar at D is:
212 in. 212 in.
(0.032204 in.)
66 in. 66 i
0.1034 i .
n.
n
D B
v v Ans.
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5.34 A pinconnected structure is supported and
loaded as shown in Fig. P5.34. Member ABCD
is rigid and is horizontal before the load P is
applied. Bars (1) and (2) are both made from
steel [E = 30,000 ksi] and both have a cross
sectional area of 1.25 in.
2
. If the normal stress in
each steel bar must be limited to 18 ksi,
determine the maximum load P that may be
applied to the rigid bar.
Fig. P5.34
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in
members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin A
gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(66 in.) (168 in.) (212 in.) 0
A
M F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
66 in. 168 in.
B C
v v
(b)
Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins
B and C, the deformation of member (1) will equal the
deflection of the rigid bar at B and the deformation of
member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.
Therefore, Eq. (b) can be rewritten in terms of the member
deformations as:
1 2
66 in. 168 in.
(c)
ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
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1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
66 in. 168 in.
FL F L
AE A E
(e)
Solve the Equations
Since allowable stresses are specified, it is convenient to express Eq. (e) in terms of stress:
1 1 2 2
1 2
66 in.
168 in.
L L
E E
(f)
and solve for
2
:
1 2
2 1
2 1
168 in.
66 in.
L E
L E
Since both bars have the same elastic modulus, E
1
/E
2
= 1. Substitute
1
= 18 ksi and solve for
2
:
1 2
2 1
2 1
168 in. 168 in. 80 in.
(18 ksi) 30.54546 ksi 18 ksi N.G.
66 in. 66 in. 120 in.
L E
L E
It is now evident that the stress in bar (2) controls. Substitute
2
= 18 ksi and solve for
1
:
2 1
1 2
1 2
66 in. 66 in. 120 in.
(18 ksi) 10.60714 ksi 18 ksi OK
168 in. 168 in. 80 in.
L E
L E
Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F
1
and F
2
can be computed:
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
(10.60714 ksi)(1.25 in. ) 13.25893 kips
(18 ksi)(1.25 in. ) 22.5 kips
F A
F A
Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:
max
(66 in.)(16.875 kips) (168 in.)(22.5 kips) (212 in.) 0
21.95797 kips 22.0 kips
A
M P
P Ans.
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5.35 The pinconnected structure shown in Fig.
P5.35 consists of a rigid beam ABCD and two
supporting bars. Bar (1) is an aluminum alloy [E =
70 GPa] with a crosssectional area of A
1
= 800
mm
2
. Bar (2) is a bronze alloy [E = 100 GPa] with
a crosssectional area of A
2
= 500 mm
2
. The
normal stress in the aluminum bar must be limited
to 70 MPa, and the normal stress in the bronze rod
must be limited to 90 MPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum downward load P that may be
applied at B.
(b) the deflection of the rigid beam at B.
Fig. P5.35
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces
in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin D
gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(3.5 m) (1.2 m) (2.7 m) 0
D
M F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
3.5 m 1.2 m
C A
v v
(b)
Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at
pins A and C, the deformation of member (1) will equal
the deflection of the rigid bar at A and the deformation of
member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.
Therefore, Eq. (b) can be rewritten in terms of the
member deformations as:
1 2
3.5 m 1.2 m
(c)
ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
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1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
3.5 m 1.2 m
F L F L
A E A E
(e)
Solve the Equations
Since allowable stresses are specified, it is convenient to express Eq. (e) in terms of stress:
1 1 2 2 2 2
1 2 2
3.5 m
2.9167
1.2 m
L L L
E E E
(f)
and solve for
1
:
2 1
1 2
1 2
2.9167
L E
L E
Substitute
2
= 90 MPa and solve for
1
:
2 1
1 2
1 2
3.3 m 70 GPa
2.9167 2.9167(90 MPa) 209.1 MPa 70 MPa N.G.
2.9 m100 GPa
L E
L E
It is now evident that the stress in bar (1) controls. Substitute
1
= 70 MPa and solve for
2
:
1 2
2 1
2 1
1 1 2.9 m100 GPa
(70 MPa) 30.13 MPa 90 MPa O.K.
2.9167 2.9167 3.3 m 70 GPa
L E
L E
Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F
1
and F
2
can be computed:
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
(70 MPa)(800 mm ) 56, 000 N 56.00 kN
(30.13 MPa)(500 mm ) 15, 065 N 15.065 kN
F A
F A
Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:
max
(3.5 m)(56.00 kN) (1.2 m)(15.065 kN) (2.7 m)
7
0
79.288 kN 9.3 kN
D
M P
P Ans.
(b) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of one of the axial members, say member (1):
1 1
1 2
1 1
(56, 000 N)(2,900 mm)
2.9000 mm
(800 mm )(70, 000 MPa)
FL
AE
(g)
Since there are no gaps at pin A, the rigid bar deflection at
A is equal to the deformation of member (1); therefore, v
A
=
1
= 2.9000 mm (downward). From similar triangles, the
deflection of the rigid bar at B is related to v
A
by:
3.5 m 2.7 m
A B
v v
(h)
From Eq. (h), the deflection of the rigid bar at B is:
2.7 m 2.7 m
(2.9000 mm)
3.5 m 3.5
2.24 m
m
m
B A
v v Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.36 The pinconnected structure shown in Fig.
P5.36 consists of a rigid beam ABCD and two
supporting bars. Bar (1) is an aluminum alloy [E =
70 GPa] with a crosssectional area of A
1
= 800
mm
2
. Bar (2) is a bronze alloy [E = 100 GPa] with
a crosssectional area of A
2
= 500 mm
2
. All bars
are unstressed before the load P is applied;
however, there is a 3mm clearance in the pin
connection at A. If a load of P = 54 kN is applied
at B, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).
(b) the normal strains in bars (1) and (2).
(c) determine the downward deflection of point A
on the rigid bar.
Fig. P5.36
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in
members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin D gives
the best information for this situation:
1 2
(3.5 m) (1.2 m) (2.7 m) 0
D
M F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The deflections
of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
3.5 m 1.2 m
C A
v v
(b)
Since there is no clearance at pin C, the deformation of
member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.
However, there is a 3mm clearance at A. Consequently, not
all of the rigid beam deflection at A will go toward elongating
bar (1). The relationship between rigid beam deflection and
axial member deformation can be expressed:
1
3 mm
A
v (c)
Equation (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member deformations as:
1 2
3 mm
3.5 m 1.2 m
(d)
ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(e)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (e) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2 2 2
3.5 m
3 mm 2.9167
1.2 m
F L F L F L
A E A E A E
(f)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (f) for F
2
:
2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
2 1
2 1 1 2 1 1 2
(3 mm)
3 mm
2.9167 2.9167 2.9167
A E FL L A E A E
F F
L AE L A E L
and substitute into Eq. (a) to solve for F
1
:
1 2
1 2 2 2 2
1 1
2 1 1 2
1 2 2 2 2
1 1
2 1 1 2
1
(3.5 m) (1.2 m) (2.7 m)(54 kN)
(3 mm)
(3.5 m) (1.2 m) (2.7 m)(54 kN)
2.9167 2.9167
(3 mm)
(3.5 m) (1.2 m) (2.7 m)(54 kN) (1.2 m)
2.9167 2.9167
(2.7 m)(
F F
L A E A E
F F
L A E L
L A E A E
F F
L A E L
F
2 2
2
1 2 2
2 1 1
(3 mm)
54 kN) (1.2 m)
2.9167
(3.5 m) (1.2 m)
2.9167
A E
L
L A E
L A E
The value of F
1
is thus calculated as:
2 2
1 2
2
(3 mm)(500 mm )(100, 000 N/mm )
(2.7 m)(54, 000 N) (1.2 m)
2.9167(3, 300 mm)
2.9 m 500 mm 100 GPa
3.5 m (1.2 m)
2.9167(3.3 m) 800 mm 70 GPa
33, 247.4 N 33.2474 kN
F
and backsubstituting into Eq. (a) gives F
2
:
1
2
(2.7 m)(54 kN) (3.5 m)
1.2 m
(2.7 m)(54 kN) (3.5 m)(33.2474 kN)
1.2 m
24.5285 kN
F
F
(a) Normal stresses:
1
1 2
1
33,247.4 N
80
41.6 MPa (T)
0 mm
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
24,528.5 N
50
49.1 MPa (T)
0 mm
F
A
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) Normal strains:
6 1
1
1
41.5592 MPa
593.7 10 mm/mm
70,000 MP
με
a
594
E
Ans.
6 2
2
2
49.0570 MPa
490.6 10 mm/mm
100,000 MP
με
a
491
E
Ans.
(c) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of member (1):
1 1
1 2
1 1
(33, 247.4 N)(2,900 mm)
1.721739 mm
(800 mm )(70, 000 MPa)
FL
AE
The relationship between the rigid bar deflection at A and
the deformation of member (1) was expressed in Eq. (c).
Therefore, the rigid bar deflection at A is:
1
3 mm
1.721739 mm 3 mm
4.72 mm
A
v
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.37 The pinconnected structure shown in Fig.
P5.37 consists of a rigid bar ABCD and two axial
members. Bar (1) is bronze [E = 100 GPa] with a
crosssectional area of A
1
= 620 mm
2
. Bar (2) is
an aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] with a cross
sectional area of A
2
= 340 mm
2
. A concentrated
load of P = 75 kN acts on the structure at D.
Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).
(b) the downward deflection of point D on the
rigid bar.
Fig. P5.37
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension
forces in members (1) and (2). A moment equation
about pin C gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(825 mm) (325 mm)
(1,100 mm) 0
C
M F F
P (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
825 mm 325 mm 1,100 mm
A B D
v v v
(b)
Since there are no gaps or clearances at either pin A or
pin B, the deformations of members (1) and (2) will
equal the deflections of the rigid bar at A and B,
respectively.
1 2
825 mm 325 mm
(c)
ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
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Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2 2 2
825 mm
2.538462
325 mm
FL F L F L
AE A E A E
(e)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (e) for F
1
:
2 1 1
1 2
1 2 2
2.538462
L A E
F F
L A E
(f)
and substitute into Eq. (a) to solve for F
2
:
1 2
2 1 1
2 2
1 2 2
2
2 2
2
(825 mm) (325 mm) (1,100 mm)
(825 mm)(2.538462) (325 mm) (1,100 mm)
540 mm 620 mm 100 GPa
(825 mm)(2.538462) 325 mm (1,100 mm)(75 kN)
900 mm 340 mm 70 GPa
22.9273 kN
F F P
L A E
F F P
L A E
F
F
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (f) to compute F
1
:
2
1 2
540 mm 620 mm 100 GPa
(2.538462) (22.9273 kN)
900 mm 340 mm 70 GPa
90.9680 kN
F
(a) Normal stresses:
1
1 2
1
90,968.0 N
62
146.7 MPa (
0 m
T)
m
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
22,927.3 N
34
67.4 MPa (T)
0 mm
F
A
Ans.
(b) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of member (1):
1 1
1 2
1 1
(90,968.0 N)(900 mm)
1.3205 mm
(620 mm )(100, 000 MPa)
FL
AE
Since the pin at A is assumed to have a perfect connection, v
A
=
1
= 1.3205 mm. From Eq. (b),
1,100 mm
1.333333(1.3205 mm)
82
1.761
mm
m
5
m
D A
v v Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.38 The pinconnected structure shown in Fig.
P5.38 consists of a rigid bar ABCD and two axial
members. Bar (1) is bronze [E = 100 GPa] with a
crosssectional area of A
1
= 620 mm
2
. Bar (2) is
an aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] with a cross
sectional area of A
2
= 340 mm
2
. All bars are
unstressed before the load P is applied; however,
there is a 3mm clearance in the pin connection at
A. If a concentrated load of P = 90 kN acts on the
structure at D, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).
(b) the normal strains in bars (1) and (2).
(c) the downward deflection of point D on the
rigid bar.
Fig. P5.38
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension
forces in members (1) and (2). A moment equation
about pin C gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(825 mm) (325 mm)
(1,100 mm) 0
C
M F F
P (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
825 mm 325 mm 1,100 mm
A B D
v v v
(b)
Since there is no clearance at pin B, the deformation of
member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at
B. However, there is a 3mm clearance in the
connection at A. Consequently, not all of the rigid bar
deflection at A will go toward elongating bar (1). The
relationship between rigid bar deflection and axial
member deformation can be expressed:
1
3 mm
A
v (c)
Equation (b) can be rewritten in terms of the member deformations as:
1 2
3 mm
825 mm 325 mm
(d)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(e)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (e) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2 2 2
825 mm
3 mm 2.538462
325 mm
FL F L F L
AE A E A E
(f)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (f) for F
2
:
2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
2 1
2 1 1 2 1 1 2
(3 mm)
3 mm
2.538462 2.538462 2.538462
A E FL L A E A E
F F
L AE L A E L
and substitute into Eq. (a) to solve for F
1
:
1 2
1 2 2 2 2
1 1
2 1 1 2
1 2 2 2 2
1 1
2 1 1 2
1
(825 mm) (325 mm) (1,100 mm)
(3 mm)
(825 mm) (325 mm) (1,100 mm)
2.538462 2.538462
(3 mm)
(825 mm) (325 mm) (1,100 mm) (325 mm)
2.538462 2.538462
(1
F F P
L A E A E
F F P
L A E L
L A E A E
F F P
L A E L
F
2 2
2
1 2 2
2 1 1
(3 mm)
,100 mm) (325 mm)
2.538462
825 mm (325 mm)
2.538462
A E
P
L
L A E
L A E
The value of F
1
is thus calculated as:
2 2
1 2 2
2 2
(3 mm)(340 mm )(70, 000 N/mm )
(1,100 mm)(90,000 N) (325 mm)
2.538462(540 mm)
900 mm 340 mm 70, 000 N/mm
825 mm (325 mm)
2.538462(540 mm) 620 mm 100, 000 N/mm
90, 495.6 N 90.4956 kN
F
and backsubstituting into Eq. (a) gives F
2
:
1
2
(1,100 mm)(90 kN) (825 mm)
325 mm
(1,100 mm)(90 kN) (825 mm)(90.4956 kN)
325 mm
74.8957 kN
F
F
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(a) Normal stresses:
1
1 2
1
90, 495.6 N
62
146.0 MPa (
0 m
T)
m
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
74,895.7 N
3
220 MPa (T)
40 mm
F
A
Ans.
(b) Normal strains:
6 1
1 2 2
1 1
90, 495.6 N
1, 459.6 10 mm/mm
(620 mm )(100,000
1, 460 μ
N/
ε
mm )
F
AE
Ans.
6 2
2 2 2
2 2
74,895.7 N
3,146.9 10 mm/mm
(340 mm )(70,000
3,150 μ
N/
ε
mm )
F
A E
Ans.
(c) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of member (2):
2 2
2 2
2 2
(74,895.7 N)(540 mm)
1.6993 mm
(340 mm )(70, 000 MPa)
F L
A E
Since the pin at B is assumed to have a perfect connection, v
B
=
2
= 1.6993 mm. From Eq. (b),
1,100 mm
3.384615(1.6993 m 5.75 m m)
3 m
m
25 m
D B
v v Ans.
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5.39 The assembly shown in Fig. P5.39 consists of
a solid aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] post (2)
surrounded by a bronze [E = 100 GPa] tube (1).
Before the load P is applied, there is a clearance of
2 mm between the post and the tube. The yield
stress for the aluminum post is 260 MPa and the
yield stress for the bronze tube is 340 MPa.
Determine:
(a) the maximum load P that may be applied to the
assembly without causing yielding of either the
post or the tube.
(b) the downward displacement of rigid cap B.
(c) the normal strain in the bronze tube.
Fig. P5.39
Solution
Section properties:
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2
2 2
35 mm 29 mm (35 mm) (29 mm) 1, 206.372 mm
15 mm (15 mm) 706.858 mm
R r A
R A
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD around rigid cap B after the gap has been closed.
Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
1 2
0
y
F F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
2 1
2 mm (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (c) into the geometry of deformation relationship (b) to
derive the compatibility equation:
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 mm
F L FL
A E AE
(d)
Solve the Equations
Since allowable stresses are specified, it is convenient to express Eq. (d) in terms of stress:
2 2 1 1
2 1
2 mm
L L
E E
(e)
and solve for
2
:
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1 2 2
2 1
2 1 2
1
(2 mm)
600 mm 70, 000 MPa 70, 000 MPa
(2 mm)
602 mm100, 000 MPa 602 mm
L E E
L E L
Substitute
1
= 340 MPa and solve for
2
:
2
70, 000 MPa
0.697674(340 MPa) (2 mm) 469.8 MPa 260 MPa N.G.
602 mm
It is now evident that the stress in post (2) controls. Substitute
2
= 260 MPa and solve for
1
:
2 1
1 2
1 2
70, 000 MPa
(2 mm)
602 mm
70, 000 MPa 602 mm100, 000 MPa
260 MPa (2 mm)
602 mm 600 mm 70, 000 MPa
39.333 MPa 340 MPa OK
L E
L E
(a) Maximum load: Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F
1
and F
2
can be computed:
2
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
(39.333 MPa)(1,206.372 mm ) 47, 450 N 47.450 kN
(260 MPa)(706.858 mm ) 183, 783 N 183.783 kN
F A
F A
Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P. By inspection, the forces in the post
and the tube must be compression; therefore:
1 2
max
0
( 47.450 kN 231 ) ( 183.783 kN kN )
y
F F F P
P Ans.
(b) Displacement of cap B: The contraction of tube (1) is:
1 1
1 2 2
1 1
( 47, 451 N)(600 mm)
0.2360 mm
(1,206.372 mm )(100, 000 N/mm )
FL
AE
The displacement of cap B is 2 mm greater:
0.2360 mm 2 mm 2.2360 mm 2.24 mm
B
u Ans.
(c) Normal strain in tube (1): The strain in bronze tube (1) is:
1
1
1
39.333 MPa
100, 000 MPa
393 με
E
Ans.
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5.40 A 4.5mlong aluminum tube (1) is to be connected to a 2.4m
long bronze pipe (2) at B. When put in place, however, a gap of 8
mm exists between the two members, as shown in Fig P5.40.
Aluminum tube (1) has an elastic modulus of 70 GPa and a cross
sectional area of 2,000 mm
2
. Bronze pipe (2) has an elastic modulus
of 100 GPa and a crosssectional area of 3,600 mm
2
. If bolts are
inserted in the flanges and tightened so that the gap at B is closed,
determine:
(a) the normal stresses produced in each of the members.
(b) the final position of flange B with respect to support A.
Fig. P5.40
Solution
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B after the bolts have been tightened
and the gap at B has been closed. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
1 2 1 2
0
y
F F F F F (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
8 mm (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
8 mm
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
Solve the Equations: Substitute Eq. (a) into Eq. (d) and solve for F
1
:
1 2
1
1 1 2 2
1
2 2 2 2
8 mm
8 mm
4,500 mm 2, 400 mm
(2,000 mm )(70, 000 N/mm ) (3, 600 mm )(100, 000 N/mm )
206,135.0 N
L L
F
AE A E
F
(f)
(a) Normal stresses:
1
1 2
1
206,135.0 N
103.0675 MPa
2,000 m
103.1
m
MPa (T)
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
206,135.0 N
57.2597 MPa
3,600 mm
57.3 MPa (T)
F
A
Ans.
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(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the deformation of bronze pipe (2):
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
(206,135.0 N)(2,400 mm)
(3,600 mm )(100,000 N/mm
1.374 mm
)
F L
A E
Ans.
In its final position, flange B is located 2,401.374 mm away from support A.
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5.41 The assembly shown in Fig. P5.41 consists of a steel [E
1
=
30,000 ksi; A
1
= 1.25 in.
2
] rod (1), a rigid bearing plate B that is
securely fastened to rod (1), and a bronze [E
2
= 15,000 ksi; A
2
=
3.75 in.
2
] post (2). The yield strengths of the steel and bronze are
62 ksi and 75 ksi, respectively. A clearance of 0.125 in. exists
between the bearing plate B and bronze post (2) before the
assembly is loaded. After a load of P = 65 kips is applied to the
bearing plate, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the factors of safety with respect to yield for each of the
members.
(c) the vertical displacement of bearing plate B.
Fig. P5.41
Solution
Deformation in rod (1) alone: Check to see if the bearing plate attached to rod (1) will contact the
bronze post for the 65kip load.
1 1
1 2
1 1
(65 kips)(14 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.2912 in. 0.125 in. gap contact will occur
(1.25 in. )(30, 000 ksi)
FL
AE
This calculation proves that the bearing plate attached to rod (1) will contact the bronze post when the
65kip load is applied; therefore, this structure must be analyzed as a statically indeterminate structure.
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B after the gap at B has been closed.
Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
1 2
0
y
F F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
0.125 in. (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0.125 in.
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F
1
:
2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
1 2
2 2 1 1 1 2 2
0.125 in. (0.125 in.)
F L AE AE L A E
F F
A E L L L A E
and substitute the resulting expression into Eq. (a) to determine an expression for F
2
:
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1 1 2 1 1
2 2
1 1 2 2
2 1 1 1 1
2
1 2 2 1
1 1
1
2
2 1 1
1 2 2
(0.125 in.) 65 kips 0
1 (0.125 in.) 65 kips
(0.125 in.) 65 kips
1
AE L A E
F F
L L A E
L A E AE
F
L A E L
AE
L
F
L A E
L A E
The axial force in post (2) is thus:
2
2 2
2
(1.25 in. )(30, 000 ksi)
(0.125 in.) 65 kips
(168 in.)
32.4609 kips
36 in. 1.25 in. 30, 000 ksi
1
168 in. 3.75 in. 15, 000 ksi
F
and the axial force in rod (1) is:
1 2
32.4609 kips 65 kips 32.5391 kips F F P
(a) Normal stresses:
1
1 2
1
32.5391 kips
26.0313 ksi
1.25 in.
26.0 ksi (T)
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
32.4609 kips
8.6563 ksi
3.75 in
8.6
.
6 ksi (C)
F
A
Ans.
(b) Factors of safety:
1 2
2.38
62 ksi 75 ksi
FS FS
26.0313 ksi 8.6563 ksi
8.66 Ans.
(c) Displacement of plate B: The displacement of plate B is equal to the deformation of rod (1).
1 1
1 2
1 1
(32.5391 kips)(168 in.)
0.145775 in.
(1.25 in. )(30,00
0.1458 in
0 )
.
ksi
B
FL
AE
u
Ans.
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5.42 A hollow steel [E = 30,000 ksi] tube (1) with
an outside diameter of 3.50 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.216 in. is fastened to a solid 2in.
diameter aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] rod. The
assembly is attached to unyielding supports at the
left and right ends and is loaded as shown in Fig.
P5.42. Determine:
(a) the stresses in all parts of the axial structure.
(b) the deflections of joints B and C.
Fig. P5.42
Solution
Section properties: The steel tube crosssectional area is:
1 1
2 2 2
1
3.50 in. 3.50 in. 2(0.216 in.) 3.068 in.
(3.50 in.) (3.068 in.) 2.2285 in.
4
D d
A
and the aluminum rod has a crosssectional area of:
2 3
2 2
2 3
2.00 in.
(2.00 in.) 3.1416 in.
4
D D
A A
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in
the horizontal direction to obtain:
1 2
34 kips 0
x
F F F (a)
Consider a FBD of flange C. Sum forces in the horizontal
direction to obtain:
2 3
26 kips 0
x
F F F (b)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2 3
0 (c)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
FL F L F L
AE A E A E
(d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (d) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
3 3 1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
F L FL F L
AE A E A E
(e)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (a) for F
1
:
1 2
34 kips F F (f)
Solve Eq. (b) for F
3
:
3 2
26 kips F F (g)
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Substitute Eqs. (f) and (g) into compatibility equation (e):
2 3 2 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
( 26 kips) ( 34 kips)
0
F L F L F L
AE A E A E
and expand terms:
2 3 3 2 1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3
(26 kips) (34 kips)
0
F L L F L L F L
AE AE A E A E A E
Regroup terms:
3 3 1 2 1
2
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 3
(26 kips) (34 kips) L L L L L
F
AE A E A E AE A E
and solve for F
2
:
3 1
1 1 3 3
2
3 1 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
2 2
2 2
(26 kips) (34 kips)
(34 kips)(48 in.) (26 kips)(60 in.)
(2.2285 in. )(30, 000 ksi) (3.1416 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
48 in. 60 in.
(2.2285 in. )(30, 000 ksi) (3.1416 in. )(10, 000 k
L L
A E A E
F
L L L
A E A E A E
2
60 in.
si) (3.1416 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
16.3227 kips
Backsubstitute into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain F
1
and F
3
:
1 2
3 2
34 kips 16.3227 kips 34 kips 17.6773 kips
26 kips 16.3227 kips 26 kips 9.6773 kips
F F
F F
(a) Normal stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
17.6773 kips
7.9325 ksi
2.2285 i
7.93 ksi (C)
n.
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
16.3227 kips
5.1957 ksi
3.1416 i
5.20 ksi (
n.
T)
F
A
Ans.
3
3 2
3
9.6773 kips
3.0834 ksi
3.1416 in
3.0
.
8 ksi (C)
F
A
Ans.
(b) Joint deflections: The deflection of flange B is equal to the deformation (i.e., contraction in this
instance) of member (1):
1 1
1 2
1 1
( 17.6773 kips)(48 in.)
0.012692 in.
(2.2285
0.01269 in
in. )(30, 000 ksi)
.
B
FL
u
AE
Ans.
The deflection of flange C is equal to the sum of the deformations in members (1) and (2). The
deformation of member (2) is:
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2 2
2 2
2 2
(16.3227 kips)(60 in.)
0.031174 in.
(3.1416 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
And thus, the deflection of flange C is:
1 2
0.012692 in. 0.031174 in. 0.018482 in 0.0184 in. . 8
C
u Ans.
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5.43 Rigid bar ABCD in Fig. P5.43 is supported by a
pin connection at A and by two axial bars (1) and (2).
Bar (1) is a 30in.long bronze [E = 15,000 ksi] bar
with a crosssectional area of 1.25 in.
2
. Bar (2) is a
40in.long aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi] bar with
a crosssectional area of 2.00 in.
2
. Both bars are
unstressed before the load P is applied. If a
concentrated load of P = 27 kips is applied to the rigid
bar at D, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the deflection of the rigid bar at point D.
Fig. P5.43
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces
in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin
A gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(36 in.) (84 in.) (98 in.) 0
A
M F F P (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
36 in. 84 in. 98 in.
C B D
v v v
(b)
There are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at the
pins in this structure. The vertical deflection of the
rigid bar at C will produce deformation in member (2);
however, and the vertical deflection of the rigid bar at B
will create contraction in member (1) (see the
discussion under the heading Structures with a
rotating rigid bar in the text and examine Fig. 5.11).
Therefore, Eq. (b) can be rewritten in terms of the
member deformations as:
1 2
36 in. 84 in.
(c)
ForceDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
AE A E
(d)
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Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
36 in. 84 in.
FL F L
AE A E
(e)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (e) for F
1
:
2 1 1 2 1 1
1 2 2
2 2 1 1 2 2
36 in. 36 in.
84 in. 84 in.
L AE L A E
F F F
A E L L A E
(f)
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F
2
:
1 2
2 1 1
2 2
1 2 2
2 1 1
2
1 2 2
(36 in.) (84 in.) (98 in.) 0
36 in.
(36 in.) (84 in.) (98 in.)
84 in.
3
(36 in.) (84 in.) (98 in.)
7
A
M F F P
L A E
F F P
L A E
L A E
F P
L A E
(g)
For this structure, P = 27 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
30 in. 40 in.
1.25 in. 2.00 in.
15, 000 ksi 10, 000 ksi
L L
A A
E E
Substitute these values into Eq. (g) and calculate F
2
= 25.6183 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to
calculate F
1
= −13.7241 kips.
(a) Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
13.7241 kips
1.
10.98 ksi (C)
25 in.
F
A
Ans.
2
2 2
2
25.6183 kips
2.
12.81 ksi (
00 i
T
n
)
.
F
A
Ans.
(b) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of one of the axial members, say member (2):
2 2
2 2
2 2
(25.6183 kips)(40 in.)
0.051237 in.
(2.00 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F L
A E
(h)
Since there are no gaps at pin C, the rigid bar deflection at C is equal to the deformation of member (2);
therefore, v
C
=
2
= 0.051237 in. (downward). From similar triangles [Eq. (b)], the deflection of the
rigid bar at D is therefore:
98 in. 98 in.
(0.051237 in.)
84 in. 84 in
0.0598 in.
.
D C
v v Ans.
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5.44 A 25mmdiameter by 3.5mlong steel rod (1)
is stress free after being attached to rigid supports,
as shown in Fig. P5.44. At A, a 16mmdiameter
bolt is used to connect the rod to the support.
Determine the normal stress in steel rod (1) and the
shear stress in bolt A after the temperature drops
60°C. Use E = 200 GPa and o = 11.9 × 10
−6
/°C.
Fig. P5.44
Solution
Section properties:
For the 25mmdiameter rod, the crosssectional area is:
2 2
1
(25 mm) 490.873852 mm
4
A
t
= =
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationship
The relationship between internal force, temperature change, and deformation of an axial member is:
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
FL
T L
AE
o o = + A
Since the rod is attached to rigid supports, o
1
= 0.
1 1
1 1
1 1
0
F L
T L
A E
o + A =
Thus, the force produced in the rod by the temperature drop is:
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
6 2 2
(11.9 10 / C)( 60 C)(490.873852 mm )(200, 000 N/mm )
70, 096.786 N
AE
F T L T AE
L
o o
÷
= ÷ A = ÷ A
= ÷ × ° ÷ °
=
The normal stress in the steel rod is:
1 2
70, 096.786 N
490.873
142.8
852
MPa
mm
(T) o = = Ans.
The 16mmdiameter bolt has a crosssectional area of:
2 2
bolt
(16 mm) 201.061930 mm
4
A
t
= =
Since the bolt is loaded in double shear, the shear stress in the bolt is
bolt 2
70, 096.786 N
2(201.061930 mm
174 MPa
)
.3 t = = Ans.
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5.45 A 0.875in.diameter by 15ftlong steel rod
(1) is stress free after being attached to rigid
supports. A clevisandbolt connection, as shown in
Fig. P5.45, connects the rod with the support at A.
The normal stress in the steel rod must be limited to
18 ksi, and the shear stress in the bolt must be
limited to 42 ksi. Assume E = 29,000 ksi and
o = 6.6 × 10
−6
/°F and determine:
(a) the temperature decrease that can be safely
accommodated by rod (1) based on the allowable
normal stress.
(b) the minimum required diameter for the bolt at A
using the temperature decrease found in part (a).
Fig. P5.45
Solution
Section properties:
For the 0.875in.diameter rod, the crosssectional area is:
2 2
1
(0.875 in.) 0.601320 in.
4
A
t
= =
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationship
The relationship between internal force, temperature change, and deformation of an axial member is:
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
FL
T L
AE
o o = + A
Since the rod is attached to rigid supports, o
1
= 0.
1 1
1 1
1 1
0
F L
T L
A E
o + A =
which can also be expressed in terms of the rod normal stress:
1
1 1 1
1
0
L
T L
E
o o + A =
Solve for AT corresponding to a 24 ksi normal stress in the steel rod:
1 1
1
1 1 1 1 1
6
1
18 ksi
(6.6 10 / F)(29,000 ksi)
94.0 F
L
T
E L E
o
o
o o
÷
A = ÷ = ÷
= ÷ =
× °
÷ ° Ans.
The normal force in the steel rod is:
2
1
(18 ksi)(0.601320 in. ) 10.823768 kips F = =
If the allowable shear stress in the bolt is 42 ksi, the minimum diameter required for the double shear
bolt is
2 2
bolt
bolt
10.823768 kips
2 0.257709 in.
4 42 k
0.405 in.
si
d
d
t
> =
> Ans.
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5.46 A steel [E = 29,000 ksi and o = 6.6×10
6
/°F] rod containing a turnbuckle has its ends attached
to rigid walls. During the summer when the temperature is 82°F, the turnbuckle is tightened to
produce a stress in the rod of 5 ksi. Determine the stress in the rod in the winter when the
temperature is 10°F.
Solution
The normal strain in the rod can be expressed as:
T
E
o
c o = + A
Since the rod is attached to rigid walls, the rod strain after the temperature change is c = 0.
0 T
E
o
c o = + A =
The change in temperature between the summer and winter is
winter summer
10 F 82 F 72 F T T T A = ÷ = ° ÷ ° = ÷ °
Solve for the stress increase created by the 72°F drop in temperature.
6
(6.6 10 / F)( 72 F)(29,000 ksi) 13.78 ksi (T)
T E o o
÷
= ÷ A
= ÷ × ° ÷ ° =
In the summer, the rod had a tension normal stress of 5 ksi; therefore, the rod stress in the winter is:
winter
5 ksi 13.78 18.78 ks ksi i (T) o = + = Ans.
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5.47 A highdensity polyethylene [E = 120 ksi and o = 78 ×
10
−6
/°F] block (1) is positioned in a fixture as shown in Fig.
P5.47. The block is 2in. by 2in. by 32in.long. At room
temperature, a gap of 0.10 in. exists between the block and
the rigid support at B. Determine:
(a) the normal stress in the block caused by a temperature
increase of 100°F.
(b) the normal strain in block (1) at the increased
temperature.
Fig. P5.47
Solution
If the polyethylene block were completely free to elongate, a temperature change of 100°F would cause
an elongation of
6
1 1 1
(78 10 / F)(100 F)(32 in.) 0.2496 in. T L o o
÷
= A = × ° ° =
Since this elongation is greater than the 0.10in. gap, the temperature change will cause the polyethylene
block to contact the support at B, which will create normal stress in the block.
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationship
The relationship between the internal force, temperature change, and the deformation of an axial
member is:
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
FL
T L
AE
o o = + A
In this situation, the deformation of member (1) equals the 0.10in. gap:
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
0.10 in.
F L
T L
A E
o + A =
This relationship can be stated in terms of normal stress as
1 1
1 1 1
1
0.10 in.
L
T L
E
o
o + A =
(a) Normal stress:
The normal stress in the block due to the 100°F temperature increase is:
 
1
1 1 1 1
1
6
0.10 in.
120 ksi
0.10 in. (78 10 / F)(100 F)(32 in.) 0.561 ksi
32
561 psi (C)
in.
E
T L
L
o o
÷
= ÷ A
= ÷ × ° ° = ÷ =
Ans.
(b) Normal strain:
The normal strain in the polyethylene block is:
1
1
1
0.10 in.
0.003125 in./i 3,125 μ n.
32 in.
ε
L
o
c = = = = Ans.
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5.48 The assembly shown in Fig. P5.48 consists of a brass shell
(1) fully bonded to a solid ceramic core (2). The brass shell [E
= 115 GPa, o = 18.7 × 10
−6
/°C] has an outside diameter of 50
mm and an inside diameter of 35 mm. The ceramic core [E =
290 GPa, o = 3.1 × 10
−6
/°C] has a diameter of 35 mm. At a
temperature of 15°C, the assembly is unstressed. Determine the
largest temperature increase that is acceptable for the assembly
if the normal stress in the longitudinal direction of the brass
shell must not exceed 80 MPa.
Fig. P5.48
Solution
Section properties: The crosssectional areas of brass shell (1) and ceramic core (2) are:
2 2 2 2 2
1 2
(50 mm) (35 mm) 1, 001.3827 mm (35 mm) 962.1128 mm
4 4
A A
t t
= ÷ = = =
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD cut through the assembly. Sum forces in the
horizontal direction to obtain:
1 2 2 1
0
x
F F F F F E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷ (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
For this configuration, the deformations of both members will be equal; therefore,
1 2
o o = (b)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
The relationship between internal force, temperature change, and deformation of an axial member can be
stated for members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (c)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (c) into the geometry of deformation relationship (b) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
F L F L
T L T L
A E A E
o o + A = + A (d)
Solve the Equations
Since a limiting stress is specified for brass shell (1), express Eq. (d) in terms of normal stress:
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2
L L
T L T L
E E
o o o o + A = + A (e)
Based on Eq. (a), the normal stress o
2
can be expressed in terms of o
1
as:
2 1 1 1 1
2 1
2 2 2 1 2
F F F A A
A A A A A
o o = = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
Substitute this expression into Eq. (e) to obtain
1 1 2
1 1 1 1 2 2
1 2 2
L A L
T L T L
E A E
o o o o + A = ÷ + A
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Rearrange terms
1 1 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
1 2 2
( )
L A L
TL TL L L T
E A E
o o o o o
+ = A ÷ A = ÷ A
and solve for AT, recognizing that both the shell and the core have the same length:
1 1 2 1
1 1
1 2 2 1 2 2
2 2 1 1 2 1
1 1 L A L A
E A E E A E
T
L L
o o
o o o o
+ +
A = =
÷ ÷
(f)
Substitute the problem data into Eq. (f) to compute AT that will produce a normal stress of 80 MPa in
the brass shell:
2
2
6 6
1 1, 001.3827 mm 1
( 80 MPa)
115, 000 MPa 962.1128 mm 290, 000 MPa
3.1 10 / C 18.7 10 / C
62.9983 C
T
÷ ÷
± +
A =
× ° ÷ × °
= °
Since the problem asks for the largest temperature increase,
max
63.0 C T A = ° Ans.
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5.49 At a temperature of 60°F, a 0.04in. gap exists between the ends of the two bars shown in Fig.
P5.49. Bar (1) is an aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi, v = 0.32, o = 12.5 × 10
−6
/°F] bar with a width of 3
in. and a thickness of 0.75 in. Bar (2) is a stainless steel [E = 28,000 ksi, v = 0.12, o = 9.6 × 10
−6
/°F] bar
with a width of 2 in. and a thickness of 0.75 in. The supports at A and C are rigid. Determine:
(a) the lowest temperature at which the two bars
contact each other.
(b) the normal stress in the two bars at a
temperature of 250°F.
(c) the normal strain in the two bars at 250°F.
(d) the change in width of the aluminum bar at a
temperature of 250°F.
Fig. P5.49
Solution
(a) Lowest Contact Temperature
Before the gap is closed, only thermal strains and the associated axial elongations exist. Write
expressions for the temperatureinduced elongations and set this equal to the 0.04in. gap:
 
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
6 6
1 1 2 2
0.04 in.
0.04 in.
0.04 in. 0.04 in.
48.6381°F
(12.5 10 / °F)(32 in.) (9.6 10 / °F)(44 in.)
T L T L
T L L
T
L L
o o
o o
o o
A + A =
A + =
A = = =
+ × + ×
Since the initial temperature is 60°F, the temperature at which the gap is closed is 108.6°F. Ans.
(b) Equilibrium
From the results obtained for part (a), we know that the gap will be closed at 250°F, making this a
statically indeterminate axial configuration. Knowing this, consider a FBD at joint B.
Assume that both internal axial forces will be tension, even
though we know intuitively that both F
1
and F
2
will turn out
to be compression.
1 2
0
x
F F F E = ÷ + = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
For this configuration, the sum of the deformations of members (1) and (2) must equal the initial gap:
1 2
0.04 in. o o + = (b)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force, temperature change, and the deformation of an axial
member can be stated for members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (c)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcetemperaturedeformation relationships (c) into the geometry of deformation
relationship (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
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1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
0.04 in.
F L F L
T L T L
A E A E
o o + A + + A = (d)
Solve the Equations
This part is no fun, but it must be done. From Eq. (a), F
1
= F
2
. Substituting this into Eq. (d) gives:
1 1 1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1
1 2
1 1 2 2
0.04 in.
0.04 in.
0.04 in.
0.04 in.
F L F L
T L T L
A E A E
F L F L
T L T L
A E A E
L L
F T L T L
A E A E
T L T L
F
L L
A E A E
o o
o o
o o
o o
+ A + + A =
+ = ÷ A ÷ A
+ = ÷ A ÷ A
÷ A ÷ A
=
+
(e)
For this structure, the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below. The temperature change is the
same for both members; therefore, AT
1
= AT
2
= AT = 190°F:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
32 in. 44 in.
(3 in.)(0.75 in.) 2.25 in. (2 in.)(0.75 in.) 1.50 in.
10, 000 ksi 28, 000 ksi
12.5 10 / °F 9.6 10 / °F
L L
A A
E E
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= = = =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values into Eq. (e) and calculate F
1
= −47.0702 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to
calculate F
2
= −47.0702 kips. Note that the internal forces are compression, as expected.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
2
2 2
2
20.9 k
47.070
si (C)
31.4 k
2 kips
20.9201 ksi
2.25 in.
47.0702 kips
31.3801 ksi
1.50 i
si
n.
(C)
F
A
F
A
o
o
÷
= = = ÷ =
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
(c) Normal Strains
The forcetemperaturedeformation relationships were expressed in Eq. (b). By definition, c = o/L.
Therefore, the normal strain for each axial member can be determined by dividing the relationships in
Eq. (c) by the respective member lengths:
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
F F
T T
AE A E
c o c o = + A = + A (f)
Substitute the appropriate values to calculate the normal strains in each member:
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1
1 1 1
1 1
6
2
47.0702 kips
(12.5 10 / °F)(190 F)
(2.25 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
0.000283 283 με in./in.
F
T
AE
c o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × °
= = Ans.
2
2 2 2
2 2
6
2
47.0702 kips
(9.6 10 / °F)(190 F)
(1.50 in. )(28, 000 ksi)
0.000703 703 με in./in.
F
T
A E
c o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × °
= = Ans.
(d) The change in width of the aluminum bar (1) is caused partly by the Poisson effect and partly by the
temperature change. The longitudinal strain in the aluminum bar caused by the internal force F
1
is:
6 1
long, 2
1 1
47.0702 kips
2, 092.01 10 in./in.
(2.25 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F
A E
o
c
÷
÷
= = = ÷ ×
The accompanying lateral strain due to the Poisson effect is thus
6 6
lat, long,
(0.32)( 2, 092.01 10 in./in.) 669.44 10 in./in.
o o
c vc
÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ × = ×
The lateral strain caused by the temperature change is
6 6
lat, 1 1
(12.5 10 / °F)(190 F) 2,375 10 in./in.
T
T c o
÷ ÷
= A = × ° = ×
Therefore, the total lateral strain in aluminum bar (1) is
lat lat, lat,
6 6 6
669.44 10 in./in. 2, 375 10 in./in. 3, 044.44 10 in./in.
T o
c c c
÷ ÷ ÷
= +
= × + × = ×
The change is width of the aluminum bar is thus
6
lat
width (width) (3,044.44 10 in./in.)(3 0 in.) .00913 in. c
÷
A = = × = Ans.
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5.50 At a temperature of 5°C, a 3mm gap exists
between two polymer bars and a rigid support, as
shown in Fig. P5.50. Bar (1) is 50mm wide and
20mm thick [E = 800 MPa, o = 140 × 10
−6
/°C].
Bar (2) is 75mm wide and 25mm thick [E = 2.7
GPa, o = 67 × 10
−6
/°C] bar. The supports at A and
C are rigid. Determine:
(a) the lowest temperature at which the 3mm gap
is closed.
(b) the normal stress in the two bars at a
temperature of 60°C.
(c) the normal strain in the two bars at 60°C.
Fig. P5.50
Solution
(a) Before the gap is closed, only thermal strains and the associated axial elongations exist. Write
expressions for the temperatureinduced elongations and set this equal to the 3mm gap:
 
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
6 6
1 1 2 2
3 mm
3 mm
3 mm 3 mm
24.038°C
(140 10 / °C)(700 mm) (67 10 / °C)(400 mm)
T L T L
T L L
T
L L
o o
o o
o o
A + A =
A + =
A = = =
+ × + ×
Since the initial temperature is 5°C, the temperature at which the gap is closed is 29.038°C = 29.0°C. Ans.
Equilibrium
(b) From the results obtained for part (a), we know that the gap will be closed at 60°C, making this a
statically indeterminate axial configuration. Knowing this, consider a FBD at joint B.
Assume that both internal axial forces will be tension, even
though we know intuitively that both F
1
and F
2
will turn out
to be compression.
1 2
0
x
F F F E = ÷ + = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
For this configuration, the sum of the deformations of members (1) and (2) must equal the initial gap:
1 2
3 mm o o + = (b)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force, temperature change, and the deformation of an axial
member can be stated for members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (c)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcetemperaturedeformation relationships (c) into the geometry of deformation
relationship (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
3 mm
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o + A + + A = (d)
Solve the Equations
This part is no fun, but it must be done. From Eq. (a), F
1
= F
2
. Substituting this into Eq. (d) gives:
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1 1 1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1
1 2
1 1 2 2
3 mm
3 mm
3 mm
3 mm
F L F L
T L T L
A E A E
F L F L
T L T L
A E A E
L L
F T L T L
A E A E
T L T L
F
L L
A E A E
o o
o o
o o
o o
+ A + + A =
+ = ÷ A ÷ A
+ = ÷ A ÷ A
÷ A ÷ A
=
+
(e)
For this structure, the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below. The temperature change is the
same for both members; therefore, AT
1
= AT
2
= AT = 55°C:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
700 mm 400 mm
(50 mm)(20 mm) 1, 000 mm (75 mm)(25 mm) 1,875 mm
800 MPa 2, 700 MPa
140 10 / °C 67 10 / °C
L L
A A
E E
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= = = =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values into Eq. (e) and calculate F
1
= −4.050262 kN. Backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to
calculate F
2
= −4.050262 kN. Note that the internal forces are compression, as expected.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
2
2 2
2
4.05 M
( 4.050
Pa (C)
2.16 M
262 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
4.050262 MPa
1,000 mm
( 4.050262 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
2.160140 MPa
1,875
Pa (C)
mm
F
A
F
A
o
o
÷
= = = ÷ =
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
Normal Strains
The forcetemperaturedeformation relationships were expressed in Eq. (c). By definition, c = o/L.
Therefore, the normal strain for each axial member can be determined by dividing the relationships in
Eq. (c) by the respective member lengths:
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
F F
T T
AE A E
c o c o = + A = + A (f)
Substitute the appropriate values to calculate the normal strains in each member:
1
1 1 1
1 1
6
2 2
( 4.050262 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
(140 10 / °C)(55 C)
(1,000 mm )(800 N/mm )
0.00263717 2, 6 mm/m 0 με m 4
F
T
AE
c o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × °
= = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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2
2 2 2
2 2
6
2 2
( 4.050262 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
(67 10 / °C)(55 C)
(1,875 mm )(2, 700 N/mm )
0.00288495 2,8 mm/m 80 με m
F
T
A E
c o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × °
= = Ans.
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5.51 The axial assembly shown in Fig. P5.51
consists of a solid 1in.diameter aluminum alloy
[E = 10,000 ksi, v = 0.32, o = 12.5 × 10
−6
/°F] rod
(1) and a solid 1.5in.diameter bronze [E =
15,000 ksi, v = 0.15, o = 9.4 × 10
−6
/°F] rod (2). If
the supports at A and C are rigid and the assembly
is stress free at 0°F, determine:
(a) the normal stress in both rods at 160°F.
(b) the displacement of flange B.
(c) the change in diameter of the aluminum rod.
Fig. P5.51
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD at joint B. Assume that both internal
axial forces will be tension.
1 2 1 2
0
x
F F F F F E = ÷ + = = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (c)
Compatibility Equation
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o + A + + A = (d)
Solve the Equations
From Eq. (a), F
1
= F
2
. The temperature change is the same for both members; therefore, AT
1
= AT
2
=
AT. Eq. (d) then can be written as:
1 1 1 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
FL FL
T L T L
AE A E
o o + A + + A =
Solving for F
1
:
 
 
1 1 1 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1
1 2
1 1 2 2
FL FL
T L T L
AE A E
L L
F T L L
AE A E
T L L
F
L L
AE A E
o o
o o
o o
+ = ÷ A ÷ A
+ = ÷A +
A +
= ÷
+
(e)
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For this structure, the lengths, areas, coefficients of thermal expansion, and elastic moduli are given
below.
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
15 in. 22 in.
(1 in.) 0.7854 in. (1.5 in.) 1.7671 in.
4 4
10, 000 ksi 15, 000 ksi
12.5 10 / °F 9.4 10 / °F
L L
A A
E E
t t
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= = = =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT = +160°F into Eq. (e) and calculate F
1
= −23.0263 kips. From Eq.
(a), F
2
= F
1
= −23.0263 kips.
(a) Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
23.0263 kips
29.318 ksi
0.7854 i
29.3 ksi (C)
n.
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
2
2 2
2
23.0263 kips
13.030 ksi
1.7671 in
13.03 ksi (C
.
)
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
(b) Displacement of Flange B
The displacement of flange B is equal to the deformation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of rod (1).
The deformation of rod (1) is given by:
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
6
2
( 23.0263 kips)(15 in.)
(12.5 10 / °F)(160°F)(15 in.) 0.013977 in.
(0.7854 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
FL
T L
AE
o o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × = ÷
The displacement of flange B is thus:
1
0.01398 in.
B
u o = = ÷ Ans.
(c) Change in diameter of the aluminum rod
The change in diameter of aluminum rod (1) is caused partly by the Poisson effect and partly by the
temperature change. The longitudinal strain in the aluminum rod caused by the internal force F
1
is:
6 1
long, 2
1 1
23.0263 kips
2, 931.78 10 in./in.
(0.7854 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F
AE
o
c
÷
÷
= = = ÷ ×
The accompanying lateral strain due to the Poisson effect is thus
6 6
lat, long,
(0.32)( 2,931.78 10 in./in.) 938.17 10 in./in.
o o
c vc
÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ × = ×
The lateral strain caused by the temperature change is
6 6
lat, 1 1
(12.5 10 / °F)(160 F) 2, 000 10 in./in.
T
T c o
÷ ÷
= A = × ° = ×
Therefore, the total lateral strain in aluminum rod (1) is
lat lat, lat,
6 6 6
938.17 10 in./in. 2, 000 10 in./in. 2, 938.17 10 in./in.
T o
c c c
÷ ÷ ÷
= +
= × + × = ×
The change in diameter of the aluminum rod is thus
6
1 lat 1
(2,938.17 10 in./in.)(1 in.) 0.00294 in. d d c
÷
A = = × = Ans.
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5.52 The pinconnected structure shown in Fig.
P5.52 consists of a rigid bar ABC, a solid bronze
[E = 100 GPa, o = 16.9 × 10
−6
/°C] rod (1), and a
solid aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa, o =
22.5×10
−6
/°C] rod (2). Bronze rod (1) has a
diameter of 24 and aluminum rod (2) has a
diameter of 16 mm. The bars are unstressed
when the structure is assembled at 25°C. After
assembly, the temperature of rod (2) is
decreased by 40°C while the temperature of rod
(1) remains constant at 25°C. Determine the
normal stresses in both rods for this condition.
Fig. P5.52
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in
members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin B gives
the best information for this situation:
1 2
(200 mm) (350 mm) 0
B
M F F E = ÷ ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The deflections
of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
200 mm 350 mm
A C
v v
= (b)
There are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins A and
C; therefore, Eq. (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member
deformations as:
1 2
200 mm 350 mm
o o
= (c)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (d)
Compatibility Equation
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
200 mm 350 mm
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
+ A = + A
(e)
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Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (a) for F
1
:
1 2 2
350 mm
1.75
200 mm
F F F = ÷ = ÷ (f)
Substitute this result into Eq. (e):
2 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 ( 1.75 ) 1
200 mm 350 mm
F L F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
÷
+ A = + A
Note that AT
1
= 0°C; therefore, the equation simplifies to:
2 1 2 2
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1.75 200 mm
350 mm
F L F L
T L
AE A E
o
÷ = + A
Solve this equation for F
2
:
2 1 2 2
2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2 2
2
1 2
1 1 2 2
1.75 200 mm
350 mm
1.75 200 200
350 350
200
350
1.75 200
350
F L F L
T L
AE A E
L L
F T L
AE A E
T L
F
L L
AE A E
o
o
o
÷ = + A
+ = ÷ A
A
= ÷
+
(g)
For this structure, the lengths, areas, coefficients of thermal expansion, and elastic moduli are given
below.
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
250 mm 500 mm
(24 mm) 452.3893 mm (16 mm) 201.0619 mm
4 4
100, 000 MPa 70, 000 MPa
16.9 10 / °C 22.5 10 / °C
L L
A A
E E
t t
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= = = =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT
2
= −40°C into Eq. (g) and calculate F
2
= −8,579.65 N. From Eq.
(f), calculate F
1
= −15,014.39 N.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
15, 014.39 N
452.3893 mm
33.2 MPa (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
8,579.65 N
201.
42.7 MPa (T
0619 mm
)
F
A
o = = = Ans.
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5.53 Rigid bar ABC is supported by two identical solid bronze
[E = 100 GPa, o = 16.9 × 10
−6
/°C] rods, and a solid steel [E =
200 GPa, o = 11.9×10
−6
/°C] rod, as shown in Fig. P5.53. The
bronze rods (1) each have a diameter of 16 mm and they are
symmetrically positioned relative to the center rod (2) and the
applied load P. Steel rod (2) has a diameter of 20 mm. The
bars are unstressed when the structure is assembled at 30°C.
When the temperature decreases to –20°C, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the bronze and steel rods.
(b) the normal strains in the bronze and steel rods.
Fig. P5.53
Solution
Equilibrium: By virtue of symmetry, the forces in the two
bronze rods (1) are identical. Consider a FBD of the rigid
bar. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
1 2
2 0
y
F F F E = + = (a)
Geometry of Deformations: For this configuration, the deflections of joints A, B, and C are equal:
A B C
v v v = = (b)
All pin connections are ideal; therefore, the deflection of joints A and C will cause an identical
deformation of rods (1):
1 A
v o = (c)
and the rigid bar deflection v
B
will cause an identical deformation of rod (2):
2 B
v o = (d)
Substitute Eqs. (c) and (d) into Eq. (b) to obtain the geometry of deformation equation:
1 2
o o = (e)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships: The relationship between internal force,
temperature change, and deformation can be stated for members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (f)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (f) into the geometry of
deformation relationship (e) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o + A = + A (g)
Solve the Equations: For this situation, AT
1
= AT
2
= AT. Solve Eq. (g) for F
2
:
 
1 1 2 2
2 1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2
1 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2
2 1 1 2
F L A E
F T L T L
A E L
L A E A E
F T L L
L A E L
o o
o o
= + A ÷ A
= + A ÷
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Substitute this expression into Eq. (a)
 
1 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 1 1 2
2 0
L A E A E
F F T L L
L A E L
o o + + A ÷ =
and derive an expression for F
1
, noting that L
1
= L
2
:
 
 
2 2
1 1 2 2 2
1 1
1 2 2 2
1
2 2
1 1
2
2
A E
F T A E
A E
T A E
F
A E
A E
o o
o o
+ = ÷A ÷
A ÷
= ÷
+
(h)
For this structure, the areas, coefficients of thermal expansion, and elastic moduli are given below:
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
(16 mm) 201.0619 mm (20 mm) 314.1593 mm
4 4
100, 000 MPa 200, 000 MPa
16.9 10 / °C 11.9 10 / °C
A A
E E
t t
o o
÷ ÷
= = = =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT = −50°C into Eq. (h) and calculate F
1
:
 
1 2 2 2
1
2 2
1 1
6 6 2 2
2
2
2
( 50 C) 16.9 10 11.9 10 (452.3893 mm )(200, 000 N/mm )
314.1593 mm 200, 000 MPa
2
201.0619 mm 100, 000 MPa
3, 064.97 N
T A E
F
A E
A E
o o
÷ ÷
A ÷
= ÷
+
÷ ° × ÷ ×
= ÷
   
+
 
\ . \ .
=
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (a) to calculate F
2
= –6,129.94 N.
(a) Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
3, 064.97 N
201.0
15.24 MPa (
619
T
m
)
m
F
A
o = = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
6,129.94 N
314.1593 mm
19.51 MPa (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = Ans.
(b) Normal Strains: The forcetemperaturedeformation relationships were expressed in Eq. (f). By
definition, c = o/L. Therefore, the normal strain for each axial member can be determined by dividing
the relationships in Eq. (f) by the respective member lengths:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
F F
T T T T
AE E A E E
o o
c o o c o o = + A = + A = + A = + A (f)
Substitute the appropriate values to calculate the normal strains in each member:
1
1 1 1
1
6
15.2439 MPa
(16.9 10 / °C)( 50 C)
100, 000
693
MPa
0.00069256 mm/mm με
T
E
o
c o
÷
= + A
= + ×
÷
÷ °
= ÷ = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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2
2 2 2
2 2
6
19.5122 MPa
(11.9 10 / °C)( 5
69
0 C)
200, 000 MPa
0.00 3 με 069256 mm/mm
F
T
A E
c o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × ÷ °
÷ = ÷ = Ans.
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5.54 A load of P = 85 kN is supported by a structure
consisting of rigid bar ABC, two identical solid bronze
[E = 100 GPa, o = 16.9 × 10
−6
/°C] rods, and a solid
steel [E = 200 GPa, o = 11.9×10
−6
/°C] rod, as shown
in Fig. P5.54. The bronze rods (1) each have a
diameter of 20 mm and they are symmetrically
positioned relative to the center rod (2) and the applied
load P. Steel rod (2) has a diameter of 14 mm. The
bars are unstressed when the structure is assembled.
After the temperature of the structure has been
increased by 45°C, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the bronze and steel rods.
(b) the normal strains in the bronze and steel rods.
(c) the downward deflection of rigid bar ABC.
Fig. P5.54
Solution
Equilibrium: By virtue of symmetry, the forces in the two
bronze rods (1) are identical. Consider a FBD of the rigid
bar. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
1 2
2 0
y
F F F P E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations: For this configuration, the deflections of joints A, B, and C are equal:
A B C
v v v = = (b)
All pin connections are ideal; therefore, the deflection of joints A and C will cause an identical
deformation of rods (1):
1 A
v o = (c)
and the rigid bar deflection v
B
will cause an identical deformation of rod (2):
2 B
v o = (d)
Substitute Eqs. (c) and (d) into Eq. (b) to obtain the geometry of deformation equation:
1 2
o o = (e)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships: The relationship between internal force,
temperature change, and deformation can be stated for members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (f)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (f) into the geometry of
deformation relationship (e) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o + A = + A (g)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Solve the Equations: For this situation, AT
1
= AT
2
= AT. Solve Eq. (g) for F
2
:
 
1 1 2 2
2 1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2
1 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2
2 1 1 2
F L A E
F T L T L
A E L
L A E A E
F T L L
L A E L
o o
o o
= + A ÷ A
= + A ÷
Substitute this expression into Eq. (a)
 
1 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 1 1 2
2
L A E A E
F F T L L P
L A E L
o o + + A ÷ =
and derive an expression for F
1
:
 
 
1 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2
2 1 1 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
2
1
1 2 2
2 1 1
2
2
L A E A E
F P T L L
L A E L
A E
P T L L
L
F
L A E
L A E
o o
o o
+ = ÷A ÷
÷A ÷
=
+
(h)
For this structure, P = 85 kN = 85,000 N, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
1, 200 mm 2, 200 mm
(20 mm) 314.1593 mm (14 mm) 153.9380 mm
4 4
100, 000 MPa 200, 000 MPa
16.9 10 / °C 11.9 10 / °C
L L
A A
E E
t t
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= = = =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT = +45°C into Eq. (h) and calculate F
1
:
 
2 2
1 1 2 2
2
1
1 2 2
2 1 1
2 2
6 6
2
2
2
(153.9380 mm )(200, 000 N/mm )
(85, 000 N) (45 C) (16.9 10 )(1, 200) (11.9 10 )(2, 200)
2, 200 mm
1, 200 mm 153.9380 mm 200, 000 MPa
2
2, 200 mm 314.1593 mm 100
A E
P T L L
L
F
L A E
L A E
o o
÷ ÷
÷ A ÷
=
+
÷ ° × ÷ ×
=
   
+
 
\ . \ . , 000 MPa
35, 002.53 N
 

\ .
=
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (a) to calculate F
2
= 14,994.94 N.
(a) Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
35, 002.53 N
314.1593 mm
111.4 MPa
F
A
o = = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
14,994.94 N
153.9380 m
97. a
m
4 MP
F
A
o = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) Normal Strains: The forcetemperaturedeformation relationships were expressed in Eq. (f). By
definition, c = o/L. Therefore, the normal strain for each axial member can be determined by dividing
the relationships in Eq. (f) by the respective member lengths:
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
F F
T T
AE A E
c o c o = + A = + A (f)
Substitute the appropriate values to calculate the normal strains in each member:
1
1 1 1
1 1
6
2 2
35, 002.53 N
(16.9 10 / °C)(45 C)
(314.1593 mm )(100, 000 N/mm )
0.00187467 1,875 με mm/mm
F
T
AE
c o
÷
= + A
= + × °
= = Ans.
2
2 2 2
2 2
6
2 2
14,994.94 N
(11.9 10 / °C)(45 C)
(153.9380 mm )(200, 000 N/mm )
0.0010225 1, 023 με mm/mm
F
T
A E
c o
÷
= + A
= + × °
= = Ans.
(c) Rigid bar deflection: The downward deflection of the rigid bar can be determined from the
deformation of rods (1):
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
6
2
(35, 002.53N)(1,200 mm)
(16.9 10 / °C)(45°C)(1, 200 mm)
(314.1593 mm )(100, 000 MPa
2.2
)
5 mm
B
FL
v T L
AE
o o
÷
= = + A
= + ×
=  Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.55 A solid aluminum [E = 70 GPa, o = 22.5 ×
10
−6
/°C] rod (1) is connected to a solid bronze
[E = 100 GPa, o = 16.9 × 10
−6
/°C] rod at flange
B, as shown in Fig. P5.55. Aluminum rod (1)
has a diameter of 40 mm and bronze rod (2) has
a diameter of 120 mm. The bars are unstressed
when the structure is assembled at 30°C. After
the 300kN load is applied to flange B, the
temperature increases to 45°C. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in rods (1) and (2).
(b) the deflection of flange B.
Fig. P5.55
Solution
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in
the horizontal direction to obtain:
1 2
300 kN 0
x
F F F E = ÷ + + = (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
ForceDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o + A + + A = (d)
Solve the Equations: For this situation, AT
1
= AT
2
= AT. Solve Eq. (d) for F
1
:
 
2 1 1 1 1
1 2 1 1 2 2
1 2 2 1
L A E AE
F F T L L
L A E L
o o = ÷ ÷ A +
Substitute this expression into Eq. (a):
 
2 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 2 2
1 2 2 1
300 kN
L A E AE
F T L L F
L A E L
o o + A + + = ÷
and solve for F
2
:
 
 
2 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 2
1 2 2 1
1 1
1 1 2 2
1
2
2 1 1
1 2 2
1 300 kN
300 kN
1
L A E AE
F T L L
L A E L
AE
T L L
L
F
L A E
L A E
o o
o o
+ = ÷ ÷A +
+ A +
= ÷
+
(f)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Member lengths, areas, elastic moduli, and coefficients of thermal expansion are given below:
1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
2, 600 mm 1, 000 mm
(40 mm) 1, 256.637 mm (120 mm) 11, 309.734 mm
4 4
70, 000 MPa 100, 000 MPa
22.5 10 / °C 16.9 10 / °C
L L
A A
E E
t t
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= = = =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT = +15°C into Eq. (f) and compute F
2
= −328.4395 kN.
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (a) to find F
1
= −28.4395 kN.
(a) Normal Stresses:
The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
28, 439.5 N
1,256.637 mm
22.6 MPa (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
328,439.5 N
11,309.734 m
29.0 MPa (C
m
)
F
A
o
÷
= = = Ans.
(b) Deflection of Flange B:
The deflection of flange B can be determined from the deformation of rod (1):
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
6
2
( 28, 439.5 N)(2,600 mm)
(22.5 10 / °C)(15°C)(2, 600 mm)
(1,256.637 m
0.0369
m )(70, 000 MPa
m
)
m
B
FL
u T L
AE
o o
÷
= = + A
÷
= + ×
= ÷ Ans.
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5.56 A steel [E = 30,000 ksi, o = 6.6 ×
10
−6
/°F] pipe column (1) with a cross
sectional area of A
1
= 5.60 in.
2
is connected at
flange B to an aluminum alloy [E = 10,000
ksi, o = 12.5 × 10
−6
/°F] pipe (2) with a cross
sectional area of A
2
= 4.40 in.
2
. The assembly
(shown in Fig. P5.56) is connected to rigid
supports at A and C. It is initially unstressed at
a temperature of 90°F.
(a) At what temperature will the normal stress
in steel pipe (1) be reduced to zero?
(b) Determine the normal stresses in steel pipe
(1) and aluminum pipe (2) when the
temperature reaches –10°F.
Fig. P5.56
Solution
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in
the horizontal direction to obtain:
1 2
60 kips 0
x
F F F E = ÷ + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations:
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (b) to derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
F L F L
T L T L
A E A E
o o + A + + A = (d)
Solve the Equations: Set F
1
= 0 and solve Eq. (a) to find F
2
= 60 kips. Substitute these values for F
1
and F
2
into Eq. (d) along with the observation that the temperature change for both axial members is the
same (i.e., AT
1
= AT
2
= AT) and solve for AT:
1 1 2 2
2
1 1 2 2
6 6
1 1 2 2
(60 kips)(144 in.)
0
(4.40 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
75.758 F
(6.6 10 / F)(120 in.) (12.5 10 / F)(144 in.)
FL F L
AE A E
T
L L o o
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
A = = = ÷ °
+ × ° + × °
Since the pipes are initially at a temperature 90°F, the temperature at which the normal stress in steel
pipe (1) is reduced to zero is
90 F 75.748 F 14.24 F T = ° ÷ ° = ° Ans.
(b) Solve Eq. (a) for F
2
to obtain
2 1
60 kips F F = + (e)
When the temperature reaches −10°F, the total change in temperature is AT = −100°F. Substitute this
value along with Eq. (e) into the compatibility equation [Eq. (d)] and derive an expression for F
1
:
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1 1 1 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 2 2
1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 2 2
2
1 1 2 2
2 2
1
1 2
1 1 2 2
( 60 kips)
(60 kips)
(60 kips)
(60 kips)
F L F L
T L T L
A E A E
L L L
F T L L
A E A E A E
L L L
F T L L
A E A E A E
L
T L L
A E
F
L L
A E A E
o o
o o
o o
o o
+
+ = ÷ A ÷ A
+ + = ÷A +
+ = ÷A + ÷
÷A + ÷
=
+
and compute F
1
:
6 6
2
1
2 2
6
(60 kips)(144 in.)
( 100 F) (6.6 10 )(120 in.) (12.5 10 )(144 in.)
(4.40 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
120 in. 144 in.
(5.60 in. )(30, 000 ksi) (4.40 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
0.259200 in. 0.196364 in.
714.2857 10 i
F
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ° × + × ÷
=
+
÷
=
×
6 6
0.062836 in.
n./kip 3, 272.7273 10 in./kip 3, 987.0130 10 in./kip
15.7602 kips
÷ ÷
=
+ × ×
=
From Eq. (a), F
2
has a value of
2 1
60 kips 15.7602 kips 60 kips 75.7602 kips F F = + = + =
(a) Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
15.7602 kips
2.8143 ksi
5.60 in
2.81
.
ksi (T)
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
75.7602 kips
17.2182 ksi
4.40 in.
17.22 ksi (T)
F
A
o = = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.57 A load P will be supported by a structure
consisting of a rigid bar ABCD, a polymer [E =
2,300 ksi, o = 2.9 × 10
−6
/°F] bar (1) and an
aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi, o = 12.5 ×
10
−6
/°F] bar (2), as shown in Fig. P5.57. Each bar
has a crosssectional area of 2.00 in.
2
. The bars are
unstressed when the structure is assembled at
30°F. After a concentrated load of P = 26 kips is
applied and the temperature is increased to 100°F,
determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the vertical deflection of joint D.
Fig. P5.57
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension
forces in members (1) and (2). A moment equation
about pin A gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(30 in.) (84 in.) (66 in.) 0
A
M F F P E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
30 in. 84 in.
B D
v v
= (b)
Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits
at pins B and D, the deformation of member (1) will
equal the deflection of the rigid bar at B and the
deformation of member (2) will equal the deflection
of the rigid bar at D. Therefore, Eq. (b) can be
rewritten in terms of the member deformations as:
1 2
30 in. 84 in.
o o
= (c)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force, temperature change, and deformation of an axial member
can be stated for members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (d)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
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1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
30 in. 84 in.
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
+ A = + A
(e)
Solve the Equations
Note that the temperature change for both axial members is the same (i.e., AT
1
= AT
2
= AT). Solve Eq.
(e) for F
1
:
1 1 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1 2 2
2 1 1 1 1
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
1 2 2 1
30 in.
84 in.
30 in. 30 in.
84 in. 84 in.
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
L A E AE
F F T L T AE
L A E L
o o
o o
= + A ÷ A
= + A ÷ A (f)
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a):
2 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1 2
1 2 2 1
30 in. 30 in.
(30 in.) (84 in.) (66 in.) 0
84 in. 84 in.
L A E AE
F TL T AE F P
L A E L
o o
+ A ÷ A + ÷ =
and solve for F
2
:
2
1 1
2 2 1 1 1
1
2 2
2 1 1
1 2 2
(30 in.)
(66 in.) (30 in.)
84 in.
(30 in.)
84 in.
84 in.
AE
P T L T AE
L
F
L A E
L A E
o o ÷ A + A
=
+
(g)
For this structure, P = 26 kips, and the lengths, areas, elastic moduli, and coefficients of thermal
expansion are listed below:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
72 in. 96 in.
2.00 in. 2.00 in.
2, 300 ksi 10, 000 ksi
2.9 10 / °F 12.5 10 / °F
L L
A A
E E
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT = 70°F into Eq. (g) and calculate F
2
= 19.3218 kips.
Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to calculate F
1
= 3.0991 kips.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
3.0991 kips
2.0
1.550 ksi (T)
0 in.
F
A
o = = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
19.3218 kips
2.
9.66 ksi (T)
00 in.
F
A
o = = = Ans.
Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of member (2):
6 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
(19.3218 kips)(96 in.)
(12.5 10 / °F)(70°F)(96 in.) 0.1767 in.
(2.00 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
F L
T L
A E
o o
÷
= + A = + × = (h)
Since there are no gaps at pin D, the rigid bar deflection at D is equal to the deformation of member (2);
therefore:
2
0.1767 in.
D
v o = =  Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.58 A load P will be supported by a structure
consisting of a rigid bar ABCD, an aluminum alloy
[E = 10,000 ksi, o = 12.5 × 10
−6
/°F] bar (1) and a
steel [E = 29,000 ksi, o = 6.5 × 10
−6
/°F] bar (2), as
shown in Fig. P5.58. Each bar has a cross
sectional area of 2.00 in.
2
. The bars are unstressed
when the structure is assembled at 80°F. After a
concentrated load of P = 42 kips is applied and the
temperature is decreased to –10°F, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the vertical deflection of joint D.
Fig. P5.58
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension
forces in members (1) and (2). A moment equation
about pin A gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(30 in.) (84 in.) (66 in.) 0
A
M F F P E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
30 in. 84 in.
B D
v v
= (b)
Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits
at pins B and D, the deformation of member (1) will
equal the deflection of the rigid bar at B and the
deformation of member (2) will equal the deflection
of the rigid bar at D. Therefore, Eq. (b) can be
rewritten in terms of the member deformations as:
1 2
30 in. 84 in.
o o
= (c)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force, temperature change, and deformation of an axial member
can be stated for members (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (d)
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
30 in. 84 in.
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
+ A = + A
(e)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Solve the Equations
Note that the temperature change for both axial members is the same (i.e., AT
1
= AT
2
= AT). Solve Eq.
(e) for F
1
:
1 1 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1 2 2
2 1 1 1 1
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
1 2 2 1
30 in.
84 in.
30 in. 30 in.
84 in. 84 in.
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
L A E AE
F F T L T AE
L A E L
o o
o o
= + A ÷ A
= + A ÷ A (f)
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a):
2 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1 2
1 2 2 1
30 in. 30 in.
(30 in.) (84 in.) (66 in.) 0
84 in. 84 in.
L A E AE
F TL T AE F P
L A E L
o o
+ A ÷ A + ÷ =
and solve for F
2
:
2
1 1
2 2 1 1 1
1
2 2
2 1 1
1 2 2
(30 in.)
(66 in.) (30 in.)
84 in.
(30 in.)
84 in.
84 in.
AE
P T L T AE
L
F
L A E
L A E
o o ÷ A + A
=
+
(g)
For this structure, P = 42 kips, and the lengths, areas, elastic moduli, and coefficients of thermal
expansion are listed below:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
72 in. 96 in.
2.00 in. 2.00 in.
10, 000 ksi 29, 000 ksi
12.5 10 / °F 6.5 10 / °F
L L
A A
E E
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT = –90°F into Eq. (g) and calculate F
2
= 25.4609 kips.
Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to calculate F
1
= 21.1094 kips.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
21.1094 kips
2.
10.55 ksi (
00 i
T
n
)
.
F
A
o = = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
25.4609 kips
2.
12.73 ksi (
00 i
T
n
)
.
F
A
o = = = Ans.
Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of member (2):
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
6
2
(25.4609 kips)(96 in.)
(6.5 10 / °F)( 90°F)(96 in.) 0.01402 in.
(2.00 in. )(29, 000 ksi)
F L
T L
A E
o o
÷
= + A
= + × ÷ = ÷ (h)
Since there are no gaps at pin D, the rigid bar deflection at D is equal to the deformation of member (2);
therefore:
2
0.01402 in.
D
v o = =  Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.59 The pinconnected structure shown in Fig.
P5.59 consists of a rigid bar ABCD and two
axial members. Bar (1) is steel [E = 200 GPa, o
= 11.7 × 10
−6
/°C ] with a crosssectional area of
A
1
= 400 mm
2
. Bar (2) is an aluminum alloy [E
= 70 GPa, o = 22.5 × 10
−6
/°C] with a cross
sectional area of A
2
= 400 mm
2
. The bars are
unstressed when the structure is assembled.
After a concentrated load of P = 36 kN is
applied and the temperature is increased by
25°C, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the deflection of point D on the rigid bar.
Fig. P5.59
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension
forces in members (1) and (2). A moment equation
about pin C gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(950 mm) (600 mm)
(720 mm)(36 kN) 0
C
M F F E = +
÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
950 mm 600 mm 720 mm
A B D
v v v
= = (b)
Since there are no gaps or clearances at either pin A or
pin B, the deformations of members (1) and (2) will
equal the deflections of the rigid bar at A and B,
respectively.
1 2
950 mm 600 mm
o o
= (c)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force, temperature change, and deformation of an axial member
can be stated for members (1) and (2)
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (d)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
950 mm 600 mm
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
+ A = + A
(e)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (e) for F
1
:
2 2 1 1
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1
950
600
F L AE
F T L T L
A E L
o o
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= + A ÷ A
´ `
¦ ¦ ¹ )
(f)
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a):
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1 2
2 2 1
950
(950 mm) (600 mm) (720 mm)(36 kN)
600
F L AE
T L T L F
A E L
o o
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
+ A ÷ A + =
´ `
¦ ¦ ¹ )
(g)
For this structure, the lengths, areas, elastic moduli, and coefficients of thermal expansion are listed
below:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
900 mm 900 mm
400 mm 400 mm
200, 000 MPa 70, 000 MPa
11.7 10 / °C 22.5 10 / °C
L L
A A
E E
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT
1
= AT
2
= +25°C into Eq. (g) and calculate F
2
= –3,989.18 N.
Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to calculate F
1
= 29,803.69 N.
(a) Normal stresses:
1
1 2
1
29,803.69 N
4
74.5 MPa (T
m
)
00 m
F
A
o = = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
3,989.18 N
4
9.97 MPa (C)
00 mm
F
A
o
÷
= = = Ans.
(b) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of member (1):
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
6
2
(29,803.69 N)(900 mm)
(11.7 10 / C)(25 C)(900 mm)
(400 mm )(200, 000 MPa)
0.5985 mm
FL
T L
AE
o o
÷
= + A
= + × ° °
=
Since the pin at A is assumed to have a perfect connection, v
A
= o
1
= 0.5985 mm. From Eq. (b),
720 mm
0.757895(0.5985 mm)
950
0.454 m
mm
m
D A
v v = = =  Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.60 The pinconnected structure shown in Fig.
P5.60 consists of a rigid bar ABCD and two
axial members. Bar (1) is steel [E = 200 GPa, o
= 11.7 × 10
−6
/°C ] with a crosssectional area of
A
1
= 400 mm
2
. Bar (2) is an aluminum alloy [E
= 70 GPa, o = 22.5 × 10
−6
/°C] with a cross
sectional area of A
2
= 400 mm
2
. The bars are
unstressed when the structure is assembled.
After a concentrated load of P = 36 kN is
applied and the temperature is decreased by
50°C, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the deflection of point D on the rigid bar.
Fig. P5.60
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension
forces in members (1) and (2). A moment equation
about pin C gives the best information for this situation:
1 2
(950 mm) (600 mm)
(720 mm)(36 kN) 0
C
M F F E = +
÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
950 mm 600 mm 720 mm
A B D
v v v
= = (b)
Since there are no gaps or clearances at either pin A or
pin B, the deformations of members (1) and (2) will
equal the deflections of the rigid bar at A and B,
respectively.
1 2
950 mm 600 mm
o o
= (c)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force, temperature change, and deformation of an axial member
can be stated for members (1) and (2)
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (d)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Compatibility Equation
Substitute the forcedeformation relationships (d) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
950 mm 600 mm
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
+ A = + A
(e)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (e) for F
1
:
2 2 1 1
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1
950
600
F L AE
F T L T L
A E L
o o
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= + A ÷ A
´ `
¦ ¦ ¹ )
(f)
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a):
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1 2
2 2 1
950
(950 mm) (600 mm) (720 mm)(36 kN)
600
F L AE
T L T L F
A E L
o o
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
+ A ÷ A + =
´ `
¦ ¦ ¹ )
(g)
For this structure, the lengths, areas, elastic moduli, and coefficients of thermal expansion are listed
below:
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
6 6
1 2
900 mm 900 mm
400 mm 400 mm
200, 000 MPa 70, 000 MPa
11.7 10 / °C 22.5 10 / °C
L L
A A
E E
o o
÷ ÷
= =
= =
= =
= × = ×
Substitute these values along with AT
1
= AT
2
= –50°C into Eq. (g) and calculate F
2
= 23,855.47 N.
Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to calculate F
1
= 12,217.60 N.
(a) Normal stresses:
1
1 2
1
12, 217.60 N
4
30.5 MPa (T
m
)
00 m
F
A
o = = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
23,855.47 N
4
59.6 MPa (T
m
)
00 m
F
A
o = = = Ans.
(b) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the deformation of member (1):
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
6
2
(12, 217.60 N)(900 mm)
(11.7 10 / C)( 50 C)(900 mm)
(400 mm )(200, 000 MPa)
0.3891 mm
FL
T L
AE
o o
÷
= + A
= + × ° ÷ °
= ÷
Since the pin at A is assumed to have a perfect connection, v
A
= o
1
= –0.3891 mm (i.e., joint A moves to
the left). From Eq. (b),
720 mm
0.757895( 0.3891 mm)
950
0.295 mm
mm
D A
v v = = ÷ =  Ans.
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5.61 Rigid bar ABCD is loaded and supported as
shown in Fig. P5.61. Bar (1) is made of bronze [E
= 100 GPa, o = 16.9 × 10
−6
/°C] and has a cross
sectional area of 400 mm
2
. Bar (2) is made of
aluminum [E = 70 GPa, o = 22.5 × 10
−6
/°C] and
has a crosssectional area of 600 mm
2
. Bars (1)
and (2) are initially unstressed. After the
temperature has increased by 40°C, determine:
(a) the stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the vertical deflection of point A.
Fig. P5.61
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces
in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin
D gives the best information for this situation:
1 2 2 1
(3 m) (1 m) 0 3
D
M F F F F E = ÷ = = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
4 m 3 m 1 m
C A B
v v v
= = (b)
There are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins B
and C; therefore, Eq. (b) can be rewritten in terms of the
member deformations as:
1 2
1 2
3
3 m 1 m
o o
o o
÷
= = ÷ (c)
Note: To understand the negative sign associated with o
1
, see Section 5.5 for discussion of statically
indeterminate rigid bar configurations with opposing members.
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (d)
Compatibility Equation
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
3
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
+ A = ÷ + A
(e)
Solve the Equations
For this situation, AT
1
= AT
2
= AT = 40°C. Substitute Eq. (a) into Eq. (e):
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( )
1 2
1 1
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
3
3
F L
FL
TL TL
AE A E
o o
+ A = ÷ + A
and solve for F
1
:
( )
2 2 1 1
1
1 2
1 1 2 2
6 6
2 2 2 2
3
9
(40 C) 3(22.5 10 / C)(920 mm) (16.9 10 / C)(840 mm)
840 mm 9(920 mm)
(400 mm )(100, 000 N/mm ) (600 mm )(70, 000 N/mm )
13, 990 N 13.990 kN
T L L
F
L L
AE A E
o o
÷ ÷
A +
= ÷
+
° × ° + × °
= ÷
+
= ÷ = ÷
Backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to find F
2
= −41.970 kN.
(a) Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
13, 990 N
40
35.0 MPa (C)
0 mm
F
A
o
÷
= = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
41,970 N
60
70.0 MPa (C)
0 mm
F
A
o
÷
= = = Ans.
(b) Deflection of the rigid bar at A
Calculate the deformation of one of the axial members, say member (1):
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
6
2 2
( 13,990 N)(840 mm)
(16.9 10 / °C)(40 C)(840 mm)
(400 mm )(100, 000 N/mm )
0.27405 mm
FL
T L
AE
o o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × °
=
Since there are no gaps at pin B, the rigid bar deflection at B is equal to the deformation of member (1);
therefore, v
B
= o
1
= 0.27405 mm (upward). From similar triangles, the deflection of the rigid bar at A is
related to v
B
by:
4 m 3 m
A B
v v
=
The deflection of the rigid bar at A is thus:
4 m 4 m
(0.27405 mm)
3 m 3
0.365 mm
m
A B
v v = = =  Ans.
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5.62 Rigid bar ABCD in Fig. P5.62 is supported by a
pin connection at A and by two axial bars (1) and (2).
Bar (1) is a 30in.long bronze [E = 15,000 ksi, o =
9.4 × 10
−6
/°F] bar with a crosssectional area of 1.25
in.
2
. Bar (2) is a 40in.long aluminum alloy [E =
10,000 ksi, o = 12.5 × 10
−6
/°F] bar with a cross
sectional area of 2.00 in.
2
. Both bars are unstressed
before the load P is applied. If a concentrated load of
P = 27 kips is applied to the rigid bar at D and the
temperature is decreased by 100°F, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the normal strains in bars (1) and (2).
(c) the deflection of the rigid bar at point D.
Fig. P5.62
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in
members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin A gives
the best information for this situation:
1 2
(36 in.) (84 in.) (98 in.)(27 kips) 0
A
M F F E = ÷ + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The deflections
of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
36 in. 84 in.
C B
v v
= (b)
There are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins B and
C; therefore, Eq. (b) can be rewritten in terms of the member
deformations as:
1 2
36 in. 84 in.
o o ÷
= (c)
Note: To understand the negative sign associated with o
1
, see Section 5.5 for discussion of statically
indeterminate rigid bar configurations with opposing members.
ForceDeformation Relationships
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (d)
Compatibility Equation
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
36 in. 84 in.
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
÷ + A = + A
(e)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (e) for F
1
:
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2 2 1 1
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1
36 in.
84 in.
3 3
7 7
F L A E
F T L T L
A E L
F L A E
T L T L
A E L
o o
o o
 
= ÷ + A ÷ A

\ .
= ÷ + A + A
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F
2
using AT
1
= AT
2
= −100°F:
1 2
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1 2
2 2 1
(36 in.) (84 in.) (98 in.)(27 kips)
3 3
(36 in.) (84 in.) (98 in.)(27 kips)
7 7
F F
F L A E
T L T L F
A E L
o o
÷ + =
 
÷ ÷ + A + A + =

\ .
2 1 1
2
1 2 2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
1 1
2
2 2
3
(36 in.) 84 in. (98 in.)(27 kips)
7
3
(36 in.) (36 in.)
7
3 40 in. 1.25 in. 15, 000 ksi
(36 in.) 84 in. (98 in.)(27 kips)
7 30 in. 2.00 in. 10, 000 ksi
(36 i
L A E
F
L A E
A E A E
T L T L
L L
F
o o
+ =
÷ A ÷ A
+ =
÷
2
6
2
6
3 (1.25 in. )(15, 000 ksi)
n.) (12.5 10 )( 100 F)(40 in.)
7 30 in.
(1.25 in. )(15, 000 ksi)
(36 in.)(9.4 10 )( 100 F)(30 in.)
30 in.
÷
÷
× ÷ °
÷ × ÷ °
2
2, 646 kipin. 482.1429 kipin. 634.5000 kipin. 3,762.6429 kipin.
19.2857 in. 84 in. 103.2857 in.
36.4295 kips
F
+ +
= =
+
=
Backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to find F
1
:
1
(84 in.)(36.4295 kips) (98 in.)(27 kips)
11.5022 kips
36 in.
F
÷
= =
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
11.5022 kips
1.
9.20 ksi (T)
25 in.
F
A
o = = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
36.4295 kips
2.
18.21 ksi (
00 i
T
n
)
.
F
A
o = = = Ans.
(b) Normal Strains
The forcetemperaturedeformation relationships were expressed in Eq. (d). By definition, c = o/L.
Therefore, the normal strain for each axial member can be determined by dividing the relationships in
Eq. (d) by their respective member lengths:
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
F F
T T
AE A E
c o c o = + A = + A
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Substitute the appropriate values to calculate the normal strains in each member:
1
1 1 1
1 1
6
2
6
11.5022 kips
(9.4 10 / °F)( 100 F)
(1.25 in. )(15, 000
32
ksi)
326.55 10 in./in . 7 με
F
T
AE
c o
÷
÷
= + A
= +
= ÷
× ÷ °
= ÷ × Ans.
2
2 2 2
2 2
6
2
6
36.4295 kips
(12.5 10 / °F)( 100 F)
(2.00 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
571.48 10 571 με in./in.
F
T
A E
c o
÷
÷
= + A
= + × ÷ °
= × = Ans.
(c) Deflection of the rigid bar at D
Calculate the deformation of one of the axial members, say member (2):
6 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
(36.4295 kips)(40 in.)
(12.5 10 / °F)( 100 F)(40 in.)
(2.00 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
0.022859 in.
F L
T L
A E
o o
÷
= + A = + × ÷ °
=
This deformation can also be determined from the strain in member (2):
6
2 2 2
(571.48 10 in./in.)(40 in.) 0.022859 in. L o c
÷
= = × =
Since there are no gaps at pin C, the rigid bar deflection at C is equal to the deformation of member (2);
therefore, v
C
= o
2
= 0.022859 in. (downward). From similar triangles, the deflection of the rigid bar at D
is related to v
C
by:
84 in. 98 in.
C D
v v
=
The deflection of the rigid bar at D is thus:
98 in. 98 in.
(0.022859 in.)
84 in. 84 in
0.0267 in.
.
D C
v v = = =  Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.63 The pinconnected structure shown in Fig.
P5.63 consists of a rigid bar ABC, a steel bar
(1), and a steel rod (2). The crosssectional area
of bar (1) is 1.5 in.
2
and the diameter of rod (2)
is 0.75 in. Assume E = 30,000 ksi and o = 6.6
× 10
−6
/°F for both axial members. The bars are
unstressed when the structure is assembled at
70°F. After application of a concentrated force
of P = 20 kips, the temperature is decreased to
30°F. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bar (1) and rod (2).
(b) the normal strains in bar (1) and rod (2).
(c) the deflection of pin C from its original
position.
Fig. P5.63
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension
forces in members (1) and (2). A moment
equation about pin B gives the best information
for this situation:
1 2
(12 in.) (20 in.)
(15 in.)(20 kips) 0
B
M F F E = ÷ +
÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
12 in. 20 in.
C A
v v
= (b)
There are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at
pins A and C; therefore, Eq. (b) can be rewritten
in terms of the member deformations as:
1 2
12 in. 20 in.
o o ÷
= (c)
Note: To understand the negative sign associated with o
1
, see Section 5.5 for a discussion of statically
indeterminate rigid bar configurations with opposing members.
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o o o = + A = + A (d)
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Compatibility Equation
1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1
12 in. 20 in.
FL F L
T L T L
AE A E
o o
÷ + A = + A
(e)
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (e) for F
1
:
2 2 1 1
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1
12 in.
20 in.
12 12
20 20
F L AE
F T L T L
A E L
F L AE
T L T L
A E L
o o
o o
 
= ÷ + A ÷ A

\ .
= ÷ + A + A
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F
2
using AT
1
= AT
2
= −40°F:
1 2
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1 2
2 2 1
(12 in.) (20 in.) (15 in.)(20 kips)
12 12
(12 in.) (20 in.) (15 in.)(20 kips)
20 20
F F
F L AE
T L T L F
A E L
o o
÷ + =
 
÷ ÷ + A + A + =

\ .
Note that the area of rod (2) is A
2
= t/4(0.75 in.)
2
= 0.4418 in.
2
.
2 1 1
2
1 2 2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
1 1
2
2 2
12
(12 in.) 20 in. (15 in.)(20 kips)
20
12
(12 in.) (12 in.)
20
12 80 in. 1.5 in. 30, 000 ksi
(12 in.) 20 in. (15 in.)(20 kips
20 32 in. 0.4418 in. 30, 000 ksi
L A E
F
L A E
AE AE
T L T L
L L
F
o o
+ =
÷ A ÷ A
+ =
2
6
2
6
)
12 (1.5 in. )(30, 000 ksi)
(12 in.) (6.6 10 )( 40 F)(80 in.)
20 32 in.
(1.5 in. )(30, 000 ksi)
(12 in.)(6.6 10 )( 40 F)(32 in.)
32 in.
÷
÷
÷ × ÷ °
÷ × ÷ °
2
300 kipin. 213.84 kipin. 142.56 kipin. 656.40 kipin.
61.113626 in. 20 in. 81.1136267 in.
8.092 kips
F
+ +
= =
+
=
Backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to find F
1
:
1
(20 in.)(8.092 kips) (15 in.)(20 kips)
11.513 kips
12 in.
F
÷
= = ÷
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(a) Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
11.513 kips
1.5 in.
7.68 ksi (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = Ans.
2
2 2
2
8.092 kips
0.44
18.32 ksi (
18 i
T
n
)
.
F
A
o = = = Ans.
(b) Normal Strains
The forcetemperaturedeformation relationships were expressed in Eq. (d). By definition, c = o/L.
Therefore, the normal strain for each axial member can be determined by dividing the relationships in
Eq. (d) by the respective member lengths:
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
F F
T T
AE A E
c o c o = + A = + A
Substitute the appropriate values to calculate the normal strains in each member:
1
1 1 1
1 1
6
2
6
11.513 kips
(6.6 10 / °F)( 40 F)
(1.5 in. )(30, 000 ksi)
519.8 10 52 i 0 μ n./in. ε
F
T
AE
c o
÷
÷
÷
= + A
÷
= + × ÷ °
= ÷ × = Ans.
2
2 2 2
2 2
6
2
6
8.092 kips
(6.6 10 / °F)( 40 F)
(0.4418 in. )(30, 000 ksi)
346.5 10 in./in. 347 με
F
T
A E
c o
÷
÷
= + A
= + × ÷ °
= × = Ans.
(c) Deflection of the rigid bar at C
Calculate the deformation of one of the axial members, say member (2):
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
6
2
(8.092 kips)(80 in.)
(6.6 10 / °F)( 40 F)(80 in.)
(0.4418 in. )(30, 000 ksi)
0.027723 in.
F L
T L
A E
o o
÷
= + A
= + × ÷ °
=
This deformation can also be determined from the strain in member (2):
6
2 2 2
(346.5 10 in./in.)(80 in.) 0.027723 in. L o c
÷
= = × =
Since there are no gaps at pin C, the rigid bar deflection at C is equal to the deformation of member (2);
therefore:
2
0.0277 in.
C
v o = =  Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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5.64 Three rods of different materials are connected
and placed between rigid supports at A and D, as
shown in Fig. P5.64. Properties for each of the three
rods are given below. The bars are initially
unstressed when the structure is assembled at 70°F.
After the temperature has been increased to 250°F,
determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the three rods.
(b) the force exerted on the rigid supports.
(c) the deflections of joints B and C relative to rigid
support A.
Fig. P5.64
Aluminum (1)
L
1
= 10 in.
A
1
= 0.8 in.
2
E
1
= 10,000 ksi
o
1
= 12.5×10
6
/°F
Cast Iron (2)
L
2
= 5 in.
A
2
= 1.8 in.
2
E
2
= 22,500 ksi
o
2
= 7.5×10
6
/°F
Bronze (3)
L
3
= 7 in.
A
3
= 0.6 in.
2
E
3
= 15,000 ksi
o
3
= 9.4×10
6
/°F
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD at joint B. Assume that both internal axial
forces will be tension.
1 2 1 2
0
x
F F F F F E = ÷ + = = (a)
Similarly, consider a FBD at joint C. Assume that both internal
axial forces will be tension.
2 3 3 2
0
x
F F F F F E = ÷ + = = (b)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
1 2 3
0 o o o + + = (c)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
FL F L F L
T L T L T L
AE A E A E
o o o o o o = + A = + A = + A (d)
Compatibility Equation
3 3 1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
F L FL F L
T L T L T L
AE A E A E
o o o + A + + A + + A = (e)
Solve the Equations
From Eq. (a), F
1
= F
2
, and from Eq. (b), F
3
= F
2
. The temperature change is the same for all members;
therefore, AT
1
= AT
2
= AT
3
= AT. Eq. (e) then can be written as:
( ) ( )
2 1 2 3 2 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
F L F L
F L
TL TL TL
AE A E A E
o o o + A + + A + + A =
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Solving for F
2
:
 
 
3 3 2 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
3 1 2
2 1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
2
3 1 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
F L F L F L
T L T L T L
AE A E A E
L L L
F T L L L
AE A E A E
T L L L
F
L L L
AE A E A E
o o o
o o o
o o o
+ + = ÷ A ÷ A ÷ A
+ + = ÷A + +
A + +
= ÷
+ +
(f)
Substitute the problem data along with AT = +180°F into Eq. (f) and calculate F
1
= −19.1025 kips.
From Eq. (a), F
1
= −19.1025 kips and from Eq. (b), F
3
= −19.1025 kips.
(a) Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
19.1025 kips
23.878 ksi
0.8 in.
23.9 ksi (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
2
2 2
2
19.1025 kips
10.613 ksi
1.8 in.
10.61 ksi (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
3
3 2
3
19.1025 kips
31.838 ksi
0.6 in.
31.8 ksi (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
(b) Force on Rigid Supports
The force exerted on the rigid supports is equal to the internal axial force:
19.10 kips
A D
R R = = Ans.
(c) Deflection of Joints B and C
The deflection of joint B is equal to the deformation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of rod (1). The
deformation of rod (1) is given by:
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
6
2
( 19.1025 kips)(10 in.)
(12.5 10 / °F)(180°F)(10 in.) 0.001378 in.
(0.8 in. )(10, 000 ksi)
FL
T L
AE
o o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × = ÷
The deflection of joint B is thus:
1
0.001378 in.
B
u o = = ÷ Ans.
The deformation of rod (2) is given by:
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
6
2
( 19.1025 kips)(5 in.)
(7.5 10 / °F)(180°F)(5 in.) 0.004392 in.
(1.8 in. )(22,500 ksi)
F L
T L
A E
o o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × =
The deflection of joint C is:
2
0.001378 in. 0.004392 in. 0.00301 in.
C B
u u o = + = ÷ + = ÷ Ans.
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5.65 Three rods of different materials are connected
and placed between rigid supports at A and D, as
shown in Fig. P5.65. Properties for each of the three
rods are given below. The bars are initially
unstressed when the structure is assembled at 20°C.
After the temperature has been increased to 100°C,
determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the three rods.
(b) the force exerted on the rigid supports.
(c) the deflections of joints B and C relative to rigid
support A.
Fig. P5.65
Aluminum (1)
L
1
= 440 mm
A
1
= 1,200 mm
2
E
1
= 70 GPa
o
1
= 22.5×10
6
/°C
Cast Iron (2)
L
2
= 200 mm
A
2
= 2,800 mm
2
E
2
= 155 GPa
o
2
= 13.5×10
6
/°C
Bronze (3)
L
3
= 320 mm
A
3
= 800 mm
2
E
3
= 100 GPa
o
3
= 17.0×10
6
/°C
Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD at joint B. Assume that both internal axial
forces will be tension.
1 2 1 2
0
x
F F F F F E = ÷ + = = (a)
Similarly, consider a FBD at joint C. Assume that both internal
axial forces will be tension.
2 3 3 2
0
x
F F F F F E = ÷ + = = (b)
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
1 2 3
0 o o o + + = (c)
ForceTemperatureDeformation Relationships
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
FL F L F L
T L T L T L
AE A E A E
o o o o o o = + A = + A = + A (d)
Compatibility Equation
3 3 1 1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
F L FL F L
T L T L T L
AE A E A E
o o o + A + + A + + A = (e)
Solve the Equations
From Eq. (a), F
1
= F
2
, and from Eq. (b), F
3
= F
2
. The temperature change is the same for all members;
therefore, AT
1
= AT
2
= AT
3
= AT. Eq. (e) then can be written as:
( ) ( )
2 1 2 3 2 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
F L F L
F L
TL TL TL
AE A E A E
o o o + A + + A + + A =
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Solving for F
2
:
 
 
3 3 2 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
3 1 2
2 1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
2
3 1 2
1 1 2 2 3 3
F L F L F L
T L T L T L
AE A E A E
L L L
F T L L L
AE A E A E
T L L L
F
L L L
AE A E A E
o o o
o o o
o o o
+ + = ÷ A ÷ A ÷ A
+ + = ÷A + +
A + +
= ÷
+ +
(f)
Substitute the problem data along with AT = +80°C into Eq. (f) and calculate F
1
= −148.80 kN. From
Eq. (a), F
1
= −148.80 kN and from Eq. (b), F
3
= −148.80 kN.
(a) Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:
1
1 2
1
148,800 N
124.00 MPa
1,200 m
124.0 MPa (C)
m
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
2
2 2
2
148,800 N
53.143 MPa
2,800 m
53.1 MPa (C)
m
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
3
3 2
3
148,800 N
186.0 MPa
800 mm
186.0 MPa (C)
F
A
o
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
(b) Force on Rigid Supports
The force exerted on the rigid supports is equal to the internal axial force:
148.8 kN
A D
R R = = Ans.
(c) Deflection of Joints B and C
The deflection of joint B is equal to the deformation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of rod (1). The
deformation of rod (1) is given by:
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
6
2 2
( 148,800 N)(440 mm)
(22.5 10 / °C)(80°C)(440 mm) 0.01257 mm
(1, 200 mm )(70, 000 N/mm )
FL
T L
AE
o o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × =
The deflection of joint B is thus:
1
0.01257 mm
B
u o = = ÷ Ans.
The deformation of rod (2) is given by:
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
6
2 2
( 148,800 N)(200 mm)
(13.5 10 / °C)(80°C)(200 mm) 0.14743 mm
(2,800 mm )(155, 000 N/mm )
F L
T L
A E
o o
÷
= + A
÷
= + × =
The deflection of joint C is:
2
0.01257 mm 0.14743 mm 0.1600 mm
C B
u u o = + = + = ÷ Ans.
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5.66 The machine part shown in Fig. P5.66
is 3/8in. thick and is made of coldrolled
188 stainless steel (see Appendix D for
properties). Determine the maximum safe
load P if a factor of safety of 2.5 with
respect to failure by yield is specified.
Fig. P5.66
Solution
allow
165 ksi
66 ksi
FS 2.5
Y
o
o = = =
Fillet:
4.0 in. 0.5 in.
2.0 0.25 1.82
2.0 in. 2.0 in.
D r
K
d d
= = = = ~
allow min
allow
(66 ksi)(2.0 in.)(0.375 in.)
27.2 kips
1.82
A
P
K
o
= = = (a)
Hole:
1.25 in.
0.3125 2.34
4.0 in.
d
K
D
= = ~
allow net
allow
(66 ksi)(4.0 in. 1.25 in.)(0.375 in.)
29.1 kips
2.34
A
P
K
o ÷
= = = (b)
Controlling Load:
The fillet controls in this case; therefore,
allow
27.2 kips P = Ans.
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5.67 The machine part shown in Fig. P5.67
is 12 mm thick and is made of SAE 4340
heattreated steel (see Appendix D for
properties). The holes are centered in the
bar. Determine the maximum safe load P
if a factor of safety of 3.0 with respect to
failure by yield is specified.
Fig. P5.67
Solution
allow
910 MPa
303.33 MPa
FS 3.0
Y
o
o = = =
Small Hole:
15 mm
0.1 2.73
100 mm
d
K
D
= = ~
2
allow net
allow
(303.33 N/mm )(100 mm 10 mm)(12 mm)
120, 000 N 120.0 kN
2.73
A
P
K
o ÷
= = = = (a)
Large Hole:
35 mm
0.35 2.29
100 mm
d
K
D
= = ~
2
allow net
allow
(303.33 N/mm )(100 mm 35 mm)(12 mm)
103,319 N 103.3 kN
2.29
A
P
K
o ÷
= = = = (b)
Controlling Load:
The large hole controls in this case; therefore,
allow
103.3 kN P = Ans.
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5.68 A 100mmwide by 8mmthick steel
bar is transmitting an axial tensile load of
3,000 N. After the load is applied, a 4
mmdiameter hole is drilled through the
bar, as shown in Fig. P5.68. The hole is
centered in the bar.
(a) Determine the stress at point A (on the
edge of the hole) in the bar before and
after the hole is drilled.
(b) Does the axial stress at point B on the
edge of the bar increase or decrease as the
hole is drilled? Explain.
Fig. P5.68
Solution
(a) Stress at point A:
Before hole is drilled:
3, 000 N
(100 mm)(8 mm)
3.75 MPa
A
P
A
o = = = Ans.
After hole is drilled:
4 mm
0.04 2.89
100 mm
d
K
D
= = ~
net
(3, 000 N)(2.89)
(100 mm 4 mm)(8 mm)
11.29 MPa
A
PK
A
o = = =
÷
Ans.
(b) Stress at point B:
The axial stress at point B decreases. Since the average stress changes very little with the introduction
of the small hole and since the stress at A is larger than the average stress, the axial stress far from the
hole must be less than the average stress.
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5.69 The machine part shown in Fig. P5.69
is 90mmwide by 12mmthick and is
made of 2014T4 aluminum (see Appendix
D for properties). The hole is centered in
the bar. Determine the maximum safe load
P if a factor of safety of 1.50 with respect
to failure by yield is specified.
Fig. P5.69
Solution
allow
290 MPa
193.33 MPa
FS 1.50
Y
o
o = = =
Hole:
30 mm
0.33 2.31
90 mm
d
K
D
= = ~
2
allow net
allow
(193.33 N/mm )(90 mm 30 mm)(12 mm)
60, 260 N 60.3 kN
2.31
A
P
K
o ÷
= = = = (a)
Notches:
10 mm 90 mm
0.20 1.8 2.27
50 mm 50 mm
r D
K
d d
= = = = ~
2
allow min
allow
(193.33 N/mm )(50 mm)(12 mm)
51,101 N 51.1 kN
2.27
A
P
K
o
= = = = (b)
Controlling Load:
The notches control in this case; therefore,
allow
51.1 kN P = Ans.
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5.70 The machine part shown in Fig.
P5.70 is 8mm thick and is made of
AISI 1020 coldrolled steel (see
Appendix D for properties). Determine
the maximum safe load P if a factor of
safety of 3 with respect to failure by
yield is specified.
Fig. P5.70
Solution
allow
427 MPa
142.33 MPa
FS 3
Y
o
o = = =
Fillets:
120 mm 16 mm
1.5 0.2 1.83
80 mm 80 mm
D r
K
d d
= = = = ~
allow min
allow
(142.33 MPa)(80 mm)(8 mm)
49.8 kN
1.83
A
P
K
o
= = = (a)
Hole:
15 mm
0.125 2.67
120 mm
d
K
D
= = ~
allow net
allow
(142.33 MPa)(120 mm 15 mm)(8 mm)
44.8 kN
2.67
A
P
K
o ÷
= = = (b)
Notches:
10 mm 800 mm
0.167 1.333 2.28
60 mm 60 mm
r D
K
d d
= = = = ~
allow min
allow
(142.33 MPa)(60 mm)(8 mm)
30.0 kN
2.28
A
P
K
o
= = = (c)
Controlling Load:
The notches control in this case; therefore,
allow
30.0 kN P = Ans.
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5.71 The machine part shown in Fig. P5.71
is 10 mm thick, is made of AISI 1020 cold
rolled steel (see Appendix D for
properties), and is subjected to a tensile
load of P = 45 kN. Determine the minimum
radius r that can be used between the two
sections if a factor of safety of 2 with
respect to failure by yield is specified.
Round the minimum fillet radius up to the
nearest 1mm multiple.
Fig. P5.71
Solution
allow
427 MPa
213.5 MPa
FS 2
Y
o
o = = =
2
allow min
allow
(213.5 N/mm )(40 mm)(10 mm)
1.90
45,000 N
A
K
P
o
= = =
80 mm
2
40 mm
D
d
= =
Then, from Fig. 5.15
min min
0.214
(0.214) (0.214)(40 mm) 8.56 mm say 9 mm
r
d
r d r
=
= = = = Ans.
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5.72 The 0.25in.thick bar shown in Fig.
P5.72 is made of 2014T4 aluminum (see
Appendix D for properties) and will be
subjected to an axial tensile load of P =
1,500 lbs. A 0.5625in.diameter hole is
located on the centerline of the bar.
Determine the minimum safe width D for
the bar if a factor of safety of 2.5 with
respect to failure by yield must be
maintained.
Fig. P5.72
Solution
allow
42 ksi
16.8 ksi 16,800 psi
FS 2.5
Y
o
o = = = =
By definition:
max
nom
K
o
o
=
In this instance, the maximum stress equals the allowable stress:
max
nom
nom nom
16,800 psi
16,800 psi K K
o
o
o o
= = =
If we denote the net width of the bar at the hole location as w and the bar thickness at t, then w must
satisfy:
nom
net
16,800 psi
(16,800 psi)
P P K P
K K K w
A wt t
o = = s > (a)
And the bar width D is the sum of the net width w and the hole diameter d:
D w d = + (b)
For a bar with a hole, the value of K is dependent on the ratio of d/D. Since K cannot be determined
until D is known, and since the calculation of D from Eqs. (a) and (b) depends on K, a trialanderror
process can be established. One possible sequence is summarized in the table below.
Trial value of
d
D
K
[from Fig. 5.14]
w (in.)
[from Eq. (a)]
D (in.)
[from Eq. (b)]
Resulting value of
d
D
0.25 2.43 0.868 1.430 0.393
0.39 2.25 0.804 1.366 0.412
0.41 2.23 0.796 1.359
0.414
(agrees with trial value)
Therefore, the minimum bar width is:
min
1.359 in. D = Ans.
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5.73 The stepped bar with a circular hole,
shown in Fig. P5.73, is made of annealed
188 stainless steel. The bar is 12 mm thick
and will be subjected to an axial tensile
load of P = 70 kN. The normal stress in the
bar is not to exceed 150 MPa. To the
nearest millimeter, determine:
(a) the maximum allowable hole diameter
d.
(b) the minimum allowable fillet radius r.
Fig. P5.73
Solution
(a) Maximum hole diameter d:
By definition:
max
nom
K
o
o
=
In this instance, the maximum stress equals the 150MPa allowable stress:
max
nom
nom nom
150 MPa
150 MPa K K
o
o
o o
= = =
If we denote the net width of the bar at the hole location as w and the bar thickness at t, then w can be
expressed as w = D – d. The nominal stress at the hole location depends on A
net
, which in turn can be
expressed in terms of w:
2
nom 2
net
150 N/mm ( )
( ) (150 N/mm )
P P P K P
K K K K D d
A wt D d t t
o = = = s ÷ >
÷
From this relationship, the hole diameter d is:
2
(150 N/mm )
K P
d D
t
s ÷ (a)
For a bar with a hole, the value of K is dependent on the ratio of d/D. Since K cannot be determined
until d is known, and since the calculation of d from Eq. (a) depends on K, a trialanderror process can
be established. One possible sequence is summarized in the table below.
Trial value of
d
D
K
[from Fig. 5.14]
d (mm)
[from Eq. (a)]
Resulting value of
d
D
0.10 2.73 23.83 0.183
0.18 2.56 30.44 0.234
0.23 2.47 33.94 0.261
0.26 2.42 35.89 0.276
0.28 2.39 37.06 0.285
0.29 2.37 37.83
0.291
(agrees with trial value)
Therefore, the maximum hole diameter is:
max
37 mm d = Ans.
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(b) Minimum fillet radius r:
130 mm
1.3
100 mm
D
d
= =
Therefore, the curve for D/d = 1.30 on Fig. 5.15 will be used to determine the stress concentration
factor.
2
max allow
nom min
150 N/mm
2.571
/ (70,000 N) / (100 mm)(12 mm)
K
P A
o o
o
= = = =
From Fig. 5.15,
min min
0.047
0.047(100 mm) 4.7 mm say 5 mm
r
d
r r
~
= = = Ans.
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6.1 A solid circular steel shaft having an outside diameter of d = 0.75 in. is subjected to a pure torque of
T = 650 lbin. Determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft.
Solution
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is
4 4
(0.75 in.) 0.031063 in.
32
J
t
= =
The maximum shear stress in the steel shaft is found from the elastic torsion formula:
max 4
(650 lbin.)(0.75 in. / 2)
7,846.93 psi
0.0
7,850 ps
31063 in.
i
Tc
J
t = = = = Ans.
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6.2 A hollow aluminum shaft with an outside diameter of 80 mm and a wall thickness of 5 mm has an
allowable shear stress of 75 MPa. Determine the maximum torque T that may be applied to the shaft.
Solution
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is
4 4 4 4 4
(80 mm) (70 mm) 1, 664, 062 mm
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
Rearrange the elastic torsion formula to determine the maximum torque T:
2 4
allow
(75 N/mm )(1, 664, 062 mm )
3,120,117 Nmm
80 mm
3,120 N
2
m
/
J
T
c
t
= = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.3 A hollow steel shaft with an outside diameter of 100 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm is subjected
to a pure torque of T = 5,500 Nm.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress in the hollow shaft.
(b) Determine the minimum diameter of a solid steel shaft for which the maximum shear stress is the
same as in part (a) for the same torque T.
Solution
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is
4 4 4 4 4
(100 mm) (80 mm) 5, 796, 238 mm
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
(a) The maximum shear stress in the hollow steel shaft is found from the elastic torsion formula:
max 4
(5,500 Nm)(100 mm/ 2)(1,000 mm/m)
47.445 MPa
5, 796, 238 m
47.4
m
MPa
Tc
J
t = = = = Ans.
(b) The polar moment of inertia for a solid shaft can be expressed as
4
32
J d
t
=
Rearrange the elastic torsion formula to group terms with d on the lefthand side:
4
32 ( / 2)
d T
d
t
t
=
and simplify to
3
16
d T t
t
=
From this equation, the unknown diameter of the solid shaft can be expressed as
3
16T
d
tt
=
To support a torque of T = 5,500 Nm without exceeding the maximum shear stress determined in part
(a), a solid shaft must have a diameter of
3
3
2
16 16(5,500 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
83.891 mm
(47.445 N/m
83.9 m
m
m
)
T
d
tt t
> = = = Ans.
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6.4 A compound shaft consists of two pipe
segments. Segment (1) has an outside diameter of
200 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm. Segment
(2) has an outside diameter of 150 mm and a wall
thickness of 10 mm. The shaft is subjected to
torques T
B
= 42 kNm and T
C
= 18 kNm, which act
in the directions shown in Fig. P6.4. Determine the
maximum shear stress magnitude in each shaft
segment.
Fig. P6.4
Solution
Equilibrium:
1 1
42 kNm 18 kNm 0 24 kNm
x
M T T E = ÷ + ÷ = =
2 2
18 kNm 0 18 kNm
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷
Section properties:
4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1
(200 mm) (180 mm) 54, 019, 686 mm
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
4 4 4 4 4
2 2 2
(150 mm) (130 mm) 21,551, 281 mm
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
Shear stress magnitudes:
1 4
(24 kNm)(200 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
54, 019
44.4 MPa
, 686 mm
t = = Ans.
2 4
(18 kNm)(150 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
21,661
62.3 MPa
,281 mm
t = = Ans.
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6.5 A compound shaft consists of two pipe
segments. Segment (1) has an outside diameter of
10.75 in. and a wall thickness of 0.365 in. Segment
(2) has an outside diameter of 6.625 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.280 in. The shaft is subjected to
torques T
B
= 60 kipft and T
C
= 24 kipft, which act
in the directions shown in Fig. P6.5. Determine the
maximum shear stress magnitude in each shaft
segment.
Fig. P6.5
Solution
Equilibrium:
1 1
60 kipft 24 kipft 0 36 kipft
x
M T T E = ÷ + ÷ = =
2 2
24 kipft 0 24 kipft
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷
Section properties:
4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1
(10.75 in.) (10.02 in.) 321.4685 in.
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
4 4 4 4 4
2 2 2
(6.625 in.) (6.0650 in.) 56.2844 in.
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
Shear stress magnitudes:
1 4
(36 kipft)(10.75 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
321.4685
7.
2
in
2 ks
.
i t = = Ans.
2 4
(24 kipft)(6.625 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
56.2844
16.9
in.
5 ksi t = = Ans.
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6.6 A compound shaft (Fig. P6.6) consists of brass segment (1) and
aluminum segment (2). Segment (1) is a solid brass shaft with an outside
diameter of 0.625 in. and an allowable shear stress of 6,000 psi. Segment
(2) is a solid aluminum shaft with an outside diameter of 0.50 in. and an
allowable shear stress of 9,000 psi. Determine the magnitude of the largest
torque T
C
that may be applied at C.
Fig. P6.6
Solution
Section properties:
4 4
1
(0.625 in.) 0.014980 in.
32
J
t
= =
4 4
2
(0.50 in.) 0.006136 in.
32
J
t
= =
Allowable internal torques:
4
1 1
1
1
(6, 000 psi)(0.014980 in. )
287.621 lbin.
0.625 in./2
J
T
c
t
s = =
4
2 2
2
2
(9,000 psi)(0.006136 in. )
220.893 lbin. controls
0.50 in./2
J
T
c
t
s = = ÷
Equilibrium:
The internal torque magnitude in each segment equals the external torque; therefore, T
1
= T
2
= T
C
. The
controlling internal torque is T
2
= 220.893 lbin.; therefore, the maximum external torque T
C
that may be
applied to the compound shaft is
220.893 lbi 221 l n. bin.
C
T s = Ans.
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6.7 A compound shaft (Fig. P6.7) consists of brass segment (1) and
aluminum segment (2). Segment (1) is a solid brass shaft with an
allowable shear stress of 60 MPa. Segment (2) is a solid aluminum shaft
with an allowable shear stress of 90 MPa. If a torque of T
C
= 23,000 Nm
is applied at C, determine the minimum required diameter of (a) the brass
shaft and (b) the aluminum shaft.
Fig. P6.7
Solution
The polar moment of inertia for a solid shaft can be expressed as
4
32
J d
t
=
Rearrange the elastic torsion formula to group terms with d on the lefthand side:
4
32 ( / 2)
d T
d
t
t
=
and simplify to
3
16
d T t
t
=
From this equation, the unknown diameter of the solid shaft can be expressed as
3
16T
d
tt
=
Equilibrium:
For this shaft, the internal torque magnitude in each segment equals the external torque; therefore, T
1
=
T
2
= T
C
= 23,000 Nm.
Minimum shaft diameters:
(a) Brass shaft (1)
1
3 3
1 2
allow,1
16 16(23, 000 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
(60 N/mm )
125.0 mm
T
d
tt t
> = = Ans.
(b) Aluminum shaft (2)
2
3 3
2 2
allow,2
16 16(23, 000 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
(90 N/mm )
109.2 mm
T
d
tt t
> = = Ans.
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6.8 A solid 0.75in.diameter shaft is subjected to
the torques shown in Fig. P6.8. The bearings shown
allow the shaft to turn freely.
(a) Plot a torque diagram showing the internal
torque in segments (1), (2), and (3) of the shaft. Use
the sign convention presented in Section 66.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stress magnitude
in the shaft.
Fig. P6.8
Solution
Equilibrium:
1 1
10 lbft 0 10 lbft
x
M T T E = + = = ÷
2 2
10 lbft 50 lbft 0 40 lbft
x
M T T E = + ÷ = =
3 3
30 lbft 0 30 lbft
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷
Section properties:
4 4
1 2 3
(0.75 in.) 0.031063 in.
32
J J J
t
= = = =
Shear stress magnitudes:
1 1
1 4
1
(10 lbft)(0.75 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
1, 448.7 psi
0.031063 in.
Tc
J
t = = =
2 2
2 4
2
(40 lbft)(0.75 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
5, 794.7 psi
0.031063 in.
T c
J
t = = =
3 3
3 4
3
(30 lbft)(0.75 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
4,346.0 psi
0.031063 in.
T c
J
t = = =
The maximum shear stress in the shaft occurs in segment (2):
max
5,790 psi t = Ans.
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6.9 A solid constantdiameter shaft is subjected to
the torques shown in Fig. P6.9. The bearings shown
allow the shaft to turn freely.
(a) Plot a torque diagram showing the internal
torque in segments (1), (2), and (3) of the shaft. Use
the sign convention presented in Section 66.
(b) If the allowable shear stress in the shaft is 80
MPa, determine the minimum acceptable diameter
for the shaft.
Fig. P6.9
Solution
3 3
160 Nm 0 160 Nm
x
M T T E = ÷ = =
2 2
160 Nm 380 Nm 0 220 Nm
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷
1 1
160 Nm 380 Nm 330 Nm 0 110 Nm
x
M T T E = ÷ + ÷ = =
The maximum torque magnitude in the shaft occurs in segment (2): T
max
= 220 Nm.
(b) The elastic torsion formula gives the relationship between shear stress and torque in a shaft.
Tc
J
t =
In this instance, the torque and the allowable shear stress are known for the shaft. Rearrange the elastic
torsion formula, putting the known terms on the righthand side of the equation:
J T
c t
=
Express the lefthand side of this equation in terms of the shaft diameter D:
4
3 32
/ 2 16
d
T
d
d
t
t
t
= =
and solve for the minimum acceptable diameter:
3 3
2
16 16(220 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
14, 005.635 mm
(80
24.1 mm
N/mm )
T
d
d
t t t
= = =
= Ans.
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6.10 A solid circular steel shaft having an outside diameter of 1.25 in. is subjected to a pure torque of T
= 2,200 lbin. The shear modulus of the steel is G = 12,000 ksi. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in the shaft.
(b) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 6ft length of shaft.
Solution
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is
4 4
(1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
32
J
t
= =
(a) The maximum shear stress in the steel shaft is found from the elastic torsion formula:
max 4
(2, 200 lbin.)(1.25 in. / 2)
5, 5.74 ks 736.7 psi
0.239684 in.
i
Tc
J
t = = = = Ans.
(b) The magnitude of the angle of twist in a 6ft length of shaft is
4
(2, 200 lbin.)(6 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.055072 rad
(0.239684 in. )(12,000,000
0.0551 rad 3.16
psi)
TL
JG
o = = = = = ° Ans.
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6.11 A solid circular steel shaft having an outside diameter of 35 mm is subjected to a pure torque of T =
640 Nm. The shear modulus of the steel is G = 80 GPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in the shaft.
(b) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 1.5m length of shaft.
Solution
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is
4 4
(35 mm) 147,323.515 mm
32
J
t
= =
(a) The maximum shear stress in the steel shaft is found from the elastic torsion formula:
max 4
(640 Nm)(35 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
76.023 MPa
147,323.515 m
76.0
m
MPa
Tc
J
t = = = = Ans.
(b) The magnitude of the angle of twist in a 1.5m length of shaft is
2
4 2
(640 Nm)(1.5 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.081453 rad
(147,323.515 m
0.0815 r
m )(80,
ad
000 N/mm
.67
)
4
TL
JG
o = = = = = ° Ans.
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6.12 A hollow steel shaft with an outside diameter of 85 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm is subjected
to a pure torque of T = 7,000 Nm. The shear modulus of the steel is G = 80 GPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in the shaft.
(b) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 2.5m length of shaft.
Solution
The polar moment of inertia for the shaft is
4 4 4 4 4
(85 mm) (65 mm) 3,372,303 mm
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
(a) The maximum shear stress in the steel shaft is found from the elastic torsion formula:
max 4
(7, 000 Nm)(85 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
88.219 MPa
3,372,303 m
88.2
m
MPa
Tc
J
t = = = = Ans.
(b) The magnitude of the angle of twist in a 2.5m length of shaft is
2
4 2
(7, 000 Nm)(2.5 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.064867 rad
(3,372,303 m
0.0649 r
m )(80,
ad
000 N/mm
.72
)
3
TL
JG
o = = = = = ° Ans.
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6.13 A solid stainless steel [G = 12,500 ksi] shaft that is 72in. long will be subjected to a pure torque of
T = 900 lbin. Determine the minimum diameter required if the shear stress must not exceed 8,000 psi
and the angle of twist must not exceed 5°. Report both the maximum shear stress t and the angle of twist
o at this minimum diameter.
Solution
Consider shear stress:
The polar moment of inertia for a solid shaft can be expressed as
4
32
J d
t
=
The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged to gather terms with d:
4 3
32 ( / 2) 16
d d T
d
t t
t
= =
From this equation, the unknown diameter of the solid shaft can be expressed as
3
16T
d
tt
=
For the solid stainless steel shaft, the minimum diameter that will satisfy the allowable shear stress is:
3
16(900 lbin.)
0.831 in.
(8, 000 psi)
d
t
> =
Consider angle of twist:
Rearrange the angle of twist equation:
4
32
TL TL
J d
JG G
t
o
o
= = >
and solve for the minimum diameter that will satisfy the angle of twist limitation:
4 4
32 32(900 lbin.)(72 in.)
0.882 in.
(5 )( rad/180 )(12,500,000 psi)
TL
d
G to t t
> = =
° °
Therefore, the minimum diameter that could be used for the shaft is
min
0.882 in. d = Ans.
The angle of twist for this shaft is o = 5° = 0.087266 rad. To compute the shear stress in a 0.882in.
diameter shaft, first compute the polar moment of inertia:
4 4
(0.882 in.) 0.059404 in.
32
J
t
= =
The shear stress in the shaft is thus:
max 4
(900 lbin.)(0.882 in. / 2)
6, 681.12 psi
0.059
6, 680 p
40
si
4 in.
t = = = Ans.
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6.14 A solid stainless steel [G = 86 GPa] shaft that is 2.0 m long will be subjected to a pure torque of T =
75 Nm. Determine the minimum diameter required if the shear stress must not exceed 50 MPa and the
angle of twist must not exceed 4°. Report both the maximum shear stress t and the angle of twist o at
this minimum diameter.
Solution
Consider shear stress:
The polar moment of inertia for a solid shaft can be expressed as
4
32
J d
t
=
The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged to gather terms with d:
4 3
32 ( / 2) 16
d d T
d
t t
t
= =
From this equation, the unknown diameter of the solid shaft can be expressed as
3
16T
d
tt
=
For the solid stainless steel shaft, the minimum diameter that will satisfy the allowable shear stress is:
3
2
16(75 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
19.70 mm
(50 N/mm )
d
t
> =
Consider angle of twist:
Rearrange the angle of twist equation:
4
32
TL TL
J d
JG G
t
o
o
= = >
and solve for the minimum diameter that will satisfy the angle of twist limitation:
4 4
2
32 32(75 Nm)(2,000 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
22.46 mm
(0.069813 rad)(86,000 N/mm )
TL
d
G to t
> = =
Therefore, the minimum diameter that could be used for the shaft is
min
22.5 mm d = Ans.
The angle of twist for this shaft is o = 0.069813 rad. To compute the shear stress in a 22.46mm
diameter shaft, first compute the polar moment of inertia:
4 4
(22.46 mm) 24,983.625 mm
32
J
t
= =
The shear stress in the shaft is thus:
max 4
(75 Nm)(22.46 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
24,983.62
33
5
.
m
7 MP
m
a t = = Ans.
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6.15 A hollow steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shaft with an outside diameter of 3.50 in. will be subjected to a
pure torque of T = 3,750 lbft. Determine the maximum inside diameter d that can be used if the shear
stress must not exceed 8,000 psi and the angle of twist must not exceed 3° in an 8ft length of shaft.
Report both the maximum shear stress t and the angle of twist o for this maximum inside diameter.
Solution
Consider shear stress: The polar moment of inertia for a hollow shaft can be expressed as
4 4
32
J D d
t
= ÷
The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged to gather terms with D:
4 4
32 / 2
D d
T
D
t
t
÷
=
Rearrange this equation to isolate the inside diameter d term:
4 4 4 4
32 32
2 2
T D T D
D d d D
tt tt
÷ > s ÷
From this equation, the unknown inside diameter of the hollow shaft can be expressed as
4
4
32
2
T D
d D
tt
s ÷
For the hollow steel shaft, the maximum diameter that will satisfy the allowable shear stress is:
4
4
32(3, 750 lbft)(3.50 in.)(12 in./ft)
(3.50 in.) 2.6564 in.
2 (8, 000 psi)
d
t
s ÷ =
Consider angle of twist: Rearrange the angle of twist equation:
4 4
32
TL TL
J D d
JG G
t
o
o
= = ÷ >
Rearrange this equation to isolate the inside diameter d term:
4 4
32TL
d D
G to
s ÷
and solve for the maximum inside diameter that will satisfy the angle of twist limitation:
2
4 4
4 4
32 32(3, 750 lbft)(8 ft)(12 in./ft)
(3.50 in.) 2.991 in.
(3 )( /180 )(12,000,000 psi)
TL
d D
G to t t
s ÷ = ÷ =
° °
Therefore, the maximum inside diameter that could be used for the shaft is
max
2.66 in. d = Ans.
The shear stress for this shaft is t = 8,000 psi. To compute the angle of twist in an 8ft length of the
hollow shaft, first compute the polar moment of inertia:
4 4 4 4 4
(3.50 in.) (2.66 in.) 9.817318 in.
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
The angle of twist in the shaft is thus:
2
4
(3, 750 lbft)(8 ft)(12 in./ft)
(9.817318 in. )(12, 000, 00
0.0
0 psi
367 rad 2.
)
10
TL
JG
o = = = = ° Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.16 A compound steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft
(Fig. P6.16) consists of a solid 55mm
diameter segment (1) and a solid 40mm
diameter segment (2). The allowable shear
stress of the steel is 70 MPa, and the
maximum rotation angle at the free end of
the compound shaft must be limited to o
C
≤
3°. Determine the magnitude of the largest
torque T
C
that may be applied at C.
Fig. P6.16
Solution
Section properties:
4 4
1
(55 mm) 898,360.5 mm
32
J
t
= =
4 4
2
(40 mm) 251,327.4 mm
32
J
t
= =
Consider shear stress: The larger shear stress will occur in the smaller diameter segment; that is,
segment (2).
2 4
max
(70 N/mm )(251,327.4 mm )
879, 646 Nmm
40 mm/2
J
T
c
t
s = =
Consider angle of twist: The rotation angle at C is the sum of the angles of twist in segments (1) and
(2):
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
C
T L T L
J G J G
o o o = + = +
Since T
1
= T
2
= T
C
and G
1
= G
2
, this equation can be simplified to
max 1 2
1 2
3
T L L
G J J
+ s °
and solved for the maximum torque:
2
max
4 4
(3 )( / 180 )(80, 000 N/mm )
739,395 Nmm
800 mm 1, 200 mm
898,360.5 mm 251,327.4 mm
T
t ° °
s =
+
Therefore, the magnitude of the largest torque T
C
that may be applied at C is
,max
739,395 Nmm 739 Nm
C
T = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.17 A compound shaft (Fig. P6.17) consists of brass segment (1) and
aluminum segment (2). Segment (1) is a solid brass [G = 5,600 ksi]
shaft with an outside diameter of 1.75 in. and an allowable shear stress
of 9,000 psi. Segment (2) is a solid aluminum [G = 4,000 ksi] shaft
with an outside diameter of 1.25 in. and an allowable shear stress of
12,000 psi. The maximum rotation angle at the upper end of the
compound shaft must be limited to o
C
≤ 4°. Determine the magnitude
of the largest torque T
C
that may be applied at C.
Fig. P6.17
Solution
From equilibrium, the internal torques in segments (1) and (2) are equal to the external torque T
C
. The
elastic torsion formula gives the relationship between shear stress and torque in a shaft.
Tc
J
t =
Consider shear stress: In this compound shaft, the diameters and allowable shear stresses in segments
(1) and (2) are known. The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged to solve for the unknown torque.
An expression can be written for each shaft segment:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 2
J J
T T
c c
t t
= =
For shaft segment (1), the polar moment of inertia is:
4 4
1
(1.75 in.) 0.920772 in.
32
J
t
= =
Use this value along with the 9,000 psi allowable shear stress to determine the allowable torque T
1
:
4
1 1
1
1
(9, 000 psi)(0.920772 in. )
9, 470.8 lbin.
(1.75 in./2)
J
T
c
t
s = = (a)
For shaft segment (2), the polar moment of inertia is:
4 4
2
(1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
32
J
t
= =
Use this value along with the 12,000 psi allowable shear stress to determine the allowable torque T
2
:
4
2 2
2
2
(12, 000 psi)(0.239684 in. )
4, 601.9 lbin.
(1.25 in./2)
J
T
c
t
s = = (b)
Consider angle of twist: The angles of twists in segments (1) and (2) can be expressed as:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = =
The rotation angle at C is the sum of these two angles of twist:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
C
T L T L
J G J G
o o o = + = +
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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and since T
1
= T
2
= T
C
:
1 2
1 1 2 2
C C
L L
T
J G J G
o
= +
Solving for T
C
gives:
1 2
1 1 2 2
4 4
rad
(4 )
180
3,308.4 lbin.
12 in. 18 in.
(0.920772 in. )(5,600,000 psi) (0.239684 in. )(4,000,000 psi)
C
C
T
L L
J G J G
o
t
s
+
 
°

\ .
°
s =
+
(c)
Compare the torque magnitudes in Eqs. (a), (b), and (c). The smallest torque controls; therefore, the
maximum torque that can be applied to the compound shaft at C is T
C
= 3,308.4 lbin. = 276 lbft. Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.18 A compound steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft
consists of solid 30mmdiameter segments
(1) and (3) and tube segment (2), which has
an outside diameter of 60 mm and an inside
diameter of 50 mm (Fig. P6.18). Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in tube
segment (2).
(b) the angle of twist in tube segment (2).
(c) the rotation angle of gear D relative to
gear A.
Fig. P6.18
Solution
The torques in all shaft segments are equal; therefore, T
1
= T
2
= T
3
= 240 Nm.
Polar moments of inertia in the shaft segments will be needed for this calculation. For segments (1) and
(3), which are solid 30mmdiameter shafts, the polar moment of inertia is:
4 4
1 3
(30 mm) 79,521.56 mm
32
J J
t
= = =
For segment (2), which has a tube cross section, the polar moment of inertia is:
4 4 4
2
(60 mm) (50 mm) 658, 752.71 mm
32
J
t
= ÷ =
Shear stress in tube segment (2): Use the elastic torsion formula to calculate the shear stress caused by
an internal torque of T
2
= 240 Nm. Note that the radius term used in the elastic torsion formula for the
tube is the outside radius; that is, c
2
= 60 mm/2 = 30 mm.
2 2
2 4
2
(240 Nm)(30 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
658, 752.71 m
10.93 MPa
m
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
Angle of twist in tube segment (2): Apply the angle of twist equation to segment (2).
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
(240 Nm)(2,000 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.009108 rad
(658, 752.71 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
0.00911 rad
T L
J G
o = = == = Ans.
Rotation angle of gear D relative to gear A: The angles of twist in segments (1) and (3) must be
calculated. Since both segments have the same shear modulus, polar moment of inertia, and length, they
will both have the same angle of twist:
1 1
1 3 4 2
1 1
(240 Nm)(300 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.011318 rad
(79,521.56 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o o = = = =
Since gear A is the origin of the coordinate system for this problem, we will arbitrarily define the
rotation angle at gear A to be zero; that is, o
A
= 0. The rotation angle of gear D relative to gear A is
found by adding the angles of twist for the three segments to o
A
:
1 2 3
0 0.011318 rad 0.009108 rad 0.011318 rad
0.031743 0.03 rad 17 rad
D A
o o o o o = + + +
= + + +
= = Ans.
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6.19 A compound steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft
consists of solid 40mmdiameter segments
(1) and (3) and tube segment (2), which has
an outside diameter of 75 mm (Fig. P6.19).
If the rotation of gear D relative to gear A
must not exceed 0.01 rad, determine the
maximum inside diameter that may be used
for tube segment (2).
Fig. P6.19
Solution
The polar moment of inertia for shaft segments (1) and (3) is:
4 4
1 3
(40 mm) 251,327 mm
32
J J
t
= = =
The rotation of gear D relative to gear A is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in segments (1), (2),
and (3):
1 2 3 D
o o o o = + +
The angles of twist in segments (1) and (3) is
1 3 4 2
(240 Nm)(300 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.003581 rad
(251,327 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
o o = = =
Therefore, the angle of twist that can allowed for segment (2) is
1 2 3 2
0.01 rad 0.01 rad 2(0.003581 rad) 0.002838 rad
D
o o o o o = + + = s ÷ =
The minimum polar moment of inertia required for segment (2) is thus:
2
4 2 2
2 2
2 2
(240 Nm)(2 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.002838 rad 2,114,165 mm
(80,000 N/mm )(0.002838 rad)
T L
J
J G
s > =
Since the outside diameter of segment (2) is D
2
= 75 mm, the maximum inside diameter d
2
is:
4 4 4 4 4
2 2 2
2
(75 mm
56.4 m
) 2,114,165 mm
m
32 32
D d d
d
t t
÷ = ÷ >
s Ans.
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6.20 The compound shaft shown in Fig. P6.20 consists of aluminum segment (1) and steel segment (2).
Aluminum segment (1) is a tube with an outside diameter of D
1
= 4.00 in., a wall thickness of t
1
= 0.25
in., and a shear modulus of G
1
= 4,000 ksi. Steel segment (2) is a tube with an outside diameter of D
2
=
2.50 in., a wall thickness of t
2
= 0.125 in., and a shear modulus of G
2
= 12,000 ksi. The compound shaft
is subjected to torques applied at B and C, as shown in Fig. P6.20.
(a) Prepare a diagram that shows the internal
torque and the maximum shear stress in
segments (1), and (2) of the shaft. Use the sign
convention presented in Section 66.
(b) Determine the rotation angle of B with
respect to the support at A.
(c) Determine the rotation angle of C with
respect to the support at A.
Fig. P6.20
Solution
Section properties: Polar moments of inertia in the shaft segments will be needed for this calculation.
4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1
(4.00 in.) (3.50 in.) 10.4004 in.
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
4 4 4 4 4
2 2 2
(2.50 in.) (2.25 in.) 1.3188 in.
32 32
J D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
(a) Equilibrium
1
1
950 lbft 2,100 lbft 0
1,150 lbft
x
M T
T
E = ÷ + ÷ =
=
2
2
950 lbft 0
950 lbft
x
M T
T
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
Shear stress:
1 1
1 4
1
(1,150 lbft)(4.00 in./2)(12 in./ft)
2, 653.75 psi
10.4004 in.
2, 650 psi
Tc
J
t = = = = Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
( 950 lbft)(2.50 in./2)(12 in./ft)
10,804.95 psi
1.3188 in.
10,800 psi
T c
J
t ÷
÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.
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(b) Rotation angle of B with respect to A:
1
0
B A B B
o o o o o = ÷ = ÷ =
Therefore,
2
1 1
1 4
1 1
(1,150 lbft)(9 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.035826 rad
(10.4004
0.0358 rad
in. )(4,000,000 psi)
B
TL
J G
o o = = = = = Ans.
(c) Rotation angle of C with respect to A:
2 2 C B C B
o o o o o o = ÷ = +
The angle of twist in shaft (2) is
2
2 2
2 4
2 2
( 950 lbft)(6 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.051864 rad
(1.3188 in. )(12,000,000 psi)
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
and thus, the rotation angle at C is
2
0.035826 rad ( 0.051864 rad) 0.016038 rad 0.01604 rad
C B
o o o = + = + ÷ = ÷ = ÷ Ans.
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6.21 A solid 1.00in.diameter steel [G =
12,000 ksi] shaft is subjected to the torques
shown in Fig. P6.21.
(a) Prepare a diagram that shows the internal
torque and the maximum shear stress in
segments (1), (2), and (3) of the shaft. Use
the sign convention presented in Section 66.
(b) Determine the rotation angle of pulley C
with respect to the support at A.
(c) Determine the rotation angle of pulley D
with respect to the support at A.
Fig. P6.21
Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia for the solid 1.00in.diameter steel shaft segments
will be needed for this calculation.
4 4 4
1 1 2 3
(1.00 in.) 0.098175 in.
32 32
J d J J
t t
= = = = =
(a) Equilibrium
1
1
240 lbft 280 lbft 130 lbft 0
90 lbft
x
M T
T
E = ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
2
2
280 lbft 130 lbft 0
150 lbft
x
M T
T
E = ÷ ÷ =
=
3
3
130 lbft 0
130 lbft
x
M T
T
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
Shear stress:
1 1
1 4
1
( 90 lbft)(1.00 in./2)(12 in./ft)
5,500.4 psi 5,500 psi
0.098175 in.
Tc
J
t
÷
= = = ÷ = ÷
2 2
2 4
2
(150 lbft)(1.00 in./2)(12 in./ft)
9,167.3 psi 9,170 psi
0.098175 in.
T c
J
t = = = =
3 3
3 4
3
( 130 lbft)(1.00 in./2)(12 in./ft)
7, 945.0 psi 7, 950 psi
0.098175 in.
T c
J
t
÷
= = = ÷ = ÷
The maximum shear stress in the entire shaft is t
max
= 9,170 psi. Ans.
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(b) Rotation angle of C with respect to A:
The angles of twist in the three shaft segments are:
1 1
1 4
1 1
( 90 lbft)(36 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.033002 rad
(0.098175 in. )(12, 000, 000 psi)
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
2 2
2 4
2 2
(150 lbft)(36 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.055004 rad
(0.098175 in. )(12, 000, 000 psi)
T L
J G
o = = =
3 3
3 4
3 3
( 130 lbft)(36 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.047670 rad
(0.098175 in. )(12, 000, 000 psi)
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
The rotation angle of C with respect to A is found from the sum of the angles of twist in segments (1)
and (2):
1 2
0.033002 rad 0.055004 rad 0.022002 rad 0.0220 rad
C
o o o = + = ÷ + = = Ans.
(c) Rotation angle of D with respect to A:
The rotation angle of D with respect to A is found from the sum of the angles of twist in segments (1),
(2), and (3):
1 2 3
0.033002 rad 0.055004 rad ( 0.047670 rad)
0.025 0.0257 ra 669 rad d
D
o o o o = + +
= ÷ + + ÷
÷ = ÷ = Ans.
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6.22 A compound shaft supports several
pulleys as shown in Fig. P6.22. Segments
(1) and (4) are solid 25mmdiameter steel
[G = 80 GPa] shafts. Segments (2) and (3)
are solid 50mmdiameter steel shafts. The
bearings shown allow the shaft to turn
freely.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress in
the compound shaft.
(b) Determine the rotation angle of pulley D
with respect to pulley B.
(c) Determine the rotation angle of pulley E
with respect to pulley A.
Fig. P6.22
Solution
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shaft segments will be needed for this
calculation.
4 4 4
1 1 4
(25 mm) 38,349.52 mm
32 32
J d J
t t
= = = =
4 4 4
2 2 3
(50 mm) 613,592.32 mm
32 32
J d J
t t
= = = =
(a) Equilibrium
1
1
175 Nm 0
175 Nm
x
M T
T
E = + =
= ÷
2
2
2,100 Nm 175 Nm 0
1,925 Nm
x
M T
T
E = ÷ + =
=
3
3
650 Nm 225 Nm 0
425 Nm
x
M T
T
E = ÷ ÷ =
=
4
4
225 Nm 0
225 Nm
x
M T
T
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
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Shear stress:
1 1
1 4
1
( 175 Nm)(25 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
57.041 MPa 57.0 MPa
38,349.52 mm
Tc
J
t
÷
= = = ÷ = ÷
2 2
2 4
2
(1,925 Nm)(50 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
78.432 MPa 78.4 MPa
613,592.32 mm
T c
J
t = = = =
3 3
3 4
3
(425 Nm)(50 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
17.316 MPa 17.32 MPa
613,592.32 mm
T c
J
t = = = =
4 4
4 4
4
( 225 Nm)(25 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
73.339 MPa 73.3 MPa
38,349.52 mm
T c
J
t
÷
= = = ÷ = ÷
The maximum shear stress in the entire shaft is t
max
= 78.4 MPa. Ans.
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(b) Angles of twist:
The angles of twist in the four shaft segments are:
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
( 175 Nm)(750 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.042781 rad
(38,349.52 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
(1,925 Nm)(500 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.019608 rad
(613,592.32 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o = = =
3 3
3 4 2
3 3
(425 Nm)(625 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.005411 rad
(613,592.32 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o = = =
4 4
4 4 2
4 4
( 225 Nm)(550 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.040336 rad
(38,349.52 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
Rotation angle of pulley D with respect to pulley B: The rotation angle of D with respect to B is
found from the sum of the angles of twist in segments (2) and (3):
/ 2 3
0.019608 rad 0.005411 rad 0.025019 rad 0.0250 rad
D B
o o o = + = + = = Ans.
(c) Rotation angle of pulley E with respect to pulley A: The rotation angle of E with respect to A is
found from the sum of the angles of twist in all four segments:
1 2 3 4
0.042781 rad 0.019608 rad 0.005411 rad ( 0.040336 rad)
0.05809 0.0 8 581 ra r d d a
E
o o o o o = + + +
= ÷ + + + ÷
= ÷ ÷ = Ans.
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6.23 A solid steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft of variable
diameter is subjected to the torques shown in Fig.
P6.23. The diameter of the shaft in segments (1) and
(3) is 50 mm, and the diameter of the shaft in
segment (2) is 80 mm. The bearings shown allow
the shaft to turn freely.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress in the
compound shaft.
(b) Determine the rotation angle of pulley D with
respect to pulley A.
Fig. P6.23
Solution
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shaft segments will be needed for this
calculation.
4 4
1 3
(50 mm) 613,592.32 mm
32
J J
t
= = =
4 4
2
(80 mm) 4, 021, 238.60 mm
32
J
t
= =
(a) Equilibrium
1
1
1, 200 Nm 0
1, 200 Nm
x
M T
T
E = ÷ + =
=
2
2
1, 200 Nm 4, 500 Nm 0
3, 300 Nm
x
M T
T
E = ÷ + + =
= ÷
3
3
500 Nm 0
500 Nm
x
M T
T
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
Shear stress:
1 1
1 4
1
(1, 200 Nm)(50 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
48.892 MPa 48.9 MPa
613,592.32 mm
Tc
J
t = = = =
2 2
2 4
2
( 3,300 Nm)(80 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
32.826 MPa 32.8 MPa
4,021,238.60 mm
T c
J
t
÷
= = = ÷ = ÷
3 3
3 4
3
( 500 Nm)(50 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
20.372 MPa 20.4 MPa
613,592.32 mm
T c
J
t
÷
= = = ÷ = ÷
The maximum shear stress in the compound shaft is
max 1
48.9 MPa t t = = Ans.
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Angles of twist:
The angles of twist in the three shaft segments are:
2
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(1, 200 Nm)(0.7 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.017112 rad
(613,592.32 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o = = =
2
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
( 3,300 Nm)(1.8 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.018464 rad
(4,021,238.60 mm )(80,000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
2
3 3
3 4 2
3 3
( 500 Nm)(0.7 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.007130 rad
(613,592.32 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
(b) Rotation angles:
1
2
3
0 rad
0 rad 0.017112 rad 0.017112 rad
0.017112 rad ( 0.018464 rad) 0.001352 rad
0.001352 rad ( 0.007130 rad 0.008482 ra ) d
A
B A
C B
D C
o
o o o
o o o
o o o
=
= + = + =
= + = + ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ = + = ÷ + = Ans.
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6.24 A compound shaft drives three gears,
as shown in Fig. P6.24. Segments (1) and
(2) of the compound shaft are hollow
aluminum [G = 4,000 ksi] tubes, which
have an outside diameter of 3.00 in. and a
wall thickness of 0.25 in. Segments (3) and
(4) are solid 2.00in.diameter steel [G =
12,000 ksi] shafts. The bearings shown
allow the shaft to turn freely.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress in
the compound shaft.
(b) Determine the rotation angle of flange
C with respect to flange A.
(c) Determine the rotation angle of gear E
with respect to flange A.
Fig. P6.24
Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia for the solid 1.00in.diameter steel shaft segments
will be needed for this calculation.
4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1 2
(3.00 in.) (2.50 in.) 4.117204 in.
32 32
J D d J
t t
= ÷ = ÷ = =
4 4 4
3 3 4
(2.00 in.) 1.570796 in.
32 32
J d J
t t
= = = =
(a) Equilibrium
1
1
14 kipin. 42 kipin.
35 kipin. 0
7 kipin.
x
M
T
T
E = ÷
+ ÷ =
=
2
2
14 kipin. 42 kipin. 0
28 kipin.
x
M T
T
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
3
3
14 kipin. 42 kipin. 0
28 kipin.
x
M T
T
E = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷
4
4
14 kipin. 0
14 kipin.
x
M T
T
E = ÷ =
=
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Shear stress:
1 1
1 4
1
( 7 kipin.)(3.00 in./2)
2.55 ksi
4.117204 in.
Tc
J
t
÷
= = =
2 2
2 4
2
( 28 kipin.)(3.00 in./2)
10.20 ksi
4.117204 in.
T c
J
t
÷
= = = ÷
3 3
3 4
3
( 28 kipin.)(2.00 in./2)
17.83 ksi
1.570796 in.
T c
J
t
÷
= = = ÷
4 4
4 4
4
(14 kipin.)(2.00 in./2)
8.91 ksi
1.570796 in.
T c
J
t = = =
The maximum shear stress in the compound shaft is
max 3
17.83 ksi t t ÷ = = Ans.
(b) Angles of Twist: The angles of twist in the four shaft segments are:
1 1
1 4
1 1
(7 kipin.)(60 in.)
0.025503 rad
(4.117204 in. )(4, 000 ksi)
T L
J G
o = = =
2 2
2 4
2 2
( 28 kipin.)(6 in.)
0.010201 rad
(4.117204 in. )(4, 000 ksi)
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
3 3
3 4
3 3
( 28 kipin.)(18 in.)
0.026738 rad
(1.570796 in. )(12, 000 ksi)
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
4 4
4 4
4 4
(14 kipin.)(12 in.)
0.008913 rad
(1.570796 in. )(12, 000 ksi)
T L
J G
o = = =
1
2
3
4
0 rad
0 rad 0.025503 rad 0.0255 rad
0.025503 rad ( 0.010201 rad) 0.01530 rad
0.015302 rad ( 0.026738 rad) 0.01144 rad
0.011436 rad 0.008913 rad 0.00252 rad
A
B A
C B
D C
E D
o
o o o
o o o
o o o
o o o
=
= + = + =
= + = + ÷ =
= + = + ÷ = ÷
= + = ÷ + = ÷
The rotation angle of flange C with respect to A is
0.01530 rad
C
o = Ans.
(c) Rotation angle of E with respect to A:
0.00252 rad
E
o = ÷ Ans.
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6.25 A compound shaft drives several
pulleys, as shown in Fig. P6.25. Segments (1)
and (2) of the compound shaft are hollow
aluminum [G = 4,000 ksi] tubes, which have
an outside diameter of 3.00 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.125 in. Segments (3) and (4)
are solid 1.50in.diameter steel [G = 12,000
ksi] shafts. The bearings shown allow the
shaft to turn freely.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress in
the compound shaft.
(b) Determine the rotation angle of flange C
with respect to pulley A.
(c) Determine the rotation angle of pulley E
with respect to pulley A.
Fig. P6.25
Solution
(a) Equilibrium
4 4
95 lbft 0 95 lbft
x
M T T E = ÷ = =
3 3
95 lbft 270 lbft 0 175 lbft
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷
Note: The internal torque in shaft segment (2) is the same as
in segment (3); therefore, T
2
= –175 lbft.
1 1
650 lbft 0 650 lbft
x
M T T E = ÷ = =
Polar moments of inertia in the shaft segments will be needed for this calculation. Segments (1) and (2)
are hollow tubes with an outside diameter of 3.00 in. and an inside diameter of 3.00 in. – 2(0.125 in.) =
2.75 in. The polar moment of inertia of segments (1) and (2) is:
4 4 4 4 4
1 1 1 2
(3.00 in.) (2.75 in.) 2.33740 in.
32 32
J D d J
t t
= ÷ = ÷ = =
Segments (3) and (4) are solid 1.50in.diameter shafts, which have a polar moment of inertia of:
4 4 4
3 3 4
(1.50 in.) 0.49701 in.
32 32
J d J
t t
= = = =
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Shear stresses: The shear stresses in each segment can be calculated by the elastic torsion formula:
1 1
1 4
1
(650 lbft)(1.50 in.)(12 in./ft)
5, 005.56 psi 5, 010 psi
2.33740 in.
Tc
J
t = = = =
2 2
2 4
2
( 175 lbft)(1.50 in.)(12 in./ft)
1,347.6 psi 1,348 psi
2.33740 in.
T c
J
t
÷
= = = ÷ = ÷
3 3
3 4
3
( 175 lbft)(0.75 in.)(12 in./ft)
3,169.0 psi 3,170 psi
0.49701 in.
T c
J
t
÷
= = = ÷ = ÷
4 4
4 4
4
(95 lbft)(0.75 in.)(12 in./ft)
1, 720.3 psi 1, 720 psi
0.49701 in.
T c
J
t = = = =
The maximum shear stress in the compound shaft is
max 1
5,010 psi t t = = Ans.
Angles of twist:
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(650 lbft)(72 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.060067 rad
(2.33740 in. )(4, 000, 000 lb/in. )
T L
J G
o = = =
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
( 175 lbft)(36 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.008086 rad
(2.33740 in. )(4, 000, 000 lb/in. )
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
3 3
3 4 2
3 3
( 175 lbft)(54 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.019014 rad
(0.49701 in. )(12, 000, 000 lb/in. )
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
4 4
4 4 2
4 4
(95 lbft)(54 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.010322 rad
(0.49701 in. )(12, 000, 000 lb/in. )
T L
J G
o = = =
Rotation angles: The angles of twist can be defined in terms of the rotation angles at the ends of each
segment:
1 2 3 4 B A C B D C E D
o o o o o o o o o o o o = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
The origin of the coordinate system is located at pulley A. We will arbitrarily define the rotation angle
at pulley A to be zero (o
A
= 0). The rotation angle at B can be calculated from the angle of twist in
segment (1):
1
1
0 0.060067 rad 0.0601 rad
B A
B A
o o o
o o o
= ÷
= + = + =
Similarly, the rotation angle at C is determined from the angle of twist in segment (2) and the rotation
angle of pulley B:
2
2
0.060067 rad ( 0.008086 rad) 0.051981 rad 0.0520 rad
C B
C B
o o o
o o o
= ÷
= + = + ÷ = =
The rotation angle at D is:
3
3
0.051981 rad ( 0.019014 rad) 0.032967 rad 0.0330 rad
D C
D C
o o o
o o o
= ÷
= + = + ÷ = =
and the rotation angle at E is:
4
4
0.032967 rad 0.010322 rad 0.043289 rad 0.0433 rad
E D
E D
o o o
o o o
= ÷
= + = + = =
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(b) Rotation angle of flange C with respect to pulley A: Using the rotation angles determined for the
system, the rotation angle of flange C with respect to pulley A is simply:
0.051981 ra 0.0520 rad d
C
o = = Ans.
(c) Rotation angle of pulley E with respect to pulley A: Using the rotation angles determined for the
system, the rotation angle of flange C with respect to pulley A is simply:
0.043289 ra 0.0433 rad d
E
o = = Ans.
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6.26 A torque of T
A
= 460 lbft is applied to gear
A of the gear train shown in Fig. P6.26. The
bearings shown allow the shafts to rotate freely.
(a) Determine the torque T
D
required for
equilibrium of the system.
(b) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid 1.5in.
diameter steel shafts. Determine the magnitude
of the maximum shear stresses acting in each
shaft.
(c) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid steel
shafts, which have an allowable shear stress of
6,000 psi. Determine the minimum diameter
required for each shaft.
Fig. P6.26
Solution
(a) Torque T
D
required for equilibrium:
7 in. 7 in.
(460 lbft)
4 in. 4 in.
805 lbft
D A
T T Ans.
(b) Shear stress magnitudes if shafts are solid 1.5in.diameter:
4 4 4
(1.5 in.) 0.497010 in.
32 32
J d
1 1
1 4
1
(460 lbft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)
8,32 8,330 p 9.82 psi
0.49
si
7010 in.
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(805 lbft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)
14,577.18 psi
0.497010 in
14,580 p
.
si
T c
J
Ans.
(c) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter d:
4
3 32
/ 2 16
d
Tc J T
d
J c d
Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
3 3 1
1
allow
1
16 16(460 lbft)(12 in./ft)
4.685522 in.
(6, 000 psi)
1.673347 in. 1.673 in.
T
d
d Ans.
3 3 2
2
allow
2
16 16(805 lbft)(12 in./ft)
8.199663 in.
(6, 000 psi)
2.016502 in 2.02 . in.
T
d
d Ans.
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6.27 A torque of T
D
= 450 Nm is applied to gear
D of the gear train shown in Fig. P6.27. The
bearings shown allow the shafts to rotate freely.
(a) Determine the torque T
A
required for
equilibrium of the system.
(b) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid 30mm
diameter steel shafts. Determine the magnitude
of the maximum shear stresses acting in each
shaft.
(c) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid steel
shafts, which have an allowable shear stress of
60 MPa. Determine the minimum diameter
required for each shaft.
Fig. P6.27
Solution
(a) Torque T
A
required for equilibrium:
90 mm 90 mm
(450 N 270 N m)
150 m
m
m 150 mm
A D
T T Ans.
(b) Shear stress magnitudes if shafts are solid 30mmdiameter:
4 4 4
(30 mm) 79,521.564 mm
32 32
J d
1 1
1 4
1
(270 Nm)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
50.930 MPa
79,521.564 m
50.9
m
MPa
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(450 Nm)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
84.883 MPa
79,521.564 m
84.9
m
MPa
T c
J
Ans.
(c) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter d:
4
3 32
/ 2 16
d
Tc J T
d
J c d
Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
3 3 1
1 2
allow
1
16 16(270 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
22,918.312 mm
(60 N/mm )
28.405 28. m 4 m mm
T
d
d Ans.
3 3 2
2 2
allow
2
16 16(450 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
38,197.186 mm
(60 N/mm )
33.678 33. m 7 m mm
T
d
d Ans.
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6.28 The gear train system shown in Fig. P6.28
includes shafts (1) and (2), which are solid 1.375
in.diameter steel shafts. The allowable shear
stress of each shaft is 8,000 psi. The bearings
shown allow the shafts to rotate freely.
Determine the maximum torque T
D
that can be
applied to the system without exceeding the
allowable shear stress in either shaft.
Fig. P6.28
Solution
Section properties:
4 4
1 2
(1.375 in.) 0.350922 in.
32
J J
Maximum torque in either shaft:
4
allow 1
max
1
(8,000 psi)(0.350922 in. )
4,083.457 lbin.
1.375 in./2
J
T
c
Torque relationship:
1 2
1 2 2 1
10 in.
or 1.667 controls
10 in. 6 in. 6 in.
T T
T T T T
The torque in shaft (1) controls; therefore, T
1
= 4,083.457 lbin. Consequently, the maximum torque in
shaft (2) must be limited to:
2 1
6 in.
0.6(4, 083.457 lbin.) 2, 450.074 lbin.
10 in.
204 lbft T T Ans.
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6.29 The gear train system shown in Fig. P6.29
includes shafts (1) and (2), which are solid 20mm
diameter steel shafts. The allowable shear stress of
each shaft is 50 MPa. The bearings shown allow the
shafts to rotate freely. Determine the maximum
torque T
D
that can be applied to the system without
exceeding the allowable shear stress in either shaft.
Fig. P6.29
Solution
Section properties:
4 4
1 2
(20 mm) 15, 707.963 mm
32
J J
Maximum torque in either shaft:
2 4
allow 1
max
1
(50 N/mm )(15,707.963 mm )
78,539.816 Nmm
20 mm/2
J
T
c
Torque relationship:
1 2
1 2 2 1
200 mm
or 2.50 controls
200 mm 80 mm 80 mm
T T
T T T T
The torque in shaft (1) controls; therefore, T
1
= 78,539.816 Nmm. Consequently, the maximum torque
in shaft (2) must be limited to:
2 1
80 mm
0.4(78,539.816 Nmm) 31, 415.927 Nmm
200 m
31.4 N
m
m T T Ans.
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6.30 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.30, the
motor applies a 210 lbft torque to the gear at A. A
torque of T
C
= 300 lbft is removed from the shaft
at gear C, and the remaining torque is removed at
gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid 1.5in.
diameter steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shafts, and the
bearings shown allow free rotation of the shaft.
Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in segments (1) and
(2) of the shaft.
(b) the rotation angle of gear D relative to gear B.
Fig. P6.30
Solution
Section properties:
4 4
1 2
(1.5 in.) 0.497010 in.
32
J J
Torque relationship:
10 in.
hence 2.50 2.50(210 lbft) 525 lbft
4 in. 10 in. 4 in.
A B
B A A
T T
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= 525 lbft. A torque of 300 lbft is removed from
the shaft at gear C; therefore, T
C
= 300 lbft. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:
1 2
2 1
0
525 lbft 300 lbft 225 lbft
x C
C
M T T T
T T T
To summarize:
1 2
525 lbft 225 lbft T T
(a) Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):
1 1
1 4
1
(525 lbft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)
9,506 9,510 .856 psi
0.497010 in.
psi
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(225 lbft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)
4, 074 4, 070 .367 psi
0.497010 in.
psi
T c
J
Ans.
(b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):
1 1
1 4
1 1
(525 lbft)(60 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.063379 rad
(0.497010 in. )(12, 000, 000 psi)
T L
J G
2 2
2 4
2 2
(225 lbft)(40 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.018108 rad
(0.497010 in. )(12, 000, 000 psi)
T L
J G
Note: There is not enough information given to say whether these twist angles are positive or negative.
However, both twist angles will have the same sign.
1 2
say 0 rad (since this is our reference)
0 rad 0.063379 rad 0.018108 rad 0.0814 0.08 87 rad 15 rad
B
D B
Ans.
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6.31 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.31, the motor applies a 360 lbft torque to the gear at A. A
torque of T
C
= 500 lbft is removed from the shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is removed at gear
D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shafts, and the bearings shown allow free
rotation of the shaft.
(a) Determine the minimum permissible
diameters for segments (1) and (2) of the
shaft if the maximum shear stress must not
exceed 6,000 psi.
(b) If the same diameter is to be used for
both segments (1) and (2), determine the
minimum permissible diameter that can be
used for the shaft if the maximum shear
stress must not exceed 6,000 psi and the
rotation angle of gear D relative to gear B
must not exceed 0.10 rad.
Fig. P6.31
Solution
Torque relationship: The motor applies a torque of 360 lbft to gear A. Since gear B is bigger than
gear A, the torque on gear B will be increased in proportion to the gear ratio:
10 in.
hence 2.50 2.50(360 lbft) 900 lbft
4 in. 10 in. 4 in.
A B
B A A
T T
T T T
Let the positive x axis for shaft BCD extend from gear B toward gear D. In order for shaft BCD to be in
equilibrium with the torques as shown on gears C and D, the torque at B must act in the negative x
direction. Consequently, T
B
= −900 lbft.
Draw a freebody diagram that cuts through shaft (1) and includes gear B. From this FBD, the torque in
shaft (1) is:
1 1
900 lbft 0 900 lbft
x
M T T
From the problem statement, we are told that a torque
of 500 lbft is removed from the shaft at gear C. In
other words, T
C
= 500 lbft. Draw a FBD that cuts
through shaft (2) and includes both gears B and C.
From this FBD, the torque in shaft (2) is:
2
2
900 lbft 500 lbft 0
400 lbft
x
M T
T
To summarize:
1 2
900 lbft 400 lbft T T
(a) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter d:
4
3 32
/ 2 16
d
Tc J T
d
J c d
Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
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3 3 1
1
allow
1
16 16(900 lbft)(12 in./ft)
9.167325 in.
(6, 000 psi)
2.092900 in 2.09 . in.
T
d
d Ans.
3 3 2
2
allow
2
16 16(400 lbft)(12 in./ft)
4.074367 in.
(6, 000 psi)
1.597178 in. 1.597 in.
T
d
d Ans.
(b) The rotation angle of gear D with respect to gear B is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in shaft
segments (1) and (2):
1 2
0.10 rad
D B
Since the same solid steel shaft is to be used for both segments (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1
0.01 rad
T L T L
T L T L
J G J G JG
or rearranging:
4 4
(900 lbft)(60 in.)(12 in./ft) (400 lbft)(40 in.)(12 in./ft)
1.883606 in.
32 (12, 000, 000 psi)(0.
1.63
1 rad
4 in.
)
J d
d
Since the shaft has already been designed for stresses and since the diameter that is required to satisfy
the rotation angle requirement is smaller than d
1
determined in part (a), the minimum diameter required
for a constant diameter shaft between gears B and D is:
min
2.09 in. d Ans.
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6.32 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.32, the
motor applies a torque of 220 Nm to the gear at
A. A torque of T
C
= 400 Nm is removed from the
shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is
removed at gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid
40mmdiameter steel [G = 80 GPa] shafts, and
the bearings shown allow free rotation of the
shaft.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress in
segments (1) and (2) of the shaft.
(b) Determine the rotation angle of gear D
relative to gear B.
Fig. P6.32
Solution
Section properties:
4 4
1 2
(40 mm) 251,327.41 mm
32
J J
Torque relationship:
300 mm
hence 3 3(220 Nm) 660 Nm
100 mm 300 mm 100 mm
A B
B A A
T T
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= 660 Nm. A torque of T
C
= 400 Nm is removed
from the shaft at gear C. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:
1 2
2 1
0
660 Nm 400 Nm 260 Nm
x C
C
M T T T
T T T
To summarize:
1
2
660 Nm
260 Nm
T
T
(a) Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):
1 1
1 4
1
(660 Nm)(40 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
52.521 MPa
251,327.41 m
52.5
m
MPa
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(260 Nm)(40 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
20.690 MPa
251,327.41 m
20.7
m
MPa
T c
J
Ans.
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(b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):
2
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(660 Nm)(1.5 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.049239 rad
(251,327.41 mm )(80,000 N/mm )
T L
J G
2
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
(260 Nm)(1.0 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.012931 rad
(251,327.41 mm )(80,000 N/mm )
T L
J G
Note: There is not enough information given to say whether these twist angles are positive or negative.
However, both twist angles will have the same sign.
1 2
say 0 rad (since this is our reference)
0 rad 0.049239 rad 0.012931 rad 0.0621 0.06 70 rad 22 rad
B
D B
Ans.
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6.33 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.33, the
motor applies a torque of 400 Nm to the gear at
A. A torque of T
C
= 700 Nm is removed from the
shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is
removed at gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid
steel [G = 80 GPa] shafts, and the bearings shown
allow free rotation of the shaft.
(a) Determine the minimum permissible
diameters for segments (1) and (2) of the shaft if
the maximum shear stress must not exceed 40
MPa.
(b) If the same diameter is to be used for
segments (1) and (2), determine the minimum
permissible diameter that can be used for the
shaft if the maximum shear stress must not
exceed 40 MPa and the rotation angle of gear D
relative to gear B must not exceed 3.0°.
Fig. P6.33
Solution
Torque relationship:
300 mm
hence 3 3(400 Nm) 1, 200 Nm
100 mm 300 mm 100 mm
A B
B A A
T T
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= 1,200 Nm. A torque of T
C
= 700 Nm is
removed from the shaft at gear C. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:
1 2
2 1
0
1, 200 Nm 700 Nm 500 Nm
x C
C
M T T T
T T T
To summarize:
1 2
1, 200 Nm 500 Nm T T
(a) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter d:
4
3 32
/ 2 16
d
Tc J T
d
J c d
Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
3 3 1
1 2
allow
1
16 16(1, 200 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
152, 788.745 mm
(40 N/mm )
53.460 53. m 5 m mm
T
d
d Ans.
3 3 2
2 2
allow
2
16 16(500 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
63, 661.977 mm
(40 N/mm )
39.929 39. m 9 m mm
T
d
d Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) The rotation angle of gear D with respect to gear B is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in shaft
segments (1) and (2):
1 2
(3 )( /180 ) 0.052360 rad
D B
Since the same solid steel shaft is to be used for both segments (1) and (2):
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1
0.052360 rad
T L T L
T L T L
J G J G JG
or rearranging:
2 2
4 4
2
(1, 200 Nm)(1.5 m)(1,000 mm/m) (500 Nm)(1.0 m)(1,000 mm/m)
549, 083.270 mm
32 (80, 000 N/mm )(0.052360
48.
ra )
6 m
d
m
J d
d
Since the shaft has already been designed for stresses and since the diameter that is required to satisfy
the rotation angle requirement is smaller than d
1
determined in part (a), the minimum diameter required
for a constant diameter shaft between gears B and D is:
min
53.5 mm d Ans.
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6.34 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.34, the
motor applies a torque of 250 Nm to the gear at A.
Shaft (1) is a solid 35mmdiameter shaft, and
shaft (2) is a solid 50mmdiameter shaft. The
bearings shown allow free rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the torque T
E
provided by the gear
system at gear E.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stresses in
shafts (1) and (2).
Fig. P6.34
Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear B is:
72
3 3(250 Nm) 750 Nm
24
B A A
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= 750 Nm and T
C
= 750 Nm. The torque on gear
D is found from:
60
2 2(750 Nm) 1, 500 Nm
30
D C C
T T T
Shaft (2) has the same torque as gear D; therefore, T
2
= 1,500 Nm and
1,500 Nm
E
T Ans.
To summarize:
1 2
750 Nm 1,500 Nm T T
(b) Section properties:
4 4
1
4 4
2
(35 mm) 147,323.51 mm
32
(50 mm) 613,592.32 mm
32
J
J
Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):
1 1
1 4
1
(750 Nm)(35 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
89.090 MPa
147,323.51 m
89.1
m
MPa
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(1,500 Nm)(50 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
61.115 MPa
613,592.32 m
61.1
m
MPa
T c
J
Ans.
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6.35 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.35, the
motor applies a torque of 600 Nm to the gear at A.
Shafts (1) and (2) are solid shafts, and the bearings
shown allow free rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the torque T
E
provided by the gear
system at gear E.
(b) If the allowable shear stress in each shaft must
be limited to 70 MPa, determine the minimum
permissible diameter for each shaft.
Fig. P6.35
Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear B is:
72
3 3(600 Nm) 1,800 Nm
24
B A A
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= 1,800 Nm and T
C
= 1,800 Nm. The torque on
gear D is found from:
60
2 2(1,800 Nm) 3, 600 Nm
30
D C C
T T T
Shaft (2) has the same torque as gear D; therefore, T
2
= 3,600 Nm and
3,600 Nm
E
T Ans.
To summarize:
1 2
1,800 Nm 3, 600 Nm T T
(b) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter d:
4
3 32
/ 2 16
d
Tc J T
d
J c d
Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
3 3 1
1 2
allow
1
16 16(1,800 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
130,961.782 mm
(70 N/mm )
50.783 50. m 8 m mm
T
d
d Ans.
3 3 2
2 2
allow
2
16 16(3, 600 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
261,923.563 mm
(70 N/mm )
63.982 64. m 0 m mm
T
d
d Ans.
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6.36 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.36, a
torque of T
E
= 1,500 lbft is delivered at gear E.
Shafts (1) and (2) are solid shafts, and the bearings
shown allow free rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the torque provided by the motor to
gear A.
(b) If the allowable shear stress in each shaft must
be limited to 4,000 psi, determine the minimum
permissible diameter for each shaft.
Fig. P6.36
Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear E creates a torque in shaft (2) of T
2
= 1,500 lbft.
Accordingly, the torque applied to gear D is also equal to 1,500 lbft. The torque on gear C is found
with the gear ratio:
30
0.5 0.5(1,500 lbft) 750 lbft
60
C D D
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear C; therefore, T
1
= 750 lbft and T
B
= 750 Nm. The torque on gear
A is found from:
24 750 lbft
7
250 l f
2 3
b t
3
C
A B
T
T T Ans.
To summarize:
1 2
750 lbft 1,500 lbft T T
(b) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter d:
4
3 32
/ 2 16
d
Tc J T
d
J c d
Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
3 3 1
1
allow
1
16 16(750 lbft)(12 in./ft)
11.459156 in.
(4, 000 psi)
2.255 in 2.26 in. .
T
d
d Ans.
3 3 2
2
allow
2
16 16(1,500 lbft)(12 in./ft)
22.918313 in.
(4,
2.84
000 psi)
2.840 i in. n.
T
d
d Ans.
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6.37 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.37, a
torque of T
E
= 720 lbft is delivered at gear E.
Shaft (1) is a solid 1.50in.diameter shaft, and
shaft (2) is a solid 2.00in.diameter shaft. The
bearings shown allow free rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the torque provided by the motor to
gear A.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stresses in
shafts (1) and (2).
Fig. P6.37
Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear E creates a torque in shaft (2) of T
2
= 720 lbft.
Accordingly, the torque applied to gear D is also equal to 720 lbft. The torque on gear C is found with
the gear ratio:
30
0.5 0.5(720 lbft) 360 lbft
60
C D D
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear C; therefore, T
1
= 360 lbft and T
B
= 360 Nm. The torque on gear
A is found from:
24 360 lbft
7
120 l f
2 3
b t
3
C
A B
T
T T Ans.
To summarize:
1 2
360 lbft 720 lbft T T
(b) Section properties:
4 4
1
4 4
2
(1.50 in.) 0.497010 in.
32
(2.00 in.) 1.570796 in.
32
J
J
Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):
1 1
1 4
1
(360 lbft)(1.50 in./2)(12 in./ft)
6,51 6,520 p 9.98 psi
0.49
si
7010 in.
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(720 lbft)(2.00 in./2)(12 in./ft)
5,500 5,500 p .396 psi
1
si
.570796 in.
T c
J
Ans.
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6.38 Two solid 30mmdiameter steel shafts are
connected by the gears shown in Fig. P6.38. The
shaft lengths are L
1
= 300 mm and L
2
= 500 mm.
Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is
G = 80 GPa and that the bearings shown allow
free rotation of the shafts. If the torque applied at
gear D is T
D
= 160 Nm,
(a) determine the internal torques T
1
and T
2
in
the two shafts.
(b) determine the angles of twist
1
and
2
.
(c) determine the rotation angles
B
and
C
of
gears B and C.
(d) determine the rotation angle of gear D.
Fig. P6.38
Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2)
of T
2
= 160 Nm.
2 2
0 160 Nm
x D D
M T T T T
Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also equal to 160 Nm. The
torque on gear B is found with the gear ratio:
54 teeth
1.8 1.8(160 Nm) 288 Nm
30 teeth
B C C
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= −288 Nm. To summarize:
1 2
288 Nm 160 Nm T T Ans.
Section properties:
4 4
1 2
(30 mm) 79,521.56 mm
32
J J
(b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
( 288 Nm)(300 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.013581 rad
(79,521.56 mm )(80,0
0.01358 r
00 N mm
d
/ )
a
T L
J G
Ans.
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
(160 Nm)(500 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.012575 rad
(79,521.56 mm )(
0.01258 ra
80,000 N/
d
mm )
T L
J G
Ans.
(c) Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the angle of twist in shaft
(1):
1 1
0 rad ( 0.013581 0.01358 r rad) ad
B A B A
Ans.
As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the
rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:
54 teeth 54 teeth
( 0.013581 rad) 0.024446 rad
30 teeth 3
0.0244 r
0 t
ad
eeth
C B
Ans.
The rotation of gear D is found from:
2 2
0.024446 rad 0.012575 rad 0.0370 0.0370 rad 21 rad
D C D C
Ans.
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6.39 Two solid 1.75in.diameter steel shafts are
connected by the gears shown in Fig. P6.39. The
shaft lengths are L
1
= 6 ft and L
2
= 10 ft. Assume
that the shear modulus of both shafts is G =
12,000 ksi and that the bearings shown allow
free rotation of the shafts. If the torque applied at
gear D is T
D
= 225 lbft,
(a) determine the internal torques T
1
and T
2
in
the two shafts.
(b) determine the angles of twist
1
and
2
.
(c) determine the rotation angles
B
and
C
of
gears B and C.
(d) determine the rotation angle of gear D.
Fig. P6.39
Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2)
of T
2
= 225 lbft.
2 2
0 225 lbft
x D D
M T T T T
Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also equal to 225 lbft. The
torque on gear B is found with the gear ratio:
54 teeth
1.8 1.8(225 lbft) 405 lbft
30 teeth
B C C
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= −405 lbft. To summarize:
1 2
405 lbft 225 lbft T T Ans.
Section properties:
4 4
1 2
(1.75 in.) 0.920772 in.
32
J J
(b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):
2
1 1
1 4
1 1
( 405 lbft)(6 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.031669 rad
(0.920772 in. )(12,000,000
0.0317 r
s )
ad
p i
TL
J G
Ans.
2
2 2
2 4
2 2
(225 lbft)(10 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.029323 rad
(0.920772 in. )(12
0.0293 r
,000,000 psi)
ad
T L
J G
Ans.
(c) Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the twist angle in shaft (1):
1 1
0 rad ( 0.031 0.0317 r 669 r d d) a a
B A B A
Ans.
As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the
rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:
54 teeth 54 teeth
( 0.031669 rad) 0.057004 rad
30 teeth 3
0.0570 r
0 t
ad
eeth
C B
Ans.
(d) Rotation angle of gear D:The rotation of gear D is found from:
2 2
0.057004 rad 0.029323 rad 0.0863 0.0863 rad 27 rad
D C D C
Ans.
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6.40 Two solid steel shafts are connected by the
gears shown in Fig. P6.40. The design
requirements for the system require (1) that both
shafts must have the same diameter, (2) that the
maximum shear stress in each shaft must be less
than 6,000 psi, and (3) that the rotation angle of
gear D must not exceed 3°. Determine the
minimum required diameter of the shafts if the
torque applied at gear D is T
D
= 345 lbft. The
shaft lengths are L
1
= 10 ft and L
2
= 8 ft.
Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is
G = 12,000 ksi and that the bearings shown
allow free rotation of the shafts.
Fig. P6.40
Solution
Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2) of
T
2
= 1,000 lbft.
2 2
0 345 lbft 4,140 lbin.
x D D
M T T T T
Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also 4,140 lbin. The torque on
gear B is found with the gear ratio:
48 teeth
0.6667 0.6667(4,140 lbin.) 2, 760 lbin.
72 teeth
B C C
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= −2,760 lbin.
Diameters based on allowable shear stresses: The elastic torsion formula gives the relationship
between shear stress and torque in a shaft.
Tc
J
The torques in both shafts have been determined, and the allowable shear stress is specified. Rearrange
the elastic torsion formula, putting the known terms on the righthand side of the equation:
J T
c
Express the lefthand side of this equation in terms of the shaft diameter D:
4
3 32
/ 2 16
d
T
d
d
Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (1):
3 3 1
1 2
1
16 16(2, 760 lbin.)
2.342761 in.
(6, 000 lb/in. )
1.328 in.
T
d
d
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Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (2):
3 3 2
2 2
2
16 16(4,140 lbin.)
3.514141 in.
(6, 000 lb/in. )
1.520 in.
T
d
d
Of these two values, d
2
controls. Therefore, both shafts could have a diameter of 1.520 in. or more and
the shear stress constraint would be satisfied.
The angles of twists in shafts (1) and (2) can be expressed as:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
The rotations of gears B and C are related since the arclengths turned by the two gears have the same
magnitude. The gears turn in opposite directions; therefore, a negative sign is introduced.
C C B B
R R
The rotation angle of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
B
=
1
. Therefore, the rotation
angle of gear C can be expressed in terms of T
1
.
1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1
B B B B
C B
C C C C
R R R T L N T L
R R R J G N J G
The rotation angle of gear D is equal to the rotation angle of gear C plus the twist that occurs in shaft
(2):
2 D C
and so the rotation angle of gear D can be expressed in terms of the torques T
1
and T
2
:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
3
B
D
C
N T L T L
N J G J G
Shafts having the same diameters and the same shear moduli are required for this system; therefore, J
1
=
J
2
= J and G
1
= G
2
= G. Factor these terms out to obtain:
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1 1
3
(3 )
B B
C C
N N
T L T L J T L T L
JG N G N
Express the polar moment of inertia in terms of diameter to obtain the following relationship:
4
1 1 2 2
4
32
(3 )
32 48 teeth
( 2, 760 lbin.)(120 in.) (4,140 lbin.)(96 in.)
rad 72 teeth
(12, 000, 000 psi)(3 )
180
10.022529 in.
1.779 in.
B
C
N
d T L T L
G N
d
Since this minimum diameter is greater than the diameter needed to satisfy the shear stress requirements,
the rotation angle constraint controls.
Therefore, the minimum shaft diameter that satisfies all requirements is d ≥ 1.779 in. Ans.
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6.41 Two solid steel shafts are connected by the
gears shown in Fig. P6.41. The design
requirements for the system require (1) that both
shafts must have the same diameter, (2) that the
maximum shear stress in each shaft must be less
than 50 MPa, and (3) that the rotation angle of
gear D must not exceed 3°. Determine the
minimum required diameter of the shafts if the
torque applied at gear D is T
D
= 750 Nm. The
shaft lengths are L
1
= 2.5 m and L
2
= 2.0 m.
Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is
G = 80 GPa and that the bearings shown allow
free rotation of the shafts.
Fig. P6.41
Solution
Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2) of
T
2
= 1,200 Nm.
2 2
0 750 Nm
x D D
M T T T T
Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also 750 Nm. The torque on
gear B is found with the gear ratio:
48 teeth
0.6667 0.6667(750 Nm) 500 Nm
72 teeth
B C C
T T T
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T
1
= −500 Nm.
Diameters based on allowable shear stresses: The elastic torsion formula gives the relationship
between shear stress and torque in a shaft. This equation can be rearranged in terms of the outside
diameter:
3
16
Tc T
d
J
Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (1):
3 3 1
1 2
1
16 16(500 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
50,929.582 mm
(50 N/mm )
37.067 mm
T
d
d
Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (2):
3 3 2
2 2
2
16 16(750 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
76,394.373 mm
(50 N/mm )
42.431 mm
T
d
d
Of these two values, d
2
controls. Therefore, both shafts could have a diameter of 42.431 mm or more
and the shear stress constraint would be satisfied.
The angles of twists in shafts (1) and (2) can be expressed as:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
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The rotations of gears B and C are related since the arclengths turned by the two gears have the same
magnitude. The gears turn in opposite directions; therefore, a negative sign is introduced.
C C B B
R R
The rotation angle of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
B
=
1
. Therefore, the rotation
angle of gear C can be expressed in terms of T
1
.
1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1
B B B B
C B
C C C C
R R R T L N T L
R R R J G N J G
The rotation angle of gear D is equal to the rotation angle of gear C plus the twist that occurs in shaft
(2):
2 D C
and so the rotation angle of gear D can be expressed in terms of the torques T
1
and T
2
:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
3
B
D
C
N T L T L
N J G J G
Shafts having the same diameters and the same shear moduli are required for this system; therefore, J
1
=
J
2
= J and G
1
= G
2
= G. Factor these terms out to obtain:
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1 1
3
(3 )
B B
C C
N N
T L T L J T L T L
JG N G N
Express the polar moment of inertia in terms of diameter to obtain the following relationship:
4
1 1 2 2
2
2
4
32
(3 )
48 teeth
32 ( 500 Nm)(2.5 m) (750 Nm)(2.0 m) (1,000 mm/m)
72 teeth
(80, 000 N/mm )(3 )( / 180 )
5, 673,986.284 mm
48.806 mm
B
C
N
d T L T L
G N
d
Since this minimum diameter is greater than the diameter needed to satisfy the shear stress requirements,
the rotation angle constraint controls.
Therefore, the minimum shaft diameter that satisfies all requirements is d ≥ 48.8 mm. Ans.
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6.42 The driveshaft of an automobile is being designed to transmit 180 hp at 3,500 rpm. Determine the
minimum diameter required for a solid steel shaft if the allowable shear stress in the shaft is not to
exceed 6,000 psi.
Solution
The torque in the driveshaft is:
550 lbft/s
180 hp
1 hp
270.109 lbft
3,500 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
The minimum diameter required for the shaft can be found from:
3 3
allow
(270.109 lbft)(12 in./ft)
0.540217 in.
16 6, 000 psi
1.401241 in. 1.401 in.
T
d
d Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.43 A tubular steel shaft transmits 225 hp at 4,000 rpm. Determine the maximum shear stress produced
in the shaft if the outside diameter is D = 3.000 in. and the wall thickness is t = 0.125 in.
Solution
The torque in the tubular steel shaft is:
550 lbft/s
225 hp
1 hp
295.431 lbft
4,000 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:
4 4 4 4 4
(3.000 in.) (2.750 in.) 2.337403 in.
32 32
J D d
and the maximum shear stress in the shaft is
4
(295.431 lbft)(3.000 in./2)(12 in./ft)
2, 275 2, 280 p .074 psi
2
si
.337403 in.
Tc
J
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.44 A tubular steel shaft is being designed to transmit 225 kW at 1,700 rpm. The maximum shear stress
in the shaft must not exceed 30 MPa. If the outside diameter of the shaft is D = 75 mm, determine the
minimum wall thickness for the shaft.
Solution
The torque in the tubular steel shaft is:
1,000 Nm/s
225 kW
1 kW
1, 263.877 Nm
1,700 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
The maximum shear stress in the shaft will be determined from the elastic torsion formula:
Tc
J
where
4 4
32
J D d
Rearrange this equation, grouping the diameter terms on the lefthand side of the equation:
4 4
32 / 2
D d
T
D
Substitute the known values for T, , and D and solve for the inside diameter d:
4 4
2
4 4 4
4 4 4 4
(75 mm)
(1, 263.877 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
32 75 mm/ 2 30 N/mm
(75 mm) 16, 092,181.76 mm
(75 mm) 16, 092,181.76 mm 15, 548, 443.24 mm
62.7945 mm
d
d
d
d
The minimum wall thickness for the tubular steel shaft is thus
2
75 mm 62.7945 mm
6.10275 mm
2 2
6.10 mm
D d t
D d
t Ans.
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6.45 A solid 20mmdiameter bronze shaft transmits 11 kW at 25 Hz to the propeller of a small sailboat.
Determine the maximum shear stress produced in the shaft.
Solution
The torque in the tubular steel shaft is:
1,000 Nm/s
11 kW
1 kW
70.028175 Nm
25 rev 2 rad
s 1 rev
P
T
The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:
4 4
(20 mm) 15, 707.963 mm
32
J
and the maximum shear stress in the shaft is
4
(70.028175 Nm)(20 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
44.581 MPa
15, 707.963 m
44.6
m
MPa
Tc
J
Ans.
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6.46 A steel propeller for a windmill transmits 5.5 kW at 65 rpm. If the allowable shear stress in the
shaft must be limited to 60 MPa, determine the minimum diameter required for a solid shaft.
Solution
The torque in the tubular steel shaft is:
1,000 Nm/s
5.5 kW
1 kW
808.017 Nm
65 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
The minimum diameter required for the shaft can be found from:
3 3
2
allow
(808.017 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
13, 466.957 mm
16 60 N/mm
40.934 m 40.9 mm m
T
d
d Ans.
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6.47 A solid steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shaft with a 3in. diameter must not twist more than 0.06 rad in a 16
ft length. Determine the maximum horsepower that the shaft can transmit at 4 Hz.
Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:
4 4
(3 in.) 7.952156 in.
32
J
Angle of twist relationship: From the angle of twist relationship, compute the allowable torque:
4
(0.06 rad)(7.952156 in. )(12,000 ksi)
29.820585 kipin. 2, 485.05 lbft
(16 ft)(12 in./ft)
JG
T
L
Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 4 Hz is:
4 rev 2 rad
(2, 485.05 lbft) 62, 456.088 lbft/s
s 1 rev
P T
or in units of horsepower,
62, 456.088 lbft/s
550 lbft/s
1
113.
hp
6 hp P Ans.
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6.48 A tubular steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft with an outside diameter of D = 100 mm and a wall thickness of
t = 6 mm must not twist more than 0.05 rad in a 7m length. Determine the maximum power that the
shaft can transmit at 375 rpm.
Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:
4 4 4 4 4
(100 mm) (88 mm) 3,929,981.613 mm
32 32
J D d
Angle of twist relationship: From the angle of twist relationship, compute the allowable torque:
4 2
(0.05 rad)(3,929,981.613 mm )(80,000 N/mm )
(7 m)(1,000 mm/m)
2, 245, 703.779 Nmm 2, 245.704 Nm
JG
T
L
Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 375 rpm is:
375 rev 2 rad 1 min
(2, 245.704 Nm) 88,188.581 Nm/s
min 1 rev
88.2 kW
60 s
P T Ans.
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6.49 A solid 3in.diameter bronze [G = 6,000 ksi] shaft is 7ft long. The allowable shear stress in the
shaft is 8 ksi and the angle of twist must not exceed 0.03 rad. Determine the maximum horsepower that
this shaft can deliver
(a) when rotating at 150 rpm.
(b) when rotating at 540 rpm.
Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:
4 4
(3 in.) 7.952156 in.
32
J
Torque based on allowable shear stress: Compute the allowable torque if the shear stress must not
exceed 8 ksi:
4
(8 ksi)(7.952156 in. )
42.4115 kipin.
1.5 in.
J
T
c
(a)
Torque based on angle of twist: Compute the allowable torque if the angle of twist must not exceed
0.03 rad:
4
(0.03 rad)(7.952156 in. )(6,000 ksi)
17.0403 kipin.
(7 ft)(12 in./ft)
JG
T
L
(b)
Controlling torque: From comparison of Eqs. (a) and (b), the maximum torque allowed for this shaft
is:
max
17.0403 kipin. 1, 420.028 lbft T
(a) Power transmission at 150 rpm: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 150 rpm is:
150 rev 2 rad 1 min
(1, 420.028 lbft) 22,305.746 lbft/s
min 1 rev 60 s
P T
or in units of horsepower,
22,305.746 lbft/s
550 lbft/s
1
40
hp
hp
.6 P Ans.
(b) Power transmission at 540 rpm: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 540 rpm is:
540 rev 2 rad 1 min
(1, 420.028 lbft) 80,300.684 lbft/s
min 1 rev 60 s
P T
or in units of horsepower,
80,300.684 lbft/s
550 lbft/s
1
146.
hp
0 hp P Ans.
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6.50 A hollow titanium [G = 43 GPa] shaft has an outside diameter of D = 50 mm and a wall thickness of t
= 1.25 mm. The maximum shear stress in the shaft must be limited to 150 MPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum power that can be transmitted by the shaft if the rotation speed must be limited to 20 Hz.
(b) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 700mm length of the shaft when 30 kW is being transmitted at
8 Hz.
Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:
4 4 4 4 4
(50 mm) (47.5 mm) 113,817.540 mm
32 32
J D d
Torque based on allowable shear stress: Compute the allowable torque if the shear stress must not
exceed 100 MPa:
2 4
(150 N/mm )(113,817.540 mm )
682,905.237 Nmm 682.905 Nm
50 mm/2
J
T
c
(a) Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 20 Hz is:
20 rev 2 rad
85 (682.905 Nm) 85,816.403 Nm/s
s 1 re
v
.8 kW P T Ans.
(b) Angle of twist: The torque in the shaft when 30 kW is being transmitted at 8 Hz is:
30, 000 Nm/s
596.831 Nm
8 rev 2 rad
s 1 rev
P
T
The corresponding angle of twist is:
4 2
(596.831 Nm)(700 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
(113,817.540 mm )(43, 000 N/mm
0.0854 r
)
ad
T L
JG
Ans.
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6.51 A tubular aluminum alloy [G = 4,000 ksi] shaft is being designed to transmit 400 hp at 1,500 rpm.
The maximum shear stress in the shaft must not exceed 6 ksi and the angle of twist is not to exceed 5° in
an 8ft length. Determine the minimum permissible outside diameter if the inside diameter is to be three
fourths of the outside diameter.
Solution
Torque from power transmission equation: The torque in the shaft when 400 hp is being transmitted
at 1,500 rpm is:
550 lbft/s
(400 hp)
1 hp
1, 400.56 lbft
1,500 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
Polar moment of inertia: The inside diameter of the shaft is to be threefourths of the outside
diameter; therefore, d = 0.75D. From this, the polar moment of inertia can be expressed as:
4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4
(0.75 ) 1 (0.75) 0.683594 0.067112
32 32 32 32
D D
J D d D D D (a)
Diameter based on shear stress: The maximum shear stress must not exceed 6 ksi; thus, from the
elastic torsion formula:
Tc J T
J c
Use the results of Eq. (a) to simplify the lefthand side of this equation, giving an expression in terms of
the outside diameter D:
4
3
0.067112
0.134224
/ 2
J D
D
c D
Solve for the outside diameter D:
3 3
(1, 400.56 lbft)(12 in./ft)
0.134224 2.801120 in. 2.753175 in.
6, 000 psi
D D (b)
Diameter based on twist angle: The angle of twist is not to exceed 5° in an 8ft length; thus, from the
angle of twist formula:
T L T L
J
JG G
Use the results of Eq. (a) to simplify this equation and solve for the outside diameter D:
2
4 4
(1, 400.56 lbft)(8 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.067112 4.622180 in. 2.881972 in.
(5 )( /180 )(4,000,000 psi)
D D (c)
From the results of Eqs. (b) and (c), the minimum outside diameter D acceptable in this instance is:
min
2.88 in. D Ans.
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6.52 A tubular steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft is being designed to transmit 150 kW at 30 Hz. The maximum
shear stress in the shaft must not exceed 80 MPa and the angle of twist is not to exceed 6° in a 4m
length. Determine the minimum permissible outside diameter if the ratio of the inside diameter to the
outside diameter is 0.80.
Solution
Torque from power transmission equation: The torque in the shaft when 150 kW is being transmitted
at 1,500 rpm is:
150, 000 Nm/s
795.7747 Nm
30 rev 2 rad
s 1 rev
P
T
Polar moment of inertia: The ratio of inside diameter to outside diameter for the shaft is to be d/D =
0.80 or in other words d = 0.80D. From this, the polar moment of inertia can be expressed as:
4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4
(0.80 ) 1 (0.80) 0.590400 0.057962
32 32 32 32
D D
J D d D D D (a)
Diameter based on shear stress: The maximum shear stress must not exceed 80 MPa; thus, from the
elastic torsion formula:
Tc J T
J c
Use the results of Eq. (a) to simplify the lefthand side of this equation, giving an expression in terms of
the outside diameter D:
4
3
0.057962
0.115925
/ 2
J D
D
c D
Solve for the outside diameter D:
3 3
2
(795.7747 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.115925 9, 947.18375 mm 44.1070 mm
80 N/mm
D D (b)
Diameter based on twist angle: The angle of twist is not to exceed 6° in a 4m length; thus, from the
angle of twist formula:
T L T L
J
JG G
Use the results of Eq. (a) to simplify this equation and solve for the outside diameter D:
2
4 4
2
(795.7747 Nm)(4 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.057962 379,954.43 mm 50.5996 mm
(6 )( /180 )(80,000 N/mm )
D D (c)
From the results of Eqs. (b) and (c), the minimum outside diameter D acceptable in this instance is:
min
50.6 mm D Ans.
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6.53 An automobile engine supplies 180 hp at 4,200 rpm to a driveshaft. If the allowable shear stress in
the driveshaft must be limited to 5 ksi, determine:
(a) the minimum diameter required for a solid driveshaft.
(b) the maximum inside diameter permitted for a hollow driveshaft if the outside diameter is 2.00 in.
(c) the percent savings in weight realized if the hollow shaft is used instead of the solid shaft. (Hint: The
weight of a shaft is proportional to its crosssectional area.)
Solution
Power transmission equation: The torque in the shaft is
550 lbft/s
180 hp
1 hp
225.0906 lbft
4,200 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
(a) Solid driveshaft: The minimum diameter required for a solid shaft can be found from:
3 3
allow
(225.0906 lbft)(12 in./ft)
0.540217 in.
16 5, 000 psi
1.401241 in. 1.401 in.
T
d
d Ans.
(b) Hollow driveshaft: From the elastic torsion formula:
4 4
32 / 2
D d
Tc J T
J c D
Solve this equation for the maximum inside diameter d:
4 4
3
4 4 4
4 4 4 4
(2.00 in.)
(225.0906 lbft)(12 in./ft)
0.540217 in.
32 2.00 in. / 2 5, 000 psi
(2.00 in.) 5.502605 in.
16 in. 5.502605 in. 10.497395 in.
1.800 in.
d
d
d
d Ans.
(c) Weight savings: The weights of the solid and hollow shafts are proportional to their respective
crosssectional areas. The crosssectional area of the solid shaft is
2 2
solid
(1.401241 in.) 1.5421 in.
4
A
and the crosssectional area of the hollow shaft is
2 2 2
hollow
(2.00 in.) (1.80 in.) 0.5969 in.
4
A
The weight savings can be determined from
2 2
solid hollow
2
solid
( ) (1.5421 in. 0.5929 in. )
weight savings (in percent)
1.542
6
1
1.3
.
%
in
A A
A
Ans.
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6.54 The impeller shaft of a fluid agitator transmits 28 kW at 440 rpm. If the allowable shear stress in
the impeller shaft must be limited to 80 MPa, determine:
(a) the minimum diameter required for a solid impeller shaft.
(b) the maximum inside diameter permitted for a hollow impeller shaft if the outside diameter is 40 mm.
(c) the percent savings in weight realized if the hollow shaft is used instead of the solid shaft. (Hint: The
weight of a shaft is proportional to its crosssectional area.)
Solution
Power transmission equation: The torque in the shaft is
28, 000 Nm/s
607.6825 Nm
440 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
(a) Solid impeller shaft: The minimum diameter required for a solid shaft can be found from:
3 3
2
allow
(607.6825 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
7,596.0313 mm
16 80 N/mm
33.8209 m 3 8 mm m 3.
T
d
d Ans.
(b) Hollow driveshaft: From the elastic torsion formula:
4 4
32 / 2
D d
Tc J T
J c D
Solve this equation for the maximum inside diameter:
4 4
3
2
4 4 4
4 4 4 4
(40 mm)
(607.6825 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
7,596.0313 mm
32 40 mm/ 2 80 N/mm
(40 mm) 1,547, 450.779 mm
2,560, 000 mm 1,547, 450.779 mm 1, 012,549.2
31.7 mm
21 mm
31.7215 mm
d
d
d
d Ans.
(c) Weight savings: The weights of the solid and hollow shafts are proportional to their respective
crosssectional areas. The crosssectional area of the solid shaft is
2 2
solid
(33.8209 mm) 898.3803 mm
4
A
and the crosssectional area of the hollow shaft is
2 2 2
hollow
(40 mm) (31.7215 mm) 466.3262 mm
4
A
The weight savings can be determined from
2 2
solid hollow
2
solid
( ) (898.3803 mm
48.1
466.3262 mm )
weight savings (in percent)
898.3803 m
%
m
A A
A
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.55 A motor supplies 200 kW at 6 Hz to flange A of the shaft shown in Fig. P6.55. Gear B transfers 125
kW of power to operating machinery in the factory, and the remaining power in the shaft is transferred
by gear D. Shafts (1) and (2) are solid aluminum [G = 28 GPa] shafts that have the same diameter and an
allowable shear stress of = 40 MPa. Shaft (3) is a solid steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft with an allowable
shear stress of = 55 MPa. Determine:
(a) the minimum permissible diameter for
aluminum shafts (1) and (2).
(b) the minimum permissible diameter for
steel shaft (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear D with respect
to flange A if the shafts have the minimum
permissible diameters as determined in (a)
and (b).
Fig. P6.55
Solution
Power transmission: The torque on flange A is
200, 000 Nm/s
5, 305.165 Nm
6 rev 2 rad
s 1 rev
A
P
T
thus, the torque in shaft segment (1) is T
1
= 5,305.165 Nm. The torque transferred by gear B is
125, 000 Nm/s
3, 315.728 Nm
6 rev 2 rad
s 1 rev
B
P
T
therefore, the remaining torque in segments (2) and (3) of the shaft is
2
5, 305.165 Nm 3, 315.728 Nm 1, 989.437 Nm
A B
T T T
(a) Minimum diameter for solid aluminum shaft: The minimum diameter required for the solid
aluminum shaft can be found from:
3 3 1
1 2
1,allow
1
(5,305.165 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
132, 629.125 mm
16 40 N/
87.
m
7 mm
m
T
d
d Ans.
(b) Minimum diameter for solid steel shaft: The minimum diameter required for the solid steel shaft
can be found from:
3 3 3
3 2
3,allow
3
(1,989.437 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
36,171.582 mm
16 55 N/mm
56.9 mm d
T
d
Ans.
(c) Angles of twist: The polar moments of inertia of the aluminum and steel shafts are:
4 4
1 2
4 4
3
(87.7 mm) 5,807, 621 mm
32
(56.9 mm) 1, 029, 080 mm
32
J J
J
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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The angles of twist in the three shaft segments are:
2
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
2
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
3 3
3
3 3
(5,305.165 Nm)(0.8 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.026100 rad
(5,807, 621 mm )(28,000 N/mm )
(1,989.437 Nm)(0.4 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.004894 rad
(5,807, 621 mm )(28,000 N/mm )
(1,989.437
T L
J G
T L
J G
T L
J G
2
4 2
Nm)(0.8 m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.019332 rad
(1, 029, 080 mm )(80,000 N/mm )
Rotation angle at D: The rotation angle at D is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in the three shaft
segments:
1 2 3
0.026100 rad 0.004894 rad 0.019332 rad
0.050326 0.0503 rad rad
D
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.56 A motor supplies 150 hp at 520 rpm to flange A of the shaft shown in Fig. P6.56. Gear B transfers
90 hp of power to operating machinery in the factory, and the remaining power in the shaft is transferred
by gear D. Shafts (1) and (2) are solid aluminum [G = 4,000 ksi] shafts that have the same diameter and
an allowable shear stress of = 6 ksi. Shaft (3) is a solid steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shaft with an allowable
shear stress of = 8 ksi. Determine:
(a) the minimum permissible diameter for
aluminum shafts (1) and (2).
(b) the minimum permissible diameter for
steel shaft (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear D with respect
to flange A if the shafts have the minimum
permissible diameters as determined in (a)
and (b).
Fig. P6.56
Solution
Power transmission: The torque on flange A is
550 lbft/s
150 hp
1 hp
1, 515.033 lbft
520 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
A
P
T
thus, the torque in shaft segment (1) is T
1
= 1,515.033 lbft. The torque transferred by gear B is
550 lbft/s
90 hp
1 hp
909.020 lbft
520 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
B
P
T
therefore, the remaining torque in segments (2) and (3) of the shaft is
2
1, 515.033 lbft 909.020 lbft 606.013 lbft
A B
T T T
(a) Minimum diameter for solid aluminum shaft: The minimum diameter required for the solid
aluminum shaft can be found from:
3 3 1
1
1,all
1
ow
(1,515.033 lbft)(12 in./ft)
3.030066 in.
16 6, 000 ps
2.49 in.
i
d
T
d
Ans.
(b) Minimum diameter for solid steel shaft: The minimum diameter required for the solid steel shaft
can be found from:
3 3 3
3
3,all
3
ow
(606.013 lbft)(12 in./ft)
0.909020 in.
16 8, 000
1.66
psi
7 in. d
T
d
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) Angles of twist: The polar moments of inertia of the aluminum and steel shafts are:
4 4
1 2
4 4
3
(2.49 in.) 3.773960 in.
32
(1.667 in.) 0.758128 in.
32
J J
J
The angles of twist in the three shaft segments are:
2
1 1
1 4
1 1
2
2 2
2 4
2 2
3 3
3
3 3
(1,515.033 lbft)(2 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.028904 rad
(3.773960 in. )(4,000,000 psi)
(606.013 lbft)(1 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.005781 rad
(3.773960 in. )(4,000,000 psi)
(606.013 l
T L
J G
T L
J G
T L
J G
2
4
bft)(2 ft)(12 in./ft)
0.019185 rad
(0.758128 in. )(12,000,000 psi)
Rotation angle at D: The rotation angle at D is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in the three shaft
segments:
1 2 3
0.028904 rad 0.005781 rad 0.019185 rad
0.053870 0.0539 rad rad
D
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.57 A motor supplies sufficient power to the
system shown in Fig. P6.57 so that gears C and
D provide torques of T
C
= 800 Nm and T
D
=
550 Nm, respectively, to machinery in a
factory. Power shaft segments (1) and (2) are
hollow steel tubes with an outside diameter of D
= 60 mm and an inside diameter of d = 50 mm.
If the power shaft [i.e., segments (1) and (2)]
rotates at 40 rpm, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in power shaft
segments (1) and (2).
(b) the power (in kW) that must be provided by
the motor as well as the rotation speed (in rpm).
(c) the torque applied to gear A by the motor.
Fig. P6.57
Solution
Equilibrium:
2
2
0
550 Nm
x D
D
M T T
T T
1
1
0
800 Nm 550 Nm
1,350 Nm
x C D
C D
M T T T
T T T
Section properties:
4 4 4
1 2
(60 mm) (50 mm) 658, 752.71 mm
32
J J
(a) Shear stresses:
1 1
1 4
1
(1,350 Nm)(60 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
61.480 MPa
658,752.71 m
61.5
m
MPa
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(550 Nm)(60 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
25.047 MPa
658,752.71 m
25.0
m
MPa
T c
J
Ans.
(b) Power transmission: Compute the power in shaft segment (1):
1
40 rev 2 rad 1 min
(1,350 Nm) 5, 654.867 Nm/s 5.65 kW
min 1 rev 60 s
P T
This power in the shaft must be provided by the motor. Therefore:
motor
5.65 kW P Ans.
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The rotation speed of the motor is found with the use of the gear ratio:
motor
72 teeth
3 3(40 rpm)
24 teet
12
h
0 rpm
A B B
Ans.
(c) Motor torque: The motor must provide a torque of
24 teeth
(1,350 Nm 450 Nm )
72 teeth
A
A B
B
N
T T
N
Ans.
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6.58 A motor supplies sufficient power to the
system shown in Fig. P6.58 so that gears C and
D provide torques of T
C
= 100 lbft and T
D
= 80
lbft, respectively, to machinery in a factory.
Power shaft segments (1) and (2) are hollow
steel tubes with an outside diameter of D = 1.75
in. and an inside diameter of d = 1.50 in. If the
power shaft [i.e., segments (1) and (2)] rotates
at 540 rpm, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in power shaft
segments (1) and (2).
(b) the power (in hp) that must be provided by
the motor as well as the rotation speed (in rpm).
(c) the torque applied to gear A by the motor.
Fig. P6.58
Solution
Equilibrium:
2
2
0
80 lbft
x D
D
M T T
T T
1
1
0
100 lbft 80 lbft
180 lbft
x C D
C D
M T T T
T T T
Section properties:
4 4 4
1 2
(1.75 in.) (1.50 in.) 0.423762 in.
32
J J
(a) Shear stresses:
1 1
1 4
1
(180 lbft)(1.75 in./2)(12 in./ft)
4, 460 4, 460 p .049 psi
0
si
.423762 in.
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(80 lbft)(1.75 in./2)(12 in./ft)
1,982 1,982 .244 psi
0.423762 in.
psi
T c
J
Ans.
(b) Power transmission: Compute the power in shaft segment (1):
1
540 rev 2 rad 1 min
(180 lbft) 10,178.760 lbft/s 18.507 hp
min 1 rev 60 s
P T
This power in the shaft must be provided by the motor. Therefore:
motor
18.51 hp P Ans.
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The rotation speed of the motor is found with the use of the gear ratio:
motor
72 teeth
3 3(540 rpm 1, 6 )
24 t
20 rpm
eeth
A B B
Ans.
(c) Motor torque: The motor must provide a torque of
24 teeth
(180 lbft) 60 lbft
72 t
720 lbin
e
.
eth
A
A B
B
N
T T
N
Ans.
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6.59 A motor supplies 25 hp at 6 Hz to gear A
of the drive system shown in Fig. P6.59. Shaft
(1) is a solid 2.25in.diameter aluminum [G =
4,000 ksi] shaft with a length of L
1
= 16 in.
Shaft (2) is a solid 1.5in.diameter steel [G =
12,000 ksi] shaft with a length of L
2
= 12 in.
Shafts (1) and (2) are connected at flange C, and
the bearings shown permit free rotation of the
shaft. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and
(2).
(b) the rotation angle of gear D with respect to
gear B.
Fig. P6.59
Solution
Power transmission: The torque acting on gear A is:
550 lbft/s
25 hp
1 hp
364.730 lbft
6 rev 2 rad
s 1 rev
A
P
T
Equilibrium: The torque applied to gear B is:
60 teeth
(364.730 lbft) 911.825 lbft
24 teeth
B
B A
A
N
T T
N
The torque on shaft segments (1) and (2) as well as gear D is equal to the torque applied to gear B.
1 2
911.825 lbft
D B
T T T T
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for aluminum shaft (1) and steel shaft (2) are:
4 4 4
1 1
(2.25 in.) 2.516112 in.
32 32
J d
4 4 4
2 2
(1.5 in.) 0.497010 in.
32 32
J d
(a) Maximum shear stresses:
1 1
1 4
1
(911.825 lbft)(2.25 in./2)(12 in./ft)
4,892.326 psi
2.516112 in.
4,890 psi
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(911.825 lbft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)
16,511.601 psi
0.497010 in.
16,510 psi
T c
J
Ans.
(b) Angles of twist: The angles of twist in the two shaft segments are:
1 1
1 4
1 1
2 2
2 4
2 2
(911.825 lbft)(16 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.017395 rad
(2.516112 in. )(4,000,000 psi)
(911.825 lbft)(12 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.022015 rad
(0.497010 in. )(12,000,000 psi)
T L
J G
T L
J G
Rotation angle of D relative to B:
1 2
0.017395 rad 0.022015 rad 0.039410 rad 0.0394 rad
D B
Ans.
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6.60 A motor supplies 20 kW at 400 rpm to
gear A of the drive system shown in Fig. P6.60.
Shaft (1) is a solid 50mmdiameter aluminum
[G = 28 GPa] shaft with a length of L
1
= 1,200
mm. Shaft (2) is a solid 40mmdiameter steel
[G = 80 GPa] shaft with a length of L
2
= 750
mm. Shafts (1) and (2) are connected at flange
C, and the bearings shown permit free rotation
of the shaft. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and
(2).
(b) the rotation angle of gear D with respect to
gear B.
Fig. P6.60
Solution
Power transmission: The torque acting on gear A is:
20, 000 Nm/s
477.465 Nm
400 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
A
P
T
Equilibrium: The torque applied to gear B is:
60 teeth
(477.465 Nm) 1,193.662 Nm
24 teeth
B
B A
A
N
T T
N
The torque on shaft segments (1) and (2) as well as gear D is equal to the torque applied to gear B.
1 2
1,193.662 Nm
D B
T T T T
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for aluminum shaft (1) and steel shaft (2) are:
4 4 4
1 1
(50 mm) 613,592.32 mm
32 32
J d
4 4 4
2 2
(40 mm) 251,327.41 mm
32 32
J d
(a) Maximum shear stresses:
1 1
1 4
1
(1,193.662 Nm)(50 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
48.634 MPa
613,592.32 mm
48.6 MPa
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(1,193.662 Nm)(40 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
94.989 MPa
251,327.41 mm
95.0 MPa
T c
J
Ans.
(b) Angles of twist: The angles of twist in the two shaft segments are:
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
(1,193.662 Nm)(1,200 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.083373 rad
(613,592.32 mm )(28,000 N/mm )
(1,193.662 Nm)(750 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.044526 rad
(251,327.41 mm )(80,000 N/mm )
T L
J G
T L
J G
Rotation angle of D relative to B:
1 2
0.083373 rad 0.044526 rad 0.127899 rad 0.1279 rad
D B
Ans.
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6.61 The motor shown in Fig. P6.61 supplies 10 hp
at 1,500 rpm at A. The bearings shown permit free
rotation of the shafts.
(a) Shaft (1) is a solid 0.875in.diameter steel
shaft. Determine the maximum shear stress
produced in shaft (1).
(b) If the shear stress in shaft (2) must be limited to
6,000 psi, determine the minimum acceptable
diameter for shaft (2) if a solid shaft is used.
Fig. P6.61
Solution
Power transmission: The torque acting in shaft (1) and on gear B is:
1
550 lbft/s
10 hp
1 hp
35.014 lbft
1,500 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
B
P
T T
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia for shaft (1) is:
4 4 4
1 1
(0.875 in.) 0.057548 in.
32 32
J d
(a) Maximum shear stress in shaft (1):
1 1
1 4
1
(35.014 lbft)(0.875 in./2)(12 in./ft)
3,194.258 psi
0.057548 in.
3,194 psi
Tc
J
Ans.
(b) Equilibrium: The torque applied to gear C is:
30 teeth
(35.014 lbft) 21.884 lbft
48 teeth
C
C B
B
N
T T
N
The torque on shaft segment (2) as well as gear D is equal to the torque applied to gear C.
2
21.884 lbft
D C
T T T
The minimum diameter required for solid shaft (2) can be found from:
3 3 2
2
2,allow
2
(21.884 lbft)(12 in./ft)
0.043768 in.
16 6, 000 psi
0.606328 in. 0.606 in.
T
d
d Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.62 The motor shown in Fig. P6.62 supplies 12
kW at 15 Hz at A. The bearings shown permit free
rotation of the shafts.
(a) Shaft (2) is a solid 35mmdiameter steel shaft.
Determine the maximum shear stress produced in
shaft (2).
(b) If the shear stress in shaft (1) must be limited to
40 MPa, determine the minimum acceptable
diameter for shaft (1) if a solid shaft is used.
Fig. P6.62
Solution
Power transmission: The torque acting in shaft (1) and on gear B is:
1
12, 000 Nm/s
127.324 Nm
15 rev 2 rad
s 1 rev
B
P
T T
The torque applied to gear C is:
30 teeth
(127.324 Nm) 79.577 Nm
48 teeth
C
C B
B
N
T T
N
The torque on shaft segment (2) as well as gear D is equal to the torque applied to gear C.
2
79.577 Nm
D C
T T T
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia for shaft (2) is:
4 4 4
2 2
(35 mm) 147,323.515 mm
32 32
J d
(a) Maximum shear stress in shaft (2):
2 2
2 4
2
(79.577 Nm)(35 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
9.453 MPa
147,323.515 m
9.45
m
MPa
T c
J
Ans.
(b) Minimum diameter for solid shaft (1):
3 3 1
1 2
1,allow
1
(127.324 Nm)(1,000 mm/m)
3,183.099 mm
16 40 N/mm
25.309 m 25.3 m mm
T
d
d Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.63 The motor shown in Fig. P6.63 supplies 9
kW at 15 Hz at A. Shafts (1) and (2) are each
solid 25mmdiameter steel [G = 80 GPa] shafts
with lengths of L
1
= 900 mm and L
2
= 1,200 mm,
respectively. The bearings shown permit free
rotation of the shafts. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress produced in shafts
(1) and (2).
(b) the rotation angle of gear D with respect to
flange A.
Fig. P6.63
Solution
Power transmission: The magnitude of the torque acting in shaft (1) and on gear B is:
1
9, 000 Nm/s
95.493 Nm
15 rev 2 rad
s 1 rev
B
P
T T
The magnitude of the torque applied to gear C is:
54 teeth
(95.493 Nm) 143.239 Nm
36 teeth
C
C B
B
N
T T
N
The torque magnitude in shaft segment (2) as well as the magnitude of the torque acting on gear D is
equal to the torque applied to gear C.
2
143.239 Nm
D C
T T T
To determine the proper signs for T
1
and T
2
, consider equilibrium. First,
consider a FBD that cuts through shaft (2) and includes gear D.
2 2
0 143.239 Nm
x D D
M T T T T
Since T
2
is positive, the torque in shaft (1) must be negative; therefore,
1
95.493 Nm T
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for shafts (1) and (2) are equal:
4 4 4
1 1 2
(25 mm) 38,349.520 mm
32 32
J d J
(a) Maximum shear stress magnitudes:
1 1
1 4
1
(95.493 Nm)(25 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
31.126 MPa
38,349.520 mm
31.1 MPa
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(143.239 Nm)(25 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
46.689 MPa
38,349.520 mm
46.7 MPa
T c
J
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
( 95.493 Nm)(900 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.028013 rad
(38,349.520 mm )(80,000 N/mm )
T L
J G
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
(143.239 Nm)(1,200 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
0.056027 rad
(38,349.520 mm )(80,000 N/mm )
T L
J G
Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the angle of twist in shaft (1):
1 1
0 rad ( 0.028013 rad) 0.028013 rad
B A B A
As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the
rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:
36 teeth
( 0.028013 rad) 0.018676 rad
54 teeth
B
C B
C
N
N
(b) Rotation angle of gear D: The rotation of gear D with respect to flange A is found from:
2 2
0.018676 rad 0.056027 rad 0.0747 0.0747 rad 02 rad
D C D C
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.64 The motor shown in Fig. P6.64 supplies 150
hp at 1,800 rpm at A. Shafts (1) and (2) are each
solid 2in.diameter steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shafts
with lengths of L
1
= 75 in. and L
2
= 90 in.,
respectively. The bearings shown permit free
rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress
produced in shafts (1) and (2).
(b) Determine the rotation angle of gear D with
respect to flange A.
Fig. P6.64
Solution
Power transmission: The magnitude of the torque acting in shaft (1) and on gear B is:
1
550 lbft/s
150 hp
1 hp
437.676 lbft
1,800 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
B
P
T T
The magnitude of the torque applied to gear C is:
54 teeth
(437.676 lbft) 656.514 lbft
36 teeth
C
C B
B
N
T T
N
The torque magnitude in shaft segment (2) as well as the magnitude of the torque acting on gear D is
equal to the torque applied to gear C.
2
656.514 lbft
D C
T T T
To determine the proper signs for T
1
and T
2
, consider equilibrium. First,
consider a FBD that cuts through shaft (2) and includes gear D.
2 2
0 656.514 lbft
x D D
M T T T T
Since T
2
is positive, the torque in shaft (1) must be negative; therefore,
1
437.676 lbft T
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for shafts (1) and (2) are equal:
4 4 4
1 1 2
(2 in.) 1.570796 in.
32 32
J d J
(a) Maximum shear stress magnitudes:
1 1
1 4
1
(437.676 lbft)(2 in./2)(12 in./ft)
3,343 3,340 p .599 psi
1
si
.570796 in.
Tc
J
Ans.
2 2
2 4
2
(656.514 lbft)(2 in./2)(12 in./ft)
5, 015 5,020 p .399 psi
1
si
.570796 in.
T c
J
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):
1 1
1 4
1 1
( 437.676 lbft)(75 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.020897 rad
(1.570796 in. )(12,000,000 psi)
T L
J G
2 2
2 4
2 2
(656.514 lbft)(90 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.037615 rad
(1.570796 in. )(12,000,000 psi)
T L
J G
Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the angle of twist in shaft (1):
1 1
0 rad ( 0.020897 rad) 0.020897 rad
B A B A
As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the
rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:
36 teeth
( 0.020897 rad) 0.013932 rad
54 teeth
B
C B
C
N
N
(b) Rotation angle of gear D: The rotation of gear D with respect to flange A is found from:
2 2
0.013932 rad 0.037615 rad 0.0515 0.0515 rad 47 rad
D C D C
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.65 The gear train shown in Fig. P6.65
transmits power from a motor to a machine at E.
The motor turns at a frequency of 50 Hz. The
diameter of solid shaft (1) is 25 mm, the
diameter of solid shaft (2) is 32 mm, and the
allowable shear stress for each shaft is 60 MPa.
Determine:
(a) the maximum power that can be transmitted
by the gear train.
(b) the torque provided at gear E.
(c) the rotation speed of gear E (in Hz).
Fig. P6.65
Solution
Section properties:
4 4 4
1 1
4 4 4
2 2
(25 mm) 38,349.52 mm
32 32
(32 mm) 102,943.71 mm
32 32
J d
J d
Allowable torques in the shafts:
2 4
allow 1
1,allow
1
(60 N/mm )(38,349.52 mm )
184,078 Nmm
25 mm/2
J
T
c
2 4
allow 2
2,allow
2
(60 N/mm )(102,943.71 mm )
386,039 Nmm
32 mm/2
J
T
c
Torque relationships at the gears: The magnitudes of the torques acting on the gears are related by:
B D
B A D C
A C
N N
T T T T
N N
(a)
Equilibrium: The magnitudes of the torques in the gears and shafts are related by:
1 2 B C D E
T T T T T T (b)
Equations (a) and (b) express the relationship between the torque in shafts (1) and (2):
2 1
D
C
N
T T
N
(c)
Controlling shaft torque: In Eq. (c), let T
1
= T
1,allow
and compare the result with the allowable torque
for shaft (2):
1,allow 2,allow
check
60 teeth
(184, 078 Nmm) 368,156 Nmm 386, 039 Nm
30 teeth
D
C
N
T T
N
O.K.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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This calculation shows that the torque in shaft (1) controls the capacity of the gear train. Using this fact,
the torques throughout the gear train can be determined:
1 2
184, 078 Nmm 368,156 Nmm
184, 078 Nmm 368,156 Nmm
24 teeth
(184, 078 Nmm) 61,359 Nmm
72 teeth
B C D E
A
A B
B
T T
T T T T
N
T T
N
(a) Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted by the gear train can be found
from the torque and rotation speed at A:
50 rev 2 rad
19. (61.359 Nm) 19, 276.571 28 Nm/s k
s 1 rev
W
A A
P T Ans.
(b) Torque at gear E: Equations (a) and (b) can be combined to express the relationship between the
torque supplied by the motor at A and the torque available at gear E:
D D B D B D
E D C B A A
C C A C A C
N N N N N N
T T T T T T
N N N N N N
(d)
The torque available at gear E is thus:
72 teeth 60 teeth
(61.359 Nm) 368.154 Nm
24 teeth 30 teeth
368 Nm
B D
E A
A C
N N
T T
N N
Ans.
This result could also be found from the torque in shaft (2), as calculated previously.
(c) Rotation speed of gear E: There are a couple of ways to compute this speed. Using the gear ratios,
the speed of gear E can be found from:
24 teeth 30 teeth
(50 Hz)
72 teeth 60 te
8.3
et
3 z
h
H
A C
E A
B D
N N
N N
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.66 The gear train shown in Fig. P6.66
transmits power from a motor to a machine at
E. The motor turns at 2,250 rpm. The diameter
of solid shaft (1) is 1.50 in., the diameter of
solid shaft (2) is 2.00 in., and the allowable
shear stress for each shaft is 6 ksi. Determine:
(a) the maximum power that can be
transmitted by the gear train.
(b) the torque provided at gear E.
(c) the rotation speed of gear E (in Hz).
Fig. P6.66
Solution
Section properties:
4 4 4
1 1
4 4 4
2 2
(1.50 in.) 0.497010 in.
32 32
(2.00 in.) 1.570796 in.
32 32
J d
J d
Allowable torques in the shafts:
4
allow 1
1,allow
1
(6, 000 psi)(0.497010 in. )
3,976.1 lbin.
1.50 in./2
J
T
c
4
allow 2
2,allow
2
(6,000 psi)(1.570796 in. )
9, 424.8 lbin.
2.00 in./2
J
T
c
Torque relationships at the gears: The magnitudes of the torques acting on the gears are related by:
B D
B A D C
A C
N N
T T T T
N N
(a)
Equilibrium: The magnitudes of the torques in the gears and shafts are related by:
1 2 B C D E
T T T T T T (b)
Equations (a) and (b) express the relationship between the torque in shafts (1) and (2):
2 1
D
C
N
T T
N
(c)
Controlling shaft torque: In Eq. (c), let T
1
= T
1,allow
and compare the result with the allowable torque
for shaft (2):
1,allow 2,allow
check
60 teeth
(3, 976.1 lbin.) 7, 952.2 lbin. 9, 424.8 lbin.
30 teeth
D
C
N
T T
N
O.K.
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This calculation shows that the torque in shaft (1) controls the capacity of the gear train. Using this fact,
the torques throughout the gear train can be determined:
1 2
3, 976.1 lbin. 7, 952.2 lbin.
3, 976.1 lbin. 7, 952.2 lbin.
24 teeth
(3, 976.1 lbin.) 1, 325.4 lbin. 110.45 lbft
72 teeth
B C D E
A
A B
B
T T
T T T T
N
T T
N
(a) Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted by the gear train can be found
from the torque and rotation speed at A:
2,250 rev 2 rad 1 min
(110.45 lbft) 26, 023.381 lbft/s
min 1 rev
47.3 hp
60 s
A A
P T Ans.
(b) Torque at gear E: Equations (a) and (b) can be combined to express the relationship between the
torque supplied by the motor at A and the torque available at gear E:
D D B D B D
E D C B A A
C C A C A C
N N N N N N
T T T T T T
N N N N N N
(d)
The torque available at gear E is thus:
72 teeth 60 teeth
(110.45 lbft) 662.7 lbft
24 teeth 30 teet
663 lb t
h
f
B D
E A
A C
N N
T T
N N
Ans.
This result could also be found from the torque in shaft (2), as calculated previously.
(c) Rotation speed of gear E: There are a couple of ways to compute this speed. Using the gear ratios,
the speed of gear E can be found from:
24 teeth 30 teeth
(2, 250 rpm)
72 teeth 60 teeth
375 rpm
A C
E A
B D
N N
N N
Ans.
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6.67 A hollow circular coldrolled bronze [G
1
= 6,500 ksi] tube (1) with an outside diameter of 1.75 in.
and an inside diameter of 1.25 in. is securely bonded to a solid 1.25in.diameter coldrolled stainless
steel [G
2
= 12,500 ksi] core (2) as shown in Fig. P6.67. The allowable shear stress of tube (1) is 27 ksi,
and the allowable shear stress of core (2) is 60 ksi. Determine:
(a) the allowable torque T that can be applied to
the tubeandcore assembly.
(b) the corresponding torques produced in tube (1)
and core (2).
(c) the angle of twist produced in a 10in. length
of the assembly by the allowable torque T.
Fig. P6.67
Solution
Section Properties: For tube (1) and core (2), the polar moments of inertia are:
4 4 4
1
4 4
2
(1.75 in.) (1.25 in.) 0.681087 in.
32
(1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= =
Equilibrium:
1 2
0
x
M T T T E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the tube and core are securely bonded together, the
angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
1 2
o o = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
= (d)
Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (d) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:
Tc T
J J c
t
t = =
which allows Eq. (d) to be rewritten as:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
L L
Gc G c
t t
= (e)
Solve Eq. (e) for t
1
:
2 1 1
1 2 2 2
1 2 2
6,500 ksi 1.75 in./2
0.728
12,500 ksi 1.25 in./2
L G c
L G c
t t t t
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
(f)
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Assume the core controls: If the shear stress in core (2) reaches its allowable value of 60 ksi (in other
words, if the core controls), then the shear stress in tube (1) will be:
1
0.728(60 ksi) 43.68 ksi 27 ksi t = = > N.G.
which is larger than the 27ksi allowable shear stress for the tube. Therefore, the shear stress in the tube
controls.
Tube shear stress actually controls: Rearrange Eq. (f) to solve for the shear stress in core (2) given
that the shear stress in tube (1) is at its 27ksi allowable value:
2
27 ksi
37.088 ksi 60 ksi
0.728
t = = s O.K.
Now that the maximum shear stresses in the tube and the core are known, the torques in each component
can be computed:
4
1 1
1
1
4
2 2
2
2
(27 ksi)(0.681087 in. )
21.016 kipin.
1.75 in./2
(37.088 ksi)(0.239684 in. )
14.223 kipin.
1.25 in./2
J
T
c
J
T
c
t
t
= = =
= = =
(a) Total Torque: From Eq. (a), the total torque acting on the assembly must not exceed:
max 1 2
21.016 kipin. 14.223 kipin. 35.239 kipin. 35.2 kipin. T T T = + = + = = Ans.
(b) Torques in each component: As computed previously, the torque in tube (1) is:
1
21.0 kipin. T = Ans.
and the torque in core (2) is:
2
14.22 kipin. T = Ans.
(c) Angle of Twist produced in a 10in. length: Since both the tube and the core twist exactly the
same amount [i.e., Eq. (b)], either torquetwist relationship can be used to compute the angle of twist of
the entire assembly.
1 1
1 4
1 1
(21.016 kipin.)(10 in.)
0.047473 rad
(0.681087 in. )(
0.0475 ra
6,500 ksi)
d
T L
J G
o = = = = Ans.
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6.68 A hollow circular coldrolled bronze [G
1
= 6,500 ksi] tube (1) with an outside diameter of 1.75 in.
and an inside diameter of 1.25 in. is securely bonded to a solid 1.25in.diameter coldrolled stainless
steel [G
2
= 12,500 ksi] core (2) as shown in Fig. P6.68. If a torque of T = 20 kipin. is applied to the
tubeandcore assembly, determine:
(a) the torques produced in tube (1) and core (2).
(b) the maximum shear stress in the bronze tube
and in the stainless steel core.
(c) the angle of twist produced in a 10in. length
of the assembly.
Fig. P6.68
Solution
Section Properties: For tube (1) and core (2), the polar moments of inertia are:
4 4 4
1
4 4
2
(1.75 in.) (1.25 in.) 0.681087 in.
32
(1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= =
Equilibrium:
1 2
20 kipin. 0
x
M T T E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the tube and core are securely bonded together, the
angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
1 2
o o = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
= (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
1
:
4
2 1 1
1 2 2 2 4
1 2 2
0.681087 in. 6,500 ksi
1.477632
0.239684 in. 12,500 ksi
L J G
T T T T
L J G
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
2
in core (2):
1 2 2 2 2
2
1.477632 2.477632 20 kipin.
8.072 kipin. 8.07 kipin.
T T T T T
T
+ = + = =
= = Ans.
The torque in tube (1) is therefore:
1 2
20 kipin. 20 kipin. 8.072 kipin. 11.928 ki 11.93 kipin. pin. T T = ÷ = ÷ = = Ans.
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(b) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress in tube (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1
(11.928 kipin.)(1.75 in. / 2)
0.681087 in
15.32 ksi
.
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress in core (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2
(8.072 kipin.)(1.25 in. / 2)
0.239684 in.
21.0 ksi
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(c) Angle of Twist produced in a 10in. length: Since both the tube and the core twist exactly the
same amount [i.e., Eq. (b)], either torquetwist relationship can be used to compute the angle of twist of
the entire assembly.
1 1
1 4
1 1
(11.928 kipin.)(10 in.)
0.026943 rad
(0.681087 in. )(
0.0269 ra
6,500 ksi)
d
T L
J G
o = = = = Ans.
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6.69 A composite assembly consisting of a steel [G = 80 GPa] core (2) connected by rigid plates at the
ends of an aluminum [G = 28 GPa] tube (1) is shown in Fig. P6.69a. The crosssectional dimensions of
the assembly are shown in Fig. P6.69b. If a torque of T = 1,100 Nm is applied to the composite
assembly, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in the aluminum tube and in the steel core.
(b) the rotation angle of end B relative to end A.
Fig. P6.69a TubeandCore Composite Shaft Fig. P6.69b CrossSectional Dimensions
Solution
Section Properties: For aluminum tube (1) and steel core (2), the polar moments of inertia are:
4 4 4
1
4 4
2
(50 mm) (40 mm) 362, 265 mm
32
(20 mm) 15, 708.0 mm
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= =
Equilibrium:
1 2
1,100 Nm 0
x
M T T E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the tube and core are connected by rigid plates, the
angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
1 2
o o = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
= (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
1
:
4
2 1 1
1 2 2 2 4
1 2 2
362, 265 mm 28 GPa
8.071858
15, 708.0 mm 80 GPa
L J G
T T T T
L J G
 
 
= = =


\ .
\ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
2
in steel core (2):
1 2 2 2 2
2
8.071858 9.071858 1,100 Nm
121.254 Nm
T T T T T
T
+ = + = =
=
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The torque in aluminum tube (1) is therefore:
1 2
1,100 Nm 1,100 Nm 121.254 Nm 978.746 Nm T T = ÷ = ÷ =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress in aluminum tube (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1
(978.746 Nm)(50 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
362, 265 mm
67.5 MPa
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress in steel core (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2
(121.254 Nm)(20 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
15, 708.0 m
77.2 MPa
m
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Rotation Angle of B relative to A: Since both the tube and the core twist exactly the same amount
[i.e., Eq. (b)], either torquetwist relationship can be used to compute the angle of twist of the entire
assembly.
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(978.746 Nm)(300 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.028947 rad
(362,265 mm )(
0.028
28, 000 N/
r
m )
9 ad
m
T L
J G
o = = = = Ans.
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6.70 A composite assembly consisting of a steel [G = 80 GPa] core (2) connected by rigid plates at the
ends of an aluminum [G = 28 GPa] tube (1) is shown in Fig. P6.70a. The crosssectional dimensions of
the assembly are shown in Fig. P6.70b. The allowable shear stress of aluminum tube (1) is 90 MPa, and
the allowable shear stress of steel core (2) is 130 MPa. Determine:
(a) the allowable torque T that can be applied to the composite shaft.
(b) the corresponding torques produced in tube (1) and core (2).
(c) the angle of twist produced by the allowable torque T.
Fig. P6.70a TubeandCore Composite Shaft Fig. P6.70b CrossSectional Dimensions
Solution
Section Properties: For aluminum tube (1) and steel core (2), the polar moments of inertia are:
4 4 4
1
4 4
2
(50 mm) (40 mm) 362, 265 mm
32
(20 mm) 15, 708.0 mm
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= =
Equilibrium:
1 2
0
x
M T T T E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the tube and core are connected by rigid plates, the
angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
1 2
o o = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
= (d)
Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (d) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:
Tc T
J J c
t
t = =
which allows Eq. (d) to be rewritten as:
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
L L
Gc G c
t t
= (e)
Solve Eq. (e) for t
1
:
2 1 1
1 2 2 2
1 2 2
28 GPa 50 mm/2
0.875
80 GPa 20 mm/2
L G c
L G c
t t t t
   
= = =
 
\ . \ .
(f)
Assume the core controls: If the shear stress in core (2) reaches its allowable value of 130 MPa (in
other words, if the core controls), then the shear stress in tube (1) will be:
1
0.875(130 MPa) 113.75 MPa 90 MPa t = = > N.G.
which is larger than the 90 MPa allowable shear stress for the tube. Therefore, the shear stress in the
tube controls.
Tube shear stress actually controls: Rearrange Eq. (f) to solve for the shear stress in core (2) given
that the shear stress in tube (1) is at its 90 MPa allowable value:
2
90 MPa
102.857 MPa 130 MPa
0.875
t = = s O.K.
Now that the maximum shear stresses in the tube and the core are known, the torques in each component
can be computed:
2 4
1 1
1
1
4
2 2
2
2
(90 N/mm )(362,265 mm )
1,304,154 Nmm
50 mm/2
(102.857 MPa)(15,708.0 mm )
161,568 Nmm
20 mm/2
J
T
c
J
T
c
t
t
= = =
= = =
(a) Total Torque: From Eq. (a), the total torque acting on the assembly must not exceed:
max 1 2
1,304,154 Nmm 161,568 Nmm 1, 465,721 Nmm 1,466 Nm T T T = + = + = = Ans.
(b) Torques in each component: As computed previously, the torque in tube (1) is:
1
1,304 Nm T = Ans.
and the torque in core (2) is:
2
161.6 Nm T = Ans.
(c) Angle of Twist: Since both the tube and the core twist exactly the same amount [i.e., Eq. (b)], either
torquetwist relationship can be used to compute the angle of twist of the entire assembly.
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(1,304,154 Nmm)(300 mm)
0.038571 rad
(362,265 mm )(28,
0.0386 ra
000 N/
d
mm )
T L
J G
o = = = = Ans.
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6.71 The composite shaft shown in Fig. P6.71 consists of a bronze sleeve (1) securely bonded to an inner
steel core (2). The bronze sleeve has an outside diameter of 35 mm, an inside diameter of 25 mm, and a
shear modulus of G
1
= 45 GPa. The solid steel core has a diameter of 25 mm and a shear modulus of G
2
= 80 GPa. The allowable shear stress of sleeve (1) is 180 MPa, and the allowable shear stress of core (2)
is 150 MPa. Determine:
(a) the allowable torque T that can be applied to the
composite shaft.
(b) the corresponding torques produced in sleeve (1) and
core (2).
(c) the rotation angle of end B relative to end A that is
produced by the allowable torque T.
Fig. P6.71
Solution
Section Properties: For bronze sleeve (1) and steel core (2), the polar moments of inertia are:
4 4 4
1
4 4
2
(35 mm) (25 mm) 108,974 mm
32
(25 mm) 38,349.5 mm
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= =
Equilibrium:
1 2
0
x
M T T T E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the sleeve and core are securely bonded together, the
angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
1 2
o o = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
= (d)
Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (d) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:
Tc T
J J c
t
t = =
which allows Eq. (d) to be rewritten as:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
L L
Gc G c
t t
= (e)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Solve Eq. (e) for t
1
:
2 1 1
1 2 2 2
1 2 2
45 GPa (35 mm/2)
0.7875
80 GPa (25 mm/2)
L G c
L G c
t t t t
 
 
= = =


\ .
\ .
(f)
Assume the core controls: If the shear stress in core (2) reaches its allowable value of 150 MPa (in
other words, if the core controls), then the shear stress in sleeve (1) will be:
1
0.7875(150 MPa) 118.125 MPa 180 MPa t = = s O.K.
This calculation shows that the shear stress in the core does in fact controls.
Now that the maximum shear stresses in the sleeve and the core are known, the torques in each
component can be computed:
2 4
1 1
1
1
4
2 2
2
2
(118.125 N/mm )(108,974 mm )
735,574 Nmm
35 mm/2
(150 MPa)(38,349.5 mm )
460,194 Nmm
25 mm/2
J
T
c
J
T
c
t
t
= = =
= = =
(a) Total Torque: From Eq. (a), the total torque acting on the assembly must not exceed:
max 1 2
735,574 Nmm 460,194 Nmm 1,195,769 Nmm 1,196 Nm T T T = + = + = = Ans.
(b) Torques in each component: As computed previously, the torque in sleeve (1) is:
1
736 Nm T = Ans.
and the torque in core (2) is:
2
460 Nm T = Ans.
(c) Angle of Twist: Since both the sleeve and the core twist exactly the same amount [i.e., Eq. (b)],
either torquetwist relationship can be used to compute the angle of twist of the entire assembly.
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(735,574 Nmm)(360 mm)
0.054000 rad
(108,974 mm )(45, 0
0.0540 ra
00 N )
d
/mm
T L
J G
o = = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.72 The composite shaft shown in Fig. P6.72 consists
of a bronze sleeve (1) securely bonded to an inner steel
core (2). The bronze sleeve has an outside diameter of
35 mm, an inside diameter of 25 mm, and a shear
modulus of G
1
= 45 GPa. The solid steel core has a
diameter of 25 mm and a shear modulus of G
2
= 80 GPa.
The composite shaft is subjected to a torque of T = 900
Nm. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stresses in the bronze sleeve and
the steel core.
(b) the rotation angle of end B relative to end A.
Fig. P6.72
Solution
Section Properties: For bronze sleeve (1) and steel core (2), the polar moments of inertia are:
4 4 4
1
4 4
2
(35 mm) (25 mm) 108,974 mm
32
(25 mm) 38,349.5 mm
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= =
Equilibrium:
1 2
900 Nm 0
x
M T T E = + ÷ = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the sleeve and core are securely bonded together, the
angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
1 2
o o = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
= (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
1
:
4
2 1 1
1 2 2 2 4
1 2 2
108,974 mm 45 GPa
1.598401
38,349.5 mm 80 GPa
L J G
T T T T
L J G
 
 
= = =


\ .
\ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
2
in steel core (2):
1 2 2 2 2
2
1.598401 2.598401 900 Nm
346.367 Nm
T T T T T
T
+ = + = =
=
The torque in bronze sleeve (1) is therefore:
1 2
900 Nm 900 Nm 346.367 Nm 553.633 Nm T T = ÷ = ÷ =
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(a) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress in bronze sleeve (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1
(553.633 Nm)(35 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
108,974 mm
88.9 MPa
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress in steel core (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2
(346.367 Nm)(25 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
38,349.5 mm
112.9 MPa
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Rotation Angle of B relative to A: Since both the sleeve and the core twist exactly the same
amount [i.e., Eq. (b)], either torquetwist relationship can be used to compute the angle of twist of the
entire assembly.
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(553.633 Nm)(360 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.040643 rad
(108,974 mm )(
0.040
45, 000 N/
r
m )
6 ad
m
T L
J G
o = = = = Ans.
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6.73 The composite shaft shown in Fig. P6.73
consists of two steel pipes that are connected at
flange B and securely attached to rigid walls at A
and C. Steel pipe (1) has an outside diameter of
168 mm and a wall thickness of 7 mm. Steel pipe
(2) has an outside diameter of 114 mm and a wall
thickness of 6 mm. Both pipes are 3m long and
have a shear modulus of 80 GPa. If a concentrated
torque of 20 kNm is applied to flange B,
determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitudes in pipes
(1) and (2).
(b) the rotation angle of flange B relative to
support A.
Fig. P6.73
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the two steel pipes are:
4 4 4
1
4 4 4
2
(168 mm) (154 mm) 22,987,183 mm
32
(114 mm) (102 mm) 5,954,575 mm
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
Equilibrium:
1 2
20 kNm 0
x
M T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two steel pipes are securely attached to fixed
supports at A and C, the sum of the angles of twist in the two pipes must equal zero:
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
T L T L
J G J G
+ = (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
1
:
2 1 1
1 2
1 2 2
4
2 4
4
2 2 4
3 m 22,987,183 mm 80 GPa
3 m 5,954,575 mm 80 GPa
22,987,183 mm
3.860424
5,954,575 mm
L J G
T T
L J G
T
T T
= ÷
 
   
= ÷
 

\ . \ .
\ .
 
= ÷ = ÷

\ .
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and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
2
:
( )
1 2 2 2 2
2
3.860424 4.860424 20 kNm
4.1149 kNm
T T T T T
T
÷ + = ÷ ÷ + = = ÷
= ÷
The torque in member (1) is therefore:
1 2
20 kNm 4.1149 kNm 20 kNm 15.8851 kNm T T = + = ÷ + =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (1) is:
2
1 1
1 4
1
(15.8851 kNm)(168 mm/ 2)(1, 000)
22,987,183 mm
58.0 MPa
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (2) is:
2
2 2
2 4
2
(4.1149 kNm)(114 mm/ 2)(1, 000)
5,954,575 mm
39.4 MPa
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Rotation Angle of Flange B Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends; hence,
1 B A
o o o = ÷
Since joint A is restrained from rotating, o
A
= 0 and thus
1 B
o o =
The rotation angle at B can be determined by computing the angle of twist in member (1):
1 1
1
1 1
4 2
(15.8851 kNm)(3,000 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)(1,000 N/kN)
(22,987,183 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
0.025914 ra 0.0259 r d ad
T L
J G
o =
=
= = Ans.
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6.74 The composite shaft shown in Fig. P6.74 consists of two steel pipes that are connected at flange B
and securely attached to rigid walls at A and C. Steel pipe (1) has an outside diameter of 8.625 in., a wall
thickness of 0.322 in., and a length of L
1
= 15 ft. Steel pipe (2) has an outside diameter of 6.625 in., a
wall thickness of 0.280 in., and a length of L
2
= 25 ft. Both pipes have a shear modulus of 12,000 ksi.
If a concentrated torque of 36 kipft is
applied to flange B, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitudes
in pipes (1) and (2).
(b) the rotation angle of flange B relative
to support A.
Fig. P6.74
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the two steel pipes are:
4 4 4
1
4 4 4
2
(8.625 in.) (7.981 in.) 144.978 in.
32
(6.625 in.) (6.065 in.) 56.284 in.
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
Equilibrium:
1 2
36 kipft 0
x
M T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two steel pipes are securely attached to fixed
supports at A and C, the sum of the angles of twist in the two pipes must equal zero:
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
T L T L
J G J G
+ = (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
1
:
2 1 1
1 2
1 2 2
4
2 2 4
25 ft 144.978 in. 12, 000 ksi
4.293050
15 ft 56.284 in. 12, 000 ksi
L J G
T T
L J G
T T
= ÷
     
= ÷ = ÷
  
\ . \ . \ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
2
:
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( )
1 2 2 2 2
2
4.293050 5.293050 36 kipft
6.801 kipft
T T T T T
T
÷ + = ÷ ÷ + = = ÷
= ÷
The torque in member (1) is therefore:
1 2
36 kipft 6.801 kipft 36 kipft 29.199 kipft T T = + = ÷ + =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1
(29.199 kipft)(8.625 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
144.978 in.
10.42 ksi
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2
(6.801 kipft)(6.625 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
56.284 in
4.80 ksi
.
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Rotation Angle of Flange B Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends; hence,
1 B A
o o o = ÷
Since joint A is restrained from rotating, o
A
= 0 and thus
1 B
o o =
The rotation angle at B can be determined by computing the angle of twist in member (1):
1 1
1
1 1
2
4
(29.199 kipft)(15 ft)(12 in./ft)
(144.978 in. )(12, 000 ksi)
0.036252 rad 0.0363 rad
T L
J G
o =
=
= = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.75 The composite shaft shown in Fig. P6.75 consists of a solid brass segment (1) and a solid aluminum
segment (2) that are connected at flange B and securely attached to rigid supports at A and C. Brass
segment (1) has a diameter of 1.00 in., a length of L
1
= 15 in., a shear modulus of 5,600 ksi, and an
allowable shear stress of 8 ksi. Aluminum segment (2) has a diameter of 0.75 in., a length of L
2
= 20 in.,
a shear modulus of 4,000 ksi, and an allowable shear stress of 6 ksi. Determine:
(a) the allowable torque T
B
that can be
applied to the composite shaft at flange B.
(b) the magnitudes of the internal torques in
segments (1) and (2).
(c) the rotation angle of flange B that is
produced by the allowable torque T
B
.
Fig. P6.75
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the two shafts are:
4 4
1
4 4
2
(1.00 in.) 0.098175 in.
32
(0.75 in.) 0.031063 in.
32
J
J
t
t
= =
= =
Equilibrium:
1 2
0
x B
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two shafts are securely attached to fixed supports
at A and C, the sum of the angles of twist in the two members must equal zero:
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
T L T L
J G J G
+ = (d)
Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (d) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:
Tc T
J J c
t
t = =
which allows Eq. (d) to be rewritten as:
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1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
L L
Gc G c
t t
= ÷ (e)
Solve Eq. (e) for t
1
:
2 1 1
1 2 2 2
1 2 2
20 in. 5, 600 ksi 1.00 in./2
2.488889
15 in. 4,000 ksi 0.75 in./2
L G c
L G c
t t t t
     
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
  
\ . \ . \ .
(f)
Assume the shaft (2) controls: If the shear stress in shaft (2) reaches its allowable magnitude of 6 ksi,
then the shear stress magnitude in shaft (1) will be:
1
2.488889(6 ksi) 14.9333 ksi 8 ksi t = ÷ = > N.G.
which is larger than the 8 ksi allowable shear stress magnitude for shaft (1). Therefore, the shear stress
magnitude in shaft (1) must control.
Shaft (1) actually controls: Rearrange Eq. (f) to solve for the shear stress magnitude in shaft (2) given
that the shear stress magnitude in shaft (1) is at its 8 ksi allowable magnitude:
2
8 ksi
3.214 ksi 6 ksi
2.488889
t = = s
÷
O.K.
Now that the maximum shear stress magnitudes in the two shafts are known, the torque magnitudes in
each component can be computed:
4
1 1
1
1
4
2 2
2
2
(8 ksi)(0.098175 in. )
1.571 kipin.
1.00 in./2
(3.214 ksi)(0.031063 in. )
0.266 kipin.
0.75 in./2
J
T
c
J
T
c
t
t
= = =
= = =
Note that these are torque magnitudes. From inspection of the FBD of flange B and the associated
equilibrium equation, it is apparent that T
2
must act opposite to the direction assumed in the FBD, giving
it a negative value. Therefore, by inspection
2
0.266 kipin. T = ÷
(a) Total Torque: From Eq. (a), the total torque acting at flange B must not exceed:
,max 1 2
1.571 kipin. ( 0.266 kipin.) 1.837 kipin.
B
T T T = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.
(b) Torques Magnitudes: As computed previously, the torque magnitude in shaft (1) is:
1
1.571 kipin. T = Ans.
and the torque magnitude in shaft (2) is:
2
0.266 kipin. T = Ans.
(c) Rotation Angle of Flange B Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends; hence,
1 B A
o o o = ÷
Since joint A is restrained from rotating, o
A
= 0 and thus
1 B
o o =
The rotation angle at B can be determined by computing the angle of twist in member (1):
1 1
1 4
1 1
(1.571 kipin.)(15 in.)
0.042857 rad
(0.098175 in. )(
0.0429 ra
5, 600 ksi)
d
T L
J G
o = = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.76 The composite shaft shown in Fig. P6.76
consists of a solid brass segment (1) and a solid
aluminum segment (2) that are connected at flange
B and securely attached to rigid walls at A and C.
Brass segment (1) has a diameter of 18 mm, a
length of L
1
= 235 mm, and a shear modulus of 39
GPa. Aluminum segment (2) has a diameter of 24
mm, a length of L
2
= 165 mm, and a shear modulus
of 28 GPa. If a concentrated torque of 270 Nm is
applied to flange B, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitudes in
segments (1) and (2).
(b) the rotation angle of flange B relative to
support A.
Fig. P6.76
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the two steel pipes are:
4 4
1
4 4
2
(18 mm) 10,306.0 mm
32
(24 mm) 32,572.0 mm
32
J
J
t
t
= =
= =
Equilibrium:
1 2
270 Nm 0
x
M T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two steel pipes are securely attached to fixed
supports at A and C, the sum of the angles of twist in the two pipes must equal zero:
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
T L T L
J G J G
+ = (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
1
:
2 1 1
1 2
1 2 2
4
2 2 4
165 mm 10,306.0 mm 39 GPa
0.309434
235 mm 32,572.0 mm 28 GPa
L J G
T T
L J G
T T
= ÷
 
   
= ÷ = ÷
 

\ . \ .
\ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
2
:
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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( )
1 2 2 2 2
2
0.309434 1.309434 270 Nm
206.1959 Nm
T T T T T
T
÷ + = ÷ ÷ + = = ÷
= ÷
The torque in member (1) is therefore:
1 2
270 Nm 206.1959 Nm 270 Nm 63.8041 Nm T T = + = ÷ + =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1
(63.8041 Nm)(18 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
10,306.0 m
55.7 MPa
m
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2
(206.1959 Nm)(24 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
32,572.0 m
76.0 MPa
m
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Rotation Angle of Flange B Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends; hence,
1 B A
o o o = ÷
Since joint A is restrained from rotating, o
A
= 0 and thus
1 B
o o =
The rotation angle at B can be determined by computing the angle of twist in member (1):
1 1
1
1 1
4 2
(63.8041 Nm)(235 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
(10,306.0 mm )(39, 000 N/mm )
0.037305 rad 0.0373 rad
T L
J G
o =
=
= = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.77 The composite shaft shown in Fig. P6.77
consists of a stainless steel tube (1) and a brass
tube (2) that are connected at flange B and securely
attached to rigid supports at A and C. Stainless
steel tube (1) has an outside diameter of 2.25 in., a
wall thickness of 0.250 in., a length of L
1
= 40 in.,
and a shear modulus of 12,500 ksi. Brass tube (2)
has an outside diameter of 3.500 in., a wall
thickness of 0.219 in., a length of L
2
= 20 in., and a
shear modulus of 5,600 ksi. If a concentrated
torque of T
B
= 42 kipin. is applied to flange B,
determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitudes in tubes
(1) and (2).
(b) the rotation angle of flange B relative to
support A.
Fig. P6.77
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the two tubes are:
4 4 4
1
4 4 4
2
(2.250 in.) (1.750 in.) 1.595340 in.
32
(3.500 in.) (3.062 in.) 6.102156 in.
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
Equilibrium:
1 2
42 kipin. 0
x
M T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two tubes are securely attached to fixed supports at
A and C, the sum of the angles of twist in the two tubes must equal zero:
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
T L T L
J G J G
+ = (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
1
:
2 1 1
1 2
1 2 2
4
2 2 4
20 in. 1.595340 in. 12,500 ksi
0.291784
40 in. 6.102156 in. 5, 600 ksi
L J G
T T
L J G
T T
= ÷
     
= ÷ = ÷
  
\ . \ . \ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
2
:
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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( )
1 2 2 2 2
2
0.291784 1.291784 42 kipin.
32.5132 kipin.
T T T T T
T
÷ + = ÷ ÷ + = = ÷
= ÷
The torque in member (1) is therefore:
1 2
42 kipin. 32.5132 kipin. 42 kipin. 9.4868 kipin. T T = + = ÷ + =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1
(9.4868 kipin.)(2.250 in. / 2)
1.595340 in.
6.69 ksi
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2
(32.5132 kipin.)(3.500 in. / 2)
6.102156 in.
9.32 ksi
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Rotation Angle of Flange B Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends; hence,
1 B A
o o o = ÷
Since joint A is restrained from rotating, o
A
= 0 and thus
1 B
o o =
The rotation angle at B can be determined by computing the angle of twist in member (1):
1 1
1
1 1
4
(9.4868 kipin.)(40 in.)
(1.595340 in. )(12,500 ksi)
0.019029 rad 0.01903 rad
T L
J G
o =
=
= = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.78 The composite shaft shown in Fig. P6.78
consists of a stainless steel tube (1) and a brass
tube (2) that are connected at flange B and securely
attached to rigid supports at A and C. Stainless
steel tube (1) has an outside diameter of 2.25 in., a
wall thickness of 0.250 in., a length of L
1
= 40 in.,
and a shear modulus of 12,500 ksi. Brass tube (2)
has an outside diameter of 3.500 in., a wall
thickness of 0.219 in., a length of L
2
= 20 in., and a
shear modulus of 5,600 ksi. The allowable shear
stress in the stainless steel is 50 ksi, and the
allowable shear stress in the brass is 18 ksi.
Determine:
(a) the allowable torque T
B
that can be applied to
the composite shaft at flange B.
(b) the rotation angle of flange B that is produced
by the allowable torque T
B
.
Fig. P6.78
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the two tubes are:
4 4 4
1
4 4 4
2
(2.250 in.) (1.750 in.) 1.595340 in.
32
(3.500 in.) (3.062 in.) 6.102156 in.
32
J
J
t
t
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
Equilibrium:
1 2
0
x B
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two tubes are securely attached to fixed supports at
A and C, the sum of the angles of twist in the two tubes must equal zero:
1 2
0 o o + = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0
T L T L
J G J G
+ = (d)
Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (d) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:
Tc T
J J c
t
t = =
which allows Eq. (d) to be rewritten as:
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1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
L L
Gc G c
t t
= ÷ (e)
Solve Eq. (e) for t
1
:
2 1 1
1 2 2 2
1 2 2
20 in. 12,500 ksi 2.250 in./2
0.717474
40 in. 5,600 ksi 3.500 in./2
L G c
L G c
t t t t
     
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
  
\ . \ . \ .
(f)
Assume the shaft (2) controls: If the shear stress in shaft (2) reaches its allowable magnitude of 18 ksi,
then the shear stress magnitude in shaft (1) will be:
1
0.717474(18 ksi) 12.914541 ksi 50 ksi t = ÷ = s O.K.
This calculation shows that the shear stress in shaft (2) does in fact control.
Now that the maximum shear stress magnitudes in the two shafts are known, the torque magnitudes in
each component can be computed:
4
1 1
1
1
4
2 2
2
2
(12.914541 ksi)(1.595340 in. )
18.3139 kipin.
2.250 in./2
(18 ksi)(6.102156 in. )
62.7650 kipin.
3.500 in./2
J
T
c
J
T
c
t
t
= = =
= = =
Note that these are torque magnitudes. From inspection of the FBD of flange B and the associated
equilibrium equation, it is apparent that T
2
must act opposite to the direction assumed in the FBD, giving
it a negative value. Therefore, by inspection
2
62.7650 kipin. T = ÷
(a) Allowable Torque T
B
: From Eq. (a), the total torque acting at flange B must not exceed:
,max 1 2
18.3138 kipin. ( 62.7650 kipin.) 81.0788 kipin 81.1 kip n . i .
B
T T T = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = = Ans.
(b) Rotation Angle of Flange B Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends; hence,
1 B A
o o o = ÷
Since joint A is restrained from rotating, o
A
= 0 and thus
1 B
o o =
The rotation angle at B can be determined by computing the angle of twist in member (1):
1 1
1 4
1 1
(18.3139 kipin.)(40 in.)
0.036735 rad
(1.595340 in. )(1
0.0367 ra
2,500 ksi)
d
T L
J G
o = = = = Ans.
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6.79 The torsional assembly of Fig. P6.79
consists of a coldrolled stainless steel tube
connected to a solid coldrolled brass
segment at flange C. The assembly is
securely fastened to rigid supports at A and
D. Stainless steel tube (1) and (2) has an
outside diameter of 3.50 in., a wall thickness
of 0.120 in., and a shear modulus of G =
12,500 ksi. The solid brass segment (3) has a
diameter of 2.00 in. and a shear modulus of
G = 5,600 ksi. A concentrated torque of T
B
=
6 kipft is applied to the stainless steel pipe
at B. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
the stainless steel tube.
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
brass segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of flange C.
Fig. P6.79
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the stainless steel tube and the solid brass
segment are:
4 4 4
1 2
4 4
3
(3.500 in.) (3.260 in.) 3.643915 in.
32
(2.0 in.) 1.570796 in.
32
J J
J
t
t
= ÷ = =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut around joint
B, where the external torque T
B
is applied:
1 2
0
x B
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
and also consider a FBD cut around joint C. Although there is
not an external torque applied at joint C, the section properties
of the torsion structure change at C.
2 3 2 3
0
x
M T T T T E = ÷ + = = (b)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 2 3
0 o o o + + = (c)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
o o o = = = (d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (d)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
+ + = (e)
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Solve the Equations: The approach used here will be to reduce the variables in Eq. (e) by replacing T
1
and T
3
with equivalent expressions involving T
2
. From Eq. (a):
1 2 B
T T T = + (f)
Substitute Eqs. (b) and (f) into Eq. (e) and simplify to derive an expression for T
2
:
2 1 2 2 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3 1
2
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1
1
1 1
2
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
( )
0
B
B
B
T T L T L T L
J G J G J G
L L L T L
T
J G J G J G J G
T L
J G
T
L L L
J G J G J G
+
+ + =
+ + = ÷
= ÷
+ +
(e)
Note that G
1
= G
2
and J
1
= J
2
. Compute T
2
:
4
2
4 4
(6 kipft)(42 in.)(12 in./ft)
(3.643915 in. )(12,500 ksi)
42 in. 30 in. 24 in.
(3.643915 in. )(12,500 ksi) (1.570796 in. )(5,600 ksi)
15.4070 kipin.
T = ÷
+
+
= ÷
Substitute this result into Eq. (f) to compute internal torque T
1
:
1 2
15.4070 kipin. (6 kipft)(12 in./ft) 56.5930 kipin.
B
T T T = + = ÷ + =
and from Eq. (b):
3 2
15.4070 kipin. T T = = ÷
Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitudes in the three members are:
1 1
1 4
1
(56.5930 kipin.)(3.500 in. / 2)
27.2 ksi
3.643915 in.
Tc
J
t = = =
2 2
2 4
2
(15.4070 kipin.)(3.500 in. / 2)
7.40 ksi
3.643915 in.
T c
J
t = = =
3 3
3 4
3
(15.4070 kipin.)(2.000 in. / 2)
9.81 ksi
1.570796 in.
T c
J
t = = =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Stainless Steel Tube:
1
27.2 ksi t = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Brass Shaft:
3
9.81 ksi t = Ans.
(c) Rotation Angle of Flange C Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends:
1 1 B A B A
o o o o o o = ÷ = + (f)
Similarly, the angle of twist in member (2) can be defined by:
2 2 C B C B
o o o o o o = ÷ = + (g)
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To derive an expression for o
C
, substitute Eq. (f) into Eq. (g), and note that joint A is restrained from
rotating; therefore, o
A
= 0.
1 2 C
o o o = +
The angle of twist in member (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1 1
(56.5930 kipin.)(42 in.)
0.052184 rad
(3.643915 in. )(12,500 ksi)
T L
J G
o = = =
The angle of twist in member (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2 2
( 15.4070 kipin.)(30 in.)
0.010148 rad
(3.643915 in. )(12,500 ksi)
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
The rotation angle of flange C is thus:
1 2
0.052184 rad ( 0.010148 rad) 0.042036 rad 0.0420 rad
C
o o o = + = + ÷ = = Ans.
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6.80 The torsional assembly of Fig. P6.80
consists of a coldrolled stainless steel tube
connected to a solid coldrolled brass
segment at flange C. The assembly is
securely fastened to rigid supports at A and
D. Stainless steel tubes (1) and (2) have an
outside diameter of 3.50 in., a wall thickness
of 0.120 in., a shear modulus of G = 12,500
ksi, and an allowable shear stress of 30 ksi.
The solid brass segment (3) has a diameter
of 2.00 in., a shear modulus of G = 5,600
ksi, and an allowable shear stress of 18 ksi.
Determine the maximum permissible
magnitude for the concentrated torque T
B
.
Fig. P6.80
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the stainless steel tube and the solid brass segment
are:
4 4 4
1 2
4 4
3
(3.500 in.) (3.260 in.) 3.643915 in.
32
(2.0 in.) 1.570796 in.
32
J J
J
t
t
= ÷ = =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut around joint
B, where the external torque T
B
is applied:
1 2
0
x B
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
and also consider a FBD cut around joint C. Although there is
not an external torque applied at joint C, the section properties
of the torsion structure change at C.
2 3 2 3
0
x
M T T T T E = ÷ + = = (b)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 2 3
0 o o o + + = (c)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
o o o = = = (d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (d)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
+ + = (e)
Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (e) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:
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Tc T
J J c
t
t = =
which allows Eq. (e) to be rewritten as:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
L L L
Gc G c G c
t t t
+ + = (f)
Also using the elastic torsion formula, Eq. (b) can be expressed in terms of stress:
2 2 3 3 3 2 2
2 3 3 2 3
J J J
c c c c J
t t t t
= = (g)
Substitute Eq. (g) into Eq. (f) to obtain
1 1 2 2 3 2 2
1 1 2 2 3 2 3
0
L L L J
Gc G c G c J
t t t
+ + =
Simplify:
2 3 2
1 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3
1 2 1 2
1
1 1 2 2 3 2 3
1 1
L L J
L L L J G c G c J
L
Gc G c G c J
Gc
t t t t
+
= ÷ + = ÷
Substitute values:
4
4
1 2
2
30 in. 24 in. 3.643915 in.
(12,500 ksi)(3.50 in./2) (5, 600 ksi)(3.50 in./2) 1.570796 in.
42 in.
(12,500 ksi)(3.50 in./2)
3.6732
t t
t
 
+

\ .
= ÷
= ÷
This calculation demonstrates that the shear stress in segment (1) of the stainless steel tube is much
larger than the shear stress in segment (2). If the shear stress magnitude in segment (1) is 30 ksi, then
the shear stress magnitude in segment (2) will be:
1
2
8.1673 ksi
3.6732
t
t = ÷ = (h)
Next, we need to check the corresponding shear stress in brass shaft (3). From Eq. (g):
3 2
3 2
2 3
c J
c J
t t =
Substitute the magnitude obtained for t
2
in Eq. (h) into this expression and calculate the corresponding
shear stress magnitude in shaft (3):
4
3 4
2.00 in./2 3.643915 in.
(8.1673 ksi) 10.8265 ksi 18 ksi
3.50 in./2 1.570796 in.
t
 
 
= = s


\ .
\ .
O.K.
Now that the maximum shear stresses in the three shaft segments are known, the torques in each
component can be computed:
4
1 1
1
1
4
2 2
2
2
4
3 3
3
3
(30 ksi)(3.643915 in. )
62.4671 kipin.
3.50 in./2
( 8.1673 ksi)(3.643915 in. )
17.0062 kipin.
3.50 in./2
( 10.8265 ksi)(1.570796 in. )
17.0062 kipin.
2.00 in./2
J
T
c
J
T
c
J
T
c
t
t
t
= = =
÷
= = = ÷
÷
= = = ÷
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Maximum Permissible Torque T
B
: From Eq. (a), the torque T
B
acting on the assembly must not
exceed:
,max 1 2
62.4671 kipin. ( 17.062 kipin.) 79.4733 kipin 79.5 kip n . i .
B
T T T = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = = Ans.
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6.81 The torsional assembly of Fig. P6.81a consists of a solid 75mmdiameter bronze [G = 45 GPa]
segment (1) securely connected at flange B to solid 75mmdiameter stainless steel [G = 86 GPa]
segments (2) and (3). The flange at B is secured by four 14mmdiameter bolts, which are each located
on a 120mmdiameter bolt circle (Fig. P6.81b). The allowable shear stress of the bolts is 90 MPa, and
friction effects in the flange can be neglected for this analysis. Determine:
(a) the allowable torque T
C
that can be applied to the assembly at C without exceeding the capacity of
the bolted flange connection.
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in bronze segment (1).
(c) the maximum shear stress magnitude in stainless steel segments (2) and (3).
Fig. P6.81a Fig. P6.81b Flange B Bolts
Solution
Section Properties: For bronze segment (1) and stainless steel segments (2) and (3), the polar moments
of inertia are identical:
4 4
1 2 3
(75 mm) 3,106,311 mm
32
J J J
t
= = = =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut around
flange B:
1 2 1 2
0
x
M T T T T E = ÷ + = = (a)
and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the
external torque T
C
is applied:
2 3
0
x C
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (b)
Capacity of Flange B: The flange at B is secured by four 14mmdiameter bolts, which are each
located on a 120mmdiameter bolt circle. The allowable shear stress of the bolts is 90 MPa, and each
bolt acts in single shear. The crosssectional area of a single bolt is:
2 2
bolt
(14 mm) 153.9380 mm
4
A
t
= =
The shear force that can be provided by each bolt is:
2 2
bolt
(90 N/mm )(153.9380 mm ) 13, 854.4236 N V = =
The total torque that can resisted by the bolts is thus:
,max
(4 bolts)(13,954.4236 N/bolt)(120 mm/2) 3, 325, 062 Nmm
B
T = =
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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The internal torques in segments (1) and (2) cannot exceed this magnitude; therefore, based on Eq. (a):
1 2
3, 325, 062 Nmm T T = = (c)
From Eq. (b), we observe that the external torque applied to the shaft is related to internal torques T
2
and
T
3
. We must determine the relationship between these two internal torques by developing a
compatibility equation, which is based on the geometry of deformations for this configuration.
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three segments must equal
zero:
1 2 3
0 o o o + + = (d)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
o o o = = = (e)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (e)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (d)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
+ + = (f)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (f) for T
3
, noting that J
1
= J
2
= J
3
, G
2
= G
3
, and T
1
= T
2
:
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 3 2
3 1
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 3
T L T L G J L G L
T T
J G J G L L G L
= ÷ + = ÷ +
(g)
Substitute the values determined for T
1
and T
2
in Eq. (c) into Eq. (g) to compute T
3
:
3
400 mm 86 GPa 750 mm
(3, 325, 062 Nmm)
400 mm 45 GPa 400 mm
(3, 325, 062 Nmm)(3.786111)
12, 589, 054 Nmm
T
  
= ÷ +
 
\ .\ .
= ÷
= ÷
(a) Allowable Torque T
C
: From equilibrium equation (b),
2 3
3,325, 062 Nmm ( 12,589, 054 Nmm)
15,914,116 Nmm 15.91 kNm
C
T T T = ÷
= ÷ ÷
= = Ans.
(b) Shear Stress Magnitude in Bronze Segment (1):
1 1
1 4
1
(3,325, 062 Nmm)(75 mm/ 2)
3,106,311 mm
40.1 MPa
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
(c) Shear Stress Magnitude in Stainless Steel Segments (2) and (3):
3 3
3 4
3
(12,589, 054 Nmm)(75 mm/ 2)
3,106,311 mm
152.0 MPa
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.82 The torsional assembly shown in Fig. P6.82
consists of solid 2.50in.diameter aluminum [G =
4,000 ksi] segments (1) and (3) and a central solid
3.00in.diameter bronze [G = 6,500 ksi] segment
(2). Concentrated torques of T
B
= T
0
and T
C
= 2T
0
are applied to the assembly at B and C,
respectively. If T
0
= 20 kipin., determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum segments (1) and (3).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
bronze segment (2).
(c) the rotation angle of joint C.
Fig. P6.82
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the aluminum and bronze segments are:
4 4
1 3
4 4
2
(2.50 in.) 3.834952 in.
32
(3.00 in.) 7.952156 in.
32
J J
J
t
t
= = =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut around
joint B, where the external torque T
B
is applied:
1 2 0
0
x
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the
external torque T
C
is applied:
2 3 0
2 0
x
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (b)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 2 3
0 o o o + + = (c)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
o o o = = = (d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (d)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
+ + = (e)
Solve the Equations: The approach used here will be to reduce the variables in Eq. (e) by replacing T
1
and T
3
with equivalent expressions involving T
2
. From Eq. (a):
1 2 0
T T T = + (f)
and from Eq. (b):
3 2 0
2 T T T = ÷ (g)
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Substitute Eqs. (f) and (g) into Eq. (e) and simplify to derive an expression for T
2
:
2 0 1 2 2 2 0 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3 0 3 0 1
2
1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 1
0 3 0 1
3 3 1 1
2
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
( ) ( 2 )
0
2
2
T T L T L T T L
J G J G J G
L L L T L T L
T
J G J G J G J G J G
T L T L
J G J G
T
L L L
J G J G J G
+ ÷
+ + =
+ + = ÷
÷
=
+ +
(h)
Since G
1
= G
3
and J
1
= J
3
, Eq. (h) can be further simplified and T
2
can be computed as:
( )
3 1 0
2
1 3 2
1 1
1 1 2 2
4
4 4
2
20 kipin. 2(12 in.) 12 in.
12 in. 12 in. 24 in.
(3.834952 in. )(4,000 ksi)
(3.834952 in. )(4,000 ksi) (7.952156 in. )(6,500 ksi)
7.711461 kipin.
L L T
T
L L L
J G
J G J G
÷
=
+
+
÷
=
+
+
=
Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain T
1
and T
3
:
1
7.711461 kipin. 20 kipin. 27.711461 kipin. T = + =
3
7.711461 kipin. 2(20 kipin.) 32.288539 kipin. T = ÷ = ÷
Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitudes in the three segments are:
1 1
1 4
1
(27.711461 kipin.)(2.500 in. / 2)
9.03 ksi
3.834952 in.
Tc
J
t = = =
2 2
2 4
2
(7.711461 kipin.)(3.000 in. / 2)
1.455 ksi
7.952156 in.
T c
J
t = = =
3 3
3 4
3
(32.288539 kipin.)(2.500 in. / 2)
10.52 ksi
3.834952 in.
T c
J
t = = =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Aluminum Segments:
3
10.52 ksi t = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Bronze Segment:
2
1.455 ksi t = Ans.
(c) Rotation Angle of Flange C Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends:
1 1 B A B A
o o o o o o = ÷ = + (i)
Similarly, the angle of twist in member (2) can be defined by:
2 2 C B C B
o o o o o o = ÷ = + (j)
To derive an expression for o
C
, substitute Eq. (i) into Eq. (j), and note that joint A is restrained from
rotating; therefore, o
A
= 0.
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1 2 C
o o o = +
The angle of twist in member (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1 1
(27.711461 kipin.)(12 in.)
0.021678 rad
(3.834952 in. )(4, 000 ksi)
T L
J G
o = = =
The angle of twist in member (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2 2
(7.711461 kipin.)(24 in.)
0.003581 rad
(7.952156 in. )(6,500 ksi)
T L
J G
o = = =
The rotation angle of flange C is thus:
1 2
0.021678 rad 0.003581 rad 0.025259 ra 0.0253 ra d d
C
o o o = + = + = = Ans.
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6.83 The torsional assembly shown in Fig. P6.83
consists of solid 2.50in.diameter aluminum [G =
4,000 ksi] segments (1) and (3) and a central solid
3.00in.diameter bronze [G = 6,500 ksi] segment
(2). Concentrated torques of T
B
= T
0
and T
C
= 2T
0
are applied to the assembly at B and C,
respectively. If the rotation angle at joint C must
not exceed 3°, determine:
(a) the maximum magnitude of T
0
that may be
applied to the assembly.
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum segments (1) and (3).
(c) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
bronze segment (2).
Fig. P6.83
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the aluminum and bronze segments are:
4 4
1 3
4 4
2
(2.50 in.) 3.834952 in.
32
(3.00 in.) 7.952156 in.
32
J J
J
t
t
= = =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut around
joint B, where the external torque T
B
is applied:
1 2 0
0
x
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the
external torque T
C
is applied:
2 3 0
2 0
x
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
o o o = = =
Torque in Segment (3): From the problem statement, the rotation angle at C must not exceed 3°;
consequently, the angle of twist in segment (3) must be the opposite of this value:
3
3 0.052360 rad o = ÷ ° = ÷
From the torquetwist relationships, the internal torque in segment (3) can be computed:
4
3 3 3 3 3
3 3
3 3 3
( 0.052360 rad)(3.834952 in. )(4,000 ksi)
66.9325 kipin.
12 in.
T L J G
T
J G L
o
o
÷
= = = = ÷
Consider Rotation Angle of Flange C Relative to Support A: The rotation angle at C is given by the
sum of the angles of twist in segments (1) and (2). This rotation angle must not exceed 3°.
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
3 0.052360 rad
C
T L T L
J G J G
o o o = + = + s ° = (c)
from Eq. (b):
2 3 0
2 T T T = + (d)
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and from Eq. (a):
1 2 0 3 0 0 3 0
( 2 ) 3 T T T T T T T T = + = + + = + (e)
Substitute the expressions derived for T
1
and T
2
in Eqs. (d) and (e) into Eq. (c):
3 0 1 3 0 2
1 1 2 2
( 3 ) ( 2 )
0.052360 rad
T T L T T L
J G J G
+ +
+ s
Simplify
1 2 1 2
3 0
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
3 2
0.052360 rad
L L L L
T T
J G J G J G J G
+ + + s
Solve for T
0
:
1 2
3
1 1 2 2
0
1 2
1 1 2 2
0.052360 rad
3 2
L L
T
J G J G
T
L L
J G J G
÷ +
s
+
and compute:
4 4
0
4 4
12 in. 24 in.
0.052360 rad ( 66.9325 kipin.)
(3.834952 in. )(4, 000 ksi) (7.952156 in. )(6,500 ksi)
3(12 in.) 2(24 in.)
(3.834952 in. )(4, 000 ksi) (7.952156 in. )(6,500 ksi)
41.4590 kipin.
T
÷ ÷ +
s
+
s
Backsubstitute this value into Eq. (d) to compute T
2
:
2 3 0
2 66.9325 kipin. 2(41.4590 kipin.) 15.9855 kipin. T T T = + = ÷ + =
and backsubstitute this value into Eq. (e) to compute T
1
:
1 3 0
3 66.9325 kipin. 3(41.4590 kipin.) 57.4445 kipin. T T T = + = ÷ + =
(a) Maximum magnitude of T
0
:
0,max
41.5 kipin. T = Ans.
Maximum Shear Stress Magnitudes: The maximum shear stress magnitudes are:
1 1
1 4
1
(57.4445 kipin.)(2.500 in. / 2)
18.72 ksi
3.834952 in.
Tc
J
t = = =
2 2
2 4
2
(15.9855 kipin.)(3.000 in. / 2)
3.02 ksi
7.952156 in.
T c
J
t = = =
3 3
3 4
3
(66.9325 kipin.)(2.500 in. / 2)
21.8 ksi
3.834952 in.
T c
J
t = = =
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Aluminum Segments:
3
21.8 ksi t = Ans.
(c) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Bronze Segment:
2
3.02 ksi t = Ans.
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6.84 The torsional assembly shown in Fig. P6.84
consists of a solid 60mmdiameter aluminum [G
= 28 GPa] segment (2) and two bronze [G = 45
GPa] tube segments (1) and (3), which have an
outside diameter of 75 mm and a wall thickness
of 5 mm. If concentrated torques of T
B
= 9 kNm
and T
C
= 9 kNm are applied in the directions
shown, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
bronze tube segments (1) and (3).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum segment (2).
(c) the rotation angle of joint C.
Fig. P6.84
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the aluminum and bronze segments are:
4 4 4
1 3
4 4
2
(75 mm) (65 mm) 1,353,830 mm
32
(60 mm) 1, 272,345 mm
32
J J
J
t
t
= = ÷ =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut around
joint B, where the external torque T
B
is applied:
1 2
0
x B
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the
external torque T
C
is applied:
2 3
0
x C
M T T T E = ÷ + ÷ = (b)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 2 3
0 o o o + + = (c)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
o o o = = = (d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (d)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
+ + = (e)
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Solve the Equations: The approach used here will be to reduce the variables in Eq. (e) by replacing T
1
and T
3
with equivalent expressions involving T
2
. From Eq. (a):
1 2 B
T T T = + (f)
and from Eq. (b):
3 2 C
T T T = + (g)
Substitute Eqs. (f) and (g) into Eq. (e) and simplify to derive an expression for T
2
:
2 1 2 2 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3 1 3
2
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 3
1 3
1 1 3 3
2
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
( ) ( )
0
B C
B C
B C
T T L T L T T L
J G J G J G
L L L T L T L
T
J G J G J G J G J G
T L T L
J G J G
T
L L L
J G J G J G
+ +
+ + =
+ + = ÷ ÷
+
= ÷
+ +
(h)
Since G
1
= G
3
and J
1
= J
3
, Eq. (h) can be simplified further and T
2
can be computed as:
( )
1 3
2
1 3 2
1 1
1 1 2 2
4 2
4 4
1
1 (9, 000, 000 Nmm)(325 mm) (9, 000, 000 Nmm)(325 mm)
325 mm 325 mm 400 mm
(1,353,830 mm )(45,000 N/mm )
(1,353,830 mm )(45,000) (1,272,345 mm )(28,000)
B C
T L T L
T
L L L
J G
J G J G
+
= ÷
+
+
+
= ÷
+
+
= 4,385, 216 Nmm ÷
Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain T
1
and T
3
:
1
4, 385, 216 Nmm 9, 000, 000 Nmm 4, 614, 784 Nmm T = ÷ + =
3
4, 385, 216 Nmm 9, 000, 000 Nmm 4, 614, 784 Nmm T = ÷ + =
Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitudes in the three segments are:
1 1
1 4
1
(4, 614, 784 Nmm)(75 mm/ 2)
127.8 MPa
1,353,830 mm
Tc
J
t = = =
2 2
2 4
2
(4,385, 216 Nmm)(60 mm/ 2)
103.4 MPa
1, 272,345 mm
T c
J
t = = =
3 3
3 4
3
(4, 614, 784 Nmm)(75 mm/ 2)
127.8 MPa
1,353,830 mm
T c
J
t = = =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Bronze Segments:
1
127.8 MPa t = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Aluminum Segment:
2
103.4 MPa t = Ans.
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(c) Rotation Angle of Joint C Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends:
1 1 B A B A
o o o o o o = ÷ = + (i)
Similarly, the angle of twist in member (2) can be defined by:
2 2 C B C B
o o o o o o = ÷ = + (j)
To derive an expression for o
C
, substitute Eq. (i) into Eq. (j), and note that joint A is restrained from
rotating; therefore, o
A
= 0.
1 2 C
o o o = +
The angle of twist in member (1) is:
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(4, 614, 784 Nmm)(325 mm)
0.024618 rad
(1,353,830 mm )(45, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o = = =
The angle of twist in member (2) is:
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
( 4,385, 216 Nmm)(400 mm)
0.049237 rad
(1, 272,345 mm )(28, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
The rotation angle of flange C is thus:
1 2
0.024618 rad ( 0.049237 rad) 0.024618 rad 0.0246 rad
C
o o o = + = + ÷ = ÷ = ÷ Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.85 The torsional assembly shown in Fig. P6.85
consists of a solid 60mmdiameter aluminum [G
= 28 GPa] segment (2) and two bronze [G = 45
GPa] tube segments (1) and (3), which have an
outside diameter of 75 mm and a wall thickness
of 5 mm. If concentrated torques of T
B
= 6 kNm
and T
C
= 10 kNm are applied in the directions
shown, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
bronze tube segments (1) and (3).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum segment (2).
(c) the rotation angle of joint C.
Fig. P6.85
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the aluminum and bronze segments are:
4 4 4
1 3
4 4
2
(75 mm) (65 mm) 1,353,830 mm
32
(60 mm) 1, 272,345 mm
32
J J
J
t
t
= = ÷ =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut around
joint B, where the external torque T
B
is applied:
1 2
0
x B
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the
external torque T
C
is applied:
2 3
0
x C
M T T T E = ÷ + ÷ = (b)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 2 3
0 o o o + + = (c)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
o o o = = = (d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (d)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
0
T L T L T L
J G J G J G
+ + = (e)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Solve the Equations: The approach used here will be to reduce the variables in Eq. (e) by replacing T
1
and T
3
with equivalent expressions involving T
2
. From Eq. (a):
1 2 B
T T T = + (f)
and from Eq. (b):
3 2 C
T T T = + (g)
Substitute Eqs. (f) and (g) into Eq. (e) and simplify to derive an expression for T
2
:
2 1 2 2 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3 1 3
2
1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 3
1 3
1 1 3 3
2
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
( ) ( )
0
B C
B C
B C
T T L T L T T L
J G J G J G
L L L T L T L
T
J G J G J G J G J G
T L T L
J G J G
T
L L L
J G J G J G
+ +
+ + =
+ + = ÷ ÷
+
= ÷
+ +
(h)
Since G
1
= G
3
and J
1
= J
3
, Eq. (h) can be simplified further and T
2
can be computed as:
( )
1 3
2
1 3 2
1 1
1 1 2 2
4 2
4 4
1
1 (6, 000, 000 Nmm)(325 mm) (10, 000, 000 Nmm)(325 mm)
325 mm 325 mm 400 mm
(1,353,830 mm )(45,000 N/mm )
(1,353,830 mm )(45,000) (1,272,345 mm )(28,000)
B C
T L T L
T
L L L
J G
J G J G
+
= ÷
+
+
+
= ÷
+
+
3,897,970 Nmm = ÷
Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain T
1
and T
3
:
1
3,897, 970 Nmm 6, 000, 000 Nmm 2,102, 030 Nmm T = ÷ + =
3
3,897, 970 Nmm 10, 000, 000 Nmm 6,102, 030 Nmm T = ÷ + =
Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitudes in the three segments are:
1 1
1 4
1
(2,102, 030 Nmm)(75 mm/ 2)
58.2 MPa
1,353,830 mm
Tc
J
t = = =
2 2
2 4
2
(3,897,970 Nmm)(60 mm/ 2)
91.9 MPa
1, 272,345 mm
T c
J
t = = =
3 3
3 4
3
(6,102, 030 Nmm)(75 mm/ 2)
169.0 MPa
1,353,830 mm
T c
J
t = = =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Bronze Segments:
3
169.0 MPa t = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Aluminum Segment:
2
91.9 MPa t = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) Rotation Angle of Joint C Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends:
1 1 B A B A
o o o o o o = ÷ = + (i)
Similarly, the angle of twist in member (2) can be defined by:
2 2 C B C B
o o o o o o = ÷ = + (j)
To derive an expression for o
C
, substitute Eq. (i) into Eq. (j), and note that joint A is restrained from
rotating; therefore, o
A
= 0.
1 2 C
o o o = +
The angle of twist in member (1) is:
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
(2,102, 030 Nmm)(325 mm)
0.011214 rad
(1,353,830 mm )(45, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o = = =
The angle of twist in member (2) is:
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
( 3,897,970 Nmm)(400 mm)
0.043766 rad
(1, 272,345 mm )(28, 000 N/mm )
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
The rotation angle of flange C is thus:
1 2
0.011214 rad ( 0.043766 rad) 0.032552 rad 0.0326 rad
C
o o o = + = + ÷ = ÷ = ÷ Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.86 A solid 1.50in.diameter brass [G = 5,600 ksi] shaft [segments (1), (2), and (3)] has been stiffened
between B and C by the addition of a coldrolled stainless steel tube (4) (Fig. P6.86a). The tube (Fig.
P6.86b) has an outside diameter of 3.50 in., a wall thickness of 0.12 in., and a shear modulus of G =
12,500 ksi. The tube is attached to the brass shaft by means of rigid flanges welded to the tube and to the
shaft. (The thickness of the flanges can be neglected for this analysis.) If a torque of 400 lbft is applied
to the shaft as shown in Fig. P6.86a, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in segment (1) of the brass shaft.
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in segment (2) of the brass shaft (i.e., between flanges B and C)
(c) the maximum shear stress magnitude in the stainless steel tube (4).
(d) the rotation angle of end D relative to end A.
Fig. P6.86a Fig. P6.86b Cross Section Through Tube
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the brass shaft and the stainless steel tube are:
4 4
1 2 3
4 4 4
4
(1.50 in.) 0.497010 in.
32
(3.50 in.) (3.26 in.) 3.643915 in.
32
J J J
J
t
t
= = = =
= ÷ =
(a) Shear Stress Magnitude in Brass Segment (1):
1 1
1 4
1
(400 lbft)(1.500 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
7, 243.3 psi
0.497010 in.
7, 240 psi
Tc
J
t = = = = Ans.
Statically Indeterminate Portion of the Shaft: The portion of the shaft between B and C is statically
indeterminate.
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram that cuts
through the shaft between B and C and includes the
free end of the shaft at A:
2 4
400 lbft 0
x
M T T E = + + = (a)
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the tube and shaft are securely connected by the rigid
flanges, the angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
2 4
o o = (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
2 2 4 4
2 4
2 2 4 4
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
2 2 4 4
2 2 4 4
T L T L
J G J G
= (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
2
:
4
4 2 2
2 4 4 4 4
2 4 4
20 in. 0.497010 in. 5, 600 ksi
0.0611047
20 in. 3.643915 in. 12,500 ksi
L J G
T T T T
L J G
     
= = =
  
\ . \ . \ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
4
in the stainless steel tube (4):
2 4 4 4 4
4
0.0611047 1.0611047 400 lbft
376.9656 lbft
T T T T T
T
+ = + = = ÷
= ÷
The torque in brass shaft segment (2) is therefore:
2 4
400 lbft 400 lbft ( 376.9656 lbft) 23.0344 lbft T T = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
(b) Maximum Shear Stress in Brass Segment (2): The maximum shear stress in segment (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2
(23.0344 lbft)(1.50 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
417.1 psi
0.497010 i
417 ps
.
i
n
T c
J
t = = = = Ans.
(c) Maximum Shear Stress in Stainless Steel Tube (4): The maximum shear stress in tube (4) is:
4 4
4 4
4
(376.9656 lbft)(3.50 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
2,172.5 psi
3.643915 in
2,1 0
.
7 psi
T c
J
t = = = = Ans.
(d) Rotation Angle of End D Relative to End A: The angle of twist of segment (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1 1
( 400 lbft)(12 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.020695 rad
(0.497010 in. )(5, 600, 000 psi)
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
The angle of twist in brass segment (3) has the same value:
3
0.020695 rad o = ÷
The angle of twist in brass segment (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2 2
( 23.0344 lbft)(20 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.0019863 rad
(0.497010 in. )(5, 600, 000 psi)
T L
J G
o
÷
= = = ÷
The rotation angle of end D relative to end A is the sum of these three angles of twist:
1 2 3
0.020695 rad ( 0.0019863 rad) ( 0.020695
0.0434 r
rad)
0.0433763 ra ad d
D
o o o o = + +
= ÷ + ÷ +
÷
÷
= ÷ = Ans.
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6.87 A solid 60mmdiameter coldrolled brass [G = 39 GPa] shaft that is 1.25m long extends through
and is completely bonded to a hollow aluminum [G = 28 GPa] tube, as shown in Fig. P6.87. Aluminum
tube (1) has an outside diameter of 90 mm, an inside diameter of 60 mm, and a length of 0.75 m. Both
the brass shaft and the aluminum tube are securely attached to the wall support at A. When the two
torques shown are applied to the composite shaft, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum tube (1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in brass
shaft segment (2).
(c) the maximum shear stress magnitude in brass
shaft segment (3).
(d) the rotation angle of joint B.
(e) the rotation angle of end C.
Fig. P6.87
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for tube (1) and brass shafts (2) and (3) are:
4 4 4
1
4 4
2 3
(90 mm) (60 mm) 5,168,902 mm
32
(60 mm) 1, 272,345 mm
32
J
J J
t
t
= ÷ =
= = =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut
around end C through segment (3):
3 3
8 kNm 0 8 kNm
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷ (a)
and also consider a FBD cut around joint B:
1 2 3
20 kNm 0
x
M T T T E = ÷ ÷ + + =
1 2 3
20 kNm 12 kNm T T T + = + = (b)
Eq. (b) reveals that the portion of the shaft between A and B is statically indeterminate. The fivestep
solution procedure will be used to determine T
1
and T
2
in this portion of the shaft.
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the aluminum tube and the brass shaft are securely
bonded together, the angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
1 2
o o = (c)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (d)
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Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (d)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
= (e)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (e) for T
1
:
4
2 1 1
1 2 2 2 4
1 2 2
5,168,902 mm 28 GPa
2.916667
1, 272,345 mm 39 GPa
L J G
T T T T
L J G
 
 
= = =


\ .
\ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (b) to compute the torque T
2
in brass shaft (2):
1 2 2 2 2
2
2.916667 3.916667 12, 000 Nm
3, 063.830 Nm
T T T T T
T
+ = + = =
=
The torque in aluminum tube (1) is therefore:
1 2
12, 000 Nm 12, 000 Nm 3, 063.830 Nm 8, 936.170 Nm T T = ÷ = ÷ =
(a) Maximum Shear Stress in Aluminum Tube: The maximum shear stress in aluminum tube (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1
(8,936.170 Nm)(90 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
5,168,902 m
77.8 MPa
m
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Brass Shaft Segment (2):
2 2
2 4
2
(3, 063.830 Nm)(60 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
1, 272,345 m
72.2 MPa
m
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(c) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Brass Shaft Segment (3):
3 3
3 4
3
(8, 000 Nm)(60 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
1, 272,345 mm
188.6 MPa
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(d) Rotation Angle of Joint B:
2
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
2
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
0.04
(8,936.170 Nm)(0.75 m)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.046308 rad
(5,168,902 mm )(28, 000 N/mm )
or
(3, 063.830 Nm)(0.75 m)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.046308 rad
(1,272,345 mm )(39, 0
63 rad
00 N/mm )
B
T L
J G
T L
J G
o
o
o
= = =
= = =
= Ans.
(e) Rotation Angle of End C:
2
3 3
3 4 2
3 3
3
( 8, 000 Nm)(0.5 m)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.080610 rad
(1,272,345 mm )(39, 000 N/mm )
0.046308 rad ( 0.080 0.0343 r 610 rad) ad
C B
T L
J G
o
o o o
÷
= = = ÷
= + = + ÷ ÷ = Ans.
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6.88 The gear assembly shown in Fig. P6.88 is
subjected to a torque of T
C
= 140 Nm. Shafts (1)
and (2) are solid 20mmdiameter steel shafts, and
shaft (3) is a solid 25mmdiameter steel shaft.
Assume L = 400 mm and G = 80 GPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in shaft
(1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in shaft
segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear E.
(d) the rotation angle of gear C.
Fig. P6.88
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shafts are:
4 4
1 2
4 4
3
(20 mm) 15, 708.0 mm
32
(25 mm) 38,349.5 mm
32
J J
J
t
t
= = =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut through
shaft (2) and around gear C:
2 2
0 140 Nm
x C C
M T T T T E = ÷ + = = = (a)
Next, consider a FBD cut around gear B through shafts (1)
and (2). The teeth of gear C exert a force F on the teeth of
gear B. This force F opposes the rotation of gear B. The
radius of gear B will be denoted by R
B
for now (even though
the gear radius is not given explicitly).
2 1
0
x B
M T T F R E = ÷ ÷ · = (b)
Finally, consider a FBD cut around gear E through shaft (3).
The teeth of gear B exert an equal magnitude force F on the
teeth of gear C, acting opposite to the direction assumed in
the previous FBD. The radius of gear E will be denoted by
R
E
for now.
3
3
0
x E
E
T
M T F R F
R
'
E = ÷ ÷ · = = ÷ (c)
The results of Eqs. (a) and (c) can be substituted into Eq. (b) to give
1 3
140 Nm
B
E
R
T T
R
= +
The ratio R
B
/R
E
is simply the gear ratio between gears B and E, which can also be expressed in terms of
gear teeth N
B
and N
E
:
1 3 3 3
24 teeth
140 Nm 140 Nm 140 Nm 0.4
60 teeth
B
E
N
T T T T
N
 
= + = + = +

\ .
(d)
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Equation (d) summarizes the results of the equilibrium considerations, but there are still two unknowns
in this equation: T
1
and T
3
. Consequently, this problem is statically indeterminate. To solve the
problem, an additional equation must be developed. This second equation will be derived from the
relationship between the angles of twist in shafts (1) and (3).
Geometry of Deformation Relationship:
The rotation of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
1 B
o o =
and the rotation of gear E is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (3):
3 E
o o =
However, since the gear teeth mesh, the rotation angles for gears B and E are not independent. The
arclengths associated with the respective rotations must be equal, but the gears turn in opposite
directions. The relationship between gear rotations can be stated as:
B B E E
R R o o = ÷
where R
B
and R
E
are the radii of gears B and E, respectively. Since the gear rotation angles are related to
the shaft angles of twist, this relationship can be expressed as:
1 3 B E
R R o o = ÷ (e)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 3 3
1 3
1 1 3 3
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (f)
Compatibility Equation:
Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (f)] into the geometry of deformation relationship [Eq. (e)]
to obtain:
1 1 3 3
1 1 3 3
B E
T L T L
R R
J G J G
= ÷
which can be rearranged and expressed in terms of the gear ratio N
B
/N
E
:
1 1 3 3
1 1 3 3
B
E
N T L T L
N J G J G
= ÷ (g)
Note that the compatibility equation has two unknowns: T
1
and T
3
. This equation can be solved
simultaneously with Eq. (d) to calculate the internal torques in shafts (1) and (3).
Solve the Equations: Solve for internal torque T
3
in Eq. (g):
1 3 3
3 1
3 1 1
B
E
N L J G
T T
N L J G
       
= ÷
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (d):
1 3
1 3 3
1
3 1 1
4
1 4
1
140 Nm 0.4
140 Nm 0.4
24 teeth 38,349.5 mm
140 Nm 0.4
60 teeth 15, 708.0 mm
140 Nm 0.390624
B
E
T T
N L J G
T
N L J G
T
T
= +
       
= + ÷
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
 
 
= ÷


\ .
\ .
= ÷
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Group the T
1
terms to obtain:
1
140 Nm
100.6742 Nm
1.390624
T = =
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (d) to find the internal torque in shaft (3):
1 3
1
3
140 Nm 0.4
140 Nm 100.6742 Nm 140 Nm
98.3146 Nm
0.4 0.4
T T
T
T
= +
÷ ÷
= = = ÷
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (1):
1 1
1 4
1
(100.6742 Nm)(20 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
15, 708.0 m
64.1 MPa
m
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (3):
3 3
3 4
3
(98.3146 Nm)(25 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
38,349.5 m
32.0 MPa
m
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(c) Rotation Angle of Gear E:
3 3
3 4 2
3 3
3
( 98.3146 Nm)(1.25)(400 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.016023 rad
(38,349.5 mm )(80
0.01602 r
, 000 N
a
/ )
d
mm
E
T L
J G
o
o o
÷
÷
= = = ÷
= = Ans.
(d) Rotation Angle of Gear C:
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
2 1 2
(100.6742 Nm)(1.25)(400 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.040057 rad
(15,708.0 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
(140 Nm)(400 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.044563 rad
(15,708.0 mm )(80, 000 N/mm )
0.040057
C B
T L
J G
T L
J G
o
o
o o o o o
= = =
= = =
= + = + = rad 0.044563 r 0.0846 a a d r d + = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.89 The gear assembly shown in Fig. P6.89 is
subjected to a torque of T
C
= 1,100 lbft. Shafts
(1) and (2) are solid 1.625in.diameter aluminum
shafts and shaft (3) is a solid 2.00in.diameter
aluminum shaft. Assume L = 20 in. and G = 4,000
ksi. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in shaft
(1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in shaft
segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear E.
(d) the rotation angle of gear C.
Fig. P6.89
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shafts are:
4 4
1 2
4 4
3
(1.625 in.) 0.684563 in.
32
(2.00 in.) 1.570796 in.
32
J J
J
t
t
= = =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut through
shaft (2) and around gear C:
2 2
0 1,100 lbft
x C C
M T T T T E = ÷ + = = = (a)
Next, consider a FBD cut around gear B through shafts (1)
and (2). The teeth of gear C exert a force F on the teeth of
gear B. This force F opposes the rotation of gear B. The
radius of gear B will be denoted by R
B
for now (even though
the gear radius is not given explicitly).
2 1
0
x B
M T T F R E = ÷ ÷ · = (b)
Finally, consider a FBD cut around gear E through shaft (3).
The teeth of gear B exert an equal magnitude force F on the
teeth of gear C, acting opposite to the direction assumed in
the previous FBD. The radius of gear E will be denoted by
R
E
for now.
3
3
0
x E
E
T
M T F R F
R
'
E = ÷ ÷ · = = ÷ (c)
The results of Eqs. (a) and (c) can be substituted into Eq. (b) to give
1 3
1,100 lbft
B
E
R
T T
R
= +
The ratio R
B
/R
E
is simply the gear ratio between gears B and E, which can also be expressed in terms of
gear teeth N
B
and N
E
:
1 3 3 3
24 teeth
1,100 lbft 1,100 lbft 1,100 lbft 0.4
60 teeth
B
E
N
T T T T
N
 
= + = + = +

\ .
(d)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Equation (d) summarizes the results of the equilibrium considerations, but there are still two unknowns
in this equation: T
1
and T
3
. Consequently, this problem is statically indeterminate. To solve the
problem, an additional equation must be developed. This second equation will be derived from the
relationship between the angles of twist in shafts (1) and (3).
Geometry of Deformation Relationship:
The rotation of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
1 B
o o =
and the rotation of gear E is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (3):
3 E
o o =
However, since the gear teeth mesh, the rotation angles for gears B and E are not independent. The
arclengths associated with the respective rotations must be equal, but the gears turn in opposite
directions. The relationship between gear rotations can be stated as:
B B E E
R R o o = ÷
where R
B
and R
E
are the radii of gears B and E, respectively. Since the gear rotation angles are related to
the shaft angles of twist, this relationship can be expressed as:
1 3 B E
R R o o = ÷ (e)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 3 3
1 3
1 1 3 3
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (f)
Compatibility Equation:
Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (f)] into the geometry of deformation relationship [Eq. (e)]
to obtain:
1 1 3 3
1 1 3 3
B E
T L T L
R R
J G J G
= ÷
which can be rearranged and expressed in terms of the gear ratio N
B
/N
E
:
1 1 3 3
1 1 3 3
B
E
N T L T L
N J G J G
= ÷ (g)
Note that the compatibility equation has two unknowns: T
1
and T
3
. This equation can be solved
simultaneously with Eq. (d) to calculate the internal torques in shafts (1) and (3).
Solve the Equations: Solve for internal torque T
3
in Eq. (g):
1 3 3
3 1
3 1 1
B
E
N L J G
T T
N L J G
       
= ÷
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (d):
1 3
1 3 3
1
3 1 1
4
1 4
1
1,100 lbft 0.4
1,100 lbft 0.4
24 teeth 1.570796 in.
1,100 lbft 0.4
60 teeth 0.684563 in.
1,100 lbft 0.367135
B
E
T T
N L J G
T
N L J G
T
T
= +
       
= + ÷
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
 
 
= ÷


\ .
\ .
= ÷
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Group the T
1
terms to obtain:
1
1,100 lbft
804.602 lbft
1.367135
T = =
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (d) to find the internal torque in shaft (3):
1 3
1
3
1,100 lbft 0.4
1,100 lbft 804.602 lbft 1,100 lbft
738.495 lbft
0.4 0.4
T T
T
T
= +
÷ ÷
= = = ÷
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (1):
1 1
1 4
1
(804.602 lbft)(1.625 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
11, 459.677 psi
0.684563 in.
11.46 ksi
Tc
J
t = = = = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (3):
3 3
3 4
3
(738.495 lbft)(2.00 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
5, 641.687 psi
1.570796 in.
5.64 ksi
T c
J
t = = = = Ans.
(c) Rotation Angle of Gear E:
3 3
3 4
3 3
3
( 738.495 lbft)(1.25)(20 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.035261 rad
(1.570
0.0353 ra
796 in. )(4, 000, 000 psi)
d
E
T L
J G
o
o o
÷
= = = ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
(d) Rotation Angle of Gear C:
1 1
1 4
1 1
2 2
2 4
2 2
2 1 2
(804.602 lbft)(1.25)(20 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.088151 rad
(0.684563 in. )(4, 000, 000 psi)
(1,100 lbft)(20 in.)(12 in./ft)
0.096412 rad
(0.684563 in. )(4, 000, 000 psi)
0.
C B
T L
J G
T L
J G
o
o
o o o o o
= = =
= = =
= + = + = 088151 rad 0.09641 0.18 2 r 46 ad rad + = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.90 A torque of T
C
= 460 Nm acts on gear C of
the assembly shown in Fig. P6.90. Shafts (1)
and (2) are solid 35mmdiameter aluminum
shafts and shaft (3) is a solid 25mmdiameter
aluminum shaft. Assume L = 200 mm and G =
28 GPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
shaft (1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
shaft segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear E.
(d) the rotation angle of gear C.
Fig. P6.90
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shafts are:
4 4
1 2
4 4
3
(35 mm) 147,323.5 mm
32
(25 mm) 38,349.5 mm
32
J J
J
t
t
= = =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut through
shaft (2) and around gear C:
2 2
0 460 Nm
x C C
M T T T T E = ÷ + = = = (a)
Next, consider a FBD cut around gear B through shafts (1)
and (2). The teeth of gear E exert a force F on the teeth of
gear B. This force F opposes the rotation of gear B. The
radius of gear B will be denoted by R
B
for now (even though
the gear radius is not given explicitly).
2 1
0
x B
M T T F R E = ÷ ÷ · = (b)
Finally, consider a FBD cut around gear E through shaft (3).
The teeth of gear B exert an equal magnitude force F on the
teeth of gear C, acting opposite to the direction assumed in
the previous FBD. The radius of gear E will be denoted by
R
E
for now.
3
3
0
x E
E
T
M T F R F
R
'
E = ÷ ÷ · = = ÷ (c)
The results of Eqs. (a) and (c) can be substituted into Eq. (b) to give
1 3
460 Nm
B
E
R
T T
R
= +
The ratio R
B
/R
E
is simply the gear ratio between gears B and E, which can also be expressed in terms of
gear teeth N
B
and N
E
:
1 3 3 3
54 teeth
460 Nm 460 Nm 460 Nm 1.285714
42 teeth
B
E
N
T T T T
N
 
= + = + = +

\ .
(d)
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Equation (d) summarizes the results of the equilibrium considerations, but there are still two unknowns
in this equation: T
1
and T
3
. Consequently, this problem is statically indeterminate. To solve the
problem, an additional equation must be developed. This second equation will be derived from the
relationship between the angles of twist in shafts (1) and (3).
Geometry of Deformation Relationship:
The rotation of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
1 B
o o =
and the rotation of gear E is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (3):
3 E
o o =
However, since the gear teeth mesh, the rotation angles for gears B and E are not independent. The
arclengths associated with the respective rotations must be equal, but the gears turn in opposite
directions. The relationship between gear rotations can be stated as:
B B E E
R R o o = ÷
where R
B
and R
E
are the radii of gears B and E, respectively. Since the gear rotation angles are related to
the shaft angles of twist, this relationship can be expressed as:
1 3 B E
R R o o = ÷ (e)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 3 3
1 3
1 1 3 3
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (f)
Compatibility Equation:
Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (f)] into the geometry of deformation relationship [Eq. (e)]
to obtain:
1 1 3 3
1 1 3 3
B E
T L T L
R R
J G J G
= ÷
which can be rearranged and expressed in terms of the gear ratio N
B
/N
E
:
1 1 3 3
1 1 3 3
B
E
N T L T L
N J G J G
= ÷ (g)
Note that the compatibility equation has two unknowns: T
1
and T
3
. This equation can be solved
simultaneously with Eq. (d) to calculate the internal torques in shafts (1) and (3).
Solve the Equations: Solve for internal torque T
3
in Eq. (g):
1 3 3
3 1
3 1 1
B
E
N L J G
T T
N L J G
       
= ÷
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (d):
1 3
1 3 3
1
3 1 1
4
1 4
1
460 Nm 1.285714
460 Nm 1.285714
54 teeth 38,349.5 mm
460 Nm 1.285714
42 teeth 147,323.5 mm
460 Nm 0.430305
B
E
T T
N L J G
T
N L J G
T
T
= +
       
= + ÷
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
 
 
= ÷


\ .
\ .
= ÷
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Group the T
1
terms to obtain:
1
460 Nm
321.610 Nm
1.430305
T = =
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (d) to find the internal torque in shaft (3):
1 3
1
3
460 Nm 1.285714
460 Nm 321.610 Nm 460 Nm
107.637 Nm
1.285714 1.285714
T T
T
T
= +
÷ ÷
= = = ÷
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (1):
1 1
1 4
1
(321.610 Nm)(35 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
147,323.5 m
38.2 MPa
m
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (3):
3 3
3 4
3
(107.637 Nm)(25 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
38,349.5 m
35.1 MPa
m
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(c) Rotation Angle of Gear E:
3 3
3 4 2
3 3
3
( 107.637 Nm)(2)(200 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.040096 rad
(38,349.5 mm )(28,
0.0401 r
000 N m
a
)
d
/ m
E
T L
J G
o
o o
÷
÷
= = = ÷
= = Ans.
(d) Rotation Angle of Gear C:
1 1
1 4 2
1 1
2 2
2 4 2
2 2
2 1 2
(321.610 Nm)(2)(200 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.031186 rad
(147,323.5 mm )(28, 000 N/mm )
(460 Nm)(200 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
0.022303 rad
(147,323.5 mm )(28, 000 N/mm )
0.031186 ra
C B
T L
J G
T L
J G
o
o
o o o o o
= = =
= = =
= + = + = d 0.022303 ra 0.0535 a d r d + = Ans.
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6.91 A torque of T
C
= 40 kipin. acts on gear C
of the assembly shown in Fig. P6.91. Shafts
(1) and (2) are solid 2.00in.diameter stainless
steel shafts and shaft (3) is a solid 1.75in.
diameter stainless steel shaft. Assume L = 8 in.
and G = 12,500 ksi. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
shaft (1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
shaft segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear E.
(d) the rotation angle of gear C.
Fig. P6.91
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shafts are:
4 4
1 2
4 4
3
(2.00 in.) 1.570796 in.
32
(1.75 in.) 0.920772 in.
32
J J
J
t
t
= = =
= =
Equilibrium: Consider a freebody diagram cut through
shaft (2) and around gear C:
2 2
0 40 kipin.
x C C
M T T T T E = ÷ + = = = (a)
Next, consider a FBD cut around gear B through shafts (1)
and (2). The teeth of gear E exert a force F on the teeth of
gear B. This force F opposes the rotation of gear B. The
radius of gear B will be denoted by R
B
for now (even though
the gear radius is not given explicitly).
2 1
0
x B
M T T F R E = ÷ ÷ · = (b)
Finally, consider a FBD cut around gear E through shaft (3).
The teeth of gear B exert an equal magnitude force F on the
teeth of gear C, acting opposite to the direction assumed in
the previous FBD. The radius of gear E will be denoted by
R
E
for now.
3
3
0
x E
E
T
M T F R F
R
'
E = ÷ ÷ · = = ÷ (c)
The results of Eqs. (a) and (c) can be substituted into Eq. (b) to give
1 3
40 kipin.
B
E
R
T T
R
= +
The ratio R
B
/R
E
is simply the gear ratio between gears B and E, which can also be expressed in terms of
gear teeth N
B
and N
E
:
1 3 3 3
54 teeth
40 kipin. 40 kipin. 40 kipin. 1.285714
42 teeth
B
E
N
T T T T
N
 
= + = + = +

\ .
(d)
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Equation (d) summarizes the results of the equilibrium considerations, but there are still two unknowns
in this equation: T
1
and T
3
. Consequently, this problem is statically indeterminate. To solve the
problem, an additional equation must be developed. This second equation will be derived from the
relationship between the angles of twist in shafts (1) and (3).
Geometry of Deformation Relationship:
The rotation of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
1 B
o o =
and the rotation of gear E is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (3):
3 E
o o =
However, since the gear teeth mesh, the rotation angles for gears B and E are not independent. The
arclengths associated with the respective rotations must be equal, but the gears turn in opposite
directions. The relationship between gear rotations can be stated as:
B B E E
R R o o = ÷
where R
B
and R
E
are the radii of gears B and E, respectively. Since the gear rotation angles are related to
the shaft angles of twist, this relationship can be expressed as:
1 3 B E
R R o o = ÷ (e)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 3 3
1 3
1 1 3 3
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (f)
Compatibility Equation:
Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (f)] into the geometry of deformation relationship [Eq. (e)]
to obtain:
1 1 3 3
1 1 3 3
B E
T L T L
R R
J G J G
= ÷
which can be rearranged and expressed in terms of the gear ratio N
B
/N
E
:
1 1 3 3
1 1 3 3
B
E
N T L T L
N J G J G
= ÷ (g)
Note that the compatibility equation has two unknowns: T
1
and T
3
. This equation can be solved
simultaneously with Eq. (d) to calculate the internal torques in shafts (1) and (3).
Solve the Equations: Solve for internal torque T
3
in Eq. (g):
1 3 3
3 1
3 1 1
B
E
N L J G
T T
N L J G
       
= ÷
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
and substitute this result into Eq. (d):
1 3
1 3 3
1
3 1 1
4
1 4
1
40 kipin. 1.285714
40 kipin. 1.285714
54 teeth 0.920772 in.
40 kipin. 1.285714
42 teeth 1.570796 in.
40 kipin. 0.968994
B
E
T T
N L J G
T
N L J G
T
T
= +
       
= + ÷
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
 
 
= ÷


\ .
\ .
= ÷
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Group the T
1
terms to obtain:
1
40 kipin.
20.3149 kipin.
1.968994
T = =
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (d) to find the internal torque in shaft (3):
1 3
1
3
40 kipin. 1.285714
40 kipin. 20.3149 kipin. 40 kipin.
15.3106 kipin.
1.285714 1.285714
T T
T
T
= +
÷ ÷
= = = ÷
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (1):
1 1
1 4
1
(20.3149 kipin.)(2.00 in. / 2)
1.570796 in
12.93 ksi
.
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (3):
3 3
3 4
3
(15.3106 kipin.)(1.75 in. / 2)
0.920772 in
14.55 ksi
.
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
(c) Rotation Angle of Gear E:
3 3
3 4
3 3
3
( 15.3106 kipin.)(2)(8 in.)
0.021284 rad
(0.920772 in. )(12,
0.0213
500
d
k
r
si)
a
E
T L
J G
o
o o
÷
= = = ÷
= = ÷ Ans.
(d) Rotation Angle of Gear C:
1 1
1 4
1 1
2 2
2 4
2 2
2 1 2
(20.3149 kipin.)(2)(8 in.)
0.016554 rad
(1.570796 in. )(12,500 ksi)
(40 kipin.)(8 in.)
0.016297 rad
(1.570796 in. )(12,500 ksi)
0.016554 rad 0.0 0. 16297 ra 9 d 032 r
C B
T L
J G
T L
J G
o
o
o o o o o
= = =
= = =
= + = + = + = ad Ans.
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6.92 The steel [G = 12,000 ksi] pipe shown in Fig. P6.92 is fixed to the wall support at C. The bolt holes
in the flange at A were supposed to align with mating holes in the wall support; however, an angular
misalignment of 4° was found to exist. To connect the pipe to its supports, a temporary installation
torque T′
B
must be applied at B to align flange A with the mating holes in the wall support. The outside
diameter of the pipe is 3.50 in. and its wall thickness is 0.216 in.
(a) Determine the temporary installation
torque T′
B
that must be applied at B to align
the bolt holes at A.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stress
t
initial
in the pipe after the bolts are
connected and the temporary installation
torque at B is removed.
(c) If the maximum shear stress in the pipe
shaft must not exceed 12 ksi, determine the
maximum external torque T
B
that can be
applied at B after the bolts are connected.
Fig. P6.92
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moment of inertia for the pipe is:
4 4 4
1 2
(3.50 in.) (3.068 in.) 6.034313 in.
32
J J
t
= = ÷ =
(a) Temporary Installation Torque T′
B
: The shaft, which is fixed to the support at C, must be rotated
4° so that the connection at A can be completed. Consequently, segment (2) must be twisted 4° (or
0.069813 rad) by the temporary torque T′
B
. From the torquetwist relationship for shaft (2)
2 2
2
2 2
T L
J G
o =
the temporary torque T′
B
is:
4
2 2 2
2
(0.069813 rad)(6.034313 in. )(12,000 ksi)
(15 ft)(12 in./ft)
28.1 kipin.
B
J G
T
L
o
= = = ' Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress after Temporary Torque is Removed: After T′
B
is removed, the 4° angle
of twist now applies to the total pipe length, i.e., 25 ft. The internal torque magnitude in the pipe due to
the 4° misfit is thus:
4
misfit
initial
1 2
(0.069813 rad)(6.034313 in. )(12,000 ksi)
16.851 kipin.
( ) (25 ft)(12 in./ft)
JG
T
L L
o
= = =
+
and the maximum shear stress magnitude in the pipe due to this internal torque is:
initial
initial 4
(16.851 kipin.)(3.50 in. / 2)
6.034313 in
4.89 ksi
.
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
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After Bolts Installed: After the bolts are installed, the pipe is analyzed as a statically indeterminate
torsion structure.
Equilibrium:
1 2
0
x B
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
Note: By inspection, the internal torque T
2
will end up having
a negative value.
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: The two shafts are securely attached to fixed supports at A
and C; however, in this instance, the sum of the angles of twist in the two members must equal the misfit
angle. Note: If the rotation angle at A is a positive 4° (as can be inferred from the problem sketch), then
the pipe must twist in a negative sense to reach a zero rotation angle at C.
1 2
0.069813 rad o o + = ÷ (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0.069813 rad
T L T L
J G J G
+ = ÷ (d)
Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (d) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:
Tc T
J J c
t
t = =
which allows Eq. (d) to be rewritten as:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0.069813 rad
L L
Gc G c
t t
= ÷ ÷ (e)
Solve Eq. (e) for t
1
:
1 1 2 1 1
1 2
1 1 2 2
2
2
( 0.069813 rad)
(12, 000 ksi)(3.50 in./2) 15 ft
( 0.069813 rad)
(10 ft)(12 in./ft) 10 ft
12.217305 ksi 1.5
G R L G c
L L G c
t t
t
t
= ÷ ÷
 
= ÷ ÷

\ .
= ÷ ÷ (f)
Assume the shaft (2) controls: By inspection of the FBD, the internal torque T
2
should have a negative
value. Therefore, we can assume that the maximum shear stress in shaft (2) will be −12 ksi. If the shear
stress in shaft (2) reaches this value, then the shear stress in shaft (1) will be:
1
12.217305 ksi 1.5( 12 ksi) 5.7827 ksi 12 ksi t = ÷ ÷ ÷ = s O.K.
This calculation demonstrates that the shear stress magnitude in shaft (2) must control.
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Now that the maximum shear stress magnitudes in the two shafts are known, the torque magnitudes in
each component can be computed:
4
1 1
1
1
4
2 2
2
2
(5.7827 ksi)(6.034313 in. )
19.9398 kipin.
3.50 in./2
( 12 ksi)(6.034313 in. )
41.3781 kipin.
3.50 in./2
J
T
c
J
T
c
t
t
= = =
÷
= = = ÷
(c) Maximum Allowable Torque: From Eq. (a), the total torque acting at B must not exceed:
,max 1 2
19.9398 kipin. ( 41.3781 kipin.) 61.3179 kipin 61.3 kip n . i .
B
T T T = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.93 The steel [G = 12,000 ksi] pipe shown in Fig. P6.93 is fixed to the wall support at C. The bolt holes
in the flange at A were supposed to align with mating holes in the wall support; however, an angular
misalignment of 4° was found to exist. To connect the pipe to its supports, a temporary installation
torque T′
B
must be applied at B to align flange A with the mating holes in the wall support. The outside
diameter of the pipe is 2.875 in. and its wall thickness is 0.203 in.
(a) Determine the temporary installation
torque T′
B
that must be applied at B to align
the bolt holes at A.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stress
t
initial
in the pipe after the bolts are
connected and the temporary installation
torque at B is removed.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the
maximum shear stress in segments (1) and
(2) if an external torque of T
B
= 80 kipin. is
applied at B after the bolts are connected.
Fig. P6.93
Solution
Section Properties: The polar moment of inertia for the pipe is:
4 4 4
1 2
(2.875 in.) (2.469 in.) 3.059108 in.
32
J J
t
= = ÷ =
(a) Temporary Installation Torque T′
B
: The shaft, which is fixed to the support at C, must be rotated
4° so that the connection at A can be completed. Consequently, segment (2) must be twisted 4° (or
0.069813 rad) by the temporary torque T′
B
. From the torquetwist relationship for shaft (2)
2 2
2
2 2
T L
J G
o =
the temporary torque T′
B
is:
4
2 2 2
2
(0.069813 rad)(3.059108 in. )(12,000 ksi)
(15 ft)(12 in./f
14
t)
.24 kipin.
B
J G
T
L
o
= = = ' Ans.
(b) Maximum Shear Stress after Temporary Torque is Removed: After T′
B
is removed, the 4° angle
of twist now applies to the total pipe length, i.e., 25 ft. The internal torque magnitude in the pipe due to
the 4° misfit is thus:
4
misfit
initial
1 2
(0.069813 rad)(3.059108 in. )(12,000 ksi)
8.5426 kipin.
( ) (25 ft)(12 in./ft)
JG
T
L L
o
= = =
+
and the maximum shear stress magnitude in the pipe due to this internal torque is:
initial
initial 4
(8.5426 kipin.)(2.875 in. / 2)
3.059108 in
4.01 ksi
.
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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After Bolts Installed: After the bolts are installed, the pipe is analyzed as a statically indeterminate
torsion structure.
Equilibrium:
1 2
0
x B
M T T T E = ÷ + + = (a)
Note: By inspection, the internal torque T
2
will end up having
a negative value.
Geometry of Deformation Relationship: The two shafts are securely attached to fixed supports at A
and C; however, in this instance, the sum of the angles of twist in the two members must equal the misfit
angle. Note: If the rotation angle at A is a positive 4° (as can be inferred from the problem sketch), then
the pipe must twist in a negative sense to reach a zero rotation angle at C.
1 2
0.069813 rad o o + = ÷ (b)
TorqueTwist Relationships:
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
T L T L
J G J G
o o = = (c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torquetwist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (b)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
0.069813 rad
T L T L
J G J G
+ = ÷ (d)
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T
1
:
1 1 2 1 1
1 2
1 1 2 2
4
2
2
( 0.069813 rad)
(3.059108 in. )(12, 000 ksi) 15 ft
( 0.069813 rad)
(10 ft)(12 in./ft) 10 ft
21.356600 kipin. 1.5
J G L J G
T T
L L J G
T
T
= ÷ ÷
 
= ÷ ÷

\ .
= ÷ ÷
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T
2
:
( )
1 2 2 2 2
2
21.356600 kipin. 1.5 21.356600 kipin. 2.5 80 kipin.
101.3566 kipin.
40.5426 kipin.
2.5
T T T T T
T
÷ + = ÷ ÷ ÷ + = + = ÷
÷
= = ÷
The torque in member (1) is therefore:
1 2
80 kipin. 40.5426 kipin. 80 kipin. 39.4574 kipin. T T = + = ÷ + =
(c) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (1) is:
1 1
1 4
1
(39.4574 kipin.)(2.875 in. / 2)
3.059108 in
18.54 ksi
.
Tc
J
t = = = Ans.
The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (2) is:
2 2
2 4
2
(40.5426 kipin.)(2.875 in. / 2)
3.059108 in
19.05 ksi
.
T c
J
t = = = Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.94 A stepped shaft with a major diameter of D = 1.375 in. and a minor diameter of d = 1.00 in. is
subjected to a torque of 500 lbin. A fillet with a radius of r = 3/16 in. is used to transition from the
major diameter to the minor diameter. Determine the maximum shear stress in the shaft.
Solution
Fillet: From Fig. 6.17b:
1.375 in. 0.1875 in.
1.375 0.1875 1.22
1.0 in. 1.0 in.
D r
K
d d
Section Properties of Minor Diameter Section:
4 4
(1.00 in.) 0.098175 in.
32
J
Maximum Shear Stress:
max 4
(500 lbin.)(1.00 in./2)
(1.22) 3,106.7 psi
0.098175 in
3,110 ps
.
i
Tc
K
J
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.95 A stepped shaft with a major diameter of D = 20 mm and a minor diameter of d = 16 mm is
subjected to a torque of 25 Nm. A full quartercircular fillet having a radius of r = 2 mm is used to
transition from the major diameter to the minor diameter. Determine the maximum shear stress in the
shaft.
Solution
Fillet: From Fig. 6.17b:
20 mm 2 mm
1.25 0.125 1.30
16 mm 16 mm
D r
K
d d
Section Properties of Minor Diameter Section:
4 4
(16 mm) 6, 434.0 mm
32
J
Maximum Shear Stress:
4
(25 Nm)(16 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
(1.30)
6, 434.0 mm
40.4 MPa
Tc
K
J
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.96 A fillet with a radius of 1/2 in. is used at the junction in a stepped shaft where the diameter is
reduced from 8.00 in. to 6.00 in. Determine the maximum torque that the shaft can transmit if the
maximum shear stress in the fillet must be limited to 5 ksi.
Solution
Fillet: From Fig. 6.17b:
8.0 in. 0.50 in.
1.33 0.0833 1.41
6.0 in. 6.0 in.
D r
K
d d
Section Properties of Minor Diameter Section:
4 4
(6.00 in.) 127.2345 in.
32
J
Maximum Torque:
4
allow
max
(5 ksi)(127.2345 in. )
(1.41)(6.00 in./2)
150.4 kipin.
Tc
K
J
J
T
Kc
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.97 A stepped shaft with a major diameter of D = 2.50 in. and a minor diameter of d = 1.25 in. is
subjected to a torque of 1,200 lbin. If the maximum shear stress must not exceed 4,000 psi, determine
the minimum radius r that may be used for a fillet at the junction of the two shaft segments. The fillet
radius must be chosen as a multiple of 0.05 in.
Solution
Section Properties of Minor Diameter Section:
4 4
(1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
32
J
Fillet Requirement: From Fig. 6.17b:
4
(4, 000 psi)(0.239684 in. )
1.28
(1, 200 lbin.)(1.25 in. / 2)
2.5 in.
2.00
1.25 in.
0.17
Tc J
K K
J Tc
D
d
r
d
Minimum Fillet Radius:
min min
(0.17)(1.25 in.) 0.213 in. say 0.25 in.
r
r d r
d
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.98 A fillet with a radius of 16 mm is used at the junction in a stepped shaft where the diameter is
reduced from 200 mm to 150 mm. Determine the maximum torque that the shaft can transmit if the
maximum shear stress in the fillet must be limited to 55 MPa.
Solution
Fillet: From Fig. 6.17b:
200 mm 16 mm
1.33 0.107 1.34
150 mm 150 mm
D r
K
d d
Section Properties of Minor Diameter Section:
4 4
(150 mm) 49, 700,978 mm
32
J
Maximum Torque:
2 4
6 allow
max
(55 N/mm )(49, 700,978 mm )
27.1995 10 Nmm
(1.34)(150 mm/2
27.2 kNm
)
Tc
K
J
J
T
Kc
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
6.99 A stepped shaft with a major diameter of D = 50 mm and a minor diameter of d = 32 mm is
subjected to a torque of 210 Nm. If the maximum shear stress must not exceed 40 MPa, determine the
minimum radius r that may be used for a fillet at the junction of the two shaft segments. The fillet
radius must be chosen as a multiple of 1 mm.
Solution
Section Properties of Minor Diameter Section:
4 4
(32 mm) 102,943.7 mm
32
J
Fillet Requirement: From Fig. 6.17b:
2 4
(40 N/mm )(102,943.7 mm )
1.23
(210 Nm)(32 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
50 mm
1.56
32 mm
0.19
Tc J
K K
J Tc
D
d
r
d
Minimum Fillet Radius:
min min
(0.19)(32 mm) 6.08 mm say 7 mm
r
r d r
d
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
6.100 A stepped shaft has a major diameter of D = 2.00 in. and a minor diameter of d = 1.50 in. A fillet
with a 0.25in. radius is used to transition between the two shaft segments. The maximum shear stress
in the shaft must be limited to 9,000 psi. If the shaft rotates at a constant angular speed of 800 rpm,
determine the maximum power that may be delivered by the shaft.
Solution
Fillet: From Fig. 6.17b:
2.00 in. 0.25 in.
1.33 0.167 1.24
1.50 in. 1.50 in.
D r
K
d d
Section Properties of Minor Diameter Section:
4 4
(1.50 in.) 0.497010 in.
32
J
Maximum Torque:
allow
2 4
allow
max
(9, 000 lb/in. )(0.497010 in. )
4,809.77 lbin. 400.8143 lbft
(1.24)(1.50 in./2)
Tc
K
J
J
T
Kc
Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 800 rpm is:
max max
800 rev 1 min 2 rad
(400.8143 lbft) 33,578.54 lbft/s
min 60 s 1 rev
P T
or in units of horsepower,
max
33,578.54 lbft/s
550 lbft/s
1
61
hp
hp
.1 P Ans.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
6.101 A stepped shaft has a major diameter of D = 100 mm and a minor diameter of d = 75 mm. A fillet
with a 10mm radius is used to transition between the two shaft segments. The maximum shear stress in
the shaft must be limited to 60 MPa. If the shaft rotates at a constant angular speed of 500 rpm,
determine the maximum power that may be delivered by the shaft.
Solution
Fillet: From Fig. 6.17b:
100 mm 10 mm
1.33 0.133 1.29
75 mm 75 mm
D r
K
d d
Section Properties of Minor Diameter Section:
4 4
(75 mm) 3,106,311.1 mm
32
J
Maximum Torque:
allow
2 4
allow
max
(60 N/mm )(3,106,311.1 mm )
3,852, 789 Nmm 3,852.789 Nm
(1.29)(75 mm/2)
Tc
K
J
J
T
Kc
Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 500 rpm is:
max max
500 rev 1 min 2 rad
(3,852.789 Nm)
min 60 s 1 rev
202 kW
201, 731.6 Nm/s
P T
Ans.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.102 A 2in.diameter shaft contains a ½in.deep Ushaped groove that has a ¼in. radius at the bottom
of the groove. The shaft must transmit a torque of T = 720 lbin. Determine the maximum shear stress in
the shaft.
Solution
Groove: From Fig. 6.17a:
2.0 in. 2(0.5 in.) 1.0 in.
2.0 in. 0.25 in.
2.00 0.25 1.29
1.0 in. 1.0 in.
d
D r
K
d d
Section Properties at Minimum Diameter Section:
4 4
(1.00 in.) 0.098175 in.
32
J
Shaft Shear Stress:
max 4
(720 lbin.)(1.00 in./2)
(1.29) 4, 730.34 psi
0.098175 in.
4, 730 psi
Tc
K
J
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
6.103 A semicircular groove with a 6mm radius is required in a 50mmdiameter shaft. If the maximum
allowable shear stress in the shaft must be limited to 40 MPa, determine the maximum torque that can be
transmitted by the shaft.
Solution
Groove: From Fig. 6.17a:
50 mm 2(6 mm) 38 mm
50 mm 6 mm
1.32 0.158 1.39
38 mm 38 mm
d
D r
K
d d
Section Properties at Minimum Diameter Section:
4 4
(38 mm) 204, 707.75 mm
32
J
Maximum Torque:
2 4
allow
max
(40 N/mm )(204, 707.75 mm )
310, 045.8 Nmm
(1.39)(38 m
310 N
m
m
/2)
Tc
K
J
J
T
Kc
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
6.104 A 40mmdiameter shaft contains a 10mmdeep Ushaped groove that has a 6mm radius at the
bottom of the groove. The maximum shear stress in the shaft must be limited to 60 MPa. If the shaft
rotates at a constant angular speed of 22 Hz, determine the maximum power that may be delivered by
the shaft.
Solution
Groove: From Fig. 6.17a:
40 mm 2(10 mm) 20 mm
40 mm 6 mm
2.00 0.30 1.25
20 mm 20 mm
d
D r
K
d d
Section Properties at Minimum Diameter Section:
4 4
(20 mm) 15, 707.96 mm
32
J
Maximum Torque:
2 4
allow
max
(60 N/mm )(15, 707.96 mm )
75.3982 Nm
(1.25)(20 mm/2)
Tc
K
J
J
T
Kc
Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 22 Hz is:
max max
22 rev 2 rad
(75.3982 Nm)
s 1 rev
10, 42
1
2.3 Nm/
0.42
s
kW
P T
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
6.105 A 1.25in. diameter shaft contains a 0.25in.deep Ushaped groove that has a 1/8in. radius at the
bottom of the groove. The maximum shear stress in the shaft must be limited to 12,000 psi. If the shaft
rotates at a constant angular speed of 6 Hz, determine the maximum power that may be delivered by the
shaft.
Solution
Groove: From Fig. 6.17a:
1.25 in. 2(0.25 in.) 0.75 in.
1.25 in. 0.125 in.
1.67 0.167 1.39
0.75 in. 0.75 in.
d
D r
K
d d
Section Properties at Minimum Diameter Section:
4 4
(0.75 in.) 0.031063 in.
32
J
Maximum Torque:
4
allow
max
(12, 000 psi)(0.031063 in. )
715.1219 lbin. 59.5935 lbft
(1.39)(0.75 in./2)
Tc
K
J
J
T
Kc
Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 6 Hz is:
max max
6 rev 2 rad
(59.5935 lbft)
s 1 rev
2, 246.6219 lbft/s
P T
or in units of horsepower,
max
2, 246.6219 lbft/s
550 lbft/s
1
4.
hp
hp
08 P Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.106 A torque of magnitude T = 1.5
kipin. is applied to each of the bars
shown in Fig. P6.106. If the allowable
shear stress is specified as t
allow
= 8 ksi,
determine the minimum required
dimension b for each bar.
Fig. P6.106
Solution
(a) Circular Section
Rearrange the elastic torsion formula to group terms with d on the lefthand side:
4 3
which can be simplified to
32 ( / 2) 16
d T d T
d
t t
t t
= =
From this equation, the unknown diameter of the solid shaft can be expressed as
3
16T
d
tt
=
To support a torque of T = 1.5 kipin. without exceeding the maximum shear stress of 8 ksi, the solid
shaft must have a diameter (i.e., dimension b shown in the problem statement) of
3
3
min
16 16(1.5 kipin.)
(8 ksi)
0.985 in.
T
b
tt t
> = = Ans.
(b) Square Section
From Table 6.1,
aspect ratio 1 0.208
b
a b
a
o = = ¬ =
The maximum shear stress in a rectangular section is given by Eq. (6.22):
max 2
T
a b
t
o
=
For a square section where a = b,
3 3
min
max
1.5 kipin.
0.901442 in.
(0.208)(8 ks
0.966 in.
i)
T
b b
ot
= = = = Ans.
(c) Rectangular Section
From Table 6.1,
2
aspect ratio 2 0.246
b
b
o = ¬ =
For a rectangular section where a = 2b,