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LEVEL II QUESTIONS 1)
Low voltage X ray tubes are generally fitted with windows made of a) plastic beryllium c) glass d) lead A monochromatic X ray beam: a) is a narrow beam used to produce high contrast radiographs b) is also refered to as a heterogeneous X ray beams c) is a beam containing only characteristic X radation ~ is a beam consisting of a single wave length The general method of producing X ray involves the sudden decelaration solid body called a: a) focus cup b) filament d) cathode of high velocity electron in a
If it were necessary to radiograph a 7"thick steel product, which of the following gamma ray source would most likely be used? Cobalt - 60 b) Thulium - 170 c) Iridium - 192 d) Cesium - 137
A cobalt - 60 gamma - ray has an approximate practical thickness limit of: a) 2 1/2"of steel or its equivalent b) 4"of steel or its equivalent ~ 9"of steel or its equivalent d) 11"of steel or its equivalent The absorption of gama rays from a given source when passing through matter depens on: ~the atomatic number, density and thicknes of the matter b) The Young's modulus value of the matter c) the poission ratio value of the matter d) the specific activity value of the source The fact that gases, when bombarded by radation, ionize and become electrical conductors make them use ful in: a) X - ray transformers b) X - ray tubes c) maska radation detection equipments eloctrons striking the target in an X ray tube is a function of: number of cathode material number of filament material different between the cathode & anode flow in the rectifier circuit
The velocity of a) the atomic b) the atomic [§] the voltage d) the current
The uneven distribution of developed grains within the emulsion of a processed X - ray film causes the subjective impression of: ~ grainness b) streaks c) spots d) white scum Cobalt - 60 is reported to have a half life of 5.3 years. By how much should exposer time be increased used initially to produce excellent radiographs when the cobalt - 60 source was new. When the source old? a) No change in exposer time is needed. b) Exposer time should be about 11% longer @l] Exposer time should be about 31 % longer Page 1 of 17 d) Exposer time should be about 62 to 100% longer
LEVEL II QUESTIONS 11)
A source of Iridium - 192, whose half life is 75 days, provides an optimum exposer of a given test to a period of 20 minutes. Five month from now, what exposer time would be required for the same densith, under similar exposer conditions? a) 10 Minutes b) 20 Minutes 1 hour and 20 minutes d) 6 hours
Of the following, the source providing the most penetrating radation is: a) Cobalt - 60 b) 220 kVp X - ray tube @ 15 Me V X - ray betatron d) electron from iridium - 192
The gamma - ray intensity at one foot from a one curies source of radioactive cobalt - 60 is nearst: 15 roentgens per hour b) 1,000 roentgens per hour c) 1 roentgens per hour d) 10 milli roentgens per hour The focal spot in an X ray tube: a) is inclined at angel of 30Deg from the normal to the tube axis. b) is maintained at ahigh negative voltage during operations. c) should be as large as possible to ensure a narrow beam of primary radation. @}] should be as small as possible without unduly shortening the life of the tube.
In an X - ray tube, the filament and focusing cup are the two essential part of the:
~ cathode c) rectifer d) X - ray transformer 16) The quantity of radiation which will produce, by means of ionization. One electrostatic 0.001293grams of dry air is known as: a) a millicurie a gamma a roe~tgen a cune unit of
The specific activity of an isotopic source is usually measured in: a) million electron volts curie per grams c) roentgens per hour d) counts per minutes. Which of the following isotopes has the longest half life? a) Thulium - 170 b) Cobalt - 60 c) Iridium -192 Cesium - 137 The primary form of energy conversion when electrons strike a target in an X - ray tube results in the production a) Primary X -rn rays b) Secondary X - rays Short wavelength X - rays ~ heat
The slope of a straight line joining two points of specified densities on a characteristic known as the a) Speed of the curve Latitude average gradients d) density.
curve of a film is
Page 2 of 17
voltage transformer a filament transformer an autotransformer a power transformer ~ In X .fl.inch.ray tubes or often enclosed ina shockproof casing in order to: [§]I a) disspate heat protect the operator from high .5"steel has a thicnness 29) lliiI 30) @} Page 3 of 17 .5 mils 5 mils 50 mils to the 2-2T quality level.ray tube with a small focal spot is considerded desired to obtain: better than one with a large foci spot when it is 23) [!ill better a) areater penetrating power definition c) less contrast d) greater film density One methode of reducing radiographic contract is to: a) increase the distance between the radiation source and the object b) decrease the distance between the object and the film decrese the wave length of the radiation from fogging the film increase development time within manufacturer's recommendations Thin sheets of lead foil in intimate contactc with X .000 volts rms voltage 250 kv average voltage 28) A voltage selector consisting of an iron core transformer with a single winding having series of taps at various points on the winding is called: a) a high . This tube may be operated at maximum of: ~ b) c) d) 250.Q2J to dissipate heat An X .ray radiography..ray film having wide latitude also has. alternating current must be changed to pulsating direct current in order toso need for unidirectional current. an ASMT penetrameter for 2. This change may be accomplished by: a) transformer rectifiers c) anodes d) cathodes When radiographing a) one .000 volts peak voltage 250 kv effective voltage 250. by definition: a) Poor definition Low contrast ~ High speed d) none of the above rE1l 22) The purpose for circulating oil in some type of X .voltage shocks c) shield the tube from secondary radiation d) increase the efficiency of the rectifier 27) A X .ray tube is rated for a maximum of 250 kVp.RT 21) An X . to decrease the need for high current l.lEVEL II QUESTIONS .and gamma radiation which help darken the film 24) rcn 25) or @21 26) X . b) 2.000...ray tube is: a) to lubricate moving parts b) to absorb secondary radiation .ray film during exposure increase film density because: a) The fluoresce and emit visible light which helps expose the film b) they absorbe the scatter radiation c) they prevent back scattered radiation from fogging the film they emit electrons when exposed to X .
ray beams to provide "softer" radiation c) provide the most readily adjusted means of modifying X .8 minutes When sharp.film distance would be made of: 5 mil thich Aluminium 50 mil thich Aluminium or steel @l] 10 mil thick steel d) 2 mil strip of any metallic material The kilovoltage applied to an X .to-film distance to 24"exposer time would produce a smilar radiograph if all other condition remains the same a) 1. High .to . screens of high atomic number.60 radiograph is made on a 3"steel casting an exposer time of 10 minutes souce .ray tube. d) none of the above Filter used at the port of the X .half inch thick steel plate to the a 15 .ray tube circuits is made by: ~ adjusting the filament heating current b) adjusting the target .ray tube affects: a) the quality of the beam b) the intensity of the beam [£ll both A and B above d) neither A nor B above 38) 39) Filters placed between the X ray tube and specimen tend to reduce scatter radiation undercutting the specimen: @] by absorbing the longer wavelengeth componentents of the primary beam b) by absorbing the shorter wavelength componentes of the primary beam c) by absorbing the back scatter radiation d) decrease the graininess in a radiograph Besides serving as a filter. An let a) b) 2 .ray beam.cathode distance c) inserting resistance in the anode lead d) opening the shutter on the X .ray tube d) adjust the size of the target 32) A good cobalt .LEVEL II QUESTIONS .foot sdaped marks which are known not to correspond with any discontinuties at random on radiographs.to .voltage radiograph. such as lead antominy.ray beam by contributing secondary radiation b) filter short wavelength X . 33) Icfl 34) The adjustment of tube current in conventional X .RT 31) Valve tubes are used in X ray equipment to: [ill] provide necessary rectification b) activate and deactivate the X .ray tube: a) intensify the X .6 minutes b) 4. It it is necessary to change the source.ray tube port In comarision with lower . c) heat the filments in the X .to film distance of 36". bird .4 minutes d) 8.ray intensity filter out :soft"radiation to provide a more homogeneous x . static charge caused by friction d) inadequate rinsing after fixing. also a) decrease the source to film distance needed for a proper radiograph 40) Page 4 of 17 . black. they are probably caused by: a) prolonged development in old developer b) exposer of the film by natural cosmic ray showers during storage.energy radiographs shows a) greater contrast greater latitude greater amount of scatter radiation relative to primary beam intensity.4 minutes c) 6.inch source .2T quality 35) cr 36) rt>TI @] 37) ASTm penetrameter for use when inspecting a one .
170 The amount of unsharpness or blurring of a radiograph is: is a 43) [§iJ a) directly proporational to the object .to .fill provide LEVEL II QUESTIONS .ray tube is a) copper b) carbon c) carbide ~ 50) tungsten Page 5 of 17 .ray films with large grain size: a) will produce radiograph with better defination than film with small grain size b) have slower speeds than those with relatively small grain size [£]I have higher speeds than those with relatively small grain size d) will take longer to expose properly than film with relatively small grainsize As ~ b) c) d) the effective energy of the radiation increases up to about 250 kv film graininess increases film graininess decreases radiographic definition increases film speed decreases 46) 47) 48) The specific activity of cobalt .film distance and inversely proporational focal spot directly proporational to the size of the focal spot and inversely proporational distance to the size of ths to the source to object to the source to c) inversely proporational to the object .to .RT some image intensifying action c) permit the use of higher speed film d) decrease the graininess in a radiograph 41) rcn 42) The range of thickness' over which densities are obtained that are satisfactory for interpretation measure of the: a) subject contact of the radiograph b) sensitivity of a radiograph latitude of a radiograph ~ defination of a radiograph Almost all gamma radiograph is performed with: a) natural isotopes ~ iridium .60 depends on [E] the time the material has been in the reactor.192 or cobalt .60 c) radium d) thulium .film distance and directly proporational object distance d) inversely proporational to the size of ths focal spot and object to film distance 44) lli2J 45) Image of discontinuties close to the source side of the specimen become less clearly defined as: a) source to object to distance increases the thickness of the specimen increases c) the size of the focal spot decreases d) the thickness of the speicemen decreases The inherent filteration of an X ray tube is a function of: ~ the thickness and composition of the X . b) the atomic number of the material c) the gamma ray flux to which it was exposed d) the young's modulus valve of the material 49) The most commenly used target material in an X .ray tube port b) the voltage setting of the instrument c) the source to object distance d) the material used as a target X .
59) Page 6 of 17 .Ql. d) the specimen must be of uniform thickness The X . Electron ampilifer ~ Image ampilifer or intensifier d) Electrostatic belt generator 56) 57) a) b) c) d) 58) In order to utilize the principles of geometric enlargement (placing the film at a distance from the specimen): ..ray tube b) a megger c) a hot .RT @II The purpose for including a disc.shaped target that rotates rapidly during operationin some X yays a) increase the intensity of X .ray tube.radiation b) decrease the voltage needed for a specific quality of radiation increase the permissible load d) none of the above answer is correct 51) A device which is basically a combination of magnet and transformer in a circular orbit to very high energies is called a: a) electrostatic belt generator b) linear accelerator @II betatron d) toroidal electro magnetic type tube designed to guide and accleratons 52) Two isotopic source of a given strength have two diffenent specific activity values..filled region located in an electrical field created by electrodes across which a potential difference applied forms the major portion of: a) a low voltage X . b) the atomic number of the material.ray tube @]] an ionization chamber Two serious obstacles to high sensitivity fluoroscopy are: a) the inability to reproduce results and the need for periodic replacement of screens the limitled brightness and large grain size of fluoroscopic screens c) cost and slow speed d) the need for using long wave length X . a fundamental difficulty is the relative low brightness level of the images for increasing brightness utlizes one of the following which converts light energy from the initial plan face to electronswhich are accelerated and focused into a smaller fluorescent screen a) Betatron . The source with ~ecific activity value will: ~ be a smaller physical size than the source with a lower specific activity b) Have a shorter half life than than the source with a lower specific activity c) produce harder gamma rays than the source with a lower specific activity d) be a larger physical size than the source with a lower specific activity A gas .the source to film distance should be one half the source to film distance ~the source of the radiation should be extermely small c) a magnetic focusing coil must be used near the port of the X .LEVEL II QUESTIONS ..ill.cathode X .ray absorbation of a specimen depend on: a) the thickness and density of the material. the quality of fluoroscopic equipment is best determined by: a) densitometer reading ~ penetrameter sensitivity measurements c) discontinuity area measurements d) referance standards In fluoroscopic testing.rays and intensity associated with this method 53) 54) lli2l 55) In general.
that it radiates 66) In certain case. 61) .radiation.LEVEL II QUESTIONS . 62) b) the reciprocity law contract IW 63) d) a filter is used The load that can be handelled by an X ray tube focal spot is governed by: a) the composition of cathode.60 would be graeter radiographic sensitivity than a 250 kv x .ray machine would give greater radiographic sensitivity than cobalt . The purpose for doing this is a) to prevent movement of the specimen b) to increase the subject contract c) to generate smaller wavelength X .60 c) the use of fluorescent screens would results in a radiograph of better quality than would lead foil screens can and in 67) 68) lE2I d) the use of lead foil screens will required a shorter exposer time than will fluorescent screens Page 7 of 17 . The purpose of this sheet of lead foil is: a) to act as an intensifying screen [b)I to protect the film from the backscatter c) both A and B above d) neither A nor B above A lead sheet containing a pin hole may be placed half way between the X ray tube and the film in order to: ~ b) c) d) determine the approximate size of the focal spot measure the intensity of the central ray filter scatter radiation soften the X radiation. 64) 65) The most comman way of cooling the anode of a high power X ray tube is: a) cooling by radiation.J the exposer factor.ray machine. it may be advantageous to pack lead shot around a specimen. used to determine radiographic I2l.£l. When radiographing steel with a thickness than one inch: ~ cobalt . the size of focal spot and the efficency of the cooling system of the anode.ray exposer holders and cassettes often incroporate a sheet of lead foil in the black which is not in intimate contact with film. d) cooling by means of external finned radiators. in which a solid tungesten anode attains such high temperature an appreciable amount of heat b) cooling by means of circulating cooled air @11 cooling by circulating of water or oil in the anode.RT lEi] both A and B above d) 60) neither A nor B of The radiographic absorbation of a material will tend to become less dependent upon the composition the material when: @11 the kilovoltage is increased b) the source to film distance is decreased c) the kilovoltage is decreased d) a filter is used The formula (milliamperes X time) divided distance square is: a) used to calculate the film gradient.. c) the distance from the anode and cathode d) the high voltage wave forms. X .. @]] to decrease the effect of scattered radiation undercutting the specimen The mottling caused by diffraction when radiographing fairly large grained metallic specimans some case eliminated by: a) raising the kilovoltage and using fluorescent screens b) lowering the kilovoltage and using lead foil screens 191 raising the kilovoltage and using lead foil screens d) lowering the kilovoltage and using fluoresent screens. a 250 kv x .
d) decrease the exposer time 76) @TI 77) Improper geometric factors poor contract between film and lead foil screens.0? a) 9.ray radiations is changed.ray film: a) is independent of the type of film used. 73) For the partical purposes.The antilogarthm of log E.RT 69) A radiograph made with an exposer of 12mA per minute has a density of 0. the a) stray absorption b) source absorption c) characteristic filtration. d) is primarily determined by the subject contract. inherent filtration 74) IillI 75) The interval between the time a film is placed in a fixer solution and the time when the orginal diffuse milkiness dis appears is known as: ~ clearing time b) fixing time c) hardening time d) oxidation time Excessive subject contract caused when the thickness range in the test specimen si too greate for the radiation quality used may be correct by: a) increasing the kilovoltage b) using a filter at X ray generators would produce the narrowest cone of X . By reference to a characteristic curve of it is found that the difference in log E between a density of 0.0 in this area.6 mA per minute d) 16 mA per minute 70) The absorbation of radiation by a material varies: a) directly with the square of the distance from the source b) directly with the thickness of the material c) inversely with the amount of scattering in the material I!TII in an approximately exponential manner with the thickness of the material In the microradiographic technique: a) soft X .radiation both A and B are methods for correcting excessive subject contract. What must the new exposer time to be produced a radiograph with adensity of 2.ray tube wall. b) a kilovoltage range of 5 to 50 kVis usually employed.12mAperminute c) 69.ray are usually employed. the shape of the characterstic curve of an X .ray film @I]all three above choices are correct In order for a radiographic to have a penetrameter sensitivity of 2-2T or better a) The radiographic procdure has to be able to differentiate a 2% difference in specimen thickness ~ the radiographic procdure must be able to define the 2T hole in a penetrameter 2% of the thickness of the specimen which is 71) 72) c) the radiographic procdure must be able to distingush a discontinuty with a length equilant to 2% of the specimen thickness. The term which describes the total absorption of the useful beam caused by the X .76. c) is drastically changed when the quality of X . It is desired to increase the density to 2. c) the photographic material is often finger grained than an ordinary X .12 mA per minute b) 21.8 in the region of mainly intrest. and graininess of film are possible causes of: a) high film density I[j poor definition c) fogged film d) low film density Page 8 of 1 7 . d) none of the above choices are correct.or gamma radiation. [E] is independent of the quality of X .8 is 0.LEVEL II QUESTIONS .
@II atomic number and melting point 87) Page 9 of 17 . The unsharpness caused by geomatrical factors may be refered to as the: a) astigmatic effect.radation? a) 10 MeV b) 15 MeV 25 MeV d) 1 MeV 79) IJ 80) A radiograph is taken at a voltage of 500kv. c) electrical resistance and tensile strength. b) the graininess of the film will decrease significantly if a low . A radiograph of a sieel weldment is made using 15 Mev betatron.. d) there is no basic difference between the two 81) . [ill] there will be little significant change in the graininess of the film.£2. c) the fluoroscopic image is brighter. ~ change operators periodically. ~ vary the intensity of the background light. d) excessive exposer to ultraviolet rays.. When the radiograph is developed.-'--------------. sourced to specimen distance and specimen to film distance there can be a lack of prefect sharpness at the edge of indications. Which of the following X . c) the graininess of the film will increase significantly if a class I film is used. [!ill penumbral shadow. b) melting point and magnetic strength. there isan over all film mottling.ray tube are a) tensile strength and yield strength. A bassic difference between a radiograph and fluoroscopic image is: a) the fluoroscopic image is more sensitive the fluoroscopic image is a positive whereas the radiograph is a negative transparency. c) focus varation. 82) JW 83) The quantity of radiation striking a unit area of film: ~ is the product of radiation intensity and time b) is the intensity per unit of time c) is directly proportional to intensity and inversely proportional to time d) varies exponentially with time and directly with intensity. _----------- LEVEL II QUESTIONS 78) .RT In fluoroscopy the most commom means for minimizing operator fatiuge is to: a) equip operatores with special glasses b) place a filter over the viewing screen. Which is the following factor will not materially influence the image density of radiograph? a) the type of film used the size of the film c) the total amount of radiation emitted by the X ray or gammaray source d) the intensifying action of the screen practical 84) [§TI 85) A 1.speed film is used. A possible cause for such mottling is: a) in correct exposer time excessive object film distance ~ failure to use a lead screen during exposer. d) none of the above Two factors which greatly affect the suitability of the target material in an X . .ray machine used in conjunction with a lead foil screen has an approximate thickness limit of: a) 1 1/2 "of steel or its equivalent b) 3"of steel or its equivalent @J 5"of steel or its equivalent d) 16"of steel or its equivalent 86) Because of geometrical factors such as source size.speed film is used.00k Vp X . If the voltage is increased with a resultant increses in the energy of radiation while all other conditions remain the same: a) the graininess of the film will increase significantly if a high .ray generator would produce the narrowest cone of X .
.ray intensity curve.35"of steel c) 1. 89) The most important factor for determining the amount of X . l£2J 90) The approximate radiograph equilance factors for steel and copper at 220kv are 1.: . a) A film badge b) A fountain pen type of inozation chamber Page 10 of 17 i.Q. d) the scattered radiation effect is greater as the source to film distance increases. . d) radiographic contrast. a) Contains provision for sealing the lid of the container.5"plate of copper..0 and 1.0"of steel 91) Which of the following technique variables is most commanly used to adjust subject contract? a) Source to film distance b) Milliampirage @I] kilovoltage d) Focal point size 92) Films that are left between lead screens too long in a high temperature and high humidity atmosphere a) show increased speed but decreased quality characteristics. 93) The quantative measure of film blackening is refered to as: definitation.ray absorption of a specimen is the: a) thickness of the specimen.4"of steel d) 1.l. [E]] be fire resistance c) be shock proof d) be twice as thich as normal storage container Which of the following instruments would exhibit the best sensitivity and most likely be used to detect small leak in a radiation barrier.4 respectively it is desirable to radiograph a 0. atomic number of the material d) Young's modulus of the material.. density of the specimen.HT 88) The reason the exposer time must be increased by a factor of four when the source to film distance is double is: a) the intensity of radiation decreases at an exponential rate when the source to film distance is increased b) the qualiy of radiation is inversely proportional to the square root of the distance from the source to film.. c) flim contrast.7"of steel b) 0. X . what thickness of steel would required about the same exposure characteristics? a) 0. 1£1] become fogged c) become mottled d) show tree shaped light area in the finished radiograph.LEVEL II QUESTIONS .& l!ill 94) A curve relating density with the logaritham of exposer or of relative exposure is called: a) b) ~ d) a sensitivity curve a density exposure curve an H & D curve. 95) a) b) c) d) 96) The code Federal Regulations requires that all shipping containers for radioisotopes. the intensity of radiation is invearsely proportaional to the square of the distance from the source to film. photagraphic density.
106) Attenuation of gamma rays in the energy range commonly used for testing takes place through: a) photoelectric absorption b) compton absorption @I] both A and B d) neither A nor B Page 11 of 17 .. the hourly fiow of water in the wash should be . which of the following material would most likely be used as a substitute? a) Aluminum 02:)1 concerete c) Steel d) Boron A quntative term often used to indicate the size of the smallest details which can be seen in a radiograph is @2] radiographic sensitivity b) radiographic definition c) radiographic contrast d) subject contrast curve is a measure of: 99) 100) The slope (steepness) of a characteristic a) Subject contrast b) radiographic definition c) radiographic contrast.EL 105) In processing radiographs. the use of lead to provide protection may present serious problems.. process by means of ..-------------------------------------------~---------------------_------- LEVEL II QUESTIONS ~ A Geiger countainer d) A dosimeter . ~ the fixer solution accumulates soluble silver salts d) the active ingredients settle to the bottom of the tank..RT 98) At voltage above 400kV. If this should be a serious problem.&. @1] film contrast 101) A special radiographic methode requering two radiographs taken during separate exposures from two different position to give the visual impression of a three dimensional display when viewed in an optical device simultaneously is refered to as a) fluoroscopy b) zero .radiography stereoradiography d) parallel radiography I£ll 102) The depth of a discontiniuty may be estimated by making two exposures on a single film from two different positions of the X ray tube.. the active ingiredients are absorbed by the radiograph.. This method is refferd to as: a) stereoradiography b) zero . The depth of the discontinuity is computed from the shift in the shadow of the discontinuity with respect to the image of fixed markers on the front and back of the spceimen.radiography c) fluoroscopy @21 the parallel method of depth location 103) Constant agitation of the developer during the developer during the development mechanical stirrers or circulating pumps may: a) speed the developing cycle help replenish the developer cause undesirable preferential flow of developer along certain paths causes reticulation 104) The activity of the fixer diminshes after being used for a period of time because a) the active ingiredients evaporate .E2Jfour to eight time the volume of the tank c) at least 40 gallons per hour d) varried continuously in proportion to the number of radiographs being developed. two to three times the volume of the tank l...
ray tube.----.. What is the primary factor that prevents this from being exactly proportional? Ia)J The voltage and voltage wave form of an X ray machine transformer varies with load Wave length changes are not exactly proportional c) Current cannot be changed at a liner rate Page 12 of 17 Ln1 .-----------. sunlight.ray patter is the 113) The function of a film interprete is to: a) find perfect parts which contains discontinuties b) reject parts c) identify discontinuities and manufacturing devations which do not meet the applicable code or specification standards.ray barrier window on fluoroscopic equipment? a) Pyrex Lead glass c) Optical glass d) Barium oxide glass [§2J 115) The maximum practical speed of scanning a test object for conventional fluroscopic estimated to be: a) about 7"per second b) about 1"per second c) about12"persecond about 3"per second inspection has been @I] 116) When other operating conditions are held constant..ray powder diffraction examination X .ray or gamma ray energy will a) significantly decreses the average gradient of a characteristic curve b) significantly increase the average gradient of a characteristic curve c) increase the slope of a characteristic curve @] have little effect on the shape of a characteristic curve 109) As the development time increases: @] the characteristic curve grows steerer and moves to the left b) the characteristic curve grows steerer and moves to the right c) the characteristic curve remains the same in shape but move to the left d) there is little effect on the characteristic curve 110) A distinctive characteristic of high ... 111) Lead screen are used for almost all exposure when using: a) the fluoroscopic technique b) low .voltage radiography. a change in tube current causes a change in radiation intesity emitted from an X ..--- ... 112) The fact that each solid crystalline substance produces its own characteristic a) Zeroradiography.voltage radiography is a) it results in comparatively high subject contrast b) it results in comparatively high radiographic contrast IC)J it is applicable to comprativiely thick or highly absorbing specimen "a) all of the above are distinctive characteristics of high . ..----. b) fluoroscopic testing ~ polymorphic testing ~ X .RT 107) A zinc cadium sulfide fluoroscopic screen which is continually exposed to bright day light.-----. determine if the proper techenique has been used during an exposure both C and D & ~ 114) Which of the following glasses would most likely be used as an X ..c----------.. -...voltage radiography [ill high voltage radiography d) Zeroradiography. -- . --------..---.. or a sources of ultraviolet radiation will: a) need to be recharged to regain its orginal fluorescence become discolored and lose some of its brillance c) require a higher kilovoltage setting of the X ray generator to produce a satisfactory image d) all of the above answer are correct [§2] 108) Increasing the x . .---. LEVEL II QUESTIONS . the intensity being approximately proportional to tube current. .
_--_.ray source is reffered to as: Page 13 of 17 ._-_ _. the radiation level on the opposite side is: ~ 8 R/hr.60 is approximately 0._.A 119) The half value layer of lead for cobalt ._.. __ _. on image of the A 118) A special form of scatter due to X .RT 117) When viewing a radiography..-------- _. This is most likely due to: a) undercut b) overexposure X .. . __ --. This is mostly due to: radiograph with poor contrast l!1Ja radiograph of mottled apperance c) a baddly fogged radiograph d) a radiograph with poor resolution . _.5"... d) ten times the orginal quantity of developer Cr' 124) 125) A 250 K Vp X ray machine used in conjuction with a lead foil screen has an approximate of: a) 1 1/2 "of steel are equivalent 2"of steel or its equivalent c) 6"of steel or its equivalent d) 7 112"of steel or its equivalent practical limit @21 126) The degree of concentration of the radioactive material in a gamma . __ --- --- . If the radiation level on the source side a 1. 10 2/3 R 1 hr I. LEVEL II QUESTIONS d) Scatter radiation does not vary at a proportional rate.2J d) 32 R 1 hr 123) Developer solution should be discarded when the quantity of replenisher added equals: a) the orginal quantity of developer rtl)l two to three times the orginal quantity of the developer five to six months the orginal quantity of the developer._-- - .5".. _. c) 102/3R/hr d) 32 R 1 hr 120) Which of the following is not a factor in determining subject contrast? a) Nature of the specimen b) The radiation quality is used @] Type of film used d) Intensity and distribution of the scattered radiation 121) Q-he Q~f half value layer of lead for cobalt . b) 21 1/3 R 1 hr.._ .ray intensity too high ~ back scatter.... __ . 21 1/3 R 1 hr.60 is approximately 0._ . the radiation level on the opposite side is: a) 8 R 1 hr.. . )ll.5"lead plate is 64 Rlhr. an image of the back of the cassette superimposed specimen is noted. .1l.. If the radiation level on the source side of a 1..ray diffraction effect in a specimen with large of the specimen is noted.5"lead plate is 64 Rlhr..
the operater wishes to increase the radiation intensity.RT @21 the specific activites of the source b) the quality of the source. 131) Lead screens are put in direct contact with the film to: a) increase the potographic action on the film b) absorb the longer wavelength scattered radiation c) intensify the photographic effect of the primary more than the scatter radiation ~ all of the above 132) Mottling due to diffraction can be reduced and in some case eliminated by: a) rasing the kilovoltage b) using lead foil screens @] both of the above d) none of the above 133) Because of geometrical factors such as source size. l. a change takes place in the silver halide crystals.Jill 135) Fluoroscopic screens..ray tube radiography.rays. The unsharpness caused by the factors may be reffered to as the: a) astimatic effect ~ penumberal shadow c) focus variation d) none of the above 134) The main purpose of the X ray generator controls on the equipment is: ~ to maintain the direction and width of the X .LEVEL II QUESTIONS . gamma rays. b) decrease the generation of short wavelength X .b.rays.£l. This change is refered to as: Page 14 of 17 .&. filtration at the tube: a) increase the generation of short wave length X . improves the radiographic quality by decreasing scatter radiation.lJ 136) When X . . or electrons strike the photographic emulision. c) to allow the operator to adjust film focal distance remotely. light. lElJ . kilo voltage should be lowered tube current should be increased c) the specimen should be moved farther from the film d) tube current should be decreased. as mounted and used.ray machine @I] all of the above 130) While using an X . there can be a lack of perfect sharpness at the edge of indications. and duration of expouser desired.life of the source. c) the atomic weight of the source. to enable to operate to obtain the intensity.life d) Kiloelectron volt (KeV) or milli electron vole (MeV) [E1I 129) Film selection for an X . 127) In million .rays . l. 128) The energy of gamma ray is expressed by which of the following units of measurment: a) cirie Roentgen c) Half . d) the half ..radiation . are easily damaged by which of the following? Washing with a soft cotton cloth Exposure to ultravilent radiation or sunlight c) Poor handling d) X .ill. ~ offers no improvement in radiographic quality...ray exposure depends on: a) thickness of the part b) the material of the specimen c) the voltage range of the X . To do so the . d) to change alternating current to increase X . and specimen to film distance..voltage radiography.ray beam. quality. source to specimen distance.ray intensity.
-----~-----.----~---~-.--- LEVEL II QUESTIONS a) b) photographic density photographic sensitivity laten image charasteristic curve . specimen thickness that can be adequately recorded on the radiograph is reffered to as the: Page 15 of 17 a) density of the radiograph . This image would most likely be due to the presence of: a) porosity b) slag inclusion tungsten inclusion d) inadequate buildup rcn 140) A large physical size source may produce an equilvalent quality radiograph if: ~ The source to film distance is increased b) more backing lead is used c) a faster film is used d) exposer time is decreased 141) A light image of backing "8" on a processed radiograph is probably caused by: a) excessive density ~ backscatter c) kilovoltage set too low. . . ~~... d) poor film handling 142) Cobalt .!U. size of film.shaped smell image in the weld. geometric unsharpness 139) On a radiograph of a pipe weld there is a very light irregularly . type of screens b) Source activity..--. what three factor must be considered in selecting a source to film distance? a) Source activity.60 when it is placed in a nuclear reactor where it captures: a) an electron [N] a neutron c) a proton d) contamination 143) When a faster speed film is substituted for a slower one to improve the ecnomic of the exposure.59 becomes cobalt . type of film... 146) Source size. film contrast is the inherent ability to show a difference in density no graininess graininess no appreciable change in density 145) The ability of a material to block or partially block the passage of X rays and gamma rays is reffered to as: a) penetration absolution ~ absorption d) latitude .------:--- ----:----c-----:------- ~~-~-~----~-~---~-... which of the following condition occur? a) The film must receive special processing b) The definition will improve ~ The image resolution will be reduced d) None of the above will experinced 144) For ~ b) c) d) a given change in the radiation exposure.~--...192 produces a dose rate of 5900mRper curie produce at the same distance? a) 590 b) 590. thickness of material c) Source size..--------~-~ .000 c) 59 59.. . how many mR will ten [ill! 138) With respect to quality.000 hour at one foot.RT d) rcn 137) If one curie of iridium . source activity. specimen thickness. specimen to film distance ~ Source size.
6 years dj' none of the above rcn 149) The photoelectric effect involves: a) the visible electromagnetic spectrom b) an electric camera complete absorption of a photon all of the above ICJl 'aT 150) Radiographic ~ undercutting is caused by: side scatter b) poor geometry c) lead screen d) free clectrons 151) The developer solution is: A acid ~alkiline c) saline d) colloidal 152) A general rule governing the application of the geometric principles of shadow formation states that: a) the x ray should proceed from large a focal spot as other consideration will allow b) the distance between the radation source and the material examined should be as small as practical. by definition: a) poor definetion [!ill low contrast c) high speed Page 16 of 17 .3 days b) 5. 153) An ~ b) c) d) iridium .192 gamma .60 source to decay 2 curie? a) 5.ray source has an approximate 3"of steel or its equivalent 4"of steel or its equivalent 7 1/2 "of steel or its equivalents 11"of steel or its equivalent practical thickness limit of: 154) The half .life radioactive cesium . to preserve spatial relationships. c) the film should be as far as possible from the object being radiographed.RT b) exposure of the radiograph c) film size unsharpness recorded on the radiograph @] 147) The range of specimen thickness that can be adequetly recorded on the radiograph is reffered to as the: a) sensitivity of the radiograph ['61l latitude of the radiograph C) accuracy of the radiograph d) intensity of the source 148) Approximately how long would it take for a 10 curie cobalt . ~ the central ray should be as nearly perpendicular to the film as possible.137 is nearest: a) 36 days b) 6 years @l] 30 years d) 526 days 155) The slope of the H & 0 curve of a radiographic film is called: a) speed b) latitude gamma or gradient d) density rcn 156) An x ray film having wide latitude also has.LEVEL II QUESTIONS .3 years 10.
= Where f = frequency s = speed of light c geometric unsharpness Where " = wavelength Ug is: d = source to film distance 159) The correct equation for determining a) Ug = f I td b) f = Ug tid c) ~ Ug = dt 1ft Ug = ft I d = object to film distance f = size of radiation source 160) An exposure technique is established to obtain a 2. and wave length of an electromagnetic a) f = ~c=fl\ c) fc d) fI wave is normally "C . velocity.LEVEL II QUESTIONS d) none of the above .= .RT 157) The projected area of the target of an X ..ray tube is called: a) focal spot b) focus fC)l effective focal spot ~ geometric unsharpness 158) The relation ship between frequency. reduce !!ill c) d) by increased increased reduce by approximately 30% by approximately 99% by approximately 30% approximately 99% Page 17 of 17 .ill.0 density using type "D"film and automatic ..
-.---- LEVEL II QUESTIONS· ANSWERS LEVEL II RT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B D C A C A D C A C C C A D B C B D D C B D B C D B A C B D A B C 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 C B B B A C A A D C C A D B B C D B C A D B B A C D C B C D D B B D A B D C C 73 74 75 76 77 A C B D C D A B 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 C B A B C B D C A C B B C D B C B A D C D C C B C B D A C C D E B D A D B A C 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 B C B C B A D B D B D C B B B C D D C A B B C A C D B C C A B D A C C B C B D B Page 1 of 1 . .--.~---~-.----.-:---o---.----'--. -----7""-----------'-- --.._----. ----~ -0' ---o----------~----'---·--------.--.~-------- --_.._.