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口腔醫學英文 牙科英文會話

牙醫學系:周肇茂 教授 分機:7003 Email: pro11sth@kmu.edu.tw

Chapter 1 At the reception desk (在接待處) 1. Making an appointment (約診)

Check-up 檢查  Fully booked 預約排滿了  Cancel an appointment 取消預約

1.Making an appointment
約診 Miss Suzuki(鈴木):Hello, this is Dr. Sato(佐藤) and Dr. Richard‟s Dental Clinic. How can I help you ? Mr. Abe:Good morning. I am ringing (calling or phoning) to ask if I could make an appointment for a check-up ? Miss Suzuki:Unfortunately Dr. Sato(佐藤) and Dr. Richard are both busy all this week. Is next Monday OK ? We have some spaces in the morning. Mr. Abe:Next Monday morning is fine for me. Could it be early in the morning ?

1.Making an appointment
約診 Miss Suzuki:The first available space is 8:30. Is 8:30 am alright for you ? Mr. Abe:8:30 am is perfect, thank you. Miss Suzuki:Could I have your name again, please ? Mr. Abe:Yes of course. My name is Kenji Abe(阿 部健二).

Chapter 1 At the reception desk (在接待處) 2. Cancelling an appointment (取 消預約)

Can I help you ? Mr. Miss Suzuki:Could you tell me when is your appoint Mr. Would you like to make another one ? . Sato and Dr. Miss Suzuki:That‟s no problem.2. Otake:It‟s this Friday at 4 pm. Richard‟s Dental Clinic. Dr. I will cancel it for you. I would like to cancel an appointment if possible. Otake ? Mr. Otake:Hello this is Kenichi Otake(大竹健一).Cancelling an appointment 取消預約 Miss Suzuki:Good afternoon.

that‟s fine thank you. Because you need a filling. . Could I come in next week ? Miss Suzuki:I am sorry. Otake:Yes please. Richard can see you will be a week on Tuesday. The next time Dr. Richard is fully booked (預約排滿.Cancelling an appointment 取消預約 Mr. a longer appointment is necessary. no more spaces were available) next week. Dr. Otake:Yes. Richard was going to do a filling so I need to come again.2. Dr. Will that be alright ? Mr.

Changing an appointment (改 約) .Chapter 1 At the reception desk (在接待處) 3 .

Would you like to make another appointment? . Miss Suzuki: Oh dear I‟m sorry to hear that you are not feeling well.Changing an appointment 預約的變更 Miss Suzuki : Dr.3. Sato and Dr. Sayama(佐山) and I have an appointment this afternoon with Dr. how can I help you? Mrs. Sato but I have to change it because I don’t feel well. Sayama : My name is Mrs. Richard‟s Dental Clinic.

. Mrs. Sayama.3.Changing an appointment 預約的變更 Mrs. Sayama : Can I call you back because I’m going away for a few days? Miss Suzuki: That‟s fine. We look forward to seeing you again.

edu.tw .Chapter 2 Emergency (牙科急診) 1. Broken tooth (牙齒斷裂) 牙醫學系:周肇茂 教授 分機:7003 Email: pro11sth@kmu.

composite resin: 複合樹脂 充填. 複合樹脂 Metal crown: 金屬牙冠 White crown: 白色金屬牙冠 Ceramic matertals: 陶瓷材料 Zirconia: 氧化鋯 Prepare the tooth: 修磨牙齒. 預備牙齒 Emergency: 急診 Chew: 咀嚼 .重要單語         Composite filling.

I can‟t say. . Mr. Ishida: I‟m not sure.Broken tooth 牙齒斷裂 Dr. I bit (past tense of bite) on a yakitori(燒 鳥: 把雞肉或鳥、豬等的內 臟切成小塊用籤子穿起來烤的食品。烤雞肉串。 烤雞雜(豬雜)串。) last night then I heard a crack and felt something sharp in my mouth. Is it the same tooth? Mr.1. Ishida. Sato: You‟re back again. I think it is either the tooth you worked on or the one next to it.

luckily the tooth I rebuilt last time is OK.1. Sato: Yes and no.Broken tooth 牙齒斷裂 Dr. It is the tooth behind. (used to show that there is not one clear answer to a question 即是又不是﹝表示難以明確答覆﹞) . You also had a composite filling in that tooth but now the remaining bit of enamel has broken off. Mr. Sato: Well. Ishida: Is it serious? Dr.

Ishida: What do you mean? Dr. isn‟t it? . Ishida: That is good.1.Broken tooth 牙齒斷裂 Mr. yes in the sense that if we do what we did last time and repair the broken enamel with composite resin all your tooth will consist of composite. Mr. Sato: Well .

Mr. If all of the tooth consists of composite resin. it can easily break again and all the filling may break off.Sato : Not really.Ishida : I don’t want a metal crown.Broken tooth 牙齒斷裂 Dr.1. Can I have a white crown? . We will need to place a crown on the tooth. Some of my friends have metal crowns and they don’t look very nice.

. There are some new ceramic materials available. which can be used to make the crown.Broken tooth 牙齒斷裂 Dr. Sato: Yes. that‟s no problem. Something like a Procera high strength alumina coping or one made of zirconia. Because you have a tendency to break your teeth we will need to use a strong ceramic.1.

Mr. .Broken tooth 牙齒斷裂 What we‟ll do today is put some composite resin on as a temporary measure and give you another appointment. Sorry.1. Ishida: Can‟t you prepare the tooth today? Dr. Sato: Unfortunately you were seen as an emergency and I have another patient waiting.

Ishida: It‟s just that I have to go Italy for a business trip. So I„m worried that the composite resin won‟t last. Dr. . I‟ll be out of the country fir a mouth. Sato: If you are careful not to eat anything very hard on those teeth you should be fine.1.Broken tooth 牙齒斷裂 Mr.

Ishida(吉田). Thanks for what you have done today .Broken tooth 牙齒斷裂 Mr. Dr. Ishida: I‟ll make sure I chew on the other side. .I‟m sorry for all the trouble I have caused you.1. Sato: It‟s my pleasure Mr.

Chapter 2 Emergency (牙科急診) 2.A denture tooth has broken off (活動假牙的人工牙齒斷裂) .

重要單字    She has broken a tooth off her upper.: 我上顎活動假牙的一顆人工前齒斷 裂了. What can I do for you?: 我能為你做些什麼? A front tooth has broken off my upper denture. denture: 她上顎的活動人工假牙斷裂. .

She is very distressed. Richard: Could you see if Dr. a lady called Mrs.A denture tooth has broken off 活動假牙的人工牙齒斷裂 Miss Suzuki: Sorry to trouble you Dr. Kawajima(川島 女士) has come in and would like to know if someone could see her.2. She says she has broken a tooth off her upper denture. Dr. Richard. Sato is free? .

Richard: I have just finished so I can see Mrs. Kawajima(川島)? . Kawajima. Dr.2. Could you call her in please Miss Kato(加藤)? Miss Kato:Would you like to come through please Mrs.A denture tooth has broken off 活動假牙的人工牙齒斷裂 Miss Suzuki: Yes certainly.

It‟s terrible. If this tooth can‟t be fixed everyone will laugh at me! .2.A denture tooth has broken off 活動假牙的人工牙齒斷裂 Dr. Sato:What can I do for you Mrs. I must give a presentation this afternoon in front of 200 people. Kawajima:A front tooth has broken off my upper denture and now I can‟t smile. Kawajima? Mrs.

A denture tooth has broken off 活動假牙的人工牙齒斷裂 Dr. It will take me just a few minutes. Kawajima:Thank you so much. Mrs.2. Sato:Let me have a look. Ah no problem. . The tooth just needs to be stuck back on.

Pericoronitis (牙冠周圍發炎) .Chapter 2 Emergency (牙科急診) 3.

重要單字              Patient‟s file 病歷資料 Wisdom tooth 智齒. 第三大臼齒 Bite 咬 Gum 牙齦 Lower third molar 下顎第三大臼齒 Swollen / Swell 腫脹 Crown 牙冠 Pericoronitis 牙冠周圍發炎 Flap of gum 牙齦瓣 Infection 感染 Erupt 萌發 Radiograph 放射線照片 Impacted tooth 埋伏齒 .

重要單字            Mesially 近心側 Refer 轉診 Oral surgeon 口腔外科 Second opinion 第二意見 Extract 拔牙 Sterile water 滅菌水 Antibiotics 抗生素 Allergic to Penicillin 盤尼西尼過敏 White spot 白斑 Have a sweet tooth 喜好吃甜食 Hygienist 口腔衛生師 .

I will call you when I have made the patient‟s file. Richard. . Sato‟s surgery today. we will be working in Dr. there is an emergency patient on the way. However. Miss Tanaka(田中):Dr. Pericoronitis 牙冠周圍發炎 Miss Suzuki:Your first patient has just cancelled so you have a bit more time. We are lucky.3. He is not in today.

Pericoronitis 牙冠周圍發炎 Dr. Has someone been called to come and check the autoclave(高壓 蒸氣消毒鍋)? Miss Tanaka :Yes.3. But there is an emergency patient on the way. Richard. Can you call her in please? . Dr. Miss Suzuki :The emergency patient has come. The patient‟s name is Miss Komata (小俁ㄩˇ). Here is her file. Your first patient Cancelled. Richard :Yes. Richard :That‟s good. are you ready for the emergency patient? Her name is Miss Komata. Miss Tanaka :Dr.

3. Pericoronitis 牙冠周圍發炎 Miss Tanaka :Good morning Miss Komata(小俁 ㄩˇ). I think it‟s wisdom tooth. . Could you come this way please. The pain has been getting worse and I couldn‟t sleep last night. Richard : Good morning Miss Komata. Dr. please come in and have a seat. I am also having difficulty opening my mouth. The back of my mouth hurts when I try to bite together. What can we do for you? Miss Komata :Thank you for seeing me at such short notice.

Food has got stuck underneath and an infection has started. Let‟s have a look. Richard :Ok. . We need to take a radiograph to check its position. the gum around your lower third molar is swollen. You have pericoronitis. Richard :There is a flap of gum overlying the wisdom tooth.3. It looks like your third molar is having trouble erupting. Miss Komata : Pericoronitis ?What‟s that ? Dr. Part of the crown is visible. Pericoronitis 牙冠周圍發炎 Dr. Yes.

He may recommend you have it extracted. Let me show you. They will reduce the infection. Richard :Your tooth is impacted mesially. I will refer you to an oral surgeon for a second opinion. Richard :I don‟t think so. Miss Komata: Will it come through later on? Dr.3. Are you allergic to Penicillin? . I will wash under the gum with sterile water and give you some antibiotics.It is tilted against the molar in front. Pericoronitis 牙冠周圍發炎 Dr.

I have had Penicillin before. Pericoronitis 牙冠周圍發炎 Miss Komata : No. Dr. . Miss Komata : Yes I do. Dr.3. Miss Komata : Thanks very much. You have several white spots on your teeth and there is some calculus behind your lower incisors. Richard :I have noticed a couple of other things. My friends have told me I have a “sweet tooth”. Richard: I will give you another appointment so we can talk about your diet and give you some advice and also I will book(預約) you in with our hygienist. Do you like to eat a lot of sweet thing.

An allergic reaction (過敏 反應) .Chapter 2 Emergency (牙科急診) 4 .

重要單字          Allergic reaction 過敏反應 Wisdom tooth 智齒 Swelling 腫脹 Rash 濕疹 Go and see a doctor 看醫生 Alternative antibiotics 替代抗生劑 oral surgeon 口腔外科醫生 Have one‟s wisdom tooth removed 拔掉某人的智齒 Indication 適應症 .

Richard can see an emergency patient? Miss Tanaka: Yes I‟m sure he can. Richard know that she‟s in the waiting room. She came in yesterday as an emergency. I‟ll let Dr. Komata has returned. Komata. Richard gave her for her wisdom tooth trouble Miss Tanaka: I remember Mrs. She thinks that she‟s had an allergic reaction to the antibiotics Dr. do you think Dr. An allergic reaction 過敏反應 Miss Suzuki: Miss Tanaka. What‟s the problem? Miss Suzuki: Mrs. .4 . .

Dr. Komata. You remember Mrs. An allergic reaction 過敏反應 Miss Tanaka: Dr. We had better bring her in the straight away. Dr. We have an emergency patient. Mrs. Mrs. Komata who came in yesterday with the wisdom tooth swelling? Well she thinks she‟s had an allergic reaction to the antibiotics you gave her. Miss Tanaka: Please come this way. Komata.4 . Richard: that doesn‟t sound good. Richard: I hear things aren‟t going well for you. Richard. .

Mrs. Dr. I gave you penicillin. . Komata: No I haven‟t. Komata: That‟s right I don‟t. Dr. An allergic reaction 過敏反應 Mrs. Richard: yes I can see the rash. I have developed a rash on my arm and I think it‟s an allergic reaction to the antibiotics you gave me. Komata: Unfortunately no they aren‟t.4 . When I asked you if you had any allergies you said you hadn’t. Richard: Have you had penicillin before? Mrs.

You must go and see your Medical Doctor for further tests. You have a review (follow-up) appointment next week don‟t you? Mrs. If you have an infection that requires antibiotics then that is an indication to have the tooth removed. In the meantime. .4 . Richard: well it looks like you have had an allergic reaction. Komata : Yes I do. Richard: I will see you then and decide if we need o refer you to the oral surgeon to have your wisdom tooth removed. Dr. An allergic reaction 過敏反應 Dr. please stop the penicillin and I will give you an alternative antibiotic.

Dr. . Richard: Before you leave. I will write a letter for you to give to your Doctor explaining what has happened. Please take a seat in the waiting room for a few minutes. Komata: Thanks for seeing me so quickly. An allergic reaction 過敏反應 Mrs. I‟ll go straight to my Doctor.4 .

Chapter 2 Emergency (牙科急診) 5. An avulsed tooth (脫落齒) .

重要單字      Upper central incisor 上顎正中切齒 Come through 長出(牙齒) Surgery (British dental clinical or手術) Splint the tooth (靠相鄰牙齒的連結)固定牙齒 Periodontal membrane 牙周膜 .

This is Dr. Sato speaking. . Apparently her front teeth was knocked out. An avulsed tooth 脫落齒 Miss Suzuki : Miss Kato. Miss Suzuki : Dr. Miss Kato : I‟ll get him at once. Ogata‟s daughter has had an accident at school and has had her front tooth knocked out and she wants to know what to do. Dr. Sato : Hello Mrs. could you see if Dr.5. Mrs. Sato urgently. Ogata. Ogata(緒方) would like to speak to Dr. Sato can come to the phone please? Mrs. Sato. I hear your daughter has had an accident.

Sato : the best thing to do is to put the tooth back if you can. It is one of those. Is there some milk anywhere? If so put the tooth in milk and gently move it around. An avulsed tooth 脫落齒 Mrs. . Ogata : Yes. Ogata : Ok. Yes there is some milk and I shall do that now. Try not to touch or clean the root. I remember you telling me her upper central incisors have come through.5. Dr. Dr. Sato : Good. Mrs.

An avulsed tooth 脫落齒 Dr. . I’ll splint the tooth for a few days just to keep it in position while hopefully a new periodontal membrane will grow. The flat part faces to the front. Sato : Now the next part is the hard bit(part). You need to put the tooth back in the socket. But please be careful to put the tooth back the right way around.5. Dr. Push the tooth in as quickly as you can then ask her to bite gently on something soft like a piece of cotton. Sato : Then bring her straight to the surgery(British dental clinical) and I shall have a look at her when she is here.

An avulsed tooth 脫落齒 Mrs. .5. Ogata: I have cleaned her face and wiped the blood away so I am ready to try to put the tooth back. Once I have done that I‟ll bring her straight to you. Thank you so much for your advice.

Composite filling (複合樹脂充 填) .Chapter 3 Treatment (牙科治療) 1.

重要單字            Premolar 小臼齒 Palatal cusp 顎側咬頭 Light-cured composite resin 光聚合型複合樹脂 Glass particle 玻璃顆粒 Polymerize 聚合 Restoration 補綴物 (贋復物或修復物) Set 聚合 Adhesion 接黏劑 Indirect onlay 間接法製作的冠蓋體 Metal-ceramic crown 金屬-陶瓷牙冠 Calculus 牙結石 .

I was eating some Yakitori when I heard a crack and then noticed a piece of tooth in my mouth. Sato :Yes. The first patient is Mr. Sato : Absolutely. I think it is one of my premolars. Sato.1. Ready for this morning? Dr. Can you call him in? Mr. Sato. Are you ready? Dr. Ishida: Thanks for seeing me Dr. How many patients do we have? Miss Kato: Five this morning. Ishida. He has broken a tooth. . Composite filling 複合樹脂充填 Miss Kato: Good morning Dr.

Composite filling 複合樹脂充填 Dr. Ah yes. Ishida: What is light-cured composite resin? Will it last for a long time? Dr. Mr. We can rebuild it with light-cured composite resin.1. . which contains glass particles of different sizes. Sato : Light-cured composite resin is a resin. The material has a long working time to give it the correct shape. When we are happy with the shape of the restoration then we set it with the light. We use a blue light to polymerize(聚合) it. you have broken the palatal cusp of your second premolar. Sato :I‟ll have a look. It relies on adhesion to stay in place.

It depends on many things.1. Sato : Well that is difficult to say. . Composite filling 複合樹脂充填 Dr. Sato : How long will it last? Dr. These are more expensive and time-consuming long-term options. If it breaks again then we could either place an indirect onlay or prepare the tooth for a metal-ceramic crown. Miss Yoshida(吉田). I will arrange for you to see your Dental Hygienist. I noticed that you also have some calculus on your teeth.

根管治療) . A painful tooth.Chapter 3 Treatment (牙科治療) 2. endodontic treatment (牙痛.

重要單字            Amalgam filling 汞齊充填 Pulp 牙髓 Radiograph X光照片 Endodontic treatment 根管治療 Secondary caries 二次齲齒 Bacteria 細菌 Toxins 毒素 Drop out 脫離 Inflamed 發炎的 Non-vital 非活性的 Dental abscess 牙(齒)膿瘍 .

重要單字          Pulp extirpation 牙髓摘除術 Local anesthetic 局部麻醉 Numb 使…麻醉 Clamp夾 Rubber dam 橡皮障 Root canal(s) 根管 Antibiotic paste 抗生素糊劑 Temporary filling 暫時性充填 Topical anesthetic 表面麻醉 .

how are you today? Mr. Miss Yoshida: Oh dear. endodontic treatment 牙痛. Santana: Well one of the teeth.根管治療 Miss Yoshida: Good morning Mr. Santana: Not too good actually. It‟s the first upper big tooth on the left. Santana. is hurting me. Miss Yoshida: Why? What‟s happening? Mr. which you were going to clean.2. A painful tooth. How long has it been hurting you? .

I think it was the filling. Miss Yoshida: I‟ll have a look. A painful tooth. Sato in to have a look… .2. Now it‟s starting to keep me awake at night. I will call Dr. endodontic treatment 牙痛. I also can‟t chew on it. Santana: Since last week. 根管治療 Mr. Something broke last week. you have broken an amalgam filling in the upper first molar. Yes.

endodontic treatment 牙痛.2. 根管治療 Dr. We need to take a radiograph to see how deep the soft tooth is. The amalgam filling has broken. Sato: Miss Yoshida is right. . A painful tooth. It looks like the soft tooth has reached the pulp and now the pulp is dying. which is why you have pain. The reason is that the tooth became soft underneath and could not support the filling.

A painful tooth. Santana: Sorry could you explain that again? Dr. 根管治療 Dr. Sometimes fillings can become decayed. I‟ll go slowly and show you some pictures. which dissolve the mineral part of the tooth. This is called secondary caries because it is the second time the tooth has become decayed. Sato: Yes certainly. Mr. Then the tooth becomes soft. Sato: Unfortunately the soft tooth has affected the pulp and the tooth needs endodontic treatment. endodontic treatment 牙痛. Dental caries is caused by bacteria releasing toxins. .2.

We need to remove the inflamed pulp to stop your pain. 根管治療 Dr. Unfortunately in your case it is impossible to keep your pulp alive. which is why you feel pain. The pulp becomes inflamed. which is in the middle of the tooth.2. endodontic treatment 牙痛. A painful tooth. . Sato: This can cause the filling to drop out because it has no firm support. The bacterial toxins eventually reach the pulp.

endodontic treatment 牙痛. the infection will go further and all the pulp will die. 根管治療 Dr. This will give rise to infection in the bone around the tooth. In other words it will become non-vital. Sato: If we don‟t do it. A painful tooth. This is called a dental abscess. . Sato: Yes. In other words we can remove the pulp and clean out the inside of the tooth so there is nothing left to cause pain. Santana: Can you get rid of the pain? Dr.2. This procedure is called pulp extirpation. Mr. we can carry out endodontic treatment.

2. Santana: Is it painful when you clean out the tooth? Dr. You may bite your lip or burn yourself if you are not careful. 根管治療 . Sato: It will be numb for a few hours so you must be careful with hot drinks and eating. Mr. which will numb the tooth. endodontic treatment . 牙痛. Dr. Sato: No. I will give you a local anesthetic. A painful tooth.

2. Sato : After your tooth has gone numb we clamp a piece of rubber over the tooth. endodontic treatment 牙痛. which are channels inside the roots. After we have cleaned the root canals we put in some antibiotic paste and a temporary filling. Dr. 根管治療 Mr. A painful tooth. Sato: We use small. You will need to come back so we can continue with the treatment. The upper first molar has 3 roots and at least 3 root canals. This is called a rubber dam. very narrow files to remove the contents of the root canals. It stops you swallowing anything. . We then remove all of the old filling and decayed tooth. Santana : How do you clean out the tooth? Dr.

Dr. Can I have the topical anesthetic please Miss Kato… . I feel less nervous now that I know what is going to happen. 根管治療 Mr.2. I‟ll put some cream on the gum to numb the surface. Sato: First. Santana : Sorry for asking so many questions. endodontic treatment 牙痛. A painful tooth.

porcelain laminate veneer ( 陶瓷片狀鑲面 ): (1) preliminary discussion with the dental technician .Chapter 3 Treatment 3.

重要單字         Surgery 診療室 Appointment 來院的預約 Wax-up 築蠟 Porcelain laminate veneer 陶瓷片狀鑲面 Prepare Upper incisor上顎切齒 Silicone index 矽化物指標 Transparent acrylic template 透明壓克力模板 .

By the way. How are you? Miss Suzuki : I‟m fine thanks.。 Dr. your first patient Mr. Jones rang to say that unfortunately he has been called to an urgent meeting and cannot come this morning. Kaz Yoshida of HiCeramics asked you to call him. Have you seen Dr. . he is in his surgery. Sato? Miss Suzuki : Yes. He apologized and asked if he could make another appointment. Richard : I will call him right way. Richard : Good morning Miss Suzuki.3. porcelain veneer: (1) preliminary discussion with the dental technician Dr.

See you then. Thanks for calling back. I will show Miss Ito the Wax-up on Wednesday. Richard: I‟ll call Kaz and see what he wants…Is that Mr. Could you come in on Wednesday to talk to Miss Ito? Kaz Yoshida : Wednesday is fine. We are going to prepare the upper incisors for Porcelain Laminate Veneers. Yoshida? Kaz Yoshida : Hi Dr. Then if she is happy with it. . You plan to make her four Porcelain Laminate Veneers. I rang regarding the Wax-up for Miss Ito(伊藤). I will ask you to make a silicone index and transparent acrylic template. Richard. Dr. porcelain veneer: (1) preliminary discussion with the dental technician Dr.3. Richard : That‟s right.

porcelain laminate veneer: (2) Wax-up .Cheap 3 Treatment 3.

重要單字        Porcelain veneers: 陶瓷貼片 Dental Technician: 牙科技工師 Labial surface: 唇側面 Enamel: 牙釉質 Anterior teeth: 前牙 Treatment: 治療 Wear: 裝著 .

重要單字       Mold:模型 Silicone putty:矽化物油灰 Set:硬化 Trim:修整 Clear acrylic mask:透明的丙烯酸面罩 Prepare the teeth:支台齒形成 .

3. Miss Tanaka? Miss. We are going to show her the wax-up for her new porcelain veneers. Dr. Your first patient Miss Ito is here. . Richard: Ah yes. but I heard there were delays on the Yamanote line(山手線). Tanaka: No. Could you have a look to see if Kaz has also come? I asked him to come when Miss Ito was due in. porcelain veneer: (2) Wax-up Dr. Richard: did you have any trouble with the trains this morning.

. Miss Ito.. Richard: Good.. I'll ask him in. Kazuo Yoshida(吉田和夫) to join us to discuss the wax-up of your teeth.. Richard : Could you ask Miss Ito to come please.How's it going Kaz? Kaz Yoshida: Very well thanks. he is here. Dr. Richard: Good morning. Dr. porcelain veneer: (2) Wax-up Miss Tanaka: I'll go and have a look.Yes.3. He is talking to Miss Suzuki at the reception desk. I have asked our Dental Technician. Dr. Miss Ito.. Miss Tanaka? Miss Tanaka: Please have a seat.

unfortunately too many soft drinks and fruit juices.3. Dr. Richard: Well this is the wax-up. Miss Ito: Yes. This will make them more like they were before you began losing the surface enamel. . porcelain veneer: (2) Wax-up Miss Ito(伊藤) : Nice to meet you. Because you have lost some of your enamel. we have been able to build out the teeth a little. Well I have followed your advice and stopped drinking soft drinks and cut down on the fruit juice.

Miss Ito: Yes. . I have added wax where you have lost some of the enamel and also lengthened the teeth slightly so that you show a little more tooth when you smile. porcelain veneer: (2) Wax-up The teeth look a little bigger now and also slightly longer. Richard took last time. But they seem to look more like how they used to look.3. which Dr. they look much nicer now. which you gave me of your teeth a few years ago and compared it with the photo. Kaz Yoshida: I looked at the photograph.

After that. . porcelain veneer: (2) Wax-up Dr. Richer: Do you want us to proceed with the treatment? The next stage would be for you to wear a clear acrylic mask.3. if you are happy with your new smile then we can go head and prepare the teeth. If you do not like your new appearance. which will be lightly stuck to your teeth. then we will not proceed with the preparations. You will then wear the mask for a couple of weeks to get used to your new smile.

It allows you to check your new smile at home. porcelain veneer: (2) Wax-up Miss Ito :What is an acrylic mask? Dr. Richard :What we do is we copy the wax up in dental stone. It does not stick to the teeth. Of course. It is carefully trimmed so that it clips onto the teeth.3. We then make a mold of the labial surfaces of the anterior teeth using silicone putty. When you come back we fill this silicone putty mold with clear acrylic and hold it against the teeth while it sets. the color will not be perfect but it will allow you to check what the final shape of the teeth will be… .

Kaz. has made me a putty matrix.3. Richard: No. My technician.Porcelain Veneer: ③Tooth preparation Dr. Your teeth incline inwards and you have composite fillings in both teeth so we only have to remove a few fractions of a millimeter. Dr. Richard: Are you happy for me to prepare your teeth for porcelain veneers on your upper central incisors? Miss Ito: Do you have to remove much enamel? Dr. I like the new shape of the teeth. . Richard: What do you think of the acrylic mask? Miss Ito: It looked a bit strange at first but I have got used to it.

Cheap 3 Treatment 3. porcelain veneer: ③Tooth preparation( 支台齒形成 ) .

重要單字        Porcelain veneer:陶瓷鑲面 Matrix:基質或成形帶 Acrylic mask:丙烯酸面罩 Cast the impression in plaster:注入石膏於印象 Prepare:支台齒成形 Central incisor:中切齒 Adhesive resin cement:黏著樹脂黏著劑 .

Richard: The putty matrix is very useful. We need about 0. Kaz made an impression of the wax-up of your central incisors. He then cast the impression in plaster. It will make sure I do not remove too much enamel. A putty matrix was made on this model.3-0. .3. This gave him a model of how you wish your teeth to look.Porcelain Veneer: ③Tooth preparation Miss Ito: Sorry.5mm of space. As we adjust the surfaces of your central incisors we place the putty matrix against the preparations. why do you need a putty matrix? Dr. We can then see how much space there is for the porcelain veneers.

Dr.Porcelain Veneer: ③Tooth preparation Miss Ito: It all sounds very complicated.3. I‟m not sure I understand but you seem to be taking great care. I am. But this way we can ensure that the veneers will look like the acrylic mask but a better color. Richard: Yes. We shall give you an appointment in a week‟s time. Richard: We use a special adhesive resin cement so it is unlikely they will fall off. . Will that be alright for you? Miss Ito: That will be great thank you. Miss Ito: Will they fail off the teeth? Dr.

Cheap 3 Treatment 4.Making a new denture: (1)Complaints about old dentures .

重要單字            Denture:義齒 False teeth: 假牙 Set: 義齒上下一組 Appearance: 外觀 Preliminary impression: 初次印模 Cast (up):灌模 Model : 模型 Laboratory: 技工室 Technician:牙科技工師(齒模技術員) Special tray( custom or individual tray):個別模托 Fitting: 適合 .

Dr. Miss Kato: No. she wants you to make her a new denture. don’t tell me the tooth on her denture has fallen off again. Sato: How can I help you? Mrs. Sato: Oh. Dr. Shall I call her in? Dr. Sato. no. Sato. Kawajima: it’s my false teeth. Mrs. Sato: Yes please. Kawajima: Thanks for seeing me Dr. . They are getting quite loose and the top one keeps dropping down.Making a new denture: (1)Complaints about old dentures Miss Kato: Dr. Mrs.4. Kawajima is here.

4.Making a new denture: (1)Complaints about old dentures
Dr. Sato: How long have you had them? Mrs. Kawajima: Oh, it‟s so long ago I can‟t remember. Over 20 years I think. Dr. Sato : Would you like me to make you a new set? Mrs. Kawajima: Yes please. Dr. Sato : Are you happy with the appearance of the teeth of your current set? Mrs. Kawajima: Not really. I think the teeth are a little small. Also, I would like whiter teeth. Will it take long to make me a set of new teeth.

4.Making a new denture: (1)Complaints about old dentures
Mrs. Kawajima: Can you make a start today? Dr. Sato: Yes, we can make the preliminary impressions today. After taking the impressions, we will cast them up and then send the models to the laboratory. The technician will then make some special trays. Mrs. Kawajima: May I ask why you need to make special trays? Dr. Sato: Special trays are custom-fitted to your mouth. They will enable me to take some accurate impressions of your mouth. Accurate impressions will help in making better fitting denture.

Cheap 3 Treatment 4.Making a new denture: ② Making an impression

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    

Special tray( individual or custom tray ) : 個別模托 Treatment : 治療 Impression material : 印象材 Zinc oxide-eugenol impression paste : 氧化鋅丁香油酚印模糊 劑 Vinyl polysiloxane (addition silicone) (乙烯聚矽氧烷)(加成式矽 化物印模材) Acrylic : 丙烯酸的 Alveolar ridge (齒槽骨脊) Denture flange : (義齒凸緣) Peripheral seal : 周邊封鎖 Insert : 裝入

4.Making a new denture:② Making an impression
Dr. Sato: Have Mrs. Kawajima‟s special trays come bake? Miss Suzuki: Yes, they have. Mrs. Kawajima: Good morning Miss Suzuki, good morning Dr. Sato. I think I‟m a little early. Dr. Sato: I‟ve already finished my previous treatment so it won‟t be too long. My asistant, Miss Kato will call you in a few minutes.

4.Making a new denture:② Making an impression
Miss Kato: which impression material will you be using? Dr. Sato: I will use Exadenture. Miss Kato: Don‟t you usually use zinc oxide-eugenol impression paste? Dr. Sato: I do but I will try this new vinyl polysiloxane impression material, today. I will use Exadenture Border type first, the Exadenture paste.

Kawajima: I‟m really happy you can see me again so soon. We have made upper and lower acrylic special trays in which we will place the impression material. We make each impression in two stages. Mrs. Could you tell me what are you going to do today? Dr. .4. Sato: We are going to make the final impressions. Sato : Yes please.Making a new denture:② Making an impression Miss Kato : Shall I call her in? Dr.

Sato : We must first record the shape of the tissues surrounding the alveolar ridges. Kawajima: May I ask why two stages are necessary? Dr. . If the denture flanges accurately reproduce the shape of the surrounding tissues a good peripheral seal will be obtained when the denture is inserted. This means it will stay in better.4.Making a new denture:② Making an impression Mrs.

Dr Sato: First I will check the fit of the trays then make any necessary adjustments. Kawajima : That makes sense (那是 合乎情理的). I was just asking because my previous dentist just took one impression.4.Making a new denture:② Making an impression Mrs. .

Making a new denture: ③ Jaw registration( 咬合採得 ) .Cheap 3 Treatment 4.

重要單字        Jaw registration (bite registration):咬合採得 Fox‟s occlusal plane guide:咬合平面板 Wax rim:蠟堤 Instrument:道具.器具 Imaginary line:假想線 Pupil:瞳孔 Inter-pupillary line:瞳孔間線 .

重要單字      Alar of the nose:鼻翼 Tragus of the ear:耳珠 Ala-tragus line:鼻翼耳珠線 Freeway space (Interocclusal space)休憩間 隙 或 咬合間隙 Measurement:計測.測定 .

Kawajima. I will need the Fox’s occlusal plane guide and Willis bite gauge. how are you today? Mrs. Sato : Are you ready for Mrs. isn’t it? Dr.4. Mrs. . Miss Kato : Would you like to come through. Kawajima : I‟m fine thanks. Sato : Good afternoon Mrs. Kawajima? Miss Kato : Is it the jaw registration stage. Sato : Yes.Making a new denture:③ Jaw registration Dr. Kawajima? Dr.

Kawajima : How do you do that? Dr. we are going to measure up two wax rims. Mrs. which is called the Fox’s occlusal plane guide. First we will put the upper wax rim inside your mouth to determine how much tooth you will show and then trim the wax rim so that teeth do not appear to be sloping to one side.4. We place it against the wax rim and line it up with two imaginary lines. which we will be placing in your mouth.Making a new denture:③ Jaw registration Dr. Sato : Today. . Sato : We use this plastic instrument.

Sato : An imaginary line between the pupils called the inter-pupillary line and a line between the ala of the nose and the tragus of the ear called the ala-tragus line. Kawajima : That sounds difficult.Making a new denture:③ Jaw registration Dr. . Sato : I also must trim the lower wax rim so that I can determine the free way space. We then trim the wax rim so that the Fox‟s occlusal plane guide is parallel to these lines. Mrs.4. Dr.

Kawajima : You certainly seem to be taking a great deal of care. Sato : We must make sure that there is a small gap of a couple of millimeters between the teeth when you are not eating.4.Making a new denture:③ Jaw registration Mrs. . Kawajima : Could I ask what the freeway is? Dr. Mrs. otherwise you will get pain beneath the dentures. Next time you come we will make another measurement.

Chapter 3 治療 4.Making a new denture: ④ retruded contact position 後縮接觸位置 .

形 Artificial teeth: 人工牙齒 .重要單字        Mandible: 下顎 Retruded contact position: 後縮接觸位置 Measurement: 測定,測量 Gothic arch tracer: ↓哥德氏弧形描繪器 Wax rim: 蠟環 Mold: 型.

煮聚) .滴答 的聲音 bite: 咬合 high quality acrylic teeth: 高品質樹脂牙 realistic: 實際 set up: 設置,排列 processing ( 重合.重要單字       clicking sound: (擬聲)滴答.

It is called the retruded contact position. Sato: We are going to record the relationship of the mandible to the maxilla. .4.Making a new denture:④ retruded contact position Mrs. Dr Sato? Dr. Kawajima: What‟s happening today.

Also. Kawajima: Didn‟t you do that last time? Dr. Today.Making a new denture:④ retruded contact position Mrs. I will put the wax rims in your mouth and then ask you to move your mandible forwards and backwards and side to side. we need to select the correct mold and shade of artificial teeth. . I am going to use a device called a Gothic arch tracer(哥德式弓). Sato: No.4. We made some different measurements at your last appointment. which has been fitted to the upper and lower wax rims.

Also. . I suggest high quality acrylic teeth.4. Sato: You can definitely have whiter teeth.Making a new denture:④ retruded contact position Mrs. I wouldn‟t recommend porcelain teeth. is it possible to have porcelain teeth? Dr. Kawajima: I would like white teeth. My existing teeth are starting to look yellow. however. They are difficult to adjust and can make a ‘clicking sound’ when you bite together. They look quite realistic.

. Sato: Next time you come the teeth will have been set up in wax.Making a new denture:④ retruded contact position Mrs. Once you are happy with them we will process the wax trial dentures into acrylic. Kawajima: That sounds fine.4. Dr. it is possible to change them if you are not happy. While the teeth are in wax.

Mrs.Making a new denture:④ retruded contact position Mrs. Kawajima: How long do I have to wait until my next appointment? Dr. However. Sato: We can have the wax trial dentures ready in one week. Kawajima: I appreciate all the trouble you are going to. they may need some adjustments so they may not be ready for processing next time. . Thank you.4.

Making a new denture: ⑤ Try-in試戴 .Chapter 3 治療 4.

煮聚    acrylic: 丙烯酸的,壓克力的 .重要單字  set-up: 排列 prominent: 突出 process: 重合.

I will alter the positions of the upper incisors.Making a new denture:⑤ Try-in Dr. It’s just the two front teeth… they look a little prominent. I agree. Kawajima: Do you think they will be ready next time? . Dr. Mrs. Sato: How do you like the set-up of your new teeth? Mrs. Sato: Yes.4. Kawajima: I like the color and shape of the teeth.

. I can request them to be processed into acrylic.4. Sato: Yes. The technician has done a good job. The bite is correct and you are happy with the shape and color of your teeth.Making a new denture:⑤ Try-in Dr. So if you are happy with the position of the teeth once I have altered them.

Chapter 3 治療 4.Making a new denture: ⑥ Insertion .

重要單字           Laboratory 實驗室(技工所) Set 一對 Insert 裝入 Hurt 痛 Gum 牙齦 Fitting surface 黏膜面 Pressure indicating paste( 壓力顯示膏) Follow-up appointment 追蹤約診 Wear 戴 Ulcer 潰瘍 .

Sato: I will insert the upper denture first and make sure it doesn‟t hurt you before I insert the lower denture. They have been giving me a lot of trouble recently. it feels fine. Dr. your new dentures have come back from the laboratory Mrs.Sato: Good news Mrs. Do you feel any pain when I press on the top denture ? Mrs. Kawajima: I hope they fit better than my current set. .4. Kawajima: No.Making a new denture:⑥ Insertion Dr. Kawajima.

I will insert the lower denture and then you can tell me if it hurts. Sato: Ok. Sato : It’s called Pressure Indicating Paste and can help identify which area of the denture is causing the pain.Making a new denture:⑥ Insertion Dr. Then. Mrs. Kawajima: What‟s the white paste for? Dr. Drs. Sato: Before I adjust the denture I am going to paint a white paste on the fitting surface of the denture. Otherwise I might cut away too much. I can carefully adjust the denture. . Mrs. Kawajima: It feels as if it’s digging in the gum on the right-hand side.4.

Kawajima: Much better.Making a new denture:⑥ Insertion Dr.4. Mrs. Sato : How do they feel now? Mrs. . Dr. Sato : This hand mirror will let you see how the dentures look. Kawajima: They look nice. Thank you. The dentures are not rubbing now. I like their color and appearance.

Kawajima: I understand. Thank you. Sato: I am pleased that you like them. I will give you a follow-up appointment in a few days. Mrs. you may get an ulcer. . If keep wearing them when they are hurting. If you start getting any pain. please take them out.Making a new denture:⑥ Insertion Dr. There are some instructions. which you need to obey for the next few days.4. Please‟ cut your food into small pieces and eat soft things first. You may find eating difficult at first.

Chapter 3 治療 4.Making a new denture:⑦ Denture adjustment .

重要單字            hurt 痛 dig 插入 post-dam (posterior palatal seal) 後障 (後顎封) seal 封鎖 Ridge 齒槽脊 Acrylic 樹脂 posterior border後緣 soft-tissue軟組織 hard and soft palate硬、軟顎 plaster model石膏模型 reduce減少 .

you did say to take care eating because it might be a little difficult at first. However. All my friends have said how much younger I look. It seems to be digging in a little at the back.Making a new denture:⑦ Denture adjustment Dr. which is very nice. I am slowly beginning to eat better with them.4. . how have your dentures been? Mrs. Dr. Sato: Do they hurt anywhere? Mrs. Kawajima: It’s just the top one. Kawajima: Quite good. Sato: So.

I took some soft-tissue measurements at the junction of your hard and soft palates. Kawajima: Sorry did you say post-dam? Dr. Mrs. A couple of visits previously. The back of the upper denture is called the posterior border. we added a thin ridge of acrylic to the back of the denture. These measurements told me how deep to make the ridge of acrylic.Dr. It’s the post-dam we made. 4. In order to get a good seal at the back. I then altered the plaster model according to the measurements.Making a new denture:⑦ Denture adjustment . Sato: Yes. Ah yes. It’s a little deep. Sato : I‟ll have a look.

Dr.4.Making a new denture:⑦ Denture adjustment Mrs. . Sato: It appears the ridge is a little too deep so I will reduce it very slightly. I think I understand. Kawajima: Ah. Mrs. Kawajima: Thank you.

Chapter 3 治療 5. Metal-ceramic crown replacement: ① Black margin .

重要單字            Certainly當然 How can we help you?我們如何幫你 Cap(crown) 帽冠 Front teeth前齒 What‟s wrong with them?他們出了什麼問題 Metal-ceramic crown陶瓷冠 Ceramic陶瓷 Metal金屬 Ceramic material陶瓷材料 Porcelain瓷器 Fracture斷裂 .

重要單字           Fitted密合 Prepare the teeth 牙齒的形成 Margins of preparation牙齒形成的邊緣 Gum margins牙齦邊緣 Cemented黏合劑的 Gingivae牙齦 Recede退縮 Collar of metal 金屬領 Replace代替 Periapical radiograph根尖X光片 .

Do you know what’s happening with them? .5. Shioda? Mrs. Shioda: It‟s my caps on my two front teeth? Dr. Richard: What’s wrong with them? Mrs. Richard: Could you ask her in please? Miss Tanaka: Certainly. Mrs. Shioda: I think they are going bad. They are going black around the edges. Dr. Shioda(鹽田) Dr. Richard: Who is our next patient Miss Tanaka? Miss Tanaka: It‟s Mrs. Richard: How can we help you.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:① Black margin Dr.

The black line.5. Shioda: May I ask why it is necessary to use metal in the crown? Dr. They have an outer covering of ceramic on top of a thin layer of metal.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:① Black margin Dr. which you can see is metal. Richard: The outer ceramic material is porcelain. which is brittle and can easily fracture. The metal strengthens the porcelain so that it doesn‟t fracture easily. Richard: Your caps are what we called metalceramic crowns. Mrs. .

over a period of years the gums or gingivae may recede slightly. If the gingivae recede then the crown margins will be exposed. If the crown is a metal ceramic crown and has been designed such that there is a collar of metal all the way round then the metal may be visible. Shioda: Why is the metal showing? I couldn‟t see it when the crowns were first fitted. Dr.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:① Black margin . However. Richard: We prepare the teeth so that the margins of the preparation lie just below the gum margins so when the crowns are cemented you can‟t see their margins. 5.Mrs.

Shioda : I would like you to replace these two old crowns with new crowns.5. Richard : First we must take some periapical radio graphs of the teeth to see what is beneath the crowns.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:① Black margin Mrs. Dr. .

Metal-ceramic crown replacement (2) Getting a nice appearance .Chapter 3 治療 5.

重要單字         Central incisors中央門齒 Root treated根管治療完畢 Cast metal posts鑄造金屬柱子 Apical infection根尖感染 Cut off切斷 Root fracture牙根斷裂 All ceramic material全瓷材料 High strength alumina高強度氧化鋁 .

重要單字         Zirconium oxide氧化鋯 All ceramic全瓷 Metal post金屬柱 Recede(動詞)退縮 Recession(名詞)退縮 Electric toothbrush電動牙刷 Collarless metal ceramic crown領金屬烤瓷冠 Nature teeth乳牙 .

        Shade:色調 Technician: 齒模技術員 Face-bow: 面弓 Ear tube (external auditory meatus):外聽道 Iner-condylar axis: 髁間軸 Palatal surface: 顎側面 Articulator : 咬合器 Informed consent: 充分了解情況後的同意 .

. Shioda: Can you see anything on the radio-graphs? Dr. The good news is that there is no apical infection around the roots of the teeth. a few things. Your two central incisors have been root treated and cast metal posts fitted. If we are to replace the two crowns we would need to cut them off but leave the cast posts in the roots.5. These cast posts are quite long.Metal-ceramic crown replacement(2) Getting a nice appearance Mrs. Richard: Yes. If we try to remove the posts there is a risk of root fracture.

Shioda: Can you replace the old crowns with ones without metal? Dr. .5. However. because we must leave the metal post in the roots. Therefore. an all ceramic crown may not possess good esthetics because the metal may show through. Richard: There are all ceramic materials available such as high strength alumina and zirconium oxide. which are very strong. we would need to make two metal ceramic crowns.Metal-ceramic crown replacement(2) Getting a nice appearance Mrs.

You said that the reason why I can see the metal is that my gums have receded. Would this happen if I have new crowns made? . Shioda: I understand that it would not be a good idea to replace the meterceramic with all ceramic crowns because the metal posts might be visible through the ceramic.Metal-ceramic crown replacement(2) Getting a nice appearance Mrs.5.

Mrs. The amount the gums may recede depends on several factors. Shioda? .Metal-ceramic crown replacement(2) Getting a nice appearance Dr.5. Richard: Yes. if you brush your teeth vigorously in a sideways motion. Could I ask how you brush your teeth. it is possible that you may get some more recession. the brushing action may accelerate gum recession. For instance.

You also said that you would make new metal-ceramic crowns. Does that means the metal will be visible.Metal-ceramic crown replacement(2) Getting a nice appearance Mrs. The crown margin will be all in porcelain.5. . Dr. Shioda: I use an electric toothbrush. I hold it lightly against the teeth and let the bristles do the work. The underlying metal will not extend to the crown. Richard: What I propose is that we make collarless metal ceramic crowns.

Metal-ceramic crown replacement(2) Getting a nice appearance Mrs. I will also take a face-bow recording. Shioda: How will you get the color of the new crowns to match my natural teeth? Dr. While you are here today I will take some digital photographs of your teeth and also some impressions of your upper and lower teeth. If the color of your natural teeth is difficult to match then I will ask my technician to come in and look at your teeth. Richard: We use a machine.5. The reading is then matched with a shade of porcelain. . which takes a digital reading of the color of your natural teeth.

which consists of a metal fork and an arm. which enables us to study the relationship of the upper and lower teeth. did you say face-bow recording? What‟s one of those? Dr. Shioda: Sorry. which rests in your ear tubes. This is a face bow. When we make new upper anterior crowns.5. Its purpose is to relate the relationship of the maxilla with the intercondylar axis. The face bow is then attached to an articulator. . Richard: I will put some wax on your upper teeth and them use a device.Metal-ceramic crown replacement(2) Getting a nice appearance Mrs. it is very important to get the slope of the palatal surface correct.

I am sorry I will stop asking so many questions. Shioda: It sounds very complicated.Metal-ceramic crown replacement(2) Getting a nice appearance Mrs. Richard: That‟s no problem. Dr. It is important that you understand the treatment we are proposing so you can give informed consent. .5.

Chapter 3 治療 5.Metal-ceramic crown replacement: (3) Crown removal .

重要單字            Numbed up麻痺 Administer a local anesthetic使用局部麻醉 Anaesthetize(麻醉) Lidocaine(商品名. 指麻醉藥) Adrenaline 腎上腺素 Alginate impression(藻膠印模) Temporary crown臨時牙冠 Gingival retraction cord牙齦排開線 Preparations支臺齒形成 Addition silicone加成式矽化物 Glaze瓷釉 .

Shioda? Mrs. Richard: Would you like to come through. Shioda: It‟s my ankle. Shioda? Mrs. Richard: What‟s wrong? Mrs.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:(3) Crown removal Dr. Dr. I twisted it a few days ago and now it is all bandaged up.5. Mrs. . Dr. Richard: How are you today. Mrs. Shioda: Thanks for seeing me early. Shioda: Not very well unfortunately.

Richard: Oh dear. Shioda: What‟s happened today? Dr. Dr. Shioda: Will I need to be numbed up? . Mrs. Richard: We are going to remove your old crowns and take some impressions for your new crowns.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:(3) Crown removal Dr. Mrs. Shioda: I was play tennis last Saturday and during the match I slipped while trying to reach a ball.5. Richard: What happened? Mrs. I‟m sorry to hear that.

We need to anaesthetize your two upper incisors. Also you must be careful you don‟t bite it if you are going to try to eat. Richard: Yes.5. Shioda: Why‟s that? Dr.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:(3) Crown removal Dr. Richard: You will not have any feeling in your upper lip so you might burn it. unfortunately we need to administer a local anesthetic. Mrs. Your lip will feel numb for about two to three hours so please avoid hot drinks. . The local anesthetic agent is a mixture of lidocaine and adrenaline.

I always got quite worried abut what he was going to do. I will take an alginate impression. Shioda: I much prefer you to my last Dentist. Dr. Could you tell me what you are going to do today so I know what to expect.5. We will use this to make the temporary crowns. After that I will cut the old crowns so they can be carefully removed from the teeth. Richard: Certainly. but is that a piece of string you are cutting off? . He never told me anything.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:(3) Crown removal Mrs. While the teeth are going numb. Shioda: Sorry to interrupt you. Mrs.

Richard: It is like string but a bit thicker. We have removed both crowns and tided up the preparations. It‟s called gingival retraction cord. It is soaked in a solution. Shioda: May I ask why? Dr. Richard: The retraction cord keeps the edge of the gum away from the tooth. This way we can make a good impression. Mrs.Dr. Mrs.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:(3) Crown removal . Before I take the impressions I am going to place this gingival retraction cord around the preparations. Shioda: Which impression material are you going to use? 5. which stops any bleeding.

Richard: I think I will use the addition silicone sample.Metal-ceramic crown replacement:(3) Crown removal Dr. It‟s in the drawer on your right.5. They went yellow. Richard: You are doing well Mrs. Dr. Richard: Don‟t worry that shouldn‟t happen with these. I just need to make some nice temporary crowns for you. We are on the last stage now. Shioda. Shioda: I hope they are better than the ones my last Dentist made for me. Mrs. Dr. which the sales representative gave me last week. I will put a special glaze on them so that food won’t stain them… .

Chapter 3治療 5.Metal-ceramic crown replacement (4) Characterization .

           重要單字 metal-ceramic crown 金屬瓷冠 Porcelain butt margin 陶瓷方形邊緣 Shade 色調 Characterization 特徵 Staining 染色 Natural teeth 自然牙 Ultrasonic scaler 超音波結石刮 Internal characterization 內部特徵 Surface texture 表面組織構造 Mimic 模仿 I am looking forward to ~ing 我正期待著… .

Shioda‟s new crowns. we are making two new metal-ceramic crown with porcelain butt margins for her upper central incisors. I stopped by to talk to you about Mrs. Kaz Yoshida: I wanted to discuss the shade and shape of these crowns with you. . Kaz? Kaz Yoshioda: Fine thanks.Metal-ceramic crown replacement (4) Characterization Dr. Richard: How are things. You wanted some special characterization. Dr.5. Richard: Yes.

They clearly show that the existing crowns appear to stand out from the surrounding natural teeth. Her existing crowns are all one color and do not blend in with her natural teeth. Richard: Yes.5. Her adjacent lateral incisors exhibit some staining. The lower anterior teeth also have some staining. Mrs. Kaz Yoshioda: I have printed out the digital photos.Metal-ceramic crown replacement (4) Characterization Dr. which you e-mailed me. Shoida would like the new crowns to also have some staining. Is the staining permanent or can it be removed with an ultrasonic scaler(超音 波結石刮)? .

Mrs. It looks from the photos that the adjacent lateral incisors have some vertical dark lines so these will need to be mimicked in the crowns.Metal-ceramic crown replacement (4) Characterization Dr. I will put a faint brown stain in the porcelain to mimic the brown lines in the lateral incisors. Shioda says they have been stained for many years.5. Kaz Yoshioda: I will need to add some internal characterization using different shades of porcelains. It is important that I also create some surface texture. It would not come off with an ultrasonic scaler. . Richard: It‟s permanent.

Richard: That sounds very good. I am looking forward to seeing the finished crowns. I took several photographs at different exposures to try to give you a good idea of the different colors.Metal-ceramic crown replacement (4) Characterization Dr. .5.

Metal-ceramic crown replacement (5)Cementation .Chapter 3 Treatment 5.

重要單字           Temporary crown :暫時性牙冠 Cement :黏合劑 Cementation :黏合 Zinc phosphate cement :磷酸鋅黏合劑 Glass ionomer cement :玻璃離子黏合劑 Resin cement : 樹脂黏合劑 Consistency :稠度 Film thickness :膜厚度 Restoration :補綴物 (贋復物或修復物) Adjacent natural teeth :鄰接天然齒 .

Metal-ceramic crown replacement (5)Cementation Dr. I’m looking forward to seeing how they look. Richard : The plan today is to remove the temporary crowns and then let you see the new crowns in place before cementation … . Mrs. Shioda . Shioda : Very good. So. Dr. Mrs. what do you think of them ? .5. Richard : We have your new crowns.

5. Shioda : I‟m really pleased with them. Are you happy for me to go ahead and cement them in place ? Once they have been cemented . . Richard : I am pleased to hear that . Their color is very good. They don’t stand out anymore. They blend in with the other teeth. the only way to change them would be to cut them off. Dr.Metal-ceramic crown replacement (5)Cementation Mrs.

Metal-ceramic crown replacement (5)Cementation Mrs. Richard : There are many different cements. . May I ask a question ? Dr. Mrs. Shioda : Yes. Zinc phosphate. Shioda : What kind of cement do you use to cement the crowns? Dr. glass ionomer or resin cement. Richard : Of course. There are basically three types of cements .5. please go ahead . Each one has advantages and disadvantages .

Shioda: Which one will you use today ? Dr. Richard: I think I will use a resin cement . Mrs. Shioda: Is that a problem ? Dr. . Richard: It can be sometimes .Metal-ceramic crown replacement (5)Cementation Mrs. Resin cements stick well to both tooth and metal .Their main disadvantage is that they are a little thick in consistency and have a high film thickness.5.

Richard: Hopefully no one will. Mrs. . sometimes it can be a little hard to cement the restoration exactly in place. I am attending a party tonight so I wonder if anyone will notice my new crowns . If the crowns blend in with the adjacent natural teeth then they will not be so visible.5. I‟m sure you know what you are doing.Metal-ceramic crown replacement (5)Cementation Dr. Richard: Because resin cements are quite thick in consistency and have a high film thickness. Shioda: Well. Dr.

New technology (1)Microscope .Chapter 3 Treatment 6.

重要單字           Loupes 放大鏡 Microscope 顯微鏡 openings of the root canals 根管口 Eye surgeons 眼科醫生 Radiograph X光照片 Anaesthetize 麻醉 Extirpate the pulp 拔牙隨 Prepare and dress the root canals 根管形成 Symptomless 無症狀 Root fill 根管充填 .

Watanabe: To tell the truth.6. Today. Richard: I’ll try to explain what’s going to happened so you’ll feel more relaxed. I‟m going to begin cleaning the roots of your lower right first molar then you‟ll get no more pain from the tooth. Watanabe? Mrs. . New technology (1)Microscope Dr. I‟m feeling a bit nervous about today. Dr. Richard: How are you doing. Mrs.

Watanabe: How can you see what you are doing because a tooth is so small? Dr. Richard: I have a pair of loupes. It is just like the operating microscope eye surgeons use. which can magnify the tooth about 2 times. New technology (1)Microscope Mrs. The practice also has an operating microscope . That is the microscope over there. . The microscope is excellent for locating the openings of the root canals.6.

Before we do any work on your tooth we must first take a radiograph and then anaesthetize the tooth. It is on wheels so it can be easily moved around the surgery. New technology (1)Microscope . Richard: It can magnify the tooth about 12 times. Dr. Watanabe: It‟s big isn‟t it? How powerful is it? Dr. Richard: Miss Suzuki.Mrs. I will be using it today. can you start getting the microscope ready while I am taking the radiograph? 6.

If the tooth stays symptomless. New technology (1)Microscope Miss Suzuki: I‟ll ask Miss Kato to just come in and help me move it across the surgery. . Will you be filling the roots today? Dr.6. I‟ll root fill it next time. Richard: No. and try to prepare and dress the root canals today. I’ll just extirpate the pulp.

New technology (2)Ni-Ti file .Chapter 3 Treatment 6.

重要單字           The anesthetic wore(wear) off:麻醉劑逐漸消失 Channel : 根管 Root canal : 根管 Rotary instrument : 迴轉器具 File : 銼 Nickel-Titanium : 鎳鈦合金 Handpiece : 牙科用手機 Endodontic treatment : 齒內療法 Microscope : 顯微鏡 Fiber optic illumination : 光纖照明 .

We didn‟t have time to finish cleaning and shaping of the root canals. it was a bit tender when I chewed on it. Dr.6. Today we are going to use some special rotary instruments in the root canals. Watanabe: It was a bit sore the first few days. Now it‟s better. Richard: How has your tooth been. It has three roots and the cannels inside the roots are very narrow. Watanabe? Mrs. Mrs. One was blocked and it took some time to clear the blockage. New technology (2)Ni-Ti file Dr. . Richard: your tooth is quite difficult. After the effects of the anesthetic wore off.

They are made of Nickel-titanium. Mrs. which rotates at a constant speed of a few hundred revolutions per minute. Richard: They are miniature files.6. We use them in a special handpiece. which makes them flexible. Watanabe: They look like miniature files. Watanabe: Do you think you will finish preparing the tooth this morning? . This allows them to negotiate curved root canals. New technology (2)Ni-Ti file Mrs. Dr.

New technology (2)Ni-Ti file Dr. Sato is using it at the moment so I‟ll use my loupes. I have 3 times magnification and fiber optic illumination of the tooth. Richard: Dr. They are quite good. Watanabe: Are you going to use your microscope again? Dr. Richard: Yes. I will. Mrs. The most difficult part of endodontic treatment is probably trying to find and negotiate the root canals. We managed to do this at the last appointment so we just have to carefully enlarge the canals.6. .

6. . New technology (2)Ni-Ti file Mrs. Richard: Yes indeed. Watanabe: Are they the same as what surgeons use? Dr.

New technology (3) Periodontal surgery .Chapter 3 Treatment 6.

重要單字            Periodontal surgery 牙周手術 Calculus 結石 Put stitches in 縫合 Suture (s) 縫合線 Heal up 痊癒 Local anesthetic 局部麻醉 Resorbable sutures 可吸收縫合線 Gingivial papilla 牙齦乳頭 Periodontal pack 牙周敷料 Remove the sutures 去除縫合線 Painkillers 止痛藥 .

6. Mr. Okuda ? We have almost finished. Mr. Sato: Yes. I need to put some sutures in to hold the gum in the correct position so it will heal up nicely. Mr. I have removed all the calculus from around the roots of the teeth and we just need to put the gum back. New technology (3) Periodontal surgery Dr. Okuda: I can‟t feel any pain. Okuda: Are you going to put stitches in? Dr. . Sato: Are you OK.

It makes things so much easier. I gave you plenty of local anesthetic. The microscope helps things a lot. Sato: I won‟t use resorbable sutures. New technology (3) Periodontal surgery Dr. I can see the root surfaces much more clearly and it is easy to see any remaining calculus. Miss Kato. I wish we had bought this microscope sooner! Miss Kato: Which suture material are you going to use? Dr.6. I will use silk because we need to be very precise with the positioning of the gingival papillae. Sato: That‟s good. .

Mr. Okuda: Thank you for all your hard work. Okuda. Dr. It might be a good idea to take some painkillers before the local anesthetic wears off. We‟ve finished. Dr. Sato: That‟s it.6. We’ll need to see you again in a week’s time to remove the sutures and check how the gum is healing. Mr. I will also give you a list of instructions. Sato: Yes. . that will be good. You won‟t be able to brush your teeth where we were working so you will need to use a mouthwash. New technology (3) Periodontal surgery Miss Kato: I‟ll get the periodontal pack out as well.

Chapter 3 Treatment 6. New technology (4)CAD/CAM .

重要單字        Filling: 填補物 Fall out: 脫落 Cavity: 窩洞 Anesthetizing: 麻醉 Take (make) an impression:印模 Ceramic: 陶瓷 Optical impression: 光學印模 .

cemented 再黏著 .重要單字       Milling machine 軋研機器 Glazed 上瓷釉 Tried in: 試戴 Adhesive resin cement: 黏著樹脂黏著劑 Ceramic restoration: 陶瓷修復 Re.

sato : What‟s happened. Yamada: A filling has come out from one of my back teeth . Yamada : Can I have a white filling this time please ? Dr. Ah yes . Yamada. Mr. sato: I‟ll have a look . Dr. First . Yamada? Mr. . New technology (4)CAD/CAM Dr. sato: You have three choices of white fillings . we can use composite resin . We can either pack the resin directly into the cavity after anesthetizing and cleaning the cavity. Mr.6. Mr. Quite a large filling has fallen out of your upper first molar.

sato: Actually no . New technology (4)CAD/CAM Dr. The third choice is filling made of ceramic . sato: Or we can take an impression and make a resin filling in the laboratory. It is called Cerec 4D . You can watch your filling being made in the other room . It‟s quite clever and uses CAD/CAM technology .6. . Yamada : I would like a ceramic filling please . Will it take a long time to make ? Dr. We have purchased a new machine for making ceramic fillings. Mr.

Yamada: Could you tell me a bit more about Cerec 4D. Sato: Certainly. Dr.6. I have heard about CAD-CAM of materials before but did know it was used in Dentistry. When the filling has been made it is glazed and is then ready to be tried in the cavity. A ceramic block is placed in a separate milling machine and cut to the required shape. It takes about an hour in total. we can take an optical impression of the cavity. New technology (4)CAD/CAM Mr. We design the shape of the filling using special software. After we have prepared the cavity. .

Do the fillings fall out? Dr. Sato: We use a special adhesive resin cement. Yamada: That sound‟s really good. occasionally the fillings do fall out but they can be easily re-cemented. which cements the ceramic restoration in place. . New technology (4)CAD/CAM Mr.6. But yes.

Chapter 3 Treatment 7.Bleaching: (1)A consultation .

重點單字        Whitening(美白) Bleach teeth(美白牙齒) Sensitive(敏感的) In the surgery(clinic) (在診療室) At home(居家) Gel(膠體) Tray(模托、托盤) .

Richard:Good afternoon.7. Ono(小野). Mrs.Bleaching (1)A consultation Miss Tanaka:Are you ready for the next patient. Mrs. Dr. Richard:Indeed I am. My daughter is getting married next month and I would like my teeth whitening. Richard. Mrs. thank you. Dr. Ono. Ono:I am not happy with my yellow teeth. What brings you to see us? Mrs. I read in a magazine that you can bleach teeth. Ono:You‟re very kind. Miss Tanaka:Please have a seat. Dr. .

Bleaching (1)A consultation Dr. It is not quite as simple as it seems.7. The first problem is that in some patients it is difficult to lighten the teeth. I can bleach your teeth for you. The teeth tend to darken again over time and you will need to have them bleached again. . I have to warn you of a few things first. Also your teeth can become sensitive while we are bleaching the teeth. Richard:Yes. The other thing is that bleaching is not permanent.

Richard:Yes.7. Ono:I don‟t mind having them bleached again. I heard that there are two ways you can bleach teeth. When the teeth are bleached in the clinic a gel is put on the teeth and a powerful light shone on the teeth. . One way is in the clinic and the other is at home. If the teeth are bleached at home you have to wear a bleaching tray to keep the gel against the teeth.Bleaching (1)A consultation Mrs. Is that true? Dr.

What I‟ll do is give you these leaflets.7. . Richard:I prefer to make you a bleaching tray. Mrs. our receptionist will tell you how much it will cost. which explain how bleaching works and Miss Suzuki. Ono:Which method do you prefer? Dr. Then you can control how white you want your teeth. Ono:Thank you for your time.Bleaching (1)A consultation Mrs.

Bleaching (2) Home bleaching .Chapter 3 Treatment 7.

重點單字      Bleaching trays (漂白模托、托盤) Bleaching gel (漂白膏) Fome bleaching (居家牙齒美白) Shade (色調) Alginate impressions (藻膠印模) .

Richard: Yes please. Ono: Yes. Mrs. Ono: Thank you. Mrs.7. I have been reading the magazines. Ono. . Richard: So you have decided you would like me to bleach your teeth. I‟ll take your coat. Dr.Bleaching (2) Home bleaching Miss Tanaka: Shall I call Mrs. Ono(小野) in? Dr. Mrs. which your practice manager gave me and I definitely would like you to try to lighten them if you can. Miss Tanaka: Please have a seat.

Richard: The way I prefer to bleach teeth is to make the bleaching trays first then give you the trays at your next appointment along with the bleaching gel. You can then continue using the gel until you feel your teeth have become lighter. Richard: I prefer home bleaching. Is this OK for you.7. You have more control over any color changes. Wouldn’t it be better if you did it? Dr. Mrs. Ono: I read that you can bleach teeth in the clinic.Bleaching (2) Home bleaching Dr. .

Mrs. Richard: Yes. Then I will take some alginate impressions of your upper and lower teeth so our technician Kaz can make the bleaching trays. Richard: What I will do today is to photograph your teeth so we have a record of the shade of your teeth before we start any treatment. Ono: If you think it‟s better. I‟ll follow your advice. My son. they‟ll be ready in three days time. Dr. thank you. Ono: Do you know when the trays will be ready? Dr. Ono: That‟s great. . Sato mow.Bleaching (2) Home bleaching Mrs. Hitohiro (仁 弘). When you come back on Thursday. has an appointment with Dr.7. Mrs. I will give you a couple of boxes of the bleaching gel. Today is Monday so they will be ready for Thursday.

Chapter 3 Treatment 7.Bleaching (3)Bleaching tray and gel .

重點單字     Fit(適合) Side-effects(副作用) Sensitivity(敏感) Carbamide peroxide(過氧化尿素) .

7. I will check if they fit comfortably or not and I will show you where to put the gel… . Ono in? Dr.Bleaching (3)Bleaching tray and gel Dr. Mrs. Dr. Ono bleaching trays come back? Miss Tanaka: Yes. Ono: Thanks for seeing me again so soon. Richard: Yes please. These are the trays. Shall I call Mrs. Kaz brought them this morning. Richard: Have Mrs. Richard: No problem.

Mrs. Ono: Are there any side-effects? Dr. Ono: What is the gel made of? Dr. . it is possible you may get some sensitivity. Richard: As much as possible. If you don‟t see much of an effect in a week you will need to continue using the trays for longer. Ono: How often shall I use them? Dr. I will see you again in a week‟s time. Mrs. Richard: It is carbamide peroxide.Bleaching (3)Bleaching tray and gel Mrs. Certainly at nighttime.7. This is temporary. Richard: Yes.

Chapter 3 Treatment 8. An orthodontic consultation: (1)Dracula’s teeth(小說中之吸血 鬼主角) .

重要單字         Canines(犬齒) Buccally(頰側) Orthodontist(齒顎矯正專科醫師) Specialist(專科醫生) Erupt(萌發) first premolars(第一小臼齒) Extract(拔牙) Arch(牙弓) .

重要單字        Bracket(托架) Bond to(黏接著) Wire(金屬線) Elastics(彈性圈、橡皮圈) Living tissues(活組織) Biology of tooth movement(牙齒移動生物 學) Study model(研究用模型) .

Mrs. I look like Dracula! Dr. Ono. Hitohiro Ono:No. Sato:I hear you‟re not happy with your front teeth. Dr.8. they are horrible. Hitohiro Ono:My mum makes me brush them three times a day. you are at the right age to have them straightened. . . An orthodontic consultation:①Dracula’s teeth Miss Kato:You can come straight through. Hitohiro.I see you keep them nice and clean. Dr. Sato:How old are you. . Sato:Well. Let me have a look. We are ready for Hitohiro(仁弘). Hitohiro? Hitohiro Ono:12.

. They are coming through buccally.8. To treat this problem. There is not enough space for Hitohiro‟s upper canines. Sato:I can‟t but I will refer you to an orthodontist. Ono. The situation looks worse than it is. As a result. I tell you what is likely to happen. Don‟t worry Hitohiro. Hitohiro will have to have a couple of teeth taken out to make some space. Sato:That‟s good. An orthodontic consultation:①Dracula’s teeth Dr. I see your upper canines don‟t have much space. Hitohiro Ono:Can you fix them? Dr. Hitohiro Ono:What‟s an orthodontist? Dr. Mrs. Sato:An orthodontist is a dentist who is a specialist in straightening teeth. they are erupting buccally.

Ono:How does the orthodontist straighten the teeth? . An orthodontic consultation:①Dracula’s teeth Mrs. Mrs. Sato:Usually both upper first premolars are extracted because they are in the middle of the arch but it will depend on the orthodontist. Ono:Do you know which teeth? Dr.8.

. These movements are done very carefully. When a controlled force is applied to the tooth. Once the tooth is in a new position. which moves them through the bone. Ono:Sorry did you say the teeth are moved through the bone? The bone is solid. how can that happen? Dr. Sato:Brackets are bonded to the teeth and then a wire is attached to the brackets using elastics. which contains many cells. Sato:Bone is a living tissue. Mrs. This enables a controlled force to be applied to the teeth. bone is removed from around the tooth allowing the tooth to move to a new position. An orthodontic consultation:①Dracula’s teeth Dr. new bone is laid down.8.

4pm on Thursday. Ono:It sounds very complicated. to save you two visits. Dr. I will need to send the orthodontist some study models and radiographs of Hitohiro‟s teeth. 8. Sato:Well. You are coming back on Thursday to collect your bleaching trays aren’t you? Mrs. Dr. Sato:Yes. Richard sees you and then I take the impressions and radiographs. Ono:Yes.Mrs. Ono:That‟s very kind of you. the biology of tooth movement is very complex. I will see Hitohiro after Dr. An orthodontic consultation:①Dracula’s teeth . Mrs.

Chapter 3 Treatment 8. An orthodontic consultation: (2)Cephalometrics( 測顱分析術 ) .

Decay (龋齒) Alginate impressions (藻膠印模) Models (模型) .重要單字         Dental Pantomogram(環口斷層放射照片) Dephalometric lateral skull radiograph(側顱 術側方頭部攝影) Erupt (萌出) Mandible (下顎) Maxilla (上顎).

. We will use one machine but we will take different views. An orthodontic consultation: (2)Cephalometrics Dr. One is called a Dental Pantomogram known as a DPT and another called a true cephalometric lateral skull radiograph. We‟ll be watching you outside.8. The top of this machine is going to move around your head. We‟ll take the DPT first. You just need to keep still for about 20 seconds. Hitohiro. Sato: Mrs. Ono. If you can move into machine and just gently bite on this bit of plastic. Sato: Yes. We are going to take two. would you like to follow me to the room in which we take the radiographs… Hitohiro Ono: Are those the machines(機械)? Dr. today we are going to take some radiographs of Hitohiro‟s teeth.

Sato: So these are the radiographs.8. Hitohiro Ono: What can you see? . Sato: That‟s great. Would you and your Mum like to follow me? Dr. we can discuss them together. An orthodontic consultation: (2)Cephalometrics Hitohiro Ono: Ok. which we have taken. Now we just need to take the lateral skull… Hitohiro Ono: Can I see the pictures when you have finished? Dr. So if you have a seat in the waiting room in the meantime. Sato: Certainly. your radiographs have been developed. Miss Kato: Hitohiro. Dr. It will be about 15 minutes.

which are about to erupt. I will then send the models and radiographs to the orthodontist. We can also see the relationship of the mandible to the maxilla. An orthodontic consultation: (2)Cephalometrics Dr. Before you go I just need to take some alginate impressions of your upper and lower teeth. Sato: These radiographs show us which teeth are present and the location of teeth. .8. who will send you an appointment in a few days. The good news is that I can’t see any decay in your teeth.

8. Miss Kato: Shall I start mixing? Dr. Ok. Sato: Yes please. I’m going to take the lower impression first so try to relax and breathe through your nose … . Hitohiro Ono: Does it taste of anything? Dr. Sato: Peppermint. An orthodontic consultation: (2)Cephalometrics Miss Kato: Which size of trays would you like? Dr. Sato: Medium for both upper and lower will be fine.

Chapter 3 Treatment 9. Chrome denture(鈷鉻合金義齒) (1)Broken acrylic denture(破裂的丙 烯酸的義齒) .

重要單字 teeth 假牙 (一般用語) Partial acrylic denture 局部丙烯酸的、壓克 力的義齒 Missing 缺失 Cobalt-chromium 鈷鉻合金 Bar 桿、槓 Framework 義齒支架 False .

重要單字 牙鉤 Replace 補綴取代 Implant 植體 Hygienist 口衛師 Scale 刮結石 Primary impression 首次印模 Clasp .

Richard : That doesn‟t sound good. Inoue. Chrome denture: (1)Broken acrylic denture 鈷鉻合金義齒: (1)破裂的丙烯酸的義齒 Miss Tanaka : Are you ready for your first patient? Dr. My friend recommended you. . Richard : Just about. good morning. Inoue(井上) and he‟s broken his denture. Miss Tanaka : That‟s right. It‟s Mr.9. Richard : Mr. Inoue : It‟s my lower false teeth. Apparently you are the third dentist he will have seen this year! Dr. We had better see why he has come to see me … Dr. Here is my lower denture. They keep breaking all the time. Come in and make yourself comfortable… How can I help you? Mr.

What I suggest we do is to make you a lower partial cobalt-chromium denture. Mr. There is a thin piece of plastic. which replaces your missing right and left lower premolars and first molars. which runs behind your lower anterior teeth. Instead of the bulky plastic behind your lower anterior teeth there will be a thin bar of mental. You have a lower partial acrylic denture. Richard : I think I can help you. Inoue : Will the mental be visible? .9. Chrome denture: (1)Broken acrylic denture 鈷鉻合金義齒: (1)破裂的丙烯酸的義齒 Dr. it will be much stronger and less likely to break. Because the framework of the denture is mental.

Inoue : A new lower denture in mental sounds fine.9. Chrome denture: (1)Broken acrylic denture 鈷鉻合金義齒: (1)破裂的丙烯酸的義齒 Dr. When can you begin making them? Dr. Richard : We usually place a couple of clasp on the canines. These will stop the denture lifting up when your eating. one on each canine. Richard : First I need to carefully examine all your teeth and gums and maybe take some radiographs… . The other option is to see if we can replace the missing teeth with implants but these are much more expensive. Mr. These can be made in gold if you wish. My lower teeth are not so visible when I speak so the mental clasps will not be a problem.

I will give you an appointment so we can make the primary impressions after you have seen the hygienist. Richard : Your fillings don‟t need replacing but I can see that you have some calculus present so I will book you in with our hygienist to have your teeth scaled and polished. .9. Inoue : That sounds fine. Chrome denture: (1)Broken acrylic denture 鈷鉻合金義齒: (1)破裂的丙烯酸的義齒 Dr. I will also give you a treatment plan so you can see how much the treatment will cost. I‟ll see you next time. Mr. Thank you.

Chrome denture(鈷鉻合金義齒): (2)Impressions for denture design (為義齒設計之印模) .Chapter 3 Treatment 9.

重要單字 chrome denture 下顎鉻金屬活動假牙 primary impression 首次印象 Plaster 石膏 design 設計 survey the model 測量模型 Undercut 倒凹 metal framework 金屬義齒支架 component 構成要素、元件 clasp 牙鉤 rest seat 鉤座 tray 模托、托盤 lower .

Dr. It‟s causing all sorts of problems with the transport. The clinic is set up now so I‟ll call him in if you want. Dr. we‟re making him a new lower chrome denture. Richard : Yes. my train was late this morning. Who is our first patient? Miss Tanaka : It‟s Mr. Today we‟ll be making the primary impressions using alginate. He‟s just arrived. Chrome denture: (2)Impressions for denture design 鈷鉻合金義齒:為義齒設計之印模 Miss Tanaka : The weather‟s terrible today. I guess some of patients may also be a little late. Inoue.9. . Hopefully the rain will ease this afternoon. Richard : Yes.

Inoue : My last Dentist only took one lot of impressions? I didn’t have to come back twice! Dr. . comfortable. Mr. We take some more next time. Inoue : I almost couldn‟t make it today because of the weather.9. Richard : Making a well made. Dr. Chrome denture: (2)Impressions for denture design鈷 鉻合金義齒:為義齒設計之印模 Mr. We will cast the primary impressions in plaster and then use the models to design the lower denture. isn‟t it? Are you ready to have me make some impressions of your month? These will be the primary impressions. good fitting lower chrome denture takes time. Richard : Awful.

There will be small areas where the metal will rest on the teeth. Where this occurs we adjust the occlusal surface of the tooth slightly so the metal will not interfere when you bite together. we first survey the model to find out which teeth have undercuts and then we design the metal framework. Richard : Yes. Dr. which go around the teeth and rest seats. Chrome denture: (2)Impressions for denture design鈷 鉻合金義齒:為義齒設計之印模 Mr.9. Inoue : I didn‟t know you have to design a denture. . I then send the design to my technician. The framework has various components such as the clasps.

we‟re going to make the upper impression first. to concentrate on breathing through your nose. I‟ll do the upper one first. ready when you are for the alginate impressions. Here goes… . Richard : Miss Tanaka. So I will ask you to lean forwards slightly and when I put the tray in your mouth. Inoue. Richard : Mr. Dr. Ok.9. Chrome denture: (2)Impressions for denture design鈷 鉻合金義齒:為義齒設計之印模 Dr.

Chapter 3 Treatment 9. Chrome denture(鈷鉻合金義齒): (3)Discussing denture design with the technician(跟齒模技術員討論 義齒的設計) .

重要單語 special tray(custom or individual tray) 個別 模托 buccal surface 頰側面 periodontal condition 牙周狀況 abutment teeth 支柱牙 handle 握柄 stub handle 粗而短之柄 .

Richard know the technician Kaz is on phone? Miss Kato : I‟ll ask him to take the call in his clinic Dr. what can I do for you? Kaz: I‟m calling you to talk about the design for Mr. What do you think we should do? . Chrome denture: (3)Discussing denture design with the technician 鈷鉻合金義齒:跟齒模技術員討論義齒的設 計 Miss Suzuki : Miss Kato. I have surveyed the model and the lower second molars don’t have very much undercut. Inoue‟s lower cobalt-chrome denture and the special tray. Richard : Good afternoon Kaz. could you let Dr.9.

Their periodontal condition is good so they are useful abutment teeth. Inoue has a very active tongue. which will tend to dislodge the tray so I need good control of the tray in the posterior region. Mr. Kaz: Also. Chrome denture: (3)Discussing denture design with the technician 鈷鉻合金義齒:跟齒模技術員討論義齒的 設計 Dr. . Richard : I would like to clasp the lower second molars so I‟ll add some composite to the buccal surfaces to create some undercut.9. how about the handles on the lower acrylic special tray? Would you like a single handle over the lower incisors or two stub handles in the premolar region? Dr. Richard : Two stub handles will be better.

I have warned him and he is not worried about the clasps. Inoue know the clasps on the canines may be visible? Dr. Does Mr. Thanks for calling Kaz : It’s always better to discuss things if there is any doubt about something. Richard : Yes. Chrome denture: (3)Discussing denture design with the technician 鈷鉻合金義齒:跟齒模技術員討論義齒 的設計 Kaz : I think that‟s it. The design looks straightforward and we are not replacing any anterior teeth. .9.

Chapter 3 Treatment 9. Chrome denture(鈷鉻合金義齒): (4) Final impression for lower chrome denture(下顎鈷鉻合金義齒 的最後印模) .

重要單語 the final impression 做出最後的印象 special tray 個別模托 prepare rest seats 做出鉤座 cobalt-chromium framework 鈷鉻義齒支架 gum 牙齦 tooth-supported 牙齒支持的 design (假牙)設計 cavities 窩洞 occlusal surface 咬合面 sensitivity 感覺、敏感性 silicone 矽化物 metal framework 金屬義齒支架 laboratory 牙科技工所(實驗室) make .

Richard : We are going to make the final impression for your lower chrome denture. Richard : How are you today Mr. Inoue : I‟m fine thank you. Before I make the impression. What are they? .9. Mr. This is the special tray Kaz has made for us. Inoue? Mr. Chrome denture: (4) Final impression for lower chrome denture鈷鉻合金義齒:下顎鈷鉻合金義齒的最後印模 Dr. Inoue : Sorry did you say rest seats. I need to prepare some rest seats in a couple of your teeth. May I ask what you plan to do today? Dr.

Chrome denture: (4) Final impression for lower chrome denture 鈷鉻合金義齒:下顎鈷鉻合金義齒的最後印模 Dr. We call this a tooth-supported denture. It also rests on your teeth and not the gums. The design we have made for your new denture has three rest seats. Richard : I‟ll try to explain what rest seats are. . This means the denture will be stronger and less bulky.9. The advantage of a tooth-supported denture is that it will cause less damage to your gums. I will cut some small cavities on the occlusal surface of three of your lower teeth. The denture we are making for you has a cobalt-chromium framework.

very little. I‟ll make the final impression in silicone. Chrome denture: (4) Final impression for lower chrome denture鈷鉻合金義齒:下顎鈷鉻合金義齒的最後印模 Mr. Richard : Next time you come I‟ll hopefully have the metal framework back from the laboratory.9. Miss Tanaka : Can I mix the silicone? . Inoue : Will you be cutting a lot of the tooth away? Dr. Mr. I am just going to adjust the tray a little before I put the silicone in your mouth. The rest seats are quite thin so I just have to remove only a thin layer of enamel. Richard : No. You won’t have any sensitivity. Inoue : What is the next stage after the impressions? Dr. After I have prepared the rest seats.

If you can sit forward a little Mr.9. Here we go( )… . Richard : Yes please. Chrome denture: (4) Final impression for lower chrome denture鈷鉻合金義齒:下顎鈷鉻合金義齒的 最後印模 Dr. The tray will be in your mouth for about five to six minutes so if you can concentrate on breathing through your nose that will be good… Ok. The tray will be in your mouth. Inoue that will be great.

Chrome denture(鈷鉻合金義齒): (5) Chrome denture try-in(鈷鉻義齒 之試戴) .Chapter 3 Treatment 9.

重要單字        Lower incisors: 下顎門牙 Acrylic denture:丙烯酸義齒 Arm:金屬製假牙掛勾 Try in: 試戴 Occlusion:咬合 Process( ) Shade guide:選牙色板 .

It shouldn‟t break like your acrylic denture. Inoue. Richard: Yes.9. It goes in fine. Mr. Mr. How does it feel? . Will it fit? Dr. Mr. Dr. Richard: That‟s good. Richard: Yes. it’s thinner behind the lower incisors so it should feel less bulky. Inoue: Are those little metal arms. I‟m just going to adjust them slightly before I try the framework in. Chrome denture: (5) Chrome denture try-in Dr. Inoue: It looks very different from my denture. Richard: This is the metal framework we have made for you. Now we have to return it to the laboratory to put the teeth on. the clasps? Dr.

It‟s not hurting me and it feels better near my tongue. Next time. Dr. Chrome denture: (5) Chrome denture try-in . The metal work fits. So we‟ll make you another appointment.Mr. Kaz has done a good job. Richard: I‟m pleased with this framework. We just need to choose a shade… 9. Mr. Inoue: Quite good actually. the teeth will be in wax. If you are happy with them and their occlusion is good they will be processes in acrylic. Richard: Hopefully just two more. Inoue: I’m not trying to rush you but do you know how many more visits will be needed? Dr.

9. Chrome denture: (5) Chrome denture try-in
Could I have a shade guide please, Miss Tanaka? Are you happy with the color of the teeth on your existing denture? Mr. Inoue: Yes, but if possible, I‟d like some lighter looking teeth. Dr. Richard: C2 seems a good match. I‟ll let you have a look. Next time we‟ll check how they bite together and let you check the color. Could you bring someone with you? It’s sometimes a good idea for a friend or family member to check the appearance as well. Mr. Inoue: Yes, I‟ll bring my wife. Thanks' Dr. Richard, I‟ll see you again.

Chapter 3 Treatment 9. Chrome denture: (6) Wax chrome try-in


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Trial denture 試戴假牙 Bracket table( ) Alignment 排序 Lirregular不規則

9. Chrome denture: (6) Wax chrome try-in Dr. Richard: Good morning, Mr. Inoue( ). Mr. Inoue: Good morning, Dr. Richard. I’ve brought my wife as you suggested. Dr. Richard: Good morning, Mrs. Inoue. Very nice to meet you. Miss Tanaka: I‟ll put the trial denture on the bracket table. Dr. Richard: Ok. Let‟s see how it looks… What do you think Mr. Inoue? Mr. Inoue: You can hardly to see the claps. Dr. Richard: Yes, they‟re hidden by your lower lip. What do you think about the color of the teeth?

9. Chrome denture: (6) Wax chrome try-in Mr. Inoue: I like them. Dr. Richard: How about the color of the teeth, Mrs. Inoue? Mrs. Inoue: The color‟s better than the current ones and I like their appearance. They look quite natural. Dr. Richard: I‟m pleased you like them. I asked Kaz to make the alignment of the teeth slightly irregular. Do you want me to change anything? While they’re in wax we can make some alterations but once they are converted to acrylic it is much more difficult. Mr. Inoue: No, my wife and I are happy with them.

Chapter 3 Treatment 9. Chrome denture: (7) chrome fit

重要單字      Treatment 治療 Rub 假牙摩擦口腔黏膜 Ulcer 潰瘍.口內炎 Wear 裝戴假牙 Put in 裝戴假牙 .

Richard: No.. Chrome denture: (7) chrome fit Dr. Dr. . Richard: No problem. Richard: Is Mr. He called to say that he‟ll be a few minutes late. Miss Tanaka? Miss Tanaka: Sorry. There was an accident on one of the train lines and the trains are running a bit late. Inoue here. Mr. Inoue: So sorry I‟m late. I have your new denture here so I‟ll put it in and see how it is. Dr. I forgot to tell you.9. Miss Tanaka: He‟s here now. I can finish entering our previous patient‟s treatment into the computer. that‟s fine. It gave me a chance to catch up with the paperwork. I‟ll bring him in.

9. Chrome denture: (7) chrome fit
Dr. Richard: Does it hurt anywhere? Mr. Inoue: No. Not at the moment. Dr. Richard: You seem to be contacting both sides at the same time. Mr. Inoue: Yes, they feel very good. Dr. Richard: I have a few instructions for you. You probably know these already but please eat slowly at first and try to cut your food up. Eating may feel a bit strange at first but that‟s normal. If they start rubbing please take them out otherwise you’ll develop an ulcer. Please be careful with the clasps. Please don‟t adjust them yourself. They can correct anything. If you find you can‟t wear them, please put your old denture in.

Chapter 3 Treatment 10. Implant overdenture: (1) A problem denture


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Waiting room: 候診室 Emergency patient: 急診病患 Dental implant: 牙科植入物 Extensive exam: 精密檢查 Place: 置入植入物 CT scan: 電腦斷層掃描 Complete lower denture: 下顎全部假牙 Computerized tomography: 電腦斷層攝影 (CT) Surgeon: 外科醫師( )

10. Implant overdenture: (1) A problem denture Dr. Sato: We seem to be doing well today, Miss Kato. Is there anyone in the waiting room. Miss Kato: Yes there is. Mr. Obata( ) is waiting to see you. He is an emergency patient. His lower denture has broken. Dr. Sato: Sorry I forgot that we had an emergency patient. Please could you bring Mr. Obata in. Miss Kato: Good afternoon, Mr. Obata. Please follow me. Dr. Sato: My receptionist tells me you are not happy with your lower denture, Mr. Obata.

10. Implant overdenture: (1) A problem denture Mr. Obata: Yes, that‟s right. Ever since I had my first lower denture ten years ago I have not been happy. They are always loose and move around. Last week I read about Dental Implants in a magazine. I have come to ask if I could have a new denture fitted on implants. Dr. Sato: I do have a couple of patients who have had implants placed and then I made the new dentures on top. We will need to carry out an extensive exam before any implants can be placed. Mr. Obata: That‟s fine.

10. Implant overdenture: (1) A problem denture
Dr. Sato: I will let you know what happens in our practice. As part of the extensive exam we need to arrange for you to have a special radiograph of your mandible. The radiograph is a CT scan of your mandible. We can then examine the bone in detail and plan where the implants will be placed. For a complete lower denture we usually place four implants in the central region. Two will remain buried for future use and two will be use to support the denture.
Mr. Obata: Excuse me what‟s a CT scan? Also, do you place the implants yourself?

Then I will give you another appointment to discuss the results and what stages are involved. In the meantime please take these leaflets home to read. . I have an experienced surgeon who I refer my patients to for placement of the implants. Implant overdenture: (1) A problem denture Dr. Obata: Very good.10. Sato: CT stands for computerized tomography. They will give you an idea of what treatment to expect. Mr. It is important that the implant is placed as carefully as possible otherwise it will not integrate with the bone and may become loose. I will carry out the oral examination today and then arrange for you to have a CT scan. Thank you.

Chapter 3 Treatment 10. Implant overdenture: (2) Implant planning .

Obata: Sadly not very often. . Sato: Do you have a chance to play a game of golf? Mr. I am a member of a golf club but usually I am busy at weekends so it is difficult to the driving range.10.Obata: My shoulder is a bit sore. Mr. Obata in? Dr.Sato: Yes please. Implant overdenture: (2) Implant planning Miss Kato: Shall I call Mr. I think I hurt it while I was practicing my driving at the Golf centre last night. Dr.Obata? Mr. Miss Kato: How are you today.

Sato: Well. I have received a report on your CT scan and it seems you have enough bone fore four implants. we can then see where the implants should be placed. With the denture teeth in their correct position. Obata: Ah yes. To help the surgeon place the implants in the correct position in the mandible we need to go through the stages to make a wax trial denture. How does the acrylic stent work? .10. I see what you mean. I will show you some pictures of what I mean. We can then duplicate the denture to make an acrylic stent. Implant overdenture: (2) Implant planning Dr. Mr.

The surgeon will use these holes as guides for placing the implants. This may cause some major complications. Once the implants have been placed it is necessary to wait a few months. If the surgeon does not use a guide when drilling holes in the mandible then the implants may not be in the correct position. Obata: Oh.10. we can drill holes in the stent. so I won't have the denture fitted on the implants straightaway? . Implant overdenture: (2) Implant planning Dr. which is similar in shape to how the final denture will be. Mr.Sato: Once we have made the acrylic stent.

Implant overdenture: (2) Implant planning Dr. Sato: I prefer to wait four to six months. What happens after we have waited for a few months? . If the implant is loaded straight away. The implants are made of titanium and if the implants is going to be there a long time. then there is a greater risk that osseo-integration will not happen and then the implant will fail. The published long-tern studies show that it is better to wait few months. If this occurs then it is said that osseointegration has occurred. I see what you mean.10. bone must grow up against the surface of the implant. Mr. Obata: Yes.

Mr. Then we take some impressions to make either a bar or magnetic attachments for the denture. .10. Sato : The surgeon will uncover the implants and then place what are called healing caps to give the surrounding soft tissues the correct shape. Obata: It sound very complicated. Implant overdenture: (2) Implant planning Dr. The finished denture will either clip on the bar or rest on the magnets.

Mr. . Sato: There are many steps. Obata: Thanks very much. That„s why implant treatment is expensive.10. which are needed in order to get a successful outcome. We'll book a series of appointments for you to make the acrylic stent as soon as possible. Implant overdenture: (2) Implant planning Dr.

重要單字             Wax trial denture:義齒蠟試驗 Duplicate: 複製 Acrylic stent: 壓克力支架 Titanium: 鈦金屬 Osseo-integration: Load: Uncover: Healing cap: Surrounding soft tissue: 周圍軟組織 Bar: Magnetic attachment:磁性附著 Clip on: 固定 .

Implant overdenture: (3) Implant-supported lower overdenture .Chapter 3 Treatment 10.

Implant overdenture: (3) Implant-supported lower overdenture Miss Kato: Shall I call our next patient in? Dr. Sato: I heard the surgery went well. Am I right in thinking that you are going to make a bar for the denture to clip onto? . nice to see you again.10. Obata: Good morning Dr. it„s Mr. Obata: Very well thank you. Sato. Dr. Mr. He had four lower implants placed six months ago and he's back for us to make him a complete lower overdenture. Ah yes. I saw the surgeon last month and he is happy with the implants and for you to begin making the new overdenture. Sato: Yes please. How have you been? Mr. Obata.

They will be used only if the uncovered implants fail. Mr. Obata: How is the bar going to be made? . The surgeon has placed healing caps on two of them and left the other two covered up by gum. Sato: Yes. These are socalled "sleepers" . You have had four implants placed in the lower incisor region.10. Implant overdenture: (3) Implant-supported lower overdenture Dr.

Sato: It will be made by Kaz.10. After the impression has set. Kaz will attach implant laboratory replicas to the impression copings before pouring the impression in stone. . Then I will remove the impression. our technician. In order to get an accurate impression of the implants we use pick-up impression copings. I am going to remove the healing caps and take an impression of the two implants. Implant overdenture: (3) Implant-supported lower overdenture Dr. I will unscrew the retaining screws that hold the impression copings in place. These are screwed into the implant while we make the impression.

I was wondering how is the bar going to be attached to the implants? Dr. It‟s a very complicated isn‟t. .10. Obata: I think I have an idea of how you are going to make the impression. I will adjust your lower denture so that it fits over the bar The new denture will have some clips. which will clip onto the bar. Sato: Next time you come. Obata: That sounds really good. we will screw abutments into the implants and then the bar will be screwed onto these. Mr. Implant overdenture: (3) Implant-supported lower overdenture Mr.

dental technician Take an impression Pick-up impression copings Screw Set Impression coping Implant laboratory replica Pouring the impression in stone灌模 Abutment支台齒 .重要單字             Lower incisor region Healing cap Sleeper Technician.

Implant overdenture : (4) Overdenture try-in---- .Chapter3 Treatment 10.

Mr. How are you? Dr. Mr. Shall I get him? Dr. Miss Kato? Miss Kato: Yes. Obata: Can you tell me what you have planned for today? . Sato. but he hasn‟t been waiting long. Obata: Good afternoon Dr. Implant overdenture : (4) Overdenture try-in Dr.10. Sato: Yes please. Sato: Is Mr.Obata here. Sato: I‟m fine thank you.

Obata: It looks as if it will stay in better than the one I have at the moment. If you look on the fitting side of the wax denture you can see there is a gold clip. which Kaz has made. You can see there is a bar on the model. Implant overdenture : (4) Overdenture try-in Dr.10. . This will clip onto the bar. which connects the two abutment. This is the wax trial denture. Sato: I‟ll show you. It‟s different from the denture you had before. Mr.

How does the bite feel? Do you bite together evenly or is one side contacting first? . Sato: Yes. Your new denture has a bar to clip onto. I will have your new denture back in two days… How does the wax denture feel? I have cemented the bar in place and I need to check how the wax denture bites together. I will cement the bar in place then try the wax denture in. definitely. So. After the bar has been cemented in place. Today. I‟ll cut out a groove in your acrylic denture where the bar is and then reline it with soft acrylic.10. Implant overdenture : (4) Overdenture try-in Dr. I need to adjust your existing denture.

Obata: No.10. I‟m looking forward to getting the new one. Implant overdenture : (4) Overdenture try-in Mr. they feel great. They look great too! . The back teeth on both sides contact at the same time.

重要單字          wax trial denture: 蠟的試用假牙 model: 模型 fitting side: 黏膜面,又叫fitting surface clip: 夾子、鉗子、迴紋針 cement: 膠結材料、(牙科用來填補空洞的)黏固粉 adjust: 調整、改變、使…適應 groove: 溝、槽 reline: 重新規劃 soft acrylic: 軟性丙烯酸 .

Chapter3 Treatment 10. Implant overdenture : (5) Overdenture fit .

It‟s very important we get your occlusion correct otherwise we might overload the implants. Dr.10. I was worried Kaz wouldn‟t be able to get it back in time. Mr. Obata: Excellent. it‟s in the disinfectant solution. we have your new denture! Mr. Sato: Good new. Sato: Is his denture back? Miss Kato: Yes. Dr. Obata. I‟ll make sure it doesn‟t hurt you anywhere and that you bite together evenly. Implant overdenture : (5) Overdenture fit Miss Kato: Shall I call Mr. Obata in? Dr. . Sato: First. Sato: Good. Dr.

How about the occlusion? Are you biting together evenly. Obata: May I ask how you know that. Implant overdenture : (5) Overdenture fit Dr. Dr. There is a slightly heavy contact on the lower first molar. You are hitting this tooth slightly before the others. If you can just bite on this piece of articulating paper… Ah yes.10. Sato: Can you see the blue marks? So this tells us that you have a premature contact. Mr. Mr. Sato: Ok. Dr. . Obata: Almost. Sato: Good it fit well. I seem to be catching one of the back teeth first tough.

Now I‟m contacting both sides at the same time and the denture doesn‟t rub anywhere. Sato: How‟s that now? Mr. . I‟ll let you try the denture for a few days then I‟ll see you again. Sato: Ok. Implant overdenture : (5) Overdenture fit Mr. Dr.10. Obata: Does that mean you have to adjust the teeth? Dr. Sato: Yes. I won‟t do any more adjustments. Obata: Much better. I shall just grind the tooth a little… Dr.

重要單字         disinfectant solution: 消毒水 occlusion: 咬合 overload: 使負荷過多、超載 articulating paper: 咬合紙 heavy contact: 強力接觸 premature contact: 早期接觸 grind: 磨 rub: 磨擦、擦痛 .

Chapter3 Treatment 10. Implant overdenture : (6)review .

It‟s quite useful. Sato:How‟s the denture been Mr. Dr. Mr. I‟m really pleased with it. Obata:What‟s that paste called? Dr. I can eat many more foods than I could before.10. There‟s just one area where it‟s starting to rub a little. Sato:It‟s called Pressure Indicating Paste. Dr. Sato:I‟ll brush this white paste onto the fitting surface and see if I can detect the area that is rubbing. Implant overdenture : (6)review Dr. Obata? Mr. Sato:How‟s that now? . Obata:It‟s much more secure than my old one.

Implant overdenture : (6)review Mr. Thank you so much for all your help. Mr. Peri-implantitis is a condition in which the mucosa around the implant becomes inflamed. If plaque builds up around the implant. Sato:I must stress to you that it‟s very important to keep the area around the implants very clean.10. which could affect the implant. Obata:Ah yes. an infection may develop. Please also keep the denture clean. . Much better. If this develops the implant may become loose. Dr. Obata:I‟ll take great care.

重要單字        fitting surface:黏膜面 Pressure Indicating Paste : PIP Plaque : 齒垢 inflection: 感染 peri-implantitis: 周圍炎 mucosa:黏膜 inflamed:發炎的 .

Chapter3 Treatment 11. A Sore Mouth .

重要單字            sore mouth: 口內炎 cancer:癌 lump:團;塊 hard palate:硬口蓋 ulcer:潰瘍 apthous ulcer : apthous性潰瘍 medication:藥 prescibe:處方籤 Benzydamine oral spray( numb:麻痺 general health:全身健康狀況 ) .

. Shall I call her in? Dr. Dr. I am a bit worried that it may be cancer. Dejima. Richard:Yes please. Dejima:The roof of my mouth has been quite sore for several days. Mrs. is here. Do you know what she wants? Miss Tanaka:Apparently she has a sore mouth. How can I help you? Mrs. Richard:Please have a seat Mrs. A Sore Mouth Miss Tanaka:Your next patient. Dejima. Dejima( ).11. Would you come this way Mrs.

11. In the middle of your hard palate there is a reddish area. Mrs. Dejima? Mrs. Richard:I‟ll have a look. Ah yes. You have a large mouth ulcer. Mrs. Dejima:Will it go away? . I can also feel a slight lump. Richard:When did your mouth begin to feel sore. Dejima:About three days ago. A Sore Mouth Dr. Dejima:Is it serious? Dr. Mrs. Dr. Richard:No. Also known as an apthous ulcer.

it will get better in a few days. Mrs. Dejima:Is there any medication you can give me to stop it hurting when I eat? Dr. You have a large ulcer. Dejima? . Richard:Yes. I can prescribe you a spray.11. Mrs. It will make your mouth feel numb. It called Benzydamine oral spray. A Sore Mouth Dr. . The tongue is very sensitive so the ulcer feels larger than it actually is. .Would you mind me asking you a few questions about your general health. Unfortunately the spray may affect the taste of the food. It is probably at its worse now. You should spray the ulcer a few minutes before you eat. Richard:Yes.

Dejima:I will. Richard:Do you find your life stressful at the moment? Mrs. Nobody knows what exactly causes mouth ulcers. A Sore Mouth Mrs. Dejima:I think so. . Can my diet be connected to my mouth ulcer? Dr. thank you. Richard:It can be.What I will also do is give you an appointment for two weeks time to see if the ulcer has healed up. Richard : How about your die? Are you eating a well diet? Mrs.11. not at all. But certainly people who are stressed and not eating well may develop mouth ulcers. Mrs. . In the meantime please make sure you eat plenty of fruit and vegetables. Dejima : No more than usual. Dr. Dejima:No. Dr. .

Chapter 4 Dental hygienist 1.Scaling. brushing (1)Bad brush .

重要單字     appointment:會診 deposits:沈澱物 supra and subgingival:上下牙齦 pocket charting:囊計表     halitosis:口臭 gum:黏液 bleeding:流血 bad breath:口臭 .

重要單字           Calculus牙結石 inflamed:發炎的 heal:癒合 ultrasonic scaler:超音波定標器 hand scalers: periodontal probe:牙周探針 pocket depths:牙周囊袋深度 dental floss:牙線 interproximal brush:牙間刷 fluoride toothpaste:含氟牙膏 .

重要單字            swelling:腫脹 plaque:牙菌斑 scale:刻度 Caries齲齒 acid:酸 dissolve:溶解 enamel:琺瑯質( ) remineralize:在礦化 check-up:核對 appointment:會診 cleaning and polishing:清潔與研磨 .

重要單字          Mouthwash. mouthrinse 刷牙 Disinfectant 消毒的 Inflamed gum牙齦發炎 Fluoride氟化物 Electric toothbrush電動牙刷 Bristles( ) Sensitive toothpastes敏感的牙膏 Potassium nitrate硝酸鉀 Dentinal tubules( ) .

Shall I send him down? Miss Yoshida :Yes please ….1. Dr.Scaling. . Ishida( ) has arrived..? Mr. Mr. Miss Yoshida :Yes his clinical notes say that you have several deposits of both supra and subgingival calculus. a couple of your teeth are getting loose so he would like me to carry out pocket charting of all your teeth.How are you Mr. Ishita. Also. brushing (1)Bad brush Miss Suzuki: Miss Yoshita( ). Ishida: Fine thanks. Sato( ) said there was some calculus on my teeth and booked an appointment for me with you.

once I have cleaned all your teeth your breath will smell better.Scaling.Ishida: I’m a little embarrassed to say this but my wife says I have halitosis. Mr. The reason for the bad breath and bleeding is your gums have become inflamed. Also my gums have been bleeding. Can you do something about that? Miss Yoshida :Yes.1. Ishida: What is supra and subgingival calculus? . Once all the calculus has been removed the gums can heal. brushing (1)Bad brush Mr. Also your gums will stop bleeding.

1.Scaling.Ishida: How are you going to clean the teeth? Miss Yoshida: I will use an ultrasonic scaler and hand scalers.Ishida: Can you give some advice on how to clean my teeth properly? . Mr. We have a special probe called a periodontal probe to measure the pocket depths around the teeth. brushing (1)Bad brush Miss Yoshida : Supragingival calculus is calculus that is found above the gum and subgingival calculus is found below the gum. Mr.

brushing (1)Bad brush Miss Yoshida: as well as using a toothbrush. It is also important to have your teeth checked-up and scaled every 2 to 3 months. Mr. I don‟t want to lose any more teeth. it is important that you clean in between your teeth using dental floss and an interproximal brush.Scaling. You can buy an interproximal brush at the reception desk if you wish.Ishida: I will try harder to keepe them clean. .1.

Scaling.Chapter 4 Dental Hygienist 1. brushing (2)After scaling and brushing .

following your advice I am now brushing my teeth three times a day using fluoride toothpaste. Ishida: Yes.1. Mr. which you bought last time. The redness and swelling has reduced.Scaling. brushing (2)After scaling and brushing Miss Yoshida: Your gums look better. Mr. Ishida. . Are you also using the interproximal brush and dental floss. By brushing tree times a day you are preventing the build-up of plaque. Miss Yoshida: Your gums are much pinker now.

Scaling. It is also important to eat a balanced diet.Ishida: No I stopped a few months ago. the bleeding has stopped.1. Try not to eat too many sweet things and eat plenty of fresh vegetables. my wife says my breath smells better! Miss Yoshida: That’s very important. .Ishida: Yes I am. I have also noticed that since you scaled my teeth. removes plaque and food debris from between the teeth and beneath the gum line. Flossing your teeth regularly. brushing (2)After scaling and brushing Mr. The problem is that I have started eating more sweets. And most importantly. Do you smoke? Mr.

. the sugars are broken down to acids. Ishida: I‟ll do that. Mr. Ishida: Thanks for that advice. you will develop caries in your teeth. If you have too many sweets. which may include an appointment for cleaning a nd polishing. When you eat something sweet. It take 3-4 hours for the enamel surface to remineralize. Mr. Sato in about two months time and then he will make a treatment plan.up appointment with Dr. brushing (2)After scaling and brushing Miss Yoshida :You have to be careful with your sweet intake.1.Scaling. The best time to eat sweets is at meal times. which dissolve the enamel surface. When should I see you next? Miss Yoshida: Please book a check.

How to use dental floss .Chapter 4 Dental Hygienist 2.

Mr. Obata? Mr. I prefer to use woodsticks. Mr.2. Do you floss your teeth. It makes my gums sore. Mr. Obata( ). . Obata: Thank you. Obata: Sometimes but I usually forget.デンタルフの使い方 -How to use dental floss怎麼使用牙線 Miss Yoshida: Please have a seat. Miss Yoshida: Dr. Sato has asked me to show you how to use dental floss.

. gently pull it out. Have a go( ). Don’t saw it from side to side otherwise you will wear away your teeth. Mr. First take about 30cm and wrap it around one finger of each hand. Then carefully slide it down between the teeth.デンタルフの使い方 -How to use dental floss怎麼使用牙線 Miss Yoshida : I’ll show you an easy way. There’s a mirror over here.2. Obata. After sliding it down between the teeth.

デンタルフの使い方 -How to use dental floss怎麼使用牙線 Mr. . thank you. How often should I floss? Miss Yoshida: At least once a day. Mr. Obata: This way seems much better. Obata: Yes I’ll do that.2. please.

Chapter 4 Dental Hygienist 3. How to choose mouthwash .

Miss Jones? Miss Jones: I would like to know which mouthwash you recommend? There are several for sale in my local supermarket where I live but because my Japanese is not very good I get confused.3. I’ll show you which one to buy. Miss Yoshida: We sell mouthwashes here.マワスワオッシュの選び方 -How to choose mouthwash怎麼選擇漱口水 Miss Yoshida: Do you have any questions. .

Miss Yoshida: There are basically two types. One group are disinfectants. Miss Jones: what’s the difference? . They are helpful if you have inflamed gums.マワスワオッシュの選び方 -How to choose mouthwash怎麼選擇漱口水 Miss Jones: That will be great.3. The other group contain fluoride.

I prefer to use a mouthwash that contains fluoride. You rinse your mouth with the mouthwash for one minute then spit out. Fluoride is incorporated into the mineral structure of enamel. your gums will be healthy but you will find your teeth will get stained after a while. .マワスワオッシュの選び方 -How to choose mouthwash怎麼選擇漱口水 Miss Yoshida: If you use a disinfectant type.3. Fluoride makes the surface of the teeth stronger.

If you buy two you get one free. We have a special offer at the moment. They cost around 600 yen. . we do.マワスワオッシュの選び方 -How to choose mouthwash怎麼選擇漱口水 Miss Jones: Do you sell fluoride mouthwashes at reception? Miss Yoshida: Yes.3.

Chapter 4 Dental Hygienist 4. How to choose toothbrush .

Kasahara( ): I’m thinking of buying an electric toothbrush. What do you think? Are they better then manual toothbrushes? .4. Miss Yoshida.歯ブラシの選び方 -How to choose toothbrush怎麼選擇牙刷 Mrs.

Certainly an electric toothbrush would be better if you had difficulty moving your hand.4. Kasahara: What about the size of the toothbrush head and the bristles? . If you use dental floss once a day and brush all the surfaces of the teeth then that will be good. If you had difficulty moving your hand it may be hard to use a manual toothbrush effectively. The aim is to make sure the bristles clean all the surfaces of the teeth.歯ブラシの選び方 -How to choose toothbrush怎麼選擇牙刷 Miss Yoshida: That’s a difficult question to answer. Mrs.

Mrs. Kasahara: Do sensitive toothpastes work.歯ブラシの選び方 -How to choose toothbrush怎麼選擇牙刷 Miss Yoshida: Don’t buy a brush with a big head. Buy one that has a medium sized head and medium to soft bristles. Miss Yoshida? .4. If the bristles are too hard you may abrade the surfaces of the teeth.

Mrs.4. These chemicals can block exposed dentinal tubules and stop sensitivity.歯ブラシの選び方 -How to choose toothbrush怎麼選擇牙刷 Miss Yoshida: They do actually. They contain chemical substances such as potassium nitrate. . Kasahara: Thank you so mush for your advice.

Chapter5 Equipment woes 1.Autoclave trouble .

重要單字 autoclave : 滅菌鍋、高壓鍋 sterilization : 滅菌、消毒 attend meeting : 出席會議 dental unit : 齒科用具 waterline : 水線 handpiece : 手機、牙科用手機 cancel the appointment : 取消預約 rebook : 重新預約 .

1.オートクレーブの故障 -Autoclave trouble高壓鍋故障
Miss Tanaka : Today is not starting well. The
autoclave in Dr. Richard’s surgery is not working properly. I think we will need to call someone to come and look at it. Miss Suzuki : What happening with it? Miss Tanaka : It will not complete the sterilization cycle. I have looked through the hand-book, which was sent with the autoclave. However, it is indicating a fault, which is not listed.

1.オートクレーブの故障 -Autoclave trouble高壓鍋故障
Miss Suzuki : Have you checked the door

Miss Tanaka : Yes, I have cleaned the door
seal and dried it twice. I have talked to Dr. Richard and he agrees that we will have to contact someone.

1.オートクレーブの故障 -Autoclave trouble高壓鍋故障
Miss Suzuki: OK. I will call the company with
whom we have a service contract. We are lucky today. Dr. Sato is away today. He had to attend some meetings so you can use his clinic.

Miss Tanaka: That’s good. I will let dr.
Richard know we will be working in Dr. Sato’s clinic.

Chapter5 Equipment woes 2. Unit trouble

2.ユニットの水漏れ -Unit trouble設備故障
Miss Kato:I think we’ll have to delay
our next patient, Dr. Sato. Dr. Sato:Why’s that ? Miss Kato:Have you looked on the floor ? there’s A big puddle . I can see water coming out the dental unit .

2.ユニットの水漏れ -Unit trouble設備故障
Dr. Sato:Oh dear. You' re right. It's getting
bigger. I‘ll get some towels. First, I’ll have A look at the waterlines to the handpieces. ‘ Miss Kato:I’ ll get A mop. Dr. Sato:It’s looks like a valve has broken. Can you switch off the unit and that will stop the water coming out. I‘ll have to call an engineer. I’ ll go to reception and apologize to our next patient.

Sato :Miss Suzuki.2. It is flooded. Sato. we have an ' emergency in my surgery. Dr. Miss Kato is mopping up water! Miss Suzuki:Your next patient is setting in the waiting room. .ユニットの水漏れ -Unit trouble設備故障 Dr.

It's Miss Saito. I can't do anymore treatment until the engineer comes. . I'm sorry but I'll have to cancel your appointment today and rebook you. I'm afraid we have had an emergency in my clinic and it is flooded. Sato :Oh dear. I'm very sorry for wasting your time.2.ユニットの水漏れ -Unit trouble設備故障 Dr. She's not going to be happy when I tell her I am going to cancel her appointment today… Miss Saito.

2. . I'm quite relieved that I am not having treatment today.ユニットの水漏れ -Unit trouble設備故障 Miss Saito :That's ok. So actually. Thank you for telling me. I wasn't feeling well anyway and was thinking of telling you that I didn't want much treatment done today.

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