This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
| Jan-March 2011 | Vol. 1 | Issue 1 | Available online http://www.ipharmsciencia.com ©2011 IPS
Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review
Plants are a source of large amount of drugs comprising to different groups such as antispasmodics, emetics, anti-cancer, antimicrobials etc. A large number of the plants are claimed to possess the antibiotic properties in the traditional system and are also used extensively by the tribal people worldwide. It is now believed that nature has given the cure of every disease in one way or another. Plants have been known to relieve various diseases in Ayurveda. Therefore, the researchers today are emphasizing on evaluation and characterization of various plants and plant constituents against a number of diseases based on their traditional claims of the plants given in Ayurveda. Extraction of the bioactive plant constituents has always been a challenging task for the researchers. In this present review, an attempt has been made to give an overview of certain extractants and extraction processes with their advantages and disadvantages. Keywords: Medicinal plants, phytochemicals, extraction, solvent, screening.
Prashant Tiwari*, Bimlesh Kumar, Mandeep Kaur, Gurpreet Kaur, Harleen Kaur Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Phagwara, Punjab Date of Submission: 12-01-2011 Date of Acceptance: 22-02-2011 Conflict of interest: Nil Source of support: None
INTRODUCTION Plant-derived substances have recently become of great interest owing to their versatile applications. Medicinal plants are the richest bio-resource of drugs of traditional systems of food medicine, modern folk medicines, nutraceuticals, supplements,
extracts. Such preparations have been popularly called galenicals, named after Galen, the second century Greek physician . Extraction methods used pharmaceutically involves the separation of medicinally active portions of plant tissues from the inactive/inert components by using selective solvents. During extraction, solvents diffuse into the solid plant material and solubilize compounds with similar polarity . The purpose of standardized extraction procedures for crude drugs (medicinal plant parts) is to attain the therapeutically desired portions and to eliminate unwanted material by treatment with a selective solvent known as menstrum. The extract thus obtained, after standardization, may be used as medicinal agent as such in the form of tinctures or fluid extracts or further processed to be incorporated in any dosage form such as tablets and capsules. These products contains complex mixture of many medicinal plant metabolites, such as alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids and lignans . The general techniques of medicinal plant extraction include maceration, infusion, percolation, digestion,
Jan-Mar 2011 Vol 1 Issue 1
medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs . Extraction (as the term is pharmaceutically used) is the separation of medicinally active portions of plant (and animal) tissues using selective solvents through standard procedures. The products so obtained from plants are relatively complex mixtures of metabolites, in liquid or semisolid state or (after removing the solvent) in dry powder form, and are intended for oral or external use. These include classes of preparations known as decoctions, infusions, fluid extracts, tinctures, pilular (semisolid) extracts or powdered
Address for correspondence *Prashant Tiwari (Research Scholar) Department of Pharmaceutical sciences Lovely Professional University, Ludhiana-Jalandhar G.T. Road Phagwara (Punjab), 144402, India *Mob: +919888418518 E.mail: email@example.com 98
Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia
expression and enfl eurage (cold fat extraction) may be employed. protoplast extraction. Fresh or dried plant materials can be used as a source for the extraction of secondary plant components. roots. and phytonic extraction (with hydrofluorocarbon solvents). ease of evaporation at low heat. In most of the reported works. solid phase microextraction. toxicity of the solvent in the bioassay process. promotion of rapid physiologic absorption of the extract. The basic parameters influencing the quality of an extract are : 1. man is able to obtain from them a wondrous assortment of industrial chemicals. seeds. diversity of different compounds extracted. hydrodistillation techniques (water distillation. supercritical fluid extraction. hydrolytic maceration followed by distillation. The systematic screening of plant species with the purpose of discovering new bioactive compounds is a routine activity in many laboratories.) of a plant were used extensively compared with other above ground parts in search for bioactive compounds possessing antimicrobial properties [1. Solvent used for extraction 3. preservative action. ease of subsequent handling of the extracts. thermomicrodistillation and molecular distillation . Since the end product will contain Vol 1 Issue 1 99 immemorial. Many authors had reported about plant extract preparation from the fresh plant tissues. low toxicity. Polarity Plant material Plants are potent of biochemists phytomedicine and have been times components since Successful determination of biologically active compounds from plant material is largely dependent on the type of solvent used in the extraction procedure. Nature of solvent 5. The choice of solvent is influenced by what is intended with the extract. Some of the latest extraction methods for aromatic plants include headspace trapping. bulb etc. The factors affecting the choice of solvent are quantity of phytochemicals to be extracted. diversity of inhibitory compounds extracted. hot continuous extraction (Soxhlet). et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review decoction. Properties of a good solvent in plant extractions includes. Other researchers dry the plants in the oven at about 40°C for 72 h. water and steam distillation). Solvent concentration 6. leaves. Extraction procedure Effect of extracted plant phytochemicals depends on : 1. The logic behind this came from the ethno medicinal use of fresh plant materials among the traditional and tribal people. plants are usually air dried to a constant weight before extraction. Moisture content 5. rhizome.e. Scientific analysis of plant components follows a logical pathway. ultrasound extraction (sonication). etc i. countercurrent extraction. microwave-assisted extraction. tuber. Particle size The variations in different extraction methods that will affect quantity and secondary metabolite composition of an extract depends upon : 1. Plant part used as starting material 2. underground parts (roots. microdistillation. Plants are collected either randomly or by following leads supplied by local healers in geographical areas where the plants are found . 4]. inability to cause the extract to complex or dissociate. Type of extraction 2. fruits. flowers. rate of extraction. Choice of solvents aqueous-alcoholic extraction by fermentation. steam distillation. Degree of processing 4. any part of the plant may contain active components. For aromatic plants. Plant based natural constituents can be derived from any Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia Jan-Mar 2011 . The nature of the plant material 2. Its origin 3. potential health hazard of the extractants . part of the plant like bark.Prashant Tiwari. Time of extraction 3. But as many plants are used in the dry form (or as an aqueous extract) by traditional healers and due to differences in water content within different plant tissues. Temperature 4.
4. Water: Water is universal solvent. they are most often obtained through initial ethanol or methanol extraction .Prashant Tiwari. ethanol was found easier to penetrate the cellular membrane to extract the intracellular ingredients from the plant material . the solvent should be nontoxic and should not interfere with the bioassay. The choice will also depend on the targeted compounds to be extracted [1. Moreover. 3. especially for antimicrobial studies where more phenolic compounds are required to be extracted. Dichloromethanol: It is another solvent used for carrying out the extraction procedures. Additionally. Since nearly all of the identified against components microorganisms from are plants active or aromatic primarily water but plant extracts from organic been consistent antimicrobial activity compared to water extract. 6]. It means that they are more efficient in cell walls and seeds degradation which have unpolar character and cause polyphenols to be released from cells. whereas in methanol and ethanol they are inactive. solvents plant products with antimicrobial healers to give use more Though have traditional found compared to ethanol . Both acetone and methanol were found to extract saponins which have antimicrobial activity . which degrade polyphenols in water extracts. It is specially used for the selective extraction of only terpenoids . 5. water is a better medium for the occurrence of the micro-organisms as 100 saturated organic compounds. but they are more often obtained by treatment with less polar solvents . is miscible with water. A study reported that extraction of tannins and other phenolics was better in aqueous acetone than in aqueous methanol [4. More useful explanation for the decrease in activity of aqueous extract can be ascribed to the enzyme polyphenol oxidase. Ether: Ether is commonly used selectively for the extraction of coumarins and fatty acids . Also water soluble flavonoids (mostly anthocyanins) have no antimicrobial significance and water soluble phenolics only important as antioxidant compound . et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review traces of residual solvent. Methanol is more polar than ethanol but due to its cytotoxic nature. Chloroform: Terpenoid lactones have been obtained by successive extractions of dried barks with hexane. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia Jan-Mar 2011 Vol 1 Issue 1 . 2. Acetone: Acetone dissolves many hydrophilic and lipophilic components from the two plants used. Alcohol: The higher activity of the ethanolic extracts as compared to the aqueous extract can be attributed to the presence of higher amounts of polyphenols as compared to aqueous extracts. By adding water to the pure ethanol up to 30% for preparing ethanol 70% the polarity of solvent was increased . it is unsuitable for extraction in certain kind of studies as it may lead to incorrect results. Occasionally tannins and terpenoids will be found in the aqueous phase. it is a very useful extractant. 4]. The higher concentrations of more bioactive flavonoid compounds were detected with ethanol 70% due to its higher polarity than pure ethanol. The various solvents that are used in the extraction procedures are: 1. chloroform and methanol with activity concentrating in chloroform fraction. is volatile and has a low toxicity to the bioassay used. used to extract activity.
Temperature.OH groups. 18. Cinnamic acid Hypericin Abyssinone Chrysin. 21. Antidiarrhoeal Antimicrobial Antimicrobial Antidiarrhoeal Antimicrobial. two ketone substitutions Phenolic structure. Fabatin Amygdalin Vina-ginsenosides-R5 and -R6 Antimicrobial. phenol ring Aromatic rings. 3. 11. Rutin Totarol Ellagitannin Warfarin Capsaicin Berberine.Prashant Tiwari. Anthelmintic. Antidiarrhoeal Antimicrobial Flavonols Tannins Coumarins Terpenoids and essential oils Alkaloids Lectins and Polypeptides Glycosides Saponins Methods of extraction Variation in extraction methods usually depends upon: 1. 20. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia Jan-Mar 2011 Vol 1 Issue 1 101 . Antidiarrhoeal Antimicrobial Antidiarrhoeal Antidiarrhoeal Antimicrobial Antidiarrhoeal Activities Antimicrobial. 13. C6-C3 unit linked to an aromatic ring Flavones + 3-hydroxyl group Polymeric phenols (Mol. 22] Phytochemicals Phenols and Polyphenols Quinones Flavones Flavonoids Structural features C3 side chain. Earlier studies reported that solvent to sample ratio of 10:1 (v/w) solvent to dry weight ratio has been used as ideal . Tetrahydropalmatine Mannose-specific agglutinin. Anthelmintic. et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review Table 1: Solvents used for active component extraction  Water Anthocyanins Starches Tannins Saponins Terpenoids Polypeptides Lectins Ethanol Tannins Polyphenols Polyacetylenes Flavonol Terpenoids Sterols Alkaloids Methanol Anthocyanins Terpenoids Saponins Tannins Xanthoxyllines Totarol Quassinoids Lactones Flavones Phenones Polyphenols Chloroform Terpenoids Flavonoids Ether Alkaloids Coumarins Fatty acids Acetone Phenol Terpenoids Flavonols Table 2: Structural features and activities of various phytochemicals from plants [10. Particle size of the plant tissues The solvent-to-sample ratio . The basic principle is to grind the plant material (dry or wet) finer. 6. 5. Length of the extraction period. . extensive branching and cyclized Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds Proteins Sugar + non carbohydrate moiety Amphipathic glycosides Example(s) Catechol. Quercetin. 15. pH of the solvent. Piperine. 19. 4. Epicatechin. 500-3000) Phenols made of fused benzene and αpyrone rings Acetate units + fatty acids. Palmatine. Wt. 17. 12. Anthelmintic. 16. one carbonyl group Hydroxylated phenols. Solvent used. 2. which increases the surface area for extraction thereby increasing the rate of extraction. 14.
The advantage of this system is that instead of many portions of warm solvent being passed through the sample. enzyme inhibition. interferes with energy generation by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. d. The filtrate then may be dried under reduced pressure and redissolved in the solvent to determine the concentration. just one batch of solvent is recycled. 15. metabolism Mechanism of action Interaction with eucaryotic DNA Membrane disruption Inhibits release of autocoids and prostaglandins Intercalates into cell wall and DNA of parasites Inhibits release of autocoids and prostaglandins Possess anti-oxidating effects. 17. Maceration: In maceration (for fluid extract). Some researchers however centrifuged the filtrate for clarification of the extract . complex with cell wall. diminishing the support of glucose to the helminthes. This method is best suitable for use in case of the thermolabile drugs . whole or coarsely powdered plantdrug is kept in contact with the solvent in a stoppered container for a defined period with frequent agitation until soluble matter is dissolved.10 min or left for 24 h after which the extract is filtered. 20. Dried or wet. Phytochemicals Quinones Activity Antimicrobial Antimicrobial Antidiarrhoeal Mechanism of action Binds to adhesins. Serial exhaustive extraction: It is another common method of extraction which involves involves successive extraction with solvents of increasing polarity from a non polar (hexane) to a more polar solvent (methanol) to ensure that a wide polarity range of compound could be extracted. metal ion complexation Makes intestinal mucosa more resistant and reduces secretion. and the impurity is insoluble in that solvent. 22. straining and 102 Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia Jan-Mar 2011 Vol 1 Issue 1 . Decoction: this method is used for the extraction of the water soluble and heat stable constituents from crude drug by boiling it in water for 15 minutes. 13. b. This method cannot be used for thermolabile compounds as prolonged heating may lead to degradation of compounds . c. resulting in the suppression of heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea. e. complex with cell wall. If the desired compound has a high solubility in a solvent then a simple filtration can be used to separate the compound from the insoluble substance. astringent action Increases supply of digestible proteins by animals by forming protein complexes in rumen. Soxhlet extraction: Soxhlet extraction is only required where the desired compound has a limited solubility in a solvent. 23]. 16.Prashant Tiwari. Inhibits GI release of acetylcholine Binds to adhesins. 19. 12. forms disulfide bridges Inhibits release of autocoids and prostaglandins Inhibits histamine release in vitro Possesses membrane permeabilizing properties Leads to vacuolization and disintegration of teguments Enhance intestinal absorption of Na+ and water Flavonoids Antimicrobial Antidiarrhoeal Polyphenols and Tannins Anthelmintic Phytochemicals Coumarins Terpenoids and essential oils Activity Antiviral Antimicrobial Antidiarrhoeal Antimicrobial Antidiarrhoeal Alkaloids Lectins and Polypeptides Glycosides Saponins Steroids Anthelmintic Antiviral Antidiarrhoeal Antidiarrhoeal Anticancer Anthelmintic Antidiarrhoeal Extraction procedures a. 21. blocks the binding of B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin to GM1. binds to adhesins Inhibits release of autocoids and prostaglandins. membrane disruption. Stimulates normalization of the deranged water transport across the mucosal cells. This method cannot be used for thermolabile compounds as prolonged heating may lead to degradation of compounds . fresh plant parts are grinded in a blender to fine particles. Inhibits contractions caused by spasmogens. Plant tissue homogenization: Plant tissue homogenization in solvent has been widely used by researchers. suppresses transfer of sucrose from stomach to small intestine. 11. et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review Table 3: Mechanism of action of some phytochemicals [10. cooling.I. causes a decrease in G. 14. 18. stimulates normalization of deranged water transport across the mucosal cells and reduction of the intestinal transit. substrate deprivation. thus reduces nitrate generation which is useful for protein synthesis. acts on CNS causing paralysis Blocks viral fusion or adsorption. inactivates enzymes Complex with cell wall. Some researchers employ soxhlet extraction of dried plant material using organic solvent. put in a certain quantity of solvent and shaken vigorously for 5 .
2. g. this increases the permeability of cell walls and produces cavitation. i. d) Hager’s Test: Filtrates were treated with Hager’s reagent (saturated picric acid solution). A percolator (a narrow. Orange red precipitate indicates the presence of reducing sugars.Prashant Tiwari. The marc is then pressed and the expressed liquid is added to the percolate. Detection of alkaloids: Extracts were dissolved individually in dilute Hydrochloric acid and filtered. Presence of alkaloids confirmed by the formation of yellow coloured precipitate. a) Mayer’s Test: Filtrates were treated with Mayer’s reagent (Potassium Mercuric Iodide). b) Wagner’s Test: Filtrates were treated with Wagner’s Iodide). and the mixture is allowed to macerate in the closed percolator for 24 h. Additional menstrum is added to form a shallow layer above the mass. Formation of red precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids. like extraction of rauwolfi a root. Additional menstrum is added as required. The filtrates were used to test for the presence of carbohydrates. Vol 1 Issue 1 103 . h. Detection of carbohydrates: Extracts were dissolved individually in 5 ml distilled water and filtered. The solid ingredients are moistened with an appropriate menstrum amount and of the to specified stand for allowed its large-scale application is limited due to the higher costs. Sufficient menstrum is added to produce the required volume. Sonication: The procedure involves the use of ultrasound with frequencies ranging from 20 kHz to 2000 kHz. Formation of the violet ring at the junction indicates the presence of Carbohydrates. Although the process is useful in some cases. until the percolate measures about threequarters of the required volume of the finished product. et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review passing sufficient cold water through the drug to produce the required volume . It is used when moderately elevated temperature is not objectionable and the solvent efficiency of the menstrum is increased thereby . 1. after which the mass is packed and the top of the percolator is closed. a) Molisch’s Test: Filtrates were treated with 2 drops of alcoholic α-naphthol solution in a test tube. Phytochemical screening: Phytochemical examinations were carried out for all the extracts as per the standard methods. The outlet of the percolator then is opened and the liquid contained therein is allowed to drip slowly. f. Infusion: It is a dilute solution of the readily soluble components of the crude drugs. Formation of a yellow coloured precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids. cone-shaped vessel open at both ends) is generally used. Digestion: This is a kind of maceration in which gentle heat is applied during the maceration extraction process. c) Dragendroff’s Test: Filtrates were treated with Dragendroff’s reagent (solution of Potassium Bismuth Iodide). b) Benedict’s Test: Filtrates were treated with Benedict’s reagent and heated gently. reagent (Iodine of in Potassium Formation brown/reddish approximately 4 h in a well closed container. One disadvantage of the procedure is the occasional but known deleterious effect of ultrasound energy (more than 20 kHz) on the active constituents of medicinal plants through formation of free radicals and consequently undesirable changes in the drug molecules . and the mixed liquid is clarified by filtration or by standing followed by decanting . Fresh infusions are prepared by macerating the solids for a short period of time with either cold or boiling water . Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia Jan-Mar 2011 precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids. Percolation: This is the procedure used most frequently to extract active ingredients in the preparation of tinctures and fluid extracts.
a) Modified Borntrager’s Test: Extracts were treated with Ferric Chloride solution and immersed in boiling water for about 5 minutes. Formation of yellow colour precipitate indicates the presence of flavonoids. neutralized with alkali and heated with Fehling’s A & B solutions. 1% gelatin solution containing sodium chloride was added. Formation of emerald green colour indicates the presence of diterpenes [25. Conc. HCl. Formation of rose-pink colour in the ammonical layer indicates the presence of anthranol glycosides. Formation of 1 cm layer of foam indicates the presence of saponins. 26. Detection of flavonoids a) Alkaline Reagent Test: Extracts were treated with few drops of sodium hydroxide solution. Detection of proteins and aminoacids a) Xanthoproteic Test: The extracts were treated with few drops of conc. CONCLUSION Non standardized procedures of extraction may lead to the degradation of the phytochemicals present in the plants and may lead to the variations thus leading Jan-Mar 2011 Vol 1 Issue 1 Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia . et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review c) Fehling’s Test: Filtrates were hydrolysed with dil. Formation of intense yellow colour. Formation of white precipitate indicates the presence of tannins. Legal’s Test: Extracts were treated with sodium nitropruside in pyridine and sodium hydroxide. Formation of pink to blood red colour indicates the presence of cardiac glycosides. Detection of tannins Gelatin Test: To the extract. Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of amino acid. 10. b) Ninhydrin Test: To the extract. boiled and cooled. Detection of phytosterols a) Salkowski’s Test: Extracts were treated with chloroform and filtered. and then subjected to test for glycosides. Formation of yellow colour indicates the presence of proteins. Nitric acid.25% w/v ninhydrin reagent was added and boiled for few minutes. The filtrates were treated with few drops of Conc. 0. 5. Detection of diterpenes Copper acetate Test: Extracts were dissolved in water and treated with 3-4 drops of copper acetate solution. The mixture was cooled and extracted with equal volumes of benzene. 7. Formation of red precipitate indicates the presence of reducing sugars. 3. 11. The filtrates were treated with few drops of acetic anhydride. 4. b) Foam Test: 0. which becomes colourless on addition of dilute acid. Detection of saponins a) Froth Test: Extracts were diluted with distilled water to 20ml and this was shaken in a graduated cylinder for 15 minutes.Prashant Tiwari. Detection of phenols Ferric Chloride Test: Extracts were treated with 3-4 drops of ferric chloride solution. If foam produced persists for ten minutes it indicates the presence of saponins. shaken and allowed to stand. 27]. 8. HCl. 6. Sulphuric acid. 9. Sulphuric acid was added. b) Lead acetate Test: Extracts were treated with few drops of lead acetate solution. Appearance of golden yellow colour indicates the presence of triterpenes. Formation of 104 brown ring at the junction indicates the presence of phytosterols. b) Libermann Burchard’s test: Extracts were treated with chloroform and filtered. Formation of bluish black colour indicates the presence of phenols. indicates the presence of flavonoids. Detection of glycosides: Extracts were hydrolysed with dil. The benzene layer was separated and treated with ammonia solution.5 gm of extract was shaken with 2 ml of water.
Rakesh DD. Kumar R. 5. 4(2): 104-111. Liu YT. 171: 305–313. Sharma US. Wondra. 15. Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants. Handa SS. Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant 17. 21st edition. Chanda S. 10. bark. 16. 21-25. Leaves extracts. 14. Prosek M. Sharma UK. Sharma UK. Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2010. International centre for science and high technology. 12. Chamundeeswari D. G. 13. 1-6. 18. Das K. Pharmacognosy Magazine 2007. 7. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends. Fedde against Dactylogyrus intermedius in Carassius auratus. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are thankful to Dr. 2: 127-132. 71: 214–222. International journal of applied biology and pharmaceutical technology 2010. 4(3): 75-79. Parekh J. In-vitro anthelmintic activity of stem bark of Mimusops elengi Linn. Lapornik B. Comparison of different extraction methods for the extraction of major bioactive flavonoid compounds from spearmint (Mentha spicata L. Journal of Food Engineering 2005. Bairwa K. Remington: The science and practice of pharmacy. Ncube NS.) leaves. Cruz Journal ASP. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1998. Sharma RJ. Remington JP. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Murraya koenigii linn. 20. Trieste. Okoh AI. Gopal TK. Food Bioprod Process 2010. Liu XL. 6. A. 12(4): 564-582. Anthelmintic effect of Tamarind indica linn leaves juice exract on Pheretima posthuma. Bimakr M. 8. Mahajan SG. Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends. International Journal of Phytomedicine 2010. 21. Sutar N. Singh PJ. Kumar A. Afolayan AJ. Vidyadhar S. Jiang DX. 3. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the whole plant of Enicostemma littorale by using various extracts. Shaibani TRMA. Dean. 2008. et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review to the lack of reproducibility. 2(2): 1-3. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and anthelmintic activity of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. Han J. African Journal of Biomedical Research 2006. International journal of pharma research and development 2009. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Phagwara (Punjab) for providing necessary facilities and cooperation during this research work. 17: 11021105. 60: 1–8. of Eupatorium odoratum. Patel J. 11. Tiwari RKS. 4. International Journal of Parasitology Research 2010. Sutar N. of Pharmaceutical effect Science of and Technology 2010. Roy RK. Monica Gulati. Anthelmintic Solanum lycocarpum in mice infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera. Clinical microbiology reviews 1999. Longo G. Veterinary Parasitology 2010. Mehta AA. Fumaria Shiekh M. Banji D. 2 (5): 217-221. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Bauhinia variegata L. Khanuja SPS. 9: 53-56. Saidulu M. Pharmacological review on natural antidiarrhoel agents. Lovely Professional University. Zhao LW. Cowan MM. 2(2): 66-93. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Wang GS. Karathia N. 19. Efforts should be made to produce batches with quality as consistent as possible (within the narrowest possible range) and to develop and follow the best extraction processes. Jena PK. In vivo anthelmintic activity of five alkaloids from Macleaya microcarpa (Maxim) Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia Jan-Mar 2011 Vol 1 Issue 1 105 . Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Qureshi MS. African Journal of Biotechnology 2008. Eloff JN. International journal of pharma and bio sciences 2010. Singh A. 2. Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products using different solvents and extraction time. Sharma US. Rao U. Anthelmintic activity parviflora REFERENCES 1. Garai R. The journal of American science 2008. Phytomedicine 2010. 773-774. 7: 1-6. 1(3): 1-4. 9. Der Pharma Chemica 2010.Prashant Tiwari. Phulan of MS. Roy H. Anthelmintic activity of Platycladus orientalis leaves extract. 3(10): 73-76. Shrivastava DK. Kumar GS. 7 (12): 1797-1806. Anthelmintic activity of steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla. Mali RG. 1(3): 1119-1125. Wang GX. Mute VM.
2 (1): 30-32. 22. Int. African journal of pure and applied chemistry 2010. et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review (Fumariaceae) against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Biol. 25. in rats. J. 27. Iqbal I. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2010. Rani SRH. Research in Natural Products 2008. Agashikar NV. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2010. Ejikeme PM. Hydroalcoholic extraction of Mangifera indica (leaves) by Soxhletion. Agric. Nikhal SB. Maniyar Y. 1(3): 20-28. 106 Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia Jan-Mar 2011 Vol 1 Issue 1 . Jabbar J. Int. Obasi NL. Life Science Journal 2007. Phytochemical screening of the leaves of Lophira lanceolata (Ochanaceae). Comparative phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of some solvent extracts of Samanea saman pods. Audu SA. 24. 2009. Narendra C. Dambe PA. Ghongade DB. J. Bachaya HA. Gilani AH Din IU. 4(4): 7579. Mohammed I. Biol.Prashant Tiwari. Egbuonu ACC. 4(9): 206-212. 23. Bhixavatimath activity of P. 2009. 11: 273-278. Antibacterial activity of anti-psoriatic herbs: Cassia tora. 26. Antidiarrheal 1: 287-291. Ukoha PO. In vitro and In vivo anthelmintic activity of Terminalia arjuna bark. Goupale DC. International Journal flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. Dang R. Roopashree TS. Momordica charantia and of Calendula Applied officinalis. Khan MN. Kaita HA. 11: 431–436. Agric.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.