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(Life and Teachings)



By

Bannanje Govindacharya
(Kannada Original)

English version by
Dr.K.Krishnamurthy & Dr.U.P.Upadhyaya







Originally published by
Shri Bannanje Sanmana Samiti, Poorna Prajna Vidyapeetha, Bangalore - 560 028, 1997

Electronic version published by
Tara Prakashana, 3, Sunberry Drive, Penfield, NY 14526
E-mail: info@taraprakashana.org

On Sri Madhva Jayanti, Pramathi samvatsara

All rights reserved by Tara Prakashana
2

Foreword

Acharya Madhva, the 13th century saint and philosopher, incarnated in Parashurama Kshetra (present day
Dakshina Kannada in Karnataka State).

Acharya Madhva propounded in his teachings that there are two realities in the Universe. The first one is called
as Independent reality that is God Himself and the second is the dependent reality comprising of the universe,
matter and souls. Acharya Madhva established 8 maThas called ashTamaThas in Udupi, besides installing Lord
Krishna there, and one maTha outside Udupi, all for the propagation of bhakthi which is the quintessence of
Vedic lore.

Vidyavachaspati Shri Bannanje Govindacharya's name ranks as one of the top most among the contemporary
scholars and exponents of adhyAtma of our country. He had edited the Sarvamula Granthas of Shri
Madhvacharya from the original manuscript of Hrishikesha tirtha, the first disciple of Acharya Madhva. He can
also speak and write with authority and depth on Vedas, Upanishads, Ramayana, Mahabharatha, Bhagavatha,
Bhagavadgeetha and Samskrutha literature. His expressions through words, written and said, carry new
dimensions and inner vision to the people who read and hear him.

Bangalore 29.5.1997

Shri Bannanje Gonvidacharya’s Sixtieth Birthday Felicitation Samiti,
Bangalore.








3
MADHVACHARYA

Vasudeva

Karnataka is a land that has nurtured all religions, which has supported intellectuals and which has given the
world great thinkers and saints.

For instance, let us take the three celebrated Acharyas. Acharya Sankara is from Kerala. But Sringeri, one of the
most important religious centers (maThas) established by him, is situated in Karnataka. Acharya Ramanuja is
from Tamil Nadu. But his favorite place Melukote is in Karnataka. As for Acharya Madhva, he is of course a
glorious son of Karnataka and proud gift of Karnataka to the field of World Philosophy.

In Karnataka, who does not know South Kanara District? And in the district, the taluk of Udupi, and, in that
again, the city of Udupi with the temple of Krishna holding the churning-rod? Belle
1
is a village about eight
kilometers south of Udupi. Close to it is a lovely hamlet called Paje
2
bounded by rocks and hillocks. Acharya
Madhva was born in this unknown hamlet. This inconspicuous village came to be celebrated as a holy place of
pilgrimage by the birth of this Acharya. It gained celebrity as 'Pajaka-Ksetra'.

We should go back 744 years from now. As many as 4338 years have passed since the inception of the Kali-
yuga
3
and the 4339th year is running. Indeed, the Vijayadasami, following Navaratri, in the bright half of the
month Asvayuja in the year Vilambi (1238 CE) is a day of great festivity. On the afternoon of that day, Acharya
Madhva was born in this tiny hamlet of Kamataka
4
. The name given to the child by his father was 'Vasudeva'.

The Acharya's father belonged to the family of Nadillaya
5
. Narayana Panditacharya who wrote a biography of
the Acharya has not recorded the names of the Acharya's parents. But it is believed by some that the father's
name was Nadillaya Narayana Bhatta and the mother's name was Vedavati.


Purnaprajna: Anandatirtha: Madhva
Even from childhood, the religious student Vasudeva had spiritual leanings. He was drawn to the path of
renunciation. Further, he possessed an extraordinary intelligence. While the parents were eager to prepare him
4
to set up a family, Vasudeva went far away from home and family, thinking that the entire universe was his
home. Even as a young boy of eleven years, he chose initiation into the monastic order from Achyuta-prajna, a
reputed ascetic of the time, near Udupi, in the year Saumya (1249 CE).
6
The preceptor Acyuta-prajna
7
gave the
boy Vasudeva the name of 'Pumaprajna' at the time of his initiation into samnyasa.

Only within forty days of his initiation into Sanmyasa, a very remarkable episode occured in Acharya's career.
Expert scholars in Tarka (Logic) of nation-wide fame, such as Vasudeva-pandita, arrived in Udupi in the course
of their search for a competitor who might conquer them in debate. This proud scholar who had sounded his
drum of victory everywhere in the country was defeated by the little monk- Purnaprajna.

Rejoicing at the extraordinary brilliance of the little monk, his preceptor Acyuta-prajna consecrated Purna-
prajna as the head of the empire of Vedanta and conferred on him the title 'Anandatirtha'.

Another time, a Buddhist scholar visited the holy center of Acyuta-prajna. He was accompanied by another
scholar, Vadisimha, who had embraced Buddhism after his defeat by Buddhisagara in a philosophical debate,
though he was originally a follower of Vedic religion.

Purna-prajna silenced both these Buddhist scholars who had traveled all over the country winning certificates of
victory in philosophical debates. The joy of Acyuta-prajna was boundless. The title Ananda-tirtha conferred by
him on Puma-prajna at the time of the latter's consecration function became indeed meaningful.

Thus Puma-prajna is the Acharya's name given to him at the time of Samnyasa. The name conferred on him at
the time of consecration as the Master of Vedanta is 'Ananda- tirtha'. And the favorite nom de plume assumed
by him by choice is the Vedic name 'Madhva". The Acharya gained publicity later on by this favorite name
itself, traceable to the Vedas.

Southern Tour
The Acharya set out on a tour of South India even in his teens. He visited prominent places of pilgrimage like
Anantasayana, Kanyakumari, Ramesvara and Sriranga. Wherever he went, he delivered discourses and
preached the message of his Tattvavada or religious truth to the people. This initiated a new discussion among
scholars all over India. The Acharya refuted in clear terms a few age-old beliefs. He started that spirituality
5
should not be mixed up with superstitions. As a result, there was hot opposition to him from some orthodox
extremists. But the Acharya braved it all with courage, without yielding to any mean threats.

The urge which was deeply surging in the heart of the Acharya for long turned into a firm resolve as a result of
this tour. 'The superstitions in the way of this path of philosophical truth should be wiped out! My whole life
should be dedicated to the spread of ultimate truth.'

The first task accomplished by the Acharya as soon as he returned to Udupi, after adopting this firm resolve,
was the writing of a commentary (bhasya) on the Bhagavadgita.

The Call of Badri
In course of time, the Acharya desired to tour North India and to spread the message of vedic religion far and
wide. The holy center of Badri beckoned him irresistibly. Fired by the wish to visit holy places like Vyasa's
hermitage, the penance-grove of Nara-Narayana etc., and to present his commentary on the Gita as a tribute to
sage Vyasa, the Acharya moved straight to Badri. There he observed a vow of strict silence for 48 days, bathing
in the holy Ganga. And then he set out alone towards Vyasa-Badri, his cherished destination.

After his return from there, the task of writing a commentary on the Bramha-sutras came to be undertaken by
the Acharya. The Acharya never wrote any work of his by hand. It was his practice to dictate continuously to
his disciples who would take them down. His composition of works was as facile as his discourse. A disciple of
the Acharya, Satya-tirtha by name, reduced to writing in palmleaves, what ever was dictated by the Acharya.

In the meantime, the Acharya's influence had spread far and wide throughout the country. Scholars all over
India were stunned by his extra-ordinary genius, never seen or heard of before. The circle of his disciples grew
bigger and bigger. Some ascetics got initiation from him and were admitted into the order of samnyasa.

Once, while returning from Badri, the Acharya was camping en-route in a holy place on the banks of the
Godavari. Here he was accosted by an eminent pundit, Sobhana-bhatta by name. This person was well known in
that region as a peerless scholar. This visit changed the entire career of the man. Seeing the extraordinary
personality of the Acharya, and listening to his wonderful discourses, he was so much overwhelmed that he
became the Acharya's disciple and joined his retinue.
6

Achyuta Prajna's cup of happiness was full on seeing Acharya Madhva back home after his resounding victory
in all parts of the country and on his rich retinue of disciples hailing from different places. Though in the
beginning he too had his own doubts about the Acharya's view of ultimate reality (Tattvavada), now he became
a whole-hearted adherent of the Acharya's new philosophy.

Installation of Krishna - Return to Badri
The Acharya who stayed in the environs of Udupi for some more time wrote his bhasyas or authoritative
commentaries on all the ten Upanisads. He composed glosses on forty hymns of the Rigveda, opening up for the
first time its vista of spiritual significance. He also wrote the treatise Bhagavata-tatparya highlighting the
essential teachings of the Puranas. Many topical handbooks were also authored by him to suit different
occasions. A large number of devotional songs too were composed by him which could be sung by his disciples,
while moving with him in groups.

It was during this period that the Acharya installed the image of Krishna
9
which he found in the western ocean
near the Udupi sea-coast. After sometime, he left some disciples behind for performing Krishna's worship and
undertook his second tour to Badri.

Once the Acharya had to cross the river Ganga. The other bank was under Muslim rule. Although stopped by
the Muslim soldiers on the other side, the Acharya boldly crossed the river and reached the other bank. He was
taken before the Muslim ruler who was filled with wonder by the boldness of the ascetic
10
. The Acharya said: I
worship that Father who illumines the entire universe; and so do you. Are we not both children of that only
God? Why should I fear then either your soldiers or you?'.

Hearing such words for the first time from the mouth of a Hindu monk, the Muslim king was astounded. He was
filled with reverence for this unique monk. He begged the Acharya to stay permanently in his kingdom and
offered gifts of several jagirs. But the Acharya who was free from wordily cravings, rejected the offer and
walked on to Badri, with the monk's staff in his hand.

Once, when his party, was attacked by a band of robbers on the difficult road to the Himalayas The Acharya
made his pupil Upendra-tirtha silence them after a fierce flight. He used to say: ‘One should cultivate strength
7
of body even like strength of mind; it is impossible for a weak body to house a strong mind’. Accordingly he
had made his disciples achieve strength in their body as well as in their Vedantic pursuit.

To the people of that time, the Acharya’s physical strength itself was something miraculous, because his body
was strong and adamant. Even to this day, the huge rock- boulder lifted up and placed in the river Bhadra by the
Acharya, near Kalsa bears witness to his Herculean strength. This incident is confined by the sentence inscribed
on that stone.
11

The Acharya had darshan once again of Lord Narayana and of sage Vyasa. On his return home thereafter, he
wrote the treatise - Mahabharata-tatparya-nirnaya. On his way home, he visited Kashi. There he held a
philosophical debate with an elderly Advaita ascetic, Amarendra Puri. Sri Puri had to go away silently, humbled
by the dazzling genius of the Acharya.

Then came Kuruksetra. Here occurred a strange episode. The Acharya got a mound there excavated and
demonstrated to his disciples the buried mace of (the epic hero) Bhima therein; and once again had it buried
under the ground.

Later on, the Acharya arrived in Goa on his way back to Udupi. With his sweet music there he enthralled the
audience. The Acharya's musical genius also was as unique as his perfect physique and brilliant intellect.
Writers contemporaneous with the Acharya have acclaimed rapturously the Acharya's musical expertise as well
as his rich melody of voice.

Everything Unique
As already stated, Acharya Madhva toured over the length and breadth of India twice. He propounded his phi-
losophy of theism (tattva-vada) before the best scholars of the country. The whole assembly of the learned was
humbled by his brilliant genius.

The Acharya rescued from oblivion several sections of the Vedic literature that had become obsolete by his
time. He also showed the way of synthesizing revelation (sruti) with mythology (Purana). He brought out the
hidden spiritual significance in Vedic literature
12
. He challenged the veracity of twenty one bhasyas or
8
expositions of the Brahmasutras which had been in the field up to his time, and made people subject them to a
reconsideration
13
.

Thus, Acharya Madhva's is a unique personality in Indian history, with a many-sided genius. He was a
matchless scholar in philosophy. He was a unique research explorer in the Veda and the literature on the Veda.
He was a profound specialist in ancillary Vedic branches of study like astronomy, phonetics, ritualism etc. He
was highly accomplished in the science of sculpture. He was the founder-preceptor who gave a form of its own
to Karnataka Music. He was a great composer of musical songs, and an eloquent orator. What is more, he was a
man of strong body with a well-proportioned physique; and yet a bold selfless monk with utter unconcern to all
these extra-ordinary endowments.

Christianity too had spread slightly at the time of the Acharya. Islam had spread already to a remarkable extent
in North India. In Karnataka too, Jainism and Virasaivism had taken deep root along with a plethora of other
religions of India. Against the background of all these religions, the revival of Vedic religion became the
Acharya's primary mission.

In this task of religious revival, the tradition established by the Acharya too was unique. He wrote several works
in Sanskrit devoted to distilling the essence of the sastras or authoritative texts to suit the learned. But those
advanced treatises were hardly within the reach of the masses. Hence the Acharya, who was a great musician
and composer himself, wrote lyrical pieces meant to be sung in lucid Sanskrit. He got musical songs (kirtanas)
composed in Kannada by his disciples and made them popular by arranging them to be recited by bhagavatas or
professional songsters. This Kirthana literature, inaugurated by Naraharitirtha grew sumptuously in the hands of
later preceptors like Sripadaraja, Sri Vyasatirtha and Sri Vadiraja. This tradition of music-composer-monks
continued till Sri Raghavendra Swamin who was a profound musician on the lute (vina). Thus the Vyasa-
pathway grew into the dasa pathway in Kannada. This tradition yielded to the Kannada region such mystic-
saints as Sri Purandaradasa, Kanakadasa, Vijayadasa, Gopaladasa and Jagannathadasa. Even women-mystics
like Helavanakatte Giriyamma illumined this tradition. The original founder of this tradition of expounding the
Vedic message in Kannada was Acharya Madhva; it should not be forgotten that he was the source-head of
inspiration for all these later authors. It is indeed because of this farsighted vision of the Acharya that the holy
Ganga of dasasahitya flowed in the Kannada land and made Kannada literature more glorious than ever.

9
The Acharya's contribution is not limited to what we noted so far. He brought into vogue a new medium of folk-
art in the open-air theatre known as Bhagavatara ata and Dasavatarada ata (show of Ten Incarnations) through
his disciple Narahari-tirtha. This art has continued up to our time developing into an effective medium of folk-
art in the districts of North and South Kanara and had received recognition in India and abroad. This art, in its
turn, gave inspiration for the development of Kucupudi art-form in Andhra.

The many sided genius of the Acharya is indeed amazing. What is even more amazing is the fact that the
Kannada people are entirely unaware of the extensive contribution of this great son of the Kannada soil.

Last Days
After his return home from the second tour, the Acharya took the lead in initiating such social reforms within
the environs of Udupi. Although he was mature in mind and on the other side of sixty by now, he had to face
some opposition in his birthplace itself. A section of orthodoxy opposing his new message was still active.
It was about this time that an Advaita ascetic, Pundarika-Puri by name, came to Udupi seeking a debate with the
Acharya and had to go back in utter discomfiture. Meanwhile, a monk called Padmatirtha arranged for the theft
of the rare library of the Acharya, kept in the custody of one Pejattaya Sankara Pandita in Kasaragodu. The
Acharya be took himself to Kasaragodu and defeated Padma-tirtha in a philosophical debate. The cream of the
Acharya's thesis on that occasion was reduced to writing by the disciples. This itself became a treatise called
Vada (lit 'thesis') or Tattvoddyota. Later on, Jayasimha of Kumble, the king of the Tulu region, invited the
Acharya to his court and honored him by arranging for the return of his stolen library. Pejattaya Trivikrama
Panditacharya, who was the royal preceptor of the time, carried on a long debate with the Acharya for fifteen
days and at last became his disciple, bowing down to the latter's greatness. He then wrote a matchless
commentary called Tattva-dipika on the Acharya's Brahma-sutra- bhasya and thus paid his tribute to the guru.

The Acharya too was equally fond of Trivikrama pandita. It was in answer to the request of this devoted pupil
that the Acharya wrote an extensive commentary in verse, viz, Anu-vyakhyana on the Brahma-sutras. The
Acharya was dictating this work- to four disciples simultaneously, on each of the four chapters, without any
break. At the same time, the composition of the work Nyayavivarana was also completed.

Acharya Madhva completed his four-monthly stay (chaturmasya) at Kasaragodu and returned to Pajaka. There
he initiated his brother into the monastic order, since he was longing for it with a deep sense of detachment.
10
This was Sri Vishnutirtha, the first pontiff of the present day Sodematha and Subramanyamatha. About the
same time, Sobhana-bhatta living on the bank of the Godavari also came to receive initiation into samnyasa
from the Acharya. He became famous later on as Padmanabha-tirtha, the founder of the line of pontiffs in
Desastha-mathas.

Both before and after the initiation of these two, several disciples form various regions of the country got their
initiation into samnyasa from the Acharya. Among them, the names of eight disciples who chose to stay on in
Udupi as pontiffs of different mathas are as under, in the order of their initiation":

1. Hrisikesa-tirtha (Palimaru matha)
2. Narasimha-tirtha (Adamaru-matha)
3. Janardana-tirtha (Krsnapura-matha)
4. Upendra-tirtha (Puttige-matha)
5. Vamana-tirtha (Sirur-matha)
6. Vishnu-tirtha (Sode-matha)
7. Srirama-tirtha (Kaniyuru-matha)
8. Adhoksaja-tirtha (Pejavara-matha)

The other two celebrated samnyasin-disciples of the Acharya are:
9. Padmanabha-tirtha (Desastha-mathas)
10. Narahari-tirthal
15


When Padmanabha-tirtha was initiated into samnyasa is not definitely known. There were several who had got
initiation before him. It appears that he should have been initiated into the order some time between the dates
when these eight pontiffs were initiated into the order.

The Acharya was now seventy. Even at this age, he toured all over the district and engaged himself in educating
the general public. He composed for the benefit of a good natured Brahmin, Eda-Paditaya, in the village Idya
16
,
the literary work "Krsnamrtamaharnava". Then he went on to Ujire and exposed there the spiritual aspect of
ritualism in order to open the eyes of Brahmins who had faith in the ultimacy of rituals. This discourse itself
came to be published later under the title of Khandartha-nimaya (Karmanimaya). Next he visited
11
Panchalingesvara temple at Paranti, which he found in a dilapidated condition, without any worship or festivity.
He made arrangements for the resumption of proper worship there according to the rituals prescribed by the
ancient scriptures (agamas).

The Acharya's life span of 79 years was thus one teeming with activity. When he thought that his life mission
had been served, he put the responsibility of carrying on the tradition of this Tattvavada or philosophical thesis
on the shoulders of his disciples and betook himself to Badri, all alone, without any thought or care. The day on
which he thus proceeded to Badri was the ninth in the bright half of the month Magha in the Kali year 4418
(1317 CE). Even now, the anniversary of the Acharya is celebrated as Madhvanavami on the said day itself
17
. .

Tradition as it has Developed
The disciples of the Acharya, both pontifical and lay, continued this tradition with devout zeal. They nourished
the young plant by supplying it constantly with the waters of their penance and erudition. Hundreds of
dialectical treatises came to be written. Among the writers belonging to this school we may roughly classify
some outstanding ones in the following chronological order: Vishnu-tirtha, Padmanabha-tirtha, Narahari-tirtha,
Trivikrama- panditacharya, Narayana Panditacharya, Vamana- Panditacharya, (Traivikramaryadasa)
18
, Jaya-
tirtha (Tikacharya), Vijayadhvaja-tirtha, Visnudasacharya, Vyasa-tirtha, Vadiraja, Vijayindra-tirtha,
Raghavendra-Swamin, Yadupati-acharya, etc.
The Acharya did not earn any huge establishment or property for his matha. All the property that he left as
legacy to his disciple-pontiffs was just a casket for keeping the gods of daily worship, a staff and a piece of
cloth tied on the sides like a bag to receive alms (jolige). Later, the mathas took better shape as the number of
their devout adherents became more and more. Below is a broad sketch of the Madhva- mathas now existing:
The number of mathas which came into being in Udupi itself, yoked to the responsibility of Krishna-worship is
eight:
1. Palimaru-matha
19

2. Adamaru-matha
3. Krsnapura-matha
12
4. Puttige-matha
5. Sirur-matha
6. Sode-matha
7. Kaniyuru Matha
8. Pejavara Matha

It is a local custom to call the mathas after the names of villages where the original gifted properties of the
matha are situated. Thus the matha which had its property in the village Palimaru is now called Palimaru-matha.
The older name of the Sode-matha was Kumbhasi-matha. Later on, in the time of Vadiraja, when the matha was
established at Sode in North Kanara, it became famous as Sode- matha.

The mathas in Karnataka which were developed respectively by Sri Padmanabha-tirtha, Narahari-tirtha,
Madhav- tirtha and Aksobhya-tirtha are eight:
9. Uttaradi-matha
10. Sosale Vyasaraya-matha
11. Kundapura-Vyasaraya-matha
12. Raghavendra-matha
13. Mulubagilu-matha
14. Majigehalli-matha
15. Kudli-matha
16. Balegaru (Banagara)-matha
13
For the first four mathas the founder-pontiffs are the first four mentioned above, viz, from Padmanabha-tirtha to
Aksobhya-tirtha. A traditional branch of Vyasaraya-matha itself came to be established at Kundapura in the
district of South kanara and came to be termed Kundapura-Vyasaraya- matha.
Another branch of the matha founded by Padmanabha- tirtha became Mulubagilu-matha. Sripadaraja (alias
Srilakshminarayana-tirtha) who was one of the pioneers of dasa-literature and the preceptor of Vyasa-tirtha was
one of the illustrious pontiffs who illumined the tradition of this matha.
Still another branch of Madhava-tirtha established a matha at Majjige-halli which also came to be developed. In
the same way, two branches of Akshobhya-tirtha grew into independent mathas at Kudli and Balegaru.
Apart from these there are four more mathas in the Tulu region:
17. Subramanya-matha
18. Bhandarkeri - matha
19. Bhimana-katte-matha
20. Citrapura-matha
The Subramanya-matha has grown out of Vishnu- tirtha's line itself. It is said that the line of disciples under the
pontiff Acyuta-prajna, who in turn was the guru to initiate the Acharya into samnyasa, branched into two lines-
one at Bhandarkeri and the other at Bhimanakatte. Bhandarkeri is located some 20 Km north of Udupi in
Barakuru. Though Bhimana-katte (Bhima-setumunivranda) is also a matha of Tulu region, its original source-
head is a place called Bhimanakatte on the Tirthahalli-Shimoga road. According to folk-tradition, the
Chitrapura-matha is only a branch of the Pejavara-matha. This matha is situated at Citrapura, some 35 Km.
away from Udupi on the Udupi-Mangalore highway.
Two more mathas of Gauda Sarasvata Brahmanas who illuminated the Madhva school are quite famous:
21. Gokama-Partagali Jivottama-matha
22. Kasi-matha
The original locale of Gokarna-matha is Gokama. Later, pontiffs of this line started a matha in Parta-gali
(Madagaum ... Mathagrama). After one of its celebrated pontiffs, Jivottama-tirtha, the matha also came to be
14
called Jivottama-matha. According to the traditional list of pontiffs in this matha, its founder pontiff is reckoned
as Sri Narayana-tirtha who had his initiation into samnyasa from Sri Ramachandra-tirtha, the tenth pontiff of
palimaru-matha at Udupi.

Though there is a branch-centre of Kasimatha in Kasi, it is originally a matha of the South only. Gauda
Sarasvata Brahmins of the north costal region stretching from Udupi up to Bombay are disciples of Gokama-
matha. The Gauda Sarasvatas from Udupi up to Kanyakumari in the south are disciples of Kasi-matha.

Besides these, two more important Madhva organizations in North India deserve mention here:

23. Madhva-Gaudiya-matha of Bengal

The Madhva-Gaudiya-matha is a Madhva religious center in Bengal. One of its branches existed also in what is
now Bangladesh. A temple of Acharya Madhva also existed there. The International Hare Krishna pantha is an
outgrowth of this.

Acharyas's Works
The Acharya has written four works on the Sutraprasthana (the Vedantic school of Brahmansutra);
1. Brahmasutra-bhasya
2. Sarva-sastratha-sangraha (Anubhasya)
3. Brahmasutra-anuvyakhyana
4. Brahmasutra-anuvyakhyana-vivarana
Two works are on the Gita-prasthana (Vedantic school of the Bhagavadgita) :
5. Bhagavadgita-bhasya
6. Bhagavadgita-tatparya-nimaya
In the Upanishad-prasthana (the Vedantic school of ti Upanisads), the Acharya has written bhasyas or
authoritative commentaries on all the major Upanisads. But there is notable uniqueness in respect of these also.
While all the other have commented only on three chapters of the Aitareya Upanishad, the Acharya's bhasya
covers the entire Upanishad-kanda (of 9 chapters) of the Aitareya Aranyaka :
7. Mahaitareyopanishad-bhasya
8. Brhadaranyakopanishad-bhasya
15
9. Chandogopanishad-bhasya
10. Taittiriyopanishad-bhasya
11. Talavakaropanishad-bhasya (Kenopanishad-bhasya)
12 Kathakopanishad-bhasya
13.Atharvanopanishad-bhasya (Mundakopanishad-bhasya)
14.Satprasnopanishad-bhasya
15 Yajniya-mantropanishad-bhasya (Isavasyaopanishad-bhasya)
16.Mandukyopanishad-bhasya

The verses occurring in the middle of the Mandukyopanishat are mistakenly held to be Gaudapada's karikas.
But Acharya Ramanuja has accepted that these form original portions of the Upanisat itself. But Madhva has re-
jected the old wrong notion once for all by writing bhasya on these verses also. In this connection it is
noteworthy how senior Advaita scholars too like Brahmananda accept that these are original Upanisadic
verses
20
.
The Acharya not only blazed a new pathway of spiritual interpretation of the Veda, by writing a commentary on
40 hymns of the Rig veda, but also showed the way leading to a synthesis of Samhita, Brahmana and Aranyaka
texts by commenting upon some chapters of the Aitreya Brahmana and the Mahanan-ini-khanda of the same
Aranyaka. These works are:
17. Rg-bhasya
18. Khandartha-nirnaya (Karma-nirnaya)
So also, there are three works of his that lay bare the heart of the Mahabharata and the Bhagavata in a bid to
synthesize the teachings of Itihasas and Puranas:
19. Mahabharata-tatparya-nimaya
20. Mahabharata-tatparya (Yamaka-bharata)
21. Bhagavata-tatparya-nimaya
Nine topical treatises are concerned with determining epistemology and ontology:
22..Vishnu-tattva-nirnaya
16
23. Vada (tattvoddyota)
24. Mayavada-dusana (mayavada-khandana)
25. Upadhi-dusana (Upadhi-khandana Tattva-prakasika)
26. Mithyatvanumana-dusana (Mithyat-vanuniana-khandana)
27. Tattva-samkhyana
28. Tattva-viveka
29. Pramana-laksana
30. Vada-laksana (katha-taksana)

Seven works offer guidance regarding performance of ceremonials and rituals as laid down in law-books,
regarding building architecture, mantra and tantra and duties and practices of householders and mendicants:

31. Krisnamrta-maharnava
32. Tantra-sara-sangraha
33. Sadacara-smrti
34. Jayanti-nirnaya
35. Om-Tat-Sat-Pranava-kalpa (Yati-pranavakalpa)
36. Nyasa-paddhati
37. Tithi-nimaya

In the field of devotional literature, there are two works of his; one is a stotra or hymn of praise; the other is an
anthology of compositions set to music and meant to be sung:

38. Narasimha-nakhastuti
39. Dvadasa-stotras

17
Further, there is a work which the Acharya is said to have composed in his boyhood while playing with the ball,
it is a small work in a unique meter:

40. Kanduka-stuti

Of these, 38 had been published formerly. Two, viz. Nyasapaddhati, that explains the daily routine duties of
mendicants, and Tithinirnaya, that is a unique work on mathematics indicating precise formulae for the
determination of each date's extent, are works which were first noticed by me in the course of my research in
Palm-leaf Manuscripts some years ago.

The Essence of Madhva’s Philosophy: Tattvavada: Dvaita
Acharya Madhva's line of thought gave a new turn to the tradition of Indian Philosophy. This has been called by
the name 'Tatvavada' in ancient works
21
. In later times, when the un-philosophical trend emphasizing only
conflict became prominent for recognizing Vedic schools of thought only in terms of Dvaita-Advaita etc., this
came to be called the 'Dvaitamata' or 'dualistic school'. But from the standpoint of True Vedic tradition, this is
not a name that can be fully justified
In the philosophical system of the Acharya, tattvas or categories of reality are primarily two: svatantra-tattva
and asvatantra-tattva (i.e. Independent reality and dependent reality). God who creates the universe is the
Independent reality; the entire universe created by him is the dependent reality.
Lord Narayana alone is the Supreme Independent God-head. The entire Veda hymns only His praise by various
epithets such as Agni, Indra and Varuna. Monotheism alone is thus the quintessence of Vedic literature and not
polytheism.
All names (of God) are only epithets; God is the Ocean of all qualities or excellence. Hence any name is good
enough to invoke God. All names designate only God. Not only Vedic words, not only Sanskrit names,
whatever the word may be, in any language wherever in the world, every name will designate Him alike. For,
there is no sound or word, in any language of the world, which is not essentially a name of God.
18
Though God is one, divinities are many. These divinities are not God: they are only souls that have realized
God and risen to a high state by acquiring siddhi or divine power. These siddhas or realized adepts can serve as
gurus to guide the jiva or soul who is still a sadhaka or religious seeker.

If God is 'bimba' or the original substrate, jivas or souls are His pratibimbas or images. The image is always
dependent on the original substrate; it can never become identical with it. One original substrate can have many
images. Even so the souls can be many. Each soul has its own distinct individuality, different from another. So
many souls, as many varieties. Along with all these differential gradations, these souls are all entwined in the
single thread of similarity to God in their knowledge-aspect.

Just as souls, the inanimate substances too that go into the creative apparatus of the universe are innumerable.
Thus the soul (jiva), who is at the center in the triple categories of God-soul inanimate world, becomes involved
in the meshes of samsara or bondage when he leans towards one side; becomes liberated if he leans to the other
side.

There is one important point to be noted here. Mukti or liberation does not mean any cessation of the World
itself It is not any disappearance of a World falsely held as real. Liberation means release from the bondage of
the world. The world, does exist even after release; but there is no bondage. Earlier, the soul being unaware of
its power of self-conscious- ness, was ignorant of the original substrate, (viz. God); and had become a tool in
the hands of the inconscient, searching in vain for the original. But now (in release) he has conquered
inconscient Nature; for he has now become conscious of God, who is his original and also the First Cause of the
entire universe.

The inconscient world is five-faceted; five elements, five elemental essences, five sheaths, five sense-organs
etc. That is why it is designated as "pra-panca" or a 'perfect pentad'. In this pentad intermixed in a five fold
manner, the principle of prana or life is also a five-fold entity of prana, apana, vyana, udana and samana.
Moreover, it is being controlled all the time by God who also assumes five forms, viz: Anirudha, Pradyumna,
Samkarasana, Vasudeva and Narayana.
Thus one might distinguish a five-fold difference too in this world; difference between one inconscient and
another inconscient; difference between inconscient and the soul; difference between the inconscient and God;
19
difference between one soul and another; difference between soul and God. This difference is neither temporary
nor merely practical; it is an invariable and natural property of everything . For such is the law of nature: One is
not two; two is not one.
The Acharya effected a synthesis and integration between several self-contradictory notions which had
accumulated by his time regarding God, devotion and the universe. We might refer here to some of the
important ones among them:
God is both endowed with forms and is formless; both qualified and unqualified. He is endowed with forms
becuase He has a body of knowledge and Bliss. He is formless because he has no body within, the reach of our
finite thought. He is qualified because He possesses in perfection all good or auspicious attributes. He is
unqualified also because He is devoid of all material adjuncts. When viewed from the right standpoint, it will be
realized that all modes of utterance express varied aspects of the only truth. The Vedic literature will not open
out its secrets to one who is not having this synthetic vision.

The World is not a magic show improvised by any magician. It is ultimately true. From another standpoint, it is
untrue also. But then the word ‘untrue’ does not mean ‘false,’it means 'dependent reality'. It’s truth is restrained
by God; hence it is untrue.

Similarly, there is no truth in the objection that the Vedic religion is tainted with iconolatry or image-worship.
For, it does not worship icons; it worships only God symbolized by the icons. Is not the all-existent God
existing in the icon?

Among other significant contributions of the Acharya's Tattvavada, vyakti-visistavada or unique individuality
of every soul and svabhavada or theory of unalterable natural law governing humanity deserves notice. The
following is a summary statement of it:

There is no object like another. There is no person or jiva like another. No man's nature is like that of another.
Underlying everything and every individual person, there is a unique individuality or speciality
23
. The all-round
and complete development of this special personality is indeed the goal of human life. Human life of bondage
(samsara) is none other than a practical workshop that helps the individual soul to attain the perfect
20
development of his personality in dependence upon God. Mukti or release is only a state of perfection or
enjoying the bliss of such a perfect development of one's own personality.

Each one's attainment is commensurate with one's effort. Our development is in keeping with our personality.
The sea is full; the tank is full; even water-pots may be full of (of water). But that fullness is not identical in all
these. The volume varies according to the variation in size. Everything is full; yet it is full of variation also.

There are no two things in this creation which are identical. Even two leaves of the same tree are not exactly
identical. Hence the idea that all become one or all become identical ultimately, is only a sugar-coated sop. It is
an idea opposed to scriptures. It is an idea going against the very law of Nature.

The development of an individual takes place strictly in accordance with his inner nature. The environmental
factors only help manifest what is already rooted in one's inner nature. Thus inner nature is the spontaneous way
of life for a Jiva. It is an innate characteristic rooted firmly in the jiva from time immemorial. No amount of
effort can alter its course. A sattvika or pure-hearted man cannot become a tamasa or evil minded one. Nor can
a tamasa turn into a sattvika. One's attainment of perfection is nothing but a complete manifestation of one's
unique individual nature.

The idea of chaturvarnya or "four colors" in the Gita vindicates this view only. The Gita idea of "four colors" is
quite distinct from the idea of "four castes" prevalent today. It is an idea that relates only to the soul's inmost
nature or personality-trait. The true color of the soul needs to be discovered. That indeed is a right social order.
In such a social order, the son of a low-born (sudra) may be a nobleman (brahmana); on the contrary, a
bramana's son may also be a sudra. For, varna of 'color' is not something which is transmitted hereditarily; it is
something quite personal; something which is determined by the individual's own personality traits
24
.

Only one who knows God can know the secret of the universe. It is impossible to know the universe completely
by scientific research into matter. Hence one should know God Himself. It is only by knowing the root that one
can tackle a tree. This indeed is the pathway of knowledge (Jnanayoga). The principle that unites the soul to
God like a thread is called prana-tattva or the "vital principle". It is the one principle that embodies all souls and
is also termed "jivottama-tattva" or the "principle of perfect jiva-hood". The Acharya says about himself that it
21
is an aspect of this supreme principle that incarnated itself in human form as Madhva in order to lay bare the
Supreme Truth.

The pathway of Jnana-yoga or knowledge supreme is not opposed to Karma or action. The very dichotomy that
the pathway of action is for the ignorant, while that of knowledge is for the adept, is absurd. Knowledge without
action is an impractical intellectual exercise. Action without knowledge is but blind orthodoxy. Knowledge is
necessary; knowledge-full action too is necessary. At the same time, an understanding of God's infinite glory is
equally necessary. Having understood God's greatness, it is necessary to love him devotedly. The world also
deserves to be lived, since the wonderful universe is just His creation in sport (lila)". Denying the world is as
good as denying God's own infinite greatness. We should all dedicate ourselves to our duty in the following
spirit: "We are all subjects in the kingdom of God; rendering assistance to those who are in distress is the tax we
owe to God Himself, our king"". Such an integral synthesis of the pathways of knowledge, action and devotion
becomes a perfect pathway for one's life.

The physical eye is not enough for the development of knowledge. The inner eye has to be opened; one has to
turn inward. There are only two ways in which that goal can be realized; one is direct personal experience; and
the other is the word of wisdom bequeathed to us by sages who were "seers" of the Veda. Their word is a torch
to illumine our way. In the light of that torch and along that way alone we should walk on and discover Truth.
Thus when both the word of scripture and our own immediate experience coincide, it becomes the highest
criterion confirming our conviction. In order to achieve it, a continuous process of hearing, cogitating and
realization of the scriptures is called for.
Not even scriptural statement is to be accepted if it is against one's own conscience. An awakened conscience
can discover the integral unity underlying all Vedic statements. It is in order to demonstrate this synthetic
essence of the Vedas that the Brahmasutras, Bharata, Pancaratra and Puranas have been written. These alone are
primary authorities. Texts of smrti (moral code), written by sages like Manu, are acceptable as authorities only
when they are in conformity with the essential message of the Veda. They are not at all ultimate authorities.
Another means of valid knowledge besides perception and scripture is interference or reasoning. Although it is
an instrument of valid knowledge, it is not an independent instrument. Hence it is spoken of only as "anu-mana"
( ... anuusari pramana) or 'ancillary instrument of knowledge'; it can be developed only as a supplementary
instrument to the other two, i.e., perception and scripture. It is important to note that in supra-sensory matters,
22
nothing can be established by inference or reasoning independently. For, anything one desires can be
established by reasoning. Those who do not possess this awareness can establish nothing by the strength of their
reasoning.
Therefore in regard to supra-sensory facts and especially, in regard to God, there is no use in one's surrendering
oneself to reasoning. One should surrender oneself only to God. One should surrender oneself to the voice of
hoary sages and wise men who realized God; that is to say, to the Vedic words. One should know through word
of sages, and having known, one should experience it; having experienced, one should see; having seen, one
should succeed; having succeeded, one should gain.

And for that, one should surrender oneself to God; one should know through surrender; and knowing, one
should again surrender. This awareness is the key to bliss. This is broadly the sum and substance of the
Acharya's spiritual viewpoint. .

The Acharya has discovered several unique facts about the physical world, the order of creation and the basic
principles that govern creation. Some of them may be mentioned here:

1. The material ethereal sky that is one of the five elements filling this universe is that which suffers destruction
along with the universe. It is permeated by a super blue color, beyond the reach of the bare eye. But there is
another sky that fully pervades the universe, within and without; which transcends the universe and is eternal. It
is called ‘auyakarta-akasa’ or ‘undifferentiated space’
27
.

2. The atoms which are the micro-elements of physical matter are not at all ultimate and indivisible entities. In
every atom too there are innumerable subtle particles
28
.

3. There is life movement in plants, herbs and creepers too. That vegetation-life too can respond to the actions
of man. There are plants that thrill to the melody of music and yield sprouts, flowers and fruits
29
.

4. No matter is completely destroyed. Destruction is another name for only a change in form. We say that the
body is destroyed. But really speaking, the body is not destroyed, it has become ashes; that is all. Thus existence
and non-existence are two sides of the same coin
30
.
23
5. From the microcosm to the macrocosm, the entire universe is completely interfused. To understand any one
thing completely, a complete knowledge of the entire universe becomes necessary. By knowing one, all can be
known. One who does not know all, does not know even one
31
.
6. Enclosed within the fifteen fences of name, lordship, thought, speech, action, strength, food, mind, sense
organ, earth, water, fire, air, sky and faith, the sixteenth jiva- kala or soul's particle lies hidden. When these
fifteen inconscient fences are broken, the soul gets self-awareness. This is called self-realization. To one who
has attained self-realization, the way beyond to God-realization becomes easy
32
. First, the realization is of the
‘I’ principle. Next comes the realization of the ‘He’ principle. This is the secret of the realization of “So’ham”
(I:HE), the Ultimate Truth. One who is unaware of his own self, or one who mistakes such awareness of self
itself as ultimate realization, can never progress in the pathway of God- realization.
On the whole, Acharya Madhva's life-message is this:
Kuru bhumksva ca karma nijam niyatam
Hari-pada-vinamra-dhiya satatam
Harireva paro Harireva gurur-
Harirevajagat-pitr-matr-gatih
(Dvadasa-stotra)
(Do thy duty alloted by God to These
And eat what comes to thy share!
Hari is God Supreme, Hari the 'Teacher great,
Father and Mother too is Hari, beware!)

tadalam bahu-loka-vicintanaya
Pravanam-kuru-manasa misa pade

(Stop then thy worldy cares endless,
Pin thy mind at the Lord's feet boundless!)




24
NOTES

1. In the local language Tulu this village is known as Bolle. The eastern and western portions of this village are
called Mudu Belle and Padu Belle respectively in Kannada. There is a small stream in between the two portions.
Sri Madhvacharya was born in the western portion of the Belle village.

2. Paje-Paade means rock in Tulu. This is a suitable name for the place surrounded by the slopes of rocks and
thus presenting a lovely view. Unfortunately the present day contractors are indiscriminately breaking the rocks
spoiling thereby the historic beauty and serenity. A new organization by name Pajaka Foundation is striving
hard to protect the village and to rejuvenate its hoary past and culture. There is a unique temple of Parashrama
on a rock in front of the house where Sri Madhvacharya was born. Just by the side of it there is a hillock known
as Kunjargiri, with a shrine of Goddess Durga on the top. In ancient works this hillock is recorded as Vimana
Giri. (Madhva Vijaya 2-1 1). Beyond the hillock is the border of the Belle village. As soon as we cross the
border we step into the area known as Paaje Halli. The Sankritized form of this name is Paajaka and hence the
place came to be designated as Paajaka Kshetra.

3. Anu Madhvacarita records this in clear terms
trisataabdoottara catuh sahasraabdheebhya uttaree
eekoona catvaarimsaabdee vilambi samvatsaree
asviina sukladasamii divasee bhuvipaavanee
paajakaakhyee sucikseetree durgayaa- caabhiviiksitee
jaatoo madhyaahnaveelaayaam budhavaaree
maruttanuh (anu.ma.ca.2.4)
According to this Madhvacharya was bom in 4339 kali Era (1238 A.D.) Sri Acharya himself has revealed his
time of birth in his Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya thus:
catuh sahasree trisatoottaree gatee
samvatsaraanaam tu kalau prithivyaam
jaatah punarvipratanuh sa bhiimah
daityairniguudham haritatvamadha
(ma.bhaa.taa.ni. 32.120)
25
Some scholars infer this statement that 4300 kati Era (1199 A.D.) is the year of his birth. In fact Sri Acharya has
simply said here that he was born after the kali Era 4300. This only indicates the round figure, and not the figure
39 after the beginning of the century. The statement does not answer the question as to which exactly is the year
after 4300 Kati Era. Another work Anu Madhavacarita answers this in exact terms by metioning the year 39.
Another statement of Sri Acharya lends support to this:
bhuusrii bhinnaaki einyoonaat kalyahaat kaalavardhitaat
garudadhyeeya vaakyaaptam tyoktvaa
sauram vrthaapalam (tithi airnaya.2)
This stanza explains the method to be employed while making astronomical calculations about the dates and
times. The Acharya records here the year of his composing the Work. The Calculations are as follows:

(bhuusriibhinnaaki cintya / garudadhyeeya) X kaala

The corresponding numbres are (1610424/11323)X31 = 4409.
Accordingly Sri Acharya wrote the work in 4409 Kali Era. If 4300 is the year of his birth, we have to presume
that he wrote it in his 109th year. But it is historically known that he lived only for 79 years.

eekoonaasiiti varsaani bhuutvaa maanusadrtigah
maagha suddha navamyaam badariim yayau
(anu.ma.ca. 10)

Hence it is more appropriate to believe that he was born in 4339 kali Era. Sri Narahari Tirtha's Sri Kurma In-
scription (Epigraphia Indica Vol. vi-25) seems to support this view. As per that inscription Sri Acharya was 70
years when he wrote Tithi Nirnaya.

4339+70 = 4409 i.e 1308 A.D.

Madhvacharya's date of birth is also recorded in certain kaiftyats of the Mathas and other works. Since they do
not tally with one another none of them can be taken as authoritative statements. Great scholars like
26
Manjeshwara Govinda Pai and C.M. Padmanabhacharya have accepted 4339 Kali Era as the year of Sri
Madhvacharya's birth.
4339 is a unique number. The sum total of these numbers is 10. (4+3+3+9=19=1+9 = 10) The sum total of the
cubes of these numbers is also 10. If we go on adding the cubes of cubes also we get three numbers 847,919 and
1459. Even if we go on adding like this the sums will confine to these three numbers. The sum total of these
three figures is also ten. The number thus indicates the praana tatva and the secret of avataara traya.
bhaktirjnaanam sa vairaagyam prajnaa
meedhaa dhrtih sthith yooga praanoo balam caiva vrkoodara iti
smrtah ee,kad dasaatmakoo vaayuh
(ma.bha.taa.ni 2.134.5)
4. There is controversy about the date and month of his birth also. Some records proclaim vijayadasami, day in
asvin month and other record maagha suddha saptami. It is difficult to come to any conclusion until we come
across a reliable evidence. But oral traditions speak of vijayadasami as the birthday of Sri. Acharya. The
almanacs also record vijayadasami as the birthday of Sri Madhvacharya. Hence the evidence found in Anu
Madhva charita seems to be more reliable. Regarding the name of the day also one can observe that
vijayadasami does not fall on Wednesday as observed by the author of Anu Madhvacarita, but on Monday.

5. Nadillaya is a Tulu word meaning a man of middle house. This is sometimes wrongly recorded as
nadyantillaya. The Sanskritized form of this word is Madhyageha Bhatta.

6. bhuusureendroopaniitooyastata
eekaadasaabdakee saumyeejagraaha bhagavaam
sturiyaasramamaThaamam (anu.ma.ca.5)

7. Some modem writers have wrongly recorded this name as Acyuta Preksa. A stanza of madhva Vijaya is
responsible for this misconception.

na naamamaatraacchucimarthatoopi yam
27
janoocyuta preeksamudaaharat sphutam
(ma.vi.4,6)

But in the commentary on this stanza Vedangatirtha writes like this ‘achyuta preeksam acyutaprajna
naamaanamityarthah’. Evidently Narayana Pandita, the author of Madhvavijaya used the word Achyutapreksa
to indicate that the people used to respect this saint as if he had the vision of Lord Acyuta. This kind of change
of epithets is noticed elsewhere also.

Instead of the name Purnaprajna the author of Madhva Vijaya ernploys the epithet, Purnabodha also (Madhva
Vijaya 4.33).

Moreover, Narayana pandita himself wrote a commentary Bhava Prakashika to Madhva vijaya. He explains the
word this way. ‘Acynta preeksah preeksaa prajnaa pratibheeti’. In another place he explains it in clear terms as
‘acyutee aatmaa buddhih prajnaa asyeeti acyutaatmaa acyuta prajnah’.

Another stanza in the guruparampara tradition also confirms this.

vamsasyaadiin sanakaadiinupaasee
duurvaasam paratirthaakhya bhiksum
satyaprajnam praajnatirtham ca pascaal
pascaacchisyaanacyutaprajna madhvau

Even among the earlier saints the word prajnaa was in vogue, Satyaprajna is an example. The name of
Madhvacharya is also Purna prajna, hence it is quite appropriate to believe that the original name of the saint
was Acyuta prajna.

8. Yadiimanupradivoo madhava aadhavee
guhaasantam maatarisvaamathaayati
(rg veda 1.141.3)

28
9. The popular legend now current among the devotees is as follows. A cargo ship loaded at Dwaraka was
proceeding towards the South. When the ship was passing through Malpe there arose a big tempest and the
captain cried out for help. Sri Acharya, engaged in meditation at the sea- shore heard this and waved his bark
garment towards him. The tempest subsided. The captain sailed in the direction of the garment that was waved
towards him and saluted the saint and requested him to accept any commodity that he desires from the ship as a
mark of his gratitude. The Acharya did not accept any money or gold but took out only a lump of gopi mud. A
lovely idol of Krishna found inside the lump of mud was later on established at Udupi.

The source of this legend is not known. No ancient work supports this legend. It must be of recent origin. The
19th pontiff of Sri Palimar Matha (18th century) Sri Raghuvarya Tirtha gives a different version of the story in
his commentary on Anu Madhva Vijaya.

dvaarakaayaam rugminiivanaakhya pradeesee
goopiicandana madhyee lagnaam goopiicandana
buddhyaa saam yaatrik-airaaniitaam ruupyapiitha-
sampiipeeplavee bhinneejaladhau magnaam
sriikrisnapratimaa maaniiyee ........ mathee pratisthaapayaamaasa.

According to this statement the ship carrying the idol of Krishna from Dwaraka wrecked at the sea near Udupi.
Sri Acharya took it out from the bottom of the sea and established it in Udupi. This legend seems to be more
ancient and trustworthy. We can consider this as authentic record since it was written by a traditional pontiff.
The popular story of the tempest, like that of Krishna's image turning towards the west for Kanakadasa, must be
a later invention by the local sthala purana writers.

10. Precious little is known about this Muslim ruler. Some believe that he must be Balban. But considering the
fact that this is an incident that had occured during the oidage of the Acharya this must have occured during the
reign of Jalal uddin Chilji (1 290-97 A.D.) Or Alla uddin Khilji (1 296 - 1316 A.D.).

11. On the rock a beautiful status of the Acharya with a stick danda in hand is sculptured with the following
inscription carved below.

29
srii madhvaacaaryaiah eekahasteena aaniiya sthaapitaa silla.

12. Kapali Sastri, a disciple of Sri Aurobindo in his Rg Veda Bhashya Bhumika writes about the commentary
on Rg Veda by the Acharya thus:
veedaanaamadhyaatma parataa naastiiti koo naama bruutee madhvabhaasyeesu.jaagratsu.

13. The ancient texts mention these 21 commentators :1. Bharati Vijaya, 2. Sachidananda, 3. Brahma Ghosha,
4. Shataranda, 5. Udvarta, 6. Vijaya, 7. Rudra Bhatta, 8. Vamana, 9. Bhartr Prapancha, 10. Dravidacharya,
11. Brahma Datta. 12. Pishacha, 13. Vrttikara, 14. Vijaya Bhatta, 15. Vishnukranta, 16. Vadindra, 17. Madhva
Dasa, 18. Shankara, 19. Bhaskara, 20. Yadava Praksha, 21. Ramanuja.

Among the Bhasya (commentaries) of the above mentioned philosophers, only those of Shankara, Bhaskara
Yadava Prakasha and Ramanuja are available now.

14. One stanza of Guruparampara mentions the names of the saints thus:

vandee hriikeesamathoo nrsimham
janaardanam cintaya dhiirupeendram
srii vaamanam samsmara visnumeemi
sriiraamamanceehamadhooksajam ca

15. If we convert the letter of the names of the ten disciples into the numbers according to the ka-ta-pa-ya sys-
tem of numeration and go on adding the cubes we get only three figures: 153, 370 and 371. These three are
unique figures in their own way: the sum total of their cubes is also the same number.
1
3
+5
3
+3
3
= 153, etc.

16. Vishvapathi Tirtha, the commentator of Madhva Vijaya calls this place Kokkada. But Vedanga Tirtha the
ancient commentator and Raghuvarya Tirtha, the commentator of Anu Madhva Vijaya record this as idya.

17. The figures of the year of his initiation and departure to Badri are also interesting just like the figures
derived from the letter of the names of his disciples. Sri Acharya was initiated in the year 4350 Kali Era, which
30
gives the figure 153 when the cubes of individual numbers are added. His departure to Badri was in the year
4418 which again gives the figure 3 7 1.

18. He is the son of Pejattaya narayana Panditacharya. Till recently his works were not discovered. The author
of the present book edited and published his commentary on Acharya's Anubhashya. The present author has
with him the manuscripts of another six commentaries on Upanishats yet to be published.

19. These mathas are grouped into four pairs. If the swamiji of one matha expires without initiating his
successor it is the responsibility of the swamiji of the other matha of the pair to initiate the successor.

20. Brahmanada Saraswathi in his commentary Gurachandrika on Madhusudana Sarswathi's Advaita Siddhi
makes a significant statement.
maanduukoopanisad vyaakhyaaruupa gaudapaadaacaarya grantjastha prathama prakaranookta slookeebhyah
srutitveena vaidika prasiddheebhyah. (Oriental Library publication, Mysore 1937. Vol.11 page 291).
Also note a sentence of Advaita Siddhi in the page number 251 in the same volume.
anaadi maayayaa suptoo yadaa jiivah prabudhyatee ityaadi srutisu.
It is clear from this that Madhusudhana Saraswathi also accepts the karikas of Manduka as sruti vaakya.

21. Sri Vadiraja in his Yukti Malika refers to Acharya's siddhaanta as tatvavaada.
Pareeca tatvaadee asmin gariiyastii bharoo mama.
It is worth mentioning here that the Bhagavata commentators of Bengal, the followers of Chaitanya refer to
Madhvacharya as the preceptor of tatvavaada.

22. The words advaita and dvaita in addition to indicating the meaning of abheeda and bheeda have the
connotation of yathaarthajnaana and ayahaarthajnaana also. Hence the word dvaita may sometime create
confusion.

23. bhinnaasea bhinna dharmaascapadaarthaa nikhilaa api (Anu Vyakhyana 2.2.6.).

24. svabhavikoo braahmanaadih samaadyaireeva bhidyatee. yoonibheedakrtoo bheedoojneeya
caupaadhikastvayam. (Gita Tatparya. 4-13.)
31
25. bahu citrajaged bahudhaakaranaat para sakiranantagunah paramah (Dwadasha Stotra.)

26. naanaajanasya susruusaakarmaakhyaakaravanmiteeh, (Gita Tatparya. 6.3.)

27. bhuutamapyasitam divyadrstigoocarameevatu,
utpadyatee avyaakrtam hi gaganam saaksigoocaram.
(Anu Vyakhyana 2.3)

28. mahattvaanutvayoornaiva visraantirupalabhyatee. (Anu Vyakhyana 2.3.6)

29. giitaat puspaphalaavaaptih sparsaat kaarsyam rasaar sthitih (Anu Vyakhyana 2.2.10)
30. sarvee bhaavaa abhaavaasea padaarthaasteena sarvadaa
astyabhaavoostica dhvamsoo deehaabhaavasea bhasmataa. (Anu Vyakhyana 2.2.6 )

31. eekam ea tatvatoojnaatum vinaa sarvajnataam narah na samarthoo macheendroopi tasmaat
sarvatrajqnaseet (Gita Bhashya. 4.9 )

32. samyak samaahitaanaam tu praptaanaam soodasiim kalaam
aparooksadrsaam kvaapi turiiyam drsyateepadam. (Manduka Bhasya )

Foreword
Acharya Madhva, the 13th century saint and philosopher, incarnated in Parashurama Kshetra (present day Dakshina Kannada in Karnataka State). Acharya Madhva propounded in his teachings that there are two realities in the Universe. The first one is called as Independent reality that is God Himself and the second is the dependent reality comprising of the universe, matter and souls. Acharya Madhva established 8 maThas called ashTamaThas in Udupi, besides installing Lord Krishna there, and one maTha outside Udupi, all for the propagation of bhakthi which is the quintessence of Vedic lore. Vidyavachaspati Shri Bannanje Govindacharya's name ranks as one of the top most among the contemporary scholars and exponents of adhyAtma of our country. He had edited the Sarvamula Granthas of Shri Madhvacharya from the original manuscript of Hrishikesha tirtha, the first disciple of Acharya Madhva. He can also speak and write with authority and depth on Vedas, Upanishads, Ramayana, Mahabharatha, Bhagavatha, Bhagavadgeetha and Samskrutha literature. His expressions through words, written and said, carry new dimensions and inner vision to the people who read and hear him. Bangalore 29.5.1997 Shri Bannanje Gonvidacharya’s Sixtieth Birthday Felicitation Samiti, Bangalore.

2

MADHVACHARYA
Vasudeva
Karnataka is a land that has nurtured all religions, which has supported intellectuals and which has given the world great thinkers and saints. For instance, let us take the three celebrated Acharyas. Acharya Sankara is from Kerala. But Sringeri, one of the most important religious centers (maThas) established by him, is situated in Karnataka. Acharya Ramanuja is from Tamil Nadu. But his favorite place Melukote is in Karnataka. As for Acharya Madhva, he is of course a glorious son of Karnataka and proud gift of Karnataka to the field of World Philosophy. In Karnataka, who does not know South Kanara District? And in the district, the taluk of Udupi, and, in that again, the city of Udupi with the temple of Krishna holding the churning-rod? Belle1 is a village about eight kilometers south of Udupi. Close to it is a lovely hamlet called Paje2 bounded by rocks and hillocks. Acharya Madhva was born in this unknown hamlet. This inconspicuous village came to be celebrated as a holy place of pilgrimage by the birth of this Acharya. It gained celebrity as 'Pajaka-Ksetra'. We should go back 744 years from now. As many as 4338 years have passed since the inception of the Kaliyuga3 and the 4339th year is running. Indeed, the Vijayadasami, following Navaratri, in the bright half of the month Asvayuja in the year Vilambi (1238 CE) is a day of great festivity. On the afternoon of that day, Acharya Madhva was born in this tiny hamlet of Kamataka4. The name given to the child by his father was 'Vasudeva'. The Acharya's father belonged to the family of Nadillaya5. Narayana Panditacharya who wrote a biography of the Acharya has not recorded the names of the Acharya's parents. But it is believed by some that the father's name was Nadillaya Narayana Bhatta and the mother's name was Vedavati.

Purnaprajna: Anandatirtha: Madhva
Even from childhood, the religious student Vasudeva had spiritual leanings. He was drawn to the path of renunciation. Further, he possessed an extraordinary intelligence. While the parents were eager to prepare him

3

Vasudeva went far away from home and family. his preceptor Acyuta-prajna consecrated Purnaprajna as the head of the empire of Vedanta and conferred on him the title 'Anandatirtha'. He was accompanied by another scholar. Another time. Thus Puma-prajna is the Acharya's name given to him at the time of Samnyasa. he delivered discourses and preached the message of his Tattvavada or religious truth to the people. a Buddhist scholar visited the holy center of Acyuta-prajna. The Acharya refuted in clear terms a few age-old beliefs. near Udupi. Kanyakumari. Rejoicing at the extraordinary brilliance of the little monk.tirtha'. And the favorite nom de plume assumed by him by choice is the Vedic name 'Madhva". Purna-prajna silenced both these Buddhist scholars who had traveled all over the country winning certificates of victory in philosophical debates. Southern Tour The Acharya set out on a tour of South India even in his teens. a reputed ascetic of the time. The joy of Acyuta-prajna was boundless.6 The preceptor Acyuta-prajna7 gave the boy Vasudeva the name of 'Pumaprajna' at the time of his initiation into samnyasa. This initiated a new discussion among scholars all over India. arrived in Udupi in the course of their search for a competitor who might conquer them in debate. He visited prominent places of pilgrimage like Anantasayana. The name conferred on him at the time of consecration as the Master of Vedanta is 'Ananda. a very remarkable episode occured in Acharya's career. Wherever he went. Vadisimha. He started that spirituality 4 .to set up a family. though he was originally a follower of Vedic religion. The title Ananda-tirtha conferred by him on Puma-prajna at the time of the latter's consecration function became indeed meaningful. such as Vasudeva-pandita. Expert scholars in Tarka (Logic) of nation-wide fame. he chose initiation into the monastic order from Achyuta-prajna. The Acharya gained publicity later on by this favorite name itself. Only within forty days of his initiation into Sanmyasa. This proud scholar who had sounded his drum of victory everywhere in the country was defeated by the little monk.Purnaprajna. Ramesvara and Sriranga. in the year Saumya (1249 CE). Even as a young boy of eleven years. who had embraced Buddhism after his defeat by Buddhisagara in a philosophical debate. traceable to the Vedas. thinking that the entire universe was his home.

Seeing the extraordinary personality of the Acharya. and to present his commentary on the Gita as a tribute to sage Vyasa. the Acharya was camping en-route in a holy place on the banks of the Godavari. the task of writing a commentary on the Bramha-sutras came to be undertaken by the Acharya. his cherished destination. The holy center of Badri beckoned him irresistibly. without yielding to any mean threats. the Acharya moved straight to Badri. there was hot opposition to him from some orthodox extremists. Scholars all over India were stunned by his extra-ordinary genius. and listening to his wonderful discourses. Here he was accosted by an eminent pundit. what ever was dictated by the Acharya. As a result. But the Acharya braved it all with courage. And then he set out alone towards Vyasa-Badri. 'The superstitions in the way of this path of philosophical truth should be wiped out! My whole life should be dedicated to the spread of ultimate truth. The urge which was deeply surging in the heart of the Acharya for long turned into a firm resolve as a result of this tour. Sobhana-bhatta by name. Some ascetics got initiation from him and were admitted into the order of samnyasa. Fired by the wish to visit holy places like Vyasa's hermitage. Satya-tirtha by name. After his return from there. bathing in the holy Ganga. The circle of his disciples grew bigger and bigger. the Acharya's influence had spread far and wide throughout the country. 5 . was the writing of a commentary (bhasya) on the Bhagavadgita. In the meantime. the Acharya desired to tour North India and to spread the message of vedic religion far and wide. His composition of works was as facile as his discourse.. The Call of Badri In course of time. It was his practice to dictate continuously to his disciples who would take them down. while returning from Badri.should not be mixed up with superstitions. This person was well known in that region as a peerless scholar. Once. There he observed a vow of strict silence for 48 days. reduced to writing in palmleaves. after adopting this firm resolve. A disciple of the Acharya.' The first task accomplished by the Acharya as soon as he returned to Udupi. This visit changed the entire career of the man. never seen or heard of before. The Acharya never wrote any work of his by hand. the penance-grove of Nara-Narayana etc. he was so much overwhelmed that he became the Acharya's disciple and joined his retinue.

He also wrote the treatise Bhagavata-tatparya highlighting the essential teachings of the Puranas. the Acharya boldly crossed the river and reached the other bank. Although stopped by the Muslim soldiers on the other side. when his party. He used to say: ‘One should cultivate strength 6 . He begged the Acharya to stay permanently in his kingdom and offered gifts of several jagirs. rejected the offer and walked on to Badri. He was taken before the Muslim ruler who was filled with wonder by the boldness of the ascetic10. Installation of Krishna . He composed glosses on forty hymns of the Rigveda. opening up for the first time its vista of spiritual significance. Though in the beginning he too had his own doubts about the Acharya's view of ultimate reality (Tattvavada). He was filled with reverence for this unique monk. But the Acharya who was free from wordily cravings. Hearing such words for the first time from the mouth of a Hindu monk. he left some disciples behind for performing Krishna's worship and undertook his second tour to Badri.Achyuta Prajna's cup of happiness was full on seeing Acharya Madhva back home after his resounding victory in all parts of the country and on his rich retinue of disciples hailing from different places. A large number of devotional songs too were composed by him which could be sung by his disciples. while moving with him in groups. the Muslim king was astounded. After sometime. Once. It was during this period that the Acharya installed the image of Krishna9 which he found in the western ocean near the Udupi sea-coast. Once the Acharya had to cross the river Ganga. Many topical handbooks were also authored by him to suit different occasions.Return to Badri The Acharya who stayed in the environs of Udupi for some more time wrote his bhasyas or authoritative commentaries on all the ten Upanisads. with the monk's staff in his hand. Are we not both children of that only God? Why should I fear then either your soldiers or you?'. The other bank was under Muslim rule. The Acharya said: I worship that Father who illumines the entire universe. and so do you. now he became a whole-hearted adherent of the Acharya's new philosophy. was attacked by a band of robbers on the difficult road to the Himalayas The Acharya made his pupil Upendra-tirtha silence them after a fierce flight.

Amarendra Puri. He propounded his philosophy of theism (tattva-vada) before the best scholars of the country. he visited Kashi. because his body was strong and adamant. With his sweet music there he enthralled the audience. Writers contemporaneous with the Acharya have acclaimed rapturously the Acharya's musical expertise as well as his rich melody of voice. The Acharya's musical genius also was as unique as his perfect physique and brilliant intellect. He also showed the way of synthesizing revelation (sruti) with mythology (Purana). the huge rock.Mahabharata-tatparya-nirnaya.of body even like strength of mind. the Acharya’s physical strength itself was something miraculous. humbled by the dazzling genius of the Acharya. he wrote the treatise .11 The Acharya had darshan once again of Lord Narayana and of sage Vyasa. and once again had it buried under the ground. He brought out the hidden spiritual significance in Vedic literature12 . Everything Unique As already stated. This incident is confined by the sentence inscribed on that stone. On his return home thereafter. There he held a philosophical debate with an elderly Advaita ascetic. the Acharya arrived in Goa on his way back to Udupi. To the people of that time. Acharya Madhva toured over the length and breadth of India twice. Even to this day. near Kalsa bears witness to his Herculean strength. On his way home. The Acharya rescued from oblivion several sections of the Vedic literature that had become obsolete by his time. The whole assembly of the learned was humbled by his brilliant genius.boulder lifted up and placed in the river Bhadra by the Acharya. The Acharya got a mound there excavated and demonstrated to his disciples the buried mace of (the epic hero) Bhima therein. Here occurred a strange episode. Sri Puri had to go away silently. Accordingly he had made his disciples achieve strength in their body as well as in their Vedantic pursuit. Then came Kuruksetra. it is impossible for a weak body to house a strong mind’. He challenged the veracity of twenty one bhasyas or 7 . Later on.

who was a great musician and composer himself. he was a man of strong body with a well-proportioned physique. Acharya Madhva's is a unique personality in Indian history. He was a unique research explorer in the Veda and the literature on the Veda. Against the background of all these religions. 8 . Gopaladasa and Jagannathadasa. and an eloquent orator. He was the founder-preceptor who gave a form of its own to Karnataka Music. It is indeed because of this farsighted vision of the Acharya that the holy Ganga of dasasahitya flowed in the Kannada land and made Kannada literature more glorious than ever. In this task of religious revival. inaugurated by Naraharitirtha grew sumptuously in the hands of later preceptors like Sripadaraja. Vijayadasa.expositions of the Brahmasutras which had been in the field up to his time. He got musical songs (kirtanas) composed in Kannada by his disciples and made them popular by arranging them to be recited by bhagavatas or professional songsters. This Kirthana literature. ritualism etc. and yet a bold selfless monk with utter unconcern to all these extra-ordinary endowments. Christianity too had spread slightly at the time of the Acharya. Thus the Vyasapathway grew into the dasa pathway in Kannada. In Karnataka too. He was highly accomplished in the science of sculpture. But those advanced treatises were hardly within the reach of the masses. What is more. Even women-mystics like Helavanakatte Giriyamma illumined this tradition. Hence the Acharya. wrote lyrical pieces meant to be sung in lucid Sanskrit. Sri Vyasatirtha and Sri Vadiraja. Jainism and Virasaivism had taken deep root along with a plethora of other religions of India. it should not be forgotten that he was the source-head of inspiration for all these later authors. the tradition established by the Acharya too was unique. He was a great composer of musical songs. The original founder of this tradition of expounding the Vedic message in Kannada was Acharya Madhva. This tradition of music-composer-monks continued till Sri Raghavendra Swamin who was a profound musician on the lute (vina). Islam had spread already to a remarkable extent in North India. He was a matchless scholar in philosophy. Thus. phonetics. and made people subject them to a reconsideration13. He wrote several works in Sanskrit devoted to distilling the essence of the sastras or authoritative texts to suit the learned. Kanakadasa. the revival of Vedic religion became the Acharya's primary mission. This tradition yielded to the Kannada region such mysticsaints as Sri Purandaradasa. He was a profound specialist in ancillary Vedic branches of study like astronomy. with a many-sided genius.

came to Udupi seeking a debate with the Acharya and had to go back in utter discomfiture. It was about this time that an Advaita ascetic. There he initiated his brother into the monastic order. Meanwhile. gave inspiration for the development of Kucupudi art-form in Andhra.to four disciples simultaneously. in its turn. This art has continued up to our time developing into an effective medium of folkart in the districts of North and South Kanara and had received recognition in India and abroad. Last Days After his return home from the second tour. Jayasimha of Kumble.bhasya and thus paid his tribute to the guru. who was the royal preceptor of the time. At the same time. This itself became a treatise called Vada (lit 'thesis') or Tattvoddyota. he had to face some opposition in his birthplace itself. 9 . What is even more amazing is the fact that the Kannada people are entirely unaware of the extensive contribution of this great son of the Kannada soil. The Acharya was dictating this work.The Acharya's contribution is not limited to what we noted so far. without any break. The Acharya too was equally fond of Trivikrama pandita. The many sided genius of the Acharya is indeed amazing. on each of the four chapters. This art. Later on. the composition of the work Nyayavivarana was also completed. viz. Anu-vyakhyana on the Brahma-sutras. A section of orthodoxy opposing his new message was still active. Acharya Madhva completed his four-monthly stay (chaturmasya) at Kasaragodu and returned to Pajaka. Although he was mature in mind and on the other side of sixty by now. since he was longing for it with a deep sense of detachment. Pejattaya Trivikrama Panditacharya. The Acharya be took himself to Kasaragodu and defeated Padma-tirtha in a philosophical debate. He brought into vogue a new medium of folkart in the open-air theatre known as Bhagavatara ata and Dasavatarada ata (show of Ten Incarnations) through his disciple Narahari-tirtha. the king of the Tulu region. carried on a long debate with the Acharya for fifteen days and at last became his disciple. Pundarika-Puri by name. kept in the custody of one Pejattaya Sankara Pandita in Kasaragodu. He then wrote a matchless commentary called Tattva-dipika on the Acharya's Brahma-sutra. The cream of the Acharya's thesis on that occasion was reduced to writing by the disciples. invited the Acharya to his court and honored him by arranging for the return of his stolen library. bowing down to the latter's greatness. the Acharya took the lead in initiating such social reforms within the environs of Udupi. a monk called Padmatirtha arranged for the theft of the rare library of the Acharya. It was in answer to the request of this devoted pupil that the Acharya wrote an extensive commentary in verse.

the names of eight disciples who chose to stay on in Udupi as pontiffs of different mathas are as under. Among them. Even at this age. the founder of the line of pontiffs in Desastha-mathas. the first pontiff of the present day Sodematha and Subramanyamatha. There were several who had got initiation before him. in the order of their initiation": 1.This was Sri Vishnutirtha. several disciples form various regions of the country got their initiation into samnyasa from the Acharya. Eda-Paditaya. This discourse itself came to be published later under the title of Khandartha-nimaya (Karmanimaya). Adhoksaja-tirtha (Pejavara-matha) The other two celebrated samnyasin-disciples of the Acharya are: 9. Both before and after the initiation of these two. Janardana-tirtha (Krsnapura-matha) 4. Srirama-tirtha (Kaniyuru-matha) 8. he toured all over the district and engaged himself in educating the general public. Narasimha-tirtha (Adamaru-matha) 3. He became famous later on as Padmanabha-tirtha. The Acharya was now seventy. Narahari-tirthal15 When Padmanabha-tirtha was initiated into samnyasa is not definitely known. Then he went on to Ujire and exposed there the spiritual aspect of ritualism in order to open the eyes of Brahmins who had faith in the ultimacy of rituals. Upendra-tirtha (Puttige-matha) 5. Hrisikesa-tirtha (Palimaru matha) 2. It appears that he should have been initiated into the order some time between the dates when these eight pontiffs were initiated into the order. About the same time. Sobhana-bhatta living on the bank of the Godavari also came to receive initiation into samnyasa from the Acharya. Next he visited 10 . Padmanabha-tirtha (Desastha-mathas) 10. He composed for the benefit of a good natured Brahmin. the literary work "Krsnamrtamaharnava". Vishnu-tirtha (Sode-matha) 7. in the village Idya16. Vamana-tirtha (Sirur-matha) 6.

Later. he put the responsibility of carrying on the tradition of this Tattvavada or philosophical thesis on the shoulders of his disciples and betook himself to Badri. Hundreds of dialectical treatises came to be written. Padmanabha-tirtha. a staff and a piece of cloth tied on the sides like a bag to receive alms (jolige). which he found in a dilapidated condition. Even now. Raghavendra-Swamin. etc. the anniversary of the Acharya is celebrated as Madhvanavami on the said day itself17. Narayana Panditacharya. Among the writers belonging to this school we may roughly classify some outstanding ones in the following chronological order: Vishnu-tirtha. Palimaru-matha19 2.mathas now existing: The number of mathas which came into being in Udupi itself. all alone. Vijayadhvaja-tirtha. yoked to the responsibility of Krishna-worship is eight: 1. (Traivikramaryadasa)18. Tradition as it has Developed The disciples of the Acharya. Vijayindra-tirtha. When he thought that his life mission had been served. Below is a broad sketch of the Madhva. All the property that he left as legacy to his disciple-pontiffs was just a casket for keeping the gods of daily worship.panditacharya. The Acharya's life span of 79 years was thus one teeming with activity. Narahari-tirtha. Adamaru-matha 3.Panchalingesvara temple at Paranti. continued this tradition with devout zeal. Vyasa-tirtha. . The day on which he thus proceeded to Badri was the ninth in the bright half of the month Magha in the Kali year 4418 (1317 CE). Krsnapura-matha 11 . the mathas took better shape as the number of their devout adherents became more and more. Yadupati-acharya. Trivikrama. Vamana. without any worship or festivity. without any thought or care. Jayatirtha (Tikacharya). Visnudasacharya. both pontifical and lay. They nourished the young plant by supplying it constantly with the waters of their penance and erudition. The Acharya did not earn any huge establishment or property for his matha. Vadiraja.Panditacharya. He made arrangements for the resumption of proper worship there according to the rituals prescribed by the ancient scriptures (agamas).

Sode-matha 7. it became famous as Sode. Thus the matha which had its property in the village Palimaru is now called Palimaru-matha. Sirur-matha 6. Kaniyuru Matha 8. Narahari-tirtha. Later on. Kundapura-Vyasaraya-matha 12. Raghavendra-matha 13. Mulubagilu-matha 14. The mathas in Karnataka which were developed respectively by Sri Padmanabha-tirtha. Sosale Vyasaraya-matha 11. when the matha was established at Sode in North Kanara. Uttaradi-matha 10. Balegaru (Banagara)-matha 12 .matha. Kudli-matha 16.4. Pejavara Matha It is a local custom to call the mathas after the names of villages where the original gifted properties of the matha are situated. The older name of the Sode-matha was Kumbhasi-matha. in the time of Vadiraja. Puttige-matha 5.tirtha and Aksobhya-tirtha are eight: 9. Madhav. Majigehalli-matha 15.

Sripadaraja (alias Srilakshminarayana-tirtha) who was one of the pioneers of dasa-literature and the preceptor of Vyasa-tirtha was one of the illustrious pontiffs who illumined the tradition of this matha.matha 19. Bhandarkeri is located some 20 Km north of Udupi in Barakuru. some 35 Km. from Padmanabha-tirtha to Aksobhya-tirtha. Apart from these there are four more mathas in the Tulu region: 17. the matha also came to be 13 . the Chitrapura-matha is only a branch of the Pejavara-matha. This matha is situated at Citrapura.For the first four mathas the founder-pontiffs are the first four mentioned above. two branches of Akshobhya-tirtha grew into independent mathas at Kudli and Balegaru. Citrapura-matha The Subramanya-matha has grown out of Vishnu. Though Bhimana-katte (Bhima-setumunivranda) is also a matha of Tulu region. Gokama-Partagali Jivottama-matha 22. its original sourcehead is a place called Bhimanakatte on the Tirthahalli-Shimoga road.. viz. Still another branch of Madhava-tirtha established a matha at Majjige-halli which also came to be developed.matha. Bhimana-katte-matha 20. Jivottama-tirtha. pontiffs of this line started a matha in Parta-gali (Madagaum . away from Udupi on the Udupi-Mangalore highway. who in turn was the guru to initiate the Acharya into samnyasa. Bhandarkeri . According to folk-tradition.. Two more mathas of Gauda Sarasvata Brahmanas who illuminated the Madhva school are quite famous: 21.tirtha's line itself.tirtha became Mulubagilu-matha. Another branch of the matha founded by Padmanabha. After one of its celebrated pontiffs. Mathagrama). Later. Kasi-matha The original locale of Gokarna-matha is Gokama. branched into two linesone at Bhandarkeri and the other at Bhimanakatte. In the same way. A traditional branch of Vyasaraya-matha itself came to be established at Kundapura in the district of South kanara and came to be termed Kundapura-Vyasaraya. It is said that the line of disciples under the pontiff Acyuta-prajna. Subramanya-matha 18.

Brhadaranyakopanishad-bhasya 14 . two more important Madhva organizations in North India deserve mention here: 23. A temple of Acharya Madhva also existed there. the Acharya has written bhasyas or authoritative commentaries on all the major Upanisads.called Jivottama-matha. 1. While all the other have commented only on three chapters of the Aitareya Upanishad. it is originally a matha of the South only. the Acharya's bhasya covers the entire Upanishad-kanda (of 9 chapters) of the Aitareya Aranyaka : 7. The International Hare Krishna pantha is an outgrowth of this. Gauda Sarasvata Brahmins of the north costal region stretching from Udupi up to Bombay are disciples of Gokamamatha. Acharyas's Works The Acharya has written four works on the Sutraprasthana (the Vedantic school of Brahmansutra). Though there is a branch-centre of Kasimatha in Kasi. its founder pontiff is reckoned as Sri Narayana-tirtha who had his initiation into samnyasa from Sri Ramachandra-tirtha. Brahmasutra-anuvyakhyana 4. Brahmasutra-anuvyakhyana-vivarana Two works are on the Gita-prasthana (Vedantic school of the Bhagavadgita) : 5. According to the traditional list of pontiffs in this matha. But there is notable uniqueness in respect of these also. Brahmasutra-bhasya 2. The Gauda Sarasvatas from Udupi up to Kanyakumari in the south are disciples of Kasi-matha. Besides these. Sarva-sastratha-sangraha (Anubhasya) 3. Bhagavadgita-bhasya 6. Mahaitareyopanishad-bhasya 8. Bhagavadgita-tatparya-nimaya In the Upanishad-prasthana (the Vedantic school of ti Upanisads). Madhva-Gaudiya-matha of Bengal The Madhva-Gaudiya-matha is a Madhva religious center in Bengal. One of its branches existed also in what is now Bangladesh. the tenth pontiff of palimaru-matha at Udupi.

These works are: 17. there are three works of his that lay bare the heart of the Mahabharata and the Bhagavata in a bid to synthesize the teachings of Itihasas and Puranas: 19. Taittiriyopanishad-bhasya 11.Vishnu-tattva-nirnaya 15 .Satprasnopanishad-bhasya 15 Yajniya-mantropanishad-bhasya (Isavasyaopanishad-bhasya) 16. In this connection it is noteworthy how senior Advaita scholars too like Brahmananda accept that these are original Upanisadic verses20. Mahabharata-tatparya (Yamaka-bharata) 21. Khandartha-nirnaya (Karma-nirnaya) So also. Chandogopanishad-bhasya 10. But Madhva has rejected the old wrong notion once for all by writing bhasya on these verses also. Talavakaropanishad-bhasya (Kenopanishad-bhasya) 12 Kathakopanishad-bhasya 13..Atharvanopanishad-bhasya (Mundakopanishad-bhasya) 14.Mandukyopanishad-bhasya The verses occurring in the middle of the Mandukyopanishat are mistakenly held to be Gaudapada's karikas. Rg-bhasya 18. But Acharya Ramanuja has accepted that these form original portions of the Upanisat itself. but also showed the way leading to a synthesis of Samhita. by writing a commentary on 40 hymns of the Rig veda. Brahmana and Aranyaka texts by commenting upon some chapters of the Aitreya Brahmana and the Mahanan-ini-khanda of the same Aranyaka.9. The Acharya not only blazed a new pathway of spiritual interpretation of the Veda. Mahabharata-tatparya-nimaya 20. Bhagavata-tatparya-nimaya Nine topical treatises are concerned with determining epistemology and ontology: 22.

23. Tithi-nimaya In the field of devotional literature. regarding building architecture. one is a stotra or hymn of praise. the other is an anthology of compositions set to music and meant to be sung: 38. Upadhi-dusana (Upadhi-khandana Tattva-prakasika) 26. Tantra-sara-sangraha 33. Vada-laksana (katha-taksana) Seven works offer guidance regarding performance of ceremonials and rituals as laid down in law-books. Narasimha-nakhastuti 39. Krisnamrta-maharnava 32. Tattva-samkhyana 28. Om-Tat-Sat-Pranava-kalpa (Yati-pranavakalpa) 36. there are two works of his. mantra and tantra and duties and practices of householders and mendicants: 31. Vada (tattvoddyota) 24. Dvadasa-stotras 16 . Nyasa-paddhati 37. Tattva-viveka 29. Mithyatvanumana-dusana (Mithyat-vanuniana-khandana) 27. Sadacara-smrti 34. Pramana-laksana 30. Mayavada-dusana (mayavada-khandana) 25. Jayanti-nirnaya 35.

In later times. God is the Ocean of all qualities or excellence. Nyasapaddhati. there is a work which the Acharya is said to have composed in his boyhood while playing with the ball. Hence any name is good enough to invoke God. it is a small work in a unique meter: 40. All names (of God) are only epithets. in any language wherever in the world. that explains the daily routine duties of mendicants. this came to be called the 'Dvaitamata' or 'dualistic school'. This has been called by the name 'Tatvavada' in ancient works21. Independent reality and dependent reality). 17 . 38 had been published formerly.e. when the un-philosophical trend emphasizing only conflict became prominent for recognizing Vedic schools of thought only in terms of Dvaita-Advaita etc. Monotheism alone is thus the quintessence of Vedic literature and not polytheism. Lord Narayana alone is the Supreme Independent God-head. are works which were first noticed by me in the course of my research in Palm-leaf Manuscripts some years ago. The entire Veda hymns only His praise by various epithets such as Agni. Two. the entire universe created by him is the dependent reality. whatever the word may be. For. in any language of the world. All names designate only God. God who creates the universe is the Independent reality. Not only Vedic words. this is not a name that can be fully justified In the philosophical system of the Acharya. Indra and Varuna. tattvas or categories of reality are primarily two: svatantra-tattva and asvatantra-tattva (i.. every name will designate Him alike. that is a unique work on mathematics indicating precise formulae for the determination of each date's extent. there is no sound or word. The Essence of Madhva’s Philosophy: Tattvavada: Dvaita Acharya Madhva's line of thought gave a new turn to the tradition of Indian Philosophy. not only Sanskrit names.Further. and Tithinirnaya. Kanduka-stuti Of these. viz. which is not essentially a name of God. But from the standpoint of True Vedic tradition.

18 . five sense-organs etc. Even so the souls can be many. difference between the inconscient and God. different from another. Pradyumna. but there is no bondage. That is why it is designated as "pra-panca" or a 'perfect pentad'. and had become a tool in the hands of the inconscient. vyana. the soul being unaware of its power of self-conscious.ness. In this pentad intermixed in a five fold manner. Each soul has its own distinct individuality. There is one important point to be noted here. These divinities are not God: they are only souls that have realized God and risen to a high state by acquiring siddhi or divine power. Vasudeva and Narayana. does exist even after release. If God is 'bimba' or the original substrate. Earlier. udana and samana. difference between inconscient and the soul. Liberation means release from the bondage of the world. five elements. viz: Anirudha. The inconscient world is five-faceted. the inanimate substances too that go into the creative apparatus of the universe are innumerable. these souls are all entwined in the single thread of similarity to God in their knowledge-aspect. The world. Samkarasana. (viz. Along with all these differential gradations. So many souls. it is being controlled all the time by God who also assumes five forms. difference between one inconscient and another inconscient. five sheaths. divinities are many. jivas or souls are His pratibimbas or images. the principle of prana or life is also a five-fold entity of prana. becomes involved in the meshes of samsara or bondage when he leans towards one side. it can never become identical with it. becomes liberated if he leans to the other side. apana. Thus one might distinguish a five-fold difference too in this world. Just as souls. searching in vain for the original. Mukti or liberation does not mean any cessation of the World itself It is not any disappearance of a World falsely held as real. But now (in release) he has conquered inconscient Nature. was ignorant of the original substrate. God). Moreover. Thus the soul (jiva). who is his original and also the First Cause of the entire universe.Though God is one. five elemental essences. The image is always dependent on the original substrate. for he has now become conscious of God. One original substrate can have many images. as many varieties. These siddhas or realized adepts can serve as gurus to guide the jiva or soul who is still a sadhaka or religious seeker. who is at the center in the triple categories of God-soul inanimate world.

’it means 'dependent reality'. Human life of bondage (samsara) is none other than a practical workshop that helps the individual soul to attain the perfect 19 . two is not one. It is ultimately true. vyakti-visistavada or unique individuality of every soul and svabhavada or theory of unalterable natural law governing humanity deserves notice. He is qualified because He possesses in perfection all good or auspicious attributes. difference between soul and God. It’s truth is restrained by God. This difference is neither temporary nor merely practical. He is endowed with forms becuase He has a body of knowledge and Bliss. No man's nature is like that of another. For such is the law of nature: One is not two. there is a unique individuality or speciality23. the reach of our finite thought. both qualified and unqualified. it is untrue also. When viewed from the right standpoint. There is no person or jiva like another. The World is not a magic show improvised by any magician. We might refer here to some of the important ones among them: God is both endowed with forms and is formless. devotion and the universe. Underlying everything and every individual person. He is unqualified also because He is devoid of all material adjuncts. it is an invariable and natural property of everything . The Vedic literature will not open out its secrets to one who is not having this synthetic vision. He is formless because he has no body within.difference between one soul and another. For. But then the word ‘untrue’ does not mean ‘false. it worships only God symbolized by the icons. The all-round and complete development of this special personality is indeed the goal of human life. it will be realized that all modes of utterance express varied aspects of the only truth. Is not the all-existent God existing in the icon? Among other significant contributions of the Acharya's Tattvavada. hence it is untrue. Similarly. there is no truth in the objection that the Vedic religion is tainted with iconolatry or image-worship. The Acharya effected a synthesis and integration between several self-contradictory notions which had accumulated by his time regarding God. From another standpoint. The following is a summary statement of it: There is no object like another. it does not worship icons.

Our development is in keeping with our personality. Each one's attainment is commensurate with one's effort. This indeed is the pathway of knowledge (Jnanayoga). varna of 'color' is not something which is transmitted hereditarily. But that fullness is not identical in all these. It is only by knowing the root that one can tackle a tree. Only one who knows God can know the secret of the universe.development of his personality in dependence upon God. The environmental factors only help manifest what is already rooted in one's inner nature. The volume varies according to the variation in size. a bramana's son may also be a sudra. The Acharya says about himself that it 20 . even water-pots may be full of (of water). on the contrary. There are no two things in this creation which are identical. It is an innate characteristic rooted firmly in the jiva from time immemorial. yet it is full of variation also. Hence the idea that all become one or all become identical ultimately. is only a sugar-coated sop. It is impossible to know the universe completely by scientific research into matter. Thus inner nature is the spontaneous way of life for a Jiva. The Gita idea of "four colors" is quite distinct from the idea of "four castes" prevalent today. That indeed is a right social order. Even two leaves of the same tree are not exactly identical. Everything is full. It is an idea opposed to scriptures. something which is determined by the individual's own personality traits24. Hence one should know God Himself. it is something quite personal. One's attainment of perfection is nothing but a complete manifestation of one's unique individual nature. In such a social order. The development of an individual takes place strictly in accordance with his inner nature. The idea of chaturvarnya or "four colors" in the Gita vindicates this view only. The true color of the soul needs to be discovered. For. No amount of effort can alter its course. It is an idea going against the very law of Nature. It is an idea that relates only to the soul's inmost nature or personality-trait. Nor can a tamasa turn into a sattvika. the son of a low-born (sudra) may be a nobleman (brahmana). Mukti or release is only a state of perfection or enjoying the bliss of such a perfect development of one's own personality. the tank is full. A sattvika or pure-hearted man cannot become a tamasa or evil minded one. The principle that unites the soul to God like a thread is called prana-tattva or the "vital principle". It is the one principle that embodies all souls and is also termed "jivottama-tattva" or the "principle of perfect jiva-hood". The sea is full.

one has to turn inward. perception and scripture. The world also deserves to be lived. a continuous process of hearing.is an aspect of this supreme principle that incarnated itself in human form as Madhva in order to lay bare the Supreme Truth. Denying the world is as good as denying God's own infinite greatness. it becomes the highest criterion confirming our conviction. Action without knowledge is but blind orthodoxy.e. An awakened conscience can discover the integral unity underlying all Vedic statements. Although it is an instrument of valid knowledge. Knowledge is necessary. and the other is the word of wisdom bequeathed to us by sages who were "seers" of the Veda. Pancaratra and Puranas have been written. it can be developed only as a supplementary instrument to the other two. Hence it is spoken of only as "anu-mana" ( . The inner eye has to be opened. rendering assistance to those who are in distress is the tax we owe to God Himself. The very dichotomy that the pathway of action is for the ignorant. 21 . Thus when both the word of scripture and our own immediate experience coincide. In the light of that torch and along that way alone we should walk on and discover Truth. our king"". These alone are primary authorities. while that of knowledge is for the adept. Having understood God's greatness. since the wonderful universe is just His creation in sport (lila)".. i. anuusari pramana) or 'ancillary instrument of knowledge'. Knowledge without action is an impractical intellectual exercise. At the same time. It is important to note that in supra-sensory matters. Texts of smrti (moral code). The physical eye is not enough for the development of knowledge. one is direct personal experience. In order to achieve it. written by sages like Manu.. an understanding of God's infinite glory is equally necessary. action and devotion becomes a perfect pathway for one's life. it is not an independent instrument. They are not at all ultimate authorities. is absurd. Another means of valid knowledge besides perception and scripture is interference or reasoning. it is necessary to love him devotedly. cogitating and realization of the scriptures is called for. There are only two ways in which that goal can be realized. Not even scriptural statement is to be accepted if it is against one's own conscience.. Bharata. We should all dedicate ourselves to our duty in the following spirit: "We are all subjects in the kingdom of God. The pathway of Jnana-yoga or knowledge supreme is not opposed to Karma or action. Such an integral synthesis of the pathways of knowledge. are acceptable as authorities only when they are in conformity with the essential message of the Veda. It is in order to demonstrate this synthetic essence of the Vedas that the Brahmasutras. Their word is a torch to illumine our way. knowledge-full action too is necessary.

4. which transcends the universe and is eternal. The atoms which are the micro-elements of physical matter are not at all ultimate and indivisible entities. This awareness is the key to bliss. One should surrender oneself to the voice of hoary sages and wise men who realized God. in regard to God. one should see. one should surrender oneself to God. . 2. one should succeed. that is all. having succeeded. Therefore in regard to supra-sensory facts and especially. to the Vedic words. having experienced. It is called ‘auyakarta-akasa’ or ‘undifferentiated space’ 27. No matter is completely destroyed. one should know through surrender. In every atom too there are innumerable subtle particles28. and knowing. But there is another sky that fully pervades the universe. it has become ashes. For. And for that. the body is not destroyed. Some of them may be mentioned here: 1. The Acharya has discovered several unique facts about the physical world. But really speaking. within and without. having seen. and having known. The material ethereal sky that is one of the five elements filling this universe is that which suffers destruction along with the universe. Those who do not possess this awareness can establish nothing by the strength of their reasoning. one should gain. beyond the reach of the bare eye. there is no use in one's surrendering oneself to reasoning. the order of creation and the basic principles that govern creation. We say that the body is destroyed. that is to say. Destruction is another name for only a change in form. This is broadly the sum and substance of the Acharya's spiritual viewpoint. That vegetation-life too can respond to the actions of man. 3. anything one desires can be established by reasoning. one should experience it. There are plants that thrill to the melody of music and yield sprouts. There is life movement in plants. 22 . One should surrender oneself only to God. flowers and fruits29. It is permeated by a super blue color. One should know through word of sages. herbs and creepers too. one should again surrender. Thus existence and non-existence are two sides of the same coin30.nothing can be established by inference or reasoning independently.

5. Enclosed within the fifteen fences of name. or one who mistakes such awareness of self itself as ultimate realization. thought. food. Next comes the realization of the ‘He’ principle. By knowing one. speech. fire. mind. On the whole. strength. the entire universe is completely interfused. Father and Mother too is Hari. To one who has attained self-realization. action. Hari the 'Teacher great. This is called self-realization.kala or soul's particle lies hidden. the realization is of the ‘I’ principle. the soul gets self-awareness. sky and faith. One who does not know all. does not know even one31. air. the Ultimate Truth. When these fifteen inconscient fences are broken. Pin thy mind at the Lord's feet boundless!) 23 . From the microcosm to the macrocosm. 6. can never progress in the pathway of God. the sixteenth jiva. beware!) tadalam bahu-loka-vicintanaya Pravanam-kuru-manasa misa pade (Stop then thy worldy cares endless. To understand any one thing completely. sense organ. all can be known. First. earth. lordship. a complete knowledge of the entire universe becomes necessary. the way beyond to God-realization becomes easy32. water. One who is unaware of his own self.realization. Acharya Madhva's life-message is this: Kuru bhumksva ca karma nijam niyatam Hari-pada-vinamra-dhiya satatam Harireva paro Harireva gururHarirevajagat-pitr-matr-gatih (Dvadasa-stotra) (Do thy duty alloted by God to These And eat what comes to thy share! Hari is God Supreme. This is the secret of the realization of “So’ham” (I:HE).

Just by the side of it there is a hillock known as Kunjargiri. This is a suitable name for the place surrounded by the slopes of rocks and thus presenting a lovely view.ca.NOTES 1. The Sankritized form of this name is Paajaka and hence the place came to be designated as Paajaka Kshetra. Sri Madhvacharya was born in the western portion of the Belle village. The eastern and western portions of this village are called Mudu Belle and Padu Belle respectively in Kannada.taa. Anu Madhvacarita records this in clear terms trisataabdoottara catuh sahasraabdheebhya uttaree eekoona catvaarimsaabdee vilambi samvatsaree asviina sukladasamii divasee bhuvipaavanee paajakaakhyee sucikseetree durgayaa. There is a small stream in between the two portions. 2. There is a unique temple of Parashrama on a rock in front of the house where Sri Madhvacharya was born. As soon as we cross the border we step into the area known as Paaje Halli. A new organization by name Pajaka Foundation is striving hard to protect the village and to rejuvenate its hoary past and culture.4) According to this Madhvacharya was bom in 4339 kali Era (1238 A. In ancient works this hillock is recorded as Vimana Giri.2.ni. Paje-Paade means rock in Tulu.caabhiviiksitee jaatoo madhyaahnaveelaayaam budhavaaree maruttanuh (anu.) Sri Acharya himself has revealed his time of birth in his Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya thus: catuh sahasree trisatoottaree gatee samvatsaraanaam tu kalau prithivyaam jaatah punarvipratanuh sa bhiimah daityairniguudham haritatvamadha (ma. (Madhva Vijaya 2-1 1). Unfortunately the present day contractors are indiscriminately breaking the rocks spoiling thereby the historic beauty and serenity. 32.ma.120) 24 . Beyond the hillock is the border of the Belle village. with a shrine of Goddess Durga on the top. In the local language Tulu this village is known as Bolle. 3.D.bhaa.

vi-25) seems to support this view.ma.e 1308 A. The statement does not answer the question as to which exactly is the year after 4300 Kati Era. Great scholars like 25 . If 4300 is the year of his birth. 4339+70 = 4409 i. The Calculations are as follows: (bhuusriibhinnaaki cintya / garudadhyeeya) X kaala The corresponding numbres are (1610424/11323)X31 = 4409. Another statement of Sri Acharya lends support to this: bhuusrii bhinnaaki einyoonaat kalyahaat kaalavardhitaat garudadhyeeya vaakyaaptam tyoktvaa sauram vrthaapalam (tithi airnaya.D. we have to presume that he wrote it in his 109th year. and not the figure 39 after the beginning of the century. Since they do not tally with one another none of them can be taken as authoritative statements. Accordingly Sri Acharya wrote the work in 4409 Kali Era. In fact Sri Acharya has simply said here that he was born after the kali Era 4300.2) This stanza explains the method to be employed while making astronomical calculations about the dates and times. 10) Hence it is more appropriate to believe that he was born in 4339 kali Era. eekoonaasiiti varsaani bhuutvaa maanusadrtigah maagha suddha navamyaam badariim yayau (anu. As per that inscription Sri Acharya was 70 years when he wrote Tithi Nirnaya.ca. Madhvacharya's date of birth is also recorded in certain kaiftyats of the Mathas and other works. The Acharya records here the year of his composing the Work. But it is historically known that he lived only for 79 years. Sri Narahari Tirtha's Sri Kurma Inscription (Epigraphia Indica Vol.D. This only indicates the round figure.) is the year of his birth.Some scholars infer this statement that 4300 kati Era (1199 A. Another work Anu Madhavacarita answers this in exact terms by metioning the year 39.

but on Monday. bhuusureendroopaniitooyastata eekaadasaabdakee saumyeejagraaha bhagavaam sturiyaasramamaThaamam (anu. Regarding the name of the day also one can observe that vijayadasami does not fall on Wednesday as observed by the author of Anu Madhvacarita. The almanacs also record vijayadasami as the birthday of Sri Madhvacharya. Padmanabhacharya have accepted 4339 Kali Era as the year of Sri Madhvacharya's birth. The number thus indicates the praana tatva and the secret of avataara traya. The sum total of these three figures is also ten. A stanza of madhva Vijaya is responsible for this misconception. This is sometimes wrongly recorded as nadyantillaya.5) 4. bhaktirjnaanam sa vairaagyam prajnaa meedhaa dhrtih sthith yooga praanoo balam caiva vrkoodara iti smrtah ee.taa. Hence the evidence found in Anu Madhva charita seems to be more reliable.ca. Even if we go on adding like this the sums will confine to these three numbers. 5.bha.kad dasaatmakoo vaayuh (ma. There is controversy about the date and month of his birth also.ma. (4+3+3+9=19=1+9 = 10) The sum total of the cubes of these numbers is also 10. But oral traditions speak of vijayadasami as the birthday of Sri.M. If we go on adding the cubes of cubes also we get three numbers 847.134.Manjeshwara Govinda Pai and C. na naamamaatraacchucimarthatoopi yam 26 . The sum total of these numbers is 10. Some records proclaim vijayadasami. 6. It is difficult to come to any conclusion until we come across a reliable evidence.5) 7.919 and 1459. Nadillaya is a Tulu word meaning a man of middle house. Acharya. 4339 is a unique number. The Sanskritized form of this word is Madhyageha Bhatta.ni 2. day in asvin month and other record maagha suddha saptami. Some modem writers have wrongly recorded this name as Acyuta Preksa.

3) 27 . In another place he explains it in clear terms as ‘acyutee aatmaa buddhih prajnaa asyeeti acyutaatmaa acyuta prajnah’. Yadiimanupradivoo madhava aadhavee guhaasantam maatarisvaamathaayati (rg veda 1. vamsasyaadiin sanakaadiinupaasee duurvaasam paratirthaakhya bhiksum satyaprajnam praajnatirtham ca pascaal pascaacchisyaanacyutaprajna madhvau Even among the earlier saints the word prajnaa was in vogue.33).janoocyuta preeksamudaaharat sphutam (ma. This kind of change of epithets is noticed elsewhere also. ‘Acynta preeksah preeksaa prajnaa pratibheeti’. Evidently Narayana Pandita.141. Satyaprajna is an example. The name of Madhvacharya is also Purna prajna. 8.4. He explains the word this way. Purnabodha also (Madhva Vijaya 4. Another stanza in the guruparampara tradition also confirms this.vi.6) But in the commentary on this stanza Vedangatirtha writes like this ‘achyuta preeksam acyutaprajna naamaanamityarthah’. the author of Madhvavijaya used the word Achyutapreksa to indicate that the people used to respect this saint as if he had the vision of Lord Acyuta. Moreover. Narayana pandita himself wrote a commentary Bhava Prakashika to Madhva vijaya. Instead of the name Purnaprajna the author of Madhva Vijaya ernploys the epithet. hence it is quite appropriate to believe that the original name of the saint was Acyuta prajna.

The 19th pontiff of Sri Palimar Matha (18th century) Sri Raghuvarya Tirtha gives a different version of the story in his commentary on Anu Madhva Vijaya. The source of this legend is not known..D. The popular story of the tempest. like that of Krishna's image turning towards the west for Kanakadasa. Sri Acharya. must be a later invention by the local sthala purana writers. When the ship was passing through Malpe there arose a big tempest and the captain cried out for help. A lovely idol of Krishna found inside the lump of mud was later on established at Udupi..shore heard this and waved his bark garment towards him. mathee pratisthaapayaamaasa. A cargo ship loaded at Dwaraka was proceeding towards the South. Some believe that he must be Balban. 10.9. This legend seems to be more ancient and trustworthy. According to this statement the ship carrying the idol of Krishna from Dwaraka wrecked at the sea near Udupi. The Acharya did not accept any money or gold but took out only a lump of gopi mud. But considering the fact that this is an incident that had occured during the oidage of the Acharya this must have occured during the reign of Jalal uddin Chilji (1 290-97 A..D..) Or Alla uddin Khilji (1 296 .. Sri Acharya took it out from the bottom of the sea and established it in Udupi. The captain sailed in the direction of the garment that was waved towards him and saluted the saint and requested him to accept any commodity that he desires from the ship as a mark of his gratitude. On the rock a beautiful status of the Acharya with a stick danda in hand is sculptured with the following inscription carved below. Precious little is known about this Muslim ruler.. We can consider this as authentic record since it was written by a traditional pontiff. It must be of recent origin.). 11. dvaarakaayaam rugminiivanaakhya pradeesee goopiicandana madhyee lagnaam goopiicandana buddhyaa saam yaatrik-airaaniitaam ruupyapiithasampiipeeplavee bhinneejaladhau magnaam sriikrisnapratimaa maaniiyee .. 28 . engaged in meditation at the sea. No ancient work supports this legend. The popular legend now current among the devotees is as follows.1316 A. The tempest subsided.

Vamana. 3. But Vedanga Tirtha the ancient commentator and Raghuvarya Tirtha. 12. Brahma Ghosha. 18. the commentator of Anu Madhva Vijaya record this as idya. etc. Madhva Dasa. Rudra Bhatta. 14. Bhartr Prapancha. Brahma Datta. One stanza of Guruparampara mentions the names of the saints thus: vandee hriikeesamathoo nrsimham janaardanam cintaya dhiirupeendram srii vaamanam samsmara visnumeemi sriiraamamanceehamadhooksajam ca 15. Pishacha. Udvarta. 16. Dravidacharya. Vijaya Bhatta. Vadindra. 2. which 29 . Vishvapathi Tirtha. 20. Sachidananda. 21. 13. Yadava Praksha.jaagratsu. only those of Shankara. 11. the commentator of Madhva Vijaya calls this place Kokkada. 15. 6.srii madhvaacaaryaiah eekahasteena aaniiya sthaapitaa silla. Sri Acharya was initiated in the year 4350 Kali Era. 10. Shankara. Vishnukranta. 13+53+33 = 153. 8. The figures of the year of his initiation and departure to Badri are also interesting just like the figures derived from the letter of the names of his disciples. 16. 17. 13. Ramanuja. 4. Vijaya. Bhaskara. 9. 14. Bharati Vijaya. The ancient texts mention these 21 commentators :1. If we convert the letter of the names of the ten disciples into the numbers according to the ka-ta-pa-ya system of numeration and go on adding the cubes we get only three figures: 153. 12. Among the Bhasya (commentaries) of the above mentioned philosophers. These three are unique figures in their own way: the sum total of their cubes is also the same number. 5. Kapali Sastri. 19. Bhaskara Yadava Prakasha and Ramanuja are available now. Vrttikara. a disciple of Sri Aurobindo in his Rg Veda Bhashya Bhumika writes about the commentary on Rg Veda by the Acharya thus: veedaanaamadhyaatma parataa naastiiti koo naama bruutee madhvabhaasyeesu. 370 and 371. 17. Shataranda. 7.

11 page 291). 20.2. Vol. Sri Vadiraja in his Yukti Malika refers to Acharya's siddhaanta as tatvavaada. Hence the word dvaita may sometime create confusion.gives the figure 153 when the cubes of individual numbers are added. Also note a sentence of Advaita Siddhi in the page number 251 in the same volume. bhinnaasea bhinna dharmaascapadaarthaa nikhilaa api (Anu Vyakhyana 2. 18. (Gita Tatparya. The present author has with him the manuscripts of another six commentaries on Upanishats yet to be published. 21.). These mathas are grouped into four pairs. 4-13. svabhavikoo braahmanaadih samaadyaireeva bhidyatee.6. Brahmanada Saraswathi in his commentary Gurachandrika on Madhusudana Sarswathi's Advaita Siddhi makes a significant statement. 23. If the swamiji of one matha expires without initiating his successor it is the responsibility of the swamiji of the other matha of the pair to initiate the successor. 19. The words advaita and dvaita in addition to indicating the meaning of abheeda and bheeda have the connotation of yathaarthajnaana and ayahaarthajnaana also. (Oriental Library publication. His departure to Badri was in the year 4418 which again gives the figure 3 7 1. anaadi maayayaa suptoo yadaa jiivah prabudhyatee ityaadi srutisu. yoonibheedakrtoo bheedoojneeya caupaadhikastvayam. maanduukoopanisad vyaakhyaaruupa gaudapaadaacaarya grantjastha prathama prakaranookta slookeebhyah srutitveena vaidika prasiddheebhyah.) 30 . Mysore 1937. It is worth mentioning here that the Bhagavata commentators of Bengal. Till recently his works were not discovered. It is clear from this that Madhusudhana Saraswathi also accepts the karikas of Manduka as sruti vaakya. 24. Pareeca tatvaadee asmin gariiyastii bharoo mama. 22. He is the son of Pejattaya narayana Panditacharya. The author of the present book edited and published his commentary on Acharya's Anubhashya. the followers of Chaitanya refer to Madhvacharya as the preceptor of tatvavaada.

9 ) 32.3) 28.6 ) 31. (Manduka Bhasya ) 31 .10) 30. eekam ea tatvatoojnaatum vinaa sarvajnataam narah na samarthoo macheendroopi tasmaat sarvatrajqnaseet (Gita Bhashya.2. giitaat puspaphalaavaaptih sparsaat kaarsyam rasaar sthitih (Anu Vyakhyana 2.3.2. (Anu Vyakhyana 2. 6. bhuutamapyasitam divyadrstigoocarameevatu.6) 29.3.25. (Anu Vyakhyana 2.) 27. 4.) 26. bahu citrajaged bahudhaakaranaat para sakiranantagunah paramah (Dwadasha Stotra. samyak samaahitaanaam tu praptaanaam soodasiim kalaam aparooksadrsaam kvaapi turiiyam drsyateepadam. utpadyatee avyaakrtam hi gaganam saaksigoocaram. mahattvaanutvayoornaiva visraantirupalabhyatee. (Gita Tatparya. naanaajanasya susruusaakarmaakhyaakaravanmiteeh. (Anu Vyakhyana 2. sarvee bhaavaa abhaavaasea padaarthaasteena sarvadaa astyabhaavoostica dhvamsoo deehaabhaavasea bhasmataa.

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