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The constant quivering movements of our eyes are necessary in order to: a) facilitate the process of accommodation. c) minimize sensory adaptation. b) illuminate the entire retina. d) do all the above. 2. Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates: d) blindsight. a) subliminal perception. e) sensory interaction. b) sensory adaptation. c) the illusory truth effect. 3. Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina? a) accommodation of the lens c) dilation of the pupils b) transduction of the cones d) sensory adaptation of feature detectors 4 Henry can easily read distant road signs. but words on a page appear blurred to him. Henry probably has: a) shorter-than-normal eyeballs. c) longer-than-normal eyeballs. b) smaller-than-normal feature detectors. d) larger-than-normal feature detectors. 5. As a rock musician who has experienced prolonged exposure to high-amplitude music. Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the: a) auditory canal. b) eardrum. c) tiny bones of the middle ear. d) cochlea. 6. The basilar membrane is lined with: a) hair cells. b) olfactory receptors. c) bipolar cells. d) feature detectors. 7. The transduction oflight energy into nerve impulses takes place in the: a) iris. b) retina. c) lens. d) optic nerve. e) rods. 8. The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the: a) sensory adaptation threshold c) subliminal threshold. b) difference threshold. d) absolute threshold. 9. Which cells are located closest to the back of the retina? a) ganglion cells b) bipolar cells c) rods and cones d) feature detectors 10. Perception is the process by which: a) stimulus energies are detected. b) stimulus energies are transformed into neural activity. c) sensory input is selected. organized. and interpreted. d) nerve cells respond to specific features of a stimulus. II. Compared to humans. cats have visual acuity and color vision. a) better; worse b) worse; better c) better; better d) worse; worse 12. Superman's eyes used . while his brain used _ a) perception; sensation c) bottom-up processing; top-down processing b) top-down processing, bottom-up processing d) sensory adaptation; subliminal perception 13. The process by which the lens changes its curvature is: a) accommodation. b) sensory adaptation. c) focusing. d) transduction. 14. The sensation of hot results from the simultaneous stimulation of adjacent spots on the skin. a) warmth and pain b) pain and cold c) cold and warmth d) warmth and pressure
15. Kinesthesis involves: a) the bones of the middle ear. b) information from the muscles, tendons, and joints. c) membranes within the cochlea. d) the body's sense of balance. 16. Most color-deficient people will probably: a) lack functioning red- or green-sensitive cones .. ~ b) see the world in only black and white. c) also suffer from poor vision. d) have above-average vision to compensate for the deficit. 17. The cochlea is to the ear as the is to the eye. a) pupil b) retina c) lens d) cornea e) optic nerve 18. The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by: a) the Young-Helmholtz theory. d) frequency theory. b) the gate-control theory. e) the opponent-process theory. c) place theory. 19. Mrs. Acheube is just beginning to experience sensorineural hearing loss. She is likely to have the greatest difficulty hearing sounds of frequency and amplitude. a),' low; low b) low; high c) high; low d) high; high 20. ~pponent-process cells have been located in the: i~) thalamus. b) cochlea. c) retina. d) cornea. e) spinal cord. 21. Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detectors in the of a monkey's visual system. a) fovea b) optic nerve c) iris d) cortex e) retina 22. 'Red light is to blue light as sounds are to .).J~.'~'J::;':"'*':' a) loud; soft. b) soft; loud c) high-pitched; low-pitched d) low-pitched; high-pitched 23. According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the: a) release of pain-killing endorphins in your brain. b) activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal cord. c) arousal of your autonomic nervous system and the release of adrenaline into your bloodstream d) deactivation of the pain receptors on the surface of your skin. 24. The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates. a) sensory interaction. d) subliminal.perception. b) kinesthesis. e) parallel processing. c) accommodation. 25. Elderly Mrs. Martinez finds that she must spice her food heavily or she cannot taste it. Unfortunately, her son often finds her cooking inedible because it is so spicy. What is the likely explanation for their taste differences? a) Women have higher taste thresholds than men. b) Men have higher taste thresholds than women. c) Being elderly, Mrs. Martinez probably has fewer taste buds than her son. d) All of the above are likely explanations. 26. According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to light are inhibited by exposure to light. a) green; blue b) yellow; red c) green; red d) red; blue e) yellow; green
27. Assuming that the visual systems of humans and other mammals function similarly, you would expect that the retina of a nocturnal mammal (one active only at night) would contain: a) mostly cones. b) mostly rods. c) an equal number of rods and cones. d) more bipolar cells than an animal active only during the day. 28. In order to experience color constancy it is helpful to view things: a) from very short distances. c) under low levels of illumination. b) for long periods of time. d) in relation to surrounding objects. 29. Hair cells are to audition as are to vision. a) rods and cones b) optic nerves c) pupils d) bipolar cells e) feature detectors 30. The blind spot is located in the area of the retina' a) called the fovea. b) that contains rods but no cones. c) where the optic nerve leaves the eye. d) where bipolar cells connect with ganglion cells. 31. After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Jason experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Jason's hearing loss is best explained by the theory. a) gate-control b) frequency c) Young-Helmholtz d) opponent-process e) place 32. Which of the following is true? a) The absolute threshold for any stimulus is a constant. b) The absolute threshold for any stimulus varies somewhat. c) The absolute threshold is defined as the minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to .,;~. oederecrco 1~ percent of the time. d) The absolute threshold is defined as the minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected 60 percent of the time. 33. Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride? a) olfactory receptors d) bipolar cells b) feature detectors e) semicircular canals c) basilar membranes 34. Color constancy refers to the fact that: a) light waves reflected by an object remain constant despite changes in lighting. b) objects are perceived to be the same color even if the light they reflect changes. c) the perceived color of an object has a constant relation to its brightness. d) the frequency of light waves is directly proportional to the light's wavelength. 35. Taste receptors are located: a) on the top of the tongue. c) on the roof of the mouth. b) on the sides of the tongue. d) in all the above places. 36. Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light" a) rods b) cones c) bipolar cells d) feature detectors 37. The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of a) the lowest pitches. c) the highest pitches. b) pitches of intermediate range. d) all of the above.
3S. Which of the following is the correct order of the structures through which light passes after entering the eye? a) lens, pupil, cornea, retina d) cornea, retina, pupil, lens b) pupil, cornea, lens, retina e) cornea, pupil, lens, retina c) pupil, lens, cornea, retina 39. Accommodation refers to the: a) diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus. b) system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, tendons, and joints. c) quivering eye movements that enable th~ retina to detect continuous stimulation. d) process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural messages. e) process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus images on the retina. 40. Damage to the basilar membrane is most likely to result in: a) loss of the sense of movement. d) loss of the sense of balance. b) loss of the sense of position. e) nerve deafuess. c) conduction hearing loss. 41. Seventy-five-year-old Claude has difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds. Most likely his hearing problem involves: a) his eardrum. c) the bones of his middle ear. b) / his auditory canal. d) the hair cells of his inner ear. 42. q1ven normal sensory ability, a person can hear a watch ticking in a silent room from 20 feet away. This i~ a descjiption of hearing's: a) difference threshold. b) jnd. c) absolute threshold. d) signal detection. 43. When most people starefirst at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of .tife circle appears: a) yellow. b) red. c) green. d) blue. 44. An SO-decibel sound is about times louder than a 60-decibel sound. a) 2 b) 10 c) 20 d) 100 e) 200 45. According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red- and green-sensitive cones are stimulated simultaneously, a person should see: a) red. b) yellow. c) blue. d) green. 46. The activation of some feature detectors in response to visual stimulation depends on our assumptions and interpretations of the sensory input. This best illustrates the importance of: a) difference thresholds. d) sensory interaction. b) sensory adaptation. e) accommodation. c) top-down processing. 47. The noise level at Sherry's place of work sometimes becomes quite intense. This is most likely to disrupt her ability to work efficiently if the noise: a) occurs primarily during her first hour at work each day. b) comes from the chattering of her co-workers. c) is experienced at unpredictable intervals throughout the day. d) is a repetitious, low-pitched, droning sound. ( 4S. The volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of: a) loudness. b) color. c) brightness. d) pain. e) pitch. 49. The hearing losses that occur with age are especially pronounced for: a) low-pitched sounds. b) middle-pitched sounds. c) high-pitched sounds. d) chords. 50. In what sense is there a correspondence between the experiences of hue and pitch? Discuss how the Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision and the place theory of pitch perception are conceptually similar or different.
51. Which theory best explains how we perceive low-pitched sounds? a) place theory c) frequency theory b) opponent-process theory d) the Young-Helmholtz theory 2. After staring at a very intense red stimulus for a few minutes, Carrie shifted her gaze to a beige wall and "saw" the color . Carrie's experience provides support for the theory. a) green; trichromatic c) green; opponent-process b) blue; opponent-process d) blue; trichromatic 53. The place theory of pitch perception cannot account for how we hear: a) low-pitched sounds. c) high-pitched sounds. b) middle-pitched sounds. d) chords (two pitches simultaneously). 54. Which of the following pain control techniques is emphasized in the Lamaze method of childbirth training'] a) accommodation b) acupuncture c) subliminal stimulation d) kinesthesis e) distraction. 55. Low-pitched sounds are to high-pitched sounds as colors are to colors. a) red; blue b) yellow; red c) purple; green d) green; orange e) purple; red 56. Firewalking without the experience of severe pain results from the: a) distraction of attention away from one's feet. b) poor heat conductivity of hot wood coals. c) activation of nerves in the spinal cord that block transmission of pain signals. d) alteration of body chemistry induced by a state of meditation. 57. Hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to as recognizing the sound sequence as a familiar melody is to _ a) the just noticeable difference; accommodation d) feature detection; sensory interaction b) absolute threshold; difference threshold e) sensation; perception c) sensory interaction; feature detection ...18. Which theory would suggest that watching a horror movie late at night could lower your absolute threshold for sound as you subsequently tried to fall asleep? a) sensory adaptation theory c) frequency theory b) opponent-process theory d) signal detection theory 59. Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the theory. a) frequency b) Young-Helmholtz c) gate-control d) opponent-process e) signal detection 60. Current research on sensory restriction indicates that: a) two days of sensory monotony typically results in a person experiencing dramatic hallucinations. b) a day or two of sensory monotony makes people highly vulnerable to brainwashing. c) a day of sensory monotony can reduce stress and facilitate self-control. d) sensory monotony makes people less sensitive to (lew and changing sensory inputs. 61. Which of the following explains why a rose appears equally red in bright and dim light? a) the Young-Helmholtz theory c) feature detection b) the opponent-process theory d) color constancy 62. The vibrations of the eardrum are amplified by three tiny bones located in the: a) eustachian tube. b) semicircular canals. c) inner ear. d) cochlea. e) middle ear. 63. Sensory adaptation refers to: a) the process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural impulses. b) diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus. c) the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information. d) changes in the shape of the lens as it focus - - of' objects.
64. When looking at the hands of a clock signifying 8 o'clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than if the hands signify 10 o'clock. This is most indicative of: a) sensory interaction. d) sensory interaction. b) feature detection. e) accommodation. c) parallel processing. 65. The olfactory cortex is located within the: a) frontal lobes. b) parietal lobes. c) occipital lobes. d) temporal lobes. 66. While competing in the Olympic trials, marathoner Kirsten O'Brien suffered a stress fracture in her left leg. That she did not experience significant pain until the race was over is probably attributable to the fact that during the race: a) the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain. b) her body's production of endorphins decreased. c) an increase in the activity of small pain fibers closed the pain gate. d) a decrease in the activity of large pain fibers closed the pain gate. e) a decrease in the activity oflarge pain fibers opened the pain gate. 67. The receptors for taste are located in the: a) taste buds. b) cochlea. c) fovea. d) cortex. 68. People's response to subliminal stimulation indicates that a),' they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so. .their subconscious minds are incapable of resisting subliminally presented suggestions. t) they are more sensitive to subliminal sounds than to subliminal sights. d) they experience a sense of discomfort whenever they are exposed to subliminal stimuli. 69. Brightness is to light as is to sound . . a) pitch b) loudness c) frequency d) amp.itude e) wavelength 70. Wavelength is to as is to brightness. a) hue; intensity b) intensity; hue c) frequency; amplitude d) brightness; hue 7l. During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly ever detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's: a) subliminal threshold. c) sensory adaptation threshold. b) absolute threshold. d) difference threshold. 72. One light may appear reddish and another greenish if they differ in: a) wavelength. b) amplitude. c) opponent processes. d) brightness. 73. According to place theory, the perception of sounds is associated with activity in the closest to the oval window. ---a) low-pitched; eardrum c) low-pitched; basilar membrane b) high-pitched; eardrum d) high-pitched; basilar membrane 74. Joe Wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that Joe's hearing loss involves problems within the: a) inner ear. b) middle ear. c) auditory nerve. d) basilar membrane. 75. Subliminally presented stimuli: a) can sometimes be consciously perceived. b) effectively influence purchases of consumer goods. c) increase our dislike for"certain geometric figures. d) are usually mentally processed as completely as any other stimuli.
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24. e Page: 184 25. c Page: 201 26. c Page: 187 27. b Page: 181 28. d Page: 188 29. a Page: ] 80, 190 30. e Page: 181 31. e Page: 192 32. b Page: 173 33. e Page: 204 34 b Page: 187 35. d Page: 200 36. b Page: 181 37. a Page: 192 38. e Page: 179 39. e Page 179 40. e Page: 193 41. d Page' 193 42. c Page: 172-173 43. a Page: 187 44 d Page: 189 45. b Page: 186 46. c Page: 183 47. c Page: 191
48. e Page: 192 49. c Page: 193 50. (No answer.) Page: (None) 51. c Page: 192 52. c Page: 187 53. a Page: 192 54. e Page: 199 55. a Page: 178 56. b Page: 200 57. e Page: 171 58. d Page: 173 59. b Page: 186 60. c Page: 205 61. d Page: 187-188 62. e Page: 190 63. b Page: 176 64. b Page: 182-183 65. d Page: 203 66. a Page: 198 67. a Page: 200 68 a Page: 174 69 b Page: 178, 189 70. a Page: 178 71. b Page: 173
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