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a) alternative medicine. e) spontaneous remission. b) biofeedback. c) psychophysiological illness. 2. Which of the following best explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections? a) Stress hormones accelerate the "hardening" of the arteries. b) Stress hormones facilitate the depositing of cholesterol and fat around the heart. c) Stress hormones suppress the production of lymphocytes. d) Stress hormones trigger release of digestive acids. 3. The level of serotonin in the brain is by a diet high in _ a) increased; carbohydrates b) decreased; salt c) increased; protein d) decreased; sugar 4. The best way to increase the production of serotonin is to: a) avoid high-carbohydrate foods. c) engage in aerobic exercise. b) make use of biofeedback. d) receive training in meditation. 5. Which of the following was offered in the text as a reason people continue to smoke? a) Social pressure from peers is strong. b) Cigarettes serve as powerful reinforcers. c) Regular use of nicotine impairs the brain's ability to produce neurotransmitters such as serotonin. d) Most adults who smoke don't really want to quit. 6. Researchers Friedman and Rosenman refer to individuals who are very time-conscious, supermotivated, verbally aggressive, and easily angered as: a) ulcer-prone personalities. b) cancer-prone personalities. c) Type A. d) Type B. 7. Philip's physician prescribes a stress management program to help Philip control his headaches. The physician has apparently diagnosed Philip's condition as a illness, rather than a physical disorder. a) psychogenic b) hypochondriac c) psychophysiological d) biofeedback 8. Research on obesity and weight control indicates that: a) when an obese person has lost weight, a diet and exercise program are no longer necessary for maintaining the lower weight. b) lean tissue is maintained by fewer calories than is fat tissue. c) overweight people typically suffer from a lack of willpower and self-discipline. d) no matter how carefully people diet, they can never lose fat cells. 9. A classmate argues that "the best way to handle stress is to work harder and meet life's challenges headon." Evaluate both the strengths and the weaknesses of your classmate's position. 10. Wild animals placed in zoos sometimes die shortly thereafter. These deaths are likely to result from a(n) ____ in the animals' production of _ a) decrease; lymphocytes d) increase; steroids b) increase; androgens e) decrease; teratogens c) decrease; cortisol 11. Cigarette smoking is associated with a addiction rate than for cocaine and a _ addiction rate than for heroin: a) higher; lower b) lower; higher c) higher; higher d) lower; lower
12. Lymphocytes are: a) harmful agents such as chemicals and viruses that cross the placenta from mother to fetus. b) stress hormones produced by the sympathetic nervous system. c) cancer cells that form in the lymph glands. d) white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system. 13. A psychophysiological illness is a(n): a) physical illness that produces a psychological disorder. b) illness that is not caused by a physical disorder but instead seems linked to stress. c) disease of the central nervous system. d) physical or psychological disorder that has a genetic component. 14. Connie complains to the campus psychologist that she has too much stress in her life. The psychologist tells her that the level of stress people experience depends primarily on: a) how many activities they are trying to do at the same time. b) how they appraise the events oflife. c) their physical hardiness. d) how predictable stressful events are. 15. Bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporation lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. Research suggests that Bernard's susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his: a) ambition. b) anger. c) impatience. d) perfectionism. e) competitiveness. 16. Research on the smoking habits of North Americans indicates that since the mid-1960s: a) smoking has decreased more rapidly among men than among women. b) smoking is more common among the rich than among the poor. c) the percentage of teenage smokers has increased. d) the overall percentage of North American smokers has remained very nearly the same. 17. College women who had been sexually abused as children were especially likely to report health problems if they had: a) grown up in a single-parent family. b) kept the abuse a secret. c) been victimized before age 5. d) been victimized by a stranger rather than by a close relative. 18. The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the: a) sympathetic nervous system. d) parasympathetic nervous system. b) immune system. e) reticular system. c) limbic system. 19. "Burnout" refers to the: a) physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion brought on by persistent job-related stress. b) formation of plaques in the coronary arteries. c) tendency to respond to stress with anger. d) suppression of immune responses. 20. The field of health psychology is concerned with: a) the prevention of illness. c) the treatment of illness. b) the promotion of health. d) all of the above.
21. Andrew, who is convinced that an expensive herbal remedy "cured" his arthritis, has decided to turn to homeopathy and herbal medicine for all of his health care. You caution him by pointing out that: a) arthritis is a cyclical disease that often improves on its own. b) botanical herbs have never been proven effective in controlled experiments. c) alternative medicine is a recent fad in this country that has few proponents in other parts of the world. d) All of the above are true. 22. The most rapid increase in nicotine tolerance occurs among smokers who: a) perceive a lack of personal control over their own lives. b) feel sick and dizzy the first time they smoke a cigarette. c) engage in regular aerobic exercise. d) are Type B personalities. 23. The leading cause of death in North America is: a) lung cancer. d) alcohol-related accidents. b) AIDS. e) accidents. c) coronary heart disease. 24. Ben is a self-employed accountant who works overtime during the first two weeks of April to finish his clients' tax forms before the filing deadline. During this time, Ben is most likely to showa(n): a) elevated blood cholesterol level. d) reduction in the release of cortisol. b) reduction in the release of epinephrine. e) proliferation of lymphocytes. c) elevated blood glucose level. 25. The deadly effects of AIDS most clearly result from a decreased production of: a) epinephrine. b) acetylcholine. c) cortisol. d) lymphocytes. e) androgens. 26. Young teens are most likely to start smoking in order to: a) facilitate their social acceptance. b) trigger the release of endorphins. c) boost their mental alertness. d) diminish their appetite for carbohydrates. e) relax their muscles and reduce their blood pressure. 27. Confiding one's fears and frustrations to supportive friends is likely to lymphocyte levels and cortisol levels. ---a) increase; increase b) decrease; decrease c) increase; decrease d) decrease; increase 28. Compared to their counterparts of 40 years ago, today's average American woman weighs and today's average Miss America contestant weighs _ a) less; more b) more; less c) less; less d) more; more 29. Aerobic exercise has been closely linked to a(n): a) decrease in lymphocyte production. c) increase in blood pressure in reaction to stress. b) decrease in depression. d) decrease in the production of endorphins. 30. Concluding her presentation on spirituality and health, Maja notes that: a) historically, religion and medicine joined hands in caring for the sick. b) most Americans believe that spirituality and religion are related to health. c) people who attend religious services weekly have healthier life-styles. d) all of the above are true. 31. Trevor, a college student, has tried to quit smoking on two different occasions. In each case, however, he relapsed into his old habit during the last few weeks of the school year. Explain the possible reasons for this relapse pattern and describe what Trevor can do to avoid repeated failure in his efforts to stop smoking.
32. Stress is defined as:
a) unpleasant or aversive events that cannot be controlled. b) situations that threaten health. c) the whole process by which we perceive and respond to challenging or threatening events. d) anything that decreases immune responses. State University's psychology department and school of medicine are co-sponsoring a new professional program that applies behavioral and medical knowledge to health and disease. State University will clearly be offering a new degree in: a) medical psychology. d) behavioral medicine. b) human engineering. e) neuropsychology. c) holistic medicine. The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are: a) attention, comprehension, and resistance. b) alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion. c) adrenal release, cognitive appraisal, and stomach ulceration. d) reactive frustration, sympathetic arousal, and parasympathetic inhibition. When Hans Selye injected rats with an ovarian hormone extract, he observed that: a) their right cerebral hemispheres became enlarged. b) the number of T lymphocytes in their body increased. c) their adrenal cortex shrank. d) their secondary sex characteristics became exaggerated. e) they developed bleeding ulcers. Smoking is especially common among young teens who: a) are not very self-conscious about their behavior. b) come from wealthy families. c) receive low grades in school. d) are highly popular among their classmates. Chronic anger the risk of heart disease and chronic depression the risk of heart disease. a) increases; decreases d) has no effect on; increases b) increases; increases e) increases; has no effect on c) decreases; decreases Following each of his acupuncture treatments, Warren has experienced relief from the nerve pain caused by my. His pain relief is most likely attributable to: a) a decrease in lymphocyte production. c) his Type A personality. b) an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. d) the placebo effect. One effect of the hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol is to: a) lower the level of cholesterol in the blood. b) promote the buildup of plaques on the artery walls. c) divert blood away from the muscles of the body. d) reduce stress. e) decrease the amount of fat stored in the body. Atherosclerosis is most likely to increase one's vulnerability to: a) stomach ulcers. b) obesity. c) high blood pressure. d) lung cancer. e) pneumonia. Ricardo has an important psychology exam in the afternoon. In an effort to improve his concentration and alertness, he orders a lunch that is high in and low in _ a) carbohydrates; protein b) carbohydrates; fat c) protein; carbohydrates d) protein; fat
42. John, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is John most likely experiencing? a) fight or flight b) resistance c) alarm reaction d) adjustment e) exhaustion 43. Which of the following was not suggested as possible explanation of the "faith factor" in health? a) Having a coherent worldview is a buffer against stress. b) Religious people tend to have healthier life-styles. c) Those who are religious have stronger networks of social support. d) Because they are more affiuent, religiously active people receive better health care. 44. A white blood cell that is formed in the thymus and that attacks cancer cells is: a) a macrophage. b) a B lymphocyte. c) a T lymphocyte. d) any of the above. 45. Studies have demonstrated that meals that are high in promote relaxation because they raise levels of ---a) carbohydrates; serotonin b) carbohydrates; cortisol c) protein; serotonin d) protein; cortisol 46. Research on stressful life events indicates that: a) those who live a relatively peaceful, monastic life actually suffer a higher-than-average rate of heart attacks. b) those who have been recently widowed or divorced are more vulnerable to disease and death. c) survivors of a natural disaster are immunized against stress and have fewer long-term health problems. d) all the above are true. 47. I am a widely abused drug that has a calming effect by stimulating the release of dopamine in the central nervous system. What am I? a) caffeine b) alcohol c) nicotine d) cocaine 48. Who is the best example of a Type A personality? a) Philip, a competitive, hard-driving corporation president b) Ho, a relaxed, easy-going mail carrier c) Valentin, a self-confident, intelligent journalist d) Thomas, an introverted, inhibited mental patient 49. A loss of perceived control tends to result in: a) the proliferation oflymphocytes. c) a reduction in the release of cortisol. b) the suppression of immune responses. d) all the above. 50. Aviad, a 50-year-old banking executive and Type A personality, recently suffered a serious heart attack. To prevent a recurrence, Aviad would probably benefit most from: a) strenuous exercise. b) early retirement. c) relaxation training. d) pain control medication. 51. The risk of heart disease is increased by: a) smoking. b) lack of exercise. c) hypertension. d) all the above. 52. Research studies demonstrate that after a catastrophe rates of often increase. a) psychological disorders d) all of the above b) stress-related illnesses e) none of the above c) death 53. Prolonged stress due to sustained military combat is associated with a decrease in the size of a brain structure vital to: a) memory. b) sexual behavior. c) motor reflexes. d) speech production.
54. During biofeedback training: a) a subject is given sensory feedback for a subtle body response. b) biological functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system may come under conscious control. c) the accompanying relaxation is much the same as that produced by other, simpler methods of relaxation. d) all of the above occur. 55. Compared to men, women: a) have stronger immune systems. b) are less susceptible to infections. c) are more susceptible to self-attacking diseases such as multiple sclerosis. d) have none of the above characteristics. e) have all the characteristics described in a., b., and c. 56. The tendency to overeat when food is plentiful: a) is a recent phenomenon that is associated with the luxury of having ample food. b) emerged in our prehistoric ancestors as an adaptive response to alternating periods of feast and famine. c) is greater in developed, than in developing, societies. d) is stronger in women than in men. 57. In one experiment, both "executive" rats and "subordinate" rats received identical electric shocks, the only difference being whether the shocks could be: a) predicted. b) weakened. c) shortened. d) controlled. 58. According to the text, one-half of all deaths from the 10 leading causes of death in the United States can be attributed to: a) stress. b) obesity. c) nutrition. d) behavior. 59. Resistance to stress is greatest during of the GAS. a) Phase 1 b) Phase 2 c) Phase 3 d) Phase 4 60. Which of the following would be the best piece of advice to offer a person who is trying to minimize the adverse effects of stress on his or her health? a) "Avoid challenging situations that may prove stressful." b) "Learn to playas hard as you work." c) "Maintain a sense of control and a positive approach to life." d) "Keep your emotional responses in check by keeping your feelings to yourself" 61. Which theory seems to offer the best explanation for why adolescents start smoking? a) neurobiological b) psychoanalytic c) social-cognitive d) trait 62. Mr. O'Brian is a high school teacher who suffers from hypertension and depression. Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise would his depression and his hypertension. a) reduce; reduce d) have no effect on; reduce b) reduce; have no effect on e) have no effect on; have no effect on c) reduce; increase 63. British civil service workers in executive positions live longer than those in clerical positions. This best illustrates the value of: a) spontaneous remission. c) the general adaptation syndrome. b) perceived control. d) alternative medicine. 64. Social support our ability to cope with stressful events. a) has no effect on b) usually increases c) usually decreases d) has an unpredictable effect on
65. A national heath survey recently indicated that the longest life expectancies were associated with those Americans who attended religious services: a) less than once a year. b) less than once a week. c) once a week. d) more than once a week. 66. Which of the following statements concerning Type A and B persons is true? a) Even when relaxed, Type A persons have higher blood pressure than Type B persons. b) When stressed, Type A persons show greater output of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol than Type B persons. c) Type B persons tend to suppress anger more than Type A persons. d) Type A persons tend to sleep more than Type B persons. e) Type A persons tend to drink fewer caffeinated drinks than Type B persons. 67. In one study, laboratory rats drank sweetened water with a drug that causes immune suppression. After repeated pairings of the taste with the drug: a) the animals developed tolerance for the drug and immune responses returned to normal. b) sweet water alone triggered immune suppression. c) dependency on the drug developed and withdrawal symptoms appeared when the drug was withheld. d) many of the animals died. 68. A study in which people were asked to confide troubling feelings to an experimenter found that subjects typically: a) did not truthfully report feelings and events. b) experienced a sustained increase in blood pressure until the experiment was finished. c) became physiologically more relaxed after confiding their problem. d) denied having any problems. 69. Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that: a) obesity is less common among Americans today than in 1900. b) weight resemblance is greater among identical twin women than among identical twin men. c) the fatness of adopted people is positively correlated with the fatness of their adoptive parents. d) obesity is currently more common among American lower-class women than among American upperclass women. 70. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol: a) are released by the thymus and lymph glands. b) accelerate the proliferation of lymphocytes. c) divert blood flow from muscle tissue to the body's internal organs. d) accelerate the buildup of plaques on artery walls. e) decrease heart rate and blood pressure. 71. Life expectancy is correlated with wealth and correlated with income inequality. a) positively; positively c) positively; negatively b) negatively; negatively d) negatively; positively 72. Research on obesity indicates that: a) pound for pound, fat tissue requires more calories to maintain than lean tissue. b) once fat cells are acquired they are never lost, no matter how rigorously one diets. c) one pound of weight is lost for every 3500-calorie reduction in diet. d) when weight drops below the set point, hunger and metabolism also decrease. 73. Research suggests that influences often lead a person to start smoking, whereas _ influences become important in explaining why people continue to smoke. a) biological; social b) social; biological c) biological; cognitive d) cognitive; biological
74. The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to oxygen consumption and ____ finger temperature. a) decrease; decrease b) increase; increase c) increase; decrease d) decrease; increase 75. The impact of obesity on life expectancy is most devastating for: a) white men. b) black men. c) white women. d) black women.
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b Page: 634 73. b Page: 636-637 74. d Page: 618 75. a Page: 633
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