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OFDM Based Adaptive Beam Forming for Hybrid

OFDM Based Adaptive Beam Forming for Hybrid

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OFDM based Adaptive Beamforming for Hybrid Terrestrial-Satellite Mobile System with Pilot Reallocation

Ammar H. Khan, Muhammad A. Imran, Barry G. Evans
Centre for Communication Systems Research (CCSR) University of Surrey, United Kingdom, GU2 7XH Email: {A.H.Khan, M.Imran, B.Evans}@surrey.ac.uk
Abstract—Next generation networks will have to provide global connectivity to ensure success. Both satellite and terrestrial networks cannot guarantee this on their own. This incapability is attributed to capacity coverage issues in densely populated areas for satellites and lack of infrastructure in rural areas for terrestrial networks. Therefore, we consider a hybrid terrestrialsatellite mobile system based on frequency reuse. However, this frequency reuse introduces severe Co-Channel Interference (CCI) at the satellite end. To mitigate CCI, we propose an OFDM based adaptive beamformer implemented on-board the satellite with pilot reallocation at the transmitter side. Results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional approach.

I. I NTRODUCTION In the recent years, demand for high rates has been on the rise. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been extensively studied as a solution due to its higher bandwidth efficiency and robustness against Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) in multi-path environment. Furthermore, the combination of OFDM with advanced antenna systems is being viewed as the architecture for the next generation high capacity communication networks. However high data rates alone do not guarantee an efficient communication network. An omnipresent high quality service is the essence of a successful communication network. Future networks will have to incorporate global connectivity to ensure success. However, such coverage is not viable through stand-alone terrestrial networks due to the lack of infrastructure in rural areas. Neither can satellite networks guarantee this due to reduced signal penetration and capacity coverage issues in densely populated areas. This motivates existence of a hybrid architecture where users are served via terrestrial mobile networks in urban areas, while satellite provides service in rural areas. The end-user will use the same terminals for both the networks thus enabling transparent service provisioning. Enabling such transparency will require a powerful satellite end in order to ensure required link margin. Furthermore, in this system terrestrial and satellite networks can reuse the spectrum dedicated to each other. Thus, this transparent and complimentary architecture offers lower cost, higher data rates and increased overall capacity. However frequency reuse induces severer CCI which is fundamental impediment to the realisation of high capacity communication

systems. In relation to our system, the nature of hybrid architecture causes a considerable increase in dynamic CCI from mobile to satellite in the uplink scenario and thus CCI would dominate the system performance. A similar hybrid architecture with frequency reuse concept has been pursued by Mobile Satellite Ventures (MSV) [1] based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CCI induced due to frequency reuse is mitigated using ground based beamforming. However MSV architecture does not seamlessly blend with the existing terrestrial mobile infrastructure and fails to exploit this advantage. Moreover, the demand for high data rates has driven research for 4th Generation (4G) networks. These networks such as 3GPP LTE are based on OFDM and hence for hybrid terrestrial-satellite network to offer 4G services, the underlying technologies must be similar. Broadly two classes of OFDM based adaptive beamforming are present in the literature; time domain [2] and frequency domain [3]. However most of the work in literature relates to terrestrial systems and assumes AWGN channel conditions. Others using practical channel models are not related to mobile satellite scenario [4]–[7]. There is some work in satellite scenarios but focused on CDMA based system [1], [8], [9]. With regards to interference management, most satellites like Inmarsat-4 [10] use ground based non-adaptive beamforming. Such an architecture is suitable for broadcasting applications but will not be compatible in a two-way interactive communication scenario. Hence adaptive beamforming on-board the satellite becomes essential in a two-way mobile satellite scenario in order to handle dynamic CCI in the hybrid framework. To alleviate performance degradation due to frequency selective channel, adaptive beamforming would have to be followed by channel estimation. However for accurate estimation, the signal at the output of the beamformer must be interference free. This interference free signal is not available to the channel estimation block until the beamformer converges. Training symbols may be used to assist beamformer’s convergence, however this would reduces the overall throughput. We propose an architecture where dispersed pilots from OFDM symbols are repositioned to form a preamble at the transmitter side without affecting data throughput. Beamforming is then initiated at the receiver end using preamble, while channel

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However in presence of interference this will result in poor channel estimation until beamformer converges. K represents the sub-carrier locations whereas I represents the pilot locations such that |I| = N for l ≤ L and |I| = P for l > L where P represents number of pilots in each OFDM data symbol. After signal passes through wireless channel. 2. 2 illustrates the block diagram of the proposed OFDM based hybrid architecture. 3. The following notations will be used throughout the paper. . . . ˜ A and A denote a matrix in time domain and frequency domain respectively. . beamforming is applied at the satellite end to mitigate CCI. To address the problem we propose pilot reallocation scheme depicted in 3(b) where predefined number of pilots from every symbol are dispersed to form a preamble. . whereas X represents a matrix of mapped data and pilots for all users. J. With respect to the system. .Gateway Link Desired Signal Interference Signals me Ti L Frequency Pilots Modulated Data Gateway (a) Conventional scheme BTS Satellite Rural Coverage Terrestrial Urban Coverage Ti me Lʹ L BTS Frequency (b) Proposed scheme Fig. ξ2 . j)] and (·)T denotes ˜ the transpose operation. L. ξP } 1<l≤L l≤L l>L (3) ˜ X(n. Mapping of modulated data and pilots for lth OFDM symbol. . Due to onboard implementation and mild satellite channel environment. . . Hybrid System Scenario The hybrid architecture introduced earlier is expected to offer global coverage via combining terrestrial and satellite networks. L represents the preamble size in number of OFDM symbols and N represent the total number of sub-carriers. We also assume no time or frequency offsets exist in the system. . A. a represents a vector whereas a(n. a link between mobile and satellite is modelled as Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). . 1. j). . In conventional architecture depicted in Fig. . j) ∀n∈K T (6) x ˜ ˜ where xj = [˜(1. is presented in (1)−(4). pilots are uniformly dispersed over all OFDM symbols. . The rest of the paper is organised as follows: Section II describes the hybrid system scenario and the proposed OFDM system model with joint beamforming and channel estimation. . If in conventional scheme total P pilots per symbol were transmitted. L . 2. then the preamble size can be expressed as: L = (P − P ) × L N −P (P − P ) ≥ 0 (5) The output vector of the data and pilot mapping process for the j th user can be expressed as: xj ˜ ˜ X(n. This enables the beamformer at the receiver to converge prior to any channel estimation processing. m) represents an element at the nth row and mth column of matrix A. We focus on the mitigation of CCI induced by mobile terminals from the perspective of a Geostationary (GEO) satellite. N } I K {ξ1 . . . OFDM System Model with Pilot Reallocation Fig. II. H YBRID T ERRESTRIAL -S ATELLITE S YSTEM M ODEL In this section. . where l = 1. B. . we employ less complex time domain beamforming. Hybrid system scenario Fig. j). we discuss the hybrid architecture and the system model devised to investigate the system performance. j) ˜ X(n. xp (n) ˜j xq (n) ˜j where K = {1. with 1 desired user denoted as d being served by the satellite and rest being served by BTSs. . Schematic of pilot allocation in proposed and conventional schemes estimation as well as decoding of desired user data only begins after this preamble period. x(2. 1 depicts the devised system scenario with hybrid framework. j) ∀n∈I ∀ n ∈ (K \ I) (1) (2) (4) Here xp (n) and xq (n) are column vectors representing pilots ˜j ˜j ˜ and data of j th user respectively. Random source data is QPSK modulated and interspersed with pilots at known locations. 3(a). . Fig. 2. . Total users were J. A represents a set and \ represents set difference. This is then transformed into the time domain which can be expressed as: . x(N. Section III presents the results and performance analysis and Section IV concludes the paper. j = 1. . L + 1. .

j). . j). The output of the array is processed by the beamformer to mitigate CCI. We model a linear array of antenna elements hence da = λ/2. j). j)]T is the final OFDM symbol in time domain to be transmitted. .User J User j+1 User j Source Data S/P QPSK Modulator Pilot Insertion ~ xj xj Cyclic Prefix Extension xj IFFT hJ [k] hj+1 [k] hj [k] xj [k] Wireless P/S Channel To Reciever ~ re Source Data P/S QPSK De-Modulator Channel Estimation ~ r Adaptive Beamformer V Cyclic Prefix Removal yj[k] Noise FFT S/P r Noise Noise Fig. n) and a(s. r(N )] is the weighted output of beamformer and w = [w(1). . . ⎣. . Using (7). . The array response a(s.G H ˜ F xj IN (9) where s = 1.. j) = e(−j2π(s−1)da sin(θj )/λ) (12) (8) F represents the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operation and (·)H denotes the Hermitian transpose. . Similarly v(s. 1 ⎢1 ⎢ F = ⎢. . After transformation to the time domain. This is followed by Parallel-to-Serial (P/S) conversion and then transmission over multi-tap time selective wireless channel. b(s. Representing the channel transfer function at pilots positions. which can be expressed as: r = wH V (13) Here xj = [x(N − G + 1. the signal from desired and CCI sources is received. j). da is the inter-element spacing. x(N. x(N − ¯ 1. Channel estimation thus becomes essential before ˜ is decoded since different r fading exists across OFDM sub-carriers. . . e−j2π(N −1)(1)/N e−j2π(1)(N −1)/N . 2. j) can be mathematically expressed as: a(s. . Several channel estimation techniques can be employed [11]. . j) . θj is the Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) of the j th user and λ is the carrier wavelength. 2. whose effect can be presented as: ¯ yj [k] = xj [k] ⊗ hj [k] ¯ (10) where r = [r(1). . j). OFDM system model xj = FH xj ˜ where. C. This is followed by Serial-to-Parallel (S/P) conversion and transformation of r to the frequency domain. . which can be mathematically expressed as: ˜ = FrH r (14) where k and ⊗ denote the time index and time convolution operation respectively. . . IN. j) represents the array output and array response respectively. w(2).G denotes the last G rows of identity matrix IN which is of size N . a cyclic prefix is appended where last G elements of the OFDM symbol are copied to the start. x(1. Noise is modelled as independent and identically distributed gaussian with zero mean and σ 2 variance. n) is an element of B and represents the noise at the sth antenna elements and nth sub-carrier. ··· 1 (7) V = AY H + B (11) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ e−j2π(1)(1)/N . S are the total number of satellite antenna elements. x(2. r(2). however we employ the Least Squares (LS) algorithm. . . e−j2π(N −1)(N −1)/N Here. this can be mathematically represented as: xj = ¯ IN. . . Joint Adaptive Beamforming and Channel Estimation At the satellite antenna elements. . The received signal matrix for lth OFDM symbol after cyclic prefix removal can be expressed as: The proposed architecture utilises one weight per antenna element in a multi-path fading environment. x(N − G + 2. . 1 ⎡ 1 ··· ··· . we get: ˜ r h(n) = diag{˜d (n)}−1˜(n) x ∀n∈I (15) . . . x(N. w(S)]T are the applied complex weights. .

16. The weight updation is performed until all OFDM data symbols of the desired user have been decoded. Both proposed and conventional schemes having pilots at {1.5 -110. Conventional 60 kmph. 000 which using (5) yields L = 357 OFDM symbols.3 260. unless mentioned otherwise. e−j2π(ξP ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ )(N −1)/N (19) After the calculation of the error vector. Proposed BER 10 −1 The data sub-carriers in ˜e can be decoded directly.8.5 -112. Fig. The performance of proposed . e−j2π(ξ1 )(N −1)/N e−j2π(ξP . It should be noted that we assume an uncoded system as well as a wide range of interference locations for the purpose of analysis. For the r next OFDM symbol.3 Power [dB] -91.. which can be presented as: e = FH ˜ p e (18) For l ≤ L . computation of new complex weights is required. Conventional 3 kmph. Hence a frequency-totime transform is used to convert error vector for the lth OFDM symbol to frequency domain. this transform matrix is equal to (8). In the first scenario.2 -112. Moreover. Rice factor (K-factor) = 10 dB. This performance improvement is attributed to superior CCI mitigation due to preamble and then channel estimation processing on CCI mitigated signal. ⎣ . The multi-path phenomena is modelled as linear Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter whereas time selectivity is modelled using Jakes model [13]. This is then used to cancel the channel effect.32} and {1. L throughout is taken as 10.9 1953.24. 4 presents the results in terms of achieved Bit Error Rate (BER). we implement the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm [12] to update the complex weights of the beamformer. Total subcarriers in an OFDM symbol are taken as 32. This computation is performed using Mean Squared Error (MSE) based adaptive algorithm which takes error between transmitted and received pilot sequence of the desired user as an input. However. ··· 1 ⎤ )(1)/N ⎢ e−2π(ξ1 )(1)/N ⎢ Fp = ⎢ .3 -110. It is interesting to note that improvement is also observed at 60 kmph speed. One desired user was at 40◦ azimuth while interference users were located at -70◦ .32} respectively were implemented.1 -112. We observe a significant difference in performance amongst proposed and conventional schemes even though the proposed scheme has one less pilot in OFDM data symbols as compare to conventional scheme.Estimation is not performed for preamble period and hence ˜ (15) is only valid for l > L . h(n) represents the channel estimates at pilot sub-carriers for the desired user and diag{·} represents a matrix formed by putting elements of a vector at the diagonal entries of the matrix with zeros at all off-diagonal ˜ entries. Signal bandwidth was taken as 5 MHz with centre frequency being 3 GHz. The channel parameters used are specific to mobile satellite scenario and were measured as part of the EU project MAESTRO [14]. III.1 2734. which can be expressed as: ˜ r ˜e = diag{h}−1˜ r l>L (16) 10 0 3 kmph. However for l > L it can be presented as: ⎡ 1 ··· ··· .3 1171.5 The error obtained is in the frequency domain whereas beamforming is performed in time domain. the proposed scheme would not provide gain. The channel parameters used are tabulated in Table I. Estimates h(n) are then linearly interpolated at n ∈ ˜ (K \ I) and the output can be expressed as h. 4. . . Proposed 60 kmph. 65◦ and 80◦ azimuth.9 -106. One would expect that with lesser pilots in OFDM data symbols and more Inter Carrier Interference (ICI). . . TABLE I RURAL C HANNEL PARAMETERS Tap Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Delay [ns] 0 195.11. BER vs desired user SNR for two schemes with change in mobile speed. performance of the two schemes was studied with different mobile speeds in rural environment. w[l + 1] = w[l] + 2μV[l]e[l] (20) Here μ represents the LMS adaptive step size which controls the algorithm convergence.4 846. Antenna elements = 3. The convergence also depends on interference scenario and channel conditions. -35◦ . P ERFORMANCE A SIMO OFDM system with per link one transmit and 3 receive antenna elements was modelled. simulation results show that pilot reallocation scheme still exhibits better performance in terms of BER. thus fair comparison is established with no pilot overhead. This error vector can be expressed as: ˜ = ˜(n) − xd (n) e r ˜ ∀n∈I (17) 10 −2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Desired User SNR (dB) 14 16 18 20 Fig.22. however less in terms of gain.

“A blockby-block blind post-FFT beamforming algorithm for multiuser OFDM systems based on subcarrier averaging. and T. this work was partially conducted under the SATNEX II EU project to whom due acknowledgment is made. Proposed 8 7 6 BER Gain (dB) 5 4 3 2 1 Mobile Speed = 60 kmph Mobile Speed = 3 kmph BER 10 −1 10 −2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Desired User SNR (dB) 14 16 18 20 0 100 200 300 Preamble Size (OFDM Symbols) 400 Fig. and National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST). U. IEEE 8th Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications SPAWC 2007. “Adaptive beamforming algorithm for OFDM systems with antenna arrays. 1–5. and B. However.” in Proc. Puri. A. To investigate this. Viswanath. pp. “Comparison of pre-FFT and post-FFT processing adaptive arrays for OFDM systems in the presence of cochannel interference. 2. S. BER vs desired user SNR for two schemes in different environments. “Adaptive beam-forming with interference supression in MSS with ATC. pp. 1996.com [9] D. WiCOM 2006. The gain reduces with increase in speed. “Interference potential to MSS due to terrestrial reuse of satellite band frequencies. Prentice. C. 2004. “A study of channel estimation in OFDM systems.-C. Chi. “A blind adaptive beamforming for OFDM system. the BER performance gain is lesser in the case of urban due to severer channel conditions. Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering. Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. Also. the proposed architecture reduces CCI significantly in the preamble phase and hence outperforms the conventional approach.10 0 9 Rural. pp. Cho.K: Cambridge Univ. M. Tse and P. Available: www. pp. “Fast-convergence SMI adaptive beamforming based on frequency-to-time pilot transform for OFDM system. [8] P. 17–20 June 2007. Rural K-factor = 10 dB. Urban K-factor = 7 dB. [14] Deliverable D8-3 EC FP6/IST MAESTRO. [2] C. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Ammar H.” in Proc. 2000. [Online]. 4.” USA Patent 6 684 057. Harada. Available: http://maestro. [3] H.com/About/Our satellites (accessed on: 11 June 2009) [11] S. 6 depicts the BER gain achieved by the proposed technique against preamble size for 3 kmph and 60 kmph mobile speeds in rural environment. [5] M. however the proposed scheme still performs better. 1–5. 2.” vol. Karabinis. D. pilot locations in the OFDM data symbols were kept same for the proposed scheme. [7] H. 1208–1211.” vol. Fig. 2002.-Y. Chapman. Peng. K. Cambridge. “Adaptive antenna arrays for interference cancellation in OFDM communication systems with virtual carriers. 46. 56. Wang. [Online]. 1052–1058. Simulation results verify that even at higher speed. SNR = 20dB.-H. W. N.” in Proc. By induction of preamble.fr/ (accessed on: 16 April 2009) scheme highlights the importance of CCI mitigation and how system performance can be improved if channel estimation is done on interference mitigated signal. Press. Ergen. 7–10 Sept. Adaptive Filter Theory. Fig. and Y. no. Pakistan for supporting him to undertake this work. Liu and Q. July 2007. BER Gain vs preamble size with different mobile speeds.msvlp. vol. 5 represents the result for both schemes in rural and urban environments.8 -100 Fig. 24–28 Sept. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications PIMRC 2003. VTC 2002-Fall Vehicular Technology Conference 2002 IEEE 56th.-K.-S.-F. [13] D. 2005. Haykin. Chen and C. Lee.” in Proc. Mobile speed = 3 kmph. Nov. [6] C.International Conference on Wireless Communications. 22–24 Sept. pp. pp. United Kingdom .gfi. 6. K. Kim.” in Proc.inmarsat. The channel parameters used for the urban case are tabulated in Table II. Matsuoka and H.com [10] Inside the Inmarsat-4 satellites. 894–898. 5. 1–4 May 2005. It was observed that the performance gain increased as a function of preamble size hence verifying that preamble can play a crucial role in the interference mitigation process of the beamformer. the proposed approach shows promising results without increase in total number of transmitted pilots. Karabinis.” [Online]. C. S. It can be seen that the proposed scheme outperforms conventional approach in both rural and urban environment.-H. [4] Y. W. no. TABLE II U RBAN C HANNEL PARAMETERS Tap Index 1 2 Delay [ns] 0 130. Antenna elements = 3. D. K. Shoki. Available: www. an adaptive beamformer with pilot reallocation at the transmitter side was proposed.msvlp. Feng. [12] S. IV. Tsai. Zheng and P. A. D. 4. vol. Khan would like to thank Centre for Communication Systems and Research (CCSR). 1837–1844. Conventional Rural. 2003.” [Online]. Proposed Urban. 1603–1607. Lei and H. while the preamble size was varied. Dutta. Colieri. Conventional Urban. Available: www. Karabinis. 2006. pp. R EFERENCES [1] P. January 27. “Systems and methods for terrestrial reuse of cellular satellite frequency spectrum. 14th IEEE on Personal. C ONCLUSION In this paper. Networking and Mobile Computing. and W. Huang. Ma.2 Power [dB] -91.

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