BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY

A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO

Este material ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el Personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las estructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal.

Con mucho afecto y gratitud a la querida Institución, que me ha permitido servir con entusiasmo y crecer profesionalmente.

Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña
Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y la Escuela de Telecomunicaciones del Ejército de Chile. jmoyam@profing.tie.cl

Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual N° 151.465 I.S.B.N. N° 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar

INDICE
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• Prologo _________________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apendices ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

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Prólogo
Prólogo El profesor Juan Moya Montaña me ha distinguido con la solicitud de prologar Structures and Vocabulary, texto de autoaprendizaje de gramática inglesa básica para adultos. Este manual forma parte del esfuerzo permanente del profesor Moya por contribuir al mejoramiento de la enseñanza de este idioma en el Ejército. El autor me concede la oportunidad de testimoniar mi reconocimiento y felicitarlo por su larga trayectoria como profesor vinculado al Ejército de Chile.* También, me permite hacerle llegar el sentimiento –y creo ser portador de cientos de integrantes de la institución– de profundo afecto hacia el comprometido teacher que, sacrificando horas de descanso, acudió en auxilio de tantos de nosotros cuando, con desesperación y a última hora, buscábamos incrementar nuestro nivel de inglés para cumplir alguna misión encomendada. Al respecto, permítaseme una anécdota. Ella no es sino un ejemplo –me atrevo a decirlo– de miles de vivencias que oficiales y cuadro permanente tuvimos para tratar de estar “a la altura”, poder entender y hacernos entender en un idioma extranjero; casi siempre en la víspera de una comisión de servicio o destinación que así lo exigía. Se vivía el mes de octubre de 1980 y el infrascrito –entonces mayor– recibió la orden de presentarse, ¡en una semana! (después se transformaron en 15 días) al curso de Estado Mayor en el Army War College de Pretoria, Sudáfrica, donde se suponía que las clases eran dictadas en inglés y en afrikaans. Esta designación cambiaba sorpresivamente mi destino a una unidad en Chile, luego de que mi participación en el curso de Estado Mayor en la Escuela Superior de Guerra de Francia fuera cancelada, debido al cese de los intercambios castrenses con dicho país. Ello, después de haber concluido –junto a mi compañero, el mayor Hernán Reyes– una metódica preparación en el idioma francés. Y aquí surge el reconocido rasgo de la personalidad del profesor Juan Moya. Enfrentado él a nuestra poca preparación y escaso tiempo disponible, se entregó de lleno y con entusiasmo a esta titánica tarea. Ésta consistió en clases diarias, donde el profesor Moya fue mi sombra; disparando verbos, haciéndome repetir pertinazmente cientos de palabras para aumentar mi vocabulario; exigiéndome el spelling de todo el abecedario, números y unidades de medida. Esto ocurría durante todo el día, en medio de entregas, cierre de oficina, firmas de actas y trámites para sacar pasaporte. Nunca podré olvidar esas cuatro últimas noches en que nos acompañó, a Isabel y a mí, desde las 9 de la noche hasta las 3 de la madrugada, impartiendo sus lecciones, haciéndonos preguntas a las cuales respondíamos encaramados sobre cajas, baúles y maletas. Si este relato no indica voluntad de servicio y entrega, creo que ningún otro podría reflejar ese espíritu de cooperación del distinguido autor y amigo. De esa traumática experiencia nació la decisión –con el gran apoyo de mis superiores, primero, y, luego, en el ejercicio de mis funciones como CJE.–, de buscar un cambio integral que permitiera a
* El Profesor Juan Moya Montaña fue contratado como Ayudante de Profesor para la Escuela Militar el 1 de marzo de 1970 y prestó servicios a la institución por 30 años en forma continua en el ya mencionado Instituto Matriz, en la Academia de Guerra y en el Comando de Institutos Militares.
A short course in english for adult students

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los oficiales y cuadro permanente del Ejército incorporar al inglés como un segundo idioma, exigible mediante un proceso regulado, que combinara el interés personal y el apoyo institucional para el logro del objetivo. Bien conocemos el sistema vigente que se orienta a tal propósito. Vayan aquí mis agradecimientos también a todos los que lo han construido; también a cuantos han debido “sufrir” el proceso. Sin duda, estos últimos, ahora se dan cuenta que han adquirido una herramienta básica en la formación de un profesional militar moderno. Con todo, no quisiera dejar la impresión que en el Ejército habría existido una despreocupación o falta de eficiencia en esta materia. Por el contrario, nuestros legendarios profesores de inglés, tanto de la Escuela Militar como de la Academia de Guerra del Ejército –Mr. Lühr, Mr. Clerc, Mr. Parada, Mr. Sepúlveda, y otros–, buscaban el mismo propósito. Y, por supuesto, obtenían resultados acordes a las horas, tiempos, sistemas e interés de los alumnos y de la institución por el tema. Lo que pasó fue que las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional al Ejército superaron el sistema vigente; pero no así la voluntad, vocación y entrega de esos ejemplares maestros. Tampoco, el permanente interés de la institución por el asunto. De allí surge la necesidad del cambio, conocido por todos, hacia la actual estructura de la Escuela de Idiomas del Ejército y la aplicación de un modelo educacional en la materia, que ya cubre varias lenguas (desde el inglés al chino mandarín, incluyendo también las originarias rapanui, mapudungun y aimara), donde nuestro personal se prepara sistemática y formalmente con una gran dosis de compromiso personal en esta tarea. Este libro, sin duda, contribuirá a formar parte de las múltiples variables que configuran este todo: la formación en idiomas extranjeros del personal del Ejército para capacitarlos al nivel que hoy exige nuestra profesión y las características de un mundo globalizado.

Juan Emilio Cheyre Espinosa General de Ejército Comandante en Jefe del Ejército

Santiago, enero de 2006.

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A short course in english for adult students

Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar. 4. adjetivos. 7. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. 2. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar. Leer. frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. 9. etc. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. A short course in english for adult students 7 . No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. 5. Estudiar las ilustraciones. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos. estudiar y estudiar. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. 3. 8. 6. verbos.Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%). con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores.). estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. preposiciones.

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often. quarter past / to. twice a week. What size?. water.. at present. How thick?. work.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 • TO BE (Present. How long?. How long?.NOT ANY .etc. Countable nouns: people. Past and Future) • THE ENGLISH ALPHABET • THE PHONETIC ALPHABET • What?. For • Now. etc. usually. What color?. the day after tomorrow.NO . tomorrow. generally. These. little.. temporarily. milk. etc. Where?.. etc. How wide?. How? Whom?.. • ARTICLES II . ORDINAL NUMBERS How deep?. O´clock. half past. sugar. next week. like? For describing people and things. How far?.ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: . How?. Always. What time?. What is / are . very little. the day before yesterday. How fast?. lots of. At. at the moment. Those. students. What kind of?. last week / last year / last Monday. Until. yesterday. Time and Dates UNIT 5 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information.Numerals. Who?. On.. • VOCABULARY: . sometimes. Why?. How high?. What sort of?. etc. very few UNIT 3 • • • • • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I .People • How much? How many? • Much. A(N). What?. three times a year. In . Why?. How often?. every week. at night Noon / midday. two days ago UNIT 2 • THERE TO BE (Present.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and Which • VOCABULARY: . every month. Who?. etc. few. How big?. books. minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening...Clothes • • • • Every day. Once a day. a lot.. The . Which?. Whose?. today. many. How old? How long? What time? • This. never.Time expressions (I) . QUESTION WORDS 1 What shape?. for the time INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS being. midnight UNIT 4 • • • • • PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE • Now.Adjectives • • • • • Uncountable nouns: money. How tall?.Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: . at this time. How many?. When?. men. How much?. A short course in english for adult students 9 . TIME AND DATES • How old?. That. Past and Future) • SOME .

/ IT TOOK. • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: . They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary. etc. somewhere.shorter than.The house • At that time. Cpt. etc.. etc.....UNIT 7 • PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III .. TOO. • An American. but the girl doesn´t.best..EITHER. titles and ranks. • He said that he was tired. nothing. When Peter arrived this morning. • Good . SHOULD. NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: • Our Health • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow.. 10 A short course in english for adult students . Please... MUST.. the most intelligent • As fast as. don´t do that. MAY.... professions. OUGHT TO • HAVE TO = TENER QUE • VOCABULARY: . etc. / IT WILL TAKE.. • The boy speaks Italian.. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE. • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either.Nationalities. cities. at 10:30 last night. • Mr. • Bob can swim very well. This one is too old UNIT 11 • • • • • • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO. in North Carolina..better . streets. something. • How long does it take to.. too / as well. etc. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS • VOCABULARY: . • On Fifth Avenue.Parts Of The Body .. White. Scott... What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! UNIT 8 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who. when they got married. etc. more intelligent than. countries and geographical names. etc. • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door.. Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I. please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight. not anything. a secretary. etc..Time Expressions II • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow.. • Open the door... please. an engineer. Bob sent her some flowers.. etc.. an Englishman. You may use the phone now..Food • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week. The man whose car is parked outside.. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now. not anybody / not anyone.. SOMETHING. He told me that he was tired. Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow. = DEMORAR • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES • VOCABULARY: . Whom. nowhere UNIT 9 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO. NOT.. in the West Indies.. Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers. He speaks Italian.. The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl. AS WELL.. Jones.the shortest • Intelligent. • IT TAKES.. How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian. SO. • Somebody / someone. a Chilean. in the USA.? • Short . • What a tall woman!. nobody / no one.. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend.. Dr... In Canada.. • A doctor. etc. • It takes me 20 minutes to. not anywhere.The City • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year. UNIT 10 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN. In Salt Lake City.

knife / knives. UNIT 13 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. never. Go skiing.before. Sooner. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop A short course in english for adult students 11 . go shopping. etc. baby / babies. doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E. too I saw her crossing / cross the road. earlier. keep talking. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing. etc. I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well. certainly. three times. MIGHT.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL UNIT 12 • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND • VOCABULARY: . etc. did he? UNIT 14 • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” • VOCABULARY: . early. He cut himself. hard. carefully. etc. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: . / CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING . Verb + gerund / bare infinitive D. He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain UNIT 15 • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . for. MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: .The Weather • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder. He himself did it.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING . harder. late. already.MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. since. Fast.Nature • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly. brush / brushes.MAY. soon More quickly. ever Book / books. etc.Prepositions and Connectors • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just. not yet. once. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C. more carefully.Sports and Recreation • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater. lately. yet / already?. twice. He will let them play He wants us to go. day / days. Verb + to-infinitive B. etc.

Regular and Irregular Verbs • • • • He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping UNIT 21 • ASSESSMENT TEST • • • • Student’s Question Booklet Answer Sheet Answer Key Teacher’s Text Script 12 A short course in english for adult students . UNIT 17 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO • VOCABULARY: . QUESTIONS C. UNTIL.UNIT 16 • FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN. When I see her tomorrow. UNIT 19 • REPORTED SPEECH A..The Armed Forces II • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes. ORDERS • VOCABULARY: . OR ELSE / OTHERWISE • VOCABULARY: ..The Workshop • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired. AS SOON AS.. STATEMENTS B. Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi. • USE OF ELSE... ETC.. COMMANDS. or else I´ll miss my flight.The Armed Forces I • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 UNIT 18 • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE • VOCABULARY: .

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

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Now /náu/ ahora. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. the students.δeir ká:rz/ He´s Mr. they are. thanks. Escuche. Those /δóuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons. /δéir in δe ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. Very well /véri uél/ muy bien.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /δéi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. It´s a house. /δéir in δe læb/ I´m fine. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes. They´re. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. /its on δe désk/ They´re in the car park. That /δæt/ ese/a. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. It´s. δei á:r. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . Normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ Iam not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /δei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /δei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /δeir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 . δi/ (antes de vocal) el.UNIT 1 PART I. los. /δeir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes.) un/a. Today /tudéi/ Hoy día. /shi:z δe sékretri/ They´re Bob. It is. /áim fáin.. /hí:z mátch béter. He´s. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. the secretary. At /æt/ en. Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. We´re. Jim and Tom. /iés.They´re cars. Thank you /δæηk iu:/ gracias. IS /iz/. You´re. normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. Who are those men? /hú: a:r δóuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz δe ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz δe búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r δe ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r δe stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r δe tchíldrn/ It is a pen. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz δis a pén/ Is that a house? /is δæt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r δí:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r δóuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz δæt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z δæt wúman/ . it is. thank you.IS . They´re books. δeir búks/ Yes. thanks. δei á:r. θæηks/ They´re very well. las.) . its a pén/ Yes. On /on/ encima de. θæηks/ He´s much better.it iz. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz δis/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots δæt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r δí:z/. /hi:z δe niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black. She´s. Thanks /δæηks/ gracias. they are. The /δe (antes de cons. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. /its in δe gáridll/ It´s on the desk. In /in/ en. Jones. This /δis/ este/a.How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. /δei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. These /δí:z/ estos/as. /iés. /δeir véri wél θæηk iu/ 2. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r δóuz/. the new instructor. ARE /a:r/ 1. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación. It´s a pen /iés. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ . /δeir δe stiú:dents/ He´s at home. la. Fine /fáin/ bien. An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra not.

(They´re not books. here /híar/ aquí. they aren´t. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæηk/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No.rent δei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT. (They´re not chairs). Those vehicles______ slow-moving.) It´s a truck.) They´re magazines. it isn´t. The men ______ tired.) It´s a pencil. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. (It´s not a tank. Am I a good instructor? 5. 7. /trák/ No. Are we ready to go? 4. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. (armas-poderosas) 6. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent δei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt δis kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. Answer these questions. Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful. Clark? 3. It´s not a train. 2. Escuche. They´re not there. 2. He isn´t here.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a káptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r δei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/ EXERCISES Ex. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r δei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á. they aren´t. there /δéar/ allí. ______ an undergraduate student. They aren´t there. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. 8. /pénsl/ No. is not /iz nót/. he is. He´s not here. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. 4. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7. He is not here /híar/. They´re tables /téiblz/. He´s not very well. Are the students in class? 6. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot. They´re not in the lab._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ . (It´s not a pen. They aren´t in the lab. It isn´t a train. The train _____ ten minutes late. /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/. John and Mary _____ good friends.Escuche. (sala de profs. isn´t /íznt/ . Is that man Mr. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche. are not /a:r nót/. Are you in the office? 2. over there /óuver δéar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. Yes. They are not there /(éar/ It is not a train. 1. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. /mægazinz/ No. 5. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á. it isn´t. 10. 9. 3. aren´t /á:rent/. I´m not a pilot They´re not students.) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. He isn´t very well. He´s a pilot. 3.

Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. The course / interesting 4. Is the bank open? 10. Are you thirsty? sedientos (hungry) 3. they are not. That boy´s my brother 8. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10.Is Cpt. Your friends / from Canada 5. I´m fine. They´re books 3.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. The children / in the playground. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. It´s a chair 7.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. 3. The computer / connected to Internet 6. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5.8. The manager / in his office 2. Ask questions using the wh-words What?. 1. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex. as in the example below: The Browns . Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. The pictures / clear (nítidas. thanks 5. How?. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2. 5. Peter and John / in class 3. The books are on the table 9. Are your friends American? (British) 7. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. The children are tired 10. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1.at home 1. claras) 8.(patio) 9. _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. 4 Ask questions. It´s a knife 2. Where?. Who?. as in the example: It´s a plane. The cat´s under the sofa 6. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No.

She ______ from London.Ex. That ______ very interesting. Hello. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ . Peter. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. Jack. ¿Por qué?.WERE /wer/ 1. I ______ glad to meet you. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/. /míster djækson woz híar θrí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris del año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). I ______ from Appleton. She ______ married. / méri woz δe bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. I ______ an instructor. How ______ you? I ______ fine. Oh. Frank John Frank John Frank 3. Wisconsin. Brown? I ______ American. Pleased to meet you. 1. Hello. I ______ ______. ______ you alone? No. Jim? I ______ here. How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ . Sir. in the library. B. Oh. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary. I´m glad to meet you. She ______ a new student. Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. Hello. Jane. thanks. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. She ______ my classmate . /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /δei wé:r/ (Ellos/as an/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. la semana pasada Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días Yesterday /jésterdei/ ayer. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . How ______ you? I ______ fine. 6. What ______ your name? My name ______ John. My name ______ Frank. (pausa) This ______ Janet. she ______ ______. Where ______ you. That´s bad news. Mr. ______ you a student here? No. Jackson was here three weeks ago.WERE /wer/ I was /ai wóz/ (yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. Oh. Come and meet her. /δei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr. I ______ with my friend Janet. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. ______ she single? No. I ______ not. Mike Hello. 18 A short course in english for adult students . Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. too. ¿Cuándo? Why? /wái/. Where ______ you from. The day before yesterday /δe déi bifór jésterdei/ anteayer Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday.

2. Who? 1. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking.Why?. Today ______ Monday. They ______ free today.Y. /δei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérkiη/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. 2. (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. The weather was fine that day. 7. lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás δis mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at δis táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex. Tom was at home at midnight last night. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. 4. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. but they ______ at work yesterday. Escuche. 3. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. present or past: 1. How?. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE.M. The men were tired after the long walk. Mary was late for the train this morning. 5. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. 3.2. George was a little better this morning. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. 2. John was in the car at that moment. 4. 6. Yesterday ______ Sunday. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. The secretary was busy at midday. 6. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. 6. 2. Ask questions using wh-words like What? Where? When?. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. How old. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 . but he ______ much better today. They were good friends at school. 1. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche. 3. /dllón wóznt at hóum δis mórnin/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. 4. 5. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. 5. 3. Liz was in bed because she was sick. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. but it ______ working well now.

La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. They won´t be here all day. but it _____________________________________________ next month. 3. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu lóη/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. 6. but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. A short course in english for adult students . but they _______________________________ next semester. but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. serán / estarán) They will be /δei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. but he 1. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. /ái wil bí: véri bízi δis a:fternú:n/ . de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. 5. 4. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. bi: at δe mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil δei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu loη wil δei bí: in wóshiδton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ellas será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. 1. but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. Mr. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrrow. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. 20 (will be at home) tomorrow. lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vnin/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil δe tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil δei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. Complete the sentences as in the example: John is not at home today.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. 7. We are not busy right now. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. John isn´t absent today. I am not in my office at the moment. /δei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. The day after tomorrow /δe déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /δeil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. but he _______________________________________ next Monday. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. For /for/ por What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester. 2. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. Escuche. /ai wil nót bí: bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana.C. Escuche.Johnson was not at the meeting last week. The weather was not very nice last month. It is not very cold now.

How long?. 4. I´ll be in the first team. Mary will be in New York next weekend.When?. 1. When will you be on vacation again? 3. 4. 2. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? ¿Quién era ese hombre? Este no es un libro muy interesante. I will be free next Tuesday morning. 7. 13. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. 3. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. 5. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2. 5. 14. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex.Ex. 9. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. My friends will be here before 12. What time?. The weather will be very nice this month. Mr. 9. 8. 11. 7.Why? How?. 1. 4. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. 2. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. 12. etc. 10. 2. 3. How are you today? 4. 6. 5. The program will be interesting. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. Ask questions using Where?. 8. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. 4. in English. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. John will be in class today. 1. 5. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. 6. 3. 3. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. When is the next general meeting? 9. Where were you last weekend? 7. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. It´ll be hot tomorrow. They will be in the next town before midday. Ella será una excelente secretaria. They will be here at ten-thirty. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio Los informes no estaban listos todavía. 7. Answer the following questions. 2. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. 6.

A .X .B . 3. 4.G . Escuche.L .r/ B: Last month.B .K . A: My brother´s name is Ignacio. ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1.J . E .W .A -E 2.H . lea y aprenda: 1.Y .F 4.U .A Ex. U .A .Q .I .O . please A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /θæηkiu:/ /kán iu: spél δæt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái bráδerz néim iz ignásio/ 2.O .X .R . My last name is Vasquez.S .V -B 3.R .X .PART II.W .Y .U . δæts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3.E .A .E . How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2.O . THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se pronuncia /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex.C .D .I .M .A .Z .N .Q .E .P . /mái la:st néim is váskes.G . Tom works for IBM in LA.B .K .F .X .I .L . it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex.L .M .W .E .G .B .V . A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á. Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1. ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .C .J .Y .I .U .N .C .H . J .I . B: Can you spell that.O .Q .X .C .T . E .O .I . 1.L .D . P . that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z.V .Z .T . 2.Y .I .N .T .W . I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mánθ ái bó:t it at δe pí: éks/ B: No.X .O .K .A 5. /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex.F .Q .G .S .

Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B.Ex.D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /táηgou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iáηki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1. FBI OK ITT a. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph. U for uniform. I spell: C as in Charlie. 5. A as in Alfa. I spell: J for Juliett. My name is JUAN.m.m. A. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2.C. L as in Lima. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 .D. The commander´s last name is CLARK. BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p.

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. Ex. They aren´t angry. I´m a army officer. At what time will they be here? 5. is 2.you are. Where was Tom at.. They´re hungry. 9. will be in my office 6.. they are. 6.are 5.? C. 9. You´re a good instructor. 1. 1. Who was here this morning? 5. Who was in the car. 1. Who´s that woman? Ex..? 2.. This isn´t a very interesting book. They´re British. 1. / Will Mary be.Are J: am ... Is the manager in his office? 2.? 2. No. I´m not. Who was that man? 12. 1. they´re not.is 2.. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning. He isn´t a doctor... He´s an engineer. / Was Mary. I´m hungry.am (pause) is . They´re young. Where´s the cat? 6.are F: am . it is. When will she be back in Chile? 8. The men weren´t . 3. 6.. 8.. 5. When will you be free? 3.. She´s a secretary..R: is J: is ... How are the children? 10.am 3. 2.is 6. / Were the men . She´ll be an excellent secretary 7. they´re not. 2.? 4.... 1. 3. They aren´t American.. Where are your friends now? 4. They were good friends at school.. 5. Is the computer connected to internet? 6.are Ja: am B. Yes.. 6. 1. Mr Jackson was in the office all day. we are-We´re ready to go. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10.. How are you? 5.. 1. he is.were 3.. 5. 13. We weren´t here last week. / Will my friends be. Why was Liz in bed? 4.is 4. Henry wasn´t ..is Ja: am . Are ... They´re updated. 14.. / Will I be .. is 8.. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex... I´m not thirsty. They aren´t old. 4. No... What´s this / that? 7. 1.. Are your friends from Canada? 5.? 3. Are the maps in the library? Ex.. are 5.. will be very busy 5. / Was the weather. 8. Yes..? 6. It´s dirty. No. He isn´t at home....No. Was .. am 9.... / Were they. will be at the meeting 7. Mary wasn´t . 1. / Was the secretary . They weren´t. is 10. They aren´t happy.... Who´s that boy? 8. I´m hungry. I won´t be. Yes. is 7. it is. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2.. I´m not.am J: is 2. are 6. Those children are not very good students. they´re not.? 5..? 5.. No.. The secretary wasn´t.. 8. 2. will be very nice. Was . 9.. Mary won´t be.are 3. she is. How was George. Is the course interesting? 4.. It´s a modern plane.is J: is . 4.? Ex. 10. No. / Was Hernry. 1. M: is P: is .. / Will the program be... will be in the same class 2. It´s open. 2.? 3. 1. When were the Smiths . When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 . Was . It isn´t clean.? 6. Yes. Yes. The weather wasn´t . Yes.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A. How old was Mr Clark when. 3. 2. No... will be very cold 4. will be absent 3.. 3.. Is the package light or heavy? 7. No. Are the children in the playground? 9.. Was . 3. are 4. No. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not .. Were . (open answers) Ex.. Why will they be at home all day? 9. Are the pictures clear? 8. they are. I am. Is . 3. / Will John be . John won´t be.was 7. Yes. it´s not....? 5.? 2... When will Mary be in New York? 7. The program won´t be .. They´re in class. I´m not an navy officer. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4. 7. 1. They´re sad. he´s not. Where are the cigarettes?. 2.. Ex.is .. Ex.. How will the weather be this month? 6. Ex.is Ex. I am. 1. F: is . 7.. Are Peter and John in class? 3.... The reports weren´t ready yet.? 3. When are they free all day? 11. Ex.. It won´t be . I´m in the office. 4. Ex. Where are the books? 9. What´s this / that? 2.are Ex. Yes. Clark.. 6.is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t . Yes. he´s not. He´s Mr.... 4.was 4.. 1..are R: am . What are these / those? 3. My friends won´t be..? Ex... / Will it be..? 6.. 10. He´s at work. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . they´re not. 1.? 4..? 4. Yes. 5..

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Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. Is there a book on the desk? /íz δer e búk on δe désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz δer e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz δér éni wóter in δe glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r δer tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r δer éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). /δear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo. En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. en el singular. /δear á:r nóu trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz δearz éni wóter in δe glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . /δéarz sam wóter in δe glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. Normalmente. There´s only one (door). /δear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. /δéarz e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass. /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden. /δear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /δear á:r sam tchéarz in δe rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /δear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /δear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. /δear iz nót e búk on δe désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. /δear a:r nóu tchéarz in δe rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. en castellano. /δéarz sam wóter in δe glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /δéar á:r sam trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. ha advertido. There´s a lot (of ice). THERE ARE /δear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. There is a book on the desk /δear íz e búk on δe désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. se usa la contracción THERE´S /δéarz/. /háu match/ Como ud. There are three (windows). PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS .THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. /δear á:rent éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. /δear á:rent éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass.PART I. THERE TO BE (HABER. THERE IS /δear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. There isn´t any (water). There aren´t any (chairs). /δear íznt éni wóter in δe glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. /a:r δear éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 . EXISTIR) A. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. / δéar íznt e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /δéar íznt éni wóter in δe glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. There´s no water. There are no chairs.

only one student in the lab now. por lo tanto se omite. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras much o many. There are flowers in the garden. There is a tree in the garden. La expresión a lot of normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. /δear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. /δéar á:r e lót ov buks on δe shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. /δéar á:rent méni buks on δe shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz δéar mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r δéar méni buks on δe shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /δéarz véri lítl wóter in δe glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. Normalmente el artículo A/AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as. /δéarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. very few people at the conference. 3. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente. MANY /méni/ muchos/as. . en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. /δéar íznt mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf. There are many trees in the garden. 4. very little money left in the box. 1. 28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a). 2. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden. There´s no water in that bottle. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /δéarz e lót ov shúgar in δe bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as. /δear a:r véri fiú: desks in δe rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. EXERCISES Ex.

. very few. ___________________ 7.. 9. 8. ___________________ 3. 9. 4. butter ________________ in the dish? secretaries____________ here? women ______________ in that group? men _________________ in the crew? (There are) 8. There are some students absent today... ___________________ 9.. ___________________ 6. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the Answers . sir. no time left. Ex. 4. Complete the following questions and answers. A LOT in the blank spaces. Ex. There are a lot of people in the room. five or six. milk left in the bottle. of noise in this room. There are some extra chairs in the room. four men. There are a lot of students absent. a lot of work. There is another chair in that room There are some more books. 10. 4. There´s central heating in the room. just a little. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket.. Use HOW MUCH. no more cassettes in the box. just one. There are 30 days in February. There are very ______________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There´s very ________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ books in the school library. 3. ARE THERE? in the questions. no milk in it. 3. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. 8. 2. 10.IS THERE? Or HOW MANY. several helicopters in the airfield. ___________________ 10. 7. There are some more clean glasses. 9. 3. ice in my glass. ___________________ 5. FEW.. 5. 1. a lot. 7. two. There´s some more coffee in the cup.: (How many) 1.. Use LITTLE.. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. ___________________ 4. 2. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. ___________________ dictionaries (are there)? money ______________ ? doors ________________ in the lab? milk _________________ in the jug? video tapes ___________ ? work _________________ today? people _______________ in the room?.. Ej. ___________________ 2. There´s a telephone in the room. There are more than 10 students. 7. 1. There´s a train for Paris in the morning. 2. a lot of mistakes in your composition. 6. some letters for you on the desk.. 3.. 5. 1. 6. 6. ___________________ 8.5. There´s some more meat in the fridge. There´s some more money in my pocket. There´s a hotel near the Training Center. There are 24 hours in a day.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Change the following statements into the negative form. 10.. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug. There are more women than men. 2. 4. A short course in english for adult students 29 .

Answer these questions. /δear wóznt éni bíar in δe kæn/ No había nada de cerveza en la lata. Were there many cars in the street at that time? ( Yes. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (No. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. 5. of sugar in my coffee. /δear wé:rnt méni buks on δe désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. It´s too sweet. 7. Was there enough bread for all the people? (yes. Change into the Past Tense: 1.5. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? (very little. of course) _________________________________________________________________________ 4. 8. 2.THERE WERE El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /δear wóz/ / THERE WERE /δear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. There were many people absent. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /δear was e lot ov nóis in δe rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. 9. How much milk is there in the fridge? There aren´t many hotels in this town. Are there many errors in the bill? There´s very little whisky left. Was there a TV in the room? / woz δear e tÍ: ví: in δe rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r δear atδe pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?). 10. of errors in my bill. 1. There are very few people in the pub. tickets available. 6. There are two books missing from the shelf. not more than 30) _________________________________________________________________________ 3. it was a leap year) _________________________________________________________________________ 7. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. There are __________________________________ There are only a ____________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s just a ______________________________ of trees in that park. more than enough) _________________________________________________________________________ 5. How many students were there in this class last year? (about 20) _________________________________________________________________________ 2. 8. /δear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes. 9. 2. Is there enough money for the trip? How many people are there on board? There isn´t much time to talk. 7. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /δear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /δear wé:rent/. 6. There weren´t many books on the desk. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. Escuche. students absent from class today. There´s a lot of work in the office today. How many days were there in February that year? (29. B. How many students were there in the laboratory? ( not any) _________________________________________________________________________ 6. There wasn´t any beer in the can. lots of cars) _________________________________________________________________________ 30 A short course in english for adult students . 10. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS . 4. EXERCISES: Ex. whisky left in the bottle. 3.

How many women ____________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How much free time __________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How many students ___________________________ ____________________________________________ at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. 6.1. There will not be another meeting this evening. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /δear wil bí: e veri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunaít/. There will be two more tests next week. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. in your class last year? much milk left. 6. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. /δear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . There´ll be another meeting this evening. 1. several trees in the park now. very few flowers in our garden. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil δear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. 1. 3. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. a lot of noise at the disco last night. 8. 4. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/ En las preguntas. 2. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /δearl bí:/. En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. 9. 3. 3. Change into the future tense. 10. not any more exercises in the book now. Escuche. There are some women at the meeting. 1. /δear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil δear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: δis í:vnin/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil δear bí. 7. Past or Future). next time? very little food in the fridge now. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. 2. Escuche. 5. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present.C. 2. /δearl bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ . Just one or two bottles. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. /δear wil not bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ There won´t be two more tests next week. 5. 4. /δear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 31 . 4. There is a lot of free time in the evening. 7. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. 2. /δearl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. 5. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /δear wil bí:/. Ex.

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . 3. 12. 2. 8. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 9. 7. 5. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. 2. 7. 11. 4. 10. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. 6. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 9. 8. ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora. No hay tiempo para conversar. __________________________________________ Yes. Answer these questions in English. __________________________________________ No. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. 5.6. 4. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex. 8. 5. 1. __________________________________________ No. 7. 4. How many days are there in a week? How many days will there be in February next year? How many students were there in your class last year? How many computers are there in your office? How many people were there in the room at 8:30? Will there be another meeting this week? Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. 9.. 3. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. ¿Cuánto s autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. 6. How much money is there in your wallet? 10. 10.

.000 one thousand /uán θáuzand/ 200. thousand.000 five thousand. US$ 4.000 two thousand /tú θáuzand/ 2. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés. Ej. las palabras thousand.265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand. Al escribir cifras en inglés. 68 sixty-eight.5% . 21. 4.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 .687. 5.45 km. two hundred and sixty-five. three hundred and eighty-seven.000. twenty-one. 5.394 e) 33 l) 24. Ej. NUMBERS Escuche.80 Ex. 45 fortyfive. 2. Las palabras hundred. 463. Ej. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park.875 g) 148 n) 5. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and. Ej..285 d) 94 k) 6.365. 3. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstín/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntín/ 30 thirty /δérti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /δri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /δertín/ 18 eighteen /eitín/ 40 forty /fórti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtín/ 19 nineteen /naintín/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftín/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1. 400 four hundred. 12.973 f) 28 m) 256. million y billion no van seguidas de and. 365 three hundred and sixty-five. Las palabras twenty. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1. Las palabras hundred.” Ej. 70. 3. para indicar lo mismo que “lots of.000 two million /tú mílion/ 5. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario.PART II.387 five thousand. el punto es coma y la coma es punto.000 three million.000.000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred θáuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú hándred/ 2.971 forty five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv θáuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5. 94 ninety-four. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv θáuzand θri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45. thirty. 32 thirty-two. forty.

marido esposa. personas niño/s.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE GENERAL person /pε:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /gε:rl/ FAMILY AND RELATIVES grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfa:δer/ grandmother /grandmáδer/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:δer/ mother /máδer/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /bráδer/ sister /síster/ uncle /áηkl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo.law /fá:δer in ló:/ mother-in-law /maδer in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /bráδer in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:δer/ step-mother /step máδer/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step bráδer/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:δer/ foster-mother /fóster máδer/ god-father /god fá:δer/ god-mother /god máδer/ papá. daddy /dæd. niños 34 A short course in english for adult students . mujer padre madre hijos. mommy /mam. dædi/ mom.papi mamá. mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny /græni/ father-in. mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina persona gente. pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman /dlléntlman/ lady /léidi/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero dama chicos. niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad.

3.. 2. Ex. of course. Sólo una o dos botellas....... There isn´t any more... 8. 2. There was very little.? 7. 1. 4.. 1. 2. 8.? There are. There is 8. / There´s no more. Ex. There isn´t much money in it.. Are there more. How many.. are there.. There wasn´t. Ex..? 4.. 1. 1. Are there any more. There are 5..... there were lots of cars.. There were 29... There weren´t many people in the building at that time.. 1. There was. 4.? Ex..? There´s. Was there enough. 6. There´s 6. How many people were there.. There won´t be another concert until next week.. a lot 9. 7.. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6. 2.. 5.. There are 2. There weren´t any 6.. 1.. There was. There are seven days. are there? There are. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8. There is 4.. is there? There´s... There aren´t 30. There won´t be any. How many.? 6. 2. a lot 5. 6.. There´s a lot of noise in this room now.? 6.. How much money is there in the wallet? 5.? 6. No. 11.? There are.. Ex.. How much milk was there. How much. is there.. 4.. ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2. few 2.. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4. There´ll be 28 days. 1.. Yes..... There aren´t many. 7. there won´t be another meeting 7. How many. 4.. 2. little 4... Will there be more than. 3. 3. How much money will there be. 2. Will there be 5. 2... there are no spelling mistakes.. 5..? 2... 6. There aren´t many.. 5. 2. are there...? There´s.. 4. 9. 1. There was 8.. Ex. There´s just one / There are. 5. ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5.... 8.. There will be a lot. There weren´t.. / No.Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora.. Is there a train. Are there more than... 3..? 9. Is there another. There will be another general meeting next Friday... Ex... Ex. Were there 2. ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10. there weren´t more than 30 3.... students. computers. No. There is no time to talk.. There is 3. How much. 8.. 1. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10.. 7. there aren´t any. Ex.. Are there any students. There are 9. there was a lot of work.. Is there a hotel.. 5.? Ex. How many.. There were.. 4. 1. Yes. There were. There are 7.. There are 4. little 3. 10.. There won´t be many football games / matches this week end......? 5.were there 10. 2.? 7. a lot 6.. are there. 1.. It was a leap year. 7. There were about 20 . There are twelve eggs.. / There are no more.. are there. 10.. There were only two hotels in that town. / There are no extra. No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7. 10.? There are.... 1. 3. A short course in english for adult students 35 .. 4. No hay mucha leche sobrante.. a lot 10. There are Ex....? There´s. 6..? 8...? There´s.....people. There are 9... few 8..? 5. 1.. There were.. 9. / There´s no more. 3. 8.. is there.. Are there 24...? 7. There will be some. How many. few 7... C. 4. are there.There aren´t any extra.... there was more than enough. There isn´t a. There isn´t any more. How many people will there be. 5.. There are 7. 1. little B. is there.? 10... There isn´t Ex.? Thre are. How many.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A..? 4.. Yes. There isn´t much. There was very little free time during the morning. 3.... How much.? 10. 3. 9... Is there much free. There is 6. There were very few children in the street that day.There are 10. Is there any more. Were there. No. Will there be any. 1. 5. 9.. There aren´t any more. How much..Is there a restaurant near here..? 3.... 9. 12. There´s no central. There´s 3. 3. Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9. There were....

three hundred and twenty-eight. eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million.Part II. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand. Ex. six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand. three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand. 1. 36 A short course in english for adult students .

I´ve only got 5 dollars. Hans ____________________________ long black hair . /mai dóg haz gót loδ íarz/ (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) The rooms have got central heating.... /δe rú:mz hávent gót... /δe rú:mz hav not gót .r/ Peter has not got many friends... 37 . es decir. He´s got one sister and two brothers./ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex. A short course in english for adult students No./ My dog hasn´t got long ears. I haven´t got one ( one = a car) Yes. /mai dóg házent gót. they haven´t got one. lea y aprenda: I have got a car.../ Has the dog got long ears? /haz δe dóg gót../ They´ve got a big house. it has./ The rooms have not got central heating.. lea y aprenda: I have not got a car... /mai dógz gót.. /pí:terz gót.../ En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NO GOT y HAS NOT GOT.. he´s got a lot. /δei hav not gót./ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche..UNIT 3 PART I. significa TENER./ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav δe ru:mz got..1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1... John _____________________________ a new uniform.. they haven´t. /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ (Peter tiene muchos amigos) They have got a big house./ Have they got a big house? /hav δei gót.../ They haven´t got a big house. /ai hav not gót. lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót./ My dog has not got long ears. Yes. (of friends) No. /δei hávent got. Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´T GOT /hδvent gót/ y HASN´T GOT /hδzent gt/ Escuche. /ai hav gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) Peter has got many friends./ They have not got a big house.. /δeiv gót.../ Peter hasn´t got many friends.. tienen) (ellos tienen) I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ Peter´s got many friends. (ones = ears) No. They´ve got a small one. /mai dóg haz not gót. 2. /pí:ter házent gót. But they´ve got a radio. /δe rú:mz hav gót séntrl hí:tiδ/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /δéiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos../ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót..... /ai hávent gót. /pí:ter haz not gót. En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /δéi hav gót/ Escuche. /δei hav gót e bíg háus/ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) My dog has got long ears./ My dog´s got long ears. I´ve got very little (money). tenemos) (uds./ The rooms haven´t got central heating. It´s got very long ones.../ I haven´t got a car.. HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad.

Ex. Bob´s got a big family. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. 6. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk.3. My friends have got a telephone. 10. 5. They´ve got a lot of friends there. 3. You´ve got a lighter. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4. 6. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. 5. 2. My father´s got a modern car. Have you got a big library at home? 9. 4.? 1. The students have got some experience. Bob´s sister has got a car.? / HOW MANY. a new blue dress. We´ve got a small classroom. The boy has got black shoes. You´ve got many things to do today. a lot of money. 4. The soldiers ______________________ We ______________________________ The book _________________________ I ________________________________ Mary _____________________________ My friends ________________________ My flat ___________________________ The car __________________________ a very good instructor. 9. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. 10. 2. How many rooms has your house got? 8. 2 Change into the negative form 1. 8. three children. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. 8. The students have got a new instructor. 9. 9. 7.. How many children have you got? 3. 4. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. The house has got a garden. A car has got four wheels . The flat has got two bathrooms. They´ve got two cars. Bob´s got five dollars. a son and two daughters. Nancy´s got a computer. Bob´s got some money. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. 7. 3. Bob´s got our address. 5. Ex. Have you got a computer at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 38 A short course in english for adult students . 7. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. They´ve got our telephone number. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. 5. a small house in the country. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. They ´ve got very little free time... I´ve got some cigarettes. 3. 8.. They´ve got a big family. 10. four wheels. 6. 6. 5 Answer these questions: 1. 200 pages. Ex. 2. I´ve got three children. You´ve got your passport here. two bedrooms. 7.

There´s a car in the street. There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden An apple tree A one-dollar bill One exercise book A hotel manager Three apple trees A five-dollar bill Ten exercise books Two hotel managers 2. alta. El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. There are several books on the desk. /δis iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). altas. Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. masculino o femenino. altos. Ej. This is a one-way ticket. El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. A. Ej. En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /δis iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /δis iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). la los. /δæts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). That´s an animal /δæts an æ ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). /δis iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). That´s a girl. ARTICLES (I) 1. This is an apple. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular. los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. Por lo tanto. Además. /δis iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. Ej. no específico. Those are trees /δóuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). The woman is very tall. Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. This is a book. las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. determinados. The man is very tall. todos los sustantivos actúan como adjetivos cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. These are houses. en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como some /sam/ (algunos/as). The books are old. /δæts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). ADJECTIVES En inglés. /δéarz a ká:r in δe strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). several /séveral/ (varios/as) o many /méni/ (muchos/as). plural. son invariables. Compare: This is an orange. una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. This is a house /δis iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa). /δi:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas). There is a book on the desk. /hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). An apple A dollar An exercise A hotel B. Ejemplo. Those are animals /δóuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el. The women are very tall. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. That´s an orange. Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . /δis iz an æ (Esta es una manzana). The book is old. Ej. en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. That is a tree /δæt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol).PART II. He is an honest man. This is an old car /δis iz an ´pl/ óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). The men are very tall. EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un.

14. There is a student in the laboratory now. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students . 5. 10. They´ve got an interesting book in the library The boy´s got a book in English. 23. 1. 8. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. I´ve got a magazine on my desk. Smith. 8. 10. 6. 6. They´ve got a horse on the farm. 2. 11. 8. many or several 1. Mr. 16. 2. 21. 27. 14. 9. There´s a tree in the garden. 32. 11. There´s a woman in the office. 22. 4. 7. use some. 2. Use the indefinite articles a or an 1. 3. 13. 14. 26. 3. 15. This is an interesting novel. 5. 24. 29. 7. Please show me a photograph. 12. Peter´s got a new pen. There is a new student in this class. 12. 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. 25. 1. Change these sentences into the plural. 30. There´s a text book on the teacher´s desk. 13. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? I haven´t got a cigarette. That is a picture This is a car. There was a car accident last Sunday. 31. 12. 20. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. Change the following sentences into the plural. 9. There is a letter for you. 5. 3. 9. There will be an interesting program tonight I´ve got a question for you. This boy isn´t a new student. 10. 13. Is that woman a nurse? Is that man an engineer? There´s a yellow flower in the garden.Exe. The student has got a new notebook. 2. 28. 15. 11. 7. Is this an envelope? That man isn´t a teacher. 19. 4. 6. 18. 3.

m. It´s five to nine 5. It´s ten to five 6. D. H. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1. 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a. please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time. de 13:00 . 10:00 p.m. It´s twenty-five to eleven 7. please? /wóts δe táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea.m. C. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A. EXERCISES Ex. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a. It´s twenty past twelve 10. J. de18:00 . hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde. E. It´s a quarter past two 3. It´s ten past three 4.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche. L. It´s twenty to one 2. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a. I. /pii em/ It´s seven o´clock p. 04:00 p. 07:00 p. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5. It´s half past eight 9. /pí: ém/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ (en la mañana. F. 1.m. em/ It´s four o´clock p.m. K. TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. /pii em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 .m.m. /éi ém/ p. It´s a quarter to ten 11.m. G. /pii em/ It´s ten o´clock p.m. It´s twenty-five past six 12.17:00) in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ (en la tarde / noche. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight. It´s five past seven 8. /ei.m. B.PART III.

7. 18. 8. 13. 2. 12. 11. 21. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . 20. Write down the times and read: What time is it? What´s the time? 1.m. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:00 p. 9. 6. 10. 3.Ex. 4. 14. 22. 23.m. 15. 24. 2. 17. 5. 16. 19. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:00 p.m. 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:00 a.

gordo tonto. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. enojado malo grande romo.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris. atrasado flojo claro. gratis lleno. fome temprano. agitado triste agudo.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 .contento pobre. leso libre. insatisfactorio bonito rico. adinerado correcto. incorrecto joven COLO(U)RS What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. It´s blue. sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. sik/ interesting /íntrestiη/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado.liviano largo angosto. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo. leso. bajo de estatura tonto. puntiagudo corto.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES ENGLISH angry /ægri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /kεrvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /ε:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd we:rkiη/ healthy /hélδi/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /háηgri/ ill. estrecho nuevo bonito. fijo. precursor fácil vacío parejo. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /loη/ narrow /nárrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /δik/ thin /δin/ thirsty /δ:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /roη/ young /jaη/ SPANISH tarde. impar (números) viejo satisfecho. orange /órindll/ gray. sano pesado. par (números) caro rápido.derecho tosco. sensato maravilloso equivocado. completo bueno feliz duro. sick /il. white and red. agradable raro. amplio sabio. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo. brusco. no plano temperado ancho. dificil esforzado saludable. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro. grey /grei/ purple /pε:rpl/ pink /piηk/ dark blue /dá. plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro.

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Peter´s got new pens 8. Have you got many. How many children have you got? 3.. 5. It´s twenty past three 16.. 5. 3.10 D ..a 17. How much milk have we got? / how many bottles of milk have we got? 7. How many cars have they got? 2. 1. My father hasn´t got a. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 .. 2. 1.. Have you got a. have got 9.? 8. I´ve got several questions. has got 10.. an 16. It´s twenty-five past three 14. Ex.4. B. 9. I haven´t got any cigarettes.. an 26..a 23.? 10. There are some trees.. 8. It´s three minutes to three 10.. It´s half past eleven 19. a 31. / I´ve got no cigarettes 7. has got 2.... 6.? 7. a 14... a 18. 3.. She hasn´t got blue. 6. There are several letters. There are many women. There are yellow flowers. Are those women nurses? 11. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24. How many wheels has a car got? 4. 10. 1. 7. a 21. Those are pictures 2. 15.. an 28. 3. 4. Are those men engineers? 12.. / The students have got no experience. A . an 12.. It´s five past nine 7. I´ve got several magazines.. Ex.... an 3. Have you got your. a 19. an 30... a 9..5 I . 1. There are many text books.. I haven´t got cigarettes Ex. 1. has got 3. 11.. How much money has Bob got? 5. They´ve got some interesting books.. It´s twenty-five to five 22. 5. It´s quarter past one 6. Have they got our. 1.11 L . a 25. Ex. has got Ex. Have they got a.? 5. There were several car accidents.10. (open answers) Part II. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9..? 2... Those men aren´t teachers 5.1 K . 1. How much free time have they got? Ex... an 6. It´s quarter past eight 21. 12. show me some photographs. These are interesting novels 10. It´s ten to nine 3. an 7.8 C . 1. It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15.. 1..? 6... It´s quarter to two 18. Bob hasn´t got a. 2. It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11. There will be many new students. The house hasn´t got. an 5... It´s twenty-five past five 20. an 8.. 1. an 13. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14.? Ex.9 B .KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I. a 29. I´ve got some coins. 9. a 20... 1. Are these envelopes? 4.. There are some new students.. a 2. 6..4 G .. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12..7 F . 13. They´ve got horses. a 27...3 H .? 4. a 24. Please. a Ex.. Part III.F. an 22. It´s quarter to twelve 5. a 10. an 32. a 11. It´s half past three 4. It´s forteen minutes past ten 8. The boy has got some books. 13.. There are many students.12 J . The student has got some new notebooks 14. have got 5.They haven´t got many friends. Ex. Have the students got a... 7.6 Ex. The students haven´t got any experience.? 9. has got 8. It´s nine o´clock 2. Has the boy got black. Has Bob got any money? 3.. These are cars 3.. 4. It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23... 3. We haven´t got a. I´ve got friends in S. How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6. 8.2 E . has got 6. My friends haven´t got.. 2..an 4.. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13. have got 7.. 2. 2. Nancy hasn´t go a.. Has Bob´s sister got a. It´s five past ten 17. Has Bob got our.. a 15. have got 4. These boys aren´t new students 9.

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Hay tres grupos de verbos.10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ (sentarse) To cut /kat/ (cortar) To stop /stop/ (detener. /hé:rberts hæviν lántch at δe móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being. AT THE MOMENT /at δe móument/ (en este momento). Mary is not working in Room 10 now.transitoriamente). +cons. I´m not living with my brother John . + vocal + cons. /for δe táim bí:iη áim lívin wiδ mai bráδer dllón/ (Transitoriamente. AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días..Y. según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:kiη/ (hablando) eating /í:tiη/ (comiendo) working /wé:rkiη/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda.UNIT 4 PART I. Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo. TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente). They´re not living in New York at present. Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now. parando) swimming /suímiη/ (nadando) to live /liv/ (vivir) to write /ráit/ (escribir) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO. I am not living with my brother John. Este sufijo se pronuncia /iη/ . estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado. en la actualidad). Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos. They aren´t living in New York at present. I´m living with my brother John. /δéi a:r liviη in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: living /líviη/ (viviendo) writing /ráitiη/ (escribiendo) Bl 47 Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL. Escuche. lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present. El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present. FOR THE TIME BEING /for δe táim bí: iδ/ (mientras tanto. Escuche.parar) To swim /suim/ (nadar) sitting /sítiη/ (sentándose) cutting /kátiη/ (cortando) stopping /stópiη/ (deteniendo. Mary´s working in Room 10 now. /mériz wé:rkiη in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of. estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/S/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at δis táim/ (a esta hora). actualmente). For the time being. Mary´s not working in Room 10 now.

How often. How.IS.. arreglar/arreglando/fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo. Escuche. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando. etc.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo .La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. When. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseriη/ arriving /erráiviη/ asking /á:skiη/ asking for /á:skiη fo:r// buying /báiiη/ closing /klóuziη/ coming /kámiη/ cutting /kátiη/ doing /dú:iη/ drinking /dríηkiη/ driving /dráiviη/ drying /dráiiη/ eating /í:tiη/ finishing /fínishiη/ fixing /fíksiη/ giving /gíviη/ going /góuiη/ helping /hélpiη/ inviting /inváitiη/ learning /lé:rniη/ leaving /lí:viη/ listening to /lísniη tu/ living /liviη/ looking at /lúkiη at/ making /méikiη/ opening /óupniη/ paying /péiiη/ playing /pléiiη/ putting /pútiη/ reading /rí:diη/ receiving /risí:viη/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando. lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. Where. dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. Escuche.ARE) con el sujeto. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: iη/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´T/AREN´T delante del sujeto. tocar/tocando (un instr. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. 1. Escuche. pedir/pidiendo. The children are playing soccer.

leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 . lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /gétiη ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hæviη e ba:θ/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /gétiη drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hæviη brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góuiη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráiviη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/. Escuche. funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex. creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de.contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réiniη/ running /rániη/ saying /séiiη/ selling /séliη/ sending /séndiη/ singing /síηiη/ sitting /sítiη/ sleeping /slí:piη/ speaking /spí:kiη/ spending /spéndiη/ starting /stá:rtiη/ staying /stéiiη/ studying /stádiiη/ taking /téikiη/ talking /tó:kiη/ telling /téliη/ thinking /θíηkiη/ travelling /træveliη/ trying to /tráiiη tu/ waiting for /wéitiη fo:r/ walking /wó:kiη/ washing /wóshiη/ watching /wótchiη/ wearing /wéariη/ working /wé:rkiη/ Writing /ráitiη/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando./ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:diη létez/δe niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rkiη in δi ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:kiη wiδ fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:viη δi ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:iη δe shópiη/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báiiη δe péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchiη tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísniη tu δe niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráitiη tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóliη áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléiiη kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:kiη tu δe pa:rk/ Running across the park /rániη akrós δe pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:iη éksersaiz/ Working out /wérkiη áut/ Visiting a museum /vízitiη a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádiiη for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshiη δe ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíiniη δe háus/ Making the bed /méikiη δe béd/ Tidying up the room /táidiiη áp δe rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúkiη a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéariη sam dríηks/ Going to bed /góuiη tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of.comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando. intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando(ropas) trabajar/trabajando.llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo. 2.pasar/pasando(tiempo) empezar/empezando.

(listen) The students _________________________ to school now. 6. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday. The dog´s drinking milk. 5. The children are watching TV 2. Bill´s answering the phone. 9. John´s having breakfast now. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. (wait) For the time being. 7. 7. 10. 1. Billy´s wearing the new sweater. 6. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . 3. 12. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. (visit) The train_____________________________ at the station at this time. 5. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. It´s raining very hard now. Mary´s eating an apple now. The girl´s washing the dishes. 9. He__________________________ the grass. 4. George is travelling by plane. 10. I´m answering a letter. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. The students are reading a story. 10. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. (spend) Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) There´s a man in the garden.Ex. 1. 8. 2. I´m singing because I´m happy. 12. Ask questions using questions word like What. Where. They´re living in Bristol at present.I´m trying to open the window.They´re looking at the horses. 8. 2. 11. 3. (arrive) You ___________________________ the exercises well now.The men are running now. The cadet´s sleeping in class. 4. (cut) There are several students in the gym. I´m helping John with the work 5. 9. 4. The boy´s singing an English song. (work). 8. 12. using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. etc. 3. (do) They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. Why. Mary __________________________ as a secretary. John and his friends are watching TV. Complete the following sentences. (go) Mr. 7. 11. 3. You´re doing the exercise correctly. 5. The students are writing a composition. We´re making a lot of progress. 4. 11.

Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. No. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. Mary : Great! Let´s do that. And Jim´s in his room. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. And Betty´s in the kitchen. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. let´s go for a walk..Ex. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). I ___________ (go) there. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense.then. Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep). He ____________ (sleep). he isn´t. he ____________ (plan) to study engineering. He ____________ (study) for a test. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. A short course in english for adult students 51 . 3. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes. too. That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well. 6. you know. of course! Robert : Well.

lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May. Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:rθei is on δe tuénti fífθ ov dllú:n/. There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mánθs/ in a year.PART II. Spring /spriη/ Primavera. May the first. two thousand two /wénzdi méi δe fé:rst tú. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /θé:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:rθ/ 5th Fifth /fifθ/ 6th Sixth /sixθ/ 7th Seventh /sévenθ/ 8th Eighth /éitθ/ 9th Ninth /náinθ/ 10th Tenth /ténθ/ Escuche. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. se usan para expresar fechas. The months of the year are: January /dlláñiuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. Wednesday. The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. θáuzand tú:/ o también. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. Summer /sámer/ Verano. A. on June the twentyfifth /on dllú:n δe tuénti fífθ/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /ilévenθ/ Twelfth /tuélfθ/ Thirteenth /θe:rtí:nθ/ Fourteenth /fortí:nθ/ Fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ Sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ Seventeenth /seventí:nθ/ Eighteenth /eití:nθ/ Nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ Twentieth /tuéntieθ/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti θé:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:rθ/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fífθ/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síksθ/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti sévenθ/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éitθ/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náinθ/ Thirtieth /θértieθ/ Thirty-first /θé:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . nineteen seventy-five /on ó:gast δe fiftí:nθ náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). on August the fifteenth. TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /manθ/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. two thousand two /δe déit tudéi iz wénzdi δe fé:rst ov méi tú. Los números ordinales son: 1st. θáuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. o también. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /δérzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. o también. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on δe fiftí:nθ ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday.

12.05.09. 8. 6.28. 12. 9.03. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth. 10.2001 18.1938 02.1963 05. Answer the following questions: 1. 15.1810 05. When is your birthday? When was your father born? What day is today? What´s the date today? How many days are there in a week? What are the seasons of the year? What´s your favo(u)rite season? What are the days of the week? What are the months of the year? What´s the first month of the year? What´s the third day of the week? What´s the last month of the year? How many months are there in a year? How many hours are there in a day? When is New Year´s Day? When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 . 4. 14. 2.30.11. 2.09.27. 12. 8. 6.1900 10. 10. 11. 13.1906 18. 9. 5. 7.01.12. Write the following dates.1893 04.1987 02. 3. 3. 14. 4. nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex.EXERCISES Ex.1999 08.07. 12. 7.08. 5.1956 The twelfth of September.1956 10.1978 12.02. 13. 2.2000 01. 1. as in the examples: 1.1492 07. 16. 11.

? /háu big?/ How well. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo.200 mt..70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex.altura size /saiz/ tamaño. habrá advertido. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /θik/ grueso. thin /θin/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante. long. short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto.. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /leθ/ longitud width /wiθ/ anchura thickness /θiknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /depθ/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura. Nota importante: Como Ud. deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm. big /big/ grande tiny /táini/ diminuto. oval /óuval/ ovalado heavy /hévi/ pesado. young /yaη/ joven old /ould/ viejo. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1.like?* /wot. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt.. shallow /shálou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto.B..... low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño. light /láit/ liviano 54 A short course in english for adult students . huge /hiu:dll/ enorme round /ráund/ redondo. How high is that hill? It´s about 1. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km..) para describir objetos. 1.. viejo.. Iz /a:r. lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu lóη/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu f(st/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu (ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big.. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly. square /skwear/ cuadrado.? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are.? /háu wel/ How heavy. new /niú:/ nuevo long /loη/ largo. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular.. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche.láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son. short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho. etc. talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano. nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz.

000th 1.000.000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS CARDINAL NUMBERS 1 one /wan/ uno 2 two /tu:/ dos 3 three /θri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho 9 nine /nain/ nueve 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /θε:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /θε ´:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /θε wán/ ´:rti treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1. A short course in english for adult students 55 . los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas. Units of time second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ 2. temporada año siglo Nota: En Inglés.000.000 one thousand /wan θáuznd/ mil 1.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS first /fε:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /θε:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:rθ/ cuarto fifth /fifθ/ quinto sixth /siksθ/ sexto seventh /sévnθ/ séptimo eighth /éitθ/ octavo ninth /náinθ/ noveno tenth /ténθ/ décimo eleventh /ilévnθ/ décimo primero twelfth /twelfθ/ décimo segundo thirteenth /θε:rtí:nθ/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:nθ/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:nθ/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:nθ/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntieθ/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fε ´:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /θε θ/ ´:rtie trigésimo thirty-first /θε fε ´:rti ´:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtieθ/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftieθ/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstieθ/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntieθ/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitieθ/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintieθ/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándreθ/ centésimo one thousandth /wan θáuzndθ/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílionθ/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES 1. Days of the week Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /θε ´:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ εrdi/ ´t Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo segundo minuto hora día semana month /mánθ/ season /sí:zon/ year /yíar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación.

3. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre verano otoño winter /wínter/ spring /spriη/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students . 2001 (the second of May. two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. Months of the year January /dllániuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5. 2nd May. Dates Today is Monday. Seasons of the year summer /sámer/ autumn /fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ 4. 1957 (January the twenty-sixth.

There are twelve months in a year 14. The tenth of August. are speaking 11. February. The twelfth of March.. is working 5... The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4. eighteen ten 8.. nineteen fifty-six 13.. am listening 2.? 7. New Year´s day is on the first of January. 1. 1. I´m not helping John. are going 3. The first of January. / Am I helping John. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex.. November and December 10. It isn´t raining. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex. 1. What are John and his friends doing? 3..? 5. Why are you singing? 10. What are the men doing now? 11. September. 3. is my favority season. are doing 8. What are you trying to do? 12. The seasons of the year are Winter. April. is cutting 12. The second of November. The eighteenth of July. Today´s.. The students aren´t writing. The fifth of May.. 2.The first month of the year is January 11. nineteen seventy-eight 9.. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12. Jane: is . 1. Why isn´t he working? 8.. There are seven days 6. 4...... 5. 9... What are the students reading? 6. forteen ninety-two 14. / Is the boy singing. The fifth of December. The days of the week are Monday. March. What are you doing? 5. A short course in english for adult students 57 . are visiting 6. What are they looking at? Ex.. The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2.. two thousand 6. August. Hans: are .. nineteen eighty-seven 12. Wednesday. The eighteenth of September.. You aren´t doing the exercises. 2. The months of the year are January. 8. The boy isn´t singing.doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is .. The date today is. 3. / Are you doing the exercises. 1.. / Is it raining. July the second. 6. eighteen ninety-three 11. February the twenty-eighth. nineteen hundred 5. 4. Tuesday. 2. Friday. nineteen fifty-six Ex.... October. 16.driving Bob: are fising 2. Saturday and Sunday. The cadet isn´t sleeping.going Hans : am going / are . Where are they living at present? 4.studyiung / is doing Peter: is planning . / Is the cadet sleeping. are working out Ex. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9.. 1.. Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth.? Ex. The last month of the year is December 13. The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11. is coming 10.3. John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3. 5. are spending 9. nineteen thirty-eight 3. What´s Mary eating now? 2. August the twenty-seventh. Thursday. is arriving 7... / Are the students writing.? 10.. two thousand one 7. How´s George travelling? 7..? 9. He was born on. October the twelfth.? 8.. Spring Summer and Autumn / Fall 7. It´s on.. nineteen oh six 4. July. June. is waiting 4. May.

Bl 58 .

rarely /réarli/ (rara vez). el SUJETO (I.vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”. a month /e mánθ/ (al mes). sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. /dllón tchéidlliz δe bátriz wáns e mánθ/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra. it. does /daz/. twice /twáis/ (dos veces). pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ . -ce. do. /hi: spí:ks spánish and ínglish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bién) The secretary answers the telephone. Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/. Cuando decimos. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. Escuche. o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. En la forma afirmativa. seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día). often /ófn/ ( a menudo). Los verbos have. /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega ténis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. change /tchéindll/ . -x. en forma habitual. *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in δi í:vniη/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. the telephone. /δe bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) Bob washes the car on saturday. the boy. three times /θri: táimz/ (tres veces). You. /δéi ólwiz kám híar on sæ ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week.) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando.rises /ráiziz/. -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular. se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”. etc. Persona del singular: has /hæz/. sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). etc. generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente).etc) se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. persona del singular (he. seldom /séldom/ (raramente). lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. The students. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?. Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito). /ai ófn sí: méri at δe kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. A short course in english for adult students 59 . every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana). plays /pléiz/. watches /wótshiz/.UNIT 5 PART I.studies. Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces).changes /tchéindlliz/. /δe stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana)æ ´ Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal. etc. usually /íushuali/ (usualmente). -sh. You and I. -ch-. /wi: góu tu δe bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos.También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez). /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:niη/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study . hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca). goes /góuz/. several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces). como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). she. it). /δe sékretri ánserz δe télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here. /δe sán ráiziz in δi í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. /bób wóshiz δe ka:r on sæ ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * My wife watches TV in the evening. she. /ai spí:k spánish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) We go to the beach every summer. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. never /néver/ (nunca). every morning /évri mó:niη/ (todas las mañanas). a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana).

I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. Mary has got many friends in Canada. WHEN. Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. o experimentar. divertirse). Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well? Does the bus stop /dáz δe bás stóp/ here?. We go to the beach every summer. beber. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). HOW MUCH.En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. etc. como en to have breakfast (desayunar). En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´T/DOESN¨T Escuche. WHERE. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es) Escuche. por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones ) My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car My friends haven´t got a new car. My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. Mary has many friends in Canada. The students play soccer every day. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. We have lunch at school every day. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót láηguidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du δei góu tu δe bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz δe bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll δe báteriz évri mánθ/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. HOW.. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day. Do the students play /du δe stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students . Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse. Escuche. My wife watches TV in the morning. Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning. comer. He speaks English well. Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning? Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month? Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car? Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada? Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day? Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home? Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday? Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. The bus stops here.

I watch TV after dinner. 2.EXERCISES Ex. Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 .21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex.17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 . ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner. Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri θérzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:niη/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæ ´terdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vniη/ Every morning /évri mó:niη/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vniη/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mánθ/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /θri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mánθ/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in δe sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in δi ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in δe wínter/ In the spring /in δe spriη/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde. I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b. Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a. 1.

(go) I ______________________________ breakfast at 7:15 every morning. (play) The train ______________________in London at 7:50 every morning. Then translate them into Spanish 1. 12. 6. and c) Wh-questions: 1. They live near here. 9. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses. I do the exercises well.m. 10. 4. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. 2. 7. 4. I have dinner at work. 3. The children ________________________at this time every morning. (get up) We seldom ___________________________ to the North in the summer. (wash) I never ____________________________________ Spanish at school. b) interrogative.c. Change the following sentences into a) negative. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . (leave) My wife and I often _____________________________ in that restaurant. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. (speak) The manager generally _________________ the office after 8:00 p. 2. I study English every day. 5. (play) Peter ___________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. (arrive) Myriam__________________________ the floor once or twice a week. (read) The students sometimes _________________________rugby at school. 8. (have) John _______________________ the newspaper on the train every day. (eat) Mr Smith ________________________ TV after dinner every evening. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk. (watch) Ex. 11. 3.

Ex. They have two cars. They play golf twice a week. The children are in the park. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. What do you do after dinner every evening? 7. They don´t like the car because it´s too small. 5. Mary comes to work by bus. 8. How many legs has a dog got? 4. 5. They go to the park on Sunday. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4. 14. 2. HOW. They come here twice a week. The bus leaves at 7:45 5. Peter watches TV every night. etc. How much free time is there in an intensive course? 8. 6. 4. They have two cars now. What are they doing? 6. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. Are there any trees in your garden? 5. 3. 11. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in c? 9. They need twenty dollars. 10. 10.3. 8. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 63 . What´s he doing? 3. She usually sleeps six hours every night. 7. They get up at 7:15 every morning. Where do you usually spend your summer vacatio 10. 12. How many weeks are there in a year? 2. Bob always drinks beer. The students need more practice. We go to the club on Friday. Peter does everything well. She lives near Wimbledon. 9. 13. Answer these questions in English: 1. 6. That man speaks German. WHERE. 7. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. They work out every morning. WHEN. John goes to Pucón in the summer. 1. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. 9. 6. Bob is in the office.

(begin) 12. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18.(not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (the banks / close) A:’Where __________________________________from?’ (Martin / come) B: ‘He’s Scottish’. For the time being. Put the verb into the correct form. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun. 4. 7. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth. 4. . every day. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. Mr. 2. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play). Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. 10. 6. (come) 6. Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. Janet _______________________________ tea very often. 8. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside.m. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students . Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. Look! John __________________________ over there. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years. 2. (watch) 4. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. Look at that man. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. He ___________________________ a green uniform. (open / close) 13. An atheist ____________________________________ in God. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15. 5. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. 6. I don’t understand this sentence. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. Bees __________________________________ honey. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. 3. Ex. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. 7. The sun _____________________________________ in the east. 9. 6. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents. (go) 5. Who can it be? (play) 17. He must be a police officer. 5. I never ___________________________ coffee. 7. We_______ just ____________ TV. You must always speak to him in English. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11.Ex. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. 2. Hello. (work) 2. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. (leave) 3. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now. (work) 8. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. Ex. A: ‘What __________________________________?’ (you / do) B:’I’m an electrical engineer’. 4. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. 1. 8. (come) 7. 3. 5. 3. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. 9. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20.m and _____________________ at 6:30 p. (do / watch) 14. Rice __________________________________ in Britain. (understand) 16.

4. It´s 7 o´clock now. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. 3. not) _____________________up right now. not) ___________________________________ it.m. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. It (rain.He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. They (like. 5. They (play) with their toys instead. Black´s at home. it). Arabic is his native language. 11. not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. 7. I usually (sit) _______________________at the same desk in class every day. (Take. Alice (take. Mrs. 6. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk. Our teacher (stand. not) __________________right now. but the children (watch. (Rain. She usually (walk) _______________________________instead. (Rain. Look out of the window. She always (eat) dinner with her family around six o´clock. but right now he (speak) _____________________English. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. but this morning they (pay. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. 10.Ex. 2. 1. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . It´s 7:30 a. Mrs. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. not) __________________________ TV either. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. or (walk. He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8. Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. There´s a cartoon on TV now. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner.

. The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes It takes me about 20 minutes to get there. My friends come from San Diego.. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning.. 4.from/ Where.físico) EXAMPLE What is that? .wiϑ/ What. What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?. Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?...look like? /wót du /daz.for?* /wot. I go there three times a week. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday...? (Descripción de personas .. Nota: Muy a menudo. QUESTION WORDS. abáut/ Who../Where... 15. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. 3...with?* /wot.. They need twenty-five dollars... 2. What´s your opinion? Who is that man?.. oranges and pears We go to the South in the summer. 5. Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin. for/ What.. 16. California Jack visits his parents twice a month... 9. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1..with?* /hu:. 14. About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?. They look at the stars with the telescope. We take photographs with a camera.from?* /wéar .lúk láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son. Ann likes apples.PART II.abáut/ What. 8. I like Mary because she´s very friendly. about?* /wot.. 66 Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes. 13. With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición.at/ What do /does. whom vuelve a ser who) Ex..... A short course in english for adult students _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . tu/ Who.for/ What. 1. The boys usually talk about football.about?* /hu: .. A. 11. 12. 6. normalmente trasladan la preposición al final. 10. las preguntas que comienzan con Preposición + Whom/What.to?* /wéar ..at?* /wot...... 7..for?* /hu:....wiϑ/ Who..

money. Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. 3. We eat _______________ meat almost every day. 15. se traduce como el. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary.) 1. ___________air in large cities is not very fresh. 9. 10. ___________leather in these shoes is very good. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard. ___________air in this room is not good. (Fresh air is good for the health. es decir. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. We like _________ animals. 8. Supply the definite article (the) where necessary in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. I always drink ________________water with my meals. etc. 14. people. 20. 4. Girls work harder than boys. 16. ___________water in this glass is dirty. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. los y las . The gold in this ring is of good quality. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? B.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. 2. 7. ___________animals in that photograph are wild animals. 19. ___________history is an interesting subject. 12. students. Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. men. Books are expensive in Chile. milk. etc) o sustantivos plurales (books. 18. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired. ___________light in this room is not good. 13. El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos. Gold is an important metal. We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. 5. We are studying ______________history of France. ___________children like to watch cartoons. 11. The students go to the gym after lunch. cats. Ex. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best.Do you sell ____________ stamps here? A short course in english for adult students 67 . 1. 17. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. The books which I want are on the table. la. happiness.We all need _______________fresh air. experience. 6. (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún articulo con los sutantivos incontables (water. We have ______________ good light in our classroom.17. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. ___________fish in the refrigerator is fresh. Ann writes detective stories.

(I would like = me gustaría) The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. En inglés. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. I don´t know the man in Mr. 20. ? The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. 3. 8.Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. The men trained at our school are good pilots. John is the student_________________ speaks English well. el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas.. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE. mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH. 7. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. The cars imported from Japan are really good. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. 9.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19. ? I don´t know the man who is in Mr. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good. ? The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. 16. The woman crossing the road is my wife. ? The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. 18. 12. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. 5. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. This is the book we use in class. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. 10. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. animal o cosa estamos hablando. The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister. 11. ? Ex. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. Smith´s office. 2. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? Are these the envelopes __________________you need? The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting. 17. This is the book which we use in class. The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. 68 A short course in english for adult students . 3. C.Mr. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. 4. Smith´s office.18. debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. 2. 20. 6. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona. 13. 19. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine. ? The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. 14. ? The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. 15.

8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. 4. Smith. 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 1. 14. 6. 17. as in the example: 1. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. 1. 12. 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 9. 13. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Translate the following sentences into English. 16. 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. or the word groups WHO IS/ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible. 19. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 69 . 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 2. 3. 7. The girl with him is his sister 2. Rewrite the sentences in Ex.Ex. 3. omitting the relative pronoun WHICH. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 18. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. 5.

¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 70 A short course in english for adult students . Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.5. Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

anorak /ánorak/ leather jacket /léδer dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar A short course in english for adult students 71 .siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro. arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stókiηz/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fíηger riη/ parka /pá:rka /.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllákit/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarriη/ sunglasses /sanglá.

72 A short course in english for adult students .

? Does Ann watch TV.? Does Bill go to the movies.? Does Bill play tennis.. Ann plays tennis.. 1...watches Ex..? What language does that man speak? 6. Ann doesn´t do the exercises. Bill has dinner at work. We don´t watch TV.... /Does the bus leave. The bus doesn´t leave. We go to the movies. have 4....... arrives 8.? Do we play tennis.? Does Bill watch TV...... Bill doesn´t study English..... Ann doesn´t go to the movies......? Do you go to the movies. Ann studies English.? Do we study English....? Does Ann study English.. plays 7. 4.. Mary doesn´t like.. Ann doesn´t study English. washes 9.... We study English.? Do you watch TV... They study English. play 6... We don´t have dinner..?/ Where do they live? 3.. get up 2.. /Does Bob always drink... Bill doesn´t do the exercises.. You don´t do the exercises... Bill doesn´t have dinner.?/ What does Peter do every night? 4./ What does Mary like to drink? 2...? Does Ann play tennis. We play tennis... Bill doesn´t go to the movies...? Do they watch TV.. We don´t work here... 1.. go 3.. speak 10. 3...... Interrogative Do you work here.? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex.. /Does Peter watch.. /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 .? Do they study English...? Does Bill study English.?/ What time does the bus leave? 5.......? Does Ann work here... They go to the movies. We don´t study English........? Does Bill work here. /Do they live .. Peter doesn´t watch..... They don´t work here..... Bob doesn´t always drink.....? Do you play tennis.. You don´t play tennis. That man doesn´t speak.......... We don´t play tennis....KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex...? Do you study English..? Does Ann go to the movies.. /Does Mary like... You have dinner at work.. Ann goes to the movies... Bill doesn´t watch TV...eat 12. They don´t watch TV. We have dinner at work. Ann doesn´t watch TV. They have dinner at work. You don´t study English...... We don´t do the exercises...? Do they go to the movies.. leaves 11. /Do they work out. You don´t go to the movies.. You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here.. They don´t do the exercises.. Bill goes to the movies... They don´t go to the movies. Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every...... They don´t have dinner. They play tennis. /Does that man speak.. We don´t go to the movies.. Ann doesn´t work here.? Do they play tennis..... You don´t have dinner.? Do they work here..? Do we go to the movies...... They don´t live......? Do we watch TV.. You study English every day Bill studies English. They don´t study English... They don´t work out. Ann doesn´t have dinner.?/ What does Bob always drink? 8.. Ann has dinner at work.?/ When do they work out? 7. You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis..... Ann doesn´t play tennis. You don´t watch TV... Bill doesn´t work here...... They don´t have.. Bill doesn´t play tennis...... They don´t play tennis..... reads 5. 2..? Do we work here...

are-doing 15. is not raining / is shining / is 7. The leather 9. do-like 18. There is very little free time 8. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. is wearing Ex. That is exactly the car which I would like to have.. animals 13. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. opens-closes 13.they have. /Do they come.water 7. 7.. 16. are-doing/are-watching 14.?/ How does Peter do everything? 10. 8. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. 1. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5. there aren´t any trees 5. do you do 5. Ex. opens . 5. Ex. 12. take place Ex.coins 19. doesn´t grow 3. The book which I want is on the table 3. speaks 2. At what time do they get up every morning? 4.. live 6. Where do the students go after lunch? 20. does this word mean? Ex.. How often do they play golf 3. don´t eat 6. 8. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. The air 12. is playing 17. 10.. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/she is sick Ex. comes 7. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. How often do you go there? 12. Where do you go in the summer? 5. 2. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. What does Susan look like? 2. 11. John is the student who speaks English well. History 3. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14. Does it rain 8. What do the students need? 5. make 5. play . flows Ex. 1. is watching 4.. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13.closes 4. 1. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. go 5. 1.. stamps 18. Yes. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. He´s working 3. Children 17. 1. What do you take photographs with? 16.. The stamps . What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. 9. good light 5. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19. 6. 15. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex. There are fifty-two weeks in a year. I usually spend my summer vacation in. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. 10. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. does Martin come 4. How much money do they need? 3. do-get 20. drink 3. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. The animals 14. is not standing/is sitting 5. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. goes 2. stamps . there are some trees/No. 6. The water 8. 1. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14.?/ How often do they come here? Ex. Peter doesn´t do. is eating/eats 6. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20. the history 4. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. When does Bob go to bed early? B. leaves 3. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. am sitting/sit 3. is working 2. It´s got four legs 4. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II. translates 8. 9. rises 4.. 1.. When do you go to the club? 8. leather 10. The air 2. English books / The magazines C. speaks/is speaking 4. Is it raining 9. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18.The men who are working in that room are engineers. How long does it take you to get there? 11. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6.?/ How many cars do they have? 9. is coming 6. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. causes 5. is beginning 12. are-studying 19. doesn´t tell 9. 7. 1. They´re playing /running/ etc. 1. isdoing 11. He hardly ever/never uses it. are-living 9. 1. do the banks close 3. doesn´t drink 2. 74 A short course in english for adult students . is working 8. Ex. Why do you like Mary? 17. Where does John go in the summer? 6. How does Mary come to work? 7. How many cars do they have now? 12. The light 6. 1. fresh air 11. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. How much money do they need? 11. takes/does it take 6. Where do your friends come from? 7. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. do-go 10.. 1. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14. is sleeping/sleeps 2. /Does Peter do. doesn´t believe 7.don´t play 7.the coins 20. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. They don´t come. Where does she live? 2.. does-understand 16. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. 1. What do they do on Sunday? 9. The fish 16. A. meat 15.

La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. 2.Ex. 8. 1. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero. 12. ¿Es este el diario que ud. necesita? 14. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9. 5.18. The man driving the car is my father 4. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. 3. 4. ¿Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. 1. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4. 12. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. 1. 2. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. The books which are on that chair are mine. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. The girl with him is his sister 2. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien. 3. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. 15. lee todos los días? 13. The people described in the story are very interesting. 8. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . The shoes which we make are of very good quality. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. 16. 16. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud. ¿Es este el computador que ud. 10. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. 15. Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7.The men working in that room are engineers. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener Ex. usa todos los días? 19. The book I want is on the table 3. Ex. ¿Es el Sr. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20.The people who are working in that office are engineers. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3. That is exactly the car I would like to have. John is the student who speaks English well. Is this the computer you use every day? 19.

Bl 76 .

... several weeks ago (hace varias semanas). that day (ese día).. pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/.) Como ud.saw . tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla)./ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd δéi sí:.to complete.. A menudo.. last year (el año pasado). lea y aprenda: 1. el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal.UNIT 6 PART I.. /δéi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4.bought ..2. como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year. En los Ejemplos 1./ We didn´t work hard that day. last weekend (el fin de semana pasado. completed /komplí:tid/. en la conversación diaria.. La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (No el Pasado) de un verbo principal. como to want..come.stopped . 4. Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple. needed /ní:did/. Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer). como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana). como last week (la semana pasada). Peter came here three days ago. To work . To clean . 3. /méri klí:nd δe háus iésterdi mó:rniη/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana.. mientras que los de los ejemplos 4. They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /δei stópt tó:kiη wen δe tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó. /ai dídnt bái.seen. al igual que en la forma negativa. Escuche.stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4). They saw a good film yesterday.-de. the day before yesterday (anteayer). We worked hard that day..stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!). 1810) Escuche. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd δat déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6. /pí:ter kéim híar θrí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3. o una hora o fecha pasada./ They didn´t see a good film yesterday. To come . como two days ago (hace dos días). va en INFINITIVO./ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám.worked 6. decided /disáidid/. 5. aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year” estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”..worked . lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year. pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores. yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche). Escuche. lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái...came .bought. se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/./ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning.. To see . /δéi dídnt sí:. -te.. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t δe ká:r lá:st íar/ (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 2.etc./ Peter didn´t come here three days ago. EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado.To buy . 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1. Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning. last night (anoche). Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado.. 2. /pí:ter didnt kám. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: to stop .cleaned. /méri didnt klí:n./ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n. to stop . También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO. Los verbos terminados en -t. 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre. -d. /wí: dídnt wé:rk.to decide también agregan -ed/-d. 5. on September 18th./ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal.cleaned .3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares. Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST.to need. a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo). / A short course in english for adult students 77 . last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana).

esforzarse usar.. responder llega preguntar../ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám./ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái. utilizar visitar esperar. lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái.. pedir fumar comenzar. partir quedarse. arreglar repetir solicitar. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar.?) EXERCISES: Ex. gustar terminar odiar.. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used. localizar mirar amar.. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n. gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. WHEN. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar. WHERE.Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk.. HOW.. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche. 1./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT......./ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk../ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd δéi sí:. no gustar ayudar esperar. etc.. pedir transportar../ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám./ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dúu/ (¿Qué hizo ud. atender ..

2. Study the Past Tense form of the following Irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. mirar desear trabajar.pasar tiempo pararse nadar |tomar. enterarse partir. colocar leer correr. dejar prestar perder.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. funcionar Ex. salir. extraviar hacer. decir pensar. llevar enseñar contar. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. fabricar reunirse. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 . comer. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. narrar.saber. obtener. encontrar olvidar conseguir.conocer pagar poner. creer brillar entender.servirse oir guardar. mantener saber. conocer aprender.

18. John sold his house for 120. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We watch TV every night. Peter came here yesterday. 8. I wanted to drink tea. 14. I give the boy a present every year. We went to work by bus. 2. Father tells the boy a story every night.000 dollars. 3. 10. Bob washes the car every Saturday. 15. 6. 4. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. __________________________________________ last week. They sell lots of books every year. They saw the car accident. 3.To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. They bought the car in Paris. 3. The boy did the exercise well. I write to Mary every week-end. We had dinner at the Club. 4. 19. The boy reads a book every month. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 17. 13. 6. 16. 7. We wrote the letter in Spanish. 9. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. It rains a lot here every winter. We have a test every week. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. 12. They studied English in London. I sleep well every night. 20. 7. 10. 8. desgastar escribir Ex. 5. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. 11. Peter comes here every week. The postman brings a letter every Monday. 4. Mary visits her parents every month. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. We enjoy our vacation every summer. They go to Europe every year. 2. 9. They receive a letter every week. They eat fish every Friday. 5. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students .

Where. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. He didn´t go because he was tired. Bill spent one hundred dollars. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. 9. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No. In each case. What did you watch? _________________________________________________ What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. Bob did the same exercise three times. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. He went to the zoo yesterday. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. I went by taxi. 6. 7. 10. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. How much. 5. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ What did you eat for dinner last night?. 3. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. 8. How often. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. How. The boy wanted to play. 3. 6 7. I didn´t (go by bus). 2. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. 4. 7. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. 1. 5. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex.Ex. Peter saw the film last week. as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. The children got up at 6:30 He went to the doctor because he was ill. When. ___________________________________________________ Did you watch TV last night? If so. 4. etc. 5. They came here by taxi. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. 6. Did Mr. Ask questions using question words like What. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked.

Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students . Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17.16. Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20. Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18.

. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. anymore) Bob used to work in the car factory. (He doesn´t work there now) Mr. I don´t play well now. Ann came to class on time every day. Bill helped me with my homework. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8..... Jim no estudiaba mucho en el colegio... (not. but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway... (not. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Peter was a good student.. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. Bob la amaba mucho. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos.. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4.. (not. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? ¿Dónde pasabas tus vaciones de verano cuando eras joven? EXERCISES Ex 1. John Kerry went to that school. (not.. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young.. Scott used to smoke cigars. as in the examples Bob worked in the car factory.. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. (not... now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. Mother played the piano well. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much. Explain the change in meaning. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven. Scott smoked cigars. Bill brought her flowers every Friday. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer.PART II. pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas.. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /δei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer.. We exported shoes to the USA. (not. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano. Bob used to love ama. He no longer loves her now. Equivale al la terminación -aba o -ía del español. not. Mary spoke Italian at home. En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) A short course in english for adult students 83 . (not. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ 2. (not. anymore. 1. I rode the subway to work.. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. Mr. any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal) Escuche. Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school. Uncle Paul lived in that house.

lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. 8. The children´s names are Bob and Joe.. (de ella) They´ve got a house. de ud. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. 4. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. That´s my brother´s car. 3. This is my book. o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /δéar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo. 1.PART III. This is their house (nuestra casa). Mrs. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective. The books of the students are new. The students´ books are new. We moved to ______ new house last month. 6.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. The house of Mr Smith is very big. Escuche. Mr. salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón). Mr and Mrs. es decir agregando un apóstrofe + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. The car is hers. The teacher writes with ______ pen. . de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo. They went back to ______ seats and began to write. John walks to______ desk. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /δéi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. You walk to ______ school every morning. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. His /hiz/= suyo. It is her car. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. EXERCISES Ex. Smith´s house is very big. That is the car of my brother. The house is theirs. Jones take ______ children to the park on Sunday. I walk to ______ chair 2. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /δéarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. 7. This is my parents´ house. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. A. This is John´s book. 1.(su auto). Escuche. (mi libro) The book is mine (mío) Mary bought this car last year. Escuche. Clark goes to ______ office every day 5. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. This is the house of my parents.

Helen has a cat. 8. That is the room of the teachers. 5. That (notebook) is Helen’s notebook. 5. The friend of my sister is very sick. 9. 2. I have a dog and a cat. 7. 4. He’s also the teacher of my friend. I have a dog. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. Helen and Mary have two English books. 6. Is this (pencil) your pencil? Is this (coat) your coat or her coat? These (seats) are our seats. 9. 2. The house of my friends is beautiful 12.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. the pen is _______________. John has a dog. 3. This is the book of John. 8. Mary has a new pen. 10. 11. the dog is mine . 6. That’s the home of my teacher. This (book) is my book. Jones has a new car. the cat is _______________. My brother drives ______ car every day. A short course in english for adult students 85 . 7. These (cigarettes) are Peter´s cigarettes. This is the notebook of William. 13. the dog is _______________. 4. The office of Mr. 3. Smith is very large. the English books are _______________.2 . 5. These (newspapers ) are their newspapers. 10. (This book is mine. 6. 2. He took his book and left my book. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book. the car is _______________. 10. 8. 12. 4. This (desk) is the teacher’s desk. This is the wife of Mr Smith 11. the pen is _______________. What´s the name of that man? 14.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. the dog and the cat are _______________. The desk of the teacher is new. The dog wags ______ tail. 3.. This (room) is her room. This is the pen of Helen. the English books are _______________. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. 7. This (notebook) is my notebook. 10. Ex. Change the words in italics to Possessive form: 1. 3. Mr. He’s the teacher of Helen 9. We have two English books. You have a dog and a cat. the dog and the cat are _______________. You have a pen. 4. This (office) is John’s office.9.

(last summer) When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) When did he invite you? (last month) When did they eat the apples? (this morning) When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /δei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /δem/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración: Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un direct object (complemento directo) o a un indirect object (complemento indirecto) y. 3. 6. James goes with John and Alice to the club. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) When did she send the letters? (last Monday) When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) When did she spend the money. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. 11. I like this song very much. John likes Mary. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. her. us. 10. Bob studies his book every day. Use object pronouns (me. Substitute the correct pronoun for the italicized word or words: 1. 4. 11. it. them) instead of names 1. 2. William studies the book She speaks with John. EXERCISES Ex. 7. 14. I understand the teacher very well. 5. you. The teacher likes Mary and William. 9. 13. 2. 10. Is this letter for Mr. 9. 8. 12. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. por lo tanto. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. I know William and his wife very well.B. 5. him. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. 7. 1. 3. 6. 8. They are talking about the accident. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . 2. 12.

cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 .BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS actor /(ktor/ actor actress /(ktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barber /bá:rber/ barbero. peluquero butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico. sacerdote clerk /klε ´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero conductor /kondáktor/ inspector (trenes) doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer. cura recepcionista vendedor secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario. boticario clergyman /klε ´:rdlliman/ clérigo. gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote. conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dreser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllánitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dllórnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póustman/ priest /pri:st/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretri/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /si(ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /teknishan/ teacher /ti:tcher/ telephonist /télifonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wotchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ abogado gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero.

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 6
Part I
Ex. 1. & 2. Study List of Regular and Irrgular Verbs Ex. 3. 1. Peter came here... 2. I bought the...3. They went to .4. Mary visited her... 5. I wrote to... 6. They ate fish... 7. Bob washed the... 8. We watched TV... 9. The postman brought a... 10. We had a... 11. The boy read / red / a... 12.. I gave the...13. Peter drove to... 14. We enjoyed our... 15. It rained a lot... 16. They received a...17. I slept well... 18. Father told the... 19. Mother made an... 20. They sold lots of... Ex. 4. (didn´t = did not) 1. We didn´t go to... / Did we go to...? / How did we go to work? 2. Peter didn´t come... / Did Peter come...? / When did Peter come here? 3. I didn´t want to drink... / Did I want to drink...? / What did I want to drink? 4. They didn´t see the... / Did they see the...? / What did they see? 5. John didn´t sell his... / Did John sell his...? / How much did John sell his house for? 6.They didn´t buy the... / Did they buy the...? / Where did theybuy the car? 7. They boy didn´t do the... / Did the boy do the...? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. We didn´t have dinner... / Did we have dinner...? / Where did we have dinner? 9. We didn´t write the... / Did we write the...? / What language did we write the letter in? 10. They didn´t study... / Did they study... / Where did they study English? Ex. 5. 1. Where did he go yesterday? 2. At what time did the children get up? 3. Why did he go to the doctor? 4. When did Peter see the film? 5. How did they come here? 6. What did the boy want to do? 7. Why didn´t he go? 8. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9. How much money did Bill spend? 10. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. 6. (open answers) 1. I went to... 2. I began to study English (... ago / last... / in...) 3. It took me about... 4. He / she told me to... 5. I ate... 6. Yes, I did. I watched... / No, I didn´t. 7. I got up at... Ex. 7. 1. No, they didn´t (watch TV). They listened to the radio. 2. No, He didn´t (go out). He stayed at home. 3. No, I didn´t (eat fish). I ate chicken. 4. No she didn´t (send me a fax) . She sent me a letter. 5. No, they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. 6. No, he didn´t (say “yes”). He said “No” 7. No, I didn´t (read it in English). I read it in French. 8. No, they didn´t (drink beer) . They drank wine. 9. No, he didn´t (write a poem). He wrote a short story. 10. No, she didn´t (buy a dress). She bought a jacket. 11. No, I didn´t (see her last week). I saw her yesterday. 12. No, he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. 13. No, he didn´t (feel weel) . He felt weak and tired. 14. No, he didn´t ( speak to me in english) . He spoke to me in French. 15. No, he didn´t (come in the morning). He came at midday. 16. No, I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. 17. No, I didn´t (give him an apple) . I gave him some money. 18. No, she didn’t (leave early) She left late. 19. No, she didn´t (wear a short skirt). She wore a long one. 20. No, he didn´t (break his arm). He broke his leg.

Part II
Ex. 1. 1. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. He doesn´t live there now 2. Mary used to speak Italian at home. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3. Ann used to come to class on time every day. She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4. Peter used to be a good student. He no longer is a good student 5. I used to ride the subway to work. I don´t ride it to work any longer 6. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday any more 7. Mother used to play the piano well. She doesn´t play it well now 8. Bill used to help me with my homework. He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9. John Kerry used to go to that school. He doesn´t go to that school now 10. We used to export shoes to the USA. We no longer export shoes to the USA.

Part III.
A. Ex. 1. 1. my 2.. his 3. your .4.. her 5. their .6. his / her .7. our .8. their .9. its 10. his Ex. 2. 2. This is Helen´s pen. 3. The teacher´s desk is new. 4. That´s my teacher´s home 5. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. Mr Smith´s office is very large 7. This is William´s notebook 8. He´s Helen´s teacher 9. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10. This is Mr Smith´s wife. 11. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. That´s the teachers´ room. 13. What´s that man´s name? 14. What are those men´s names?
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Ex. 3. 2. This room is hers. 3. This office is John´s 4. He took his book and left mine. 5. These newspapers are theirs. 6. These cigarettes are Peter´s. 7. That notebook is Helen´s. 8. This notebook is mine. 9. Is this pencil yours? 10. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. These seats are ours. 12. This desk is the teacher´s. Ex. 4. 1. mine 2. his 3. hers 4. yours 5. his 6. hers 7. ours 8. theirs 9. mine 10. yours B. Ex. 1. 1. her 2. it 3. him 4. him / her 5. them 6. it 7. us 8. it 9. them 10. her 11. them 12. us 13. it 14. him or her?. Ex. 2. 2. I bought it 5 years ago. 3. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. 4. She sent them last Monday 5. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. I visited them last weekend. 7. He got it a long time ago. 8. She spent it last summer. 9. I spoke to him yesterday morning. 10. He invited me last month. 11. They ate them this morning. 12. She met him last Friday morning.

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UNIT 7
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/, o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado, como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók δis mó:niη/, at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/, etc. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/. Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai woz dráiviη tu δi éarpo:rt at ten oklók δis mó:niη/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday. /δéi we:r pléiη fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hí: woz vízitiη hiz péarents in ditróit on δe fifθ ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ái woz slí:piη wen de télifoun ræη la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wí: we:r hæviη lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/: Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai wóznt dráiviη.../ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday. /dei wé:rent pléiiη.../ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hi: wóznt vízitiη.../ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ai wóznt sli:piη.../ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wi: wé:rent hæviη lántch... / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´T/WEREN´T) Lea, escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráiviη.../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r δéi pléiiη.../ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: vízitiη.../ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:piη.../ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hæviη lántch.../

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En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como What, Where, Why, etc. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea, escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:diη.../ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r δei pléiiη fútbol.../ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt δei hæviη lántch.../ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rkiη.../ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing...? /wót we:r iú: dúiη.../ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud....?) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning. (shine) Bill _________________________the report when Mr. Jenkins entered the room. (read) The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. (play) We ________________________the road when the accident happened. (cross) At that time, everyone _________________________to go to work. (get ready) I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. (drive) We ________________________near the river that evening. (camp) Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. (live) When we got to the station, the train ________________________ . (leave) We ________________________when the lights went out last night. (have dinner) Mrs. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident. (do) Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. (walk)

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) negative form, and b) interrogative form : 1. She was having a bath. 2. We were running down the road. 3. The soldiers were doing exercise 4. Alice was making the beds. 5. The children were watching TV. 6. The men were going to work. 7. The boys were studying for a test. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like Who, Where, What, How, etc. In each case, the underlined part must be the answer to your question. 1. They were walking in the park at midday. ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. ___________________________________________________ 3. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation. ___________________________________________________ 4. The generals were working in the conference room. ___________________________________________________ 5. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning. ______________________________________________
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6. Mrs. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired._________________________________________________ 7. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. ___________________________________________________ 8. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started. ___________________________________________________ 9. When the war broke out, they were living in the north of France. __________________________________________ 10. More than ten people were standing outside the building. _______________________________________________ Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué, todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento. ___________________________________________________

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in English. Give complete answers. 1. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex. 6. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. I ___________________________ very well last night. (sleep) I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night. (sleep...arrive) They _______________________ to the office when I __________________________ them this morning. (go..see) Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet... live) We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday. (play...begin) Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room. (work...walk) When John ______________________ us last night, we ____________________________ ( call on...have dinner) Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home. (have...drive) What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) Mr. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company. (work...become) 12. He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work. (read...ride)

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8. Drink black coffee. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please. please Drive fast please. please. 6. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE. You eat more slowly. You write your answer on the whiteboard. please. 9. You listen to the story carefully. /pli:z óupn δe wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. Don´t speak so fast. please Don´t speak so slowly please. please Work slowly please. 1. 2. please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. (you) open the window. 3. Come again this afternoon. 3. 4. Look at the map. Work hard. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. Listen to him please. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. You call me up after 9 o´clock. 6. 8. don´t open the window. You study hard every day. 9. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. please EXERCISES Ex. You have another cup of coffee. esta implícito en la orden). please. 2. Give Mary my new address. 10. Say that again. You drink milk every morning. 7. Por favor. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. A. 4. 5. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido. abra la ventana Hable más lento. Eat my bread and butter. You come here tomorrow morning. 10. You spell your first name. por favor. 7. (so = tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students . Take a taxi. (so /sou/= tan) Ex. 5. 2.PART II. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche. You fill up the tank. 1. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios.

canales.. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr. Sir. cordilleras. 9. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. ciudades. __________ China. etc.. Sgt.) o grados (Gen. Supply the definite article the where necessary: 1. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas. Dr. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina.. continentes. 10. países.They´ve climbed Mount Everest. estados.. 1. Miss.. 6. (adj. No se usa the delante de los nombres de continentes. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Committee. calles cuando estos son usados como nombres propios.Ms. (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal). Mrs. They are coming back from China. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station. 8.etc.. 7. mares. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. montes. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean.+Sust.) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. The New York City subways go very fast. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor. Cpt.. President. Gen.) EXERCISES Ex. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. 3. A short course in english for adult students 95 .) Santiago is the capital of Chile. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday.) 2.. __________ United States. Prof. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido the delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos. Johnson ordered Sgt. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City. Smith to send the message right away. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans. Escuche. Senator etc. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. (adj. volcanes. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido the.B. Lady. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies. 4. lea y compare: New York is a large city. He lives on Fifth Avenue. Mr De Ponti invited Dr. 5..) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adj.

5. __________ London School of Economics is very famous. 8. Ex. _________ English language is easy. __________. 11. 5. C. __________ Europe is a large continent. We walked along __________ Broadway. 8. 4. 7. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. __________ Broadway buses are slow. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!. 12. 10. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj. 13. Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. He lives in __________ Mexico. 3. 1. 2. 14 15. 3. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. 7. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. 9. 96 A short course in english for adult students . 10. 2. (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. 6. 2. in __________ Utah. 9.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. 4.11. __________ England is a small country. (He lives in Mexico. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles where needed: 1. + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj. / adv. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. 12.) __________ Mexican climate is warm. 11. 6. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (LA FORMA EXCLAMATIVA) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera.

This is a very incredible story. 2.!. 3. Supply HOW. ______________________ pretty she is! 3. ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9. 7. This whisky is very good 10. 5. 3.. or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 12.. It is a beautiful day. Mary is a very friendly person 13. She plays the piano well.. They are very beautiful women. 3. The movie was very exciting. 8. _____________________ hot weather we are having! 11. These photographs are very beautiful 11. These shoes are very expensive. He runs very fast. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8.. What a tall man Peter is! How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 14.. ______________________ hot it is today! 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 97 . _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. ______________________ well she swims! 5. 2. This trip is very interesting. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. 6. What. New York is a fascinating city. ______________________ pretty girl! 2. John is a very intelligent person. She plays the violin beautifully. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7.!. as indicated: 1. 5. 9. _____________________ hot day it is today! 12. 4. I was a very stupid person. 4. WHAT. as in the example Peter is a very tall man 1. 4. ______________________ strange remark to make! 4. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using HOW or WHAT / WHAT A(N).. These exercises are very difficult.! . Make exclamations using What a(n). or How. This music is very romantic.Ex. She is an excellent pianist. _____________________ quickly the time passes! 13. 2. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man.

He is a very tall man. 12. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 98 A short course in english for adult students . 17. It´s a cold day today. She is wearing a beautiful dress. It was a very fast train. 10. It is very cold today. 15. She is very pretty. We were very tired after the walk. 7. 8. Bob acted very foolishly. Grandfather told us a sad story. You have a beautiful new car. 14.6. 11. He is a handsome fellow. 16. It was very cold last night. Ann was a generous woman. 13. 9. 18.

. d) The Sitting-room /δe sítiηrum/ El Living arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:pit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /kértenz/ fireplace /faiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (BR) reproductor de CD silla loza fina.cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero f) The Kitchen /δe kítchin/ La Cocina broom /brú:m/ can opener /kæn óupner/ escoba abrelatas (USA) mixer /mikser/ napkin /nápkin/ máquina licuadora servilleta A short course in english for adult students 99 .. (BR) bungalow /báηgalou/ bungalow condominium /kondomínium/ condominio cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE a) Housing /háusiη/ Vivienda farm house /fá. cabaña casa pareada casa en fila casa de veraneo apartment /apa:rment/ departamento (USA) apartment building /apa:rmet bíldiη/ edificio de dptos./ terrace house /téris háus/ villa /vila/ casa de campo departamento (BR) casa choza. excusado.rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi.quinta detached house /ditηtætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov (e háus/ Partes de la Casa ceiling /síliη/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændiη/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov (e háus/ Piezas de la Casa attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:θrum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáiniηrum / kitchen /kítchin/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega(vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /sítiηrum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (Br) despensa living estudio baño.(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos.c.w. reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /δe bédrum/ El Dormitorio alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæηkit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáoun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda.

cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /korkskrú:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza cupboard /kábord/ aparador cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora fridge /frídll/ refrigerador frying pan /fráiiη pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro ondas g) The Bathroom /δe bá:θrum/ La Sala de Baño bath tub /bá:θ tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /míror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refridlleréitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (BR) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /siηk/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spun/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (BR) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshiη mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa shaving brush /shéiviηbrash/ shaving cream /shéiviη krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /túθbrash/ tooth paste /tú:θpéist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (Br) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos h) The Studio /δe stúdiou/ La Sala de Estudio book shelf /buk shelf/ bookcase /buk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiúter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /desk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáiliη kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ El exterior fence /fens/ garage /gará:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:θ/ sendero swimming pool /suimiη pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .

did . 11... 9.. 3. The Atlantic Ocean.. 1... 7... Call me up after 9 o´clock please 5. We weren´t running..? 4..They were playing bridge at that time.....doing 11. / were the men going. was living 9.. 6. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. / Was she having. China. What was Mary eating in her room? 3...... What. What a. What a. 15. Europe. please 2..) 2... everyone was talking. Why wasn´t Peter working? 4. 4. Don´t listen to him please 5. 8. Write your answer on the whiteboard please. 1. Ex.. What a.the Mediterranean Sea. The men weren´t going.. Ex.were playing 4.. Don´t say that again please. 4. What were you doing at that time? 6.. 2. Don´t give Mary my new address please. What.... What a... York... I was. the Suez Canal 12. was . 1. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8. 5.. Where were the generals working? 5. 1. B.. 4.. The West Indies 7. / Were the soldiers doing.. 6.. (at this time yesterday.. Don´t take a taxi please. had / was driving 9. 8. Alice wasn´t making.... 5. What.. 4. Madison Avenue.. 3. White lying on the sofa? 7. was reading 3..do 10.. The boys weren´t studying. were playing / began 6. Don´t come again this afternoon please. Eat more slowly please 7. The London School of Economics..... 6. Spain 10... 9. 1.The Panama Canal. Salt Lake City... 3. was driving 7. / Were we running... 1.. 2.English cities 7. Fill up the tank please. 3.. 4. Come here tomorrow morning please..? 6. was doing 12.. 10. 2. were camping 8.. What a. 4. Don´t work so hard please.. 9.. / Were the boys studying.. The Broadway buses.? 5.. 1. was leaving 10. Germany. was shining 2.working / walked 7.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2. What a.Broadway. 2. met / was living 5.. 3.Clark Street. What a. 14...? 3. What a. (when they got married / then). (Open answers) 1. Don´t eat my bread and butter please. Where were your parents living when they met? 8. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5. 7..UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex.. 1..... I was working. 8..? Ex. 3. London... 3.. 4... Drink milk every morning. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10. Ex. The children weren´t watching. 10. 9. the United States 6. I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived.. C. 2.. Ex. 10. Don´t drink black coffee please. / Were the children watching.. They were living in. 6. The Hudson River / New York City 4.the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8. European cities. 2. 1.. The United States. were ... Study hard every day please. was working / became 12.? 7. 8. A short course in english for adult students 101 .. 5. was getting ready 6. Spell your first name please. were having dinner 11. called on / were having dinner 8.Don´t drive so fast please.. The English language. 12.. Why weren´t they working that day? 7. the Persian Gulf.. 13... / Was Alice making. 11. 1... was sleeping / arrived. slept 2. The New York City traffic. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6. 1. 5. She wasn´t having.? 2.. 2.. Have another cup of coffee please. 2. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex. 6.. I was listening to the news at that moment.. What. 3. (in December last year). What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9.. Central Park Station 11. Listen to the story carefully please. 10..France.... (when he phoned me last night) Ex.. The Mexican climate....Utah Ex. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9.... were walking Ex. I was. Italy. What.. were going / saw 4. Why was Mrs..Berlin 9. What a.. Ex. were crossing 5. read / was riding PART II A. The soldiers weren´t doing. Don´t work so slowly please. When I arrived. What an.. 1.the Dominican Republic 3.... England.

What a.. 13... What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13. What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12. 4. How fast she runs! 5. Johnson is!. What a tall man he is! 9. 8. 9. 1. What a. How.. 14..What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6. How. 2. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5. What a cold day it is today! 8. What a beautiful day it is today! 4.What a. 3. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2. 5. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14. What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8... What a fast train it was! 17. What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9.. 7.... What a. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex. How tire we were after the walk! 16. What. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10. What an. What a pleasant man Mr. How cold it is today! 7. 2... 10. What. What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4.. How. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. How pretty she is! 11. 1. 6. 12.Ex.. What a beautiful new car you have! 14... 1. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3...... How. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6. 11.. How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students .. 3.. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. How. What..7. How. How cold it was last night! 10. How well she plays the piano! 2.. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15.. 4. Ex. What a generous woman Ann was! 18.

/ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám. y sugiere la idea de decisión. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo. /δei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow.. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mánδ/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2.. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro.. by the end of this year /bai δi énd ov δis yíar/ hacia fines de este año. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple.. the day after tomorrow /δe déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana. promesas o determinaciones.. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. Peter will come to Chile next month. /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx. Where. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/. /δéi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow.. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea. Tu wé:rk tumórou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday. /pí:ter iz góuiδ tu kám tu tchíle nékst manδ/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes. /méri wóunt kám. 3. They won´t visit us next weekend. acordadas o previstas con antelación. in three months /in θrí: mánθs/ dentro de tres meses.. intenciones. next month /nékst manθ/ el próximo mes. Dgo. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana. promesa o determinación. I won´t be at home.UNIT 8 PART 1.. Peter is going to come to Chile next month. En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. Peter is coming to Chile next month./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil δei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámiδ tu tchíle nekst mánδ/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 .. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil δei vízit.. etc. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes./ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt δei vízit. When. etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras. Lea. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. En la interrogación. escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end. Mary won´t come to work tomorrow../ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám.

3. 5. 4. They´ll get married in May 6. (dig) NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. 12. How.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. 11. (attend) I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. using WILL 1. 5. ___________________________________________________ Bob will sell the car because it´s old. 8. ___________________________________________________ They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students .? Ex. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. The train will arrive soon. 4. Where. 4. 3. 1. 6. 1. 9. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: What will you do? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. 3. 5. 7. What. and b) interrogative. ___________________________________________________ The soldiers will wait there until dawn. John will accept the offer. 9. etc. ___________________________________________________ They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ They´ll need five volunteers. 6. (send) My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (move) ¿Qué hará ud. ___________________________________________________ John will give the answer next week. 2. (hire) The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. (have) Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. Ask questions using question words like When. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. 2. (buy) Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport. (sell) The instructor ________________________ the overhead projector. How long. Mary will go out this evening. 8. 1. 7. (use) The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. In each case. (launch) Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. (be) We ________________________ a new house soon. 2. (march) I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. 3. You will send them a fax. ___________________________________________________ Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive. They´ll go to the north in the summer. 10. 10.

Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. said Mary. John ________________________ yesterday. She said (to me) that she was sick. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. USE OF SAY AND TELL Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR). what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor. “This book is very interesting “. la persona a quien se le habló. 2 Change SAY to TELL. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. 8. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her. 7. 6. 14. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 12. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 13. he said. Helen” Mary said. Antes de la conjunción that John said that he loved Helen Mary said that she was very tired after the long walk. “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr.PART II. pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. Sorry. A. 10. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. 9. 3. 11. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. please. please? Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. es decir. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 105 . El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. EXERCISES Ex. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. Mr. “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” Yesterday.1. “I love you. “I am very tired after the long walk”. 1. “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”. 2. Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen). “I will be back at about 10:30”. she ________________________ Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. 3. Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said. 4. John told Helen that he loved her. 5. Can you ________________________ me where the office is. ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. Jackson said (to his students).

. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play. Change TELL to SAY. The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. WHOM. WHOSE Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. With whom will you go to the party? (Who will you go to the party with?) I met a man in the street. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. The man whom I met was John´s father. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park.4. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French. Bob told me that he could speak French well. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Jim was talking about a woman. La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? The man who is in the car is a policeman. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. The car which is outside is a police car. too. 3.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game. 1. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? o Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) 106 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.

7. His daughter called you this morning The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you. whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified. Fill in the blank spaces with Who. 18. 11. 1. The man (who. 21. Choose the correct form. 6. Which. 14.Whose is that book on the desk? (aquí el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) A man wants to see you. whom) did you meet at the party? 5. EXERCISES Ex. (Who. The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. 4. 7. 2. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? __________________ are you talking to? The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean. whom ) are they talking? 8. 12. The boy (who. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. but I´m not quite sure. Mr Clark. whom) I danced was very beautiful. Whose 1. The woman (who. About (who. His car is parked outside the building. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? With __________________ will you work on the thesis? I don´t know __________________ watch this is. He wrote detective stories. Ex. whom) is the best student in your class? 4.using WHO. __________________ jacket do you like best. 19. With (who. 15. Mr Clark. To (who. The girl with (who. whom) telephoned you is my brother. 23. Ex. I met a man _______________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 107 . 3. 13. WHOM or WHOSE 1. Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. the blue one or the brown one? __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s. 8. Smith read in class yesterday. 5. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. 3. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. The man is a doctor. I met a man yesterday. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students.. 24. 1. From (who. They are American.whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. whom) did you get the money? 10. 9. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player __________________ will you ask for help? __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. 17. 2. __________________ are they talking about? The man __________________ Prof. whom) does he want to speak? 3. 10. Whom. whom) you saw is my new teacher. 9. 22. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. (Who. 16. 6. 20.

That´s not your leather jacket. You were talking to a man in the lobby. 8. It´s my brother´s 108 A short course in english for adult students . Her husband died in a car accident. Those keys are mine.Whose glasses are these? 11. 14. Is that car yours? That is not John´s bicycle. His car was parked outside the school. It´s hers. I met a woman yesterday. 6. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 9. 6. 5. Ask questions with whose.I think that this wallet is yours. The policemen interrogated the old man. 4. 15. Make synonymous sentences using the verb belong instead of the possessives. as in the example. They found his wallet in the street. 12. It isn´t theirs.This house is ours. 2. 5.. They contacted a man. 5.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? To whom does this car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ 1.That car isn´t his. There´s a man in the lobby. 4. There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 7.2. 2.This sweater isn´t my sister´s. 7. 3. He wants to speak with you. Peter came to the party with a young woman. 1. This pen is mine That house is ours. 13. Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. This is the young woman. Exercise 4. Are these cigarettes yours? Whose is this watch? This pen _________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? 10. 3. These aren´t Mary´s shoes.

.. I saw somebody in the corridor... ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6.anyone Nobody No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not. They need something now.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY. There is someone in the room 109 . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. 1. En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT. He said something to her. He told somebody about it. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4.. I saw somebody in the car I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3. He lives somewhere in New York. Change to negative form Use a) NOT.. Anybody Not.anywhere Nowhere Anywhere En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2. habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas.C. There is someone at the door. ANY o NO. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday. alguna cosa). ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 1....anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not. Please put it somewhere in this room.. They will go somewhere after the lesson They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex.any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not. He gave the book to somebody. etc. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS Study the following chart Afirmative Negative Some Not. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. SOMETHING. Tell somebody about Peter´s problems. They don´t need anything now... SOMEBODY. alguna parte). Somewhere (algun lugar.. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10.

12. He has something to do. We went nowhere after the dance. He can see nothing without his glasses.11. 2. We saw nobody at all in the park. 2. I liked something about her. 7. thank you. He took them somewhere on Long Island.. 1 want no more. 6. There is nowhere for him to sit. They will send the goods to someone. 14. 13. 8. 3. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 110 A short course in english for adult students . He brought something with him. 7. There is someone in the next room. He gave it to someone. 6. ANY” negative form: 1. 1 saw somebody I knew. She has something to do. I saw somebody at the desk. 11. There is no more coffee. 2. Somebody wants to speak to him. He told somebody about it. 10. 9. He went somewhere last night.. 5. They want nothing to drink. 5. 12. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 3. 10. 8. She put it somewhere. 4. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT . They found the money somewhere. 4. They found nobody at home. 9. He´s going to do something now. She spoke to no one about it. Ex. Change to question form 1. They gave us nothing to eat.

calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio. escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (BR) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstrant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte baker’s /béikerz/ panadería book shop /buk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldiη/ edificio bus /bás/ bus bus stop /bas stop/ paradero de buses bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café /kæfei/ café cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda. disco /dískou/ discoteca dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ lavaseco.escrit.) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (BR) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /θíater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camióm (USA) tunnel /tánel/ tunnel underground /andergráund/ tren subterráneo (BR) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (BR) zebra crossing /zibra krósiη/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 .casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos chemist’s /kémists/ farmacia church /tchértch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine coach /kóutch/ bus interurbano coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería college /kólidll/ escuela (univ.) corner /kó:rner/ esquina crossroads /krósroudz/ cruce department store /dipá:rment stóar/ tienda de depart. tintorería estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (BR) fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ cuartel de bomberos flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería grocer’s /gróuserz/ almacén (BR) grocery store /gróuseri stóar/ almacén (USA) hardware store /hárdwear stóar/ ferretería hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel /houtél/ hotel jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósiη/ cruce FFCC (BR) lorry /lorri/ camión (BR) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (BR) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino.

Bl 112 .

told 14. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. Helen told the travel agent that. 1. 5. will buy 11.. Ann told the office that. Whose .. 5.. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5..? Ex. Whose 3.. which 23... will march 2. whom 2. 12. will launch 8 will attend 9. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II. Whose is this brand new car? 4.. I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them . told 3. will send 3... Whose car is this? Whose is this car? 2.. Whose is this gold ring? 6.. 3. who 6. It belongs to my brother. 4. Ex. Whose 9... whose 21.. Who(m) 8. whom 10.. whom 7. will hire 12. A short course in english for adult students 113 .who wrote detective stories. 1. will use 6.whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10.. 1. 7.. which 6. Mr Smith won`t see. That car doesn´t belong to him. / Will they get married? 6.. 3. Who 17. I said that.UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A. tell 13. told 5. 1. said 4. The train won´t arrive. 1.. The boy says that. It doesn`t belong to them.. tell 12. 1. How many volunteers will they need? 10. whom Ex.. whom 8. The teacher said that.which 16. 6..... 1. whom 14. whom Ex. 1. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9. will have 4. said 9. said 10... 4.. says 11..whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11. belongs to me 2.. Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7. which 24. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John.. Where will they go in the summer? 2... 2. whose wallet they found in the street. 8.... John will not accept. 5.. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex... 3. He says that she. / Will you send.. A. 1.. 1. 2.. whom 3. Mr Smith said that. 2. That house belongs to us 3. The man tells me that. which 12. John told his friends that. says 2.. Ex. 2. 3.who wants to speak with you.. John said that. 6. will sell 5. whom 20..? 2. whose 5. When will John give the answer? 3. Which 2.whom 10.. 7. 1. 8. 1.. What will Mr Smith send them? 6. The teacher told Paul`s parents that. whom 18.. whom 7. This house belongs to us. / Will the train arrive.. 1. 3. She told me that. Who 13. 1.. Mary will not go out. Ex.whose husband died in a car accident 3. Who 4... Those keys belong to me 5... whom 4.. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5. 4.. the boy told us that. / Will John accept. Bob said that he.. Ex. 6. 15. 2. Where will you wait for me / us? 9.. You won`t send.? 4. says 8.. whom 9. who 22.... William told the doctor that... Does that car belong to you? 6.5..... This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister. told 7. whose 15. Why will Bob sell the car? 4.. 7. Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8.the old man whose car was parked outside the school. will be 10..? 5...to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex. 13. 14. Who 19. 9.. They won`t get married. said Ex. will dig 7.. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4.. It belongs to her. / Will Mary go out. says 6. 2. whom 11.woman with whom Peter came to the party. Whom 5. B.? 3. 4. will move Ex. 7. / Will Mr Smith see. Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. I said that. Mr Smith told Peter that...

. I didn`t put the money anywhere.. Does she have anything to do? 4.. / There`s no one at. 3.3.. 2. He can´t see anything without his glasses..... He didn´t tell anybody.. We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9. They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14.. 3. He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13. There isn´t any more coffee. Did he go anywhere last night? 3.? 2.. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. 1.. I didn´t see anybody in. Ex. She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6. Did he give it to anyone? 11. 1.... Did he tell anybody about it? 5. Is there anyone in the next room? 7.... / There´s no one in. Did he bring anything with him? 10. / Please. / He said nothing. put it nowhere in.. 4. / I put the money nowhere. I don´t want any more. They don´t want anything to drink 4. 2. There isn`t anyone in. Please. There isn`t anyone at. Don`t tell anybody about.. Did I see anybody I knew? 9.. He didn´t say anything.. 1. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14... He doesn´t live anywhere in.. / He told nobody.. Did I like anything about her? Ex. / He lives nowhere in. Did she put it anywhere? 6. 8. 7. 10... 6. They didn´t find anybody at home 2. don´t put it anywhere in. Ex.C.... 9.. 10. / I saw nobody in. They didn´t give us anything to eat . 1.. We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students . 5.. Did I see anybody at the desk. / Tell nobody about. They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one. thank you.. 11. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8.. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12. 7.

Equivale a la expresión “Yo voy a . 7. /δéi a:r góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary. 4.? EXERCISES Ex. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góuiη tu dú:/ ¿Qué va ha hacer ud. Tom will come to Chile next year. /δéi á:rent góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. “Tú vas a . They´ll travel to Mexico in March. Paul will go to Germany and France. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as/. 2.”. I will send Mary a post-card from L. 2. 7. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. “Él va a . Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1.”. EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevaran a cabo en el futuro cercano. /méri íznt góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/.. 3. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1. Lea. 5. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco.. 1. Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/..A. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. The instructor will use a video. 8. Lea. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . 8.”. 2. 4. Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year. 6. 5.UNIT 9 PART 1. etc. Mr... escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end. escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. 6. 3.

Bob and Jim are going to swim. We´re going to buy fruit and drinks. /it tuk δe stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser δe kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. 4... 7. 6.?”. I´m going to get back from work at 6:30. La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take. 2. Where. She´s not going to go because she´s tired. It will take you at least an hour to type the report. Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche. They´re going to fix the engine. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds....Ex. 1. 3. “It didn´t take. 3. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked. 2. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana. Bill is going to travel by plane. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA IT TAKES...”. Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II...?”.. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge. menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip δe ripó:rt/ Ud. o “It won´t take.. /IT TOOK. How long.. o “Will it take. 6... Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina. 4. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos. 5. Ask questions using question words like When.. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. Bill is going to answer the question. 5. “Did it take. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway.”.”. A. etc. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take.. Translate the following sentnces into English 1..?” 116 A short course in english for adult students ./ IT WILL TAKE. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr. 4. to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took the students the men me ________________ FUTURE It will take you the men ____________________ Escuche. 3..

. ___________________________________________________ He does his homework every day in one hour. 9. ___________________________________________________ I found my mistake in a few minutes. ___________________________________________________ I wrote the letter in a few minutes. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk there...? How long will it take you to. 7. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions. 5. It takes me seven minutes to walk there.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud. It took him several hours to finish it. 4. ___________________________________________________ We drove to Philadelphia in one hour. La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to. ___________________________________________________ I finished the work in an hour. 4. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex. ___________________________________________________ She learned to speak English in only one year. en. 3.. 2. 1... Change the following to introduce IT TAKES. 3. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus. 2. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway.. It took them many years to build the road.? Escuche.. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk there? How long did it take Herbert to walk there? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 117 . 8.: 1.Escuche.. Change to negative and to interrogative form. 6. ___________________________________________________ They will build the bridge in two years. ___________________________________________________ I do my homework every night in a short time. 11.. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? . It took Herbert a long time to walk there.? Ex...? How long did it take you to. en..? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud. 5... Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1. 2.. ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud. en.... ___________________________________________________ I walked to the station in fifteen minutes. 12. ___________________________________________________ They will complete the work in six years. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report. 10. or IT WIL TAKE. IT TOOK.) I did my exercise in one hour.

Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. Ud. 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. It takes an hour to do this exercise. Uds. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago aPuerto Montt en avión. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. 12. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. It takes much time to learn English. 3. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 10. 9. It will take a long time to get there. It took an hour to discover the mistake. It took a month to complete the work. 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina.6. It took them two days to find him. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . It will take you a week to read this book. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 8.

Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person.hotter.shorter b.taller. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house. (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one. GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big . GRADO COMPARATIVO Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one. (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house.B. (Este auto es muy viejo) 2. (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. tall . Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica. thin . Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo. Grado Comparativo. Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad.more intelligent important . Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small . Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente. intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alaice) Bob is more intelligent than George.bigger. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. es decir son iguales. (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4. EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. big. (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3.thinner c.smaller. old.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 . hot . short . (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood. Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. Mary is a beautiful girl. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. 1.

si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more.. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est.. pretty . pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e...(larger than).. 7. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er . 5.worst far .prettiest common . 4. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good . si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most.. (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother.tallest.farthest little .. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons.as o not so. 2. Existen algunos adjetiivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more GRADO SUPERLATIVO Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a.most much .least many .best bad . 1.most common clever .most important d. hot . thin .most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent . dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother.as. 120 Philadelphia is. 6. (old) The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday (bad) This summer is ____________________________ last summer (hot) This article is ____________________________ that one. 3. + as.Washington (large) John is ____________________________ William (short) Henry is ____________________________ I (tall) This book is ____________________________ that book .hottest.most modern e. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses 1.most intelligent important . short .cleverest modern .d.smallest tall .biggest.shortest b. (interesting) A short course in english for adult students ..+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vo cal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante big . (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex.thinnest c. En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small . He is not as tall as his brother.

. 9. 6.. 8.... (light) Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex.. 8... Henry is. 7... 3. The weather today is ________________________________ The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday.. (good) Some people are ____________________________ others.. 11. 14. 10...(tall) 7... 5.. 5.8... (interesting) New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States.... Frank is.. (healthy) This room is ____________________________ that one..... first in comparative form. 4. 3. (beautiful) John is ____________________________ boy in the class. New York is _____________________________________________________ Helen is not younger than her sister.. Bill is. This exercise is _______________________________________ This book is not thicker than my French book. State the adjectives in parentheses. Henry is not taller than I. (sweet) This is ____________________________ park in the city. 2. 9. 13.. (good) Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school... 2... Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: 1.. Henry is ____________________________________________________________________ New York is not smaller than Chicago.The weather today is ________________________________ Ex..... (intelligent) He is also ____________________________ student in the class.(long) 8.... In the following. (young) 6.. This book is ______________________________________________ This book was not more expensive than my French book... 15.. The Empire State Bldg.. Helen is __________________________________________________________ This street is not wider than that street. (little) Ex. 10.(wide) 9... 7.(intelligent) 4. This street is.. (light) Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) That city has ____________________________ parks in the region.... Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) These apples are ____________________________ those.. Today is ____________________________ day of the year. 6..(hot) New York is ____________________________ city in the United States. John is a. 4.. Grace is. This book is. The Mississippi River is.. 12.. introduce the superlative form or the adjective in parentheses: 1.(interesting) 5.. and second in superlative form. 2. (few) John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group..(pretty) 3. (large) This is ____________________________ apple of all.... 12. 11.(tall) 2. 3.... (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 .. This book was __________________________________ The weather today is not better than it was yesterday. John is ____________________________ boy in the class (tall). 9.... 4. Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1. (bad) Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) This is ____________________________ room in the whole building.... This street is ___________________________________________________ This exercise is not more difficult than the last one.. is.

.C. John is as tall as his brother.The weather today is worse than it was yesterday. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1. 5.John makes more mistakes than Henry. John has less experience in computers than I.. 4. 8. This book is better than the other. Our apartment is larger than yours. 10.. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother.. 11.. Helen is more beautiful than Mary.10. This street is wider than that one. John is taller than his brother. Peter has more money than Henry 14. This corridor is larger than the room. The sky is darker than it was yesterday. 9. 6. This exercise is.. 12.. New York is more important than Washington D.. This exercise is longer than the last. 5. 2.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students .There are more people today than yesterday 13. 7. 3. Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.

merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skálop/ shellfish /shelfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /. Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ Pescados y mariscos abalone /abalouni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérriη/ loco almeja caracol. plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa cholga.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora /pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students . pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /se:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wiη/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (Br) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (Br) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada. mejillón ostra gamba. Meals /mi:lz/ Las comidas breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /apetáizer/ 3. Meats /mi:ts/ Carnes beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchikin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ Los alimentos 1. Provisions /províllnz/ Abarrotes bread /bred/ biscuit /biskit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2. dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drésiη/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa Spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces. berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo.

Fruits /fru:ts/ Frutas apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /banana/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /tuna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nats/ pineapple /páinápl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6.choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7.king crab /kiη kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /driηk/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago aguita de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft driηk/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students . Vegetables /védlletablz/ Verduras celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz.

. more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 .... They aren´t going to travel to. Tom is going to come to... It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office. 2. The instructor´s going to use.... Who is going to answer the question? Ex... It doesn`t take much time to...? / How long does it take me to get.? 4. It doesn´t take an hour to. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia... Ex. They are going to travel to..? Ex. It won´t take you very long to read that article. / Will it take you a week to. Paul isn´t going to go to. 3....... What are you / we going to buy? 4. 5..... It took me an hour to do my exercise 3. How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7... 9. / Is the instructor going to use. It will take them six years to complete the work. Are you going to be at home this evening? 5. / How long did it take him to.3. It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions.. It won´t take a long time to. It didn´t take an hour to. The instructor isn´t going to use. 2. 3.. 3. It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane..They aren´t going to come to the party tonight.? / How long did it take to.. Jane´s going to buy.. Mr Jackson´s going to play. It didn´t take them two days to. / Will it take a long time to. 2... It didn´t take a month to.. Paul`s going to go to. 8. The Johnsons aren´t going to spend.? 7. It won´t take you a week to. / Does it take me seven minutes to.. Ex.? 5.? / How long does it take to. It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer. 8.. taller than 4. 1.. / Did it take a month to.. It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station .......? / How long will it take you to.. It doesn´t take me seven minutes to. hotter than 7... It took me a few minutes to find my mistake. 11. / Are they going to travel to.. The Johnsons are going to spend.. 1.. 5..? / How long does it take me to... 8. 2. 1.. I´m going to send Mary. Tom isn´t going to come to... / Is Mr Jackson going to play.. 2. shorter than 3. 1. Ex.. / Is Tom going to come to... I´m not going to send Mary.... 2. older than 5... It took me an hour to finish the work 10..? 7..? 10.. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report.? 3..? 4. 6. / Does it take an hour to. / Does it take much time to... 7. It took me a few minutes to write the letter. 12. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5.? / How long will it take to.. B. 1 How is Bill going to travel? 2. Why isn´t she going to go? 7. It will take them two years to build the bridge.. It didn´t take them many years to build. healthier than 11.? 8. worse than 6. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A... 2.? 6.? / How long did it take to. 4... What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4. / Did it take them many years to build. / Is Jane going to buy. It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get. 1.. It didn´t take him several hours to. / Is Paul going to go to.. It took her only one year to learn to speak English.? 2. What are they going to do? 6. / Did it take them two days to..? 9... It takes him one hour to do his homework every day... / Did it take an hour to. I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6. / Did it take him several hours to... 6. 4..? / How long does it take to.? / How long did it take them to build. 1.? 12. Ex.? 5. more difficult than 9. more interesting than 8. / Am I going to send Mary. Jane isn´t going to buy.. lighter than 12.... Mr Jackson isn´t going to play. 1. / Does it take me ten minutes to get.? 6.... She´s going to buy another pair of shoes..? / How long did it take them to..? 3.. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7... How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6..... 2.. 4.. / Are the Johnsons going to spend.. 9.? Ex. better than 10.? 11.UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex.. 3...? 8.... 4. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5..

The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. Ex. the most beautiful 7. 7. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. 5. 4. 13. 2. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. 1. Peter has as much money as Henry. the hottest 3. the lightest 12. 4. 7. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. shorter than I 2. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. 126 A short course in english for adult students . the best 9. worse than it was yesterday. older than her sister. Bill is more intelligent than James. 10. 9. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. John makes as many mistakes as Henry. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. 3. narrower than 5. 4. This book is as good as the other. the most intelligent 8. 4. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last. the largest 11. This exercise is easier than the previous one. Ex.. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. 14. thinner than my French book 7. 8. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room. (Open answers) 1. cheaper than my French book 8. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. bigger than Chicago 3. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. / This is the widest street in this town. 3. 12. 2.This corridor is as large as the room. the fewest 15. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. the largest 5. There are as many people today as yesterday. 3. 9. the most 14. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary. Grace is prettier than her sister.5. the most 13. 1. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. the tallest 2. the worst 10. 9. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. This street is wider than my street. 2. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York. This street is as wide as that one. This exercise is as long as the last. This book is more interesting than that one. 10. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. easier than 6. 11.Ex. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. 6. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday. John has as little experience in computers as I. the least Ex. the sweetest 6. the most interesting 4.New York is as important as Washington. Our apartment is as large as yours.

Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. to visit. I accepted their invitation. We´re going to Cancun again. to come back. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 . ha advertido. to stay. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end. He´s attending a meeting. to drive. por ejemplo: to go. 1. /mériz kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar. 2. to travel. Ex. previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. to attend. /méri íznt kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r δéi vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r δéi vízitiη ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:iη tumórou mó:rniη/on sándi/ etc. to have lunch/dinner. to arrive.) EXERCISES Ex. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). /δéi a:r vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. to come. /δéi á:rent vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. Lea. We´re staying there for 10 days. (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. agendadas. to leave. to fly. like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. We´re leaving on January 21st. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey. Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/.UNIT 10 PART 1. etc. (Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc.

of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. After that. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. Texas. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight. We must hurry up. On Monday morning. Mary?”. 7.3. Make complete sentences: 1. 10:00 Visit Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert. I´ll be away on a business trip”. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ In the evening. 5. 09:30 Play tennis with Dr. 7. Dr. late in the evening. It says. “I´m afraid. 3. 8. he _______________________________________________________ at Nasa Space Center At midday. What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. Brown said to us. Novoa´s Schedule Mon. Brown 11:30 Ceremony at Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at US. Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. Answer these questions in English. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. 12._________________________________________________________________________ After dinner. ____________________________________________________________________________________ At 7:40 AM on Thursday. he _______________________________________________________________________ On Friday morning. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. Use the information given below: Dr. 4. Mary: “Yes. 4. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. Fri. 6. At 10:15 on Saturday. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. 9. As you can see. Let´s hurry up. _________________________________________________________________________________ On Wednesday morning. The departure of our train is at 8:25. “ Yes. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. 4. Surgeons Club Wed. 11. Dr. he ____________________________________________________________________ He is arriving in Washington DC. I want to play tennis tomorrow. Dr. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. 14. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. 6. 3. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues. We just got a telegram from our daughter. “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Novoa is going to the USA next week. It´s 8:15 now. Ex. Sat. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. Right after lunch.Texas 14:00 Conference at Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference. at Kennedy Center Thurs. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. Write sentences indicating Dr. 2. at 16:00.. On Monday evening. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. he ______________________________________________________________________ On Thursday afternoon. 10. I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 3. 2. 13. 1. 5. 07:40 Fly to Houston. Ex. Mr.

PODER = ser posible 3. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuando tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ ¿A que hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ Según el itinerario.. 5. OUGHT TO. PODER = ser capaz de. 2. MUST. MODAL VERBS (I) A. You had better study every day MUST 1. = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. He can swim well. ___________________________________________________ Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana. 3. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. CAN. You should study every day. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1. Jones ___________________________________________________ Yo no voy a salir de Stgo. Be allowed to Example 1. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto. MAY. 2. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1. Bob can swim well... 4. 2. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. It may rain tomorrow. ¿a que hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II.. be allowed to 2. / I assume. este fin de semana. Ej. He must be over 70 years old. Ej. 1. recomendación 1. ___________________________________________________ Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación. 9. ___________________________________________________ Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días. 5. 1. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej. have to 2. ___________________________________________________ Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente. He can swim well. 2. be likely to. probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidadad) 2. 10. (No se debe decir. = You have to obey orders. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. DEBERÍA = consejo. Translate the following sentences into English 1. A short course in english for adult students 129 . PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. = It is likely to rain tomorrow.. It´ll probably rain tomorrow. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day.) Ej.. I think. You can see the lake from here. = I think / assume he is over. (No se debe decir. 6. 7.. Be able to 2. Be possible to 3..Ex. You must obey orders. You can use my computer. 1. = Bob is able to swim well 2. 8. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1.

1. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much.Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. She must know where Mr Jackson is now. It´s not good for your health. if you like. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. 130 Gentlemen. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. 6. I think that you should see a doctor /. 9. Complete the blanks with CAN. 7. It may rain tomorrow. You may fall down and break an arm. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí. mother? You ____________ not do that again. 4. según corresponda. ____________ I use your pen please. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. 5. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. (Ud.. Tommy. A short course in english for adult students . dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor. John. 3. Tommy. Now I ____________ read better. papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations.you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. (Ud. He is a retired civil servant. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. (Uds. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. (Ud. if you wish. (El está usando un uniforme verde. It´s dangerous.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window. It´s out of order. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades. Para indicar obligación. Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. 2. Para indicar capacidad. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar. Sir? ____________ I have another piece of cake. (No debería fumar tanto. 4. 1. habilidad o destreza.?) It´s getting cloudy. (Negative). You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now. (Se está nublando. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now . He must be a policeman. You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. Peter. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. Joe. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time. I just put on my glasses. He ____________ be over 65 years old now. MUST. Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary. 2. (Puedes retirarte ahora. puede retirarse. (formal). No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. 2.. 2. Must (Deber) 1. Para dar consejos. MAY o SHOULD. Sr. John can swim very well. (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. (No te subas a esa silla. 3. 8. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here.

professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. El no puede hablar español bién. We must go because it´s late. John. He ____________n´t be an engineer. pueden fumar aquí. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. They should take a taxi. The little bird ____________n´t fly yet. Ex. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. 20. 13. I don´t know why they´re talking. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. 12. 2. b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. You´ll be welcome to our home. You are too fat. 18. B. Translate the following sentences into English 1. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. 15. It´s almost midnight now. 2. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. The man is very strong. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. 24. 3. Uds. They may use Room 203. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . It´s too young.We don´t accept cash. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. Why don´t you phone at his home. 21. debe venir mañana nuevamente. El trabajó muy duro. 3. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . 14. 3. 4. A pesar de ser sinónimos. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. El puede correr muy rápido. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. 16. 6. Billy . 22. Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. They ____________ be working instead. 4. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t know how to start a car. (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. Bob can speak three languages. Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. 23. You ____________ come and visit us any day. Debe estar cansado. What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. Lea.10. 11. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Ex. 5. I think you ____________ go on a diet. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. He sometimes goes home for lunch. He ____________ be there. 10. 19. Ud. señor? 9. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. He ____________ lift that heavy box easily. 17. The boss gets very angry when people are late. They´re very poor.

escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. Lea. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. = Peter has to work until late every evening. 3. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. 4. 1 must write many letters. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. They must stay there at least an hour. WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. Lea. 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students . 9. DID.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. 7. 1. John must also take another language. I must get up early every day. 11. We must learn many new words every day. We must write a composition each night. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. DIDN´T. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. 12. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. Mary must study French next year. You must read this article. los verbos modales DO / DOES. I must work tonight. Substitute the correct form of HAVE To for MUST in the following: 1. WON´T. 5. John must go out of town this afternoon. al igual que con los verbos principales. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. 8. 10. 2. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. We must prepare our lessons every night.

Mary has to come with him. Mr. He has to see a doctor. We __________ telephone her right away. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. 9. 3. I had to leave at once. 2. 3. We have to write a composition tonight. 8. 4. We have to get up early. They have to study very hard. Then. 4. 6.Ex. 4. 2. change to past and future time: 1. 10. Ex. John has to stop his English lessons. We have to study tonight. 7. 2. They have to come back later. 5. We had to meet him at noon. 8. 5. You have to wait a few minutes. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. 12. He __________ spend more time on his English. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. I have to work today. 9. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. We all have to write a short story. 6. 5. 7. He had to be there at two o’clock. John has to be here at two o’clock. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . 6. 1 must must leave at once. 10. We __________ make reservations at once. Smith has to go out of town. 3. 3. He __________ stay at home and rest. Change to negative form: 1. Change to past and future time: 1. She__________ attend class every day. Ex. 11. Read the following with MUST. I have to get up early. He __________ learn all the new words. They have to write many letters. He __________ go to the hospital right away. 4. I ____________ answer this letter at once.

He will have to wait a few minutes. WHERE. 11. We will have to learn many new words.. WHAT TIME. 8. He had to return yesterday. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. 1. They will have to come back later. We have to get up at 6. etc. They had to leave early. He had to leave a tip for the waiter. Change to interrogative form. We have to prepare our homework every day. He has to take more exercise. 9. 5. 4. WHY. I have to buy a new pen. 12. 10. 11. She has to rest a while because she´s tired 12. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students . 6. He had to leave at noon. We have to work on Sunday. They have to study every day. 10. They have to rent an apartment soon. 5.7. 3.00 every morning. 9. 2. John had to go to the hospital. He had to buy several new books. ask questions with WHEN. 7. Then. 8.

The Limbs /(e limz/ Las extremidades ankle /æηkl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fíηger/ foot / feet /fu:t. The Head /(e hed/ La cabeza beard /bíard/ brains /breinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /iar/ eye /ai/ eyebrow /aibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fo:red/ hair /héar/ Head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2. fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fiηger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ni:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo(mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fiηger/ middle finger /mídl fiηger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /riη fiηger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /θai/ thumb /θam / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo(del pie) muñeca 4. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /laη/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mauθ/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piu:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /θrout/ tongue /táη/ tooth /teeth /tu:θ.mamas nalgas pecho. The Trunk /(e truηk/ El tronco back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /bláder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre. ti:θ/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3. Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ Palabras relacionadas corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar Pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /io:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 .BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov δe bódi/ Las Partes del Cuerpo 1. entrañas pecho.

lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente . por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato. “al tiro” lo antes posible. un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante.TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at this moment /at δe móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for δe táim bi:iη/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /yésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /δis mó:rniη/ this afternoon /δis a:fternú:n/ this evening /δis í:vniη/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:niη/ yesterday afternoon /yésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rniη/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /δe déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /δe déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in δe sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mánθ/ every year /évri yíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:niη/ every other day /évri áδer déi/ every other three days /évri áδer θrí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mánθ/ many times a year /méni táimz e yíar/ a long time ago /e lóη táim agóu/ many years ago /méni yíarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri loη agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /immídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ Expresiones de Tiempo ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente.

de vez en cuando. A short course in english for adult students 137 .sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an δén/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando.

Bl 138 .

... 3.. Should / ought to 24...We have to learn Ex... You can / may smoke here. 6. / May they use. Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight..can / may 10. 8. According to the schedule.... We won´t have to learn.... Ex. / John will have to be.... May 2. We had to hurry. Can / must 16. Can . She had to attend.... What should I do now? 7.... I had to answer. 10..... 1. 1. / We´ll have to make.. 4. / Mary will have to come. 9.... 5. They may not use. Ex....? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2.. 5. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4... / We´ll have to study. / I´ll have to answer. 10.. 3. He can´t speak Spanish well. 4. 2. You had to wait.. 12. Mary and John have to fly. 1. Ex.can´t 14. We all had to write... 8.. 1. They´re going to stay several days with us. 7. Can 5...... 7. 4. / John´ll have to stop.. 3. Must 6. Mary will come to see us next week. 3.. I promise you I will never do that again. He´s flying back to Washington DC.. 3. 9. Can´t 13.He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center. Should 19.. 4. They don´t have to study. 2. Should / ought to 18. Should / ought to 21. Can´t 15. / Must we go. When are they traveling to the USA? 9. 7.. 1. Can´t Ex.. / We´ll have to telephone..... We have to write. He can run very fast. 10. 3. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6. B.. 7.. 10..? / What should they do? 3..... / He´ll have to learn. 4. 1. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center. 12. 6. He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center.. Must 22...... 9... / I´ll have to get up. / I´ll have to work. / He´ll have to go. 2.. They didn´t have to leave. He had to go... I don´t have to buy.. 2. 9. Ex. 3. John has to go out. I have to work. John had to stop. I had to work. You have to read. / We´ll have to write. They had to write.10.. Ex.. 3.. 5.. 2.? / Why must we go? 4. 6. We don´t have to get up. 1... / Can Bob speak. 2. Should / ought to 7. 2. 6.. I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7. / They´ll have to write..5. 1. Can you help me this afternoon? 8.. Attending a reception at the White House 3.. Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week. / He´ll have to stay. 5.. / We´ll have to hurry. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning.. Ex.12. I have to get up. We don´t have to prepare. Must 11.. 5. We didn´t have to meet. They have to stay. He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel. 2. Sir? 9. 1. May 8..8. 4.. Can 9. Must 20.. 9. Bob can´t speak. We have to prepare. John also has to take.. 2.. We don´t have to work... At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10... He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center..... 5. 2. 6.. They may visit us tomorrow 5. 1. A. He didn´t have to be..11.. 4. 4. / They´ll have to come back. / We´ll have to go. Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial.. We had to study. / He´ll have to see. He had to stay. 3. What will they do with the money they received? 8. 14. Mr Smith doesn´t have to go. May 17.. John had to be. A short course in english for adult students 139 ... 3... 2. He had to see. Must 3..... Mary has to study. May I sit here. 6... 6.... We must not go... He had to learn. / He´ll have to spend 7. / She´ll have to attend... That may / can happen again. Must / should .. They shouldn´t take..... 8. 5. We had to telephone. I have to write. 10. Ex. / Should they take. 12. He´s flying to Texas. at what time are we getting there? PART II.You must come again tomorrow. 11. Mary had to come. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend. I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow... Should / ought to 4. 11. John didn´t have to go..Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I. We had to go.11.. He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport. We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening. John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday. He worked very hard. Must 23. They had to come back... -I had to get up. / You´ll have to wait.? / Which room may they use? Ex. Open answers Ex.. We don´t have to write.. He had to spend.. He must be tired.. We had to make.8. 4. Can 12..

Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5. 1. When did he have to return? 8. Why does she have to rest a while? 12. What did he have to buy? 6. When will they have to come back? 10. What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7. What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students . How long will he have to wait? 9. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3. 5. What do they have to do every day? 4. When / What time did he have to leave? 2.Ex.

(play) The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. 9. cuando otra acción ocurra. Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. at this time tomorrow /at δis táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana). (visit) Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. lea y aprenda: 1. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. etc. we ________________________ in the USA. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum δis í:vniη/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde). /línda wil bí: tráveliη in iúrop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00). (watch) What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . o when the program starts tonight /wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). /δéi wóunt bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. 4. 2. 3. /δe tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl δéi bí: tráveliη in iú:rop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil δe prézident bí: dú:iη at δis táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:iη/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud. 5. 8. es decir. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. Escuche. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. (do) We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. /wi: wil bí: hæviη /lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. 4. lea y aprenda: 1. 2.?) EXERCISES: Ex. 10. at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæ ´terdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado). They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche. 7. (drive) The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend.UNIT 11 PART I. in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses. (work out) I ________________________ television when you come home tonight. 3. 3. 2. También se usan expresiones de tiempo como. (travel) I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /δe prézident wil bí: fláiiη tu tókiou at δis táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. /δe tchíldren wil bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche 5. I ________________________ here. /δéi wil bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. (work) At this time next month. 4. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. 6.

2. The students will be taking a test at 10. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. the Past or the Future tenses. ___________________________________________________ 6. (come) They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. Where. of course. 10. 2. 8. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ 7. 7. 12. (have) They ________________________ Brazil next month. (come) ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) A short course in english for adult students . Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. 18. 14. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. 7. (play) We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year.2. 6. (visit) At this time tomorrow. (cook) Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. 3. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. ___________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. (practise) What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. 4. 16. (read) What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) W___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day. 5. (have dinner) Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. Mr. Use the Present. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1. ___________________________________________________ 3. (work) Mr. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. 15. 5. 6. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. 4. 10. 5. 3. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. we ______________________________ television. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. 142 Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. (spend) At 10:30 last night. 17. 11. (live) They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. etc. 4. (come) Mr. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1.Ex. we ________________________. ___________________________________________________ 5. 4. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning. Review Practice. 3. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. ___________________________________________________ 2. 9. 3. Ask questions using question words like What. (watch) John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. (see) They _________ not ________________________ English very often. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. How long. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future or the Future Contínuous Tense: 1. 13. 2. 9. 8.

please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive. 5. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying. Wait for me in the lobby. Repeat your question. Open the window.. A: Will you lend me your pen. today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time. Ask somebody to do the following things.. Be quiet.. 2. 3. They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold. instead of the simple imperative form. A: Could you help me. 4. PART II A. 7.. Help me open the suitcase... Speak more slowly. please? (Formal) Would you mind +. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 . (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________... 24...please? or Would you. Sit on this chair. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2.. 23.19.. Pay attention.. please? (Informal) Imperative. 6.. 3. 21.. please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wiδ pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche. using Can you.. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please. Turn the radio down.ing. please?... generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you.. 22. please? Would you mind waiting outside. please? 1.please?. will you? Could you speak more slowly. Ask somebody to do the following things. using Could you. (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold. 2. 4. (instead of = en vez de) 1. as a rule.. Speak more slowly.+ infinitive. Sign your name here.. 1. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex... 2.(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor.. Come back this afternoon.. please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive. 5.. 20... lea y aprenda: 1. please? Would you sign your name here. two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed. or Will you. please? B: Sure Ex. MAKING REQUESTS .

ASKING FOR PERMISSION (SOLICITANDO PERMISO) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. You : _________________________________________________________ . please? Stranger: Sure. 2. 4.. Take off your hat. certainly. 4. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. of course. You want María to call you up tomorrow morning. please? 1 Speak more slowly. • Please do. I didn´t know you were studying. 3. Follow the instructions carefully. __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. Smith 4. You want Sr. You : María. 3. You: ____________________________________________________________ . 7. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish. lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. go ahead. 144 A short course in english for adult students . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.. 7. 3. • Please don´t. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form Would you mind. Make requests. S-M-I-T-H. Ask him. 6. Use the other elevator. Use the other elevator. It´s too cold. Turn the radio down. Ask him. Tom? Tom:: Of course. Take off your hat. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes. Ask him. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6.6. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. Ask him. 5. Escuche. Ask him/her politely. You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station. Repeat your question. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left. go ahead. John? John : Certainly. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). B. Wait for me in the lobby. You : __________________________________________________________ . 1. Sign your name here. John? B: Sure.ing. Ask her to do that informally.

I don´t need it now. C. Ask your mother´s permission. please. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. Jack? Jack. 3. You want to go in . Mr Jackson. Ask his permission. You are at a friend´s house. Sir? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. A short course in english for adult students 145 . You want to ask a question. 1. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. mum? Your mother: Yes. 2. It´s all yours. Ask his permission. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . I´m working. please do. You: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. please. Ask your host´s permission. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. 5. 7. You: ________________________________________________________________________________________. Jackson: Sure. please. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex. 4. thank you. but keep the volume down. 1. I read it this morning. 1. It´s too cold outside. please. Ask his permission.EXERCISES Ex. Mr. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. come in please. Follow the instructions carefully. You want to take a look at his newspaper.Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. Ask the speaker´s permission. 3. You want to use your friend´s lighter. You want to open the window. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. Ask permission to do things. here you are. to turn the light on. go ahead. to shut the window. 2. please • No. You want to turn on the TV. I´ve got a bad cold. 6. to spell your last name. You: ________________________________________________________________________________ . My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . You´re at a conference. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. Bob? Bob: Sure. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • Shall I + Infinitive? • Do you want me to + Infinitive? • Would you like me to + Infinitive? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. Ask his permission. Mr Jackson is working in his office.

I´m a bit busy right now. 6. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner. thanks. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. 8. to help me complete the application form. to speak more slowly. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. that´s a good idea. to tell Mary that I want to see her. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. 146 A short course in english for adult students . 3.4. 9. I´m a little hungry. 1. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. to repeat your question. thanks. please. To spend the summer holidays with us. I can manage myself. etc. To go to the seaside next weekend. please. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. 4. 2.. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. Sure. I don´t understand French. certainly / Yes. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. D. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. of course. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. please. 10. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea.. 5. I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. to call back later today. please. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. EXERCISES Ex. I don´t understand English very well yet. It´s getting late. 7. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. Why not? Yes. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. Sorry I can´t. To sit on the grass and rest for a while. Let´s do that. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that.

Also se usa antes de un verbo principal.. let´s do that. 1) Mary: I really like that dress. Peter didn´t go to the party either. Las palabras ALSO. To stay at home and watch TV . Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. but peter liked the party. 9.too. but peter didn´t go to the party. but peter didn´t. Jane: I also like it very much. John didn´t like the party.. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not.. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). 2. John went to the party. but peter did. It´s a pleasant evening. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. Peter went to the party as well. Mary will come to the party tonight. John went to the party. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. 10. It´s much cheaper. let´s do that. 7. It´s a very interesting exhibition. EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO). 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. lea y aprenda. I´ll be free all morning tomorrow. They´re very nice people. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones. To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening. Jane: So do I .5. John didn´t like the party. Peter also went to the party. / BUT +S+ MV 1. John went to the party. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter. John went to the party. + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr. To go to the arts exhibition.. I´d love to. Peter went to the party. 2) John.TOO. 6. NOT. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress. Peter: And Janet will come too! 147 . _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane. Why not. Escuche. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8. ALSO. Peter: And so will Janet! A short course in english for adult students 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. To play tennis tomorrow morning. A. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well. John didn´t go to the party. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. John went to the party and so did Peter. How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk.

(I) 4. (the secretary) 3. lea y aprenda. 3.. What language do you speak. I don´t understand it ___________________ I can´t drive a car. EXERCISES Ex. Mary likes pie for dessert. EITHER. The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ We´ve got a big house.3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. Ann: I didn´t see you either. She comes here every day. 4. (he) 5. lea y aprenda. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. (Jane) 1. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). Mary: Neither do I. 7. 2a. 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. Ann: Nor did I! 4. They´ve ___________________ got a big one. Las palabras NOT. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it. John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. then? 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. He´s going to go to France. Mary can speak Italian well. or BUT 1. 8. (Carmen) 2. 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 148 A short course in english for adult students . Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE. Escuche. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. John walks to school. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee.. He liked the picture. 1. 2. 9. Mary: I don´t like it either. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. 5. (my wife) 8. 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t. Ex. Tom: And so was his brother . ___________________ my husband can. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ Mary is going to go to Spain. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting. Escuche. ___________________ John is not going to go there. 1 watch TV after dinner. 3. 10. (We) 7. Peter doesn´t understand Italian. or do you speak another language? So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación.

as in the examples Bob likes coffee. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria. (I) 13. (The children) 9. (I) Bob likes coffee. John didn´t go to the movies.. (Peter) 6. Complete these sentences with BUT. 1. 2b. I didn´t eat there yesterday. (My friends) 10. They weren´t very busy. 1 ate there yesterday (my friends) 10. but Jane does. (he) 5. (Carmen) 2. (you) 14. They must pay more. They mustn´t pay more. John doesn´t go to school . (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. but Jane doesn´t. John walks to school. My car is very old. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 . Mary should work harder. She doesn´t come here every day. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER DOES JANE.9. (the secretary) 3.(My wife´s car) 12. (the secretary) 3. (you) 14. (Carmen) 2. My car isn´t very old. Bob doesn´t like coffee. (I) 13. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. Mary shouldn´t work harder. (Jane) 1. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. (my wife’s car) 12. Mary can speak Italian well. Mary can´t speak Italian well.. 3. (they) 11. Then use NEITHER (or NOR). (I) 4. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.EITHER. Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert. We will go by train. Now. (They) 11. We won´t go by train. first use NOT. They were very busy.

(they) 11. (you) 14. 150 He gave the money to me. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones to o for. Del mismo modo. 2. (he) 5. (Peter) 6. (my friends) 10. (I) 13.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. He sent a letter to me. He sent some candy to his sister. 1 watch TV after dinner. “What did Mary buy?. habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones to o for El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . We will go by train. “What did Peter send yesterday”. Mary bought him a pair of shoes. They must pay more. (We) 7. Como ud. 1. (my wife) 8. She comes here every day. She brought the book to me. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. 6. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. A su vez.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. 1 ate there yesterday. (my wife’s car) 12. 4. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”. The teacher gave some dictation to us. 5. lea y aprenda. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). My car is very old. He told the story to us. Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. Mary likes pie for dessert. He liked the picture. el complemento indirecto es “her son”. el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). (the children) 9. Mary shouldn´t work harder. Ex. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. 3.4. John went to the movies with us. They were very busy.

2. He bought some flowers for his wife He gave a ring to (=phoned) his friend. They gave us some magazines. 12. 9. He gave me some books. 5. John gladly lent me the money. 4. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. Will you lend your pen to me? He gave some excellent advice to all of us. They sent us an invitation to the party. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. 2. 8. They sent us the material right away. 12. Please give us some dictation today. 9. 10. Please hand me that book. He sent his mother several letters. 6. 3. 8.7. 10. 7. 11. They sent an invitation to us. John lent some money to his friends. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 11. 1 gave him the note which you sent. They brought us many presents from abroad. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 . Henry told us the story of his trip.

152 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél(/ La salud arthritis /a:rθráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hélθ/ heart attack /ha:ræt atæk/ ´ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rúmatizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r θróut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tuθ eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:piη kof/ tos convulsiva.

arriving 21..please? 4. Would you mind taking. 7.... A short course in english for adult students 153 .? 3. me to repeat my..? C. please? 4... Will .? 6. staying. are ... What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex... me to help you.reading 9... Would you mind turning. will....... Can you / Will you pay.please? 3 Can you / Will you open . please? Ex..... will ... like to spend. 4.. Could you / Would you spell.be / are ... / Will they be running.. 1..going to be 19. 1. does . will be entertaining 5.... please? 3.. 2. do . please? 7.travel PART II A. May I / Do you mind if I ask. Hans won´t be working..... call back. Could you / Would you show me. please? 2 Could you / Would you wait. 4.? 6. smokes 23... Ex.... Could you / Would you speak. 2.? 5..? 4... Can you / Will you turn down. 9.. Would you mind repeating.be doing 11. 3.come 13.go / are ... will be working 2.. Could you / Would you repeat.. will be playing 8. May I / Do you mind if I use..living 16... Would you mind waiting..going to go / are . will . / Will the students be taking. 1.do 10. Can you / Will you call me up..... please? B.spend . Could you / Would you help me. will be working 4. were watching 4. Can I turn.. please? / Would you mind showing me.. 8.. 1.5. please? 6.. The students won´t be taking.. did . me to translate. will be cooking 8.buy 12. 5.practice 7. 1.. 5. May I / Do you mind if I open. please? 7. to spell my.going 20. Will . Did . Can you / Will you help.. / Will Hans be working. Could you / Would you take...stay 9. Ex.going to arrive / are . 3.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex.. comes 5.. please? 4. will be driving 4. 1. don´t we travel. please? 6... At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7. were . is playing 2. 4.. will be watching 10.... will . 1. saw 6. 7..Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5. 8. were . Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me.going to stay / are . play.. 6. will be living 6. Could you / Would you turn. turn. please? Ex.? Ex. please? 6.. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4. me to get you. did ...expecting 15. does .come 5. Would you mind using... me to speak....? 3. will . Can I take.. Can you / Will you sit....... don´t we go..... please? / Would you mind spelling. please? Ex. 1. don´t we take.staying 22..please? 2. will have dinner 7.. 1. will be visiting. and resting. 4...? 2.. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8.doing 8. Mr Perez? 2. 6.... will visit 3.. don´t we invite.... 1. 2. will .... will be doing 7. shut... please? 5. did ... please? 4.stay / are . Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6. please? 2.. Can you / Will you speak.Would you mind speaking..? 2. 10.and watching. will be travelling 3. 10. Could you / Would you sign.. 3. 1. go.. will be having 2. Ex.? 3..put on 24..get up 18.be doing 10. Ex. Can I use your.. will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3.please? 5...write 17. Were ..arrive / are . please? 3..? 4..3.. Can you / Will you be. / Will Mike be washing. Can you / Will you give me.please? 7.be doing Ex.. 1... 6. Do .? 7... 1. will ..phone 14. Ex. like to go. Would you mind signing.. Mike won´t be washing. Could you / Would you use. 1. tell Mary that you..? 5.. 9..? 2.. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2. did . will be working out 9.. D... will . Can you / Will you come.. 1 They won´t be running. please? 5. May I / Do you mind if I go in. sitting.. 1. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3.......

.... 10. 8.. Mary should work. 3.. and you should work... Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes. but Carmen can 2.. They sent an invitation to the party to us.... but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat.... I eat.. / They must pay. John doesn´t walk.. / John doesn´t walk. but Peter did. either 4. and so does my wife 8..either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12. but 3. 10. either / Mary can´t.either / Mary should work. My wife´s car is.... but 9.. but we must B... but we didn´t / He didn´t like. and so will they.. 11. 14... but he does.. and so did my friends. and so does the secretary. Mary doesn´t like. but I was..either / She doesn´t come. He liked..... and you shouldn´t work. John went. 1 gave the note which you sent to him.... and so should you.........too / Mary should work.. and so must we Ex. They mustn´t pay..but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat. and Carmen can... and I wasn´t. 9. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come. They sent us an invitation.. 10. 10... and they won´t go... and we mustn´t pay..... 9... They were...... / I ate.. My car is..... I ate. and the children also like. She comes.8. 3.7. We will go. but the secretary does 3... 3..9. but they will... and my wife´s car is. but we did....... either 6. Mary likes.. and he comes. Mary can. and Peter didin´t go. either / They must pay.. 6.... but you should . 1. Ex. but 7. They gave some magazines to us.. but they won´t. and the secretary doesn´t eat.. He sent his sister some candy... and neither / nor do I 4. 2b. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12... John didn´t go.and so did Peter. 14...either / I didn´t eat. Mary can speak. He told us the story 5. and the secreatry also eats. and Peter also went. Mary should work.either.... but I don´t.. 3. and so was I 13.. 6.. but my wife´s car is... He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex. but the children do.... / They weren´t. / I watch... and we didn´t like... 7. John walks.. and so can Carmen 2. and neither / nor can Carmen 2. She comes.. / I don´t watch. / We´ll go. either / They weren´t.. He liked. 5. and so did we 7. Mary can´t. and my friends didn´t eat..and so does he 5...They brought many presents to us from abroad. and neither / nor did we 7. and I walk. and the children don´t like. 13.... 12... 11.. 6...... 1. Will you lend me your pen? 12. but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go. / John went.. and I was. but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work... but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t. and so do I 4.and neither / nor does he 5.. and neither / nor does my wife 8. He bought his wife some flowers... and so do the children 9. Henry told the story of his trip to us.11. too. but the children don´t. as well / John walks. He didn´t like.. I eat. He gave me the money 2. He gave some books to me... Mary shouldn´t work. I ate. My car isn´t. 2.. and neither / nor should you.and neither / nor did Peter. also 10.5..... They must pay and we must pay..either / Mary doesn´t like. but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak. I watch.. 6.. but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay. either / John doesn´t walk.... and my wife doesn´t watch.. / I don´t watch.... / Mary likes. Ex. They sent the material to us right away... I watch.... / We won´t go. too / Mary can. but my friends did.. 3 He sent me a letter 4.. as well / He liked. Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students . and Carmen can´t...... 1. The teacher gave us some dictation 6.. 10. but I wasn´t.. 1...... either / I don´t eat. and I don´t walk. too / as well 2. 4. and neither / nor does the secretary. 14....... either Ex. but my wife does..PART III A. 4. either / He didn´t like. and my wife also watches. as well. We won´t go.. too / as well 8.. / I eat.. Mary likes. He gave his friend a ring.. 11.... 7... John lent his friends some money 11. He sent several letters to his mother. They weren´t.. They must pay.12.. and we liked. and my wife´s car isn´t. John went... also 5.. 2.. and they will also go. but my wife doesn´t.. We´ll go. They were.. John walks. I diidn´t eat. She brought me the book.. and neither / nor will they. as well / They were... / John didn´t go... and neither / nor do the children 9. and neither / nor did my friends. and he doesn´t come. / Mary doesn´t like. 1.... 1.either / We won´t go.. I don´t eat.. but I do. She doesn´t come... and neither / nor must we Ex... 2a. 8. Please give some dictation to us today. and my friends also ate. 1.... too / She comes. John gladly lent the money to me... I don´t watch... 13. 1... and neither / nor was I......

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

worked. Escuche. como por ejemplo: I´ve. hemos Uds. También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente. A short course in english for adult students 157 . To decide . Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra. /ái hav sí:n δæt múvi twáis/ I ´ve been there before. forma) de un verbo principal. /aiv/. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones... /méri haz ríten anáδer nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car. Como Ud. puede ver. /hí:z/. habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos.worked .decided . ahora deberá aprender la 3ra. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. Curiosamente. /áiv bí:n δéar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel.. To work . María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo. /wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter. y por lo tanto Ud. /δéiv á:nserd δe léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes. Ellos han contestado la carta. han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos. etc.studied .. habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (have /hæv/ o HAS /h_ z/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares. He´s. /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job. /iu:v/. habremos Uds. forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente. You´ve.studied.. Habíamos Uds. To study .decided. Ej.. She´s /shí:z.

durante). /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. /wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes. una vez..? Lea. /δéiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). many times /méni támiz/. en las negaciones de debe usar yet. nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv δéi éver vízitid iú: in δe wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. /yés wáns δéi vízitid mi in δe wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. for ten years /for tén yíarz/. They visited me in the winter of 1995. Lea. tambien. escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/. several times /sévral támiz/. Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio.. /δe tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/. once. Yes. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER. escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students . /áim shó:r δat áiv sí:n δt fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. /áiv sí:n δat dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times.El Presente Perfecto se usa en los siguientes casos: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years.. twice /twáis/. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún).? vez. la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá: st mándi/. etc. Lea.. for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. /hav iú éver. sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió.. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy. hasta este momento. escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræηk tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No. Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora.. since 10:30 /sins tén θé:rti/. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice. never /nóu/néver/ No. Lea. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas. three or four times /θrí: or fó:r támiz/.. Lea..

/méri hæznt sóuld he:r ká:r/ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud. dejar prestar perder. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 . Generalmente se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hævnt/ HASN´T /hæznt/). Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar. escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea. encontrar olvidar conseguir. We haven´t had breakfast yet. enterarse partir. conocer aprender. extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. salir. /wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz δe tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal.Lea. /δéi hævent sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Have they seen that documentary? /hav δéi sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav δéi sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Mary has sold her car. haber oir guardar. /δéi hav sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary. /áiv olrédi sí:n θæt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. 1. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. Mary hasn´t sold her car. mantener saber.? EXERCISES Ex. servirse. /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie.

fabricar. 2. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. 3. He________________ to America. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. Hurry up! (start) 2. Peter has had dinner already. 3. comprender usar (ropa). (work) 9. 5. Sir. (meet) Ex. The tennis game________________ just ________________. (speak) 12. Your train ________________ already ________________. They have studied the report.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To understand /anderstænd/ ´ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. I don´t remember when. The soccer game has already finished. vestir escribir Ex. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. creer entender. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . John ________________ for that company since 1987. 4. but I´m sure I know him. (go) 8. The plane has already left. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. He knows it well. You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. John has sent them a fax. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. 1. 2. (go) 10. I ________________ that man before. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. 6. colocar leer correr. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. (be) 3.conocer pagar poner. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11. llevar enseñar decir pensar. (leave) 4. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. He isn´t in Chile. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. (live) 6. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. He´s reading it now. (see) 5. confeccionar reunirse. (receive) 7.

etc. ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes. etc. 3. es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales. ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. 4. como /k/. /d/. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. 2. _________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. 9.. /p/.Ex. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés. ___________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. /l/. 1. ___________________________________________________ El General ya se ha ido a la reunión. When. 4. ___________________________________________________ ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. How long. 10. 10. 5. 7. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. /b/. 2. /g/. How. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. 5. pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . todavía? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. 9. John? ___________________________________________________ Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. 6. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como What. 1. 6. 3. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes. ______________________________________________ No. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. /t/. ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. _______________________________________________ Yes. Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). 12. Where. 8. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house. 5. 11. Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. 7. 4. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill. ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. 8. 7. como /m/. 2. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989. 5. 6. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. etc. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. ___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. 4.

-oof. también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. -ce. -sh. solo. Los sustantivos terminadas en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . no siguen la regla anterior. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. banjo. two roofs /ru:fs/ 5.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. soprano. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe. -ff. -ge. piano. sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. -ch. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ . pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como. etc). forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3. -x.

Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anælisis/ ´ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /θí:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæktas/ ´ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anælisi:z/ ´ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /δí:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæktai/ ´ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipóθesis/ parenthesis /parénθesis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memorædam/ ´ cactuses /kæktasi:z/ ´ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipóθesi:z/ parentheses /parénθesi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memorδda/ A short course in english for adult students 163 . zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6. tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ . volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es.Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bændllou/ ´ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bændllouz/ ´ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/. Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:θ/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ five several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:θ/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7. Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8.: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . volcanos/volcanoes /volkéinouz/ . tornado / to:rnéidou /.

I enjoy playing tennis. no aceptar como cierto To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. seguramente recordará. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. continuar. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. They went sightseeing in the morning. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóutiη/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuliη/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpiη/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsiη/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhiη/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hænd gláidiη/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háikiη/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógiη/ ir a trotar To go running /góu rániη/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séiliη/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópiη/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:iη/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéitiη/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:iη/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáiviη/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swímiη/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu trékiη/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:iη/ ir a esquiar (acuat. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. 164 A short course in english for adult students . como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. to write. they went to the library. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO. speaking. Además. VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir. gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. como To want (I want to read the newspaper). También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming).B. writing. etc. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). I was playing tennis at this time yesterday.) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópiη/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. I heard some surprising news. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. abandonar To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir To practise /práktis/ practicar Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. etc. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To). aceptar como cierto To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar. gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To risk /risk/ arriesgar. After playing tennis. to speak. correr el riesgo de To quit /kuit/ dejar. como To make (He made us do the exercise again). 1. (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. salir. Ann will soon finish typing the letter. como ud.

(pay) 1 can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. Es inutil It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that. 6.?) There´s no use waiting any longer.. mantenerse esperar con ansia. Bob will soon get used to living in this country.. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ There´s not much point in /δeaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this... (work) We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe.. 7. (go) Ex. 2. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar.? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:rθwail/ ¿Vale la pena. 2.. seguir. worth /iz δis.esta/e. A short course in english for adult students 165 . I look forward to seeing you soon. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other. Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course.. 1. Por lo tanto. 3. Ann is fond of gardening. (take) He put on his coat ______________________________ the house. dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get θru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar. 1. seguir. (say) The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it.. (leave) ______________________________ to bed. They kept on talking for hours. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex.. mantenerse soñar con. seguir insistir en continuar.we:rθ/ ¿Vale la pena. 4. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de.Todas las preposiciones (excepto la preposición to) van seguidas de un gerundio. the old woman locked all the doors. 2. 4. discutir Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last. 3. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio: Hay algunas expresiones idiomáticas que a pesar de contener la preposición to van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæri on/ ´ To dream of/about /drí:m v.. rendirse continuar. 5. Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /δeaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena. (eat) Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check. He left the house ______________________________ good bye. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses.

idea to travel during the rush hour. 5. 11. 10. 12. it’s true. 1 dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 10. _______________________________________? 4. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. 5. It´s not a good. Shall we go away tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone ________________________________ until. 6. 2. 9. The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? If you walk ínto the road without looking. apply be be listen make see try use wash work write He tried to avoid answering my question. Bob: We could go the cinema. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer 1. 8. 1. 1 didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6.5. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. no problem. 4. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. not really. 1. Use -ING. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 166 A short course in english for adult students . I really must do it today. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. 7. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. 2. Ann: You broke into the shop. The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. 1 aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. Ex. Bob: No. Sorry! Bob admitted. 2. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. He wants to carry on _______________________. Ann: Do you want to play tennis Bob: No. 4. 6. 3. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 9. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. 7. 3. Ex. 1 don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? I enjoy _______________________ to music. 8. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. You can´t stop me doing what I want. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car.

(take) There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. He will not remain a bachelor. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. John will study to be an engineer. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 6. (see) lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. 5. 4. He will not stay at the home of his cousin. (do) We are thinking _______________________ French. 11. (see) The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 .5. (hit) There is little chance _______________________ her again. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. 5. 10. 2. 4. (drive) John got tired _______________________ for us. please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. 1. Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. 3. I will play tennis. 3. (finish) Ex. She won’t go to the university. 2. They won’t go abroad. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. 2. They will fly to Mexico. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Could you turn the radio down. He will marry Helen. He will live in a dormitory. 7. (wait) Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. They will stay home this summer. They will not drive in their new car. (study) Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. She’s a very interesting person. We’re going to the movie tonight. 6. 6. 7. l’m not feeling very well. I aIways enjoy talking to her. She will study music. 8. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. Use gerunds. (go) Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) We look forward _______________________ you soon. 9. 12. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. He will not work in his father’s store. 8. We will not visit the Smiths. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes. Add a preposition after the gerund. she dusted the furniture. 5. The Porters´ house is too small. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. A: Good. B: Oh. try again. 3. 9. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. 6. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ could you he1p me in the kitchen? B: Sure. 2. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. I’m listening to you. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. We had a blizzard.Ex. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. 168 A short course in english for adult students .. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. I´m considering ___________________________________ 3. I´m not tired yet. I´d be glad to. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. B: Let´s go. Ex. 10. lt’s slowly falling apart. try. I enjoy _______________________ sports. Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed. then. 14. Well. 4. it has. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. 10. 12. yesterday. Keep _______________________. 7. if necessary. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. Beth doesn’t like her job. 2. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. 13. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. I don’t cough any more. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. 1. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. and 1 still don’t understand it. 9.m. 11. It was cold and rainy yesterday. 8. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1. A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework. Sometimes students put off. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all. 8. B: Well. news! I feel great. They’re considering _______________________ We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation._______________________ their homework. 6. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7. don’t give up. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ It´s driving me crazy.

She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. they like to spend the day ín their yatch.. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. Barbarta prefers indoor sports. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . A: I didn’t understand what you said. I said. What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. “ Ex. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . so the lake is completely frozen. 14. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. When there’s a strong wind. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. George and Jane know all the latest dances. What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. She spends hours in the water. They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute. What do they like to do? hey like _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10. She runs a couple of miles every day. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes. “Three free trees. The ice is smooth. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. Mr. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.9. On weekends in the winter.ING 1. Jim Clark is a nature lover. Jim and his wife live near the sea. Use the expressions GO +. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. Answer the questions. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. It´s winter now. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. 11. He usually takes long walks in the woods. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. Last summer John went to Paine National Park. Mr.

r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:θ/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúriη/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in δ kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /θru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wiδ/ within /wiδin/ without /wiδáut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a. hacia hacia. at 4.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money . en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home. PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / lóη/ among / máη/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t δ bæk v/ at the bottom of / t δ bótom v/ at the top of / t δ top ηv/ before /bifó.BASIC VOCABULARY: A. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para desde. a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por.

como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ de hecho. no obstante ello de otro modo. del mismo modo por lo tanto...ni. /bóuθ. en consecuencia posteriormente. ya sea. 5. He studied hard as well.and. no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdiηli/ actually /æktchuali/ ´ although /ólδou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /férδermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando. no obstante después.. o. 4. por consiguiente así. he took her to Europe..o:r/ neither.but also /nót óunli. then.. He gave her a beautiful diamond. she came to class. He´s my best friend.. we have to wash the car. I´m getting along quite well. so he failed the exam.or /í:δer. 10. Alice studied very hard. furthermore. por otra parte sin embargo...... Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital.. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital.but ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto. Mary was sick. enseguida... debido a que no both. de lo contrario similarmente. no obstante therefore /δéarfo:r/ en efecto. de este modo en cambio. 9.. no obstante nonetheless /nanδeles/ igualmente otherwise /áδerwaiz/ finalmente. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néverδelés/ en consecuencia. the house is not very comfortable. Connectors Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque.sino que también.nor /ní:δer. on the other hand. primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que.. The student speaks English well.. First. 8. it has an excellent location 14.no:r/ not only. On one hand. entonces. we´ve known each other all our lives. por cierto thus /δas/ inicialmente. no sólo. moreover. next /nékst/ a pesar de. however.. It´s cold outside. 6.. pues por lo tanto.. por lo tanto then /δen/ sin embargo.. my roommate is not doing so well. nonetheless.and/ either.. 11. yet she didn´t pass her exam.B.como. 13..... but he didn´t do well in the test. ni. He didn´t study hard enough... 2. con posterioridad por lo tanto. in addition. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fækt/ ´ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan θiη/ for that reason /for δæt rí:zn/ ´ Examples: 1. he went to the post office. 12. The yard is too big. he went to the bank.. nevertheless. acto seguido sin embargo. así mismo mientras tanto además. por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar. 3..... aunque. en realidad in addition /in adíshon/ además in spite of that /in spáit v δæt/ a pesar de ello in the first place /in δ fé:rst pléis/ en primer lugar in the meantime /in δ mí:ntaim/ mientras tanto in the same way /in δ seim wéi/ del mismo modo on one hand / n wan hænd/ por un lado ´ on the other hand / n δi áδ r hænd/ por otro lado ´ to begin with /tu bigín wiδ/ para comenzar to start with /tu stá:rt wiδ/ para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 . he seems to know a lot about our customs. al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo. sin embargo.. we can´t afford the house. besides. 7.

Bl 172 .

breaking down Ex. being 8. 3. 2. What have you eaten? 8. 8. (Possible answers) 2. applying 5. doing 6.. 8. They´ve been here several times before. instead of going abroad 4. They´ve studied English for more than two years.. instead of remaining a bachelor 8. 1. listening 4. I haven´t read that book yet. have . before leaving 7. I´ve driven one once or twice. without / after paying 4. speaking 3. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6. standing up 4. 7. has. 5. hitting 9. has . has . I´ve never seen him in person. reading 4. before going Ex.instead of working in his father´s store 6. Where has John been? 9. going away.. has .. has been 3. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2. 6.. of doing 8. John? 5. How long have we / you waited for them? 12. 2. 2. 5.. 6. going for a swim 5. Ex. I´ve never been there 2.. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7.? Ex. Ex. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. about taking 6. they´ve never seen one 4.. she´s come here a couple of times. 3. washing 6. No. The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5. of seeing 7. of taking 12. 9. 5. being 7. travelling during the rush hour 3. working 8. trying Ex. going out this evening 3. in speaking 4. Yes. seeing 10. 2. No. How many books have they sold today? 6. 1. 3. he´s lived abroad several times 6. 6.. visiting 12. from hitting 6. Breaking / having broken 6. eating 6. looking for 10.instead of driving in their new car Ex. 4. 3. to seeing 5.Key to answers UNIT 12 A. instead of visiting the Smiths 5. 4.. visiting Ex. not having a license 5. have seen 5. of finishing Ex.Yes. 1. 2. of driving 10. about studying 9.. of swimming 2.received 7. They haven´t given her.. 2.left 4. / Have they given her. What have the boys done today? 11. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. on going 3. taking 5. using 9.. waiting 2. 7... has gone 8. without / after saying 2. before eating 3. How long have you worked in the army? 10.. The general has already gone to the meeting. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9. riding 7.. has spoken 12.been 10. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex.. having 10. speaking 13. closing A short course in english for adult students 173 .. buying 8. waiting a few minutes. 1. answering 11. The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2.. 4. of waiting 11.instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7. What has Mary told you about that? 7. They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4... (Possible answers) 2. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3. please? 6. vacuuming 5. 1. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B.. by working 5. being 12. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening.instead of going to the university 3. she´s been there twice. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10. practising 11. Yes. snowing 7.. 1. have met Ex. have lived 6. has worked 9. tomorrow 4. playing tennis 3.. Ex.started 2. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. Ex. 1. Yes. Why has he gone to bed? 4. No.read 11. What have they bought? 3. going out for a walk 5. taking 9. working 14.. turning the radio down. moving into a larger house 3. going to 4. making 3. laughing 6.1 1.

like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. helping him 8. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. are going to go ice-skating 11. likes trekking 8. 2.Ex. smoking 5. trying 6. to go water-skiing 3. 2. goes bowling 9. 11. doing things / doing his homework 7. went camping 4. like to go sky-diving 14. tapping your fingernails on the table 9. go dancing 10. 174 A short course in english for adult students . to go shopping 5. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. like to go sailing 12. like to go skiing 7. etc. go sight-seeing 13. reading a good book 4. 10. repeating that Ex. goes jogging 6.

escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. /wí:v bí:n stádiiη iηglish for óuver tú: mánθs/ It´s been raining for about an hour. Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. /δéiv bi:n líviη in δe sáuθ for at lí:st tú mánθs/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECCT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. Lea.? EXERCISES Ex. /tóm haz bí:n wé:rkiη δéar sins éit θé:rti/. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. /its bí:n ráiniη for abáut an áuar/. 1. /tóm /hæznt bí:n wé:rkiη δéar for mó:ar δan tú: áuarz/ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav δei bí:n líviη δéar véri lóη/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu loη hav iú: bi:n præktisiη íηglish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:iη/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. /hi:z wé:rkt δéar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours. 2. Miami desde 1985. Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985. hasta esta fecha. (sit) The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. (stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . /δéiv lívd in δe sáuθ éver sins δéi gót mærid/ Ellos han vivido en el sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hævnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæznt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses.30. 1. (work) That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours. /δéi hav bí:n líviη in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months.UNIT 13 PART 1. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) . 4. They _______________________________ in the office for several hours. 3. Lea. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox. /hi:z bí:n wérkiη δéar for abáut tú: áuarz/.

I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. 7. When. How long. Change the following sentences into a) negative. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. Ask questions using question words like What. 1. (discuss) Ex. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. Jane´s been feeling well since March. They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 10. 2. and b) interrogative. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. (read) Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. (run) The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. etc. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Bob´s been swimming all morning. (work out) The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. 3. 8. Where. (write) The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 176 A short course in english for adult students .5.

Peter wants to study engeneering. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. negarse a Amenazar. etc. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir. I promise to help you. simular. tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disε´:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. so I agreed to lend him some money. TO PLAN /plæn/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. (II) A. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. The woman pretends to know everything. verse. The students tend to be negligent. /si:m/ parecer. They seem to be doing well now. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. She promised not to be late. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a. TO DECIDE planear. simular. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. TO WISH /wish/ desear. pensar. He pretended to be reading the paper. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . que son las siguientes: 1. TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. no lograr Olvidar To hope /houp/ To learn /lε:rn/ To manage /mænidll/ ´ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /θréten/ To want /wont/ Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. verse. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car.PART II. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now. simular Prometer Rehusar. Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice. 2.

Verb + Wh. mostrar. (No se debe decir. pedir. señora Please let me go out. TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar. TO KNOW /nóu/. B. 178 A short course in english for adult students . I begged to see the photos. Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone. TO TELL /tel/ decir. They don´t mean to do it now. I don´t mean you to do it now. solicitar.Mary. where.3. 6. I would like to go. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. Let me carry your bag for you. them. etc. when. I´d love to go to the club.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado. I´d hate to do that here. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive. déjeme salir I want to go there. Do you understand what to do? 5. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. I begged them to see the photos. Bob taught us how to use the computer. me. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/.. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta. We expect to be there soon. He asked to take part. Por favor. 4. Hot weather makes me feel tired. “You make me TO feel happy”) Tú me haces sentir feliz The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. I´d hate the boys to do it here. I´d prefer to do it now. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. saber. madam. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer. him. Permítame llevarle su bolso. We expect you to be there soon. I would prefer /wud prifε preferiría ´:r/ I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. the student. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy. TO ASK /a:sk/ pedir. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. B I want you to go there He asked us to take part.. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what.

I wonder where Sue is. thanks. (go) It’s a nice day. It’s driving me mad. I can manage. fine.C. van seguidos de un gerund cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. (call) A short course in english for adult students 179 . When I’m tired. 1. They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often. (acción completa) Los oí cantar 10 canciones. I enjoy _____________________________ television. We were all too afraid to speak. It’s relaxing. 3. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. Ex. 4. (watch) It was a nice day. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. 5. 7. 4. 2. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. D. (bark) Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise. Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. 6. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. (go) I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . 1. Mary: OK. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) They don’t have much money. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________to the airport in time. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) I’m not in a hurry. Put the verb into the correct form to-Infinitive or -ing 1. 2. 1. (acción completa) La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle We heard them singing a song. 6. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. (parte de la acción) Los oí cantando una canción We heard them sing ten songs. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. Hans: OK. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock. We’ve got a new computer in our office. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. 2. 3. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. She promised not_____________________________ late. 5. Jack : Please help me. Complete the sentences for each situation. Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. 3. TO HEAR /híar/ oir. please? EXERCISES Ex. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex.

I will. TO SHOW. 4. He has lost weight. (miss) 10. (appear) David forgets things. 2. I was surprised that it rained. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Tom asked Hans: OK.(tend) They have solved the problem. Ex.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME. 2. (have) 9. Sylvia warned 5. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1. 2. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train. I was really astonished. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Complete the questions. 6. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can 1 go now or do ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. of course. (appear) You know a lot of people. 1.? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO. Sue told Hans to lock the door. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students . Tom & Betty: John: Yes. CompIete the sentences for each situation. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. 1. 3. 6. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. 7. 6. My father said I could use his car. (seem) That car has broken down. 5. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned. 4. 3. Sue: Lock the door. 5. Yes. TO SHUT. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2.. TO LEND. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? ____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No ____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry. TO WAIT 1.. (seem) My English is getting better. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4. TO REPEAT. 8..(seem) Tom is worried about something. ____________________________________________________________________ Ex. 6. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early. Sylvia: Be careful. 3. I didn’t know _____________________________. 2. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. 7. ____________________________________________________________________ Jane. 5. 1. We were hungry. 4.. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. 4.8. (find) Ex. 5.

TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. (I remembered I had to do that. The food is awful (eat) The film was very sad. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long.continuar. I regret saying what I said. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. estos cambian de significado de la oración.. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. detenerse. parar.3. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. I think you should know the truth. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. 2. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. I remember doing that. I remembered to do that. recordarse. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. After discussing the economy. (I said that. My lawyer said 1 shouldn’t say anything to the police. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 1. Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir. arrepentirse. 7. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. If you’ve got a car. Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. I love to go to baseball games. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight. 8. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 6. (smoke) I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. VERBS +. 4. They have been working all morning and feel very tired. The minister went on talking for two hours. 9. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Put the verb in the right form : -ing or infinitive (with or without to). (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. I like to listen to music while I´m studying. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. (read) He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. Don´t stop him doing what he wants. Después de hablar acerca de la economía. I was told that 1 shouldn’t believe everything he says. We continued to work until 10:30. My lawyer advised. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir. (study) E. He looks older when he wears glasses. TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. you are able to travel round more easily. A short course in english for adult students 181 . TO LOVE /lav/ encanterle a uno. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero. Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. It made me _____________________________ (cry) Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house. 9. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 5.. a diferencia de los anteriores. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar. sin cambiar de significado. TO STOP /stop/ parar. (go) I’m in a difficult position.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. 3.

12. 9. (get) We finished _____________________________ around seven. (talk) Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. 3. She didn’t answer the phone. 4. 12. (meet) The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. 14. (pay) Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. 3. 19. (go) I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. (jog) The company will continue _____________________________ new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. Ex. 7. 2. 16. 10. I need to study tonight (study) I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. 9. I want _____________________________this afternoon. 16. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. (move) What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) Some children hate _____________________________ to school.’ (shut) I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. (break) The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. 15. 1. 8. 2. (go) Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. (cry) Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better._____________________________you any money. 7. 1. 1 haven’t got enough money. (steal) I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much. (live) Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. 17. 6. 13. (write) Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. 6. 2. 1 promise _____________________________ on time. Please remember to lock the door when you go out. (want) (go) (sail) Ex. 15. 18. (meet) 1 hope _________________________ you again soon. 4. (go) I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. 8. (go) (shop) 24. 11. (get). 182 A short course in english for adult students . Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. (answer) One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. (lock) I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. (say) 23. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. 3. (hire) (come) 22. (camp) My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. They denied _____________________________the money. (be) I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. I’m too tired. 2. (eat) Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) I like _____________________________ new people. (see) The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. (help) I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. 3. (drive) I don’t want _____________________________out tonight.EXERCISES Ex. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. 14. I clean (= completely) forgot. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. 5. B: Did l? Are you sure? 1 don’t remember . Sometimes either form is possible. 5. 21. 10. 1. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window. (watch) Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 1 won’t be late. 11. 20. That’s not what I meant! 1 meant _____________________________ just the opposite. 13. 1. I’ll phone her tomorrow.

in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour. 20. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. This is very urgent. Smith. I saw him _____________________________ his car. 4. (talk) I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. (Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. (move) He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. 13. 7. 8. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. 11. or did you forget? (phone) I haven´t phoned her at her home lately. 12. I´ve already done my homework. 8. Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. (move) I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. 15. (go) We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. (rain) Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday. As a matter of fact I do it every day.(buy) They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV. 19. 9. and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. 2. It is too expensive. When you see Mandy tomorrow. 4. 16. (watch) Where did they agree_____________________________. (go) It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning. 6. (watch) I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. This jacket is dirty. 17.George? (do) Please let me _____________________________ cartoons. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . (wash) I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. 1. 1 believe that what 1 said was fair. 18. 7. (wash). mum. 6.4. (do) Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise. Someone must have taken my bag. 11. Ex. It needs _____________________________. I want a different job. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. 1 don’t regret _____________________________ it. When 1 came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone. 9. GERUND. 10. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. She looked up and said hello to me. 14. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. 3. BARE INFINITIVE. 12. TO-INFINITIVE. won’t you? 5. remember _____________________________ her my regards. 5. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. 10. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. (live) I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. (lock) I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while.

_______________________________________________________? You live uptown. Add the proper tag ending: 1. isn’t he?) 2. ____________________________________________? 3. You don´t know him well. 1. __________________________________________________________? He has to work tomorrow. 3. Mary is at home now. 2. ____________________________________________________________? 6. ______________________________________________________? 7. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday. don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. You were absent from class yesterday. ___________________________________________________? Ex. ____________________________________________________________? Mr. 8. The wind is blowing very hard. The boy can speak French. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. 5. doesn’t he?) She can speak French well. ______________________________________________________? They will be here early. 9. ____________________________________________________________? Henry left at two o’clock. ________________________________________________________? There´s some more milk in the fridge. ____________________________________________? 9. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. ___________________________________________________? I´m your best friend. They were both absent from the lesson. The boy can´t speak French. 6. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE. 13. _______________________________________________________________? She studies with you. _______________________________________________________? He has many friends here. Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?. ________________________________________________________? 8. Helen and her sister are both studying English. ____________________________________ ? (He comes here every day. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación. 2. 10. _____________________________________? 5. ____________________________________________________? 4. did he? The boys can´t speak French. It is beginning to rain. 4. George is a very tall boy. ______________________________________ ? (John is a good student. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. ______________________________________________? Both men look very much alike. You are busy today. Smith has seen that movie. isn´t she? You know him well. ___________________________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students . 12. has he? Como Ud. 11. You know him well. is she? You don´t know him well. ___________________________________________________________? He will be back later. ha advertido. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. 7. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto. los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. ___________________________________________________________? He left at two o’clock. 14. He comes here every day. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. John is a good student. Add the proper tag ending. I´m doing the exercise well. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: 1.PART III TAG ENDINGS.

__________________________________________________? 12. __________________________________________________? 5. They didn’t come with her. 2. ______________________________________________________ ? The shopping district extends for many blocks. _______________________________________ ? José used to work in this office. ____________________________________________________________ ? 3. _____________________________________________ ? 8. doesn’t she?) Sue was at home when you called last night. He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. ____________________________________________________? 14. Mr. _________________________________________? 7. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. ________________________________________________________ ? 5. _________________________________________________? 13. He hasn’t got any money. He doesn’t come here every day. He gave him the stamps.10. ____________________________________________? Ex. They didn’t arrive on time. John often walks to the post office. But he dropped the letter into the box. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. They didn’t have to work yesterday. He put a stamp on the envelope. 6.”. They don’t know each other. There are many students absent today. ____________________________________________? A short course in english for adult students 185 . John didn’t receive any change. They don’t live uptown. ________________________________________________________ ? The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. ______________________________________________________ ? 7. ____________________________________________? 10. _________________________________________________________ ? 6. Add the proper tag ending: 1. _____________________________________ ? Ex. 7. does he?) 2. _______________________________________________? 11. ______________________________________________________ ? William will be here soon. 3. Smith is out of town. __________________________________________________________ ? Bob´s going to buy a new car this year. ____________________________________________ ? They went into the church. _____________________________________________? 8. Mary goes shopping every day. _______________________________________________________ ? Ex. _________________________ ? (John often walks to the post office. doesn’t he?) 2. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. She can’t speak French. 3. ______________________________________________? 3. _____________________________________________? 6. Add the proper tag ending: 1. _____________________________? (Mary goes shopping every day. He never goes there in the morning. 11. _______________________________________________________? 12.. 4. _____________________________________________? 12. _______________________________________________________ ? 4. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. __________________________________________________ ? William has been working very hard today. There are many people ahead of him. _____________________________________________________ ? 9. They are leaving early in the morning. 12. 8. _________________________________________ ? William was born in Cardiff. 5. ________________________________________________________? 11. ____________________________________________? 9. 4. ________________________________________________ ? The sun is setting now. ________________________________________________________? 11. He didn’t visit us last night. There are only a few people ahead of him. 9.. Add the proper tag ending: 1. ________________________________ ? The sun sets at about six o’clock. 5. 10. She isn’t busy now. He didn’t mail any packages. __________________________ ? (He doesn’t come here every day. He doesn’t always buy stamps. _____________________________________? 4. We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. _______________________________________? 10.

Ex. 6. You think, but you are not sure. Ask questions, using tag endings. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish, but you`re not sure. You say: Mary speaks Spanish, doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. You say: The children can`t swim well, can they? 1. You think John`s been to England twice, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. You think my friends come from Wisconsin, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. You think they have to work a little faster, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. You think the boy has had dinner already, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8. You think there was too much noise in the room, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9. You think you´re a good student, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. You think the boys worked harder than the girls, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. You think John put on his new sweater, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. You think I was at the meeting too, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________?

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION Deportes y Recreación amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /ægliη/ ´ athletics /aθlétiks/ baths /ba:θs/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuliη/ boxing /bóksiη/ car-racing /ka:r réisiη/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimiη/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikliη/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáiviη/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsiη/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhiη/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidiη/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidiη/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisiη/ hunting /hántiη/ hurdling /hé:rdliη/ ice-skating /áis skéitiη/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógiη/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpiη/ parque de diversiones. pesca de río atletismo baños, termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego, partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo javalina trote Viaje Salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mætch/ ´ partido (fútbol,box) movie theater /múvi θíater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo,valla paddling /pæliη/ ´ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /péntaθlon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo, etc rink /riηk/ cancha de patines rowing /róuiη/ remo running /rániη/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:iη túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéitiη/ patinaje skiing /skí:iη/ esquí skiing resort /skí:iη rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfiη/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suímiη/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /δíater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje, excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /trékiη/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /tráηks/ pantalones de atlet. T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíiη/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit líftiη/ pesas

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Key to answers

UNIT 13
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1 has been living 2. have been working 3. has been sitting 4. have been standing 5. have been waiting 6. have been running 7. has been reading 8. has been writing 9. have been working out 10. have been discussing Ex. 2. 1. He hasn`t been living... / Has he been living...? 2. They haven`t been playing... / Have they been playing...? 3. Jane hasn`t been feeling... / Has Jane been feeling...? 4. They haven`t been discussing... / Have they been discussing...? 5. Bob hasn`t been swimming... / Has Bob been swimming...? `t Ex. 3. 1. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. Where have they been staying? 4. Why have they been saving money? 5. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. How long have they been waiting for a taxi?

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. to get married 2. to help Jack 3. to carry the woman`s bag 4. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. to tell the man her name Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 1. to post. 2. to get 3. to buy 4. (how) to use 5. to be 6. to say Ex. 3. 1. watching 2. to go 3. going 4. waiting 5. to go 6. barking 7. to call 8. having 9. missing 10. to find Ex. 4. 1. He seems to have lost weight 2. Tom appears to be worried about something. 3. You seem to know a lot of people. 4. My English seems to be getting better. 5.That car appears to have broken down 6. David tends to forget things. 7. They claim to have solved the problem. Ex. 5. 1. how to get 2. how to use 3. what to do 4. how to ride 5. what to say 6. whether to go Ex. 6. 1. go with you? 2. lend you some 3. shut it 4. you like to show you how to use it 5. you want me to repeat what I said 6. you want me to wait Ex. 7. 2. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. Bob use her phone 4. Hans to be careful 5. Jane to give him a hand. Ex. 8. 1. me to use his car. 2. it to rain / it would rain. 3. him do what he wants. 4. him look older. 5. you to know the truth. 6. me to phone my sister. 7. me to apply for the job. 8. not to say anything to the police. 9. to believe everything he says. 10. you to travel round more easily. Ex. 9. 1. to smoke 2. to go 3. to do 4. read 5. to go 6. to go 7. to eat 8. cry 9. to study. B. Ex. 1. 4. to get 5. eating 6. to take 7. meeting / to meet 8. camping 9. to help 10. watching / to watch 11. cracking 12. to feed 13. to be 14.. moving 15. to arrive 16. going / to go 17. to lock 18. living 19. writing 20. jogging 21. to hire / hiring - coming 22. .to say 23. to go shopping 24. to want to go sailing Ex. 2. 1. stealing / having stolen 2. driving 3. to go 4. to go 5. raining 6. to buy 7. asking 8. asking 9. to answer 10. breaking / having broken 11. to pay 12. eating 13. to shut 14. meeting...to see 15. to cry / crying 16. to get Ex. 3. 2. lending / having lent you 3. to phone. 4. to give 5. having left / leaving 6. saying / having said 7. to tell 8. to become 9. working 10. reading 11. cleaning 12. to talk / to meet
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Ex. 4. 1. wash 2. washing 3. to phone 4. phoning 5. to going 6.to go 7. to rain / raining 8. to living 9. doing 10. do / to do 11. watch 12. to meet 13. (in order) to rest 14. talking 15. to buy 16. to watch 17. moving 18. to move 19. locking 20. to working C. Ex. 1. 2. She can speak..., can`t she? 3. They`ll be..., won`t they? 4. He left..., didn`t he? 5. He has to work..., doesn`t he? 6. He has many..., doesn`t he? 7. You live..., don`t you? 8. She studies..., doesn`t she? 9. He`ll be back..., won`t he? 10. Henry left..., didn`t he? 11. There`s some..., isn´t there? 12. Both men look..., don`t they? 13. I`m your..., aren`t I? 14. Mr Smith``s seen..., hasn`t he? Ex. 2. 2. They were both absent..., weren`t they? 3. The wind`s blowing..., isn`t it? 4. Helen and her sister are both..., aren`t they? 5. You`re busy..., aren`t you? 6. I`m doing..., aren`t I? 7. George`s a very..., isn`t he? 8. You were absent..., weren`t you? 9. It`s beginning..., isn`t it? 10. Mr Smith`s out of..., isn`t he? 11. They`re leaving..., aren`t they? 12. There are many..., aren`t there? Ex. 3. 2. Sue was at home..., wasn`t she? 3. José used to work..., didn´t he? 4. William`s been working..., hasn`t he? 5. William was born in..., wasn`t he? 6. William will be..., won`t he? 7. The traffic on this street was very..., wasn`t it? 8. The sun sets..., doesn`t it? 9. The sun`s setting..., isn`t it? 10. Bob`s going to buy..., isn`t he? 11. They went..., didn`t they? 12. The shopping district extends..., doesn`t it. Ex. 4. 2. She isn`t busy..., is she? 3. They didn`t come..., did they? 4. She can`t speak..., can she? 5. They don`t live..., do they? 6. He didn`t visit..., did he? 7. She won`t be..., will she? 8. They don`t know..., do they? 9. We don`t have to come..., do we? 10. They didn`t have to work..., did they? 11. He hasn`t got..., has he? 12. They didn`t arrive..., did they? Ex. 5. 2. He never goes..., does he? 3. He first goes to..., doesn`t he? 4. He doesn`t always buy..., does he? 5. There are many people..., aren`t there? 6. There are only a few..., aren`t there? 7. He doesn`t always have to wait..., does he? 8. He didn`t have to wait..., did he? 9. He won`t have to wait..., will he? 10. He gave..., didn`t he? 11. John didn`t receive..., did he? 12. He put..., didn`t he? 13. He didn`t mail..., did he? 14. But he dropped..., didn`t he? Ex. 6. 1. John`s been to England twice, hasn`t he? 2. Your friends come from Wisconsin, don´t they? 3. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday, did he? 4. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, is there? 5. They have to work a little faster, don`t they? 6. Jane shouldn`t do that again, should she? 7. The boy has had dinner already, hasn`t he? 8. There was too much noise in the room, wasn`t there? 9. I´m a good student, aren´t I? 10. The boys worked harder than the girls, didn`t they? 11. You wouldn´t like to go there again, would you? 12. John put on his new sweater, didn`t he? 13. You were at the meeting too, weren`t you? 14. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station, had it?

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UNIT 14
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente, pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple. De dos acciones pasadas, la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. Escuche, lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. You phoned at 8:25. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. /háns had oñrédi léft wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro. The old man died at 11:25. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. By the time the ambulance arrived, the old man had already died. /bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd δe óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó, el viejo ya había fallecido. Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo, las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto, son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning; When Paul arrived at the theatre; By the time the ambulance arrived. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. /δéi we:r hæviη lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. /δéi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración, la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called), mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what, where, how, etc., se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. /háns had nót léft yét wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu hædnt stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. /δi óuld mæn hædnt dáid yét bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had δe shóu stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had δéi lívd bifó:r δéi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud.?)

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Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night. She said she ______________________ there several times before. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already. 2. The teacher (give.(finish) 4. 2. The show (begin. (steal) 7. 1. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived.EXERCISES Ex. All of the other passengers (board. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. Ex. 9. 5. By the time the firemen arrived. It was raining hard. 6. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. 7.Yesterday at a restaurant. Gloria almost missed her plane. (be) 6. (put out 10. 3. 10. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________. Jane had seen that movie twice. Millions of years ago.(start) 3. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. (take) 8. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine. not) ______________________ _______ _______________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos. an old friend of mine. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room. the thief ______________________ already ______________________. 3. so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. 2. (go) 2. At first. Tom had already left the office. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. I (recognize. but they (become. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire. Change the following sentences into a) the negative. not)_______________________________ him in years. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater. Paul had already sent her a fax. (disappear) 5. and b) the interrogative. 3. 1. (go) Ex. 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . 1. 1. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth. The students (see. 4. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. They´d already spent all the money. When the police arrived.already) __________ ____________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ________________ ______ the art gallery. As soon as he opened the door. but by the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office. I (see. The children had already had supper. (leave) 9. the rain (stop) _____________ _________ 6.

How long. Bill had made the same mistake three times. John had visited them that evening. 9. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 1.Ex. Where. 2. 6. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. How. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. etc. Paul had sold his house the previous year. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes. They´d spent over US $ 3. 7. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. The girl had studied French at school. 4. 3. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . 4. When. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a USA.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. Translate the following sentences into English 1. He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. 5. Black had studied at Harvard University. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 7. 8. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Dr. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 10. 5. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. Ask questions using question words like What. ¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? Ella no había leído ese libro aún. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945.

EARLY. adelantado Examples: This is a hard (adj. I got up a little earlier than usual today. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. hard /ha:rd/ duro.). LATE y HARD. This train is very slow. He drives carefully (adverbio). (casi no. early /ε:rli / ´ temprano. A bus runs more slowly than a train. vimos que. We arrived there early (adv. A dog runs faster than a horse.PART II. Mr Blake will call later tonight. A. FAST. Bob works harder than any of the other students. Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. tempranamente. el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: fast /fæst/ ´ rápido/rápidamente. (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde. FORMATION OF ADVERBS. apenas) I haven´t seen John lately .). I have to study hard (adv. atrasados) 2. no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. late /leit/ tarde/atrasado.) train. difícil. es decir. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. Peter hardly works on Saturday. dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos.) lesson. + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæpi/ feliz ´ certain /sε:rten/ cierto ´ safe /séif/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæpili/ felizmente ´ certainly /sε:rtenli/ ciertamente ´ safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio.(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . Con los adverbios SOON. They took the early (adj. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. intenso/intensamente.

10. (wise) 12. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________ (fast) Ex. 12. (wise) 11. John works ____________________________ I (hard) 9. that. (careful) 2. (quick). 8. 8. (early) 5. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . (hard). EXERCISES Ex. Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. 11. He comes here ____________________________ she. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. They acted ____________________________ in doing. He always drives ____________________________ (careful). It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. 6. They get up every morning ____________________________ we. 4. 2. 3. 5. John works better than William. 9. She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________ (beautiful). 9. 8. La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. 7. He did the work____________________________. John works more carefully than I. Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. Bill behaves badly in class. John was very ____________________________ (foolish). This is an ____________________________ exercise. 1 feel very ____________________________ today.Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. (fast). 4. He always does his work ____________________________ (good) He speaks very ____________________________ (fast). He certainly acted ____________________________ (foolish). 1 can do this exercise ____________________________ (easy). 2.(regular) 4. I go there ____________________________ he does. He learns his lesson ____________________________(quick). They went very far. (good) 7. He always does his work ____________________________ (careful). (beautiful) 7. He is a very careful student. 6. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening (early). (often) 3. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well. 2. 3. (good). We walked very ____________________________ (quick). He comes here ____________________________ he did before. but Jack behaves worse as a rule. She works very ____________________________ every day. He can run much ____________________________ I. John left the office quickly that afternoon. (easy). (frequent) 6. He studies ____________________________ Mary. She speaks English____________________________ (beautiful). as usual. (easy) 5. Mary is a ____________________________ girl. We went farther. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. (bad) Ex. She prepares her lessons ____________________________ (careless). He gets up as early as I do.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. She plays the guitar ____________________________ anyone else. 10. 3.

He didn’t arrive ____________________________ we expected him. They came to work ____________________________usual. He goes to bed ____________________________ I (late) 2. (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. He works ____________________________ he can. (early) 5. He will arrive____________________________ they. (easy) 5. (hard) B. She doesn’t speak ____________________________ her sister. You can do it ____________________________ I . Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do. John speaks English ____________________________I. (early) Ex. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2.10. He came here ____________________________ he could. (early) 11. He doesn’t work ____________________________ she. (good) 8. Express in full form. Bob cut himself with the knife. Express in full form. (fast) 12. (bad) 9. (soft) 10. (good) 4. (fast) 2. (soon) 12. He doesn’t walk as / so fast as I do. She sings ____________________________ she plays. I go to bed ____________________________ you. (bright) 9. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /δemsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. (hard) 7. Se usan para expresar énfasis.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. 4. She can’t play ____________________________ she can sing.. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could. He can run ____________________________ his brother. He can’t come ____________________________ we. (regular) 10. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students . (late) 11. Speak ________________________________________________________ possible. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. (early) 3. using equality of comparison: 1. (fast) 3. (careful) 7. (early) 6. “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated areas. using equality of comparison: 1. (easy) 5. (beautiful) 6. (good) 4. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. (quick) 8. He came ____________________________ he could.

3. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo, sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). The poor man lives by himself in an old house. (El pobre hombre vive solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. (Hans estudia en un grupo, pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. 1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell. The baby cannot dress ______________________________. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. William shaves ______________________________ every day. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ Do you like to talk about______________________________? The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife I shave ______________________________ every morning. The poor man killed ______________________________. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice.

Ex. 2. Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I myself will do it. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. We ______________________________ will wait for you. The President ______________________________ attended to the meeting. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. John ______________________________ wrote to me. Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. You ______________________________ must speak to him, Peter. You ______________________________ have to do it, boys.

Ex. 3. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. John lives alone in an apartment 2. She likes to study alone. 3. I went to the movie alone. 4. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. He likes to walk alone in the park. 6. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. 7. He works alone in a small office. 8. He prefers to work alone. 9. I do not like to eat alone. 10. I do not think he can do it alone. 11. Both the boys and the girls study alone. 12. He wrote the entire book alone. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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C. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (subject + was / were going to + infinitive) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que, habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad, no se llevaron a cabo por alguna razón. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the past form of GOING To for the italicized, verbs: 1. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. 2. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. We intended to wait but we had to leave. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us (= visited us). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Answer the questions as in the example 1. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No, I didn´t. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. 2. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No, I didn´t. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No, I didn´t. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No, I didn´t . _________________________________________________________________________________

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ La Naturaleza a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ geografía air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæl/ ´ canyon /kænion/ ´ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchænel/ ´ desert /dézert/ earth /é:rθ/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gælaksi/ ´ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /íθmas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque, foresta galaxia suelo, tierra rada, bahía cerro, colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/, summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plænet/ ´ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sætelait/ ´ sea /si:/ shore /shóar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spriη/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væli/ ´ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna, satélite nat. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito, villa volcán agua cataratas

b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ vegetacióin branch /bræntch/ ´ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /ænimalz/ Animales ´ alligator /æligéitor/ ´ ant /ænt/ ´ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ búfalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæt/ ´ cock /kok/, cockerel /kókerel/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave, pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /máηki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono
A short course in english for adult students

rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s

plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /traηk/

planta raíces semilla arbusto, mata árbol tronco

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cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dóηki/ dragonfly /drægonflai/ ´ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flæmíηgou/

vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco

mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræbit/ ´ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/

ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena

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Key to answers

UNIT 14
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. had - gone 2. had - started 3. had - finished 4. had - disappeared 5. had been 6. had stolen 7. had taken 8. had left 9. had - put out 10. had - gone Ex. 2 1. had been - became 2. felt - had taken 3. had already given - got 4. left - had collected 5. was - had stopped 6. had already begun - got - took 7. roamed - had already become - appeared 8. had never seen - visited 9. had already boarded - got 10. saw - had not seen - didn`t recognize - had lost Ex. 3 1. Tom hadn`t left...yet / Had Tom left...yet / already? 2.They hadn`t spent all... yet. / Had they spent all...already / yet? .3. Paul hadn`t sent...yet / Had Paul sent...already / yet? 4. Jane hadn`t seen... / Had Jane seen...? 5. The children hadn`t had...yet. / Had the children had... already / yet? 6. Mrs. Bentley hadn´t gone...yet / Had Mrs. Bentley gone... already / yet? Ex. 4 1. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. Where had Dr. Black studied? 3. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8. How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. Who had visited them that evening? 10. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex. 5 . 1. They had not studied there very long. 2. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. 3. Had you eaten / had this before? 4. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. She hadn`t read that book before. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. 7. Where had they been that morning? 8. She´d worked hard very long. 9.She`d never been abroad before. 10. He said (that) he`d been very busy that day.

PART II.
A. Ex. 1 2. beautifully 3. carefully 4. hard 5. early 6. easily 7. quickly 8. well 9. well 10. fast 11. carelessly 12. badly Ex. 2 . 2 carefully 3. quickly 4. easy 5. easily 6.beautiful 7. beautifully 8.foolish 9. foolishly 10. wise 11. wisely 12. fast Ex. 3. 2. more often than 3. more regularly than 4. earlier than 5. more frequently than 6. better than 7. faster than 8. harder than 9. more seriously than 10. later than 11.sooner than 12. earlier than Ex. 4. 1. as late as 2. as fast as 3. as well as 4. as early as 5. as beautifully as 6. as hard as 7. as quickly as 8. as brightly as 9. as softly as 10. as early as 11. as fast as 12. as easily as Ex. 5. 2. as / so early as 3. as / so well as 4. as / so easily as 5. as / so early as 6. as / so carefully as 7. as / so well as 8. as / so badly as 9. as / so regularly as 10. as / so hard as . B. Ex 1 1. himself 2. itself / himself / herself 3. herself 4. himself 5. ourselves 6. herself 7. themselves 8. yourself / yourselves 9. herself 10. myself 11. himself 12. himself Ex. 2 . 2. herself 3. himself 4. themselves 5. ourselves 6. himself 7. herself 8. himself 9. himself 10. herself 11. yourself 12. yourselves

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Ex. 3. 2. She likes to study by herself 3. I went to the movie by myself 4. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage. 7. He works by himself in a small office 8. He prefers to work by himself. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10. I do not think he can do it by himself. 11. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12. He wrote the entire book by himself. C. Ex. 1. 2. I was going to go to the beach but...3. We were going to telephone you but... 4. We were going to wait but... 5. I was going to come back earlier but... 6. I was going to go home early, but...7. We were going to walk in the park but... 8. I was going to write you a letter last week but... 9. We were going to eat early but... 10. We were going to go to a movie first but... 11. We were going to study for our examination but... 12. They were going to leave New York yesterday but... Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 2. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. 3. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm. 4. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead.

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/δ mæn had bin wé:rkiη o:l déi/ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours. (drink) We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York. 3. Lea. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD al sujeto: Lea. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had δéi bi:n pléiη sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu lóη had δei bi:n pléiη sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:iη/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud. (study) The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night. (watch) The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village. 4. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. báut tú: áuarz/ Las forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hædnt/. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. /δéid bi:n pléiiη sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas.(fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . 6. The man had been working all day. /δéi had nót bi:n wé:rkiη o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening. 1. escuche y aprenda: The man had worked all day /δ mæn had wé:rkt o:l déi/ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. 5.?) EXERCISES Ex. (rain) What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. 2. /δéid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de 2 horas. They´d played soccer for about two hours. 7.UNIT 15 PART 1. (walk) Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany.

How long. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. 4. It´d been raining hard that afternoon. Bob had been sleeping since 8. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. La Sra. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. They´d been studying the report that evening. The students had been practising Spanish. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. The patient had been feeling better. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. 2. Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y se sentía cansada. 5. Change the following sentence into a) the negative. esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 6. Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. 2. Where. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Mr. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. Ask questions using question words like What. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. and b) the interrogative 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . She´d been reading a magazine. etc. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo. 3.30. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud.

) You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night. but they should ____________________________________________ B.Smith yesterday You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD . 2. She gave the money to John. but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1. 1. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. It was very interesting. He studied engineering in college. pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. 5. You telephoned him at his office. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. He invested his money in real estate. We sent her a fax. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . Compare: I should start to study French now. 12. You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come. 7. We went to Mexico on our vacation. but she should __________________________________________________________ 4. but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. . 9. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano. 4. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. Complete the following in your own words. A.) 2. 11.OUGHT TO Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera) tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. He sent the package by regular mail. but I did not. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa. as usual. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”). 6. He started to study English last month. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + UN PAST PARTICIPLE . He left the books in Room 10. He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve. He ________________________ (start) a long time ago. Ex. (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. 10. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. 8.PART II. but you came late. but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. but he should _______________________________________________________ 9. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident. I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. expresa un reproche o crítica. 2. It was excellent. but he should _____________________________________________________ 3. 3. (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier.

We prefer not to say anything to him about it. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them. 6.. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. 1.) It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. 1. 2. 5.. 206 When I’m hot and thirsty. I prefer to wait here . Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming. I like chicken ______________________________ beef. It will be better if you come back later. (You’d better come back later. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. 5.. stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER. When I’m hot and thirsty. 4. 7. podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you rest a while. 2. He´d better see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. 3.En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción.. 7. 8.. 7. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. 9.. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction. TO o LIKE. 6. 3. EXERCISES Ex. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb. 10. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if he takes private lessons. I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef. They prefer to speak to him at his home. tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. 8.3 Complete the sentences with THAN. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if she spends more time on her homework. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. What had I better do. I prefer not to go to the party alone. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. When I’m hot and thirsty. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. John prefers to go to the party with Helen.. When I choose a book. 6. BETTER THAN or TO.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math.. 2. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness.. 8. 4. What would you rather drink. 9. Ex. 10. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. She prefers to come back later. 9. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. They prefer not to wait outside. I Prefer to stay at home and watch television. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t mention it to him. 4. A short course in english for adult students . 5. 3. I like rock ‘n roll ______________________________ classical music. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. ________________________________________ Ex. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. 2. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. (I’d rather wait here.

También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. podríamos. (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. 14. My parents would rather work______________________________ retire. Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. 16. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana. podrías. • It´s a nice day. Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. C. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos. 17. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week. There´s a very good film on at the Rex. • John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. • When you go to New York next month. ser capaz de) • Listen. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT. En este caso COULD significa podría. You could have stayed with us. I could hear something (Podía oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. 12. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. It could be Tim. especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia. • I listened. (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . I can hear something. I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara. • The phone´s ringing. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. 15. etc. 11.10. Mr. My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class. 18.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. They enjoy their jobs. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. He could have hurt himself badly. • Jim: If you need money. COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. no se realizaron o no sucedieron. 13. MODAL VERBS (II) 1.

A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. So he didn’t do any of these things. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. We could go to the cinema. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. EXERCISES Ex. 1.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. Ken had to work on Friday evening. 3. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. Sometimes either word is possible. 5. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. Complete the sentences. 1. A: The phone is ringing. 2. Ex. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. 4. Ken was short of money last week. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) When shall I phone Angela? (right now) When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. 3. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. Answer the questions with a suggestion. (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. Use COULD. 8. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. • The trip was cancelled last week. ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. 2. 7. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. It’s so nice here. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. 3. we ______________________________ have dinner now. 6. We ______________________________ watch that’. Ex. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. I ______________________________ eat a horse! If you’re very hungry. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. 4.’ Peter is a keen musician. 1. 1. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano. 2. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). 1. 3. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. ‘I can’t find my bag. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. 4. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 6. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. 4. 5. I’m really hungry. but it ______________________________ be in the car. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 208 A short course in english for adult students . You ______________________________ for it. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. 5.

You ___________________ be looking forward to it. A short course in english for adult students 209 . Tom was in his bedroom. o conclusión. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. debemos usar CAN´T. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it. He must ___________________________ ill. You must be very tired. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. /δei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me. CAN´T.. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. It rained every day during their holiday.(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. You’ve been travelling all day. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV. 1. 3. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. que no puede ser cierto. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. They haven’t lived here very long.5. 2. You ___________________ be very pleased. 6. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. Congratulations on passing your exam. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. She does the same thing every day. He must have been watching the news on TV. 4. You can´t be hungry already. They can´t know many people. Put in MUST or CAN’T. so they ___________________ be short of money. You ___________________ be very tired. es decir. AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. Ted isn’t at work today. 5. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. You. I must _____________________________ it somewhere. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. I’ve lost one of my gloves. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible. 1. so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. They can’t _____________________________many people. MUST HAVE. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. It’s always empty. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchiδη tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:piδη/ EXERCISES Ex. 1. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así.___________________ have walked very fast. She can´t have seen me. You got here very quickly. You’re going on holiday next week. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. I must have been asleep. 4. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine. 7. Ex. MUST. 2. Ted wasn’t at work last week. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV. 8. It’s always full of people. He must _____________________________ ill. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening.

(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot.. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. 7. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more. (she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Don passed the exam without studying for it.) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting.) She might know (Ella podría tal vez saber.. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE. 10. (I/asleep) 1 must have been asleep. It can’t ____________________ Mary. . B: She may have been asleep. (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado. I may not have enough. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. 6. (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. B: He may not have been feeling well.. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door.) what happened. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa. It can’t _____________________________easy for her.(The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. 3. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.. She knew everything about our plans. Jane walked past me without speaking. There is a man walking behind us. 8. He must _____________________________ us. I can’t find my umbrella. (= perhaps she knows what happened ) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. He must _____________________________ out.Somebody must _____________________________ it. Carol knows a lot about films. The jacket you bought is very good quality. She’s still at work at this time. (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Ann was in a very difficult situation. the light was on. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). When I woke up this morning. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t feeling well) 210 A short course in english for adult students 5. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone. Look. (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money.. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ex.. 1.. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 9. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. B: She might not have known about it. 2. (the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

3. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. I wonder where he is. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident. 11. she was too far away. Perhaps she had to go home early. it´s possible.’ ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. Perhaps she is working. 3. 1. Do you think it was an accident? B. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. 8.. 4. They might ________________________ for a bus. B: Yes. be having lunch. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. Perhaps she was working yesterday. 5. I can’t find George anywhere. She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. 6. Use MAY or MIGHT. Perhaps she isn’t working today. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). MIGHT NOT or COULD. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . Perhaps she didn´t see me. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. Perhaps she wants to be alone. He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. 4. 10. 1. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2.’ ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure.’ ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure. B: Well.. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday. He might. 7. 3. She couldn´t have seen me 2. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. 9. I’m looking for Helen.’ ‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. Perhaps Margaret is busy. 1. She might be in her office. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. It might ______________________ her brother. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me.EXERCISES Ex. He might ___________________________________ it already. 1.’ Ex. Perhaps she went home early. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. A: I wonder how the fire started. 2. 1. She might not have seen you. MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). B: I agree. 5. 2. A: Tom loves parties. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. COULDN’T. the police aren´t sure. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. I can’t find my umbrella. B: That´s possible. It might ________________________________________ her brother.

aluvión de agua neblina. eléctica) tornado tromba. bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ scattered shower /skæterd sháuer/ ´ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pætchiz/ ´ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /θánder/ thunderbolt /θánderboult/ thunderstorm /θándersto:rm/ thundery /θánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubasco ocasional chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm. remolino tifón remolino viento con viento 212 A short course in english for adult students .VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /(e wé(er/ El tiempo Atmosférico blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpoar/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ flashflood /flæshflad/ ´ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /lændslaid/ ´ lightning flash /láitniη flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente.

/ Had the students been practicing. 1. The sky was clear and the sun was shining. 4..The patient hadn´t been feeling. than 10. than 15. The students had not been practicing. had . could 8. 5. to 17. 5. 5. 1.? Ex. Ex.. 2. 7. Ex. better than 9..? 6. 6. to have telephoned him at his home 6. 2. 6. can / could 2.... can / could 4. She´d been working on that report since last week / the previous week. Ex. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. What had the boy been watching? 3. could 5. have left them in Room 11. 2.could have gone 3. Ex. had been raining 5. 4. had . 5.been drinking 7. I´d rather stay at home and watch TV. 1. You should not have told l her.. Helen had better begin more time on her English.been doing 6. 2.? 5. 3. We´d rather not say anything to him about it. 3. You could give her a book. They´d rather not wait outside 5. had been studying 4. 2. We´d better send him an e-mail right away. 1. She hadn`t been reading. 9. I ought not to have gone. 8. 11. have studied medicine. Smith been saving money? 4. You should have told. 10. better than 14. have sent her an e-mail. had been watching 2. You should have gone. 1. Ex. We´d better not mention it to him.. to 5. John would rather go to the party with Helen. have given it to Jane 4. can / could 6. They´d rather speak to him at his home. PART II A.? 4.. / Had she been reading. You´d better not work so hard after your illness.. I´d rather drink tea with my meals. I´d rather not go to the party alone. 2. to 12. You ought to have given. than 13. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school when he retired? Ex.? 3. 12.. / Had it been raining.. to 8. I´d rather go to South America on my vacation. Why had Mr. to have invested it in stocks / shares. 10. 1. Ex.. 3. I hadn´t been working. / Had the patient been feeling..1. had been walking 3.. (Possible answers) 2. have gone to Tahiti 10.? 2. 2. could Ex. than 18. 8.. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time. 3. We´d better not stand so close to the curb. You could phone her now . 8.. have sent it by air mail 3. 1. better than 11. 10. can 7. better than 6.. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4.what had they been doing that evening? 2. He´d better go to a doctor at once. 7. It hadn`t been raing. 1.. 4... She´d better spend more time on her homework. 4. 9... He ought to have started. better than C... What had you been doing that morning? 2. . 1. 8. had been flying Ex. It´d been raining all morning .. Bob hadn´t been sleeping. 2.. than 7.. 6. We could go and see him on Friday. She´d rather come back later. We could have fish 3. You´d better rest a while 4..could have gone 5... have sent it by UPS / FedEx B. Ex. 6.. / Had Bob been sleeping. He´d better take private lessons. Brown had been working hard that day and felt very tired.. to 16. could come A short course in english for adult students 213 .. Mrs. 3. 5. could 3.... You should not have given.. 6. They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived. We could hang it in the kitchen. 7. 7.. / Had I been working. 7.. 3. You ought to have telephoned. You should have attended.. 3. 9.. 9...Key to answers UNIT 15 PART I Ex. He ought to have come.. 4. could apply 4.

.The neighbors must have been having a party . C. 6. He may / might have been in the bathroom. might have come if he´d been invited. 3b. be 4. She may / might be watching TV in her room. might not have been invited. must 2. 5. must 5. know 3. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. 2.2. 11. She may / might be working 4. 4b. 3. be 6. 1. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. She must have listened to our conversation. 1. 10. It must have been very expensive 4. 5. be following Ex. 9. can´t 4. 3. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free. must 3. (Possible answers)2. be going 8. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. 6. 5. 6.They must have gone away. I must have left it in the restaurant last night.She can´t have seen me. 2. 3. 2. 10. go 7. Ex. I must have forgotten to turn it off. He may / might not have heard the bell. 2b. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. She may / might have gone out 3a. might have been an accident 214 A short course in english for adult students . must 8. She may / might have had to go home early 8. have left 2. have been 5. Ex. She may / might want to be alone 5. Ex. 1. It may / might be in the car. The driver can´t have seen the red light. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work. b e 3. have taken / stolen 9. 2.She may / might have been working yesterday. 4. C. She may / might have gone home early 7. 2a. She may / might not be working today 11. 4. She may / might not want to see me. She may / might have been ill yesterday . have been 4. 3.Ex. (Possible answers) 1. 4. might have been an accident. 9. have bought Ex. 3. 2. be waiting 5. 8. 4. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. 3. have been 10. Ex. She may / might be busy.must 7. She can´t have understood what I said. 6. 3. can´t 6. can´t Ex.

/bai disémber δe fift:nθ wi wil hav lívd in δis kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre... nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas. we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours. A short course in english for adult students 215 .? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day Tú vienes acá todos los días When you come here tomorrow. When Peter gets home tonight. lea y aprenda : By December 15th. She is free now. we will have gotten our third trophy. /bai δi énd ov δis mánθ δe spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllúpiter/ Hacia fines de este mes. by the end of this month. Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez. yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow.. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h v dán/ ¿Qué habrá hecho Ud..UNIT 16 PART I. When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana). EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro. nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo. ´ If our team wins the next game. Escuche.. etc. I will have had dinner already. lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30. by this time next week. nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter.. /wen wi gét tu δæt táun tumórou wil hav ´ træveld móar δan tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana. Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde. etc. como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche). Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th... Cuando tú vengas acá mañana. Escuche. I have the information now Yo tengo la información ahora When I have the information this afternoon... /if auar tí:m winz δe nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar θerd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal.. la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto. we will have lived in this country five years.. /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæd díner alrédi/ Cuando ´ Peter llegue a casa esta noche. if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana). Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA. Ella está libre ahora When she is free next time.

and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. the weather ________________________ considerably. 5. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. 5. 3. 2. 10. 1. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 4. 2. 2. 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year. (change) If you come at noon tomorrow. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 3. nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. (come . (finish) If he gets here at 6 o´clock. 3. we ________________________ the work. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. they ________________________ and ________________________ . el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro.EXERCISES Ex. the students ________________________ their first course. Antes de las seis de la tarde. 1. 1.go) Ex. 3. 9. 2. you ________________________ from your illness. 6. (learn) By this time next month. I ________________________ all these grammar rules. I will have completed this course in English. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. (leave) By the end of March. 8. 7. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. they________________________ the most important places of interest. (complete) I________________________ in this country two years next October. I will have finished reading this book. Si no tomamos un taxi. When you arrive at midday tomorrow. (be) By tomorrow. 4. (forget) When he becomes a man. (go) If he doesn´t hurry. (visit) 12. 4. (have) By December. (recover) Before they leave New York next Sunday. they ________________________ home. 4. the Johnsons ________________________ already. 5. By two o´clock. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?. a) By the end of this month. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 216 A short course in english for adult students . 3. 5. he ________________________ many things. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire. 2. they ________________________ dinner when he gets there.

do / does. have / has. must.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) A short course in english for adult students 217 . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés. could. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.) He says that his first name is Robert. had. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla: PRINCIPAL VERB PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales. will. De acuerdo con esta regla. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. A.5. Antes de la medianoche. La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. Hacia fines de este curso. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ PART II. might. had to. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. muy pronto Ud. can. would. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob. Si sigue los consejos de su médico. b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO. se habrá recuperado de su operación. did. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. los verbos modales am / is / are. los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. SUBORDINATE VERB Present Future Past Conditional a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE. Escuche. lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were.

aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. I think he will be there by ten o´clock He believes he can do it. I didn’t know what he (is. debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando). 2. 12. 10. 6. He wants to know where she is. 17. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. 15.EXERCISES Ex. He says he is very sorry. 9. Del mismo modo. might) be late. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). 9. Choose the correct form: 1. meant). He thinks he (can. 4. BEFORE (antes que). had been) a soldier. Bob wants to know how many people there are. “will rain”) next Sunday. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). 11. 16. 8. I don’t know what his name (is. He says he has to work. I think Mr Jones may be in his office. 1. is going) away. If it rains (no. AFTER (después que). She said she (does not. 3. She said she (may. u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro. lea y aprenda : If John comes (no. The young man tells us he is married. He asked me where 1 (live. could) do it easily. 10. He hopes he can be there early I think it may rain this evening. “will come” ) tomorrow. Escuche. He said he (has been. 6. She said she (was going. Change to past tense. The girl says she is studying for a test. 2. 14. I told him that I (cannot. was). 13.hard every day I know where she lives. did not) feel well. I didn’t know what the word (means. 18. 19. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. UNTIL (hasta que). The boy says he has seen the movie. 11. they will not go to the beach. I think I can meet you. 20. 4. 218 A short course in english for adult students . The newspaper says it (will. He said he (will. He says he will be here at noon. he will see Mary. would) rain. would) be here. was) trying to do. 8. 5. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF. 12. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. UNLESS (a menos que). The weather man predicts it will rain. 3. 7. lived). 7. I don´t think Bob will like the new job. I don´t know where Mary is. could not) go.

` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week.Escuche. please give him the message. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. no other person. any other thing. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning. Don´t start moving. 9. 10. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go. he will keep it. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office.: 1. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives. too. USE OF “ELSE” Y “OR ELSE”. within ten or fifteen minutes. we will have to leave without him. Escuche. lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. 4. some other thing. 10. lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening. anything. 3. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too. 3. dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. please let me know. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL. Ex. 7. any other person. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening. we will go to the beach. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today. something. 8. AS SOON AS. I will give him your message. 5. A. nobody / no one. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon. Do not leave before I ____________________________:____________________________ (tell) you to go . 6. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. nothing. If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning. 2. anybody / anyone. ANY y NO (somebody / someone. 4 5. 12. 11. they will not wait for him. él vera a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow. 8. They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME. somewhere. 2. anywhere. (Cuando John venga acá esta tarde. 2. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?) A short course in english for adult students 219 . (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue. We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation. nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person. we may go to the beach. WHEN. 7. 9. he will see Mary. 1. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow. BEFORE. etc. he can go with us on the city tour. Please wait here ____________________________ the doctor arrives. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow. 6. You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow.(within a few minutes) I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it PART III. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon. etc. AS LONG AS. WHILE.

If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. We had better hurry. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. If you don’t. You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 6. If you don’t. Mrs. 9. you won’t pass the course. If you don’t. If I don’t. 11. Put the dog outside. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. You must ask some other person about it. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Join the following pairs of sentences. If you don’t. There was no other person in the room at that time. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. we´ll be late. Turn off the radio. If she doesn’t. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 A short course in english for adult students . Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We must hurry. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I must go home right away. you will soon forget it. 4. 3. you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 1. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Smith? 10. my mother will be angry with me. Did they go any other place? 2. she´ll punish you. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5.B. you’ll wake the baby. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. OR ELSE Esta frase se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). Save your money. If we don´t. she may have a nervous breakdown. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. También se puede usar en este caso la palabra otherwise (= de lo contrario) Escuche. No other person helped him with the work. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. If we don’t. Helen must rest more. Can I show you any other thing. EXERCISES Ex. 2. You must do as your mother says. You must study hard. You must practice your English every day. lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. If you don’t. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. we´ll miss the train. I didn’t tell any other person about it. Let’s do some other thing tonight.

Ex. otherwise we´ll be late 2. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(δ axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæmer/ ´ jack /dllæk/ lathe /leiδ/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /mélloriη téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates wé:rkshop/ El Taller serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo llave inglesa saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderiη áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæner/ ´ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldiη tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wrench /réntch/ A short course in english for adult students 221 . Repeat the previous exercise. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. We must hurry. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

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tell 7. 1. before 9. 6. 5. will have come . Ex. 1. as soon as 3. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. 3. otherwise she´ll punish you. Mrs. 3. otherwise you will soon forget it. Save your money. A. The weather man predicted it would rain. will have had 6. 2. Let’s do something else tonight. 9. 6. 10. does . A short course in english for adult students 223 . 1. otherwise my mother will be angry with me. 13. the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. until 4. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon. The boy said he had seen the movie. will have been 8. 7 You must practice your English every day. will have finished 4. 1. 3. 10. 3. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock. as long as 5. can 3. 4. or else you will soon forget it. otherwise we´ll be late. 9. Ex. or else you’ll wake the baby. Smith? 10. telephones 10. Put the dog outside. The young man told us he was married. 1 must go home right away. while 7. until 6. 14. You must do as your mother says. I thought there would be a lot of work to do.16. 2. Before midnight. Nobody else helped him with the work. will have gone 5. 1. had been 9. I thought I could meet you. Helen must rest more. when / as soon as PART III. or else my mother will be angry with me. You must study hard. The girl said she was studying for a test. comes 5. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. meant 5. 15. otherwise we´ll miss the train. Put the dog outside. or else we´ll be late. We must hurry. 17. or else you won’t pass the course. Ex. Did they go anwhere else? 2. (Open answers) Ex. 9. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. will have recovered 11. I thought it might rain this evening. 3. 6. 1. You must ask somebody else about it. will have visited 12. 3. 8. might B. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. Save your money. 4. 11. 2. will have learnt (or learned) 10. will have forgotten 9. He said he had to work.come Ex. 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it. 19. 2. would 2. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. 4. 1. 7. We had better hurry. comes 11. 20. 5. We had better hurry. You must study hard. I knew where she lived. 18. 8.rain 3. is 9. Turn off the radio. does .hard every day. 2. 1. we´ll have processed all the information. 4. I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. was going 7. 10. or else she´ll punish you. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year. lived 4. otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. was 12. Helen must rest more. Before 6 this evening. the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press PART II. 1. 4. 5.9.Key to answers UNIT 16 PART I. will 6. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5. You must do as your mother says. otherwise you won’t pass the course. will have changed 3. go 12. 11.(will have ) gone Ex. 6. when / as soon as 8. otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 1. is 4. I didn´t know where Mary was. Can I show you anything else. He wanted to know where she was. unless 2. 1 1. or else he will bark and wake everyone up. We must hurry. 1 must go home right away. did not 10. 8. Ex. 7 You must practice your English every day. or else we´ll miss the train. Turn off the radio. He said he would be here at noon 2. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. Ex. until 10. He hoped he could be there. very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. I you follow your doctor´s advice. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. or else she may have a nervous breakdown. is 11. 7. 2. 5. 8. There was nobody else in the room at that time. He believed he could do it. will have completed 7. 2. arrives 2. otherwise you’ll wake the baby. 3. likes 8. 1. gets 6. will have left 2. If we don´t take a taxi / cab. could not 8. He said he was very sorry. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. Ex. 12. or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation.

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(Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). She ate the cake this morning. En la voz pasiva.S. He will have fixed the car. He has fixed the car.) (be + p. Change to passive voice: 1.O). They had finished the work by noon.Jackson saw the accident. They fought a big battle here many years ago. Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr. He had fixed the car. Mr. (P.V) (D. 3. 9. 17.V) (D. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal Be más el participio pasado del verbo principal. They will leave the tickets for you. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante. They will bring the boy tomorrow. perfect) EXERCISES Ex. He will fix the car.UNIT 17 PART 1. He fixed the car. The workers will build a new bridge over that river. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. Mr.V) (D. She has just taken the newspaper. (be + p.) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. 13. 12.) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. 1. He will do the work this afternoon. 15. They have found the child at last. THE PASSIVE VOICE Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz activa y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz pasiva. People will forget it in few days. 18. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. 16. Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer).p. 6. The car had been fixed. Smith teaches that class on Friday. The letter was written (by Peter) last year.S. He took the money last Monday evening. Somebody has taken my book. es decir. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración.S. 11.) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river.O). The car will be fixed. The car will have been fixed. (S) (Tr. 5. People speak English all over the world.p. 10. Peter wrote the letter last year.p. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car. The car was fixed. The car has been fixed. 7. 14. 225 .) (doer) (P. She broke the plate on purpose. Mrs. He will deliver the merchandise today.) (be + p. En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb). 2. 4. (S) (Tr. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him). Smith wrote the book last summer. The wind blew the smoke away soon. (P.O). 8.

Longmans _________________________________________ The lecture was attended by many people. 24. 3. 13. The book has been returned by John. 5. 12. 4. Will the work be done by Mr. They will send the book next week. They left the wounded soldiers behind. ___________________________________________________ This book was written by Mr. Scott. Columbus _________________________________________ Our class is taught by Mr. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. The lesson is taught by Mr. 4. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . 12. 15. 9. The book will be published in June. The money has been found. 20. 14. ___________________________________________________ The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ America was discovered in 1492. 14. 2.19. 22. They made this gun by hand. __________________________________________________ He was struck by an automobile. America was discovered in 1492. Thompson. He _______________________________________________ The town will have been captured by Wednesday. The book was written by Mr. The work will be completed tomorrow. He broke his leg in an accident. 15. The book was found by Mary. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. ___________________________________________________ Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. The money was stolen by a thief. My grandfather _____________________________________ The books will be brought by John. 21. 11. 2. The dish was broken by the maid. 9. Change to negative and to question form: 1. Smith. The city was destroyed by bombs. The e-mail was sent this morning. 11. 7. Change to active voice: 1. ___________________________________________________ The book will be published next spring. Mary found the book. 23. 6. 10. Smith. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 8. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. 6. ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ The work had been finished by June. They ______________________________________________ The house was built in 1910. 8. 5. Smith. 3. 13. The work won’t be done by Mr. The work will be done by Mr. The house was struck by lightning. 3. 7. They ______________________________________________ The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). 10. 2. The cries of the child were heard clearly. Smith.

may. America was discovered in 1492. más el pasado participio del verbo principal. Answer these questions: 1.. 6. 11. 7. La voz pasiva en los tiempos continuos. should. A short course in english for adult students 227 . ___________________________________ for about 2 hours. (When) __________________________________________________? The child was finally found in the park.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? The book will be published in June. 12. are. 6. have to Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. (How) __________________________________________________? The work will be completed next month. ________________________________________ in Scotland. By whom was America discovered? In what year was America discovered? When was this book published? Where was this book published? Who was the money stolen by? Where was the child finally found? Who will the dinner be prepared by? By whom are your exercises corrected? Why was the train delayed? Where was the money hidden? When was the news released? When will the work be completed? Where were they married? In what country was Helen born? By whom was the plate broken? Where was the money put? How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus. _____________________________ because of bad weather. (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today. must. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. 10. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. _________________________________________ in the safe. ____________________________________________in 1999. (Where) __________________________________________________? The tree was planted by my father. must. is. _________________________________________ in Chicago. 2. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there La voz pasiva con verbos modales can. etc. (When) __________________________________________________? The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day. Change to question form. (Who. beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: 1. ________________________________________ by the maid. (Active) They must finish this job today. should. _________________________________________by the chef. 9. __________________________________one of the servants. (What time) ______________________________________________? He was injured in an automobile accident. 4. (In what year) __________________________________________________? The money was stolen by one of the servants. 8. 5. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. 13. (Who.. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today. _____________________________ by the end of the month. ___________________________________________ in 1492. 4. have to. 5. 9. 2. were + being). 3. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? The house was built in 1945. 3. 14. 5. was. se debe usar el verbo modal seguido de Be y del pasado participio del verbo principal. _________________________________________ in the park. 7.. (Active) They have to send this report today.Ex. 4. 10. 16. ____________________________________ by our instructor. La voz pasiva de los tiempos presente y pasado continuo se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal Be (am. 17. ____________________________________ in a wooden box.. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. may. a la voz pasiva. 8.When was America discovered?) The house was destroyed by fire.by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. ________________________________________about 10:30. 15.

They may send the fax tomorrow. He wasn’t killed in an accident. They were cleaning the office this morning. He should send this right away. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 228 A short course in english for adult students . The police may hold him for several days. . They are holding the meeting today. 8. John may bring the mail tomorrow. 7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Change to passive voice: 1. John will bring the mail tomorrow. We must lose no time. 8. We have to write these exercises at home. She is typing that letter now. 4. They have put the chairs in the room. 6. 12. We can finish this right away. 7. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They are sending the material today. They are considering that question now. 3. 7. 3. They are examining him now. 6. John is bringing the mail now. We must find him immediately. He sent the e-mail last week. 2. He is finishing the work now. 11. 9. They are sending the merchandise today. Change to passive voice: 1. 12. 2. 7.: 1. The story is being published today. This must be checked twice. He has to do it immediately. John has to bring the mail every day. 9. etc. 9. John brought the mail yesterday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. John has brought the mail every day. 3. They have to deliver the books today. 5. 4. 8. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. Where. 2. He was killed in an accident. They are sending troops there today. 3. We must help him. You can use this room for the lesson. 12. They cannot put those things here. They are transferring him to another class. 6. 9. State each question twice. 11.Ex. By whom. 5. 6. The mail is brought by John every day. How. He cannot finish this today. John brings the mail every day. This can be finished (by us) right away. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. 8. 4. 11. 10. Change to negative and to question form. The material is being sent (by them) today. 10. 10. Change to passive voice : 1. 2. They are defending the city well. They were discussing the question when I went in. We are using this room.

“A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. 10. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ El signo “SE” en español En español.4. “A big battle was fought here”. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. Smith. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The material is being prepared by Mr. 9. no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal. This room can be used for our meetings. lt has to be sent right away. It should be sent immediately. The money has been sent to New York. It has to be done at once. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 5. 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación. Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. This book was published in 1945. 12. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país.Reese. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “English is spoken in this country”. lt can be done three or four times a month. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 10. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 8. 11. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. The class is taught by Mr.

It is considered that English has become a universal language. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. using the word “SE” in each case. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Several different techniques may be applied. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Translate the following sentences into Spanish. most goals had been successfully attained. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. All kinds of computers are repaired here. By the end of the 90’s.8. The data was being processed at that moment. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. A new type of missile has been tested recently. Next time. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. During this week. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 230 A short course in english for adult students .

4. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. WHERE. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975. WHAT TIME.. We expected him to arrive last night. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. 3. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. 6. We expect the bus to stop here. 4. 5. Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week. He ______________________________ (know) her well.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. etc. He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. We expect our lesson to last one hour. They expected the war to be over sooner. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. We expect her to bring the book with her. 2. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. (Passive Voice) 14. (Passive Voice) 13. 10. 1. (They at ten o’clock. They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. Change to negative and to question form. 12. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. 5. They expect the train to arrive at four ‘clock. 3. 3. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. 9. We expect John to come at six o’clock. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975 Ex. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 231 .PART II. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. 11. 8. Se supone que él está aquí ahora. 8. 9. 12. He was supposed to bring the money last night. (Passive Voice) 15. He ______________________________ (be) here now. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. 7. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. 2. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. 3. 6. We expect the parade to begin soon. 11. 7. 10.) 2.: 1. State each question twice. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. They´re supposed to start the work soon. (Passive Voice) Ex. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. 2. once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night.

. He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L.A. The book is supposed to be published in June. 7. 10. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May. 9. 6. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street.4. 8. They´re suppposed to finish the job tomorrow. 5. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 232 A short course in english for adult students .

VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (I) Army /a:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ Ranks /ræηks/ ´ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:dinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræηk/ ´ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango. grado Oficial superior ARMS /á:rmz/armas.) grupo (cab. bomba A short course in english for adult students 233 . pistola Knife /naif/ Sword /só:rd/ espada Dagger /dæger/ ´ Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora Mortar /mó:rtar/ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Hand grenade /hænd granéid/ Flame-thrower /fléim θróuer/ lanzallamas Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ Mine /main/ mina Missile /mízil/ Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/ arma de destrucción masiva Bullet /búlit/ bala Shell /shel/ Bomb /bom/ bomba fusil cuchillo daga mortero granada de mano lanzacohetes misil proyectil. proyectil Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ Propellant /propélant/ propelente o polvora Primer /práimer/ Shrapnel /shræpn l/ ´ metralla o esquirla TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ Armas Tácticas Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ Gun /gan/ cañón.) batallón brigada cuerpo Platoon /plδtú:n/ Company /kámpni/ Battery /bæteri/ ´ Regiment /rédlliment/ División /dividllon/ Army /a:rmi Artillería Telecomunicaciones Ingenieros Sanidad Mecanizado Teniente General Brigadier General Teniente Coronel Capitán Subteniente Cadete Sargento Mayor (Br)) Sargento Segundo Soldado Primero (US) Soldado pelotón compañía batería (art.) regimiento división Ejército vainilla estopin ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ Tiro de munición Bullet /búlit/ bala. BRANCHES /bræntchiz/ramas o servicios ´ Infantry /infantri/ Infantería Artillery /a:rtílori/ Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kævalri/ Caballería Blindada ´ Signal /sígnal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Engineers /endlliníarz/ Transportation /transportéishon/ Transportes Medical /médikal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ material de guerra COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ Oficiales Comisionados Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Major /méidllor/ Mayor Captain /kæptin/ ´ First Lieutenant /f :rst luténant/ Teniente Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Ensign /énsin/ Alférez (en la marina) Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ Suboficiales Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent férst kla:s/ Sargento Primero Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Soldado Primero (Br) Private /práivit/ Recruit /rékrut/ Soldado conscripto TACTICAL UNITS /tæktikal iúnits/ Squad /skwod/ Troop /tru:p/ Squadron /skuódr n/ Battalion /batælion/ ´ Brigade /brigéid/ Corps /ko:r/ Unidades Tácticas pelotón escuadrón (cab.blin.

gatillo Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Tank commander /tæηk komá:nder/ ´ Tracks /træks/ ´ Wheel /wi:l/ plancha de blindaje tubo del cañón comandante del tanque orugas rueda posición sentada posición encuclillas FIRING POSITIONS /fáiariη posillonz/ Posiciones de Disparo Standing /stændiη/ position ´ posición de pie Sitting /sítiη/ position Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Kneeling /ní:liη/ position posición arrodillada 234 A short course in english for adult students . coraje Decisiveness /disáisivnis/ decision Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Echelon of command /éshelon v komænd/ escalón de mando ´ Enthusiasm /enθusiázn/ entusiasmo Initiative /iníshiativ/ iniciativa Justice /dllástis/ justicia Morale /morá:l/ moral Span of control /spæn v kontróul/ ámbito de control ´ Tact /tækt/ ´ tacto. característica Barrel /bærel/ ´ Butt /bat/ Firing mechanism /fáiariη mékanízm/ Follower /fólouer/ Hammer /hæmer/ ´ Muzzle /máz l/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sling /sliη/ Trigger /trigger/ cañón culata mecanismo de disparo cargador martillo trompetilla caja de mecanismos correa disparador.TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæktikal víiklz/ Vehículos Tácticos ´ Tank /tæηk/ tanque Truck /trak/ camion Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ cazabombardero Helicopter /hélicopter/ helicóptero Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Airplane carrier /éarplein kærier/ portaviones ´ Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ Liderazgo Behavior /bihéivior/ conducta Commander /kománder/ comandante Control /kontróul/ control Courage /káridll/ valor. comandante orgullo subalterno rasgo. criterio Willing obedience /wíliη obí:diens/ obediencia espontánea PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rtse v ráifl/ Partes del Fusil Aiming mechanism /éimiη mécanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing pin /fáiariη pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Locking lug /lókiη lag/ asegurador Rear sight /ríar sáit/ alza Sighting mechanism /sáitiη mekanízm/ mecanismo de visada Stock /stok/ caja Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/ guardamonte THE TANK /δ tδk/ El Tanque Armor /á:mor/ Gun /gan/ Gunner /gáner/ Tank driver /tæηk dráiver/ ´ Turret /tárit/ blindaje cañón artilllero conductor del tanque torreta APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Airplane /éarplein/ avión Bomber /bómer/ cazabombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæηk/ tanque de combate ´ Command /komænd/ ´ Confidence /kónfidens/ Cooperation /kouoperéishon/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ Dignity /digniti/ Endurance /endiúarans/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Integrity /intégriti/ Leader /lí:der/ Pride /práid/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Trait /tréit/ mando confianza cooperación cadena de mando confiabilidad dignidad resistencia espíritu de cuerpo integridad líder.

Smith on Friday. 8.America wasn´t discovered in 1492. This should be sent by him right away. 2. Smith last summer. 3. / Has the book been returned by. 5. The mail was brought by John yesterday. It was released at about 10:30 12. It was published in Chicago. It was stolen by one of the servants.Scott wrote this book. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room.. 2.. 4. The work had been finished by them by noon. 7. / Was the book written by. That letter is being typed by her now. She was born in Scotland. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. This gun was made (by them) by hand . Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. 4.. He´s being transferred by them to another class. 13. 15.The lesson isn´t taught by Mr. 10. The city is being defended by them well 11. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. Longmans will publish the book next spring. 12. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow.. 3.? 9.. 6. It was broken by the maid. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9... / Will the book be published in..The money hasn´t been found. 10. His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. Those things cannot be put by them here. 6. 2.. Ex. Where was the child finally found? 5. 4. They´re corrected by our instructor. 15.. 2. 11. He´s being examined by them now. 11. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid. 18.? 6. 8.? 14. / Had the money been stolen by. 1. 8. 6 Many people attended the lecture. 10.. 5. That question is being considered by them now. The meeting is being held by them today. 9. Mr.. The book wasn´t written by Mr. / Was the telegram delivered. 3. 1. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7.. Smith teaches our class.. He was finally found in the park.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys. 16. When will the book be published? 7. The tickets will be left for you by them. 4. John will bring the books. He was held for about two hours. It will be completed by the end of the month.? 11.. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus. 6. English is spoken (by people) all over the world. The book will be sent by them next week. / Was America discovered in. 14.. / Has the money been found? 13. My book has been taken by somebody. Troops are being sent (by them) there today. 11. The mail has been brought by John every day. 2. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6. This room can be used by you for the lesson. 12. 10..? 15.The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly. Ex.The house wasn´t struck by lightning. 24. 7. 2.. 17. 19. Ex. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow. 8. 14. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. 3. 8. No time must be lost by us. Ex. The work is being finished by him now. He had finished the work by June. A thief stole the money. How was the house destroyed? 3. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs..? 3. 11. The book was written by Mr. 12. He may be held by the police for several days. / Was the city destroyed by. It will be prepared by the chef. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. 7. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6./ Will the work be completed. It was hidden in a wooden box.In what year was the house built? 10. He must be helped by us . 22. 7. The mail is being brought by John now. The work won´t be completed tomorrow.. It was published in 1999. 13. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 13.? 10. The office was being cleaned by them this morning. Smith.The book hasn´t been returned by John. 16. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). 6. 9.? 4. My grandfather built the house in 1910. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. 4. The enemy has destroyed the city. 7. 2. These exercises have to be written by us at home. / Was the dish broken by. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon.? 12. Mr. Ex. 6. The work will be done by him this afternoon. It has to be done by him immediately. 9. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. Ex. 3.. This cannot be finished by him today. 2. 10. / Was the house struck by. 12. 5. Thompson. An automobile struck him 9.. 21.Key to answers UNIT 17 PART I. It was discovered in 1492.? Ex..(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8. When will the work be completed? 4. The accident was seen by Mrs. 20. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. That class is taught by Mr. / Was it discovered by. 17.The book won´t be published in June.. 5. 2. 8. Columbus discovered America in 1492. 14. 23. 9.? 8. 4. 3. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. 5./ Is the lesson taught by. 5. Jackson. The plate was broken by her on purpose. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. The child has been found by them at last 15. It was put in the safe. They were married in Valparaiso. This room is being used by us.The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago.? 5. A short course in english for adult students 235 .

The train is supposed to arrive at.. The books have to be delivered by them today. 5. / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow. 5. 3. 3.. / Was he supposed to bring it. 7. This mustn´t be checked twice. La próxima vez. 10... 6. Hacia fines del la década de los 90. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. 2. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used. He must be found by us immediately. 10. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores. 2. 9.. se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas.. All the invitations were sent by air mail. 8. The weather is supposed to be hot. The parade is supposed to begin. he was supposed to arrive. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr. 11. The money hasn´t been sent to NY. is supposed to know 12. is supposed to come 3. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. He is supposed to leave for. 2. This room can´t be used for our meetings. 12. He wasn´t supposed to bring it. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a week / How often can it be done? 5. / Is he supposed to be living. 7... is supposed to have been sent 14. 3. 4.. 1. The King isn´t supposed to visit. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years...... 3. It can´t be done three or four times a month. Public transport services should be improved in this city. were supposed to deliver 4. 1.. 9. 7.... 10. Ex. It doesn´t have to be sent right away. / Are we supposed to meet them. several important projects have been carried out. Reese.? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8.. The class isn´t taught by Mr..? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente.. was supposed to be 11. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. She is supposed to bring the. New methods are being developed to control inflation. 5. It shouldn´t be sent immediately. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10... / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11.. He isn´t supposed to be living.. / Was he supposed to telephone. 4. Our lesson is supposed to finish at. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr. 9. 4. Ex.. / Must it be checked twice? / How many times must it be checked? 4. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6. We aren´t supposed to meet them. 2. 1. During that year. This book has been translated into several languages. The chairs have to be put by them in the room.. Our lesson is supposed to last. / Is the material being prepared by Mr.. The bank is supposed to open at. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9. 11. / Is the King supposed to visit. They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system.? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. 6. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6. 6....Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. 8. 10. Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes.. 2. 8.7.? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9.... Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur. 2.. was supposed to send 5.? / When are they supposed to finish? 5.? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA? 236 A short course in english for adult students . se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad PART II. is supposed to be 8.. It doesn´t have to be done at once. is supposed to call 9. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. Ex.. 12. The war was supposed to be over. 8.. They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. The e-mail was sent by him last week. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10. is supposed to be sent 13. is supposed to be 7. Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación.. 2. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3. Ex. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. The mail has to be brought by John every day. This book wasn´t published in 1945. The bus is supposed to stop. 10.. 9. are supposed to be put Ex.11. is supposed to be 6. He wasn´t supposed to telephone. The merchandise is being sent by them today. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información. is supposed to meet 10. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. 9...

you will see him. you will be able to see everything. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN.. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales. (Si él viene mañana. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas. (Si te sientas aquí.. cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa. you´ll have an accident. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here.UNIT 18 PART I. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. (Si veo a Juan en la fiesta. tú lo habrías visto) I. 4.). If he comes tomorrow. tú lo verías más seguido también) c.. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. you will see him.. tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 .. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often. listen and repeat these examples: If the weather is good tomorrow.. lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. you would see him more often.. (Si él viene mañana. (Si él viniera acá más seguido.. tú lo verás. (Si él viene mañana. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer. (Si no estudias duro. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. (Si Diana no sale de inmediato. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3. b. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a. iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party.. You will see him if he comes tomorrow. no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once. El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read.. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. too.) 2. she´ll miss her train. introducida por la palabra IF. you would have seen him. you will see him. (Si. we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana. I´ll give him your message.) . If he comes tomorrow. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. you will not get a good mark. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo.

If I ________________________(be) in your position. etc. AFTER (después que). he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student. If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. he would help us. listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). Del mismo modo. If John were here now he would help us. “If Mary will come”). es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. 7. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. Read. John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. 3.1.) 2. she would study more. como tomorrow. 4. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. Si Mary supiera nadar. he could go with her to the party. él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes.. we would go for a walk. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex. (Si John estuviera aquí. (Si yo fuera millonario. etc. cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro. next Monday morning. 12. 5. lf John ________________________ (be) here now. she will see the Prince. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). UNLESS (a menos que). 11. we could study better. (lf Mary had more time. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. he would be a better student. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. BEFORE (antes que). she would speak English better. If he ________________________ (know) her better. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time. I would buy that suit.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. 8. ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim. she would go to the beach more often. lf I ________________________ (have) the money. 9. so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim. 6. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. she would study more. he will tell us what happened. If Mary comes tomorrow (No. UNTIL (hasta que). I would study French. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). I will give her your message. WHILE (mientras). this evening. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando). verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura. 10. (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II. so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo. lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. 238 A short course in english for adult students .

3. ___________________________________________________ She has very little money. ___________________________________________________ He doesn’t like to study English... I will go to the movie. ___________________________________________________ Ex.. He would speak better if. we will not go. 5. lf he were here... but if. If I were you. If he is here. we will speak better.. ___________________________________________________ William never comes to class on time. 10.. 4. ___________________________________________________ 3....Ex. 4.... ___________________________________________________ 12. but if. If today were a holiday. If he were stronger .. If I knew her well. ___________________________________________________ 8. 12. but if.. would be very happy. he will go. 5. John does not study hard but if. 10. 11. 3. I will read more books. 9.. but if. 2 . 6. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly.. ___________________________________________________ 5.. If l were in Florida now. he ________________________ (be) a better student.. If he came to class regularly. 3. but if. ___________________________________________________ I can’t speak French. Complete the following: 1. but if.. I. he ________________________ (feel) better. lf I knew her. we ______________________________ (go) to the beach. If he studies hard. If I have more time ... If we have more practice. If he has time. ___________________________________________________ I don’t speak English well. If I were free tomorrow.. but if.. If he comes. ___________________________________________________ Ex. lf I am free tomorrow. If he prepares his lessons.. I will go to the beach... lf I don’t have to work. he will make good progress. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1... ___________________________________________________ Mary isn’t here now. 9. he________________________ (learn) more. lf they try hard. (If he had time. he. 7. 8. 8. they will succeed.. 7.... I. 2.. but if. ___________________________________________________ 7. If he goes to the party. he. he will meet her. he ________________________ (help) us. lf John prepared his lessons every night. If he came to class on time. we.. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan.. ___________________________________________________ He has very little free time. ___________________________________________________ I am not in Florida now.) Mary does not prepare her lessons. If today were a holiday. 4. 9. lf he had more money.. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1.. 5. 6. ___________________________________________________ He has very few friends. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice. he will pass. ___________________________________________________ 9. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex. ___________________________________________________ 6... __________________________________________________ 10. he. 11. If he had more time.) 2. 3. (If he were here. ___________________________________________________ 11. 2. If I could speak French.. She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more. he would go) 2. 5. but if. If he studied more. but if. he can help us. he will see her. ___________________________________________________ He has very little practice in speaking. 11. 4. If he went to bed earlier. he. ___________________________________________________ 4. he ___________________________ (work) harder. 6. If the weather is cold. he. 8.. I. 12. I.. If he came to class more often.. he would help us. but if. lf John were here. 7. (John does not study hard. I ________________________ (speak) to her. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 .. 10.. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1.

where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.) If the weather (is.. (lf I were in your position. If I were you. 7. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 13. 3. 5. He would go to the theater more often if he (have. 7. would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. If you studied harder. knew) my number. he would have passed his examination. knew) how to swim. I will go to the movie. we may drive to the country. 15. Choose the correct form: 1. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. If he (can.. If he (knows. 12.. (Si John hubiera estudiado más. would) walk to school. If you had an automobile. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students . (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico. I am sure he would. they would have called you up. If I (had.. Mary will talk with him. If I (was. I would. will be) nice tomorrow. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. He would speak better if. If I (know.. Mary would go with us if. habría aprobado su examen).. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.. had) the time. Mary told me that she (can. could) help us. we... Ex. If today were Sunday. John said he (will. he could telephone me. I would go swimming every day. If John had studied hard. If today were Sunday. Answer these questions: 1. I (will. I would study French. If you knew English perfectly. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number. 9. 8. If today were a holiday.. how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 2. have) time tomorrow. When John (comes. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. If you could visit any country in the world. could) not come. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. If you had much money. might) be late. 11. He said he (may. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. would) be here soon. were) in your position.12. 6. will come) here tomorrow. 4. 14. 10. We would go for a walk in the park if. 6.

but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 2. este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. I didn’t know his name. I would have called on you. 9. He didn’t tell me about it. he he would have succeeded. 8.En situaciones formales o literarias. I didn’t have a car last winter. (He would have come to the party if he about it). Ex. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. I wasn’t in his position. 4. 8. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 4. 3. 6. I wasn’t in Florida last winter. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. John didn’t prepare his lessons. 1. I would have been glad to go. If I________________________ (be) in your place. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. 2. Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. I would have told him. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. Had he known that you were ill. 6. EXERCISES Ex. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . If he had not worn his overcoat. 10. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. She didn’t come on time. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. he would have come to see you . Ex. 5. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If he had studied more. 10. 2. 9. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If you ________________________ (call) me. we would have gone to the beach. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. 7. but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. She didn’t wear her raincoat. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 5. he ________________________(catch ) cold. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. I would not have been so angry. I didn’t have your telephone number. they would have gone to the park. but if. 3. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. If I________________________(have) your address. (succeed) . he would not have caught cold. He couldn’t speak English at the time. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 3. 7. 2.

I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. she would have spoken to him. I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . If he came. he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. If he is here. she would speak to him. _____________________________________________________________________________ b.Ex. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. If the weather is nice. If he has time. he will go with us a. a. If he had telephoned me. I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. If he goes there. If I had known about it. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If you had asked me. If I see her. If he has the money. she will speak to him. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. b. If he were here. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. If I am free next week. If he had come. If I can do it. he would take part in the game 2. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. 5. 2. If I were you. If John is present. 4. If he works harder. If he comes. If it rains. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. they will go to the beach a. I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6.

9. had had) a great shock. Ex.9. I (will. 10. I (could go. 13. were) sick. had known) this yesterday.If today (was. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 . I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. had been) a holiday. will go) too. had eaten) a large dinner. 16. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. If you hadn´t had to study last night. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. were) you. If I had been invited.I think he (would come. were) in his position. we may not go away. 6. If the weather were nice. would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. had been) here. were) the manager of the place. 7.) 2.Call me if he (comes. has been. If it (rains. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. (lf I were you. If I (knew. If yesterday had been a holiday.He will not go unless she (goes. I would not accept the work. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. could have gone) if they had asked me. 6. If the weather had been nice. 5. If you had known it was going to rain. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. If England had been better prepared for war. If I (was.If I (would be. Answer these questions: 1. I would have acted differently. 11. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. He acted as if he (had. will rain) tomorrow. 15. we could have gone to the beach. I would certainly do it. will come) before noon. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Choose the correct form: 1. 4. If you had had last week off. John looks as though he (was. 14. he would have taken part in the discussion. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If he (was. we could go to the beach. were) a holiday. 7.If yesterday (was. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.I feel as if I (ate. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. If I had more time. 3. 12. I would certainly do it. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 8. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. He acted as if he (was. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If you had studied harder. would have come) if we had asked him.

6.) I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim. I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. 2. 1. Mary is not here now. John wishes she were here now.”... I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now. Complete the following sentences: 1. 5. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad. The weather isn’t nice today but I wish 7.. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. A. I wish I weren´t so busy. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura. 7. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish 6.”.I can’t speak English well but I wish 244 A short course in english for adult students ( I had one. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish 5. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday. I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off. 10. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá. o “Me habría gustado.. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now. este siempre debe ir seguido por el modo subjuntivo. 11. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex.PART II. I am not a millionaire but I wish 8. 9. I have no car but I wish 2. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas. John won’t do it for us but I wish 9. I wish I knew how to swim.. Mary isn’t here but I wish 10. I cannot swim but I wish 3. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now. 8. I wish I had seen her. I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . es decir.I have to work this afternoon but I wish 11. S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional Ex. I´d certainly invite her to the party. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon.” I don´t know how to swim. 12. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night. al igual que en las oraciones condicionales. 3. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish 4. I wish it would stop raining soon. 4. I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better. It´s been raining hard for about five hours. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD. “Me gustaría. 2.. (I wish John were here now.

10.. 10.. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday. I suggested that you should see the manager today.. She asked that we should be there before midday. I´m sorry it is raining so hard. A short course in english for adult students 245 .. It is imperative that they ______________________________ (be) there on time. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday... I’m sorry that I don’t know her better. I’m sorry he does not speak English well.. TO DEMAND. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. TO REQUIRE. “It is necessary that. 3. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli. He proposed that John ______________________________ (be) chairman.”. 4. I´m sorry John is not here with us. En el Presente del Subjuntivo. 1.”. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como. 9. 3. 6. “It´s essential hat.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex. He recommended that she ________________________ go) with him. I recommended that you ______________________________ (come) back later. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. “It´s imperative that.”. 2. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara. 2. I’m sorry that you can’t swim. 8.) En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas. Smith ______________________________ (take) a long vacation. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater. It´s advisable that you be there before midday. I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach. TO SUGGEST.) I suggested that you see the manager today.. 7. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: 1. 5. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are. 3. 9. 4. They insisted that we ______________________________ (visit) them again. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. 7. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ (be) finished today? He insisted that she ______________________________ (go) on with the work. (I wish he spoke English well.. (He recommended that she go with him.) He suggested that John______________________________(wait) a few minutes.12. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night. The doctor suggested that Mr. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular. TO ASK. VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO Los verbos TO RECOMMEND. “It´s advisable that. EXERCISES Ex. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1.. 5. 8. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach.”. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B.. 6. etc. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater... He asked that it______________________________ (be) done right away.

Which would you prefer to study in the future. 5 Answer these questions: 1. I asked John to wait for me. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. I ______________________________ (telephone) you. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. 11. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Which would you prefer. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. had seen) that movie. 10. He said he already (saw. 9. 3. He (is living. comes) soon. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. 4. 2. 14.Ex. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. would be) in Florida now. would be) in Florida now. has been living) here many years. 4. 8. 2. Which would you prefer. 2. I suggested that John wait for me. please let me know. 3. John said he (will. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry). he would spend it at the beach. 12. I asked her to come back later. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. 11. I wish I (were. 7. 3. I ______________________________ (do) it. Choose the correct form: 1. 9. Ex. 9. Which would you prefer to be. He recommended that I (am. If I (were. 13. The owner of the store asked me to call back later. 5. If you come too early. I wish I (went. had gone) with you to the party last night. He asked me to lend him the money. may be sleeping). If John were here. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). 10. he would have spent it at the beach. comes) back later. to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 246 A short course in english for adult students . John sat between Mary and (I. have seen) John yesterday. to be sent) tomorrow. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. 4. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 12. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? Were I you. The merchandise is supposed (to send. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: 1. 7. 7. Had I known your number. He asked me to be there on time.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Which would you prefer. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. I would go swimming. be) there early. German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 5. John always (sits. would) be here tomorrow. He suggested that John (come. Ex. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish. 4. 3. 2. it (would be) (be) much easier for us. If he felt better. 8. I (saw. We asked them to go with us in our car. If he had been well. 6. Had I had more time. 5. John asked me to take a walk with him. I (may sleep. 8. 10. If he had felt better. 6. is sitting) at this desk. If he (will come. me). 6.

6. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 . Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.

bajas maniobras Mercenary /mersenæri/ ´ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æktchn/ ´ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:piη fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva acción preventiva prisionero incursión comando retaguardia posición de retagurdia reconocimiento refuerzo ayuda. retreta revista revuelta revuelta saludo tirador escogido escaramuza matanza espía estrategia lucha rendición vigilancia táctica tregua no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero repliegue /priémptiv æktchn/ ´ Preventive action /privéntiv æktchn/ ´ Prisoner /prízoner/ Raid /reid/ Ranger /réindller/ Rear /ríar/ Rear position /ríar posíshon/ Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ Relief /rilí:f/ Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ Reservist /rése:rvist/ Reveille /revæli //réveli/ ´ Retreat /ritrí:t/ Review /riviú:/ Revolt /rivólt/ Riot /ráiot/ Salute /saliút/ Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ Skirmish /sk :rmish/ Slaughter /sló:ter/ Spy /spái/ Strategy /strætedlli/ ´ Struggle /strægl/ ´ Surrender /sarénder/ Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ Tactics /tæktiks/ ´ Truce /tru:s/ Unmanned /anmænd/ ´ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wiθdróal/ 248 A short course in english for adult students . cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza. asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha.carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /δi á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atækiη iunit/ ´ Barrack /bærak/ ´ Battle /bætl/ ´ Battlefield /bætlfí:ld/ ´ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kællualti/ ´ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæplin/ ´ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæsh/ ´ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komændou/ ´ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /defénsiv æktchn/ ´ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditætchment/ ´ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæηk/ ´ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gærison/ ´ Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuórterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíliη/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca. combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas. auxilio equipo de rescate reservista toque de diana recogida.

asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar. pelear disparar rendirse invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wiθdró:/ To inspect /inspékt/ matar guiar. estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar. ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse inspeccionar A short course in english for adult students 249 .Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æmbush/ ´ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæk/ ´ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæptcher/ ´ To carry out /kæri áut/ ´ To command /komænd/ ´ To conquer /kónker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To invade /invéid/ llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar.

Bl 250 .

would invite her out to dinner.. he had told me.. would go 12. he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better. would have caught 3. were 3.. had 11. 10.. 3. If I didn´t have to work.she had the day off / free. had been Ex.... 8.. 9..I had had it. If he prepared his lessons. I´d have given her the message. 4.. 5. he ´d have gotten a better job. 3. had known 7. have 9.. would have gone 10. would have told 9. If the weather were cold.it were not so cold. had 5. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer). / If he had had time.. 4. / If 1 had been free yesterday. had worn 6.he had more practice in conversation. would speak 3. 4. 3. I´d go to. 11.. if he studied hard. 5.she had wore it. had been 8. had been 4.would visit Epcot Center 7.she had more money.he had been there. 7.I had had one.. 1 would do it gladly.. he would go with us. 6.he had more free time. knew 8.. Yes.. could 7. had 11.I were there now I would visiting Orlando. we would not go. 8. 3.. would speak 6.. If we had much practice.. would go to the beach..If the weather were nice.. would take 9... 8. (Suggested answers) 1. 6. 2.. he came to class on time he´d be a better student. 2.I could speak it. 9.. If he were here. If he had time. would have come 6. / I´d go to... 2. 5. I´d buy. he would have gone with us. would have written 8.I had been there. you would have seen him. they would succeed. had called 5.he liked to do it.. (Possible answers). 11. I´d speak a lot better .he´d be a better student. 2. 6... If I saw her. 3... 2. / If I´d been able to do it.. 1. I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean. could 6. Ex. If 1 could do it. comes 10... Yes. would make 5.. of course. If he were here. 8. he might have helped us. 15. 14. I´d be planning a trip to France. would be 7. 2.... I´d getter better marks. had had 3. I had known it. had Ex. 5.. might 12. we would speak better. 6. he´d speak it better. If I were free tomorrow...would buy a modern car.I had been in his position. 2 . 7. 2.he had spoken it..could go on a picnic.. 9..... they would have gone to the beach.. I´d drive to. 6. If they tried hard.. would visit Ex. 10.. 11. 7. 11. would have been 5. he studied harder 3.. 4. 3. 10. 13. I´d beging to study. C) Ex. would learn 4... I´d have called you up.. I would call you up. were 12.. If he came. I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss.would do more things every day. / If the weather had been nice. I would have included it in the list of guests 7.she were here I would be talking with her now. had gone 9..Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex. 7. I´d give her the message. had told 10.. (Possible answers) 2.. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime ..... Ex. / If I´d seen her..would plan a trip to France..I spoke it well. he´d make good progress. 4.. were 7.. would feel 8. would 5. he would meet her. 9. 4... 12. I´d go to the movie. 8.. he might he1p us.. would learn faster 4. knew 4. he would play tennis more often.. He´d certainly speak better. Ex. (Possible answers) 2. I´d go to the beach...... were 9.. 2. 6. 2. If he went. would have helped 4. 6. were 8. 2. I´d read more books. 12. she would have taken part in the competition... 7... Ex. she had come on time.. knew Ex.he´d learn more. he would see her. she´d be able to travel abroad more often. would 4. were 6.. I would have called you up. I´d have acted differently. first. And I´d. he´d enjoy living here. 5. prepared 10. they would go to the beach. 12. would have driven Ex. would work 11.. Oh yes. If A short course in english for adult students 251 . I´d go to.. she wouldn´t have caught cold. I´d would visit. If 1 were free now. 4.. / If he´d been here... he would pass 5. 3. 10. I ´d have done it gladly.. would have been 7. she prepared her lessons she´d learn more. 5.. she had come.. is 3. 1.. 12. would go 10.he had more friends. he could help us.. 9.. 8. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera.. If I had more time..

the meeting would be good. were 7.. 6. rains 6.would have attended the conference. 9. be 5. I wish it weren´t raining so hard.. had been 12.. You´d be very wrong if you said that. 2. Yes. knew Ex. 7. would go out for a walk 14. I would have certainly helped him. were 9. I would have gone to. 11. would have phoned you 3. 12.. would have come Ex. it had been a holiday 6. would have gone out for a walk 15. wait 3. 7. would watch TV every day 11. would 8. the meeting would have been good. had known it started today. I were 8. had known 9.. had the day off .had been invited 4.. of course. 7. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3... I wouln´t have gone. of course. Ex. 5. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach.we had asked him to help us. 16. 3. take Ex. Yes. 9. I had studied 4. were 10... 5. I´d prefer to be in good health. she were. . sits Ex. No. If he´d worked harder. I hate the rain / Yes. 3. 10. You´d be wrong if you said that. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money. I´d be very sorry to hear that. 10.. would have I´d have told him you were here. I would have gone.. 12. I´d prefer to travel to Europe. 1. 2. Yes. he would be promoted.. 10. I would have gone all the same. 1. he would have let us know. of course.. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him.. 9.. he wouldn´t have gone. had known 5. 3. of course. I think. of course / No. would have come 8. I wish I knew her better 7. 6..were 4. (Suggested answers) 1. 7. 9.. were 14.. were 5. I could swim 3. (Possible answers) 1. / ... 13. 8. would have helped you 6. of course. of course. I wish he had gone with us last night.. 2.. were 3. had hurried 6. would have telephoned 3. I´d have gone to. Of course he would have gone. he might go with us / If he´d had the money.. 4. 5. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly. 5. 11. I love the rain. were 11. had studied 4. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. goes 15. he will let us know. 7. Ex. 2. You´d be right or wrong.. come 6. My English is not very good. would begin 5. If he´d gone there. visit 7. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. may be sleeping 11. had had 12. 6. he might have gone with us. I would have gotten a better mark. Yes. (Suggested answers) 2. 252 A short course in english for adult students . I could speak it . If John were present. 2. comes 8. I like riding horses. 2. 8. / . 9. had been 12.. I´d have gone to a concert instead. to be sent 10. 2. had gone 6. 12. It depends. If it had rained. were 2. would buy a Japanese car. 3.had gone out in the cold yesterday evening. I wish today were a holiday. I´d be sorry to hear that. go 10. 3. were 11. 1.. 5. If he had the money.. 4. saw 13. PART II A) Ex. I´d be very sorry to hear that. would 10... I was too busy at that moment. 12. 2. had had 4.. 11. they would stay at home. of course. be 4. / If John had been present... had already seen 14. she were here. 5. He hates sports. I didn´t have to work. comes 13. 8. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. 4. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful... it were a holiday. could 3. had been 8. would 7. 6. I´d prefer to own a horse. of course. would have gone 10. would have done 7. 2. had gone 3. 4. it would have been the same 8. 4.. had 11. has been living 12. 2. I´d prefer to be rich. I wish John were here with us. I wouldn´t have helped him.. 2 . Ex.. me 9. 5. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home. they would have stayed at home.wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air. 1. 10. be 8. would go 9. I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. come 5. it were nice 7. 10. If it rained. I´d be pleased to hear that. could Ex. He suggested that I be / should be there on time. / . Ex.. 6. be 9. / No. were 6.. 10. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. he would do it 9. He loves sports / No. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies.. he had worked harder during the term. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. 5. 8. could have gone 7. he would have been promoted. had eaten 16.. If he worked harder. be 4.he went there..

Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16. “I like these books” He said that liked those books.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo. “I´m working very hard. He said. “I will work hard all day. John said. He said.” He said that it might rain again. “I´m busy at this moment. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said.” He said that he had worked very hard. “I can use a computer. Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 . “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us). pidió o advirtió hacer.” He said that he had worked very hard. nos preguntó o nos ordenó. “I worked very hard. He said. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona. He said. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto.” He said that he was busy at that moment He said. He said. “I´m very busy. He said. “I like New York.” He said that he could use a computer. “I have worked very hard. “I always work hard. “I must do the job well. “I was busy yesterday. “I´m busy now.” He said that he had to do that again. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones. “It may rain again. He said.” He said that he always worked hard. He said. He said.” He said that he was busy then. He said.” He said that he had to do the job well. o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés). lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés).” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. (Indirect Speech) I. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativoss. dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont.” ➙ He said that he was working very hard.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy. “I have to do that again. He said.” He said that he would work hard all day.” He said that he had been busy the day before. “I´m busy today.

“Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. REQUERIMIENTOS.” He said that she was very busy that night. se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. 254 John said. 9. 7. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class EXERCISES Ex. Bob said. Cuando se desea expresar una orden. Bob asked his friends. no se debe mantener la estructura negativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura afirmativa (S+(VM)+VP John asked me.” Mary said to me. Change from direct to indirect form: 1. advertencia.” He said.” Mr. He said.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . II. “I´m very busy tonight.” He said.” He said.Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night The following day There Last night The night before / The previous night He said. un requerimiento. “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night. se debe usar la siguiente estructura: Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb asked told warned requested ordered Object Pro (Noun). “I cannot go with you tonight.” He said that he was very happy there. “I have to work tonight. 10. Smith said. 4. ETC. “I don’t know her well.” A short course in english for adult students (John said that he had to work tonight. He said. 2.” He said. 3.” Mr. III.” Mary said to me. He said. “John is a very sick man. Smith said. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES. me you him / her us them the boy the boys To/not To + Infinitive. 5. “We may have an exam. 6. ‘’I will be back later. “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today. “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. The teacher asked the students.” He said that he would be busy the following day. “I like New York. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto. “We will finish this tomorrow. “I have no money. según vimos en la Unidad 8. 1. Bob asked me. “l have known him a long time. 8. “I hope she comes soon.” Bob told us that he liked New York. “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. “I´m very happy here. ADVERTENCIAS. Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación. etc.” The doctor said. en el discurso indirecto. “I´ll be busy tomorrow.

) 2. Don’t waste so much time. “Don’t forget what I told you. “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3. She said.. .” ___________________________________________________ 4. 5. Go to the whiteboard. I asked John. I asked him. He said to me. Answer the following questions in indirect form. 3.Mr Smith asked us. 10. John said to me. “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13. 6. Prepare your lessons more carefully.” ___________________________________________________ 6. He said to me. . “Don’t make the same mistake again. The teacher said to us. He asked me. I asked her. ) (I don’t know where John is. “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4. He warned the child. 8. Smith. Where´s John? (I don’t know. 4.11.” ___________________________________________________ 9. “Where does John live?” (Mary asked where John lived. 4. The teacher asked. “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5. “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7. “Don’t write in pencil. He asked me. Take your feet off the desk. -) How much does it cost? (He wants to know . “I am going away tomorrow. ) Is he in the building? (She wants to know. Mary asked.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 255 . “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15. 11. 4. I asked him...) Where does she live? (Can you tell me.. “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. Helen said to me. He said to me. Change from direct to indirect form: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 1.. Sit up straíght.” __________________________________________________ 10. 2. ‘’Please send me the money at once. ‘’Please don’t be late.” Ex.” ___________________________________________________ Ex.) Where is she going? (She didn’t say. She said to him.” ___________________________________________________ S. “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9. He begged me. “Don’t cross the road. Do your exercíses in ink. Sit in the first row. “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11. Come back later. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: 1. “Sit down for a few minutes.He asked me. “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12.” 12. 12. 6.. “Be more careful. I asked her. “Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3. Sit down and read the story. Wait outside in the hall. He asked me. He said to me. 5. 9.. He asked me. John said. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: 1. 3. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. “He is supposed to be here now. 2. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper. “Wait five minutes for me.” (John told me to wait five minutes for him. “Try to come on time. “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10. “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. 7. “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8.) 2..” ___________________________________________________ 5. 5..? Is he a good student? (I´m not sure. Give this message to Mrs. He said to me.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2.” ___________________________________________________ 3. Change to indirect form: 1. He asked me.” ___________________________________________________ 7. (The teacher told me to sit in the first row.

. Choose the correct form: 1. 8.. said to me) that he was busy. He said he was busy.. 4. 2. 8. He asked me where I lived. “I am busy. 7.. 12. 6. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 256 A short course in english for adult students . 3. it is)..) ___________________________________________________ Where does he live? (Ask him. 2.. I asked her whether she (is. is it)? He said he (will. I´m not sure whether (he is. 10.. lived). He told her to leave the room. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 5. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. She said her maiden name had been Jones. He asked how much it cost. 11.. 7.) How is he getting along? (Mrs. (He said. 9. was). Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 5. 7.. I don’t know whether (I can. 11. was) married. He said that he could not meet us. 9. 11. Smith here? (I’d like to know. ) ___________________________________________________ Is Mr. . He told me not to wait for him. I asked him what the word (means. She said she was going out of town.. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. 4. He didn’t say where he (is.7. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 15. 8. Jones wanted to know..”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex... He (told me.) _________________________________________________ Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me. .) ___________________________________________________ How tall is he? (I don’t know. 6. 13. 6.. Answer these questions: 1. 10. 12. He asked me where I (live. He said he would be back soon. I’d like to know where (is it. Change from indirect to direct form: 1. would) come here soon. could) meet us easily. 14. She said her last name was Smith.. 3. He said he (can. He asked me what time it (is. How is he getting along? (She wants to know . 8. ) ___________________________________________________ Is he very tall? (I really don’t know.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (He asked me where I lived. 10. Can you tell me what time (it is. can I) do it. 12.) ___________________________________________________ When will he get back? (I´d like to find out. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 9. He asked her whether she liked New York. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. meant). was) going.) ___________________________________________________ Where is he now? (Can you tell me. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. is he) here now.

lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. el pasado participio. localizar mirar A short course in english for adult students 257 . watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchiη/ working /wé:rkiη/ loving /láviη/ playing /pléiη/ studying /stádiiη/ fitting /fitiη/ stopping /stopiη/ guiding /gáidiη/ repeating /ripí:tiη/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir NOTAS: 1. responder llegar preguntar. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante. gustar terminar odiar. Escuche. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/. -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/. y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year. Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares. /wí: hav wé:rkt há. Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ Spanish contestar. -te. pedir transportar. mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. el gerundio. decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/. no gustar ayudar esperar.BASIC VOCABULARY Verbos principales: Verbos Regulares e Irregulares Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: el infinitivo. 2. -d. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. Verbos regulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. /wí:r wé:rkiη ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /δéi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t.rd δis íar/ We are working hard now. /δéi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now. /δéi spóuk íηglish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. 3. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar. /δéir spí:kiη íηglish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). el pasado. (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora) A. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. o cons+cons+vocal+cons.

conocer aprender. mirar desear trabajar. extraviar hacer. mantener saber. gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar.enterarse partir. haber oir guardar. utilizar visitar esperar. pedir fumar comenzar. funcionar B. esforzarse usar. Verbos irregulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ 258 Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Spanish empezar.To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ amar. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. dejar prestar perder.conocer A short course in english for adult students . servirse. arreglar repetir solicitar. salir. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. atender caminar querer lavar observar. fabricar reunirse. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. encontrar olvidar conseguir. partir quedarse.

administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar.pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. creer entender.To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ To put /put/ put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ To see /si:/ saw /so:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ sang /sæη/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stænd ap/ stood /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ To teach /ti:tch/ taught /to:t/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /θiηk/ thought /θo:t/ To understand /anderstænd/ understood /anderstú:d/ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn pagar poner. llevar enseñar decir. desgastar escribir A short course in english for adult students 259 . narrar pensar. comprender vestir. colocar leer correr.

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He warned the child not to cross the road. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch. (Possible Answers) . Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. 7. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. He said. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. 3. 10. He said. 2. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. 10. 4. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. 1. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 12. He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow. 3. 12. 2. 2. Smith. She didn´t say where she was going . He wants to know how much it costs. 12. He said (that) he had no money. I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. 2. She said. He asked me to try to come on time. was Ex. 7. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. 8. Mr. 6.” 8.” Ex. 4.” 9. 5. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. A short course in english for adult students 261 . He asked. 7. I asked him when he had read that book. it is 10. 5. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper. 11. 15. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. “My maiden name was Jones. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. He told me to write a short story in English. 8. Mr. John asked whether / if it was raining. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. 8. Because there was too much traffic at that time. He asked me. He said to me. “How much does it cost?” 10. Can you tell me where he is now? 11. 8. could 11. 3. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. was 7. 4. 2. meant 8. He asked me what the word meant. 5. 10. “ 11. 5. 4. 3. 9. 9. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. I can 3. Mrs. 10. Mr. “Do you like New York?” 4. He said he´d seen it. He told me not to forget what he had told me. I asked John what time it was. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. 7. Ex. 7.” 5. 14. 7. “Don´t wait for me. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. She wants to know how he is getting along. 7. . The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. 5. 2. 2. 7. Smith is here. 9. would 5. was 9. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. 6. I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. 8. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. “I´ll be back soon. “Where do you live?” 3. He said (that) he had known him a long time. He asked her. He told me not to make the same mistake again. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. 12. Ex. 1. 2. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. 5. 13. Ex. 11. I don´t know how tall he is. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. 2. “I´m going out of town. 9. The teacher told me to come back later. told me 6. 13. 3. 5. it is 4. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. She said. He politely asked me not to be late. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. He asked me. I asked her whether / if John was here. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . Ex. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. 9. 6. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. Smith said (that) we might have an examination.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. “Leave the room. “I can´t meet you . He asked me to meet him outside the station. 6. he is 12. He begged me to send him the money at once. 8. 6. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink. 3. I told him to be more careful. Ask him where he lives.She said. I asked her where it was. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. 4. 4. 14. 3. Ex. “Did you mail the letter?” 12. 6. “My last name´s Smith 6. 15. He asked me how I was today. He said to her. 6. 8.

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But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a. mi nombre es./ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræηk /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt.? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago... Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente. My name is.. Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórniη/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vniη/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: δis i:vniη/ /θækiu:/ /θækiu: véri mátch/ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel θæηkiu/ /aim fáin θæηks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz. Permítame presentarme. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor.? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students 263 . At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well. francés/alemán/italiano? No. I don´t....? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor. ... un/a.? ¿Tiene Ud..../ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor. thank you I´m fine..? ¿De dónde es Ud... aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud. Este es el o la Sr../ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz.... Me gustaría presentarle al Sr..... My name is..../ /δis iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor..UNIT 20 USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A. No entiendo francés Es Ud./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr...Chile ¿Vive ud. ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud./ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéiiη æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está UD hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado. Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército.. Please let me introduce myself. hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud. bat ai spí:k spænish and íηglish/ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstænd fréntch/ /a:r iu mærid o:r síngl/ ´ /hav iu gót a... Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr.. thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do.. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento. Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian/ No. Mi nombre es.? Vengo de Stgo.... casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud.

No concuerdo con Ud. I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now. I think so Yes. Sí. ¿Puedo entrar? Por favor. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. No lo creo así. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wiδ pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:tiη iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn δe wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts δe déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu háηgri/ /a:r iu θé:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæpi/ ´ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r róη/ /ai agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt θiηk sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai θiηk sóu/ /ies δæts ráit/ /δæts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai δæt/ /wót daz δis wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts δe mí:niη ov δis wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí.What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud.? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta.. please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora. entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down. Ud. por favor. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí. su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud. creo que sí Sí. Concuerdo con Ud. please Don´t open the window.. por favor No abra la ventana. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud. I don´t mind. razón. por supuesto No. está equivocado. come in and sit down Wait a moment. of course/certainly/sure No.? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . Así lo espero.

.. etc.etc.....)? Would 5.(fumo. ¿Qué (hace. etc. Siéntese aquí (venga.etc.(smoke.. address. etc.)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6. etc...)? ¿Querría Ud.etc. etc) . por favor.(ayudarme. ¿Cuál es su. ¿Le molesta a UD si yo. Do you mind if I. Could you.)? were you 2. spell it? (..etc.)? 7.. go there ( speak.Remember: 1. por favor. Sit here. Can May I..(doing. 8..(sentarme aquí.(help me..... What´s your. ¿Podría Ud..)UD? did 3.. ¿Qué está estará (hizo. 5. Let´s sit here...)? UD? 4.).) please..).....( haciendo.....)? Recuerde: 1.. etc .)? Can Will 6..(name....... Don´t..etc)? 9. ¿Puedo yo....etc) (hará. help you....) A short course in english for adult students 265 .(nombre dirección. No vaya allá (hable......)? estaba 2. Shall I.. etc. etc. What are you will you be . go. etc.. please.. etc)? 9. What do you. ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo. etc..(come here.(do.... (sit here. (. Sentémosnos aquí (vamos. etc) 3. ) 7. etc.)? will 4. etc. 8.)..

B... 266 A short course in english for adult students ..tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz δe réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz δe bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz δer e télifoun in δe lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /δérz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai θiηk/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/driηk/órder δis/ /iz δer a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust δí:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r δe lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik δe líft/elevéitor tu δe ténθ fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación. Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor.. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis.. My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check.. Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú. I want to check out at. please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish. por favor. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi. Is there a barber´s shop here.m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación¡ ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español. please? There´s an error in my bill/check. a mi habitación. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from δe houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spánish plí:z/ /iz δer e suímiη pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in δe houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæksi plí:z/ ´ /iz δer e máni ekstchéindll in δe houtél/ /kud iu bríη e. por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un. to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key.. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta. por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed. At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo. por favor. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto..oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik δe sé:rvis/δe fu:d/δe rú. please I need to make an international call to Chile. me parece. por favor. por favor? ¿Donde está el restaurant? Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza. please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas.. I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this. Yo no cené aquí anoche. despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las.. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik δis sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz δér e kólor tí: ví: in δe rú:m/ /δe séntral hí:tiη/éar kondíshoner íznt wé: rkiη wél/ /mai béd háznt bí:n méid iet/ /ai ní:d anáδer blæηkit/ /kud iu tchéindll δe táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts δe vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæptor for mai eléktrik ´ shéiver/ /iz δear a kóin operéitid wóshiη mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv δi:z klóuδz wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæshonal kó:l tu ´ tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and δe kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha.. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido..

? 3. etc)? 3.. (telephones..etc..) please? Recuerde: 1...(bar... bar.. etc... Where is the. ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 .(make a phone call. bar. ¿Hay un. baños.....(bar. ) 2.... Could you.(hacer una llamada.) I would like to.etc.etc.) en el hotel? 4..(servirme otro café. etc. toilets..(ascensor. etc.. Quiero.etc.)? ¿Dónde están los .) in the hotel? 4.. / teléfonos.(lift..(despertarme a las 7. etc) Desearía.Remember: 1.etc.( have another coffee.)? Where are the. etc...(wake me up at 7:30.) 2. Is there a... ¿Podría Ud.etc. I want to....... ¿Dónde está el.

papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio.)? How would you like your. por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne.)? ¿Qué desearía Ud. regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta. etc) 268 A short course in english for adult students .. Fue muy buena en verdad...etc) Desearía servirme. ¿Qué quiere Ud. Remember: 1. Thank you very much.)? I´d like to order. (tea. mí: dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv for dizért/ ´ /aid láik tu ó. por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo.)? ¿Me podría traer. etc..s mi δe só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæv e glá:s of souda wóter/ ´ /wud iu láik sámθiη tu dríηk wáin. etc) ¿Puedo servirme.? Could you get me. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch. (pollo con arroz..etc. un sandwich. please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup. .. etc. (drink. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak. It was very good indeed. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores. por favor? Realmente disfrute la comida.. etc.)... please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine. etc. (más tea. almendras saladas o maní. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check. cerveza o una gaseosa? Podría servirme una cerveza de barril... Hasta luego. por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda. salted almonds or peanuts. etc. How do you want your.)? What would you like to. etc. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad.. a sandwich. At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area. bíar or e sóft dríηk/ /kan ai hæv e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ ´ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar. ¿Desearía algo para beber? Vino.)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife. Could you pass me the salt. ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? Whisky. (eat. ) /ai ní:d e téibl for θrí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz δer e téibl in δe non smóukiη éaria níar δe wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rviη lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæsh/ ´ /kan iu: tchárdll δis íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at δe méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæv e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:s ´ sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wiη/ /ai θiηk ail hæv tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ ´ /wót wil iu hæv tu fólou/ ´ /ail hæv rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e ´ míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi anáδer náif δis wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá. beer or a soft drink? Can I havea draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare. etc. Muchísimas gracias.. ¿Podría pasarme la sal.etc)? 2. La quiere a punto.. Good bye. What do you want to.. You can keep the change.. cherry. (otro whisky.. etc)? 3. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo.. Can I have..)? 3. (comer. (la cuenta. please? I really enjoyed the meal. (beber. I want to have. (chicken and rice. (some more tea.. (steak. etc..) I´d like to have. (the bill. Puede conservar el vuelto.. amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta... por favor. etc). (another whisky. (a beer. etc. etc. etc)? Desearía pedir.rder e frú:t sælad ´ /kud ai hæv sam kófi:/ ´ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu bríη mi δe bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid δe mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /θæηkiu véri match/iu kan kí:p δe tchéidll/ ´ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té. Recuerde: 1. (una cerveza.. Quiero servirme. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty.)? 2.C.. cognac. medium or well-done? I want it well done please.

pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES. DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kábidll/ Carrot /kárrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS. bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drésiη/ Fruit /frú:t/ hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta. menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto. plaice /sóul. TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students .cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Paan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /hériη/ King-crab /kiη kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ sole.Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check. bill /tchek.

casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /éiprikot //éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blæberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tcóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /rázberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students .Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náaif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular.

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblkloθ/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæv e mæp ov lándon/ /ai wónt tu góu tu δe kaθídrl. por favor? Perdón. Necesita tomar el tren. Yo también soy forastero aquí. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . please? Excuse me. Kan iu shóu mi δe wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz δe póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél me wéar δe bæηk iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar δe stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi δe wéi tu δe pá: rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu δe miu:zíam/ /luk at δe mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid δe stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu δe brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at δe réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k alóη δis strí:t as fá:r as δe træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at δe nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun δe strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik δe θé:rd té:rniη on δe ráit and δén wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv aloη δis róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/δen té:rn ráit and iul sí: δe táuer at δi énd ov δe róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréidller híar maisélf/á:sk e plísman/ /ikskiu:s mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu δe næ´shional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz δi éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik δe tréin/ /ikskiú:s mi dáz δis bás go tu δe stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu δi óksford houtél in pá:rk strí: t/ /ikskiu:s mi wéarz δe níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz δer e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/δéarz wan in bridll strí:t. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. outside the station. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me. Camine por esta calle. It´s not very far. there´s one in Bridge Street. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map.. We are here. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road. Where´s the post office. Do you know where the station is. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. take me to the Oxford Hotel. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks. Excuse me. por favor? Perdón. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. please? Could you tell me where the bank is. Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. I´m a stranger here myself. opposite the cinema. frente al cine. please? Excuse me. No sé. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. por favor? Perdón. Excuse me. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí. Perdón. can you tell me the way to the park. Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento. hasta el semáforo. ¿Podría indicarme el camino. in Park Street. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. please? Excuse me. en la Calle Park Perdón. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles. Ask a policeman. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters.por favor? Perdón. ¿Sabe Ud. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. óposit δe sínema/ /wót táim du δe bæηks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt rániη/ /wót taim du δe shóps klóuz/ /dáz δe supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud. dónde está la estación. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. Sorry I don´t know. You need to take the train. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos.D.

....? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la. /péivment/ vereda(Br) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (Br) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1. Hay un / una...por favor? ¿Dónde esta la. Where is the nearest. open / close? What time does the..? 2.... Which bus do I need to take to go to the. ¿Cómo llego a. ¿A qué distancia está el / la..open / close? 6.. near here? Building /bíldiη/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (Br) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ resturant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre Centro comercial Shopping mall Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamente Book store /buk stó:r/ librería book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /θíater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1..por favor? 3.? 5... please?... How far is the.más cercana..... por favor? 4.. What time do the. please? Can you tell me where the. please? 3.? 2. How do I get to..... I need to buy a / some...is.? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a..? 6.? 5.. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement.cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 .. Could you tell me the way to... from here? 7. ¿Dónde está la.. Necesito comprar un / algunos. please? 4. ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las... ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a.s. is..por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la.Useful vocabulary (vocabulario util) City... Where is the.....de aquí? 7.... ¿Sabe UD dónde está la.. Do you know where the.? Is there a... Could you show the way to..

/plí:z riméin sí:tid antil δe pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido.E. please? What´s your last name. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. Can you spell it please? ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? /háu mátch is δe bás tíkit tu δe zú:/ ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? Is it a direct journey /flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey /flight take? /háu lóη daz δe dllérni /fláit téik/ ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? What time does the train /plane leave? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin lí:v/ ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? What time does the train /plane /get there? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin get δéar/ ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu loη daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? /du δei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? Can I have a seat by the window? /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai δe wíndou/ ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in δe non smóukiη éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases /δí:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Estas son mis malaetas Please carry my suitcases with care /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wiδ kéar/ Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado I will carry this handbag myself. /ai wil kæri δis hændbæg maisélf/ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano Where is the luggage /baggage claim? /wéar iz δe lágidll /bægidll kléim/ ´ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? I have nothing to declare /ai hæv náθiη tu dikléar/ No tengo nada para declarar How many bottles can I take with me? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wiδ mí:/ ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? /iz δer e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? Where is the bar? /restaurant? /wéarz δe bá:r /restorant/ ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? Are we landing /arriving soon? /á:r wi lændiη /aráiviη sú:n/ ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes. Fasten your seat belt. /wi a:r lændiη /aráiviη in e fiu: minits/ Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos pocos minutos. bæk ov io:r sí:t in δi apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo 274 A short course in english for adult students . doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. At the station / airport (en la estacion / aeropuerto) /kan ai hav ior pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a ritérn tíkit tu lión/ Can I have your passport. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. Please put your cigarette out now. fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld δe téibl and put δe Ajuste su cinturón.

Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? /ai láik δis /δæt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik δí:z /δóuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: δem/ /kan ai trái δem ón // /háu mátch á:r δei /háu mátch du δei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ Can I pay with American money /US dollars /kan ai péi wiδ amérikan máni /iú: és dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r. /plí:z kí:p δis risí:t /wí wil sénd δi áitmz tu δe pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz δis wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r δouz glávz/ Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano /dólares? No me gusta el color. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud. Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. guarde este recibo. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik δe kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 .? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sámθiη/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of léδer /plástik /wu:l /kóton /góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt. Shopping (de compras) I like this /that watch /jacket. We´ll send the items to the plane.F. ¿Tiene Ud. ¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor.

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Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A.Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio.READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2.50. 5.UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1. compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas. que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador). Preguntas 1 .Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos. El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas... 3. usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma)..LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B. 4.. Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 .Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita). antes de comenzar la prueba....Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas.

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A. 14. A. B.15. 3. 9. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. 15. everywhere that day. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. knew her new address. wants open the door now. D. had stolen. won’t be able to see it well. B. C. “What expensive it is!” C. B. anywhere that day. “How expensive watch is it!” D. D. A. A. give him your message. were having dinner that evening. am going to give him your message D. A. C. C. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. a little bored. 7. deberá consignarla. had better go by taxi. oirá oraciones incompletas. B. who Peter sent Mary last week. had been stolen. give your message to him 2. is trying to open the door now. En cada caso Ud. can see a doctor today. too difficult for him. he always works hard. B. C. 5. might see a doctor today. Ud. know her new address. have been having dinner that evening. so much difficult for him. o D. he often works hard. 6. D. C. A. C. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . would rather go by taxi. are better to go by taxi. he seldom works hard. B. A. C. somewhere that day. C. D. can be there now. would know her new address. may see a doctor today. won’t can see it well. too late right now. won’t be possible to see it well A. D. are having dinner that evening. he works hard as a rule. 13. had to be there very quickly. was been stolen. B. will give to him your message C. 12. B. a few difficult for him. A. C. had dinner that evening. A. D. C. should to go by taxi. C. should know her new address. will be there on time. was stealing. A. 11. D. very ill now. B. A. C. A. too much difficult for him. 4. A. B. which Peter sent Mary last week. C. B. were there earlier. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. A. D. deberá elegir la alternativa A. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. B. D. whose Peter sent Mary last week. 10. Ud. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. C. won’t be allowed to see it well. nowhere that day.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. ought to see a doctor today. D. “How expensive it is!” B. opens the door now. B. have just opened the door. D. D. quite busy at the moment. B. D. A short course in english for adult students 279 . No escriba en este cuadernillo 1.

Didn’t make a decision. D. 20. C. 21. B. She’ll go and see them. D. He was working at home all day. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. They went somewhere else together. C. A polite person. C. 280 . B. B. Later in the day. She’ll show them a map. A. A. A. They go there when they have time. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. D. A. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. D. He was resting all day. D. C. D. Didn’t forget. He stayed in the garden all morning. They are 12 years old. There were too many people there. 16. He remembered he had a friend. No escriba en este cuadernillo. A. 24. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. He wanted to save money. C. They go there when they want to have fun. B. C. 27. They decided to go home early. They attended a meeting at the club. On his way to the office. C. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. B. 28. He hates to be at home during the day. 0 D. B. Because they like the rain. 31 A. He must order someone to do the job. He’d better stay at home all day today. D. A kind person. He came to live in this house very recently. No escriba en este cuadernillo. B. 29. He’ s only seen her once or twice. D. B. Away from the office. D. He wanted to take a walk. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. They are a different age. C. que la conteste en mejor forma. B. He was away almost all day. Didn’t care much. o D. 26. A. A sociable person. 17. They go there only when the weather’s fine. C. D. 18. deberá elegir la alternativa A. He didn’t like hotels very much. Ud. C. Ud. 25. She’ll ring them up. A. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. 22. B. 30. D. The weather was awful. Después de cada oración U¡. A. C. 23. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. B. He has to decide what to do soon. The buses were crowded at that time C. C. He hasn’t told us much about her. He doesn’t see her so often. They are 10 years altogether. C. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. A. Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. They go there from time to time. He wanted to get home more safely. Because it’s a busy little town. B. C. C. She’ll call the roll. He preferred to go home by taxi. A short course in english for adult students 32. B. At once. B. He would miss his family. He hasn’t studied her well. C. He must finish the job sometime. A. 19. D. A. A. B. He doesn’t feel like going out today. Didn’t remember. He was away all day long. en cada caso. Because they like shopping. B. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. oirá oraciones completas y. They had dinner at the restaurant. C. C.30.He had no time to travel. D. A. He has to work in the evenings too D. A. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. A dull person. It was a very crowded place. They are a little younger. He lived in this house until recently. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. B. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. B. A. D. B. D. A.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . D.

D. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. 36. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. B. He could not help at the reception. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. Mary telephoned him after she got there. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. She did everything following the instructions. A. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. A. Escuche atentamente. He should have gone to the reception. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold. It wasn’t warm enough inside. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. A. D. 35. D. B. C. B. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. C. Robert called to give them a new order. B. B. Because he was glad to see her again B. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. B. C. She wanted to buy an air ticket. D. A. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. deberá elegir la alternativa A. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. They used to have two cars in those days. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time. A. She did everything correctly. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain. D. 43. B. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country. D. C. so they ate quickly and left the place. C. B. No escriba en este cuadernillo. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. D. A. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. At an expensive hotel near Paris. C. A. El examinador leerá una historia. B. At a summer house they had in the south of France. 38. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. C. Robert telephoned them in a given order. 281 . Because they´d been friends for many years. A. 37. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. D. 41. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. 40. That area never appears on the maps. They worked in a garage in those days. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. A short course in english for adult students 42. C. 34. 39. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta.. C. C. D. D. En cada caso.. She did everything as carefully as possible. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. A. She did everything immediately.33. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. C. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. o D. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. B. D. A. Because she told him about her husband´s death. They have used that car for a long time. C. A.

To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. Because she didn´t like package tours very much. as usual. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. 48. D. To visit some friends in Portugal. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. 49. D. D. To spend her summer holidays abroad. A. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people. C. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. A. THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students . They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. D. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. C. C. A. 50. A. D. C. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. Mrs Green´s husband passed away. B. 47. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. C. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. To a particular holiday place in India. B. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. D. 45. B. B. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. C. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. A. D.44. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. B. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. C. 46. B. A. B. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. A. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. Because India was an amazing country. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal.

most good 54. Have . they were having D. there had been B. A.B.your friends 60. but he remembered that he _________ go and see a A short course in english for adult students 283 . there were C.been drunk 52.drunk A. What a lot of D. during . I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place.the high B.drink D. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months. A. A. What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A. How many times – theirs C. before leaving B.the most highest D. never. _____________ books you´ve brought with you. Will . You are getting too fat. elija la alternativa A. C.the highest C. Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80. How much time . hard enough D. before you’re leaving D. Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie. No escriba en este cuadernillo. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. before to leave 58. Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A. A. Jim. should to C. too good B. hardest B.your family B. consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. B. What a few B How interesting C. for . She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination. enseguida. Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning. satisfactory 53. John. must to B. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco. Have . José? No. in order to leaving C. o D. How much 56. would rather D. How long . better D. since . Mary seems to be a very responsible person. it was 55.. How often . But I know it’s a very strong liquor.them D. Do – drank B. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside. so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. C. along . too many C. 51.the higher 57. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A. ought to 59. I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. valuable C. A.

Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment.will be producing 63.can see her . A. A.will never be 64. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A. was going to take .. the accident _____________. as B. neither D. was sleeping – still C.doesn’t have to be D. A. he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. had taken – must B. A. which . The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday. so to C. talk 69. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A. for the year 66. I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected.will produce C. are decreased .friend who was in hospital.are producing . He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall. don´t talk D.mustn´t be C. not heavy enough 68.am going to see her 65. very heavy B. A. Consequently. both nor and 67. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A. a year D. too much heavy C. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. could be prevented D. slept – also B. John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them.An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write. are decreasing B. who . too heavy D. have been prevented . had been taking – should D.have talked C. would take . in a year B. I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon. by the year C.was allowed 61.see her C. whose .never was able to be B. give the letter to her . Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep. have been decreasing .had to C.will see her B. has slept – already D. for to B. had been sleeping – yet 62.are talking B. give to her the letter . has decreased D. A. A. whom . A. must have prevented B. could have been prevented 284 A short course in english for adult students C. so that D. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years. give the letter her D. give her the letter .produce . in order to 70. either as or C.

already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car. otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . don’t you contradict D. enough B. are flying C. at once C. had to C. all the same D.should be . He may get angry and reprimand you. can B. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. ___________ him. I think. so I sent him an email __________ A. don’t contradict C. right now D. He needed the answer urgently. Sir. why was sleeping the old man D. For the time being. do contradict 75. was playing B. will be flying D. I would have visited some other places too. would rather 79. yet . too much everywhere somewhere C. what time was it exactly 72.Tom. at all B. were allowed to use D. would have had C. where did the people go B. what the young man was doing C. did D. would better B. used to play D. A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A. A. are using C. You _________ do it right now. I didn’t have___________ extra money. still B. had played C.will be C. suddenly 76. have used B. except to the places which were listed in the brochure. A. have been flying 73. If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. A. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______. we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa. some nowhere anywhere 78. they _________ the old computer. are going to fly B. When I was your age. Miss Jones? A. any D.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. seldom use 77. It __________ here in a few minutes A.71. If I had had some extra money. went 74. At this time tomorrow. so I could go ___________ else. A. A. you don’t contradict B. I ____________ football almost every afternoon. do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . 80. had better D. A.

How frequent 86. hates reading C. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. It’s too cold.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 . A. didn’t want to C. ought to stay D. begins D. but Bill didn’t also. dislikes to read 83. wasn’t allowed to B. No escriba en este cuadernillo. A. B. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. D. got afraid of D. obtains C. C. The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. A. A. somewhere else C. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. need to remain 85. from a distant place. refused to 88. was too young C. A. I think the children would rather stay at home today. and neither did Bill. What time C. wasn’t very old D. became accustomed to 82. A. 89. D. How often D. would like to stay 84. fills C. A. very often B. A. and so did Bill. Elija la alternativa A. and Bill didn’t. 91. and Bill didn’t either. completely alone D. punctually 90. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. B. becomes B. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. got tired of B.95. without anything to eat. 81. A. prefers to read B. There wasn’t anyone else in the house. was too very young 87. o D. quietly and secretly. too. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. was much too old B. simply couldn’t D. B. doesn’t enjoy reading D. at once C. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. C. How long B. in the right way B. so he walked home. almost D. have to be B. became sick of C. John didn’t come to class today. simply . que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. A.

Carol. It’s on the table. They saw a program on television. so you should not have any trouble. C. only a few times 95. of course. que estime Ud. a young girl of seventeen. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter.What time do you think they will get there? A. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. be in that town B. “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you. 93. from time to time B. but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. because the weather’s good there. C. and the television could just be heard. o D. D. I won’t be able to attend the reception. “He’s wide awake. He is too old and is losing his memory. leave the city C. B. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. Please cross out my name. “She’s still in the living-room. report 94. with some exaggeration D. A short course in english for adult students 287 . If the boy wakes up. No escriba en este cuadernillo.” Mrs Soames said. He´ll go back to sleep at once. C. leave out D.” “He was looking at the television. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. at present. B.” Mrs Soames said. es la más adecuada en cada caso. What did the Soames do that evening? A. Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter. They had some trouble with their baby. B. “Make yourself comfortable. You can. They went to visit some friends. C. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. 98. Anyway. He’s told me the same thing over and over. 97. D. A. Because the boy was a newly born baby. he’s four years old. Because the boy was not in good health. D. Before she left.92. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A. underline B. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. obtain a room C. A. many times. consider C. A. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. B. get a place D. The girl had never done baby sitting before. She’s fast asleep!” 96. because it’s a nice city. and Mrs Soames was a little worried. Because the boy was going with them as well. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry. listen to the radio or watch television. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. B.” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected A light was still on in the living-room. actually C. D. Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105.

C. 288 A. fast D. left (line 10) C. cotton E.neck B. It wasn´t very late. 111. No escriba en este Cuadernillo 106. B. o E. clever C. looking at B. C. worse A. D. What is the best synonym for “expected”’. D.99. C.butter B. 101. 114. hour A short course in english for adult students . however (line 3) 103.? (line 8) A. D. along E. month C. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. throw C. tie D. 113. C. 110. by no means B. weak B. obviously D. looking for D. cousin A. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. 105. They were both in the living-room. slowly B. among B. (término excluido). B. He will fall asleep again. meat C. ought D. It was only a few minutes past eleven. 102. behind A. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? (line 6) A. B. Don´t worry about anything. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. It was almost midnight. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A. across D. 107 108. Be careful with the neighbours. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 4) A. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. sight C. quickly A. mine A. careful C. promised D. 109. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. his C. Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. C.deep B. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. He will feel sleepy. He will go to his bed. wide D. faster D.would B. their E. shirt A. well E. B. 100. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A. should E. her D. century E. 115. What is the meaning of “holding” A. juice D. It was just before eleven. planned. 104. decided B. waking up C. of course. glove E. sun E. aunt C. B. day D. sock C. 112. D. cheaper B. narrow A. happier E. could A. age C. rice A. carrying Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. perhaps C. He will go to his bedroom again. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella.niece B. nephew D. high E.our B. D.

made A. barber D. nose B. tired D. forgot D. shut E.customer B. arm D. 119. brought C. 117. real C. come THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A short course in english for adult students 289 . often B. sometimes D. tailor C.116. bought B. seldom A. always E. shoulder A. A. elbow C. put E. broke C. seen B. 120. butcher E. 118. belt E. grocer A.

Bl 290 .

69. 7. 19. 24. 23. 53. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 2. 8. 46. 38. 27. 22. 29. 17. 12. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 5. 39. 70. 47. 11. 45. 4. 48. 18. 57. 35. 10. 9. 58. LISTENING PART 1. 41. 30. 49. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 6. 59. 63 64. 25. 16. 28. 34. 66. 20. 36. 52. 68. 3. 32. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 291 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas) Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ % A. 21. 40. 43. 37. 55. 44. 62. 54. 33. 65. 42. 14. 31. 60. 56. 15. 67. 13. 50.

109. 95. 106. 114. 119. 85. 89. 86. 84. 79. 110. 74. 101. 103. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 120. 92. 77. 76. 104. 100. 115. 82. 75. 81. 90. 91. 108. 88. 118. 97. 80. 105. 117. 112. 99. 83. 78. 107. 98. 73. 113. 72. 87. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 292 A short course in english for adult students . 94. 102. 116. 93. 111.71.

9. 13.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23. Jack. Question: What did they A short course in english for adult students 293 . marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. If you take a taxi. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time.John was going to work in the garden that morning. 14. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John. so he left the job for the following weekend. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses. B. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. Ud. 16. deberá consignarla.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment. Ud. que la conteste en mejor forma. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well. En cada caso Ud. No escriba en este cuadernillo. 6.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning. 12. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom. so she will have to call them again this afternoon. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20.Jack and Tom are the same age. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. you are going to get there late if you go by bus.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. 8. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning. o D. but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. 15. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19.Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. B. 0 D. 10. deberá elegir la alternativa A.30. but Bill is two years younger. 5. He is only ten at present. 7.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . Question: What did John do that morning? 25. oirá oraciones incompletas. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27. 4. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 11. C. 3. C. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport. you really don’t look well this morning. Después de cada oración Ud.15. John.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. Ud. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. They went to the club instead. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. 2. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day. Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch.

do after all of them had arrived? 28.They had a good time there because, although the weather was not fine, they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. Ud. oirá oraciones completas y, en cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 31. He’d rather stay at home all day today. 32. He got used to living in this house after a few months. 33. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. 34. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. 35. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself. 36. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant. 37. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news. 38. It hardly ever snows in that region. 39. They used to repair cars in those days. 40. She did everything right away. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. El examinador leerá una historia. Escuche atentamente. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. En cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta, deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. “A holiday abroad? Yes, of course, Mrs Green. I’m sure we can arrange something for you.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. He knew her well. At one time, years before, she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. In those days, he booked a family hotel for them. Then they started to take their holidays in France - and he got them their boat tickets. Later, when their children grew up, they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. But then, the previous autumn, Mr Green died. “Well, no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green,” he thought. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was, only a few months after her husband’s death, back in his office asking about holidays abroad. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. “How about Portugal, for instance? A nice, friendly place, with good weather... “ Mrs Green shook her head. “As a matter of fact,” she said, “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment, the travel agent was surprised, but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. However, at her age...” “India …” he said. “Well, yes. I’m sure we can fix up something for you.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. “How about a two-week tour, for example? Complete with air ticket, hotels, meals and guides. You’ll see the really important places - and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you,” said Mrs Green. “That’s exactly what 1 don’t want.” The travel agent looked puzzled. “Look,” Mrs Green went on. “I’ve got a guidebook of India here.” She waved it at him. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train. There are plenty of cheap hotels - and food is cheap too. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45. What happened a few months ago? 46. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do? 47. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. Why didn’t Mrs. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST
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A short course in english for adult students

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. LISTENING PART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

B. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D
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A short course in english for adult students

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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A short course in english for adult students

APENDICE 1 CHART 1. BASIC VERB TENSES
PRESENT SIMPLE
(S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE)

I write (= I do write) a letter every day
(Yo escribo una carta todos los días;)

Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day.
(Mary escribe una carta todos los días)

CONTINUOUS
(S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

I am writing a letter now.
(Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora)

PERFECT
(S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I have written several letters today.
(Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING)

I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning
(Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana)

PAST

SIMPLE
(S + DID + INFINITIVE )

I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday.
(Yo escribí una carta ayer)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WAS / WERE + ING)

I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening .
(Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening.
(Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAD BEEN + ING)

I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening
(Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

FUTURE

SIMPLE
A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow
(Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana)

b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow.
(Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana )

c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes
(Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL BE + ING )

I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART)

I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING )

I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday.
(Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía.)

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APENDICE 2 CHART 2. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE
A. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES
PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO:

Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará realizando o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un o estará ocurriendo en un momento aún no han concluido. momento determinado en el pasado determinado en el futuro

ESTRUCTURA:
S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WAS / WERE +ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Now, at the moment, at this time, For the time being, at present

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday,etc .At...o´clock yesterday / last Monday, etc,

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week, etc. At..o´clock tomorrow / next Monday, etc.

EJEMPLOS:
John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now?

EJEMPLOS:
John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday?

EJEMPLOS:
John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow.

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. ahora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi_ at __t táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud. haciendo a esa hora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i_ at eit _é: rti _is ívni_ / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. a las 8:30 esta tarde?

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No, I´m not. I´m studying history. I have my term test tomorrow. And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. Is she at home? Bob: Yes, she is. She´s reading the paper in the garden, I think. Sam: Thanks, Bob. I´m sorry I interrupted you. Bob: Don´t worry,. It´s all right Detective:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house, Mr Smith? Yes, Sir. But I was in the garage. I was washing the car. Was your wife with you? No, she wasn´t. She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes, I did. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs.

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday.

Peter:

Detective: Peter:

Detective: Peter:

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Am I speaking with . every week.etc.. etc.. 1997.. last Sunday. seldom.. Will I speak with the manager. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday. last night... That day.. in 1986.? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow.. ten months ago.. often.. como mañana. Once a day. ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud. etc.. ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive. Am I going to speak with.. I did not speak with the manager. usually.? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer.. I ´m not speaking with .? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow. every month.... I´m not going to speak with ... etc Always... plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad ... last week.B.. Jane does not speak with the .etc... en el pasado. SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro.... Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó o sucede en forma habitual.. etc. todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud..? 300 A short course in english for adult students ..prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day. next Sunday. el sábado pasado.. el próximo sábado. como todos los sucedió en una fecha u hora determinada días..? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday. I will not speak with the manager. siempre.. mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói_ tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer ....? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day. sometimes. etc.... several times a year. EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow. next month. (con He.... Does Jane speak with the manager.... next week.. on May 4.. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past..she it se agrega s / es al infinitivo). Did I speak with the manager. I do not speak with the manager.. twice a week. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención...? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow..? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud.. etc.. Two days ago. Do I speak with the manager .. como ayer.

Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. When are you going to leave? Well. Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. We really had a great time there. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . Did you go alone? No. I went with some friends. He usually walks. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus. Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco. We will go to Cancun again. I didn´t. My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans.

EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. never. since. antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a realizarse Describe una acción que se realizó u en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992..C. etc. By the end of this month / year. Once. But I had never visited it in the spring. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know... He says it´s spectacular. He had not saved enough money for the tickets. PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro.etc By this time tomorrow / next month. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No... John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students .. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before..yet. we will have had lunch already. Your train has just left. They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd δ is mó:rniη / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. I have never been there. twice. Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. before... lately. many times before.Several times. She had never been in Paris before.. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó: r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud. Just.. Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before. not.. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week. three times. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired.etc.. But one of my brothers has visited it several times.. continuado hasta este momento.. b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir. never.. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t. Jackson has never travelled abroad. Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice. Sir. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. Mrs. I´ve come here three or four times. already . c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai δ i énd ov δ is mánθ / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud.. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night..

... Yes.. / for.. A short course in english for adult students 303 ..D. Peter: You really look tired. by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.. It´s a shame! Well. and I have been studying for the final exams.. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since... ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. Anyway.. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:iη sins iu: arráivd híar δis mó:rniη / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. I hope they take a stand and vote for it. Peter: Yes.. we simply have to be patient and wait... I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:iη bai δi énd ov δis mánθ / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:iη bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it. In the meantime...... Mary: Yes... Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse en realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha que otra ocurriera. It will all be over before the end of this month. And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire. antes de una fecha futura..... I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends. and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday. EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month... They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built.. EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning. but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A. / for. when S + Past Since.. by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far. continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento.. John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep... Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things. . They´d been dancing and singing. A. It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning. I´ve been working on my thesis. since.. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro..

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