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Chapter 1 Pharmacology

Chapter 1 Pharmacology

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Published by: Maria Delma Regalado Oliveros on May 19, 2012
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DRUG ACTION: PHARMACEUTIC, PHARMACOKINETIC, AND PHARMACODYNAMIC PHASES

 Differentiate the 3 phases of drug action  Identify the 2 processes that occur before tablets are  

absorbed into the body Describe the 4 processes of pharmacokinetics Explain the meaning of pharmacodynamics, dose response, maximal efficicy, the receptor, and, nonreceptor to drug action Define the terms protein-bound drugs, half-life, therapeutic index, therapeutic drug range, side effects, adverse rxns, and drug toxicity Describe the nursing implications of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

 Pharmaceutic  Disintegration and dissolution The two pharmaceutic phases are disintegration and dissolution. Rate limiting .

active absorption. Absorption  Processes of drug absorption The three major processes for drug absorption through the gastrointestinal membrane are passive absorption. . and pinocytosis.

 Absorption  Water-soluble vs. lipid-soluble drugs  First-pass effect  Bioavailability  Some factors affect rate of drug absorption .

 Distribution  Protein-binding  Free drugs  Volume of drug distribution (Vd) Drug distribution. .

see Table 1-2  Excretion (elimination)  Kidneys  Creatinine clearance  Liver  Feces. Metabolism (biotransformation)  Half-life (t½). others  What happens when there is slow rate of drug excretion? .

Minimum effective concentration. MTC. minimum toxic concentration. Dose response and maximal efficacy  Onset. peak. and duration of action The time-response curve evaluates three parameters of drug action: (1) onset. . (2) peak. MEC. and (3) duration.

. The drug agonist that has an exact fit is a strong agonist and is more biologically active than the weak agonist. antagonists Two drug agonists attach to the receptor site. Receptor theory  Agonists vs.

 Nonspecific drug effect Cholinergic receptors are located in the bladder. . stomach. blood vessels. heart. bronchi. and eyes.

and beta2. . Nonselective drug effect Epinephrine affects three different receptors: alpha. beta1.

 Categories of drug action     Stimulation or depression Replacement Inhibition or killing of organisms Irritation .

It is a ratio that measures the effective therapeutic dose and the lethal dose. A low therapeutic index drug has a narrow margin of safety. .The therapeutic index measures the margin of safety of a drug. and the drug effect should be closely monitored. B. A high therapeutic index drug has a wide margin of safety and carries less risk of drug toxicity. A.

and toxic effect Pharmacogenetics Tachyphylaxis Placebo effect . adverse reactions.       Therapeutic range (therapeutic window) Peak and trough levels. see Table 1-4 Loading dose Side effects.

.The three phases of drug action.

    Assessment Nursing interventions Cultural considerations Evaluation .

Determinants that affect drug therapy. .

decrease. . increase. C.TC has liver and kidney disease. He is given a medication with a half-life of 30 hours. You expect the duration of this medication to: A. D. B. dissipate. remain unchanged.

Answer: A .

slightly increased. substantially increased. decreased. B. in the normal range.In older adults and those with renal dysfunction. C. the creatinine clearance is usually: A. D. .

Answer: C .

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