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A Human Resource Management System (HRMS, EHRMS), Human Resource Information System (HRIS), HR Technology or also called HR modules, or simply "Payroll", refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management (HRM) and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standardized routines and packages of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. On the whole, these ERP systems have their origin on software that integrates information from different applications into one universal database. The linkage of its financial and human resource modules through one database is the most important distinction to the individually and proprietary developed predecessors, which makes this software application both rigid and flexible.

The function of Human Resources departments is generally administrative and not common to all organizations. Organizations may have formalized selection, evaluation, and payroll processes. Efficient and effective management of "Human Capital" has progressed to an increasingly imperative and complex process. The HR function consists of tracking existing employee data which traditionally includes personal histories, skills, capabilities, accomplishments and salary. To reduce the manual workload of these administrative activities, organizations began to electronically automate many of these processes by introducing specialized Human Resource Management Systems. HR executives rely on internal or external IT professionals to develop and maintain an integrated HRMS. Before the client–server architecture evolved in the late 1980s, many HR automation processes were relegated to mainframe computers that could handle large amounts of data transactions. In consequence of the low capital investment necessary to buy or program

proprietary software, these internally-developed HRMS were unlimited to organizations that possessed a large amount of capital. The advent of client–server, Application Service Provider, and Software as a Service or SaaS Human Resource Management Systems enabled increasingly higher administrative control of such systems. Currently Human Resource Management Systems encompass:

  • 1. Payroll

  • 2. Work Time

  • 3. Benefits Administration

  • 4. HR management Information system

  • 5. Recruiting

  • 7. Performance Record

  • 8. Employee Self-Service

The payroll module automates the pay process by gathering data on employee time and attendance, calculating various deductions and taxes, and generating periodic pay cheques and employee tax reports. Data is generally fed from the human resources and time keeping modules to calculate automatic deposit and manual cheque writing capabilities. This module can encompass all employee-related transactions as well as integrate with existing financial management systems.

The work time gathers standardized time and work related efforts. The most advanced modules provide broad flexibility in data collection methods, labor distribution capabilities and data analysis features was outdated. Cost analysis and efficiency metrics are the primary functions.











administer and track employee participation in benefits programs. These typically

encompass insurance, compensation, profit sharing and retirement.

The HR management module is a component covering many other HR aspects from application to retirement. The system records basic demographic and address data, selection, training and development, capabilities and skills management, compensation planning records and other related activities. Leading edge systems provide the ability to "read" applications and enter relevant data to applicable database fields, notify employers and provide position management and position control not in use. Human resource management function involves the recruitment, placement, evaluation, compensation and development of the employees of an organization. Initially, businesses used computer based information systems to:

produce pay checks and payroll reports;

maintain personnel records;

Online recruiting has become one of the primary methods employed by HR departments to garner potential candidates for available positions within an organization. Talent Management systems typically encompass:

Analyzing personnel usage within an organization;

Identifying potential applicants;

Recruiting through company-facing listings;

Recruiting through online recruiting sites or publications that market to both recruiters and applicants.

The significant cost incurred in maintaining an organized recruitment effort, cross- posting within and across general or industry-specific job boards and maintaining a competitive exposure of availabilities has given rise to the development of a dedicated Applicant Tracking System, or 'ATS', module.

The training module provides a system for organizations to administer and track employee training and development efforts. The system, normally called a Learning Management System if a stand alone product, allows HR to track education, qualifications and skills of the employees, as well as outlining what training courses, books, CDs, web based learning or materials are available to develop which skills. Courses can then be offered in date specific sessions, with delegates and training resources being mapped and managed within the same system. Sophisticated LMS allow managers to approve training, budgets and calendars alongside performance management and appraisal metrics.

The Employee Self-Service module allows employees to query HR related data and perform some HR transactions over the system. Employees may query their attendance record from the system without asking the information from HR personnel.


A recruitment process needs to be followed to ensure that the right person reaches the right place. Recruiting the wrong kind of people can become a serious issue for any company.

A general recruitment process involves Identifying vacancies, prepare job description and person specification, advertising, managing the response, short-listing, arranging interviews, conducting interviews, decision making, convey the decision and appointment action. This means that a lot of time and resources have to be invested.

Interviews are an important and a crucial part of recruitment process. The person taking the interview of the candidate has to be well prepared in advance. Concerns like the location of the interview, the time table, the structure of the question strategy, style of taking the interview needs to be decided beforehand so that nothing is left ambiguous in.

A general recruitment process may include a written test to judge particular skills of a candidate. In this case, the test should be prepared carefully, not deviating from the subject. A lot can be judged about the candidate from his Curriculum Vitae (CV).A proper presentation of his CV in an organized and refined manner speaks a lot about the individual. His mindset and attitude can be judged according to his CV.

There are a few things that need to be kept in mind during the recruitment process. Until the final decision about a certain candidate is taken, it is important to keep in regular touch with the candidate. The decision making process should not take very long to avoid the candidate from taking up some other opportunity. A candidate should be duly informed once the decision is taken. He should be told the complete process of his appointment

clearly with details of all the documents that he needs to submit. A record file should be maintained of the candidate for any future reference.


Recruitment is a process of selecting the prospective employees and Motivating them to apply for the jobs in the organization. In any company recruitment plays a major role. Because recruiting is not only a process of filling the vacancies in the organization but also is one of the best ways of selecting the right person for the right job.

To persuade someone to work for a company or become a new member of an organization.

Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible candidates for a job or function, usually undertaken by recruiters. It also may be undertaken by an employment agency or a member of staff at the business or organization looking for recruits.

Difference between Recruitment and Selection:

Recruitment is a process of searching for the prospective employees whereas Selection is a way of picking up of the relevant employees.

Recruiting is like inviting all the prospective employees to apply for a job in organization.













Recruitment process

PEOPLE: People are nothing but Human Resources. They are like the assets of any company. Any business can’t be run without people. Good staff literally transforms weak organizations into strong, healthy and vibrant operations.

Recruiting is nothing but hiring of employees for a particular position in


Organization. Generally a recruitment process has no end that is why it is called as

Recruitment Life Cycle


Get the recruitment process right, and you virtually eliminate the risk of hiring the wrong person for the job. Get the process wrong, and you won't even attract applications from suitable candidates, much less be able to spot them during the selection process. And you will have wasted big money in process time and advertising

Recruitment is not just carried out to meet immediate vacancies but should be seen as part of an overall organizational strategy for resourcing personnel. Once you fill one vacancy, you should be left with a list of candidates who you would consider for the same or other vacancies in the future. This makes the process much easier the next time round.

But it's not just about filling vacancies. The process exposes your company to a wide section of the public. These people could be current or potential clients, customers or suppliers. What's more, people talk. If a job applicant has had an unfavorable experience

with your company, you can be sure that they will tell others about it. Hence it's vital that the recruitment process creates a positive impression of the company.

Constant growth in the corporate world is opening doors for new and emerging technologies. Thus the requirement is of highly skilled and efficient candidates, primarily. As such, our recruitment processes has been refined over the years to ensure that each candidate goes through a rigorous recruitment process. This provides us the unique ability to provide you with skills not easily available in the market. Below is a brief about the recruitment process:

The following are steps involved in a general recruitment process

Planning to recruit

Defining the position

Attracting the applicants

Selecting a candidate

Appointing the candidate


It takes careful planning and consideration to recruit successfully. When you fill a vacant or new position you have an opportunity to reflect on the work to be done, the need for change and what new skills might be required in the future.When planning to recruit, you need to consider how you will schedule the various recruitment and selection tasks. You also need to make some important decisions about the position and complete certain tasks before you can get approval to recruit

Defining the Position

One of the first and most critical aspects of the recruitment process is defining the position. This process determines what skills, experience, qualifications, knowledge and attributes are required of the person to successfully perform the job. The process of defining the position is essential to:

Clarify and describe the job role, functions and reporting relationships

Provide a basis for developing selection criteria

Evaluate the position and determine the remuneration level

Provide a basis for managing job performance

Attracting The Applicants

Choosing a method to attract candidates

Writing a good advertisement

Advertising costs and deadlines

Compiling an information package

Choosing the right method

There are many different methods of attracting applicants to fill a vacant position. Which one you choose depends on the type of position, your budget and the prevailing market. To determine which strategy is right for the position, read through the different methods of attracting applicants with these questions in mind:

What is the nature of the position, e.g. Managerial, academic, technical, research, specialist?

What is the size and location of the pool of applicants, e.g. large or small; local, national or international

Methods of attracting applicants:

Mainstream press

Alternative press


Recruitment/Employment agency

Search firm

Invitation or nomination

Network meetings, special interest groups, professional associations and word-of- mouth

Mainstream press

Advertising in the mainstream press is usually expensive and you need to consider if this is the best way to reach your target audience.

Alternative press

Some examples of alternative press are professional publications, ethnic, local, national or student publications. The alternative press is useful for targeting specialist skills and is cost effective for lower level positions. However, it may not reach a wide enough pool of applicants, and this could potentially result in a lower response rate. In addition, long lead times for publication may increase how long it takes to recruit.


Online advertising has become an effective way to reach the majority of candidates, especially high-demand and international markets. It is inexpensive (about 1-5% of newspaper costs) and can save time by generating a quick response rate. It also offers much more flexibility in the design of advertising than newspapers do. Job boards, such as or, can also be used to target specific candidate markets and recruitment trends show that more and more candidates use this as a standard job search tool.

Recruitment/Employment agency

Recruitment or employment agencies are effective for high demand job markets such as IT and Finance. Agencies maintain a database of resumes and match these to the criteria provided by the employer to identify a suitable pool of candidates.

Search firm

Search firms are particularly useful if you know that there are not a lot of potential applicants and/or the position is very specialist in nature. Search firms can tap into local and overseas networks to find applicants, and they will approach potential candidates who may not be actively seeking a new position. They can also provide advice on remuneration, job documentation (including selection criteria) and they will shortlist candidates for you. Search firms usually charge a third of the total remuneration package plus administrative

charges. If you decide to use a search firm it is best to contact your HR Partner for advice.

Invitation or nomination

Invitation or nomination is where the normal recruitment and selection techniques are waived, and the candidate is appointed without advertisement. This should only occur when a person is being appointed as a casual employee or for a fixed-term appointment less than 12 months in length. These arrangements are usually made to take advantage of the availability of a well-respected academic or professional practitioner, or for specialist research positions.

Network meetings, special interest groups, professional associations and word-of-mouth

These methods of attracting candidates tap into specialized markets and expertise, and they are much less expensive than other methods. You need to use them in conjunction with other methods, however, as they reach a limited pool of candidates. They may be particularly useful for advertising specialist positions where the pool is known to be small.

Writing a Good Advertisement

The aim of advertising is to make people aware that a vacancy exists and to persuade them to apply for the position. Advertising helps to 'market' what exactly a particular company stands for, and what separates it from its competitors. Often the people you want to attract are not openly looking for a new job, so you need to think of ways to sell the attributes of the Company, egg. What makes it unique, its culture, values, and philosophy and so on?

Good advertising highlights the assets of the position and appeals to the career needs and concerns of the desired applicants. It is worth making your advertisement effective and

attractive, as there is a high correlation between advertisements with accurate and complete information and recruitment success.

Making a good advertisement

The headline captures candidates' attention.

The first few lines are interesting, engaging and actively sell the position.

Sentences are short and to the point, providing enough information to interest

candidates but not to overload them. The advertisement avoids the use of words that are difficult to understand.

Points are made using as few words as possible (the less copy you use, the smaller

the media space and therefore the lower the cost). The advertisement contains some white space and does not appear cramped.

Compiling an Information Package

A good information package will attract the right Candidate for the position, particularly if you are interested in national or international applicants. Your information package should provide prospective candidates with information relevant to the position and the University. The package always contains a copy of the position description or statement and selection criteria and might also include:

Information about Company’s vision, mission and strategic directions

Information about the employees

Pointers to relevant parts of the Company’s website

Useful website addresses or other material about the Organization.

Selecting the Candidate

In this stage of the recruitment process you assess all applications, shortlist possible candidates and finally select a candidate for the position. This process is managed by the recruiting unit.

In most cases, you need to form a selection committee to assess and select a candidate. The committee makes a recommendation on which is the most suitable candidate for the position. Once this recommendation is approved, the candidate is appointed to the position.

The following are the steps involved in selecting a candidate

Selecting the candidate

Forming the selection committee

Short listing the candidates

Choosing selection techniques

Preparing interview questions

Conducting interviews

Checking references

Making the selection

Appointing the Candidate

The final stage in the recruitment process is appointing the candidate. Once you get approval to appoint the selected candidate and then verification from the Human Resources

Unit (HRU), you can offer the position to them, negotiate salary arrangements and, all going well, and prepare to induct the new employee into the workplace.

This section will help in managing the main steps in appointing a candidate:

Appointing the candidate

Making an offer

Advising unsuccessful candidates

Arranging induction

Choosing the methods of recruitment

When deciding what method of recruitment to use, think about where your employees currently come from. Do most of your current employees come from colleges or universities? Do they come from other? Voluntary sector organizations? Do they come from your volunteer base? Assess where potential applicants usually come from the best methods of will help you choose recruitment for the position.

Different Types of Recruitment Methods

Various organizations use different types of sources in the Recruitment process. Some of the methods of recruitment are:

Internal recruitment:

Existing employees and volunteers are given an opportunity to opening


for a new job


Rewards the employee/volunteer for past performance

Gives the employee/volunteer an opportunity for career development

Retains the organization's investment in the employee/volunteer

Reduces the amount of time necessary to orient the person to the new Position

Employee referrals:

Employees are asked to recommend a person for the job opening


The quality of employee referrals is usually high. Employees usually only refer people that they are confident would be a good match for the position and organization. People tend to recommend others with similar backgrounds. Therefore it is important to ensure that the practice of employee referrals does not lead to a decrease in diversity within your organization. People recruited by your staff usually have some understanding of the work of the organization. There can be a tendency to feel that you must hire someone who is referred by an employee even if your assessment is that the person is not the best match.

Print advertisements:

The job is posted in a newspaper or professional journal


You can reach a large audience in a specific area

The content of the advertisement will impact on the number of

applicants; if the

ad is general you will most likely receive more applications. If the ad is general, you may receive a significant number of applications from unqualified candidates.

Internet recruiting:

The job is posted on an internet job site such as or


Internet recruiting is cost effective

One study has shown that 96% of people looking for jobs use the internet job postings as available to potential candidates 24 hours a day

You can minimize the number of unqualified candidates by directing people to more information on your organization's website the number of applications may be overwhelming

Internships/field Placements:

Students who come to your organization as part of their education are recruited after graduation.


You will have a good understanding of the fit between the organization, as well as their abilities

person and the

The former student will have good knowledge of your organization and require less

time to become productive Often first jobs are seen as stepping stone and people move on to new challenges after a relatively short period of time

Executive search firms:

A private company that specialized in recruitment is hired to find suitable candidates.


This is a very expensive method of recruitment


The firm will

do most of the preparation

for the posting and the preliminary

screening May be an appropriate recruitment method for the most senior positions

Unsolicited resumes:

Individuals interest in working for your organization send in Considerations:


The percentage of resumes with skills appropriate for your organization may be

small. How you treat unsolicited resumes may have an impact on the image of your organization. It is best to respond with courteous and frank information about whether or not the application will be kept for future reference.


The job announcement should include:

A brief description about the organization, its mission or purpose

The title and a description of the position

Duties and responsibilities


The supervising authority

Salary and benefits attached to the position

Starting salary or salary range,

The application deadline

Start date

Request for references




As it a known fact that recruiting a candidate for a particular job is key and major role of any organization. Because growth or decline of any organization lies on the employees working in the organization. So, it is the responsibility of the management to recruit right person for a right job. Recruitment plays a key role in the organization. People with friendly and outgoing personality, self discipline are mainly needed for this type of industry because a customer sees a company through its employees. The employees are mainly in contact with the customer depending upon the jobs they are performing. Recruitment and selection has been regarded as the most important function of personal administration, because unless the right people are hired, even the best plans of the organizations and control system would not do much good to the organization. Human resources are the assets to the organization. Any organization will get its recognition through its employee’s performance, skills, innovativeness and their professional knowledge. Hence we can say selection and recruitment plays major role in the organization. Because right people should be selected for the right job and at the right time. It’s the responsibility of the organization to hire that right personnel to increase their productivity and overall performance of the organization.


Recruitment & Selection plays a vital role in the growth of the organization. Recruitment process needs to be followed to ensure that the right person reaches the right place. Recruiting the wrong kind of people can become a serious issue for any company.

The present study is confined to employees in Sree Rayalaseema Sugars & Energetic Pvt ltd., Nandyal Kurnool Dist. Analysts has tried to get the information from some respondents. After collecting information through questionnaires the researcher has to classify, tabulate and interpret the data collected for arriving at the final conclusions, based on conclusions some recommendations were drafted. In this study the analyst had a chance to study the attitudes & beliefs on various aspects regarding Recruitment & Selections process. This study proposes a group decision support system (GDSS), with multiple criteria to assist in recruitment and selection (R&S) processes of human resources. A two-phase decision-making procedure is first suggested; various techniques involving multiple criteria and group participation are then defined corresponding to each step in the procedure.

A wide scope of personnel characteristics is evaluated,

and the concept


consensus is enhanced. The procedure recommended herein is expected to be more

effective than traditional approaches.


The main objectives of this study are:

To study the recruitment and selection process followed by the company in recruiting

the candidates. To study employees Perception towards the recruitment and selection process

To study attitude and mindset of the employees towards their selection process.

To study that how they planning to recruit, and it is need to consider how they will

schedule the various recruitment and selection tasks. To know about the selection process.

To know about the various tests conducted at the time of interview.

To know about the various recruitment techniques which are used to motivate the candidates?


The survey plays an important role in disseminating the information and facilitating the process of recruiting but the methodology that we have employed for the Sree Rayalaseema Sugars & Energetic Pvt ltd., Nandyal Kurnool Dist. is questionnaire for the employee with open and close ended questions in order to know their expectations.

In determining the sample design, specific parameters, which are of interest to our survey, have to be mentioned. Examples of Parameters are the positions we will focus on for our survey and the number of employees we will interview from each position

Research Methodology :

Research Design



Primary Data


It is collected from the respondents

Secondary Data


through a structured questionnaire. It is collected from the published data of the


Records . Survey method

Research Procedure Research Instrument


A structured Questionnaire

Stastical Tools


Simple Percentage, Weighted Average,

Data Sources:

Data is collected from primary and secondary sources Collection of data is of primary importance in the research Process. Data which is collected for the purpose of research helps in proper analysis to develop the finding which is helpful to conduct research effectively. The data source, which is very important in the collection of data, is Primary data and the Secondary data. Both primary and secondary data are taken into Consideration for the study of Recruiting process.

Primary Data:

Primary data is collected through administering the Questionnaire by direct contact and also involved in personal discussions to obtain insights of the information.

Secondary Data:

The secondary data is collected from records, manuals and brochures maintained by the personnel department.

Research approach:

Census approach

The questionnaire was administered through contacts with


Sample design:

A sample of 100 employees are selected randomly for the conducting present study.


A structured questionnaire is designed which consists of open ended and closes ended questions with 5-point scale and the respondents were made personally to get their responses. The 5-point is named as strongly agree, Agree, No Opinion, Disagree, and strongly disagree.

To achieve the objective of research, a planned and strategic descriptive investigation is carried out. Descriptive study is helpful to know the proportion of people in a given population who have behaved in a particular manner making projection of a certain thing or determining the relationship between two or more variables. Descriptive study tends to be rigid and its approach cannot be changed every now and then care should be taken only in the initial stages of planning and research otherwise data collected will be inadequate of the procedure used will be cumbersome and expensive. Descriptive method is adopted to study the Recruitment Process in Sree Rayalaseema Sugars & Energetic Pvt ltd., Nandyal Kurnool Dist.


Since time and budget are limited it can’t be possible to go for an extensive process. Also the resource availability is another concern during the study.

The study


limited to only employees in various departments of


Rayalaseema Sugars & Energetic Pvt ltd., Nandyal Kurnool Dist. Hence it is not

possible to generalize the findings.

The data is collected from only 50 employees in various departments.

Another important constraint is the hesitation from the side of employees as they are unwilling to answer questions in the questionnaire.


Sugar Industry is very important to the Indian National economy, because of its multiple contributions in the shape of employment and provision of raw materials to other industries.

Sugar is made by some plants to store energy that they don't need straight away, rather like animals make fat. People like sugar for its sweetness and its energy so some of these plants are grown commercially to extract the sugar.

Sugar is produced in 121 Countries and global production now exceeds 120 Million tonnes a year. Approximately 70% is produced from sugar cane a very tall grass with big stems which is largely grown in the tropical countries. The remaining 30% is produced from sugar beet a root crop resembling a large parsnip grown mostly in the temperate zones of the north.

It had been rightly pointed out by the Late Shri. Fakhrudin Ali Ahmed when he was Minster for food and agriculture, at the eleventh annual general meeting of the national federation of co-operative factories limited. “The co-operative factories in some parts of the country have become symbol of industrializations in the development of ancillary industries providing opportunities of employment to the village folk”. The industry provides employment to about 35 million cultivations and 3.6 lakhs skilled and unskilled workers. Further, it accounts for providing employment to crores of thousands in the sugar trade, in the transport of sugarcane and sugar etc.

It’s by - products are used as raw materials in industries such as alcohol, plastics, synthetics, rubber, and fiberboard Pharmaceuticals, paper, etc. The sugar industry in recent

years has begun to export sugar, thus earning valuable foreign exchange .Besides it provides Rs. 300 crores in the form of taxes to thee xchange consisting these many facts of important of the industry ,it ranks second among the major consumer industries of this country, next only to cotton, Textile industry .

The sugar industry is mostly oriented to a single material, namely sugarcane that forms 60% of the total cost of production. Therefore, the availability of sugar cane and facilities of transporting raw material of the sugar mill naturally condition the industry of sugar proximity to. The raw material is essential because the sucrose content of the sugar cane begins to decrease soon after the cane is cut obtained as the factories for generating power use a byproduct during the producing. Therefore, power is not at all a dominating factor determining the location of sugar industry .in recent times, techniques feasibility and economics visibility of the sugar projects have been given importance in the location of sugar industry. In the words of Dr. M. Mehta, “The location pattern of the sugar industry is greatly influenced by the character local distribution depends entirely of physical and Geographical factors, nature

plays a dominant role in the location industry”., major sugarcane growing states are Uttar Pradesh,Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Ta

mil Nadu, and Andhra Pr

In India, major sugarcane growing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. These Six states contribute more than 85% of total sugar production in the country; Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra together contribute more than 57% of total production.

Indian Sugar Industry:

India is the largest consumer and second largest producer of sugar in the world (Source: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service). The Indian sugar industry is the second largest agro-industry located in the rural India. The Indian sugar industry has a turnover of Rs. 500 billion per annum and it contributes almost Rs. 22.5 billion to the central and state ex-chequer as tax, and excise duty every year (Source: Ministry of Food, Government of India). It is the second largest agro-processing industry in the country after cotton textiles. With 453 operating sugar mills in different parts of the country, Indian sugar industry has been a focal point for socio-economic development in the rural areas.

The industry not only generates power for its own requirement but surplus power for export to the grid based on byproduct bagasse. It also produces ethanol, an ecology friendly and renewable energy for blending with petrol. The sugar industry in the country uses only sugarcane as input, hence sugar Companies have been established in large sugarcane growing states like Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. These six states contribute more than 85% of total sugar production in the country; Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra together contribute more than 57% of total production.

Indian sugar industry has grown horizontally with large number of small sized sugar plants set up throughout the country as opposed to the consolidation of capacity in the rest of the important sugar producing countries, where greater emphasis has been laid on larger capacity of sugar plants.

Global Sugar Industry:

Brazil and India are the largest sugar producing countries followed by China, USA, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, Pakistan, France and Germany. Global sugar production increased from approximately 125.88 MMT in 1995-1996 to 149.4 MMT in 2002-2003 and then declined to 143.7 MMT in 2003-2004, whereas consumption increased steadily from 118.1 MMT in 1995-1996 to 142.8 MMT in 2003-2004.

The world consumption is projected to grow to 160.7 MMT in 2010, and 176.1 MMT by 2015. According to ISO, the world sugar output is forecasted to reach 145.0 MMT and consumption to reach 147.0 MMT in 2004-2005, resulting in a deficit of around 2 MMT in 2004-2005. Further, since October 2003, nearly 5 MMT of surplus sugar are expected to have been removed from the world sugar balance, the stock/ consumption ratio to less than 42%.


The yield of gur from sugar cane depends mostly on the quality of the cane and the efficiency of the extraction of juice. The table below gives some extreme values.

High quality cane

Poor quality cane

Juice per 100kg of cane



% sugar in juice



Gur per 100kg of cane



High quality cane has a good juice content with high sugar levels (20%+). Poor quality cane or cane that has been harvested early may have similar juice content but the sugar levels will be reduced.

The efficiency with which juice can be extracted from the cane is limited by the technology used. The simple three roller crushers used by most artisanal producers will never extract more than 50kg of juice from each 100kg of cane.Yields are also improved by careful control of the boiling process. Boiling should be completed as rapidly as possible and the conditions kept as clean as possible.

Seasonal nature of production:

Sugarcane and sugar production is seasonal with more than 90% of sugarcane and sugar production in the winter months of November-March. The sugarcane crushing season lasts on an average of 100-150 days per annum depending on the region, weather, irrigation and cultivation practices as well as cane availability, in itself a function of the prices paid to cane growers.

Sugarcane and sugar production is partly dependent on monsoons. Higher acreage under sugarcane in a season of normal monsoons and higher yields results in higher sugarcane and sugar production. Both area and production of sugarcane fluctuate considerably from year to year. This is due to variations in climatic conditions, the vulnerability of areas cultivated under rain fed conditions, fluctuations in prices of gur and khandsari and changes in returns from competing crops. Despite this instability, both area and production of sugarcane have increased considerably over the past three decades. The average area of sugarcane cultivation increased from 2.4 millionha in the early-sixties to about 4.3 million ha at present

Setting up a sugar factory:

Types of sugar factory

Service extraction All is required is a site for the crusher and a space to build the furnace. Farmers, growers and merchants provide the raw material for processing and packaging. They take the risk of poor preparation and problems associated with inadequate storage and packaging. The processors charge a rate per unit of cane crushed or juice processed payable either in cash or percentage of the output or both.

The farmers can then rent the furnace or build their own close to the crusher site and produce syrup or jaggery, keeping control of the quality of the product. They could return to the farm and process the juice there or could pay others to process the juice for them. This type of system is relatively low-cost and is suited to small scale production of up to 50 TCD in areas where cane is grown during short seasons on small plots spread out over a wide area.

Independent sugar factoryThe factory buys in sugar cane and is then responsible for all aspects of preparation, processing and marketing the product. This type of business needs a reliable and constant supply of cane of acceptable quality. Although the factory could grow its own cane it is more usual for it to buy in cane from various sources including:

direct from individual farmers/growers

agricultural co-operatives or groups

private traders or companies

Because the cane quality deteriorates quickly after harvest, it is important that the suppliers are contracted to supply cane at given times. This enables the factory to work continually while minimising the time harvested cane is allowed to stand.This type of factory is suitable for medium scale production of between 50 and 500 TCD where cane is available all year round or for a substantial part of the year.

Sugar estatesThe sugar estate takes control of all aspects of sugar production from growing cane to processing and marketing. It is usual for the estate to provide the bulk of their requirements and occasionally to contract local growers to produce certain amounts of cane for them. The estates can be fully owned by the factory or leased from the farmers in the area. In both cases the factory farms the land in accordance with its needs, providing all equipment, fertiliser, pesticides and transport.Operating and managing an operation of this magnitude requires resources such as tractors, ploughs and harvesting equipment as well as a skilled workforce, all of which add to the cost of the process.


The discovery of sugarcane, from which sugar as it is known today, is derived dates back unknown thousands of years. It is thought to have originated in New Guinea, and was spread along routes to Southeast Asia and India. The process known for creating sugar, by pressing out the juice and then boiling it into crystals, was developed in India around 500 BC. Its cultivation was not introduced into Europe until the middle-ages, when it was brought to Spain by Arabs. Columbus took the plant, nearly held, to the west indies, where it began to thrive in a most favorable climate. It was not until the eighteenth century that sugarcane cultivation was began in the United States, where it was planted in the southern climate of New Orleans. The very first refinery was built in New York City around 1690; the industry was established by the 1830s. Earlier attempts to create a successful industry in the U.S. did not fare well; from the late 1830s, when the first factory was built. Until 1872, sugar factories closed down almost as quickly as they had opened. It was 1872 before a factory, built in California, was finally able to successfully produce sugar in a profitable manner. At the end of that century, more than thirty factories were in operation in the U.S. India has been known as the original home of sugar and sugarcane. Indian mythology supports the above fact as it contains legends showing the origin of sugarcane. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane next to Brazil. Presently, about 4 million hectares of land is under sugarcane with an average yield of 70 tonnes per hectare.

India is the largest single producer of sugar including traditional cane sugar sweetness. Khandsari and Gur equivalent to 26 million tonnes raw value followed by Brazil in the second place at 18.5 million tonnes. Even in respect of white crystal sugar, India has ranked No.1 position in 7 out of last 10 years.

It is thought that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it spread to India. In 510 BC the Emperor Darius of what was then Persia invaded India where he found "the reed which gives honey without bees". The secret of cane sugar, as with many other of man's discoveries, was kept a closely guarded secret while the finished product was exported for a rich profit. Sugar was only discovered by western Europeans as a result of the Crusades in the 11th Century AD. Crusaders returning home talked of this "new spice" and how pleasant it was. The first sugar was recorded in England in 1099. The subsequent centuries saw a major expansion of western European trade with the East, including the importation of sugar. It is recorded, for instance, that sugar was available in London at "two shillings a pound" in 1319 AD. This equates to about US$100 per kilo at today's prices. So it was very much a luxury.

In the 15 th century AD, European sugar was refined in Venice, confirmation that even then when quantities were small, and it was difficult to transport sugar as a food grade product. In the same century, Columbus sailed to the Americas, the "New World". It is recorded that in 1493 he took sugar cane plants to grow in the Caribbean. The climate there was so advantageous for the growth of the cane that an industry was quickly established.

By 1750 there were 120 sugar refineries operating in Britain. Their combined output was only 30,000 tons per annum. At this stage sugar was still a luxury and vast profits were made to the extent. That sugar was called "white gold". Governments recognized the vast profits to be made from sugar and taxed it highly. In Britain for instance, sugar tax in 1781 totaled£326,000, a figure that had grown by 1815 to £3,000,000. This situation was to stay until 1874 when the British government, under Prime Minister Gladstone, abolished the tax and brought sugar prices within the means of the ordinary citizen.

Sugar beet was first identified as a source of sugar in 1747. No doubt the vested interests in the cane sugar plantations made sure that it stayed as no more than a curiosity, a situation that prevailed until the Napoleonic wars at the start of the 19 th century when Britain blockaded sugar imports to continental Europe. By 1880 sugar beet had replaced sugar cane as the main source of sugar on continental Europe. Those same vested interests probably delayed the introduction of beet sugar to England until the First World War when Britain's sugar imports were threatened.

Today's modern sugar industry is still beset with government interference at many levels and throughout the world. The overall pattern can be seen by investigating the mid 1990. Annual consumption is now running at about 120 million tonnes and is expanding at a rate of about 2million tonnes per annum. The European Union, Brazil and India are the top three producers and together account for some 40% of the annual production. However most sugar is consumed within the country of production and only approximately 25% is traded internationally.

India is the second largest producer of sugarcane, next to Brazil the latter produces primarily raw sugar while India produces almost exclusively white crystal sugar. In India apart from sugar, other traditional sugarcane sweetness – Khanda – Sari and gur are also produced for the rural markets. Taking all sweetness sugar khandasari and gur, India is world’s largest producer of sugar followed by the Brazil in the second place. There are 582sugar milks operating in India with an aggregate installed capacity of 16.2million tonnes. Of these 205 are in the private sectors 316 in the co-operative sector and 61 in the public sector.

The Sugar Industry has been totally regulated and controlled for the p a s t

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essential commodity act 1955 and a plethora of legislations and control orders

regulate almost every aspect of the industry, with the objective of increasing production and also making available sugar at affordable prices to the consumer controls included licensing, administrated price for sugarcane, reservation of cane areas, control over the price of sugar and restriction onsale/movement of the by- product molasses were controlled for a long time. Under the sugar cane control order 1966 the Government fixes the statutory minimum price for cane every year based on the recommendations of the commission on Agricultures costs and price. Sugar is a seasonal industry. The crushing season ranges between 180 and 240 days in a year depending on the location.

Locational Factors

In recent years, the location factors have influenced the dispersal of sugar cane cultivated in subtropical regions and the development of cane in the south is mainly responsible for bringing about location changes in the industry. Further the sugar industry has received greater inputs from the completion of numerous irrigation projects like the Irwin canal in Mysore(Karnataka), Nizamsagar and Thungabadra projects in Madras (Tamilnadu).Added to this, the discriminatory policies in pursued by the government are also responsible for the faster rate of the growth of the industry in the south. Given transport facilities and access is necessarily dependent up on the availability of cane in the region .This concentration is substantiated from observation of the trend of sizes established in different regions of this country in relation to availability of cane. Comparatively the size of the sugar mills in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Maharastra where continuous availability of cane is

assured is observed to be large. Grant of production to the Industry in 1931 also helped the units to increase their size. The average per day crushing capacity of the sugar factories working in our country varies from 220 tonnes to 3200 tonnes per day. In Uttar Pradesh and Bihar majority of the sugar mills have a cane crushing capacity of 2500 tonnes of sugar cane per day is considered to be an economical unit, under the present day working conditions.

Since 1950, the industries growth reveals that not with standing the controls and regulations, in the industry did grow substantially. While, the number of factories rise from 139 in 1950 – 51 to 423 in 2000 - 2001 the installed capacity increased ten fold from 69.2 million tonnes to 300 million tonnes in 1999 – 2000; Sugar production swelled from 1.1 million tonnes to18.6 million tonnes during the same period. The government laid down targets for sugar production; consumptions installed capacity during each of the five year plans and ensured the growth of industry the growth of industry to meet the steady raise in consumption.

Imports & Exports of Sugar:

In view of cost of cane and Sugar production in India, it could not complete with other favorable countries and to honor commitments andmaintain international standard quality. The sugar exports began in the year 1958 under the Sugar export promotions act up to middle of 1961.Government did not subsidize losses on exports and sugar factories got prorate payment. However in view of substantial quantity of Sugar in later year’s government stopped subsidizing these losses. The export policy has been largely influenced by the need for earning foreign exchange.


There were only twenty nine factories in India during the year 1931.Protection granted to the industry in 1931 brought tremendous growth in the number of locations. The number of factories in operation had grown from29 to 140 in 1950 – 1951. Out of which 110 factories were in northern parts of India. During the next decade the number of factories increased to 174.Out of which 116 factories are in the sub tropical region of northern India. Finally, the number of factories has grown from 200 in 1965 to 1966 to 417in 1994 to 1995 of which 75% of the factories are located in the northern India. The industry is predominantly localized in the Uttar Pradesh, particularly in the districts of Meerut, Saharnpur, Bijmour, Barely, Muzaffar Nagar Moradabad and Rampur, next Uttar Pradesh. The industry is mainly concentrated in Maharastra, Bihar and in the eastern costal districts of Andhra Pradesh. If we refer to the historical event in the sphere of sugar industry, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar occupied the predominant position as far as the location pattern of the industry is concerned, and still these states areenjoying the same position. The reason of such heavy concentration in the states of Uttar Pradesh enjoys in respect of cane cultivation is due to the advantages confirmed by the rich and fertile alluvial soil of the genetic plain, the bulk of which contains adequate quantities of lime and potash, the pressure of thin varieties of cane admirable suited in the climate cheap and extensive of cheap and extensive irrigation facilities. The concentration of sugar cane crop incompact blocks enables the sugar factories to get fresh suppliers of sugar cane direct from the fields. Moreover, the cost of the cane cultivation is less and the cultivators are not accustomed to raise alternative crops like ground nuts, chilies, plantains etc.



Nandyal cooperative sugars was established by the government during 1973 and the actual production started in the year 1981.This company was bought by

K.MADHUSUDAN RAO who is the present leading MLA of GUNTAKAL. Later in the

year 2001 the company was named as

Sree Rayalaseema Sugar & Energy Ltd. The

company is located at a distance of 5km from nandyal taluk of Kurnool Dt. The company is

spread over vast area of 125 acres.


At present sugar factory is producing sugar ranging from 800-1200 tonnes .The annual capacity of the company is around 1 lakh tonnes a year.The factory works for only three months a year.Production starts during November ending and ends in febrauary. It utilizes 1250 tonnes of sugar cane everyday.In this span of time it utilizes around 112500 tonnes of sugar cane.


Harmonious industrial relations are being maintained. No strikes and lockouts are reported. It has a union to discuss the problems and solve them.


Andhra Pradesh pollution control board gave permission to the factory to utilize the nearby water for its daily purpose.The factory is functioning under the guidelines prescribed by the board.The company is taking necessary measures to prevent sound pollution following the guidelines prescribed by the government of India.The factory did not pose any threat to surrounding environment.The company is also following the rules and regulations specified by central excise department and control.


Central excise department gets 30% of sugar production as levy i.e. the rate specified by the government as it is an essential commodity.


At present the company is producing three grades of sugar.Three grades are differentiated on the basis of size of crystals .Each grade have the difference of Rs.200 to 300 per tonne.The company produces sugar bags with a capacity of 100kg.The rate of each bag of sugar is 2300 rupees. Byproducts obtained during the production of sugar are Molasses and Bagasse . Molasses rate varies from season to season .Its rate ranges varies from 2400 to 6000 per tonne. The other by product bagasse is sold to power plant at the rate of 900 per tonne. Factory purchases sugar cane from the farmers at the rate of 1400 per tonne. Inturn the management is providing chemicals and fertilizers on loan basis to these to farmers.They give ample information to the farmers to cultivate crops and give higher yield. 864 kg of sugar cane is extracted from 1000kg of sugar cane. 1.5 mega watt power is consumed during the production period of 3 months.Production begins in the month ending of November and ends in February. Daily intake of sugar cane by machine is about 1250 tonnes. Yearly intake of sugar cane during the period of 112500 tonnes approximately.


Initially the company approached external sources for finance . Syndicate bank of nandyal provides loan for the company.


The sugar of our daily use is obtained from sugar cane.Sugar cane is member of grass family.It grows at a height of 3 to 5 meters and contains 11 to 15% of sucrose by weight. In india sugar is manufactured from sugar cane.

The following steps are involved in the production of sugar cane:

  • a) Extraction of juice from sugar cane:

After harvesting the canes are sent to sugar factories within less than 24 hours for the extraction of juice.delay causes loss of sugar the factory the cane is washed to remove mud.It is chopped into pieces in cutting machines. These pieces are fed into role crushers where juice is extracted.In this stage water may be added to aid the extraction.About 93% of juice is extracted from the cane . The spent cane is called as “bagasse’. It is the byproduct in the sugar industry.It is used as fuel in the production of electricity.or in the manufacture of paper or hard boards.

  • b) Purification of sugar cane juice:

The juice obtained from above process is slightly contains some imourities and suspended particles.Acidity causes loss of sugar due to hydrolysis.Lime and Ca(OH) 2 is added to precipitate the impurities as well to neutralize the juice.The step is called the defecation. The juice is then heated in large tanks. Impurities floating on the surface are removed by pedal.excess lime is removed as carbonates sulphur di oxide solution is also produced int the last stage removes any traces of lime.This process is also known As sulphitation.The precipitates of defecation ,carbonation and sulphitation are called press mud and is useful as manure.

  • c) Concentration and Crystallization:

The purified juice called “clarified juice”.This contains 85% of water.It is evaporated to approximately 40% of water in evaporators.the juice is concentrated to low pressure in the beginning and in the vacuum in later stages.The resulting thick juice goes to vacuum pans and is concentrated to supersaturation.

  • d) Separation of crystals and drying:

The sugar crystals are formed in the pan above the thick juicecontaining 10% of water.The crystals are separated by centrifugation.In the centrifuge the crystal and liquid juice are separated.The sugar crystals obtained in the process are heated by dry hot air to remove traces of water.The thick black kiquid obtained after separation of crystals is called as molasses .Molasses contains 50% percent of sucrose together with some glucose and fructose and byproduct of sugar industry.molasses is used in the manufacture of alcohol by fermentation and as animal feed supplement. India is the largest consumer and second largest producer of sugar in the world (Source: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service). The Indian sugar industry is the second largest agro- industry located in the rural India. The Indian sugar industry has a turnover of Rs. 500 billion per annum and it contributes almost Rs. 22.5 billion to the central and state exchange as tax, and excise duty every year (Source: Ministry of Food, Government of India).It is the second largest agro-processing industry in the country after cotton textiles. With 453 operating sugar mills in different parts of the country, Indian sugar industry has been a local point for socio-economic development in the rural areas. About 50 million sugarcane farmers and a large number of agricultural laborers are involved in sugarcane cultivation and ancillary activities, constituting 7.5% of the rural population. Besides, the industry provides

employment to about 2 million skilled/semi skilled workers and others mostly from the rural areas. (Source: ISMA Website accessed on May16, 2005.) The industry not only generates power for its own requirement but surplus power for export to the grid based on by-product bagasse. .

Economy role:

India is one of the largest sugar producing and consuming country in the world. The sugar industry plays a vital role in rural areas and provides direct and indirect employment in the country. India emerged as the largest producer of white sugar in the world.

The central government has already de-licensed. The sugar productions they purpose to decontrol the release mechanism by introductionof reduce on sugar price. At present India enjoys second place in the world sugar production. Central as well as State government has been getting 140crores in the form of excess taxes from sugar industry. The industry has been providing substance to 5.5 lakhs workers and sustaining about 4.5 crores agricultures. Its total capital investment is amount to Rs.1560 crores.

The sugar industry has a unique place in Indian economy and rural development because of its multiple contributions in terms of employment and provisions of raw materials to other industries. The sugar industry is the second largest agro based processing industry. Thus occupies a vital role among the 4 major sugar producing countries in the world. The other 3 are being USA, Brazil and Cuba.

Operation and management:

Costs Sugar production, even at the small scale, is a complex business which requires skilled people to manage and supervise all aspects of the production, from the collection of cane to the delivery of sugar to the market place. If these skills are not available locally then they will have to be brought in to set up the business and to train staff, which will add cost to the project.

The costs involved with any sugar factory need to be taken into account. Small service extraction factories are the cheapest option but will require a crusher, boiling pan and furnace and some means of driving the crusher. Although OPS is a low-cost option compared to large-scale production plants, it still requires substantial investment. In addition, there would be costs involved with operation, maintenance, transport and marketing.

EnergySugar production uses a great deal of energy to boil the juice as well as that required to operate crushers and other equipment. In most cases sugar factories rely on bagasse as the main fuel for the boiling process and care is required, especially with open pan systems, to ensure that sufficient bagasse is available.

For most small to medium-scale single or multi-pan factories producing lump sugars or syrups there is usually sufficient bagasse. In larger multi-pan factories producing granular sugars, such as OPS, it is often difficult to obtain enough bagasse. In these situations additional fuel is required which may be bagasse obtained from another factory or wood. Using forced-draught shell furnaces, as developed for OPS factories, it is possible to obtain a fuel balance for the boiling operation (first sugar only) using bagasse.

To operate the crushers, crystallisers, centrifuges and other powered equipment, an additional energy source is required. This may be electricity or diesel, both of which add to the total cost. If electricity from the grid is not available then it will be necessary to generate power at the factory. This means the installation of diesel powered generators requiring a reliable supply of diesel fuel and engine spares.

Most VP factories are self-sufficient, producing their own electricity and heating for both the process and the factory as a whole. With careful management and using modern, highly efficient bagasse-fired boilers it is possible to produce more electricity than is required by the factory. It may be possible to sell this excess electricity to the grid or other users, generating another source of income for the factory.

Transportation :

Transport may be required to bring cane from the fields to the factory and also to take the product to market. If motor vehicles are used then capital, maintenance and operating costs must be added to the cost of the product. If animal powered transport is used then hire charges and feed costs are also applicable. There may also be costs associated with the loss of the draft animal to other duties.


Equipment cannot be operated effectively without proper maintenance and repair. Engines, electric motors, crushers and permanently sited furnaces will all need routine maintenance if they are to operate efficiently.

Crusher rollers will wear with time and require re-machining which necessitates access to a workshop with a lathe. Usually, rolls can only be re-machined once after which they will be too small for effective crushing. Therefore spare rolls or facilities for refacing old rolls will be required. Other spares such as bearings and gears may also be required. Therefore due consideration must be given to the provision of maintenance. Several options are available to the factory:

•provide its own spares •buy spares from local suppliers •import from outside the region or country. Sugar caneSuitable sugar cane must be available if a factory is to be efficiently operated. Because of local conditions and circumstances it may not be possible to grow the best type of cane and so a compromise will have to be made. Investigatory work can be undertaken with local agricultural research centres or, if possible, established sugar factories which will already have undertaken research into varieties suitable for processing. After selecting a suitable variety it will be necessary to test it to ensure that it will succeed under local conditions. However, introducing a new variety of cane into an area may have a number of problems including:

•Farming practises may have to change to enable the new cane type to be grown successfully and on a sufficient scale. •Farmer may not wish to invest in a new variety of cane until a market is assured. •Chemical fertiliser may be required Most medium-scale factories will require a set minimum amount of cane each day. Because of the rapid rate of deterioration of the harvested cane, it must be used with twenty four hours. In addition, the growing season may be shorter than the operational period of a factory and so farmers may have to grow cane over a longer period to meet demand.

Therefore it may be necessary for farmers to change their farming practices to allow for a longer season and staggered harvests. In return the farmer will receive a guaranteed income per unit weight of cane from the factory and can often claim part of the payment in advance. However, the factory retains quality control and usually has the right to reduce payment if the condition of the cane falls below that required.



Therefore it may be necessary for farmers to change their farming practices to allow for a











Recruitment - searching for and attracting candidates - external or internal – for job vacancies. New people are found and brought into the organization. This involves communicating with actual or potential job

seekers, motivating them to apply and persuading candidates that they really want to come and work for the firm. The objectives are to attract candidates of the right quality in the right number.

Competition and inertia exist in a labor market. Many candidates must decide to leave their present job; the best may not be looking for a job change. With high employment (labor shortage), good candidates may be scarce. Conversely where there is high employment, some good candidates may be reluctant to move from the-situation-they-know into the-situation- they don't-know. Recruitment occurs across all occupations from school and college leavers to the unskilled and semi-skilled, to technologically oriented staff and successful senior managers. The police service, forces and even judiciary have recruitment problems and systems.



Strategic Recruitment Reviews

The recruitment landscape has changed dramatically over recent years with the advent of new technologies, increased business expectations of HR and a shift towards a candidate driven market.

The Hudson Strategic Recruitment Review provides organisations with a way to evaluate their recruitment capability and assess their ability to meet current and future hiring needs of the organisation. By providing objective insight into your current recruitment model, processes and technology and benchmarking your current outcomes against 'best practice' standards, we can identify improved models for your consideration.

What does it include?

The review is tailored to your unique needs and can cover the Following:

Direct and indirect recruitment costs

Employee value proposition

Workforce planning

Talent acquisition strategies

Assessment and selection

Supplier management

Candidate relationship management

Internal mobility

Talent pool development and maintenance

On boarding

Recruitment methodology and technologies

Temp/Contractor management and utilisation

Recruitment activity has an element of:

1. Public Relations:

The organization opens its doors to job seekers and hence the outside world. Certain organization development, marketing, promotional and quality aspects take recruitment activity beyond being just a maintenance process. Strategic policy questions are raised. The organization in communicating to recruits and potential recruits wishes to present itself in the best possible light - as a virtuous, successful, worthy organization.

2) Culture Maintenance and Power:

The processes of recruitment are enacted by the powerful. Gate keepers to the organization select those they feel will notonly be competent but who are acceptable to the organization - according to criteria, which are variously defined. They may recruit according to

  • 1 Some iconic vision of an "ideal type" for the organization today.

  • 2 Their own preferences and desires. This could be called a "doppelganger effect” ....

they recruit in their own mirror image, with a slight 'phase'

difference but nonetheless as a clone or doppelganger.

  • 3 Some notion of proper and perhaps ethically guided belief.

Selection - a latter stage of recruitment. It involves choosing

  • 1 Competent and qualified applicants suited to the job.

  • 2 New members of the organization

Selection Methods

The prescriptions, the "how-to do-its" of selection, are problem-solving strategies (heuristics of general and specific scope) which, taken as a cocktail, may narrow down the selection decision and increase the chances of choosing the "right" candidate although probably "best available" is a better term.

Selection methods range across

Interviews - the most popular and hence the skills of interviewing are

important References

Analysis of candidate career/life data

Evaluation of candidate behaviour/ performance in group activities

Work attachments/experience (trial periods)

Skill testing with task/work simulations e.g. typing, computer programming,

brick-laying and candidates making presentations etc

Knowledge, aptitude and psycho-metric tests of various facets of know- how, intelligence and personality


Selection is a social, interactive activity and skill development and the textbooks recommend the use of structured and tested methods to secure objectivity, reliability and reduced risk and uncertainty.


Recruitment, assessment and selection are the three key steps for hiring employees. Of these, recruitment and selection are typically the most challenging for employers. The keys to finding the right candidates at the right time and hiring them are being strategic and thinking about the organization's future.

External Recruitment Methods

1. Develop relationships with guidance and career counselors at colleges and universities and ask for help in recruiting for open positions. Reach out to professional organizations that are in line with the organization's mission, and ask to them to list open positions in their newsletters and emails to members. Organizations with financial resources should consider working with a recruitment firm, especially if the position is at a higher level or requires a specific skill or type of experience.

Internal Recruitment Methods

  • 2. Be clear about the skills and experience an applicant must possess. Post an open position internally first to assess whether there are qualified candidates within the organization. Consider interns, volunteers, temporary workers or consultants who may have been working in a similar capacity to the open position.

Selection Methods

once the applicant pool has been narrowed and candidates have been assessed, it's time to make a selection decision. Remember to think long-term. Is the applicant qualified for the present job as well as future positions? Look for a candidate with solid experience and new ideas and a fresh perspective. Weigh his or her willingness to learn. Also, no matter the industry, market conditions inevitably will change; select someone who not only can adapt, but also can flourish under those conditions. Don't discount candidates who are making career changes. For example, someone with five years of corporate-sector experience can bring a strategic view to a nonprofit organization, while someone from a nonprofit who has made the most with limited resources can bring a fresh approach to a corporation. Be sure to consider other needs such as diversity, and to follow the guidelines of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

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The recruitment function of the organisations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces.

The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organisation. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The internal and external forces affecting recruiting function of an organization

FACTORS The <a href=recruitment function of the organisations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organisation. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The internal and external forces affecting recruiting function of an organization Recruitment Vs Selection Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The differences between the two are: 59 | P a g e " id="pdf-obj-58-12" src="pdf-obj-58-12.jpg">

Recruitment Vs Selection

Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The differences between the two are:

  • 1. The recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and

stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons




selection of best candidates for the organisation, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organisation

  • 3. Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply

WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable


  • 4. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREAS

selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests.

  • 5. There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS selection

results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee.

Recruitment Practice vs. Theory

Academically, recruitment activity is treated more as experience-based knowledge about practice than as a body of theory. There is a vacancy; an

entirely new job or someone leaves the organization. We are short of a brain and a pair of hands. It is functionally necessity to fill the post. As to how best to fill the job (decision-making), its demands need to be understood and a skilled, systematic approach is needed for this "personnel" task. The literature on recruitment tends to give more space to selection processes than the wider practices of recruitment (systems & procedures for job definition, advertising, short-listing and overall administration of selection).

How to do it:

Guidelines (prescriptions) on "best approaches" typically recommend

  • 1 Common, logical sequences to follow when recruiting

  • 2 Methods for evaluating job requirements

  • 3 Skills and understandings associated with processes of selection e.g. for traditional interviews.

  • 4 Further methods/techniques for ascertaining candidate suitability. These may even substitute for the interview and include tests of ability, aptitude and intelligence

  • 5 Policy frameworks to satisfy the legal side of the recruitment problem

A Systems Approach vs. "Be Systematic"

Analysis of the inputs, processes and outputs and environmental contexts of recruitment and selection systems helps us to understand the

strengths and weaknesses of the propositions of "take a systematic approach" prescriptions. Generally these prescriptions recommend that if those doing recruitment and selection take systematic care, use the right methods and apply specific expertise, giving attention to detail, then they will make more reliable selection decisions. This is sensible enough - but proof is difficult. The aim is to maximize

The validity of decision making criteria and testing methods

The reliability (predictability) of methods and decisions with due attention to utility (cost).

However a systems approach requires definition of

The purposes, elements and relationships of the system under study An understanding of the inputs, processing mechanisms and outputs of the system.

Remember that recruitment and selection systems are open systems, which interact with its environment (other systems) and thus need to be adaptive. They are subject to human frailty.

They are a lost political, value-based systems

Recruitment and Selection Stages










organization guides managerial action. Such a policy usually reflects the

prescriptions of the literature on recruitment which themselves form an

implementation checklist covering e.g. use of interviews of given sequence and composition, adoption of educational qualification standards, use of limited sources for recruits, strict regulation of references and candidate vetting, use of a psychometric test etc. The steps form a heuristic - a general, sensible chart with which to navigate the recruitment maze. Standardization serves to reduce risk and share experience. In a bureaucratic framework it circumscribes discretion and behavior of decision-makers in the organization.

Typical stages of recruitment and selection can be summarized as:



What is involved?


Response to vacancy

Vacancy arises. Impact on staffing plan? Job


re-design, re-shuffle?

Permission to recruit/replace?

Exit interviews?


Job analysis

Do participants in the process understand the post?

What are the priorities demands, competences


required? Analyze the job.








Define target groups - where are they and what will attract them to apply?


Employment terms











Agree the rewards package internally.

Anticipate anomalous relationships with other jobs.

Equal opportunities?


Communicate Vacancy









(sources)? Should the vacancy be offered openly?

Is there scope for internal promotions and job


transfers? Knock-on effects?


External sourcing. DIY and/or use agencies? Confidentiality?

Determine budgets and placement schedules.









Process applications


Is the administrative machine ready to respond to applications? Is job documentation for candidates prepared?






personnel profile


Follow-up on references/security clearances

Decide on/organize recruitment programme. Who, when (meetings, appointments), where (on-site, off-site).

Short-list and invite candidates to selection activity

Courteous rejections of candidates


Carry out selection programme


Organize candidate accommodation, Cook's tour and arrangements for testing

Brief reception staff.








interviewer preparation/strategy





interviews, exercises, tests Review candidate data and make selection


Make job offer(s) and finalize contract


Advise unsuccessful candidates of rejection or stand-by

Process job acceptances

Complete reference investigations

Confirm terms and conditions of employment

Confirm arrangements for job start

Design new starter induction programme


Evaluate effectiveness of

Recruitment process and methods. Validity, reliability and utility?


The recruitment service - internal or external agency. Were all the costs necessary?

The selection decisions. Is the new employee really suitable? If not how was the selection process at fault?

Recruitment and Job Analysis

Recruiters obviously need to comprehend job requirements fully thus methods of job analysis are needed.

Job analysis and exit interview can confirm the nature and contribution of the job

role, which may often turn out to be more complex than originally thought. Information from job analysis, and sources such as exit interviews, can help to restructure the job and resolve potential difficulties;

Scope and authority

Job demands (over load, under load),choices and


Ambiguities and uncertainty

Complexity and technical challenge

Incompatibility (person-job-organization)

Conflict and stress

We can identify needs for supervisory support and developmental opportunity etc. Job re-design is an organizational re-structuring activity.

A job description can be prepared - what needs to be done in the job - a definition of the main responsibilities and tasks/priorities. This is useful for recruiters and applicants.

Once we understand the job we can specify the attributes (education, skills, experience, and competencies) required of a person who is likely to do the job successfully - a person profile - modelling those candidates most likely to be successful in the job.

Job analysis generates

Job prospectus information needed by applicants.

We will generate a recruitment campaign that will attract suitable candidates (inclusive of job advertising).

Better understanding of how applications received must be handled/processed to evaluate candidates (candidate-to-candidate and candidate-to-job) and produce an initial short-list to invite for interview.

Better information so that selection decisions as objectively as possible. It is known to be prone to unhelpful subjectivity, stereotyping and premature judgments. The soundness of decisions can be readily undermined by the perceptions, attitudes and values, arrogance and ignorance (Vis a Vis the job) of selectors.

A better understanding of what selection methods – interviews, tests etc might serve as valid, reliable and useful (utility) tests for different types of jobs/staff.

Clear decision-making criteria for selectors to use. Such criteria must be relevant/valid for performance of the job in question otherwise forms of discrimination may creep in running counter to equal opportunities statutes.

The Discrimination Trap

Without proper definition of job requirements, performance criteria and competences required, recruiters might fall into the trap of selecting on the basis of false assumptions. Managers involved in recruitment can be very smug. They think they understand the job and its requirements but too frequently apply stereotypical views about "the ideal candidate". Sometimes they haven't even thought of a candidate profile at all but merely go on some personal whim of their own.

The outcome may be that a poor fit between

the job and the capacity of a new

starter. They may be too good for the job, not capable of doing it or simply the job is ill

suited to their needs and interests. It is not uncommon for someone to start work and leave within the first week saying "this is not the job I expected". We must not forget that recruitment and selection involves discriminating between people (applicants). But is the discrimination fair - ethically and at law (not necessarily the same thing!). Recruiters have social responsibilities in relation to (equal opportunities) and see also equal opportunities questionnaire

Recruitment and Information Processing

Data processing is costly. Processing applications and dealing with applicants involves a lot of work. It is no wonder that busy line managers need a recruitment service section to co-ordinate the burden for them.

Processing Applications::

We can decide to receive applications for vacancies in a number of ways each with good and bad points.

Completion of a standard application form - likely to have a covering Submitting a curriculum vitae with a covering letter On spec. Telephone applications leading to invitations to an interview


On spec. Inquiries where applicants turn up at the workplace or to a recruitment centre (job shop) adjacent to it

Application via an agency - where the candidate may already be on the agency's books

Head-hunting by an agency - candidates may again be on the agency's books

Internal vacancy notification - circulated or put on notice boards across the company. Internal candidates may apply.

Some applications may not seem like applications - no application form will be filled in! If we are recruiting from a network, for a senior management post say, we may not even use an application form. We would merely invite the candidate in to dine with us. We have to persuade them to give up a good job and join our venture. The interview becomes a "mutually beneficial discussion"

In other situations a telephone contact may be the appropriate initial interview e.g. when advertising for a telesales person. Poor applicants can be tested immediately. However for most jobs an initial meeting with the candidate is essential at which spoken, presentational and practical skills can be tested.







The application form requires ability to fill it in. It is a test of hand writing, literacy and meticulousness. The content must be composed. Questions may be asked which require an explanatory narrative.

Even for manual work situations the recruiter must know that the candidate has filled out the application form personally and not a third party (their mum or spouse). If another

unknown person has completed it - what additional test will the recruiter use to ascertain if the candidate can read and write? Is this a job requirement e.g. for health and safety purposes?

A Recruitment Information System::

Processing applications involves data capture, storage, processing (updating, sorting, ranking, evaluating, verifying against reference data such as the job criteria, summarizing), outputting results into the next processing stage and communicating results to various system users and back to candidates.

We will be involved in:

A job file

Creating a job file containing all job information. Copies of some of the contents of be sent to candidates in an applicant's pack. This file will contain the job analysis documents, details of anticipated terms and conditions of employment etc. Copies of job advertisements etc. Information may be stored relating to numbers of applications from different sources and other costs associated with filling the vacancy. We may use such data to evaluate the effectiveness of the recruitment campaign.

An applicant file and the life history of an applicant:

To store the details of applicants, an applicant may

Begin as an inquirer Make a formal application Be short-listed Invited for interview Withdraw at any stage Attend for a test Make an expenses claim Be paid an expenses claim Be accepted for the next stage Be rejected Be placed on a waiting list Made a job offer Accept a job offer

Have agreed terms and conditions of employment

Start work as an employee at which time their application details become part if their employee record.

All applicants are "work in progress" whose details need to be up-dated from time to time. We can see the value - in a large firm or system. Once the details of a job vacancy are recorded, applicants can be linked to the job. Personal details of applicants are available to be merged with any letters (some of which will be pro forma) that are sent to applicants

as they progress through each stage of recruitment. Every transaction that an applicant makes with the system or the system makes with an applicant can be recorded. Usually this will mean merely up-dating the current record. From the system databases we can extract summaries of expenses and costs. We can list all applicants by jobs that are in processing. We store details of all applicants who were entered onto the system.

We have to read/analyze all applications and compare these against job selection criteria. Recruitment decisions involve discrimination. Some organizations that receive thousands of applicants may use a formula approach to reject candidates. The formula approach will be based on essential job criteria e.g. education and job experience. Only those candidates who satisfy the essential (relevant but high level) requirements of the firm will be invited for interview. Nonetheless the basic application details of all candidates will be captured on computer - name, address, job applied for, age, sex, basic qualifications, relevant experience etc. The application forms may themselves be stored as microfiche images. In this way the organization will be able to look up any applicant .

74 | P a g e

Form letters and Mail merge.

Form letters are needed. These may include:

Acknowledgement of application and we will be in touch (or otherwise) Invitation to e.g. interview with travel and accommodation details etc Letters of thanks and rejection with expenses paid

Letters of hold, "we are interested in you but are seeing those on our primary short-list first".

Letters/questionnaires requesting a reference

Letters of job offer with attachments detailing the terms and conditions of employment including information on company codes of conduct and benefits etc.

Without a computerized system all would need typing and photocopying. Even with a computerized system we still need letter-head paper, an office environment, the recruitment processing application software with its databases and integrated word processing, an administrator, an envelope and stamp, a possible telephone follow-up, filing or storing on disk and data back-up facilities.


In this section Recruitment & Selection.


attempt is

made to

present the emphasized data collected



How do you come to know about the organization?





No. of Respondents













the organization













Source: Field Survey

1. How do you come to know about the organization? TABLE - 1 Options No. of



From the above analysis 44% of the respondents came to know about the organization through friends, 32% of the respondents came to know about the company organization through employee working in the organization and 24% of the members from the others.


Is the recruitment process followed by the company is satisfactory or not?




No. of Respondents













Source: Field Survey

TABLE – 2 Options No. of Respondents Percentage YES 35 70 % NO 15 30 %


From the above analysis 35 members are responded that they are satisfied by the company. Satisfied for the recruitment process followed by the company and 15 members feels that they are not satisfied by the recruitment process.

  • 3. Is the interview process (HR) which you have faced is relevant (or) not?



No. of Respondents













Source: Field Survey

YES 40 80 % NO 10 20 % Total 50 100% Source: Field Survey Interpretation: From


From the above data, 80% of

the employee opinions that the interview process

which they faced in relevant and 20% of the employees feel that, they it is not relevant.


How is the organization climate?



No. of Respondents

















Very Poor






Source: Field Survey

4. How is the organization climate? TABLE – 4 Options No. of Respondents Percentage Excellent 11


From the analysis, it can be found that, out of the 50 respondents, 11 members feel that organization climate is excellent, 25 members feel that organization climate is Good and 14 members feel that the climate is average in condition.




















No. of Respondents










  • 10 20%



  • 10 20 %



  • 25 50%



  • 50 100%


Source: Field Survey

5. What are the key factors considered in our organization for recruit the employees? TABLE -


From the above table, the employees responded that, the merit, qualification and experience are the key factors in the organization to recruit the employees 10% agree as merit is important.


What are the sources of recruitment in your company?



No. of Respondents
















Source: Field Survey

6. What are the sources of recruitment in your company? TABLE – 6 Options No. of


From the above analysis, it can be state that, 24% of the employees agreed that internal sources are the major sources for recruitment in the company, 36% of the employees feel that they are following external sources and the remaining 40% employees agree that both are necessary for the recruitment.


What are the external sources in your organization?



No. of Respondents








Employment Changes Labour contractors

  • 15 30%



  • 33 60%



  • 50 100%


Source: Field Survey

7. What are the external sources in your organization? TABLE - 7 Options No. of Respondents


From the above data, it can inferred that 12 respondents statement that employment changes are the external sources in the organization and 15 members agreed that labours contractors are the external sources and the remaining 33 members agree that reference are the external sources in the organization.

  • 8. Who carries the recruitment process in your organization?



No. of Respondents


HR department



  • 10 20%


Concerned Department Unit Head

  • 40 80 %








Source: Field Survey

TABLE - 8 Options No. of Respondents Percentage HR department - - 10 20% Concerned Department


From the above analysis, out of the 50 respondents, 10 members stated that concerned department carries the recruitment process in this company and 40 members stated that unit head carries the recruitment process in the company.


What are the steps involved in the selection process?



No. of Respondents


Initial interviews


100 %

Employment Tests






Physical Tests Medical Tests






Source: Field Survey

9. What are the steps involved in the selection process? TABLE - 9 Options No. of


From the analysis, I observed that the initial interview is the major step involved in the selection procedure.


What type of tests conducted in your organization.

TABLE - 10


No. of Respondents


Aptitude test



Intelligence Test

  • 50 100%



  • 50 100%


Source: Field Survey

10. What type of tests conducted in your organization. TABLE - 10 Options No. of Respondents


From the above analysis, it can be stated that, majority of the employees agreed that intelligence test is the main test conducted in the organization.


How company will evaluate the candidate.

TABLE – 11


No. of Respondents




100 %




Group Discussions Written Tests









Source: Field Survey

11. How company will evaluate the candidate. TABLE – 11 Options No. of Respondents Percentage Interviews


From the above analysis, candidates through interviews.



be noted that the company will

evaluate the


What is time period between application and interview call?

TABLE – 12


No. of Respondents


1 – 3 days


100 %




Descriptive/Essay Both






Source: Field Survey

12. What is time period between application and interview call? TABLE – 12 Options No. of


From the above analysis, I observed that the time period between application and interview call is within 1-3 days.


What according to you is important for an interview?

TABLE – 13


No. of Respondents










Subject Knowledge Both







Source: Field Survey

13. What according to you is important for an interview? TABLE – 13 Options No. of


From the above data, 11 employees feel that communication is important for an interview, 14 employees feel that subject knowledge is must for an interview and 25 employees feel that communication and subject knowledge are important for an interview.


What is your opinion on placement, notation & confirmation?

TABLE – 14


No. of Respondents


Fully satisfied















Source: Field Survey

14. What is your opinion on placement, notation & confirmation? TABLE – 14 Options No. of


From the above analysis, 14 employees are fully satisfied for the placements, 31 employees are just satisfied for the placement and 5 members are dissatisfied for the placement conducted in the organization.



  • 1. Majority of the employees came to know about the organization through the

friends and some through the employee working in the organization,

consultants and others.

  • 2. Majority of the employees are satisfied with the recruitment process followed by

the company.

  • 3. Three fourth of the employees feel that the interview process which they have

faced is relevant and the rest have dissatisfied expressed their dissatisfaction

towards the interview process.

  • 4. 50% of the employees feel that organization environment is good, 22% feel it is

excellent and 28% say that it is average.

  • 5. Most of the employees opinioned that the behavior of the co-employee is good.

  • 6. The employees are found to be satisfied with the aspects of selection process and

interactions with HR Team.

  • 7. The employees are satisfied with the motivation from the management and some

are dissatisfied from the management.

  • 8. The employees found that, the talent, qualification and experience are the key

factors in the organization for recruit the employees.

  • 9. Unit Head carries the recruitment process in the organization.

10. The satisfaction level of employees is found to be marginal in the issues like

placements, appointments terms and contract.

11. The time taken for information of selection is found to be a factor of concern for

the employees in the entire recruitment process.



The participation of workers in management activities should be encouraged

through suggestions box, feedback sessions.

This will give motivational

effect on them and a sense of belonging and they feel it as intrinsic reward

and contribute towards achievement of organization objectives.

2) The company should consider the opinion of employees regarding the relevance

of the interview process. Because majority of the employees are tightlipped


the issue of relevance of interview process.


The selection and recruitment policies should not give any change to criticize.

These policies are greatly influenced the organization work behavior and



There should be feedback from the employees in the organization regarding the

management activities


The company can adopt some more recruitment sources like print media, job

melas in recruiting the candidates.





Personal Information:

Name of the employee


Educational Qualification








How did you identify the recruitment need in the organization?




  • a) While planning about HR

  • b) When there is vacancy

  • c) While expansion of the organization

  • d) Depending upon the present strategies of the organization

  • e) All the above


What is the method of interview conducted in your organization?




  • a) Walk-in



  • c) Internet




Does the organization provide any travelling allowance to motivate candidates

attending the interview from distant places?

a) Yes

b) No



  • 4. Does the organization appoint any representatives who make the people know about

the vacancies in the organization?



b) No



  • 5. What is the qualification that the organization looks for while recruiting the


  • a) Good communication skills

  • b) Attitude

  • c) Honest and pleasant to work with

  • d) with skills required

  • e) Study background

  • 6. What does the organization use to attract external candidates?

    • a) Advertising

    • b) Present employees reference

    • c) Recommendation from various sources

    • d) All





7. On what basis the organization scrutinizes the applicants?



  • a) Based on information in application forms

  • b) Based on age, qualification& experience

  • c) All

8. Who conducts the preliminary interviews in your organization?



  • a) HRD manager

b) Technical persons

9. Who conducts the final interviews in your organization?



  • a) HRD manager

b) Concerned head of the dept.

  • c) General Manager

d) All

10. How frequently is the selection and recruitment done?



  • a) One week

b) 2-3 weeks

  • c) One month

d) based on requirement

11. What type of interviews is conducted in the organization?



  • a) Written examinations

    • c) Preliminary interview

b) Group discussions

d) All the above

12. At what level do you think the recruitment and selection

process is more Crucial?



  • a) Executive level

b) Supervisory level

  • c) Staff level

d) All the above

13.After selection of candidates who will inform him about the designation & salary



HR head

b) Others



14.How does the organization develop the relationship between existing employee and

newly recruited?



a) Training

b) Induction

c) Others

15. Are you satisfied with existing recruit mentand selection




a) Excellent

b) Good

c) Satisfactory


  • 1. Human Resource and personal management,




Himalaya publishing,

House, New Delhi 2008.

  • 2. M.V.Principal of labour Laws.



  • 3. R.Panneerselvam


Research Methodology.

  • 4. Industrial Relations,

P.R.N Sinha



Trade unions indu Bala sinha and Job legislation.

  • 5. Human Resource and personal management,

P.Subba Rao


Himalaya publishing,

Mumbai, 2008.

Related Interests