1

NCN@Purdue Summer School, July 20-24, 2009
Mark Lundstrom and Dionisis Berdebes
Network for Computational Nanotechnology
Discovery Park, Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN
Low-Bi as Transport i n Graphene:
an i nt r oduct i on
2
acknowledgments
Yang Sui, Changwook Jeong, Raseong Kim
Tony Low, Supriyo Datta and Joerg Appenzeller
A set of notes to accompany this lecture is available. The notes provide
derivations for all of the equations presented in this lecture, as well as
additional discussions for T
L
> 0K, the role the the graphene quantum
capacitance, and derivations of scattering rates. See:
D. Berdebes, T. Low, and M.S. Lundstrom, “Lecture notes on Low bias
transport in graphene, July 2009.”
3
outline
1) Introduction and Objectives
2) Theory
3) Experimental approach
4) Results
5) Discussion
6) Summary
4
graphene
Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar carbon sheet with a
honeycomb lattice.
Graphene has an unusual bandstructure that leads to
interesting effects and potentially useful electronic devices.
source: CNTBands 2.0 on nanoHUB.org
5
objectives
• Describe the experimental techniques commonly-used to
characterize low-bias conductance of graphene.
• Show some typical results.
• Analyze the results and discuss the general features of
low-bias transport in graphene and how they are related to
carrier scattering.
6
outline
1) Introduction and Objectives
2) Theory
3) Experimental approach
4) Results
5) Discussion
6) Summary
7
simplified graphene bandstructure
We will use a very simple description of the graphene bandstructure,
which is a good approximation near the Fermi level.
We will refer to the E
F
> 0 case, as
“n-type graphene” and to the E
F
< 0
case as “p-type graphene.”
k
E k ( )
f
1
E ( )
“neutral point”
(“Dirac point”)
g
V
= 2
( )
2 2
F F x y
E k k k k υ υ = ± = ± +  
( )
8
1 1 0cm/s
F
k υ υ = ≈ ×
2 2
( ) 2
F
D E E π υ = 
E
F
8
low-bias transport theory
W
L
0V
V
I
f
2
E ( )
graphene
f
1
E ( )
E
F1
E
F 2
= E
F1
− qV
I =
2q
h
T(E)M(E) f
1
− f
2
( )
dE
−∞
+∞

( )
2
0
2
( ) ( )
I q
G T E M E f E dE
V h
+∞
−∞
= = −∂ ∂

T(E) ≡ λ E ( ) λ E ( )+ L
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
1 1
F B
E E k T
f E e

= +
( ) 2
F
M E W E π υ = 
9
expected results: G vs. E
F
at T
L
= 0K
G
E
F
E
M E ( )
M(E) ∝ E
vs. E
F
E
F
> 0
E
F
< 0
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
0K
F F
q
G T E M E
h
=

∂f
0
E ( )
∂E
= δ E − E
F
( )
E
F
= 0
T E
F
( )≈ constant
10
expected results: G vs. n
S
at T
L
= 0K
G
n
S
vs. E
F
vs. n
S
( )
2
2
1
F
S F F
F
E
n E E
π υ
| |
= ∝
|
\ .

( ) ( )
2
2
F F
q
G T E M E
h
=
M E
F
( )
∝ E
F
∝ n
S
G ∝ n
S
T E
F
( )≈ constant
11
expected results: T
L
> 0K
E
M E ( )
M(E) ∝ E
E
F
> 0
E
F
< 0
G
E
F
T = 0K
T > 0K
G
S
E
F
= 0 ( )> 0
G T
L
> 0K
( )
=
2q
2
h
T(E
F
)M(E
F
)
E
F
= 0
12
some key equations (T = 0K)
1
λ
app
=
1
λ E
F
( )
+
1
L
Describes the conductance of the
conduction (E > 0) or valence (E < 0)
bands.
(For T > 0, the total conductance is the
sum of the two.)
T E
F
( )
= λ E
F
( )
λ E
F
( )
+ L
( )
( ) 2
F F F
M E W E π υ = 
( )
2
( ) 2 2
0
( )
F F
F F
E E q
G K W
h E L
λ
λ π υ
=
+ 
G
s
is the “sheet conductance” or
conductivity, σ
G 0K ( )=
2q
2
h
T(E
F
)M(E
F
)
G = G
S
W
L
( )
2
2 2
0K
F
S app
F
E q
G
h
λ
π υ
| |
=
|
\ .

13
an aside
When E
F
> 0, graphene is strongly degenerate and:
T
L
> 0K result ≈ T
L
= 0K result
( ) ( )
2 2
0
2 2
2 2 2
( )
B L F
S F app F B L app F
F F
q k T E q
G E E k T E
h
λ λ
π υ π υ
| | | |
= ≈
| |
\ . \ .
 
F
( )
2 2
1
2 1
B L F
S F B L
F F
k T E
n E k T
π υ π υ
| | | |
| |
= ≈
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .
 
F
14
questions
• How is G vs. E
F
(or G vs. n
S
) measured experimentally?
• How do the results compare to theory?
• What do the results us about scattering in graphene?
For a comprehensive review of theoretical aspects of graphene, see: A. H.
Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, Braga, Portugal, K. S. Novoselov, and
A. K. Geim. “The electronic properties of graphene,” Reviews of Modern
Physics, Vol. 81, pp. 109-162, 2009.
15
outline
1) Introduction and Objectives
2) Theory
3) Experimental approach
4) Results
5) Discussion
6) Summary
16
gate-modulated conductance in graphene
1) The location of the Fermi level (or equivalently the
carrier density) is experimentally controlled by a “gate.”
2) In a typical experiments, a layer of graphene is place
on a layer of SiO
2
, which is on a doped silicon
substrate. By changing the potential of the Si substrate
(the “back gate”), the potential in the graphene can be
modulated to vary E
F
and, therefore, n
S
.
17
experimental structure (2-probe)
Back gate
(doped Si)
graphene
SiO
2
SiO
2
graphene
Side view Top view
Typically, Cr/Au or Ti/Au are used for the metal contacts.
The thickness of SiO
2
is typically 300nm or 90nm, which makes it
possible to see a single layer of graphene.
(4-probe is used to eliminate series resistance and for Hall effect measurements.
W, L, ~ microns
W
L
18
suspended graphene
Back gate
(doped Si)
graphene
SiO
2
Side view
SiO
2
removed by etching.
This eliminates charges in the SiO
2
and after annealing produces higher
quality graphene.
“Temperature-Dependent Transport in
Suspended Graphene”
K. Bolotin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101,
096802 (2008)
19
measurements
Back gate
(doped Si)
graphene
SiO
2
V
G
I
At a fixed temperature:
G V
G
( )
or R V
G
( )
At a fixed gate voltage:
Frequently the sheet conductance or sheet resistance is reported
(and this is usually referred to as the ‘conductivity’ or the ‘resistivity.’)
G = G
S
W L
( )
R= R
S
L W
( )
− V +
G = I V R= V I
G T
L
( )
or R T
L
( )
20
using a gate voltage to change the Dirac point (or E
F
)
Back gate
(doped Si)
graphene
SiO
2
V
G
∆V
I
k
E k ( )
′ V
G
> 0
′ V
G
< 0
′ V
G
= 0
′ V
G
= V
G
−V
NP
21
gate voltage - carrier density relation
n
S
p
S
( )
V
G
′ V
G
( )
V
NP
′ V
G
= V
G
−V
NP
V
G
If the oxide is not too thin (so that
the quantum capacitance of the
graphene is not important), then:
qn
S
= C
ins
′ V
G
C
ins
=
ε
ins
t
ins
22
outline
1) Introduction and Objectives
2) Theory
3) Experimental approach
4) Results
5) Discussion
6) Summary
23
V
G
V ( )→

G
S
mS
Fig. 30 in A. H. Castro, et al.,“The electronic
properties of graphene,” Rev. of Mod. Phys.,
81, 109, 2009.
T = 10K B= 0
1 µm

G = G
S
W L
sheet conductance vs. V
G
( )
( )
2
2
2
S
app F
S
G q h
E
n
λ
π
=
2
1
F
S ox G
F
E
n C V
π υ
| |
= ≈
|
\ .

L ≈ 5000 nm
t
ox
= 300 nm

T
L
= 0 K
( )
( )
2
2 2
( )
F
S F app F
F
E q
G E E
h
λ
π υ
| |

|
\ .

24
V
G
V ( )→

G
S
mS
Fig. 30 in A. H. Castro, et al.,“The
electronic properties of graphene,”
Rev. of Mod. Phys., 81, 109, 2009.
T = 10K B= 0
1 µm

G
S
≈ 3.0 mS
mean-free-path (V
G
= 100V)

n
S
≈ 7.1×10
12
cm
-2

E
F
≈ 0.3eV
L ≈ 5000 nm
t
ox
= 300 nm

λ
app
0.3 eV
( )
≈130 nm

λ 0.3eV
( )
<< L
25
V
G
V ( )→

G
S
mS
Fig. 30 in A. H. Castro, et al.,“The
electronic properties of graphene,”
Rev. of Mod. Phys., 81, 109, 2009.
T = 10K B= 0
1 µm

G
S
≈1.5 mS
mean-free-path (V
G
= 50V)

n
S
≈ 3.6 ×10
12
cm
-2

E
F
≈ 0.2 eV
L ≈ 5000 nm
t
ox
= 300 nm

λ
app
0.2 eV
( )
≈ 90 nm

λ 0.2 eV
( )
λ 0.3eV
( )
≈ 0.69

0.2 eV
0.3eV
≈ 0.67

λ E
F
( )
∝ E
F
26
V
G
V ( )→

G
S
mS
Fig. 30 in A. H. Castro, et al.,“The
electronic properties of graphene,”
Rev. of Mod. Phys., 81, 109, 2009.
T = 10K B= 0
1 µm
mobility

G
S
≡ n
S

n
Since, G
S
~ n
S
, we can write:
and deduce a mobility:
Mobility is constant, but mean-
free-path depends on the Fermi
energy (or n
S
).

µ
n
≈12,500 cm
2
/V-sec
27
V
G
V ( )→

G
S
mS
Fig. 30 in A. H. Castro, et al.,“The
electronic properties of graphene,”
Rev. of Mod. Phys., 81, 109, 2009.
T = 10K B= 0
1 µm

G
S
≈ 0.16 mS
V
G
= 0
L ≈ 5000 nm
t
ox
= 300 nm

n
S
= C
ox
V
G
≈ 0 ?
( )
2
2 2
S
app
S
G
q h n
λ
π
=

λ
app
→ ∞ ?

T
L
= 0 K
( )
28
electron-hole puddles
V
G
V ( )→
G
S
1
/
k

Fig. 30 in A. H. Castro, et al.,“The electronic
properties of graphene,” Rev. of Mod.
Phys., 81, 109, 2009.
T = 10K
B= 0
1 µm
J. Martin, et al, “Observation of
electron–hole puddles in graphene
using a scanning single-electron
transistor,” Nature Phys., 4, 144, 2008
29
effect of potassium doping
J.-H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Adam, M. S. Fuhrer, E. D. Williams,and M. Ishigami,
“Charged-impurity scattering in graphene,” Nature Phys., 4, 377-381, 2008.
V
G
V ( )→
For nominally undoped
samples, G
S
vs. n
S
is non-
linear.
As doping increases, G
S
vs. n
S
becomes more linear,
mobility decreases, and the
NP shifts to the left.
2
2
S
G
q
h

| |
|
\ .
30
nominally undoped sample
J.-H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Adam, M. S. Fuhrer, E. D. Williams,and M. Ishigami,
“Charged-impurity scattering in graphene,” Nature Phys., 4, 377-381, 2008.
V
G
V ( )→
t
ox
= 300 nm

λ
app
=
G
S
2q
2
h
( )
2 n
S
π
≈164 nm

λ << L

λ << L
T = 20K
31
temperature dependence
Away from the conductance minimum, the conductance decreases as T
L
increases (or resistivity increases as temperature increases).
J.-H. Chen, J. Chuan, X. Shudong, M. Ishigami, and M.S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic
performance limits of graphene devices on SiO
2
,” Nature Nanotechnology, 3, pp. 206-209,
2008.
(acoustic phonon scattering - intrinsic)
(optical phonons in graphene or
surface phonons at SiO
2
substrate)
T
L
<100K : R
S
∝T
L

T
L
>100K : R
S
∝e

0
k
B
T
L
32
phonons and temperature dependence
R
S
=
1
G
S

1
λ
∝ N
β ( )
1
1
B L
k T
N
e
β
ω β
=


acoustic phonons:
optical phonons:

ω < k
B
T
L
B L
k T
N
β
ω


R
S
∝T
L

ω
0
≈ k
B
T
L
0
1
1
B L
k T
N
e
β
ω
=


0
1
1
B L
S
k T
R
e
ω



33
unannealed vs. annealed suspended graphene
T = 40K
K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, J. Hone, H. L. Stormer, and
P. Kim, “Temperature dependent transport in
suspended graphene,” 2008
G
S
∝ n
S
expected from
ballistic theory
λ
app
≈1300 nm

G
S
= n
S

n
+ G
res
34
about mobility

G
S
≡ n
S

n
( )
2
2 2
( )
F
S F app F
F
E q
G E E
h
λ
π υ
| |

|
\ .


µ
n

λ
app
E
F
( )
n
S
Case 1):

λ
app
∝ E
F
∝ n
S

µ
n
constant
Case 2):

λ
app
constant

µ
n
∝1 n
S

G
S
∝ n
S

G
S
∝ n
S

G
S
(E
F
) ∝λ
app
E
F
( )
n
S
35
experimental summary: graphene on SiO
2
1) Low conductance samples often show G
S
~ n
S
(away from the
minimum)
2) Higher conductance samples are frequently non-linear (G
S
rolls off at
higher n
S
)
3) G
S
(T) decreases with temperature (“metallic”) for large n
S
4) R
S
~ T
L
for T
L
< 100K and superlinear for T
L
> 100K
5) Best mobilities for graphene on SiO
2
are ~30,000 cm
2
/V-s at T
L
= 5K
6) Asymmetries between +V
G
and -V
G
are often seen.
36
experimental summary: suspended graphene
1) Before annealing G
S
~ n
S
(away from the minimum)
2) After annealing, G
S
increases and G
S
vs. n
S
becomes non-linear
3) After annealing, G
S
is close to the ballistic limit
4) Best mean-free-paths are ~ 1μm at T
L
= 5K
5) G
S
decreases with T
L
for large n
S
but increases with T
L
near the
Dirac point.
37
outline
1) Introduction and Objectives
2) Theory
3) Experimental approach
4) Results
5) Discussion
6) Summary
38
conductance and scattering
λ(E) is the mean-free-path (technically, the mfp for “backscattering”),
which is determined by the dominant scattering processes.
( )
2
( ) 2 2
0
( )
F F
F F
E E q
G K W
h E L
λ
λ π υ
=
+ 
39
scattering
x
y
( )
S
U ρ

1
τ E ( )
scattering rate per sec
typically computed from
FGR
λ E ( )∝υ
F
τ E ( )
mean-free-path for backscattering


k, E


′ k , ′ E
40
scattering
λ E ( )=
π
2
υ
F
τ
m
E ( )
The energy-dependent mean-free-path is:
λ E ( )∝1 E
What does this type of scattering do to the conductance?
For many scattering mechanisms (e.g. acoustic phonon, point defect),
the scattering rate is proportional to the density of final states:
1
τ E ( )
∝ D E ( )∝ E τ E ( )∝ E
−1
(elastic or isotropic scattering)
41
effect of short range / ADP scattering
( )
2
2 2
F
S F
F
E q
G E
h
λ
π υ
| |
=
|
\ .

Assume T
L
= 0 K and diffusive transport (just to keep the math simple)
G
S
= constant!
( )
1
F F
E E λ ∝
N.H. Shon and T. Ando, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 67, 2421, 1998.
For short range or ADP scattering, G
S
is constant.
42
long range (charged impurity) scattering
SiO
2
Top view
W, L, ~ microns
graphene
λ ↑ as E ↑
E
x
E
NP
x ( )= U
S
x ( )
High energy electrons don’t “see”
these fluctuations and are not
scattered as strongly.
Random charges introduce random
fluctuations in E(k), which act a
scattering centers. For screened or unscreened
charged impurity scattering, the
mfp is proportional to energy.
43
effect of charged impurity scattering
( )
2
2 2
F
S F
F
E q
G E
h
λ
π υ
| |
=
|
\ .

Assume T
L
= 0 K and diffusive transport (just to keep the math simple)
G
S
∝n
S
λ E
F
( )
∝ E
F
µ
n
constant
( )
T. Ando, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 75, 074716, 2006
N.M.R. Peres, J.M.B. Lopes dos Santos, and T. Stauber,
Phys. Rev. B, 76, 073412, 2007.
For charged impurity scattering, G
S
vs. n
S
is linear.
comment on linear G vs. n
S
The observation of a linear G(n
S
) characteristic is frequently
taken as experimental evidence of charged impurity scattering,
but…
Theoretical work shows that strong, neutral defect scatter can
lead to a linear G vs. n
S
characteristics…
T. Stauber, N.M.R. Peres, and F. Guinea, “Electronic transport in
graphene: A semiclassical approach including midgap states,”
Phys. Rev. B, 76, 205423, 2007.
Even more recent experimental work on intentionally damaged
graphene bears this out…
TJ.-H. Chen, W.G. Callen, C. Jang, M.S. Fuhrer, and E.D.
Williams, “Defect Scattering in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 102,
236805, 2009.
45
the energy-dependent mfp
Mobility is not always the best way to characterize the quality of a
graphene film, but mean-free-path is always a well-defined quantity.
We can extract the mean-free path vs. energy from measured data.
( )
2
1
0K
F
S
F
E
n
π υ
| |
=
|
\ .

( ) ( )
2
2 2
0K
F
S app F
F
E q
G E
h
λ
π υ
| |
=
|
\ .

( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
S g
app F
S g
G V q h
E
n V
λ
π
=
( ) ( )
1 1 1
app F F
E E L λ λ
= +
The apparent mfp is the shorter of the
actual mfp and the sample length.
46
example
T
L
= 40K
“Temperature-Dependent Transport in
Suspended Graphene”
K. Bolotin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101,
096802 (2008)
47
suspended, annealed
T
L
= 40K
“Temperature-Dependent Transport in
Suspended Graphene”
K. Bolotin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101,
096802 (2008)
apparent mfp
increases with
energy
apparent mfp
independent of
energy -
approximately L
48
suspended, annealed
(data from: K. Bolotin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 096802, 2008)
λ
app
E
F
( )
=
G
S
V
g
( )
2q
2
h
( )
2 n
S
V
g
( )
π
1
λ
app
E
F
( )
=
1
λ E
F
( )
+
1
L
λ
app
E
F
( )
λ E
F
( )
49
suspended, unannealed
linear G
S
vs. n suggests charged
impurity scattering.
T = 40K
K. Bolotin, et al., PRL 101, 096802 (2008)
Expect ~λ |E|
analysis complicated by
large residual resistance.
50
minimum and residual conductance
T = 40K
K. Bolotin, et al., PRL 101, 096802 (2008)
G
min
G n
S
( )
= G
res
+ qµ
1
( )
n
S
G
res
≈14
q
2
h
G
res
≈ G
min
51
suspended, unannealed
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
S g res
app F
S g
G V G q h
E
n V
λ
π
(

¸ ¸
=
¸ ~ |E|
as expected
52
general picture of G
S
vs. n
S
(ballistic)
G
n
S
We have discussed V
g
(n
S
) > 0, but by symmetry, the same thing
should occur for p-type graphene (E
F
< 0).
ballistic
∝ n
S
If the mfp is small and constant, then
G is also proportional to sqrt(n
S
), but
the magnitude is less than the
ballistic limit.
53
general picture of G
S
vs. n
S
(diffusive)
G
n
S
ballistic
∝n
S
Charged-impurity
(long-range)
scattering.
Constant mobility.
Short range or
acoustic phonon
scattering.
Result is a combination
of charged impurity and
phonon scattering.
Non-zero residual resistance
commonly observed.
54
outline
1) Introduction and Objectives
2) Theory
3) Experimental approach
4) Results
5) Discussion
6) Summary
55
summary
• The general features of the graphene conductance vs. gate voltage
are readily understood (but still being discussed).
• Data can be analyzed by extracting the mean-free-path for
backscattering and relating it to the underlying scattering
mechanisms.
• More sophisticated theoretical treatments include screening, remote,
polar phonons, etc.
• Actual experiments are frequently non-ideal (e.g. not symmetrical
about V
NP
, non monotonic behavior, variations due to sample state,
uncertainties in W and L, etc.
• But the material presented here gives a general framework and
starting point for analyzing experimental data.
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what about the contacts?
Back gate
(doped Si)
graphene
SiO
2
V
G
I
− V +
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suspended, unannealed
linear G
S
vs. n suggests charged
impurity scattering.
T = 40K
K. Bolotin, et al., PRL 101, 096802 (2008)
Expect ~λ |E|
analysis complicated by
large residual resistance.

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